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Sample records for experimentally induced fibrosis

  1. Protective activity of gallic acid against glyoxal -induced renal fibrosis in experimental rats

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    Mohammed Jainuddin Yousuf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the protective activity of gallic acid (GA against glyoxal (GO an advanced glycation intermediate-induced renal fibrosis in experimental rats. Glyoxal (i.p at a dose of 15 mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks induces renal fibrosis. GA was administered orally (100 mg/Kg body weight/day along with GO for 4 weeks. The anti-fibrotic activity of GA was analyzed by measuring the collagen synthesis and deposition in renal tissues using mRNA expression analysis and Masson trichrome staining (MTS, respectively. The nephroprotective potential of GA was assessed by quantifying the markers of kidney damage such as serum blood-urea-nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (CR and alkaline phosphatase (AP. Moreover, basement membrane damage in renal tissues was analysed by periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS staining. GA co-treatment markedly suppressed the GO-induced elevation in mRNA expression of collagen I and III, MMP-2, MMP-9 and NOX (p < 0.05, respectively genes as compared with GO alone infused rats. In addition, GA co-treatment significantly attenuated the GO -induced elevation in serum markers such as BUN, CR and AP levels (p < 0.05, respectively. Furthermore, GA co-treatment restored back the decreased renal super oxide dismutase (SOD activity (p < 0.05 thereby assuage the reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and maintained the normal architecture of glomerulus. The present study clearly indicates that GO -induces renal fibrosis by enhancing GO/receptor of advanced glycation end product (RAGE induced ROS generation and GA effectively counteracted GO-induced renal fibrosis by its ROS quenching and anti-glycation activity.

  2. Renal Fibrosis mRNA Classifier: Validation in Experimental Lithium-Induced Interstitial Fibrosis in the Rat Kidney.

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    Marti, Hans-Peter; Jeffs, Aaron; Scherer, Andreas; Leader, John; Leader, Catherine; Bedford, Jennifer; Walker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of fibrosis is of paramount clinical importance. A human fibrosis classifier based on metzincins and related genes (MARGS) was described previously. In this investigation, expression changes of MARGS genes were explored and evaluated to examine whether the MARGS-based algorithm has any diagnostic value in a rat model of lithium nephropathy. Male Wistar rats (n = 12) were divided into 2 groups (n = 6). One group was given a diet containing lithium (40 mmol/kg food for 7 days, followed by 60mmol/kg food for the rest of the experimental period), while a control group (n = 6) was fed a normal diet. After six months, animals were sacrificed and the renal cortex and medulla of both kidneys removed for analysis. Gene expression changes were analysed using 24 GeneChip® Affymetrix Rat Exon 1.0 ST arrays. Statistically relevant genes (p-value1.5, t-test) were further examined. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), CD44, and nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (NOV) were overexpressed in the medulla and cortex of lithium-fed rats compared to the control group. TGFβ2 was overrepresented in the cortex of lithium-fed animals 1.5-fold, and 1.3-fold in the medulla of the same animals. In Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), both the medulla and cortex of lithium-fed animals showed an enrichment of the MARGS, TGFβ network, and extracellular matrix (ECM) gene sets, while the cortex expression signature was enriched in additional fibrosis-related-genes and the medulla was also enriched in immune response pathways. Importantly, the MARGS-based fibrosis classifier was able to classify all samples correctly. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR confirmed the up-regulation of NOV, CD44, and TGFβ2. The MARGS classifier represents a cross-organ and cross-species classifier of fibrotic conditions and may help to design a test to diagnose and to monitor fibrosis. The results also provide evidence for a common pathway in the pathogenesis of fibrosis.

  3. Experimental liver fibrosis induced in rats receiving high doses of alcohol and alternating between regular and vitamin-depleted diets.

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    Hirano, H; Hirano, T; Hirata, K; Tamura, M; Yamaura, T; Hamada, T

    1996-07-15

    Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by simulating human alcoholic eating and drinking patterns. Alcohol addiction was established by gradually increasing the ethanol concentration in the drinking water; salts were added at the terminal stage. The hepatocytes of rats receiving alcohol concentrations exceeding 50% (v/v) (similar to vodka) exhibited alcoholic hyaline (Mallory bodies). Alcoholic liver fibrosis was induced by alternating between regular and autoclaved (vitamin-depleted) diets, simulating the irregular eating habits of human alcoholics. In the livers of rats receiving 70% (v/v) ethanol (comparable to absinthe) with 25% saline and fed the alternating diets, pericellular fibrosis was induced. No significant difference in calorie intake between control and alcohol rats was detected except when rats underwent drinking bouts (heavy drinking phase). This indicates that neither a high-fat diet nor a choline-depleted diet is necessary to induce the alcoholic fibrosis seen in human alcoholics.

  4. Symbiotic formulation in experimentally induced liver fibrosis in rats: intestinal microbiota as a key point to treat liver damage?

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    D'Argenio, Giuseppe; Cariello, Rita; Tuccillo, Concetta; Mazzone, Giovanna; Federico, Alessandro; Funaro, Annalisa; De Magistris, Laura; Grossi, Enzo; Callegari, Maria L; Chirico, Marilena; Caporaso, Nicola; Romano, Marco; Morelli, Lorenzo; Loguercio, Carmela

    2013-05-01

    Evidence indicates that intestinal microbiota may participate in both the induction and the progression of liver damage. The aim of our research was the detection and evaluation of the effects of chronic treatment with a symbiotic formulation on CCl4 -induced rat liver fibrosis. CCl4 significantly increased gastric permeability in respect to basal values, and the treatment with symbiotic significantly decreased it. CCl4 per se induced a decrease in intestinal permeability. This effect was also seen in fibrotic rats treated with symbiotic and was still evident when normal rats were treated with symbiotic alone (P symbiotic treatment normalized the plasma levels of TNF-α and significantly enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine IL 10. TNF-α, TGF-β, TLR4, TLR2, iNOS and α-SMA mRNA expression in the liver were up-regulated in rats with CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis and down-regulated by symbiotic treatment. Moreover, IL-10 and eNOS mRNA levels were increased in the CCL4 (+) symbiotic group. Symbiotic treatment of fibrotic rats normalized serum ALT, AST and improved histology and liver collagen deposition. DGGE analysis of faecal samples revealed that CCl4 administration and symbiotic treatment either alone or in combination produced modifications in faecal profiles vs controls. Our results provide evidence that in CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis, significant changes in gastro-intestinal permeability and in faecal flora occur. Treatment with a specific symbiotic formulation significantly affects these changes, leading to improvement in both liver inflammation and fibrosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Comparison between conventional and "clinical" assessment of experimental lung fibrosis

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    McClelland Grant B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a treatment resistant disease with poor prognosis. Numerous compounds have been demonstrated to efficiently prevent pulmonary fibrosis (PF in animal models but only a few were successful when given to animals with established fibrosis. Major concerns of current PF models are spontaneous resolution and high variability of fibrosis, and the lack of assessment methods that can allow to monitor the effect of drugs in individual animals over time. We used a model of experimental PF in rats and compare parameters obtained in living animals with conventional assessment tools that require removal of the lungs. Methods PF was induced in rats by adenoviral gene transfer of transforming growth factor-beta. Morphological and functional changes were assessed for up to 56 days by micro-CT, lung compliance (measured via a mechanical ventilator and VO2max and compared to histomorphometry and hydroxyproline content. Results Standard histological and collagen assessment confirmed the persistent fibrotic phenotype as described before. The histomorphological scores correlated both to radiological (r2 = 0.29, p 2 = 0.51, p 2max did not correlate with fibrosis. Conclusion The progression of pulmonary fibrosis can be reliably assessed and followed in living animals over time using invasive, non-terminal compliance measurements and micro-CT. This approach directly translates to the management of patients with IPF and allows to monitor therapeutic effects in drug intervention studies.

  6. Development and time-course of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in NMRI mice

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    Jafarian-Dehkordi A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is a widely used experimental model for human lung fibrosis. The severity of fibrosis varies among different strains of mice and investigation on different strains and finding the mechanisms of variation is important in understanding the pathogenesis of human lung fibrosis. In the present study, NMRI mice were used to investigate the severity and also time-course of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in comparison with C57BL/6 mice. After single dose administration of intratracheal bleomycin, the fibrotic response was studied by biochemical measurement of collagen deposition and semiquantitative analysis of pathological lung changes. NMRI mice developed lung fibrosis from 1 to 4 week after bleomycin instillation, with significant increases in lung collagen content and significant morphological changes (P < 0.05. These findings indicate that NMRI mice might be suitable as an experimental model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.

  7. Lysyl oxidase promotes bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis through modulating inflammation.

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    Cheng, Tao; Liu, Qingbo; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jianfeng; Yu, Ronghuan; Ge, Gaoxiang

    2014-12-01

    Enzymes involved in collagen biosynthesis, including lysyl oxidase (LOX), have been proposed as potential therapeutic targets for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. LOX expression is significantly upregulated in bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis, and knockdown of LOX expression or inhibition of LOX activity alleviates the lung fibrosis. Unexpectedly, treatment of the mice with LOX inhibitor at the inflammatory stage, but not the fibrogenic stage, efficiently reduces collagen deposition and normalizes lung architecture. Inhibition of LOX impairs inflammatory cell infiltration, TGF-β signaling, and myofibroblast accumulation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LOX sensitizes the fibrosis-resistant Balb/c mice to BLM-induced inflammation and lung fibrosis. These results suggest that LOX is indispensable for the progression of BLM-induced experimental lung fibrosis by aggravating the inflammatory response and subsequent fibrosis process after lung injury. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Ketamine induced renal fibrosis in a ketamine addition rat model

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    Mei-Yu Jang

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Ketamine treatment not only induced cystitis-like syndrome, but also renal fibrosis. These renal interstitial fibrosis changes may be induced by the TGF-β pathway. These preliminary results can provide valuable information from a clinical perspective.

  9. Galectin-3 blockade inhibits cardiac inflammation and fibrosis in experimental hyperaldosteronism and hypertension.

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    Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Calvier, Laurent; Fernández-Celis, Amaya; Rousseau, Elodie; Jurado-López, Raquel; Rossoni, Luciana V; Jaisser, Frederic; Zannad, Faiez; Rossignol, Patrick; Cachofeiro, Victoria; López-Andrés, Natalia

    2015-10-01

    Hypertensive cardiac remodeling is accompanied by molecular inflammation and fibrosis, 2 mechanisms that finally affect cardiac function. At cardiac level, aldosterone promotes inflammation and fibrosis, although the precise mechanisms are still unclear. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin, is associated with inflammation and fibrosis in the cardiovascular system. We herein investigated whether Gal-3 inhibition could block aldosterone-induced cardiac inflammation and fibrosis and its potential role in cardiac damage associated with hypertension. Aldosterone-salt-treated rats presented hypertension, cardiac inflammation, and fibrosis that were prevented by the pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3 with modified citrus pectin. Cardiac inflammation and fibrosis presented in spontaneously hypertensive rats were prevented by modified citrus pectin treatment, whereas Gal-3 blockade did not modify blood pressure levels. In the absence of blood pressure modifications, Gal-3 knockout mice were resistant to aldosterone-induced cardiac inflammation. In human cardiac fibroblasts, aldosterone increased Gal-3 expression via its mineralocorticoid receptor. Gal-3 and aldosterone enhanced proinflammatory and profibrotic markers, as well as metalloproteinase activities in human cardiac fibroblasts, effects that were not observed in Gal-3-silenced cells treated with aldosterone. In experimental hyperaldosteronism, the increase in Gal-3 expression was associated with cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, alterations that were prevented by Gal-3 blockade independently of blood pressure levels. These data suggest that Gal-3 could be a new molecular mechanism linking cardiac inflammation and fibrosis in situations with high-aldosterone levels, such as hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Experimental induction of pulmonary fibrosis in horses with the gammaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus 5.

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    Williams, Kurt J; Robinson, N Edward; Lim, Ailam; Brandenberger, Christina; Maes, Roger; Behan, Ashley; Bolin, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Gammaherpesviruses (γHV) are implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in humans and murine models of lung fibrosis, however there is little direct experimental evidence that such viruses induce lung fibrosis in the natural host. The equine γHV EHV 5 is associated with equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF), a progressive fibrosing lung disease in its natural host, the horse. Experimental reproduction of EMPF has not been attempted to date. We hypothesized that inoculation of EHV 5 isolated from cases of EMPF into the lungs of clinically normal horses would induce lung fibrosis similar to EMPF. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured in the horses before and after inoculation with EHV 5. PCR and virus isolation was used to detect EHV 5 in antemortem blood and BAL samples, and in tissues collected postmortem. Nodular pulmonary fibrosis and induction of myofibroblasts occurred in EHV 5 inoculated horses. Mean lung collagen in EHV 5 inoculated horses (80 µg/mg) was significantly increased compared to control horses (26 µg/mg) (p < 0.5), as was interstitial collagen (32.6% ± 1.2% vs 23% ± 1.4%) (mean ± SEM; p < 0.001). Virus was difficult to detect in infected horses throughout the experiment, although EHV 5 antigen was detected in the lung by immunohistochemistry. We conclude that the γHV EHV 5 can induce lung fibrosis in the horse, and hypothesize that induction of fibrosis occurs while the virus is latent within the lung. This is the first example of a γHV inducing lung fibrosis in the natural host.

  11. FIBROSIS AND LOSS OF SMOOTH MUSCLE IN THE CORPORA CAVERNOSA PRECEDE CORPORAL VENO-OCCLUSIVE DYSFUNCTION (CVOD) INDUCED BY EXPERIMENTAL CAVERNOSAL NERVE DAMAGE IN THE RAT

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    Ferrini, Monica G.; Kovanecz, Istvan; Sanchez, Sandra; Umeh, Chiome; Rajfer, Jacob; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD), which usually is associated with a loss of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and an increase in fibrosis within the corpora cavernosa, can be induced by an injury to the cavernosal nerves. The corporal tissue expresses inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), presumably as an anti-fibrotic and SMC-protective response. Aims We studied the temporal relationship in the corpora between the expression of iNOS, other histological and biochemical changes, and the development of CVOD, after bilateral cavernosal nerve resection (BCNR) in the rat. Methods Rats underwent either BCNR or sham operation. Cavernosometry was performed 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 45 days (n=8/groups) after surgery. Penile tissue sections were subjected to Masson trichrome staining for SMC and collagen, and immunodetection for alpha smooth muscle actin, iNOS, neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and TUNEL. Quantitative western blot analysis was done in homogenates. Main outcome measures Time course on the development of fibrosis and CVOD Results Following BCNR, CVOD was detectable 30 days later and it became more pronounced by 45 days. In contrast, the SMC/collagen ratio in the BCNR corpora was reduced at 7 days and bottomed at 30 and 45 days, due in part to the reduction of SMC, presumably caused by an increase in apoptosis peaking at 3 days. PCNA also peaked at 3 days but then decayed. nNOS was reduced early (3-7 days) and disappeared at 30 days, whereas eNOS was not affected. iNOS was induced at day 3, and steadily increased peaking at 30 days. Conclusions CVOD develops in the BCNR rat as a result of the early loss of corporal SMC by the neuropraxia-induced apoptosis, which the initial cell replication response cannot counteract, followed by fibrosis. The time course of iNOS induction supports the antifibrotic role of iNOS. PMID:19138364

  12. Pharmacological Targeting of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Affords Protection from Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

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    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease that remains refractory to therapy. Despite increasing evidence that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) contributes to fibrosis, its importance in pulmonary fibrosis is under debate. We addressed whether PAR-2 deficiency persistently reduces bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis or merely delays disease progression and whether pharmacological PAR-2 inhibition limits experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Bleomycin was instilled intranasally into wild-type or PAR-2–deficient mice in the presence/absence of a specific PAR-2 antagonist (P2pal-18S). Pulmonary fibrosis was consistently reduced in PAR-2–deficient mice throughout the fibrotic phase, as evident from reduced Ashcroft scores (29%) and hydroxyproline levels (26%) at d 28. Moreover, P2pal-18S inhibited PAR-2–induced profibrotic responses in both murine and primary human pulmonary fibroblasts (p bleomycin-treated wild-type mice but did not further reduce fibrosis in PAR-2–deficient mice. Importantly, P2pal-18S treatment starting even 7 d after the onset of fibrosis limits pulmonary fibrosis as effectively as when treatment was started together with bleomycin instillation. Overall, PAR-2 contributes to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis, and targeting PAR-2 may be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26147947

  13. Panax notoginseng Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice

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    Kuen-Daw Tsai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng (PN is a traditional Chinese herb experimentally proven to have anti-inflammatory effects, and it is used clinically for the treatment of atherosclerosis, cerebral infarction, and cerebral ischemia. This study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of PN against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. First, in an in vitro study, culture media containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS was used to stimulate macrophage cells (RAW 264.7 cell line. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were then determined before and after treatment with PN extract. In an animal model (C57BL/6 mice, a single dose of PN (0.5 mg/kg was administered orally on Day 2 or Day 7 postbleomycin treatment. The results showed that TNF-α and IL-6 levels increased in the culture media of LPS-stimulated macrophage cells, and this effect was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by PN extract. Histopathologic examination revealed that PN administered on Day 7 postbleomycin treatment significantly decreased inflammatory cell infiltrates, fibrosis scores, and TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid when compared with PN given on Day 2 postbleomycin treatment. These results suggest that PN administered in the early fibrotic stage can attenuate pulmonary fibrosis in an animal model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  14. Taurine attenuates radiation-induced lung fibrosis in C57/Bl6 fibrosis prone mice.

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    Robb, W B

    2010-03-01

    The amino acid taurine has an established role in attenuating lung fibrosis secondary to bleomycin-induced injury. This study evaluates taurine\\'s effect on TGF-beta1 expression and the development of lung fibrosis after single-dose thoracic radiotherapy.

  15. Glycyrrhizic acid alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats

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    Lili eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and lethal form of interstitial lung disease that lacks effective therapies at present. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a natural compound extracted from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Glycyrrhiza glabra, was recently reported to benefit lung injury and liver fibrosis in animal models, yet whether GA has a therapeutic effect on pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of GA on pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model with bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The results indicated that GA treatment remarkably ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and attenuated BLM-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and activation of tansforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in the lungs. Further, we demonstrated that GA treatment inhibited proliferation of 3T6 fibroblast cells, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis in vitro, implying that GA-mediated suppression of fibroproliferation may contribute to the anti-fibrotic effect against BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In summary, our study suggests a therapeutic potential of GA in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. Hypoxia-induced deoxycytidine kinase contributes to epithelial proliferation in pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Weng, Tingting; Poth, Jens M; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Garcia-Morales, Luis J; Melicoff, Ernestina; Luo, Fayong; Chen, Ning-yuan; Evans, Christopher M; Bunge, Raquel R; Bruckner, Brian A; Loebe, Matthias; Volcik, Kelly A; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackburn, Michael R

    2014-12-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a deadly lung disease with few therapeutic options. Apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells, followed by abnormal tissue repair characterized by hyperplastic epithelial cell formation, is a pathogenic process that contributes to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. However, the signaling pathways responsible for increased proliferation of epithelial cells remain poorly understood. To investigate the role of deoxycytidine kinase (DCK), an important enzyme for the salvage of deoxynucleotides, in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. DCK expression was examined in the lungs of patients with IPF and mice exposed to bleomycin. The regulation of DCK expression by hypoxia was studied in vitro and the importance of DCK in experimental pulmonary fibrosis was examined using a DCK inhibitor and alveolar epithelial cell-specific knockout mice. DCK was elevated in hyperplastic alveolar epithelial cells of patients with IPF and in mice exposed to bleomycin. Increased DCK was localized to cells associated with hypoxia, and hypoxia directly induced DCK in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. Hypoxia-induced DCK expression was abolished by silencing hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and treatment of bleomycin-exposed mice with a DCK inhibitor attenuated pulmonary fibrosis in association with decreased epithelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, DCK expression, and proliferation of epithelial cells and pulmonary fibrosis was attenuated in mice with conditional deletion of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α in the alveolar epithelium. Our findings suggest that the induction of DCK after hypoxia plays a role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis by contributing to alveolar epithelial cell proliferation.

  17. Therapy of experimental NASH and fibrosis with galectin inhibitors.

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    Peter G Traber

    GR-MD-02. The results, in combination with previous experiments in toxin-induced fibrosis, suggest that these galectin-targeting drugs may have potential in human NASH with fibrosis.

  18. An Experimental Approach to the Pathogenesis of "Pipestem" Fibrosis (Symmers' Fibrosis of the Liver

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    Zilton A Andrade

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of schistosomal hepatic fibrosis ("pipestem" fibrosis of the liver was investigated by means of the murine model. Although worm load appears as the main pathogenetic factor, alone it is not sufficient to produce that characteristic lesion. By comparing the findings in animals with heavy and prolonged Schistosoma mansoni infection, which developed or not" pipestem" fibrosis, it was observed that the lesion was more frequent in intact animals than in the splenectomized one. However, the size of the spleen, the number of recovered worms, the number of eggs per gram of liver tissue, the level of serum idiotype and anti-idiotype antibodies, the size and volume of periovular granulomas formed in the liver, all that failed to show statistically significant differences between the two groups. After analysing all these data, other factors, that apparently have been hitherto negleted, rested to explain the findings. Among them, the timing and sequence of the egg-induced intrahepatic vascular changes seemed crucial. The sequential development of intrahepatic portal vein obstruction, followed by the opening of periportal collateral veins and the continous arrival of schistosome eggs going to be lodged into the latter, appeared as essential steps in the pathogenesis of "pipestem" fibrosis

  19. Protective roles of pulmonary rehabilitation mixture in experimental pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo

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    Zhang, L.; Ji, Y.X.; Jiang, W.L.; Lv, C.J. [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai (China)

    2015-05-08

    Abnormal high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) activation is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation mixture (PRM), which combines extracts from eight traditional Chinese medicines, has very good lung protection in clinical use. However, it is not known if PRM has anti-fibrotic activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of PRM on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated and bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. The effects of PRM on TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PRM treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells that was associated with attenuating an increase of vimentin and a decrease of E-cadherin. PRM inhibited the proliferation of HLF-1 at an IC{sub 50} of 0.51 µg/mL. PRM ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, with reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a decrease in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression. An increase in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) expression was found in BLM-instilled lungs. PRM significantly decreased EMT and prevented pulmonary fibrosis through decreasing HMGB1 and regulating RAGE in vitro and in vivo. PRM inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT via decreased HMGB1 and vimentin and increased RAGE and E-cadherin levels. In summary, PRM prevented experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway.

  20. Protocatechuic aldehyde ameliorates experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway

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    Zhang, Liang, E-mail: countryspring@sina.com; Ji, Yunxia, E-mail: 413499057@qq.com; Kang, Zechun, E-mail: davidjiangwl@163.com; Lv, Changjun, E-mail: Lucky_lcj@sina.com; Jiang, Wanglin, E-mail: jwl518@163.com

    2015-02-15

    An abnormal high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) activation and a decrease in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) play a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Protocatechuic aldehyde (PA) is a naturally occurring compound, which is extracted from the degradation of phenolic acids. However, whether PA has anti-fibrotic functions is unknown. In this study, the effects of PA on the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the apoptosis of human type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT I), on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PA treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells with a decrease in vimentin and HMGB, an increase of E-cadherin and RAGE, a reduction of HLF-1 proliferation with a decrease of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Apoptosis of AT I was attenuated with an increase of RAGE. PA ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats with a reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a lower FGF-2, PDGF, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression, whereas higher RAGE was found in BLM-instilled lungs. Through the decrease of HGMB1 and the regulation of RAGE, PA reversed the EMT, inhibited HLF-1 proliferation as well as reduced apoptosis in AT I, and prevented pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PA prevents experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway. - Highlights: • PA prevents EMT, reduces the apoptosis of AT1 in vitro. • PA decreases proliferation of HLF-1, reduces PDGF and FGF expression in vitro. • PA prevents experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway.

  1. Tregs promote the differentiation of Th17 cells in silica-induced lung fibrosis in mice.

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    Laiyu Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Silicosis is an occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of silica dust and characterized by lung inflammation and fibrosis. Previous study showed that Tregs regulate the process of silicosis by modulating the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the lung. Th17 cells share reciprocal developmental pathway with Tregs and play a pivotal role in the immunopathogenesis of many lung diseases by recruiting and activating neutrophils, but the regulatory function of Tregs on Th17 response in silica induced lung fibrosis remains to be explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the role of Th17 and IL-17 in the development of silicosis and their interaction with Tregs, Treg-depleted mice model was generated and exposed to silica to establish experimental model of silica-induced lung fibrosis. Here we showed that silica increased Th17 response in lung fibrosis. Tregs depletion enhanced the neutrophils accumulation and attenuated Th17 response in silica induced lung fibrosis. Both mRNA and protein results showed that Tregs exerted its modulatory function on Th17 cells and IL-17 by regulating TGF-β1 and IL-1β. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggested that Tregs could promote Th17 cells differentiation by regulating TGF-β1 and IL-1β in silica induced lung fibrosis of mice, which further the understanding of the progress of silicosis and provide a new insight in the regulatory mechanism of Th17 by Tregs in lung inflammation.

  2. Celecoxib treatment reduces peritoneal fibrosis and angiogenesis and prevents ultrafiltration failure in experimental peritoneal dialysis

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    Fabbrini, Paolo; Schilte, Margot N.; Zareie, Mammad; ter Wee, Piet M.; Keuning, Eelco D.; Beelen, Robert H. J.; van den Born, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    Background. Daily peritoneal exposure to peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) induces severe morphological alterations including fibrosis and angiogenesis that lead to a loss of peritoneal ultrafiltration (UF) capacity. Since cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is involved in fibrosis and angiogenesis, we

  3. Bosutinib Therapy Ameliorates Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Silicosis.

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    Carneiro, Priscila J; Clevelario, Amanda L; Padilha, Gisele A; Silva, Johnatas D; Kitoko, Jamil Z; Olsen, Priscilla C; Capelozzi, Vera L; Rocco, Patricia R M; Cruz, Fernanda F

    2017-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease for which no effective therapy exists. We hypothesized that bosutinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, might ameliorate inflammatory responses, attenuate pulmonary fibrosis, and thus improve lung function in experimental silicosis. For this purpose, we investigated the potential efficacy of bosutinib in the treatment of experimental silicosis induced in C57BL/6 mice by intratracheal administration of silica particles. After 15 days, once disease was established, animals were randomly assigned to receive DMSO or bosutinib (1 mg/kg/dose in 0.1 mL 1% DMSO) by oral gavage, twice daily for 14 days. On day 30, lung mechanics and morphometry, total and differential cell count in alveolar septa and granuloma, levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor in lung homogenate, M1 and M2 macrophages, total leukocytes, and T cells in BALF, lymph nodes, and thymus, and collagen fiber content in alveolar septa and granuloma were analyzed. In a separate in vitro experiment, RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to silica particles in the presence or absence of bosutinib. After 24 h, gene expressions of arginase-1, IL-10, IL-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and caspase-3 were evaluated. In vivo, in silicotic animals, bosutinib, compared to DMSO, decreased: (1) fraction area of collapsed alveoli, (2) size and number of granulomas, and mononuclear cell granuloma infiltration; (3) IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and TGF-β levels in lung homogenates, (4) collagen fiber content in lung parenchyma, and (5) viscoelastic pressure and static lung elastance. Bosutinib also reduced M1 cell counts while increasing M2 macrophage population in both lung parenchyma and granulomas. Total leukocyte, regulatory T, CD4+, and CD8+ cell counts in the lung-draining lymph

  4. Effect of Pistacia lentiscus oil on experimental pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Anouar; Serairi Beji, Raja; Kourda, Nadia; Ennigrou, Samir; Ksouri, Riadh; Jameleddine, Saloua

    2016-07-01

    Background - Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic disease characterized by histopathological lesions in lung tissue. This is the most common and most severe idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Current treatments are based on the combination of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants, but their effectiveness is still debated. Purpose of work - Testing the preventive effect of Pistacia Lentiscus oil, known for its antioxidant, anti-mutagenic and anti-proliferative effects, on a model of experimental lung fibrosis. Methods - Two groups of rats received an intratracheal injection of bleomycin (4.5 mg / kg). The first group, control (n = 20 rats), has received no treatment. The second group was treated with Pistacia Lentiscus oil (n = 20 rats) for 30 days before fibrosis induction, by daily gavage oil Pistacia Lentiscus oil (3,33ml / kg). This treatment was continued for 10 days. At the end of the experimental period, all rats were sacrificed and the lung tissue was examined histopathologically and immunostained for TGFβ. Results - The chromatographic profile oil Pistacia Lentiscus oil shows the dominance of two fatty acids that are linoleic acid and palmitic acid representing respectively 70.57 and 24.67%. Our results also show a decrease in the distribution of TGFβ both at the level of the inflammatory infiltrate and at the level of the pulmonary parenchyma histiocytes of rats treated with Pistacia Lentiscus oil compared with control rats. However, these changes are not accompanied by statistically significant changes of fibrosis score and inflammatory index. Conclusion - Our results are interesting to consider. Further studies using higher doses of Pistacia Lentiscus oil are important to conduct.

  5. Nrf2 and Snail-1 in the prevention of experimental liver fibrosis by caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Bastidas, Daniela; Oceguera-Contreras, Edén; Salazar-Montes, Adriana; González-Cuevas, Jaime; Hernández-Ortega, Luis Daniel; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan

    2013-12-21

    To determine the molecular mechanisms involved in experimental hepatic fibrosis prevention by caffeine (CFA). Liver fibrosis was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal thioacetamide or bile duct ligation and they were concomitantly treated with CFA (15 mg/kg per day). Fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltrate were evaluated and classified by Knodell index. Inflammatory infiltrate was quantified by immunohistochemistry (anti-CD11b). Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for collagen I (Col-1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Activation of Nrf2 and Snail-1 was analyzed by Western-blot. TNF-α expression was proved by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, CAT activity was performed by zymography. CFA treatment diminished fibrosis index in treated animals. The Knodell index showed both lower fibrosis and necroinflammation. Expression of profibrogenic genes CTGF, Col-1 and TGF-β1 and proinflammatory genes TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1 was substantially diminished with CFA treatment with less CD11b positive areas. Significantly lower values of transcriptional factor Snail-1 were detected in CFA treated rats compared with cirrhotic rats without treatment; in contrast Nrf2 was increased in the presence of CFA. Expression of SOD and CAT was greater in animals treated with CFA showing a strong correlation between mRNA expression and enzyme activity. Our results suggest that CFA inhibits the transcriptional factor Snail-1, down-regulating profibrogenic genes, and activates Nrf2 inducing antioxidant enzymes system, preventing inflammation and fibrosis.

  6. Dasatinib Reduces Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis in Acute Experimental Silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fernanda Ferreira; Horta, Lucas Felipe Bastos; Maia, Lígia de Albuquerque; Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias; da Silva, André Benedito; Morales, Marcelo Marco; Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Takiya, Christina Maeda; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease with no effective treatment. We hypothesized that dasatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, might exhibit therapeutic efficacy in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Silicosis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by a single intratracheal administration of silica particles, whereas the control group received saline. After 14 days, when the disease was already established, animals were randomly assigned to receive DMSO or dasatinib (1 mg/kg) by oral gavage, twice daily, for 14 days. On day 28, lung morphofunction, inflammation, and remodeling were investigated. RAW 264.7 cells (a macrophage cell line) were incubated with silica particles, followed by treatment or not with dasatinib, and evaluated for macrophage polarization. On day 28, dasatinib improved lung mechanics, increased M2 macrophage counts in lung parenchyma and granuloma, and was associated with reduction of fraction area of granuloma, fraction area of collapsed alveoli, protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, transforming growth factor-β, and reduced neutrophils, M1 macrophages, and collagen fiber content in lung tissue and granuloma in silicotic animals. Additionally, dasatinib reduced expression of iNOS and increased expression of arginase and metalloproteinase-9 in silicotic macrophages. Dasatinib was effective at inducing macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype and reducing lung inflammation and fibrosis, thus improving lung mechanics in a murine model of acute silicosis.

  7. Interleukin-22 Inhibits Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minrui Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal fibrotic disease of the lungs with unclear etiology. Recent insight has suggested that early injury/inflammation of alveolar epithelial cells could lead to dysregulation of tissue repair driven by multiple cytokines. Although dysregulation of interleukin- (IL- 22 is involved in various pulmonary pathophysiological processes, the role of IL-22 in fibrotic lung diseases is still unclear and needs to be further addressed. Here we investigated the effect of IL-22 on alveolar epithelial cells in the bleomycin- (BLM- induced pulmonary fibrosis. BLM-treated mice showed significantly decreased level of IL-22 in the lung. IL-22 produced γδT cells were also decreased significantly both in the tissues of lungs and spleens. Administration of recombinant human IL-22 to alveolar epithelial cell line A549 cells ameliorated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT and partially reversed the impaired cell viability induced by BLM. Furthermore, blockage of IL-22 deteriorated pulmonary fibrosis, with elevated EMT marker (α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and overactivated Smad2. Our results indicate that IL-22 may play a protective role in the development of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and may suggest IL-22 as a novel immunotherapy tool in treating pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Cabergoline-induced fibrosis of prolactinomas: a neurosurgical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Niraj; Chia, Yi Yan; Goh, Giap Hean; Ting, Eric; Teo, Kejia; Yeo, Tseng Tsai

    2017-11-03

    Presently, the standard of care for prolactinomas, a type of pituitary adenoma, is dopaminergic agents such as bromocriptine and cabergoline. However, dopaminergic agents may induce fibrosis of cardiac valves leading to valvular insufficiency, necessitating surgical treatment of prolactinoma. Fibrosis of prolactinoma can be induced by prolonged medical treatment with bromocriptine, and this usually occurs after years of treatment. In comparison to bromocriptine, there have been no reports of cabergoline-induced fibrosis of prolactinoma. There is a potential for greater emphasis to be placed on assessing the tumour consistency from preoperative MRI scans, or even preoperative contrast-enhanced 3D Fast Imaging Employing Steady-state Acquisition imaging to allow better planning of the surgery. We report a rare case of fibrosis of prolactinoma after cabergoline treatment resulting in its subsequent difficult surgical removal. This patient had early MRI changes of fibrosis of prolactinoma after a short period of 6 months of cabergoline treatment. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Curcumin effect on Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in Mus musculus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahmi, Annisa; Setiyono, A; Juniantito, V

    2015-01-01

    ...) is an anti-cancer drug induced pulmonary fibrosis in human and animals. This study was aimed to investigate biological effects of curcumin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice (Mus musculus...

  10. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G. [Radiotherapy Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Castiglione, F. [Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced

  11. Irsogladine maleate ameliorates inflammation and fibrosis in mice with chronic colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hana; Suzuki, Kenji; Nagata, Masaki; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Kawauchi, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Junji; Tomita, Masayuki; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Asakura, Hitoshi; Takagi, Ritsuo

    2012-06-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is a common and severe complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially Crohn's disease (CD). To investigate the therapeutic approach to intestinal fibrosis, we have developed a mouse model of intestinal fibrosis by administering dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and examining the effects of irsogladine maleate (IM) [2,4-diamino-6-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)-s-triazine maleate], which has been widely used as an antiulcer drug for gastric mucosa in Japan, on DDS-induced chronic colitis. In this experimental colitis lesion, several pathognomonic changes were found: increased deposition of collagen, increased number of profibrogenic mesenchymal cells such as fibroblasts (vimentin(+), α-SMA(-)) and myofibroblasts (vimentin(+), α-SMA(+)) in both mucosa and submucosa of the colon with infiltrating inflammatory cells, and increased mRNA expressions of collagen type I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. When IM was administered intrarectally to this colitis, all these pathological changes were significantly decreased or suppressed, suggesting a potential adjunctive therapy for intestinal fibrosis. IM could consequently reduce fibrosis in DSS colitis by direct or indirect effect on profibrogenic factors or fibroblasts. Therefore, the precise effect of IM on intestinal fibrosis should be investigated further.

  12. Intervention of radiation‐induced skin fibrosis by RNA interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawroth, Isabel

    Radiation therapy is a cornerstone of cancer treatment for many types of cancer, but is often limited by normal tissue toxicity. One of the most common and dose‐limiting long‐term adverse effects is radiation‐induced fibrosis (RIF), which is characterized by restricted tissue flexibility, reduced...

  13. induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice via regulation of IL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effects of saikosapoin D (SSD) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in mice and its probable mechanisms. Methods: PF mice were prepared by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of BLM (5 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours later, 72 mice in SSD group were administered SSD (1.8 ...

  14. Targeting sphingosine kinase 1 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long Shuang; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Mathew, Biji; Fu, Panfeng; Gorshkova, Irina A; He, Donghong; Ma, Wenli; Noth, Imre; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Pendyala, Srikanth; Reddy, Sekhar P; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Wei; Garzon, Steven A; Garcia, Joe G N; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2013-04-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive interstitial lung disease, wherein transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosis. However, the in vivo contribution of sphingosine kinase (SphK) in fibrotic processes has not been documented. Microarray analysis of blood mononuclear cells from patients with IPF and SphK1- or SphK2-knockdown mice and SphK inhibitor were used to assess the role of SphKs in fibrogenesis. The expression of SphK1/2 negatively correlated with lung function and survival in patients with IPF. Also, the expression of SphK1 was increased in lung tissues from patients with IPF and bleomycin-challenged mice. Knockdown of SphK1, but not SphK2, increased survival and resistance to pulmonary fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice. Administration of SphK inhibitor reduced bleomycin-induced mortality and pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Knockdown of SphK1 or treatment with SphK inhibitor attenuated S1P generation and TGF-β secretion in a bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis mouse model that was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of Smad2 and MAPKs in lung tissue. In vitro, bleomycin-induced expression of SphK1 in lung fibroblast was found to be TGF-β dependent. Taken together, these data indicate that SphK1 plays a critical role in the pathology of lung fibrosis and is a novel therapeutic target.

  15. Chemoprotective effect of omega-3 fatty acids on thioacetamide induced hepatic fibrosis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, Atef M; Al-Rethea, Hayfa A

    2017-05-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on hepatic fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in male rats. The experimental animals were divided into four groups. The first group was received saline solution and served as control. The second group was given 250 mg/kg body weight of TAA. The third group was treated with omega-3 fatty acids and TAA. The fourth group was given saline solution and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Treatment of rats with TAA for three and six weeks resulted in a significant decrease in body weight gain, while the value of liver/body weight ratio was statistically increased. Furthermore, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin were significantly increased. After three weeks of exposure to only TAA, liver sections showed an abnormal morphology characterized by noticeable fibrosis with the extracellular matrix collagen contents and damage of liver cells' structure. Liver sections from rats treated with only TAA for six weeks revealed an obvious increase in extracellular matrix collagen content and bridging fibrosis. Treating TAA-intoxicated rats with omega-3 fatty acids significantly attenuated the severe physiological and histopathological changes. Finally, the present investigation suggests that omega-3 fatty acids could act against hepatic fibrosis induced by TAA due to its antioxidant properties, thus supporting its use in hepatic fibrosis therapy.

  16. Grape seed extract ameliorates bleomycin-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Liu, Ya-Nan; Ge, Ling-Tian; Guan, Yan; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Yong-Liang; Dong, Xin-Wei; Sun, Yun; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2017-05-05

    Pulmonary fibrosis is common in a variety of inflammatory lung diseases, such as interstitial pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and silicosis. There is currently no effective clinical drug treatment. It has been reported that grape seed extracts (GSE) has extensive pharmacological effects with minimal toxicity. Although it has been found that GSE can improve the lung collagen deposition and fibrosis pathology induced by bleomycin in rat, its effects on pulmonary function, inflammation, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain to be researched. In the present study, we studied whether GSE provided protection against bleomycin (BLM)-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis. ICR strain mice were treated with BLM in order to establish pulmonary fibrosis models. GSE was given daily via intragastric administration for three weeks starting at one day after intratracheal instillation. GSE at 50 or 100mg/kg significantly reduced BLM-induced inflammatory cells infiltration, proinflammatory factor protein expression, and hydroxyproline in lung tissues, and improved pulmonary function in mice. Additionally, treatment with GSE also significantly impaired BLM-induced increases in lung fibrotic marker expression (collagen type I alpha 1 and fibronectin 1) and decreases in an anti-fibrotic marker (E-cadherin). Further investigation indicated that the possible molecular targets of GSE are matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) and TGF-β1, given that treatment with GSE significantly prevented BLM-induced increases in MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Together, these results suggest that supplementation with GSE may improve the quality of life of lung fibrosis patients by inhibiting MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitrofurantoin-induced pulmonary fibrosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goemaere Natascha NT

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Nitrofurantoin is a commonly used drug in the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections. Many adverse effects of nitrofurantoin have been documented, including aplastic anemia, polyneuritis, and liver and pulmonary toxicity. Case presentation We describe the clinical history and the autopsy findings in a 51-year-old woman with lung fibrosis of unknown etiology. She had a history of recurrent urinary tract infections, treated with nitrofurantoin for many years. She was referred to our hospital for screening for lung transplantation because of severe pulmonary restriction and dyspnea. Unfortunately, she died as a result of progressive respiratory insufficiency. At autopsy bilateral patchy, sharply circumscribed fibrotic areas in the upper and lower lobes of the lungs were seen with honeycombing. Microscopically, end-stage interstitial fibrosis with diffuse alveolar damage was observed. Due to the atypical distribution of the fibrosis involving both the lower and upper lobes of the lung, the microscopic pattern of the fibrosis and the history of long-term nitrofurantoin use, we concluded that this drug induced the lung fibrosis. The recurrent urinary tract infections were probably caused by a diverticulum of the urinary bladder, which was discovered at autopsy. Conclusion This case shows that the use of nitrofurantoin may cause severe pulmonary disease. Patients with long-term use of nitrofurantoin should be monitored regularly for adverse pulmonary effects.

  18. Anti-profibrotic effects of artesunate on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Xuan, Xiuping; Yao, Wenmin; Huang, Guojin; Jin, Junfei

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether artesunate has beneficial effects on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and to examine the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. All experiments were performed with male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 180-250 g. Animals were randomly divided into four experimental groups that were administered either saline alone, artesunate alone, bleomycin alone or bleomycin + artesunate. Lung histopathology was investigated by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson staining. Lung profibrotic molecules were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. In rats treated with artesunate, pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin was significantly reduced. Administration of artesunate significantly improved bleomycin-induced morphological alterations. Profibrotic molecules, including transforming growth factor-β1, Smad3, heat shock protein 47, α-smooth muscle actin and collagen type I were also reduced by artesunate. These findings suggest that artesunate improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis pathology in rats possibly by inhibiting profibrotic molecules associated with pulmonary fibrosis.

  19. Adrenomedullin in inflammatory process associated with experimental pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramanti Placido

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenomedullin (AM, a 52-amino acid ringed-structure peptide with C-terminal amidation, was originally isolated from human pheochromocytoma. AM are widely distributed in various tissues and acts as a local vasoactive hormone in various conditions. Methods In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of AM on the animal model of bleomycin (BLM-induced lung injury. Mice were subjected to intratracheal administration of BLM and were assigned to receive AM daily by an intraperitoneal injection of 200 ngr/kg. Results and Discussion Myeloperoxidase activity, lung histology, immunohistochemical analyses for cytokines and adhesion molecules expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, nitrotyrosine, and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP were performed one week after fibrosis induction. Lung histology and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β were performed 14 and 21 days after treatments. After bleomycin administration, AM-treated mice exhibited a reduced degree of lung damage and inflammation compared with BLM-treated mice, as shown by the reduction of (1 myeloperoxidase activity (MPO, (2 cytokines and adhesion molecules expression, (3 nitric oxide synthase expression, (4 the nitration of tyrosine residues, (5 poly (ADP-ribose (PAR formation, a product of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP (6 transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β (7and the degree of lung injury. Conclusions Our results indicate that AM administration is able to prevent bleomycin induced lung injury through the down regulation of proinflammatory factors.

  20. Overexpression of apolipoprotein A1 in the lung abrogates fibrosis in experimental silicosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun hee Lee

    Full Text Available The inhalation of silica particles induces silicosis, an inflammatory and fibrotic lung disease characterized by the early accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils in the airspace and subsequent appearance of silicotic nodules as a result of progressive fibrosis. This study evaluated whether apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1 protects against ongoing fibrosis and promotes the resolution of established experimental lung silicosis. Crystallized silica was intratracheally administered to 6- to 8-week-old transgenic mice expressing human ApoA1 in their alveolar epithelial cells (day 0. ApoA1 was overexpressed beginning on day 7 (ApoA1_D7 group or day 15 (ApoA1_D15 group. The mice were sacrificed on day 30 for an evaluation of lung histology; the measurement of collagen, transforming growth factor-b1 and lipoxin A4; and a TUNEL assay for apoptotic cells. The ApoA1_D7 and D15 groups showed significant reductions in the silica-induced increase in inflammatory cells, silicotic nodule area, and collagen deposition compared with the silica-treated ApoA1 non-overexpressing mice. The level of transforming growth factor-b1 decreased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whereas lipoxin A4 was increased in the ApoA1_D7 and D15 groups compared with the silica-treated ApoA1 non-overexpressing mice. The silica-induced increase in the number of apoptotic cells was significantly reduced in the lungs of mice overexpressing ApoA1. Overexpression of ApoA1 decreased silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrotic nodule formation. The restoration of lipoxin A4 may contribute to the protective effect of ApoA1 overexpression against silica-induced lung fibrosis.

  1. Experimental Model of Intervertebral Disk Mediated Postoperative Epidural Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Sergey N; Sorokovikov, V A; Erdyneyev, K C; Lepekhova, S A; Goldberg, O A

    2016-07-01

    Postoperative epidural fibrosis (EF) after lumbar discectomy is the most common and at the same time controversial issue. The etiology and pathogenesis creates a lot of discussion and selection of methods of treatment and prevention continues. LIV laminectomy with dura mater (DM) exposition was done in 24 rats, and then, 0.3 ml of elements of suspension of autologous intervertebral disk was implicated on DM. As autologous intervertebral disk, we used the intervertebral disk from amputated tail. In all the animals, incisions were closed with 3/0 Vicryl. EF was examined. Fibroblast cell density was calculated in each field at ×40 magnification: Grade 1 - fewer than 100 fibroblasts in each field; Grade 2 - 100-150 fibroblasts in each field; Grade 3 - more than 150 fibroblasts in each field. Based on histological results, we confirmed our model of experiment. On the 30th day of evaluation, there were significant histological evidences of postoperative epidural adhesions in experimental animals, which included the obliteration of epidural space, the presence of adhesions in the dura and nerve roots, the restructuring of the yellow ligament, bone sclerosis, excessive appearance of fibrous tissue around the autologous intervertebral disk tissue that applied on the DM. In our work, we describe a new experimental model, where the elements of autologous intervertebral disk play the role of inflammation trigger, which cause postoperative scar and EF.

  2. Obaculactone protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingqi; Ouyang, Zijun; You, Qian; He, Shuai; Meng, Qianqian; Hu, Chunhui; Wu, Xudong; Shen, Yan; Sun, Yang; Wu, Xuefeng; Xu, Qiang

    2016-07-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, degenerative and almost irreversible disease. There is hardly an effective cure for lung damage due to pulmonary fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of obaculactone in an already-assessed model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin administration. Mice were subjected to intratracheal instillation of bleomycin, and obaculactone was given orally after bleomycin instillation daily for 23days. Treatment with obaculactone ameliorated body weight loss, lung histopathology abnormalities and pulmonary collagen deposition, with a decrease of the inflammatory cell number and the cytokine level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, obaculactone inhibited the expression of icam1, vcam1, inos and cox2, and attenuated oxidative stress in bleomycin-treated lungs. Importantly, the production of collagen I and α-SMA in lung tissues as well as the levels of TGF-β1, ALK5, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 in lung homogenates was also reduced after obaculactone treatment. Finally, the TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways was reversed by obaculactone. Collectively, these data suggest that obaculactone may be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Emodin alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ruijuan; Zhao, Xiaomei; Wang, Xia; Song, Nana; Guo, Yuhong; Yan, Xianxia; Jiang, Liping; Cheng, Wenjing; Shen, Linlin

    2016-11-16

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal lung disease with few treatment options and poor prognosis. Emodin, extracted from Chinese rhubarb, was found to be able to alleviate bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis, yet the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. This study aimed to further investigate the effects of emodin on the inflammation and fibrosis of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the mechanism involved in rats. Our results showed that emodin improved pulmonary function, reduced weight loss and prevented death in BLM-treated rats. Emodin significantly relieved lung edema and fibrotic changes, decreased collagen deposition, and suppressed the infiltration of myofibroblasts [characterized by expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)] and inflammatory cells (mainly macrophages and lymphocytes). Moreover, emodin reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-6, TGF-β1 and heat shock protein (HSP)-47 in the lungs of BLM-treated rats. In vitro, emodin profoundly inhibited TGF-β1-induced α-SMA, collagen IV and fibronectin expression in human embryo lung fibroblasts (HELFs). Emodin also inhibited TGF-β1-induced Smad2/3 and STAT3 activation, indicating that Smad2/3 and STAT3 inactivation mediates emodin-induced effects on TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation. These results suggest that emodin can exert its anti-fibrotic effect via suppression of TGF-β1 signaling and subsequently inhibition of inflammation, HSP-47 expression, myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Losartan attenuates paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, F; Sun, Y B; Su, L; Li, S; Liu, Z F; Li, J; Hu, X T; Li, J

    2015-05-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world and can cause pulmonary fibrosis in the cases with intoxication. Losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, has beneficial effects on the treatment of fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of losartan on pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-intoxicated rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 32, 180-220 g) were randomly assigned to four groups: (i) control group; (ii) PQ group; (iii) PQ + losartan 7d group; and (iv) PQ + losartan 14d group. Losartan treatment (intragastrically (i.g.), 10 mg/kg) was performed for 7 and 14 days after a single i.g. dose of 40 mg/kg PQ. All rats were killed on the 16th day, and hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining were used to examine lung injury and fibrosis. The levels of hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Mmp9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and relative expression levels of collagen type I and III were also detected. PQ caused a significant increase in hydroxyproline content, mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Mmp9, and TIMP-1, and relative expression levels of collagen type I and III ( p losartan significantly decreased the amount of hydroxyproline and downregulated TGF-β1, Mmp9, and TIMP-1 mRNA and collagen type I and III expressions ( p losartan could markedly reduce such damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis. The results of this study indicated that losartan could reduce lung damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Overexpression of Heme Oxygenase-1 Prevents Renal Interstitial Inflammation and Fibrosis Induced by Unilateral Ureter Obstruction.

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    Xiao Chen

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis plays an important role in the onset and progression of chronic kidney diseases. Many studies have demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is involved in diverse biological processes as a cytoprotective molecule, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects. However, the mechanisms of HO-1 prevention in renal interstitial fibrosis remain unknown. In this study, HO-1 transgenic (TG mice were employed to investigate the effect of HO-1 on renal fibrosis using a unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO model and to explore the potential mechanisms. We found that HO-1 was adaptively upregulated in kidneys of both TG and wild type (WT mice after UUO. The levels of HO-1 mRNA and protein were increased in TG mice compared with WT mice under normal conditions. HO-1 expression was further enhanced after UUO and remained high during the entire experimental process. Renal interstitial fibrosis in the TG group was significantly attenuated compared with that in the WT group after UUO. Moreover, overexpression of HO-1 inhibited the loss of peritubular capillaries. In addition, UUO-induced activation and proliferation of myofibroblasts were suppressed by HO-1 overexpression. Furthermore, HO-1 restrained tubulointerstitial infiltration of macrophages and regulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in UUO mice. We also found that high expression of HO-1 inhibited reactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which could play a crucial role in attenuating renal fibrosis. In conclusion, these data suggest that HO-1 prevents renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis possibly by regulating the inflammatory response and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This study provides evidence that augmentation of HO-1 levels may be a therapeutic strategy against renal interstitial fibrosis.

  6. Antiflammin-1 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wan, Jing; Han, Jian-Zhong; Li, Chen; Feng, Dan-Dan; Yue, Shao-Jie; Huang, Yan-Hong; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Qing-Mei; Li, Yang; Luo, Zi-Qiang

    2013-10-08

    Antiflammin-1 (AF-1), a derivative of uteroglobin (UG), is a synthetic nonapeptide with diverse biological functions. In the present study, we investigated whether AF-1 has a protective effect against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice were injected with bleomycin intratracheally to create an animal model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. On Day 7 and Day 28, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect and antifibrotic effect, respectively, of AF-1 on the bleomycin-treated mice. The effects of AF-1 on the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced proliferation of murine lung fibroblasts (NIH3T3) were examined by a bromodeoxycytidine (BrdU) incorporation assay and cell cycle analysis. Severe lung inflammation and fibrosis were observed in the bleomycin-treated mice on Day 7 and Day 28, respectively. Administration of AF-1 significantly reduced the number of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in the lung homogenates on Day 7. Histological examination revealed that AF-1 markedly reduced the number of infiltrating cells on Day 7 and attenuated the collagen deposition and destruction of lung architecture on Day 28. The hydroxyproline (HYP) content was significantly decreased in the AF-1-treated mice. In vitro, AF-1 inhibited the TGF-β1-induced proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, which was mediated by the UG receptor. AF-1 has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic actions in bleomycin-induced lung injury. We propose that the antifibrotic effect of AF-1 might be related to its suppression of fibroblast growth in bleomycin-treated lungs and that AF-1 has potential as a new therapeutic tool for pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. Effects of leflunomide on inflamation and fibrosis in bleomycine induced pulmonary fibrosis in wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Servet; Guzel, Aygul; Duran, Latif; Tutuncu, Serife; Guzel, Ahmet; Gunaydın, Mithat; Salis, Osman; Okuyucu, Ali; Selcuk, Mustafa Yasin

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a rare and progressive lung disease with a high mortality rate. The treatment regimens still fail to recover the disease. Leflunomide (LEF) is an immunomodulatory agent with antiproliferative activity that is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of the study is to investigate the potential therapeutic efficacy of LEF in bleomycin (BLM) induced pulmonary fibrosis. A total of 21 male, adult wistar albino rats were used. The animals were divided into three groups as control, BLM and BLM plus LEF groups (n=7). In BLM group, mice were treated with intratracheal instillation of BLM (2.5 U/kg). Control group received the same volume of saline instead of BLM. In LEF group, in addition to BLM, LEF (10 mg/kg, daily) was administrated by oral gavage. The effect of LEF on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was studied by measurements of serum clara cell protein-16 (CC-16), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels and lung tissue contents of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB by immunhistochemical examinations. LEF significantly increased the level of CC-16 and decreased the level of AOPP (P=0.042 and P=0.003 respectively). Lung tissue contents of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB significantly decreased in LEF group compared to BLM group by immunhistochemical examinations (P<0.001). LEF reduces oxidative stress factors, alveolar inflammation and attenuates lung injury and fibrosis.

  8. Dalbergioidin Ameliorates Doxorubicin-Induced Renal Fibrosis by Suppressing the TGF-β Signal Pathway

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    Xianguo Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of Dalbergioidin (DAL, a well-known natural product extracted from Uraria crinita, on doxorubicin- (DXR- induced renal fibrosis in mice. The mice were pretreated for 7 days with DAL followed by a single injection of DXR (10 mg/kg via the tail vein. Renal function was analyzed 5 weeks after DXR treatment. DXR caused nephrotoxicity. The symptoms of nephrotic syndrome were greatly improved after DAL treatment. The indices of renal fibrosis, the phosphorylation of Smad3, and the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen III (Col III, E-cadherin, TGF-β, and Smad7 in response to DXR were all similarly modified by DAL. The present findings suggest that DAL improved the markers for kidney damage investigated in this model of DXR-induced experimental nephrotoxicity.

  9. Nitric Oxide Mediates Bleomycin-Induced Angiogenesis and Pulmonary Fibrosis via Regulation of VEGF

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Anand Krishnan V.; Ramesh, Vani; Castro, Carlos A.; Kaushik, Vivek; Kulkarni, Yogesh M.; Wright, Clayton A.; Venkatadri, Rajkumar; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease hallmarked by increased fibroblast proliferation, amplified levels of extracellular matrix deposition and increased angiogenesis. Although dysregulation of angiogenic mediators has been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis, the specific rate-limiting angiogenic markers involved and their role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis remains unclear. We demonstrate that bleomycin treatment induces angiogenesis, and inhibition of the central angiogen...

  10. B cell activating factor is central to bleomycin- and IL-17-mediated experimental pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Antoine; Gombault, Aurélie; Villeret, Bérengère; Alsaleh, Ghada; Fanny, Manoussa; Gasse, Paméla; Adam, Sylvain Marchand; Crestani, Bruno; Sibilia, Jean; Schneider, Pascal; Bahram, Seiamak; Quesniaux, Valérie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Wachsmann, Dominique; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Couillin, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive devastating, yet untreatable fibrotic disease of unknown origin. We investigated the contribution of the B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a TNF family member recently implicated in the regulation of pathogenic IL-17-producing cells in autoimmune diseases. The contribution of BAFF was assessed in a murine model of lung fibrosis induced by airway administered bleomycin. We show that murine BAFF levels were strongly increased in the bronchoalveolar space and lungs after bleomycin exposure. We identified Gr1(+) neutrophils as an important source of BAFF upon BLM-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. Genetic ablation of BAFF or BAFF neutralization by a soluble receptor significantly attenuated pulmonary fibrosis and IL-1β levels. We further demonstrate that bleomycin-induced BAFF expression and lung fibrosis were IL-1β and IL-17A dependent. BAFF was required for rIL-17A-induced lung fibrosis and augmented IL-17A production by CD3(+) T cells from murine fibrotic lungs ex vivo. Finally we report elevated levels of BAFF in bronchoalveolar lavages from IPF patients. Our data therefore support a role for BAFF in the establishment of pulmonary fibrosis and a crosstalk between IL-1β, BAFF and IL-17A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-power laser irradiation inhibits arecoline-induced fibrosis: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Mei-Chun; Chen, Ker-Kong; Chiang, Min-Hsuan; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Ping-Ho; Lee, Huey-Er; Wang, Yan-Hsiung

    2017-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a potentially malignant disorder that is characterized by a progressive fibrosis in the oral submucosa. Arecoline, an alkaloid compound of the areca nut, is reported to be a major aetiological factor in the development of OSF. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been reported to be beneficial in fibrosis prevention in different damaged organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of LPLI on arecoline-induced fibrosis. A...

  12. The role of microRNA-155/liver X receptor pathway in experimental and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowska-Stolarska, Mariola; Hasoo, Manhl K; Welsh, David J; Stewart, Lynn; McIntyre, Donna; Morton, Brian E; Johnstone, Steven; Miller, Ashley M; Asquith, Darren L; Millar, Neal L; Millar, Ann B; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A; Hirani, Nikhil; Crick, Peter J; Wang, Yuqin; Griffiths, William J; McInnes, Iain B; McSharry, Charles

    2017-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is progressive and rapidly fatal. Improved understanding of pathogenesis is required to prosper novel therapeutics. Epigenetic changes contribute to IPF; therefore, microRNAs may reveal novel pathogenic pathways. We sought to determine the regulatory role of microRNA (miR)-155 in the profibrotic function of murine lung macrophages and fibroblasts, IPF lung fibroblasts, and its contribution to experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in wild-type and miR-155 -/- mice was analyzed by histology, collagen, and profibrotic gene expression. Mechanisms were identified by in silico and molecular approaches and validated in mouse lung fibroblasts and macrophages, and in IPF lung fibroblasts, using loss-and-gain of function assays, and in vivo using specific inhibitors. miR-155 -/- mice developed exacerbated lung fibrosis, increased collagen deposition, collagen 1 and 3 mRNA expression, TGF-β production, and activation of alternatively activated macrophages, contributed by deregulation of the miR-155 target gene the liver X receptor (LXR)α in lung fibroblasts and macrophages. Inhibition of LXRα in experimental lung fibrosis and in IPF lung fibroblasts reduced the exacerbated fibrotic response. Similarly, enforced expression of miR-155 reduced the profibrotic phenotype of IPF and miR-155 -/- fibroblasts. We describe herein a molecular pathway comprising miR-155 and its epigenetic LXRα target that when deregulated enables pathogenic pulmonary fibrosis. Manipulation of the miR-155/LXR pathway may have therapeutic potential for IPF. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Saffron Protection against Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats

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    Mehrzad Bahtouee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis has been accepted as an animal model for fibrosis in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of saffron aqueous extract on this disorder paving the way for more investigation in treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in human. Methods: Male Wistar rats (250–300 gr were instilled a single dose of bleomycin (5 mg/kg via intratracheal tube (n=6 in 2015. Sham group received normal saline. Saffron aqueous extract (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg were given orally in two different treated groups with bleomycin for 28 days. Lung Indices was calculated at the end of this experiment. Lung segments fixed in 10% formaldehyde were used for pathological preparation with Hematoxylin & Eosin and trichrome staining. Results: The body weight was decreased and lung Indices increased in bleomycin group (P<0.5. Bleomycin administration increased myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde and finally TNF-α in lung tissue homogenates (P<0.05 compared with sham group. The fibrotic process and thickening of alveolar septa in treated rats with bleomycin were increased by H&E and Masson Trichrome staining. Saffron treatment (50 and 100 mg/kg attenuated the increase in MDA (264.43±10.4 nmol/g by the higher dose versus 378.4±18.1nmol/g, MPO (0.19±0.03 and 0.13± 0.04 IU/ml versus 0.39.2±0.05 IU/ml and TNF-α level (18.42±3.7 ng/ml and14.31±3.6 ng /ml versus 35.32±4.2 in lung homogenates compared to bleomycin group (P<0.05. It decreased collagen accumulation and alveolar destructive patterns in pulmonary fibrosis. Conclusion: This study introduces saffron as novel anti-fibrotic agent against bleomycin-induced fibrosis due to histological examinations and preventive effects on destructive enzyme release in rats.

  14. A DPP-4 inhibitor suppresses fibrosis and inflammation on experimental autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

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    Hiroyuki Hirakawa

    Full Text Available Myocarditis is a critical inflammatory disorder which causes life-threatening conditions. No specific or effective treatment has been established. DPP-4 inhibitors have salutary effects not only on type 2 diabetes but also on certain cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of a DPP-4 inhibitor on myocarditis has not been investigated. To clarify the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor on myocarditis, we used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM model in Balb/c mice. EAM mice were assigned to the following groups: EAM mice group treated with a DPP-4 inhibitor (linagliptin (n = 19 and those untreated (n = 22. Pathological analysis revealed that the myocardial fibrosis area ratio in the treated group was significantly lower than in the untreated group. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the levels of mRNA expression of IL-2, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly lower in the treated group than in the untreated group. Lymphocyte proliferation assay showed that treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor had no effect on antigen-induced spleen cell proliferation. Administration of the DPP-4 inhibitor remarkably suppressed cardiac fibrosis and reduced inflammatory cytokine gene expression in EAM mice. Thus, the agents present in DPP-4 inhibitors may be useful to treat and/or prevent clinical myocarditis.

  15. Relationship between fibrosis and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the experimental hypertrophic heart of rabbits

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    Revis, N.W.; Cameron, A.J.V.

    1978-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rabbits by injecting either thyroxine or isoprenaline or by surgically constricting the abdominal aorta. An increase in heart weight was associated with a change in the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern and an increase in fibrosis (as measured by hydroxyproline concentrations). Isoprenaline treatment led to a moderate increase in heart weight, a marked decrease in the heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio of lactate dehydrogenase, and a marked increase in hydroxyproline. Thyroxine treatment led to a small increase in both heart weight and hydroxyproline and a small decrease in the heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio. Coarctation of the aorta, in contrast, caused a marked increase in heart weight, a moderate decrease in heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio, and a moderate increase in hydroxyproline. These results suggest that the decrease in the heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio of lactate dehydrogenase in the experimental hypertrophic heart reflects the extent of myocardial fibrosis, rather than changes within the hypertrophied myocardial cells.

  16. Anti-melanin-concentrating hormone treatment attenuates chronic experimental colitis and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziogas, Dimitrios C; Gras-Miralles, Beatriz; Mustafa, Sarah; Geiger, Brenda M; Najarian, Robert M; Nagel, Jutta M; Flier, Sarah N; Popov, Yury; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Kokkotou, Efi

    2013-05-15

    Fibrosis represents a major complication of several chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Treatment of IBD remains a clinical challenge despite several recent therapeutic advances. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide shown to regulate appetite and energy balance. However, accumulating evidence suggests that MCH has additional biological effects, including modulation of inflammation. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of an MCH-blocking antibody in treating established, dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis. Histological and molecular analysis of mouse tissues revealed that mice receiving anti-MCH had accelerated mucosal restitution and lower colonic expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, as well as fibrogenic genes, including COL1A1. In parallel, they spared collagen deposits seen in the untreated mice, suggesting attenuated fibrosis. These findings raised the possibility of perhaps direct effects of MCH on myofibroblasts. Indeed, in biopsies from patients with IBD, we demonstrate expression of the MCH receptor MCHR1 in α-smooth muscle actin(+) subepithelial cells. CCD-18Co cells, a primary human colonic myofibroblast cell line, were also positive for MCHR1. In these cells, MCH acted as a profibrotic modulator by potentiating the effects of IGF-1 and TGF-β on proliferation and collagen production. Thus, by virtue of combined anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects, blocking MCH might represent a compelling approach for treating IBD.

  17. Impact of a CXCL12/CXCR4 Antagonist in Bleomycin (BLM Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice.

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    Leola N Chow

    Full Text Available Modulation of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in attenuation of bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, published reports suggest that collagen production in the injured lung is derived from fibrocytes recruited from the circulation in response to release of pulmonary CXCL12. Conversely, in hepatic fibrosis, resident hepatic stellate cells (HSC, the key cell type in progression of fibrosis, upregulate CXCR4 expression in response to activation. Further, CXCL12 induces HSC proliferation and subsequent production of collagen I. In the current study, we evaluated AMD070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCL12/CXCR4 in alleviating BLM-induced pulmonary and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Similar to other CXCR4 antagonists, treatment with AMD070 significantly increased leukocyte mobilization. However, in these two models of fibrosis, AMD070 had a negligible impact on extracellular matrix deposition. Interestingly, our results indicated that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has a role in improving mortality associated with BLM induced pulmonary injury, likely through dampening an early inflammatory response and/or vascular leakage. Together, these findings indicate that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is not an effective target for reducing fibrosis.

  18. Expression and distribution of connexin 32 in rat liver with experimentally induced fibrosis Expressão e distribuição da conexina 32 em fígados de ratos com fibrose induzida experimentalmente

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    Alexandro dos S. Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The connexin 32 (Cx32 is a protein that forms the channels that promote the gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC in the liver, allowing the diffusion of small molecules through cytosol from cell-to-cell. Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by a disruption of normal tissue architeture by cellular lesions, and may alter the GJIC. This work aimed to study the expression and distribution of Cx32 in liver fibrosis induced by the oral administration of dimethylnitrosamine in female Wistar rats. The necropsy of the rats was carried out after five weeks of drug administration. They presented a hepatic fibrosis state. Sections from livers with fibrosis and from control livers were submitted to immunohistochemical, Real Time-PCR and Western-Blot analysis to Cx32. In fibrotic livers the Cxs were diffusely scattered in the cytoplasm, contrasting with the control livers, where the Cx32 formed junction plaques at the cell membrane. Also it was found a decrease in the gene expression of Cx32 without reduction in the protein quantity when compared with controls. These results suggest that there the mechanism of intercellular communication between hepatocytes was reduced by the fibrotic process, which may predispose to the occurrence of a neoplastic process, taken in account that connexins are considered tumor suppressing genes.A conexina 32 (Cx32 é uma proteína que constitui os canais que promovem as comunicações intercelulares via junções comunicantes (CIJC no fígado, permitindo difusão de pequenas moléculas citoplasmáticas de uma célula à outra. A fibrose hepática caracteriza-se pela alteração da arquitetura normal do fígado e podem alterar as CIJCs. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a expressão e distribuição de Cx32 na fibrose hepática. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a expressão e distribuição da Cx32 em fígados com fibrose induzida pela administração oral de dimetilnitrosamina em fêmeas de ratos Wistar. A

  19. Hypoxia-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Is Involved in Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Jun-mei; Liu, Lei; Liu, Su-mei; Zhu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a severe disease that contributes to the morbidity and mortality of a number of lung diseases. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to lung fibrosis are poorly understood. This study investigated the roles of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the associated molecular mechanisms in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The bleomycin-induced fibrosis animal model was established by intratracheal injection of a single dose of bleomycin. Protein expression was measured by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Typical lesions of lung fibrosis were observed 1 week after bleomycin injection. A progressive increase in MMP-2, S100A4, α-SMA, HIF-1α, ZEB1, CD44, phospho-p44/42 (p-p44/42), and phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38) protein levels as well as activation of EMT was observed in the lung tissues of bleomycin mice. Hypoxia increased HIF-1α and ZEB1 expression and activated EMT in H358 cells. Also, continuous incubation of cells under mild hypoxic conditions increased CD44, p-p44/42, and p-p38 protein levels in H358 cells, which correlated with the increase in S100A4 expression. In conclusion, bleomycin induces progressive lung fibrosis, which may be associated with activation of EMT. The fibrosis-induced hypoxia may further activate EMT in distal alveoli through a hypoxia-HIF-1α-ZEB1 pathway and promote the differentiation of lung epithelial cells into fibroblasts through phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 proteins.

  20. Hypoxia-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Is Involved in Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a severe disease that contributes to the morbidity and mortality of a number of lung diseases. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to lung fibrosis are poorly understood. This study investigated the roles of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and the associated molecular mechanisms in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The bleomycin-induced fibrosis animal model was established by intratracheal injection of a single dose of bleomycin. Protein expression was measured by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Typical lesions of lung fibrosis were observed 1 week after bleomycin injection. A progressive increase in MMP-2, S100A4, α-SMA, HIF-1α, ZEB1, CD44, phospho-p44/42 (p-p44/42, and phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 protein levels as well as activation of EMT was observed in the lung tissues of bleomycin mice. Hypoxia increased HIF-1α and ZEB1 expression and activated EMT in H358 cells. Also, continuous incubation of cells under mild hypoxic conditions increased CD44, p-p44/42, and p-p38 protein levels in H358 cells, which correlated with the increase in S100A4 expression. In conclusion, bleomycin induces progressive lung fibrosis, which may be associated with activation of EMT. The fibrosis-induced hypoxia may further activate EMT in distal alveoli through a hypoxia-HIF-1α-ZEB1 pathway and promote the differentiation of lung epithelial cells into fibroblasts through phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 proteins.

  1. Pathogenesis pathways of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung injury model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Keyun; Jiang, Jianzhong; Ma, Tieliang; Xie, Jing; Duan, Lirong; Chen, Ruhua; Song, Ping; Yu, Zhixin; Liu, Chao; Zhu, Qin; Zheng, Jinxu

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the pathogenesis pathways of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Bleomycin (BLM) induced animal models of experimental lung fibrosis were used. CHIP assay was executed to find the link between Smad3 and IL-31, and the expressions of TGF-β1, Smad3, IL-31 and STAT1 were detected to find whether they were similar with each other. We found that in the early injury or inflammation of the animal model, BLM promoted the development of inflammation, leading to severe pulmonary fibrosis. Then the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 increased. Activated Smad3 bound to the IL-31 promoter region, followed by the activation of JAK-STAT pathways. The inhibitor of TGF-β1 receptor decreased the IL-31 expression and knocking-down of IL-31 also decreased the STAT1 expression. We conclude that there is a pathway of pathogenesis in BLM-induced mouse model that involves the TGF-β, IL-31 and JAKs/STATs pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Doxycycline Attenuated Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced by Bleomycin in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Masaki; Ye, Qing; Ouchi, Hiroshi; Harada, Eiji; Inoshima, Ichiro; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    The administration of doxycycline prior to bleomycin in mice attenuated pulmonary fibrosis. Bronchoalveolar neutrophil influx and gelatinase activity, but not caseinolytic activity, were attenuated by doxycycline. Established fibrosis was not affected by doxycycline. Thus, doxycycline might be useful for slowing down pulmonary fibrosis by biological activity other than antibacterial activity.

  3. Nitric oxide in liver fibrosis: The role of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakiri, Yasuko

    2015-12-01

    The inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in hepatic cells in pathological conditions. Its induction is involved in the development of liver fibrosis, and thus iNOS could be a therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. This review summarizes the role of iNOS in liver fibrosis, focusing on 1) iNOS biology, 2) iNOS-expressing liver cells, 3) iNOS-related therapeutic strategies, and 4) future directions.

  4. Losartan prevents heart fibrosis induced by long-term intensive exercise in an animal model.

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    Gemma Gay-Jordi

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Recently it has been shown that long-term intensive exercise practice is able to induce myocardial fibrosis in an animal model. Angiotensin II is a profibrotic hormone that could be involved in the cardiac remodeling resulting from endurance exercise. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the antifibrotic effect of losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, in an animal model of heart fibrosis induced by long-term intense exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: Exercise, Exercise plus losartan, Sedentary and Sedentary plus losartan. Exercise groups were conditioned to run vigorously for 16 weeks. Losartan was orally administered daily before each training session (50 mg/kg/day. Time-matched sedentary rats served as controls. After euthanasia, heart hypertrophy was evaluated by histological studies; ventricular collagen deposition was quantified by histological and biochemical studies; and messenger RNA and protein expression of transforming growth factor-β1, fibronectin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, procollagen-I and procollagen-III was evaluated in all 4 cardiac chambers. Daily intensive exercise caused hypertrophy in the left ventricular heart wall and originated collagen deposition in the right ventricle. Additionally long-term intensive exercise induced a significant increase in messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis of the major fibrotic markers in both atria and in the right ventricle. Losartan treatment was able to reduce all increases in messenger RNA expression and protein levels caused by exercise, although it could not completely reverse the heart hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Losartan treatment prevents the heart fibrosis induced by endurance exercise in training animals.

  5. Leptospira Interrogans Induces Fibrosis in the Mouse Kidney through Inos-Dependent, TLR- and NLR-Independent Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanton d'Andon, Martine; Quellard, Nathalie; Fernandez, Béatrice; Ratet, Gwenn; Lacroix-Lamandé, Sonia; Vandewalle, Alain; Boneca, Ivo G.; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Werts, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospira (L.) interrogans are bacteria responsible for a worldwide reemerging zoonosis. Rodents carry L. interrogans asymptomatically in their kidneys and excrete bacteria in the urine, contaminating the environment. Humans get infected through skin contact and develop a mild or severe leptospirosis that may lead to renal failure and fibrosis. L. interrogans provoke an interstitial nephritis, but the induction of fibrosis caused by L. interrogans has not been studied in murine models. Innate immune receptors from the TLR and NLR families have recently been shown to play a role in the development and progression of tissue fibrosis in the lung, liver and kidneys under different pathophysiological situations. We recently showed that TLR2, TLR4, and NLRP3 receptors were crucial in the defense against leptospirosis. Moreover, infection of a human cell line with L. interrogans was shown to induce TLR2-dependent production of fibronectin, a component of the extracellular matrix. Therefore, we thought to assess the presence of renal fibrosis in L. interrogans infected mice and to analyze the contribution of some innate immune pathways in this process. Methodology/principal findings Here, we characterized by immunohistochemical studies and quantitative real-time PCR, a model of Leptospira-infected C57BL/6J mice, with chronic carriage of L. interrogans inducing mild renal fibrosis. Using various strains of transgenic mice, we determined that the renal infiltrates of T cells and, unexpectedly, TLR and NLR receptors, are not required to generate Leptospira-induced renal fibrosis. We also show that the iNOS enzyme, known to play a role in Leptospira-induced interstitial nephritis, also plays a role in the induction of renal fibrosis. Conclusion/significance To our knowledge, this work provides the first experimental murine model of sustained renal fibrosis induced by a chronic bacterial infection that may be peculiar, since it does not rely on TLR or NLR receptors

  6. Leptospira Interrogans induces fibrosis in the mouse kidney through Inos-dependent, TLR- and NLR-independent signaling pathways.

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    Martine Fanton d'Andon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospira (L. interrogans are bacteria responsible for a worldwide reemerging zoonosis. Rodents carry L. interrogans asymptomatically in their kidneys and excrete bacteria in the urine, contaminating the environment. Humans get infected through skin contact and develop a mild or severe leptospirosis that may lead to renal failure and fibrosis. L. interrogans provoke an interstitial nephritis, but the induction of fibrosis caused by L. interrogans has not been studied in murine models. Innate immune receptors from the TLR and NLR families have recently been shown to play a role in the development and progression of tissue fibrosis in the lung, liver and kidneys under different pathophysiological situations. We recently showed that TLR2, TLR4, and NLRP3 receptors were crucial in the defense against leptospirosis. Moreover, infection of a human cell line with L. interrogans was shown to induce TLR2-dependent production of fibronectin, a component of the extracellular matrix. Therefore, we thought to assess the presence of renal fibrosis in L. interrogans infected mice and to analyze the contribution of some innate immune pathways in this process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we characterized by immunohistochemical studies and quantitative real-time PCR, a model of Leptospira-infected C57BL/6J mice, with chronic carriage of L. interrogans inducing mild renal fibrosis. Using various strains of transgenic mice, we determined that the renal infiltrates of T cells and, unexpectedly, TLR and NLR receptors, are not required to generate Leptospira-induced renal fibrosis. We also show that the iNOS enzyme, known to play a role in Leptospira-induced interstitial nephritis, also plays a role in the induction of renal fibrosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this work provides the first experimental murine model of sustained renal fibrosis induced by a chronic bacterial infection that may be peculiar, since it does not rely on

  7. Green tea polyphenols avert chronic inflammation-induced myocardial fibrosis of female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Green tea proposes anti-inflammatory properties which may attenuate chronic inflammation-induced fibrosis of vessels. This study evaluated whether green tea polyphenols (GTP) can avert fibrosis or vascular disruption along with mechanisms in rats with chronic inflammation. Treatments: Fo...

  8. Role of IL-1β in experimental cystic fibrosis upon P. aeruginosa Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Palomo (Jennifer); T. Marchiol (Tiffany); J. Piotet (Julie); L. Fauconnier (Louis); M. Robinet (Marieke); F. Reverchon (Flora); M.L. Bert (Marc Le); D. Togbe (Dieudonné); R.M. Buijs-Offerman (Ruvalic); M. Stolarczyk (Marta); V.R.F.J. Quesniaux (Valé Rie F. J.); B.J. Scholte (Bob); B. Ryffel (Bernhard)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractCystic fibrosis is associated with increased inflammatory responses to pathogen challenge. Here we revisited the role of IL-1β in lung pathology using the experimental F508del-CFTR murine model on C57BL/6 genetic background (Cftrtm1eur or d/d), on double deficient for d/d and type 1

  9. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  10. Blocking the 4-1BB Pathway Ameliorates Crystalline Silica-induced Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Du, Sitong; Lu, Yiping; Lu, Xiaowei; Liu, Fangwei; Chen, Ying; Weng, Dong; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Long term pulmonary exposure to crystalline silica leads to silicosis that manifests progressive interstitial fibrosis, eventually leading to respiratory failure and death. Despite efforts to eliminate silicosis, clinical cases continue to occur in both developing and developed countries. The exact mechanisms of crystalline silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain elusive. Herein, we find that 4-1BB is induced in response to crystalline silica injury in lungs and that it is highly expressed during development of experimental silicosis. Therefore, we explore the role of 4-1BB pathway during crystalline silica-induced lung injury and find that a specific inhibitor blocking the pathway could effectively alleviate crystalline silica-induced lung inflammation and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Compared to controls, the treated mice exhibited reduced Th1 and Th17 responses. The concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17A following crystalline silica challenge were also reduced in inhibitor-treated mice. Although there was no significant alteration in Th2 cytokines of IL-4 and IL-13, another type of pro-fibrogenic cell, regulatory T cell (Treg) was significantly affected. In addition, one of the major participants in fibrogenesis, fibrocyte recruited less due to the blockade. Furthermore, we demonstrated the decreased fibrocyte recruitment was associated with chemokine reductions in lung. Our study discovers the 4-1BB pathway signaling enhances inflammatory response and promotes pulmonary fibrosis induced by crystalline silica. The findings here provide novel insights into the molecular events that control crystalline silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis through regulating Th responses and the recruitment of fibrocytes in crystalline silica-exposed lung.

  11. Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats: Modulation of oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafan, Mai A; Zaki, Hala F; El-Brairy, Amany I; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    The current study aimed to investigate the modulatory effects of pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC; 100 mg/kg) on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (5 mg/kg; intratracheal) in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: normal control, bleomycin control, and PDTC-treated groups. Lung injury was evaluated through histological examination, immunohistochemical detection of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissue and evaluating the total and differential leucocytes count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lung tissue was used for biochemical assessment of lung content of hydroxyproline, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as well as analysis of lipid peroxides, reduced glutathione (GSH), and total nitrite contents. PDTC attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis as evidenced by histological observations, decreased iNOS expression and prevention of bleomycin-induced altered total and differential leukocytes count. Additionally, PDTC caused a significant decrease in lung contents of hydroxyproline, TGF-β1, TNF-α, lipid peroxides, and total nitrite coupled with increase in lung GSH content as compared to bleomycin control group. PDTC attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats via its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antifibrotic activities.

  12. Phenylbutyric acid inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition during bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Qin, Hou-Ying; Cao, Lin-Feng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Tan, Zhu-Xia; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-01-05

    A recent report showed that unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated during bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chemical chaperone that inhibits the UPR signaling. The present study investigated the effects of PBA on BLM-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and pulmonary fibrosis. For induction of pulmonary fibrosis, all mice except controls were intratracheally injected with a single dose of BLM (3.0mg/kg). In PBA+BLM group, mice were intraperitoneally injected with PBA (150mg/kg) daily. Three weeks after BLM injection, EMT was measured and pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated. BLM-induced pulmonary UPR activation was inhibited by PBA. Moreover, BLM-induced pulmonary nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 activation was blocked by PBA. In addition, BLM-induced up-regulation of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines was repressed by PBA. Further analysis showed that BLM-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for EMT, was significantly attenuated by PBA. Moreover, BLM-induced pulmonary collagen (Col1α1 and Col1α2) was obviously inhibited by PBA. Importantly, BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, as determined using Sirius red staining, was obviously alleviated by PBA. Taken together, these results suggest that PBA alleviates ER stress-mediated EMT in the pathogenesis of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A synthetic PPAR-γ agonist triterpenoid ameliorates experimental fibrosis: PPAR-γ-independent suppression of fibrotic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Zhu, Hongyan; Komura, Kazuhiro; Lord, Gabriel; Tomcik, Michal; Wang, Wenxia; Doniparthi, Sruthi; Tamaki, Zenshiro; Hinchcliff, Monique; Distler, Joerg H W; Varga, John

    2014-02-01

    Persistent fibroblast activation initiated by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a fundamental event in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis, and its pharmacological inhibition represents a potential therapeutic strategy. The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), exerts potent fibrotic activity. The synthetic oleanane triterpenoid, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxo-olean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), is a PPAR-γ agonist with potential effects on TGF-β signalling and dermal fibrosis. To examine the modulation of fibrogenesis by CDDO in explanted fibroblasts, skin organ cultures and murine models of scleroderma. The effects of CDDO on experimental fibrosis induced by bleomycin injection or by overexpression of constitutively active type I TGF-β receptor (TgfbR1ca) were evaluated. Modulation of fibrotic gene expression was examined in human skin organ cultures. To delineate the mechanisms underlying the antifibrotic effects of CDDO, explanted skin fibroblasts cultured in two-dimensional monolayers or in three-dimensional full-thickness human skin equivalents were studied. CDDO significantly ameliorated dermal fibrosis in two complementary mouse models of scleroderma, as well as in human skin organ cultures and in three-dimensional human skin equivalents. In two-dimensional monolayer cultures of explanted normal fibroblasts, CDDO abrogated fibrogenic responses induced by TGF-β. These CDDO effects occurred via disruption of Smad-dependent transcription and were associated with inhibition of Akt activation. In scleroderma fibroblasts, CDDO attenuated the elevated synthesis of collagen. Remarkably, the in vitro antifibrotic effects of CDDO were independent of PPAR-γ. The PPAR-γ agonist triterpenoid CDDO attenuates fibrogenesis by antagonistically targeting canonical TGF-β/Smad and Akt signalling in a PPAR-γ-independent manner. These findings identify this synthetic triterpenoid as a potential new therapy for the control of fibrosis.

  14. High endogenous activated protein C levels attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Isermann, Berend; Weiler, Hartmut; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, Chris A

    2016-11-01

    Coagulation activation accompanied by reduced anticoagulant activity is a key characteristic of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Although the importance of coagulation activation in IPF is well studied, the potential relevance of endogenous anticoagulant activity in IPF progression remains elusive. We assess the importance of the endogenous anticoagulant protein C pathway on disease progression during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Wild-type mice and mice with high endogenous activated protein C APC levels (APC high ) were subjected to bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrosis was assesses by hydroxyproline and histochemical analysis. Macrophage recruitment was assessed immunohistochemically. In vitro, macrophage migration was analysed by transwell migration assays. Fourteen days after bleomycin instillation, APC high mice developed pulmonary fibrosis to a similar degree as wild-type mice. Interestingly, Aschcroft scores as well as lung hydroxyproline levels were significantly lower in APC high mice than in wild-type mice on day 28. The reduction in fibrosis in APC high mice was accompanied by reduced macrophage numbers in their lungs and subsequent in vitro experiments showed that APC inhibits thrombin-dependent macrophage migration. Our data suggest that high endogenous APC levels inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and that APC modifies pulmonary fibrosis by limiting thrombin-dependent macrophage recruitment. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  15. Wnt-induced secreted protein 1/CCN4 in liver fibrosis both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dong, Shuang; Hu, Jun-Wei; Hu, Li-Juan; Yang, Gen-Mei; Zheng, Ya-Xin; Xiong, Wu-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1/CCN4) is a member of the CCN family growth factors, and its role in liver fibrosis is largely unknown. For in vitro, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. Expression of WISP-1 during progressive activation of cultured rat HSCs was analyzed by qRT-PCR. The effects of TNF-a and TGF-beta1 on WISP-1 expression were analyzed in stellate cell lines HSC-T6 and LX-2. The effect of exogenous WISP-1 protein on LX-2 proliferation was examined. For in vivo, expressions of WISP-1 in fibrotic liver of a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrosis rat model were analyzed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, WISP-1 was increasingly expressed during progressive activation of cultured rat HSCs. WISP-1 was significantly induced in HSC-T6 cells by TNF-a and in LX-2 cells by TGF-beta1. Recombinant WISP-1 protein promoted LX-2 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, both mRNA and protein expression levels of WISP-1 were increased significantly in experimental hepatic fibrosis model. Our results showed the upregulation of WISP-1 in both in vitro and in vivo liver fibrosis models, and WISP-1 stimulated the proliferation of HSCs in vitro. These results may be helpful to elucidate the exact role of WISP-1 in liver fibrogenesis.

  16. Antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of Heat Shock Protein (HSP 47 improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats

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    Noguchi Takayuki

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common pathologic form of pulmonary fibrosis arises from excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen. The 47 kDa heat shock protein 47 (HSP47 is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that has been shown to play a major role during the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. Objectives To determine whether inhibition of HSP47 could have beneficial effects in mitigating bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Methods All experiments were performed with 250–300 g male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided into five experimental groups that were administered: 1 saline alone, 2 bleomycin alone, 3 antisense HSP47 oligonucleotides alone, 4 bleomycin + antisense HSP47 oligonucleotides, and 5 bleomycin + sense control oligonucleotides. We investigated lung histopathology and performed immunoblot and immunohistochemistry analyses. Results In rats treated with HSP47 antisense oligonucleotides, pulmonary fibrosis was significantly reduced. In addition, treatment with HSP47 antisense oligonucleotides significantly improved bleomycin-induced morphological changes. Treatment with HSP47 antisense oligonucleotides alone did not produce any significant changes to lung morphology. Immunoblot analyses of lung homogenates confirmed the inhibition of HSP47 protein by antisense oligonucleotides. The bleo + sense group, however, did not exhibit any improvement in lung pathology compared to bleomycin alone groups, and also had no effect on HSP47 expression. Conclusion These findings suggest that HSP47 antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of HSP47 improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis pathology in rats.

  17. Experimental systems to study the origin of the myofibroblast in peritoneal fibrosis

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    Manreet Padwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal fibrosis is one of the major complications occurring in long-term peritoneal dialysis patients as a result of injury. Peritoneal fibrosis is characterized by submesothelial thickening and fibrosis which is associated with a decline in peritoneal membrane function. The myofibroblast has been identified as the key player involved in the development and progression of peritoneal fibrosis. Activation of the myofibroblast is correlated with expansion of the extracellular matrix and changes in peritoneal membrane integrity. Over the years, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT has been accepted as the predominant source of the myofibroblast. Peritoneal mesothelial cells have been described to undergo EMT in response to injury. Several animal and in vitro studies support the role of EMT in peritoneal fibrosis; however, emerging evidence from genetic fate-mapping studies has demonstrated that myofibroblasts may be arising from resident fibroblasts and pericytes/perivascular fibroblasts. In this review, we will discuss hypotheses currently surrounding the origin of the myofibroblast and highlight the experimental systems predominantly being used to investigate this.

  18. Enhanced endogenous bone morphogenetic protein signaling protects against bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Langhe, Ellen; Cailotto, Frederic; De Vooght, Vanessa; Aznar-Lopez, Carolina; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen Alfons; Luyten, Frank Prosper; Lories, Rik Jozef Urbain

    2015-03-15

    Effective treatments for fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are largely lacking. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) plays a central role in the pathophysiology of fibrosis. We hypothesized that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), another family within the TGFβ superfamily of growth factors, modulate fibrogenesis driven by TGFβ. We therefore studied the role of endogenous BMP signaling in bleomycin induced lung fibrosis. Lung fibrosis was induced in wild-type or noggin haploinsufficient (Nog +/LacZ ) mice by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin, or phosphate buffered saline as a control. Invasive pulmonary function tests were performed using the flexiVent® SCIREQ system. The mice were sacrificed and lung tissue was collected for analysis using histopathology, collagen quantification, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis. Nog +/LacZ mice are a known model of increased BMP signaling and were partially protected from bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis with reduced Ashcroft score, reduced collagen content and preservation of pulmonary compliance. In bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, TGFβ and BMP signaling followed an inverse course, with dynamic activation of TGFβ signaling and repression of BMP signaling activity. Upon bleomycin exposure, active BMP signaling is decreased. Derepression of BMP signaling in Nog +/LacZ mice protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Modulating the balance between BMP and TGFβ, in particular increasing endogenous BMP signals, may therefore be a therapeutic target in fibrotic lung disease.

  19. The effect of a liver-X-receptor ligand on bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Chen, Qiongju; Yan, Haijun; Gu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The liver-X-receptors have shown anti-fibrosis ability in several animal models. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of LXRs in bleomycin induced lung fibrosis in mice. Bleomycin was intratracheally delivered to mice. Some mice were administered a LXR agonist, T0901317. Then mice were evaluated for the development of lung inflammation and fibrosis. T0901317 was able to attenuate the inflammation and fibrosis induced by bleomycin. T0901317 treatment evidently abolished the high level of TGF-β1 and inhibited NF-κB DNA-binding activity in lung. So LXRs may attenuate the progressing of lung fibrosis, providing a potential treatment of IPF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula mKG Suppresses Pulmonary Fibrosis of Mice Induced by Bleomycin

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    Ying Gao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis (PF is a serious progressive lung disease and it originates from inflammation-induced parenchymal injury with excessive extracellular matrix deposition to result in the destruction of the normal lung architecture. Modified Kushen Gancao Formula (mKG, derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a prominent anti-inflammatory effect. The present study is to explore the inhibitory effects of mKG on bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. mKG significantly decreased pulmonary alveolitis, fibrosis scores, and interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-17 (IL-17, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β and hydroxyproline (HYP levels in lung tissue of mice compared with BLM treatment. It markedly alleviated the increase of HYP content in the lung tissues and pathologic changes of pulmonary fibrosis caused by BLM instillation. In conclusion, mKG has an anti-fibrotic effect and might be employed as a therapeutic candidate agent for attenuating pulmonary fibrosis.

  1. Blocking follistatin-like 1 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yingying; Geng, Yan; Li, Lian; Li, Xiaohe; Yan, Xiaohua; Fang, Yinshan; Li, Xinxin; Dong, Siyuan; Liu, Xue; Li, Xue; Yang, Xiuhong; Zheng, Xiaohong; Xie, Ting; Liang, Jiurong; Dai, Huaping; Liu, Xinqi; Yin, Zhinan; Noble, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Progressive tissue fibrosis is a cause of major morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary fibrosis is an epithelial-mesenchymal disorder in which TGF-β1 plays a central role in pathogenesis. Here we show that follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) differentially regulates TGF-β and bone morphogenetic protein signaling, leading to epithelial injury and fibroblast activation. Haplodeletion of Fstl1 in mice or blockage of FSTL1 with a neutralizing antibody in mice reduced bleomycin-induced fibrosis in vivo. Fstl1 is induced in response to lung injury and promotes the accumulation of myofibroblasts and subsequent fibrosis. These data suggest that Fstl1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of progressive lung fibrosis. PMID:25584011

  2. Elastase modifies bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajano, Larissa Alexsandra Silva Neto; Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Lanzetti, Manuella; Mendonça, Morena Scopel Amorim; Guilherme, Rafael Freitas; Figueiredo, Rodrigo Tinoco; Benjamim, Cláudia Farias; Valenca, Samuel Santos; Costa, Andréa Monte Alto; Porto, Luís Cristóvão

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is characterized by excessive accumulation of collagen in the lungs. Emphysema is characterized by loss of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and alveolar enlargement. We studied the co-participation of elastase-induced mild emphysema in bleomycin-induced PF in mice by analyzing oxidative stress, inflammation and lung histology. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control; bleomycin (0.1U/mouse); elastase (using porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)+bleomycin (3U/mouse 14 days before 0.1U/mouse of bleomycin; PPE+B); elastase (3U/mouse). Mice were humanely sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days after treatment with bleomycin or vehicle. PF was observed 14 days and 21 days after bleomycin treatment but was observed after 14 days only in the PPE+B group. In the PPE+B group at 21 days, we observed many alveoli and alveolar septa with few PF areas. We also observed marked and progressive increases of collagens 7, 14 and 21 days after bleomycin treatment whereas, in the PPE+B group, collagen deposition was observed only at 14 days. There was a reduction in activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (pbleomycin treatment compared with the control group. These endpoints were also reduced (pbleomycin) overall histology was improved to that of the nearest control group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Graptopetalum paraguayense ameliorates chemical-induced rat hepatic fibrosis in vivo and inactivates stellate cells and Kupffer cells in vitro.

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    Li-Jen Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graptopetalum paraguayense (GP is a folk herbal medicine with hepatoprotective effects that is used in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects of GP on experimental hepatic fibrosis in both dimethylnitrosamine (DMN- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4-induced liver injury rats. METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis-induced rats were fed with the methanolic extract of GP (MGP by oral administration every day. Immunohistochemistry, biochemical assays, and Western blot analysis were performed. The effects of MGP on the expression of fibrotic markers and cytokines in the primary cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and Kupffer cells, respectively, were evaluated. RESULTS: Oral administration of MGP significantly alleviated DMN- or CCl(4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis. High levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, prothrombin activity and mortality rates also decreased in rats treated with MGP. There were significantly decreased hydroxyproline levels in therapeutic rats compared with those of the liver-damaged rats. Collagen I and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression were all reduced by incubation with MGP in primary cultured rat HSCs. Furthermore, MGP induced apoptotic cell death in activated HSCs. MGP also suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat Kupffer cell activation by decreasing nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production, and increasing interleukin-10 expression. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the administration of MGP attenuated toxin-induced hepatic damage and fibrosis in vivo and inhibited HSC and Kupffer cell activation in vitro, suggesting that MGP might be a promising complementary or alternative therapeutic agent for liver inflammation and fibrosis.

  4. Attenuating Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Extract on Liver Fibrosis Induced by Thioacetamide in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract on experimental liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in male albino mice. The experimental mice were divided into four groups. The mice of the first group were served as control. The experimental animals of the second group were given 150 mg/kg body weight of TAA by intraperitoneal injection, twice weekly, for 9 weeks. The mice of the third group were exposed to TAA and supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The animals of the fourth group were supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were statistically increased while the levels of plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased. The levels of liver superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glycogen and total protein were notably declined, whereas the level of total lipid was increased in mice of the second group. Furthermore, microscopic examination of liver sections from mice treated with TAA showed an abnormal morphology characterized by nodular transformations in liver parenchyma which surrounded by fibrous septa. Administration of G. biloba leaves extract reduced extent and development of fibrous septa, liver cells change, and biochemical alterations in mice exposed to TAA. This study showed that G. biloba leaves extract has a potential activity against TAA-induced liver fibrosis and suggested that the chemical constituents of G. biloba are effective in modulation of oxidative stress induced by TAA. PMID:23091357

  5. Attenuating Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Extract on Liver Fibrosis Induced by Thioacetamide in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract on experimental liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA in male albino mice. The experimental mice were divided into four groups. The mice of the first group were served as control. The experimental animals of the second group were given 150 mg/kg body weight of TAA by intraperitoneal injection, twice weekly, for 9 weeks. The mice of the third group were exposed to TAA and supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The animals of the fourth group were supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were statistically increased while the levels of plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased. The levels of liver superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glycogen and total protein were notably declined, whereas the level of total lipid was increased in mice of the second group. Furthermore, microscopic examination of liver sections from mice treated with TAA showed an abnormal morphology characterized by nodular transformations in liver parenchyma which surrounded by fibrous septa. Administration of G. biloba leaves extract reduced extent and development of fibrous septa, liver cells change, and biochemical alterations in mice exposed to TAA. This study showed that G. biloba leaves extract has a potential activity against TAA-induced liver fibrosis and suggested that the chemical constituents of G. biloba are effective in modulation of oxidative stress induced by TAA.

  6. Short course dexamethasone treatment following injury inhibits bleomycin induced fibrosis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Dik (Willem); R.J. McAnulty; M.A. Versnel (Marjan); B.A. Naber (Brigitta); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc); G.J. Laurent; S.E. Mutsaers (Steven)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are routinely used in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. The timing for initiation of treatment is likely to be crucial for corticosteroids to exert an antifibrotic effect. Experimental studies in animals have examined the effect of

  7. Herbal supplement attenuation of cardiac fibrosis in rats with CCl₄-induced liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Chuan; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Yueh-Min; Chen, Ray-Jade; Lin, James A; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Kuo, Yu-Chun; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2014-02-28

    Previously we found carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) induced cirrhosis associated cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether further CCl₄ treatment would induce cardiac cell fibrosis. The cardiac tissues were analyzed by H&E. histological staining, Trichrome Masson staining and Western blotting. The results showed that the CCl₄-treated-only group exhibits more trichrome staining, meaning that more fibrosis is present. Moreover, CCl₄ could further induce cardiac-fibrosis via TGF-β-p-Smad2/3-CTGF pathway. However, our data showed that the CCl₄- indcued cardiac abnormalities were attenuated by Ocimum gratissimum extract (OGE) and silymarin co- treatments. In conclusion, our results indicated that the OGE and silymarin may be a potential traditional herb for the protection of cardiac tissues from the CCl4 induced cirrhosis associated cardiac fibrosis through modulating the TGF-β signaling pathway.

  8. MicroRNA signatures associated with thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jae-Sang; Lee, Do-Hoon; Yook, Ye Won; Na, Dokyun; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Young Sik

    2017-07-01

    Multiple etiologies of liver injury are associated with fibrosis in which the key event is the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are reportedly involved in fibrogenesis, the complete array of miRNA signatures associated with the disease has yet to be elucidated. Here, deep sequencing analysis revealed that compared to controls, 80 miRNAs were upregulated and 21 miRNAs were downregulated significantly in the thioacetamide (TAA)-induced mouse fibrotic liver. Interestingly, 58 of the upregulated miRNAs were localized to an oncogenic miRNA megacluster upregulated in liver cancer. Differential expression of some of the TAA-responsive miRNAs was confirmed, and their human orthologs were similarly deregulated in TGF-β1-activated HSCs. Moreover, a functional analysis of the experimentally validated high-confidence miRNA targets revealed significant enrichment for the GO terms and KEGG pathways involved in HSC activation and liver fibrogenesis. This is the first comprehensive report of miRNAs profiles during TAA-induced mouse liver fibrosis.

  9. Paraoxonase-1 is related to inflammation, fibrosis and PPAR delta in experimental liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackness Michael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an antioxidant enzyme synthesized by the liver. It protects against liver impairment and attenuates the production of the pro-inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. We investigated the relationships between hepatic PON1 and MCP-1 expression in rats with liver disease and explored the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Methods CCl4 was administered for up to 12 weeks to induce liver damage. Serum and hepatic levels of PON1 and MCP-1, their gene and protein expression, nuclear transcription factors, and histological and biochemical markers of liver impairment were measured. Results High levels of PON1 and MCP-1 expression were observed at 12th week in the hepatocytes surrounding the fibrous septa and inflammatory areas. CCl4-administered rats had an increased hepatic PON1 concentration that was related to decreased gene transcription and inhibited protein degradation. Decreased PON1 gene transcription was associated with PPARδ expression. These changes were accompanied by increased hepatic MCP-1 concentration and gene expression. There were significant direct relationships between hepatic PON1 and MCP-1 concentrations (P = 0.005 and between PON1 and the amount of activated stellate cells (P = 0.001. Conclusion Our results from this experimental model suggest a hepato-protective role for PON1 against inflammation, fibrosis and liver disease mediated by MCP-1.

  10. TAK1 inhibition attenuates both inflammation and fibrosis in experimental pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liang, Chao; Zhang, Zong-Kang; Pan, Xiaohua; Peng, Songlin; Lee, Wing-Sze; Lu, Aiping; Lin, Zhixiu; Zhang, Ge; Leung, Wing-Nang; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Pneumoconiosis, caused by inhalation of mineral dusts, is a major occupational disease worldwide. Currently, there are no effective drugs owing to a lack of potential therapeutic targets during either the inflammation or fibrosis molecular events in pneumoconiosis. Here, we performed microarrays to identify aberrantly expressed genes in the above molecular events in vitro and found a hub gene transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which was highly expressed and activated in pneumoconiosis patients as well as silica-exposed rats with experimental pneumoconiosis. Genetic modulation of TAK1 by CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9, RNA interference and overexpression indicated the important role of TAK1 in both inflammation and fibrosis in experimental pneumoconiosis. To achieve pharmacological TAK1 inhibition, we virtually screened out a natural product resveratrol, which targeted TAK1 at both N161 and A107 residues, and significantly inhibited TAK1 activation to attenuate inflammation and fibrosis in vitro. Consistently, in vivo prevention and intervention studies showed that resveratrol could inhibit pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in silica-exposed rats.

  11. Azithromycin reduces spontaneous and induced inflammation in ΔF508 cystic fibrosis mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lison Dominique

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation plays a critical role in lung disease development and progression in cystic fibrosis. Azithromycin is used for the treatment of cystic fibrosis lung disease, although its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that azithromycin modulates lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis mice. Methods We monitored cellular and molecular inflammatory markers in lungs of cystic fibrosis mutant mice homozygous for the ΔF508 mutation and their littermate controls, either in baseline conditions or after induction of acute inflammation by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which would be independent of interactions of bacteria with epithelial cells. The effect of azithromycin pretreatment (10 mg/kg/day given by oral administration for 4 weeks was evaluated. Results In naive cystic fibrosis mice, a spontaneous lung inflammation was observed, characterized by macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, and increased intra-luminal content of the pro-inflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2. After induced inflammation, cystic fibrosis mice combined exaggerated cellular infiltration and lower anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 production. In cystic fibrosis mice, azithromycin attenuated cellular infiltration in both baseline and induced inflammatory condition, and inhibited cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 release in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Conclusion Our findings further support the concept that inflammatory responses are upregulated in cystic fibrosis. Azithromycin reduces some lung inflammation outcome measures in cystic fibrosis mice. We postulate that some of the benefits of azithromycin treatment in cystic fibrosis patients are due to modulation of lung inflammation.

  12. Ameliorative effect of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Chuan; Lin, Wei-Lii

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Reishi mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE), on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. METHODS: Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4. Forty Wistar rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, CCl4, and two GLE groups. Except for rats in control group, all rats were administered orally with CCl4 (20%, 0.2 mL/100 g body weight) twice a week for 8 weeks. Rats in GLE groups were treated daily with GLE (1 600 or 600 mg/kg) via gastrogavage throughout the whole experimental period. Liver function parameters, such as ALT, AST, albumin, and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio, spleen weight and hepatic amounts of protein, malondiladehyde (MDA) and hydroxyproline (HP) were determined. Histochemical staining of Sirius red was performed. Expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT1) 1A and MAT2A mRNA were detected by using RT-PCR. RESULTS: CCl4 caused liver fibrosis, featuring increase in plasma transaminases, hepatic MDA and HP contents, and spleen weight; and decrease in plasma albumin, A/G ratio and hepatic protein level. Compared with CCl4 group, GLE (600, 1 600 mg/kg) treatment significantly increased plasma albumin level and A/G ratio (P  < 0.05) and reduced the hepatic HP content (P < 0.01). GLE (1 600 mg/kg) treatment markedly decreased the activities of transaminases (P  < 0.05), spleen weight (P  < 0.05) and hepatic MDA content (P  < 0.05); but increased hepatic protein level (P  < 0.05). Liver histology in the GLE (1 600 mg/kg)-treated rats was also improved (P  < 0.01). RT-PCR analysis showed that GLE treatment decreased the expression of TGF-β1 (P  < 0.05-0.001) and changed the expression of MAT1A (P  < 0.05-0.01) and MAT2A (P  < 0.05-0.001). CONCLUSION: Oral administration of GLE significantly reduces CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, probably by exerting a protective effect against hepatocellular

  13. Nitric Oxide Mediates Bleomycin-Induced Angiogenesis and Pulmonary Fibrosis via Regulation of VEGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Anand Krishnan V.; Ramesh, Vani; Castro, Carlos A.; Kaushik, Vivek; Kulkarni, Yogesh M.; Wright, Clayton A.; Venkatadri, Rajkumar; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease hallmarked by increased fibroblast proliferation, amplified levels of extracellular matrix deposition and increased angiogenesis. Although dysregulation of angiogenic mediators has been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis, the specific rate-limiting angiogenic markers involved and their role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis remains unclear. We demonstrate that bleomycin treatment induces angiogenesis, and inhibition of the central angiogenic mediator VEGF using anti-VEGF antibody CBO-P11 significantly attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Bleomycin-induced nitric oxide (NO) was observed to be the key upstream regulator of VEGF via the PI3k/Akt pathway. VEGF regulated other important angiogenic proteins including PAI-1 and IL-8 in response to bleomycin exposure. Inhibition of NO and VEGF activity significantly mitigated bleomycin-induced angiogenic and fibrogenic responses. NO and VEGF are key mediators of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and could serve as important targets against this debilitating disease. Overall, our data suggests an important role for angiogenic mediators in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25919965

  14. Atrial natriuretic peptide protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via vascular endothelial cells in mice : ANP for pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Atsuko; Nojiri, Takashi; Konishi, Kazuhisa; Tokudome, Takeshi; Miura, Koichi; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Hino, Jun; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kyomoto, Yohkoh; Asai, Kazuhisa; Hirata, Kazuto; Kangawa, Kenji

    2017-01-03

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a life-threatening disease characterized by progressive dyspnea and worsening pulmonary function. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a heart-derived secretory peptide used clinically in Japan for the treatment of acute heart failure, exerts a wide range of protective effects on various organs, including the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and lungs. Its therapeutic properties are characterized by anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities mediated by the guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor. We hypothesized that ANP would have anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Mice were divided into three groups: normal control, BLM with vehicle, and BLM with ANP. ANP (0.5 μg/kg/min via osmotic-pump, subcutaneously) or vehicle administration was started before BLM administration (1 mg/kg) and continued until the mice were sacrificed. At 7 or 21 days after BLM administration, fibrotic changes and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs were assessed based on histological findings and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, fibrosis and inflammation induced by BLM were evaluated in vascular endothelium-specific GC-A overexpressed mice. Finally, attenuation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling by ANP was studied using immortalized mouse endothelial cells stably expressing GC-A receptor. ANP significantly decreased lung fibrotic area and infiltration of inflammatory cells in lungs after BLM administration. Furthermore, similar effects of ANP were observed in vascular endothelium-specific GC-A overexpressed mice. In cultured mouse endothelial cells, ANP reduced phosphorylation of Smad2 after TGF-β stimulation. ANP exerts protective effects on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis via vascular endothelial cells.

  15. Role of heat shock protein 47 in intestinal fibrosis of experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shuji; Nakase, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Minoru; Honzawa, Yusuke; Matsumura, Kayoko; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Uza, Norimitsu; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2011-01-14

    Intestinal fibrosis is a clinically important issue of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is unclear whether or not heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, plays a critical role in intestinal fibrosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of HSP47 in intestinal fibrosis of murine colitis. HSP47 expression and localization were evaluated in interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10KO) and wild-type (WT, C57BL/6) mice by immunohistochemistry. Expression of HSP47 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in colonic tissue was measured. In vitro studies were conducted in NIH/3T3 cells and primary culture of myofibroblasts separated from colonic tissue of IL-10KO (PMF KO) and WT mice (PMF WT) with stimulation of several cytokines. We evaluated the inhibitory effect of administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting HSP47 on intestinal fibrosis in IL-10KO mice in vivo. Immunohistochemistry revealed HSP47 positive cells were observed in the mesenchymal and submucosal area of both WT and IL-10 KO mice. Gene expressions of HSP47 and TGF-β1 were significantly higher in IL-10KO mice than in WT mice and correlated with the severity of inflammation. In vitro experiments with NIH3T3 cells, TGF-β1 only induced HSP47 gene expression. There was a significant difference of HSP47 gene expression between PMF KO and PMF WT. Administration of siRNA targeting HSP47 remarkably reduced collagen deposition in colonic tissue of IL-10KO mice. Our results indicate that HSP47 plays an essential role in intestinal fibrosis of IL-10KO mice, and may be a potential target for intestinal fibrosis associated with IBD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Saffron Protection against Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehrzad Bahtouee; Hossein Fatemikia; Khalil Pourkhalili; Euikyung Kim; Hamid Reza Rahimi; Zahra Tavosi; Abdol hamid.Esmaili; Abdollah Hajivandi; Yaghoob Hassan; Ramin Seyedian

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of saffron aqueous extract on this disorder paving the way for more investigation in treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in human. Methods: Male Wistar rats (250–300 gr...

  17. Protective effect of gallic acid against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, Jafar; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Arzi, Ardeshir; Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Rezaie, Anahita; Ghafourian, Mehri

    2015-12-01

    Bleomycin (BLM), a chemotherapeutic agent is indicated in the management of some types of cancers. This drug produces a dose-dependent pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in most patients as well as experimental animals through oxidative injury. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gallic acid (GA), a polyphenolic compound, against PF-induce by BLM in rats. The rats were given GA orally at doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day) for 7 consecutive days before the administration of single intratracheal (it) instillation of BLM at 7.5 IU/kg. GA doses were continued for 21 days after BLM exposure. The regulatory effects of GA on BLM-induced pulmonary toxicity were determined by assaying oxidative stress biomarkers, lung and serum cytokine levels, and by histopathological examination of lung tissue. The results showed that intratracheal BLM administration significantly increased the inflammatory or fibrotic changes, collagen content, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL1β in lung. Also, it significantly decreased non-enzymatic (total thiol) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) antioxidant contents in the rats' lung tissue. However, oral administration of GA reversed all of these biochemical indices as well as histopathological alterations induced by BLM. Results of the present study demonstrate that GA, by its antioxidant properties, attenuates oxidative damage and fibrosis induced by BLM. Thus, an effective supplement with GA as an adjuvant therapy may be a very promising compound in reducing the side effects of BLM. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Senolytic drugs target alveolar epithelial cell function and attenuate experimental lung fibrosis ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Mareike; Korfei, Martina; Mutze, Kathrin; Klee, Stephan; Skronska-Wasek, Wioletta; Alsafadi, Hani N; Ota, Chiharu; Costa, Rita; Schiller, Herbert B; Lindner, Michael; Wagner, Darcy E; Günther, Andreas; Königshoff, Melanie

    2017-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disease with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The incidence of IPF increases with age, and ageing-related mechanisms such as cellular senescence have been proposed as pathogenic drivers. The lung alveolar epithelium represents a major site of tissue injury in IPF and senescence of this cell population is probably detrimental to lung repair. However, the potential pathomechanisms of alveolar epithelial cell senescence and the impact of senolytic drugs on senescent lung cells and fibrosis remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that lung epithelial cells exhibit increased P16 and P21 expression as well as senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity in experimental and human lung fibrosis tissue and primary cells.Primary fibrotic mouse alveolar epithelial type (AT)II cells secreted increased amounts of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors in vitro, as analysed using quantitative PCR, mass spectrometry and ELISA. Importantly, pharmacological clearance of senescent cells by induction of apoptosis in fibrotic ATII cells or ex vivo three-dimensional lung tissue cultures reduced SASP factors and extracellular matrix markers, while increasing alveolar epithelial markers.These data indicate that alveolar epithelial cell senescence contributes to lung fibrosis development and that senolytic drugs may be a viable therapeutic option for IPF. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  19. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in SARS coronavirus-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Thiagarajan; Frieman, Matthew B

    2017-07-01

    Many survivors of the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) developed residual pulmonary fibrosis with increased severity seen in older patients. Autopsies of patients that died from SARS also showed fibrosis to varying extents. Pulmonary fibrosis can be occasionally seen as a consequence to several respiratory viral infections but is much more common after a SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Given the threat of future outbreaks of severe coronavirus disease, including Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), it is important to understand the mechanisms responsible for pulmonary fibrosis, so as to support the development of therapeutic countermeasures and mitigate sequelae of infection. In this article, we summarize pulmonary fibrotic changes observed after a SARS-CoV infection, discuss the extent to which other respiratory viruses induce fibrosis, describe available animal models to study the development of SARS-CoV induced fibrosis and review evidence that pulmonary fibrosis is caused by a hyperactive host response to lung injury mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. We summarize work from our group and others indicating that inhibiting EGFR signaling may prevent an excessive fibrotic response to SARS-CoV and other respiratory viral infections and propose directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Deficiency of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) aggravates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Eun Young

    2014-03-07

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disease wherein lung parenchyma is gradually and irreversibly replaced with collagen. The molecular pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis is not fully understood and the only effective treatment available is lung transplantation. To test if Del-1, an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule, may be implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, we induced pulmonary fibrosis in wild type (WT) and Del-1(-/-) mice by intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Del-1 expression in the lung was decreased in the WT mice treated with bleomycin compared to control mice. In addition, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis increased collagen deposition and TGF-β production in the lung of Del-1(-/-) mice. Finally, Del-1(-/-) mice treated with bleomycin displayed higher weight loss and greater mortality than did WT mice identically treated. These findings suggest that Del-1 may negatively regulate development of pulmonary fibrosis. Further delineation of a role for Del-1 in the development of pulmonary fibrosis will broaden our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and hopefully help develop potential therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A neutrophil elastase inhibitor prevents bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemasa, Akihiro; Ishii, Yoshiki; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Neutrophil elastase plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. The neutrophil elastase inhibitor, sivelestat, could alleviate pulmonary fibrosis; however, the antifibrotic mechanisms have not yet been clarified. We examined the antifibrotic mechanisms, mainly focusing on a key fibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, in this study. To elucidate the antifibrotic mechanisms of sivelestat, we examined a murine model of bleomycin-induced early-stage pulmonary fibrosis. After intratracheal instillation of bleomycin, sivelestat was administered intraperitoneally once a day for 7 or 14 days. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung samples were examined on day 7 or day 14 after bleomycin instillation. In the bleomycin-induced early-stage pulmonary fibrosis model, the neutrophil elastase level was increased in the lungs. Sivelestat significantly inhibited the increase in lung collagen content, fibrotic changes, the numbers of total cells (including macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes), the levels of the active form of TGF-β1 and phospho-Smad2 in bleomycin-induced early-stage pulmonary fibrosis. The total TGF-β1 levels and relative changes of TGF-β1 mRNA expression, however, were not decreased significantly by sivelestat. These results suggest that sivelestat alleviated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via inhibition of both TGF-β activation and inflammatory cell recruitment in the lung.

  2. Triptolide suppresses paraquat induced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting TGFB1-dependent epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Qun; Jiang, Chun-Ming; Shi, Guang-Yue; Sui, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Li-Zhen; Li, Zhu-Ying; Liu, Li; Su, Yu-Ming; Zhao, Wen-Cheng; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Li, Zhen-Zi; Fu, Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and tumor are highly similar to abnormal cell proliferation that damages the body. This malignant cell evolution in a stressful environment closely resembles that of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). As a popular EMT-inducing factor, TGFβ plays an important role in the progression of multiple diseases. However, the drugs that target TGFB1 are limited. In this study, we found that triptolide (TPL), a Chinese medicine extract, exerts an anti-lung fibrosis effect by inhibiting the EMT of lung epithelial cells. In addition, triptolide directly binds to TGFβ and subsequently increase E-cadherin expression and decrease vimentin expression. In in vivo studies, TPL improves the survival state and inhibits lung fibrosis in mice. In summary, this study revealed the potential therapeutic effect of paraquat induced TPL in lung fibrosis by regulating TGFβ-dependent EMT progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibiting Skp2 E3 Ligase Suppresses Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Mikamo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a progressive disease with poor prognosis and no curative therapies. SCF-Skp2 E3 ligase is a target for cancer therapy, but there have been no reports about Skp2 as a target for IPF. Here we demonstrate that Skp2 is a promising therapeutic target for IPF. We examined whether disrupting Skp2 suppressed pulmonary fibrosis in a bleomycin (BLM-induced mouse model and found that pulmonary fibrosis was significantly suppressed in Skp2-deficient mice compared with controls. The pulmonary accumulation of fibrotic markers such as collagen type 1 and fibronectin in BLM-infused mice was decreased in Skp2-deficient mice. Moreover, the number of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells accompanied with pulmonary fibrosis was significantly diminished. Levels of the Skp2 target p27 were significantly decreased by BLM-administration in wild-type mice, but recovered in Skp2−/− mice. In vimentin-positive mesenchymal fibroblasts, the decrease of p27-positive cells and increase of Ki67-positive cells by BLM-administration was suppressed by Skp2-deficency. As these results suggested that inhibiting Skp2 might be effective for BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, we next performed a treatment experiment using the Skp2 inhibitor SZL-P1-41. As expected, BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis was significantly inhibited by SZL-P1-41. Moreover, p27 levels were increased by the SZL-P1-41 treatment, suggesting p27 may be an important Skp2 target for BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Our study suggests that Skp2 is a potential molecular target for human pulmonary fibrosis including IPF.

  4. Prevention of bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice by naproxen and JNJ7777120 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Arianna Carolina; Pini, Alessandro; Lucarini, Laura; Lanzi, Cecilia; Veglia, Eleonora; Thurmond, Robin L; Stark, Holger; Masini, Emanuela

    2014-11-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis, a progressive and lethal lung disease characterized by inflammation and accumulation of extracellular matrix components, is a major therapeutic challenge for which new therapeutic strategies are warranted. Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors have been previously utilized to reduce inflammation. Histamine H4 receptor (H4R), largely expressed in hematopoietic cells, has been identified as a novel target for inflammatory and immune disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of JNJ7777120 (1-[(5-chloro-1H-indol-2-yl)carbonyl]-4-methylpiperazine), a selective H4R antagonist, and naproxen, a well known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and their combination in a murine model of bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Bleomycin (0.05 IU) was instilled intratracheally to C57BL/6 mice, which were then treated by micro-osmotic pump with vehicle, JNJ7777120 (40 mg/kg b.wt.), naproxen (21 mg/kg b.wt.), or a combination of both. Airway resistance to inflation, an index of lung stiffness, was assessed, and lung specimens were processed for inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis markers. Both drugs alone were able to reduce the airway resistance to inflation induced by bleomycin and the inflammatory response by decreasing COX-2 and myeloperoxidase expression and activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine production. Lung fibrosis was inhibited, as demonstrated by the reduction of tissue levels of transforming growth factor-β, collagen deposition, relative goblet cell number, and smooth muscle layer thickness. Our results demonstrate that both JNJ7777120 and naproxen exert an anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that is increased by their combination, which could be an effective therapeutic strategy in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Increased hemoglobin-oxygen affinity ameliorates bleomycin-induced hypoxemia and pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xin; Dufu, Kobina; Hutchaleelaha, Athiwat; Xu, Qing; Li, Zhe; Li, Chien-Ming; Patel, Mira P; Vlahakis, Nicholas; Lehrer-Graiwer, Josh; Oksenberg, Donna

    2016-09-01

    Although exertional dyspnea and worsening hypoxia are hallmark clinical features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), no drug currently available could treat them. GBT1118 is a novel orally bioavailable small molecule that binds to hemoglobin and produces a concentration-dependent left shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve with subsequent increase in hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and arterial oxygen loading. To assess whether pharmacological modification of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity could ameliorate hypoxemia associated with lung fibrosis, we evaluated GBT1118 in a bleomycin-induced mouse model of hypoxemia and fibrosis. After pulmonary fibrosis and hypoxemia were induced, GBT1118 was administered for eight consecutive days. Hypoxemia was determined by monitoring arterial oxygen saturation, while the severity of pulmonary fibrosis was assessed by histopathological evaluation and determination of collagen and leukocyte levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We found that hemoglobin modification by GBT1118 had strong antihypoxemic therapeutic effects with improved arterial oxygen saturation to near normal level. Moreover, GBT1118 treatment significantly attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, collagen accumulation, body weight loss, and leukocyte infiltration. This study is the first to suggest the beneficial effects of hemoglobin modification in fibrotic lungs and offers a promising and novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hypoxemia associated with chronic fibrotic lung disorders in human, including IPF. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. Neutralization of interleukin-17A delays progression of silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying; Li, Cuiying [Division of Pneumoconiosis, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Weng, Dong [Division of Pneumoconiosis, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Clinical Translational Research Center, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Song, Laiyu; Tang, Wen; Dai, Wujing; Yu, Ye; Liu, Fangwei; Zhao, Ming; Lu, Chunwei [Division of Pneumoconiosis, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Chen, Jie, E-mail: chenjie@mail.cmu.edu.cn [Division of Pneumoconiosis, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2014-02-15

    Silica exposure can cause lung inflammation and fibrosis, known as silicosis. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and Th17 cells play a pivotal role in controlling inflammatory diseases. However, the roles of IL-17A and Th17 cells in the progress of silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis are poorly understood. This study explored the effects of IL-17A on silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis. We used an anti-mouse IL-17A antibody to establish an IL-17A-neutralized mice model, and mice were exposed to silica to establish an experimental silicosis model. We showed that IL-17A neutralization delayed neutrophil accumulation and progression of silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. IL-17A neutralization reduced the percentage of Th17 in CD4 + T cells, decreased IL-6 and IL-1β expression, and increased Tregs at an early phase of silica-induced inflammation. Neutralization of IL-17A delayed silica-induced Th1/Th2 immune and autoimmune responses. These results suggest that IL-17A neutralization alleviates early stage silica-induced lung inflammation and delays progression of silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. Neutralization of IL-17A suppressed Th17 cell development by decreasing IL-6 and/or IL-1β and increased Tregs at an early phase of silica-induced inflammation. Neutralization of IL-17A also delayed the Th1/Th2 immune response during silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. IL-17A may play a pivotal role in the early phase of silica-induced inflammation and may mediate the Th immune response to influence silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice. - Highlights: • Neutralization of IL-17A alleviated silica-induced lung inflammation of early stage. • Neutralization of IL-17A decreased Th17 cells and increased Tregs. • IL-17A mediated the reciprocal relationship of Th17/Tregs by IL-6 and/or IL-1β. • Neutralization of IL-17A delayed silica-induced Th1/Th2 immune response. • Neutralization of IL-17A delayed silica-induced lung

  7. Inhibition of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis through pre-treatment with collagen type V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ruedi K; Martin, Alicia; Shah, Shivanee; Iwashima, Makio; Medina, Melissa; Byrne, Kathryn; Sethupathi, Periannan; Wigfield, Christopher H; Brand, David D; Love, Robert B

    2010-08-01

    Tolerance to collagen structures has been shown to inhibit the progression of autoimmune scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis. More recently, tolerance induction to collagen type V (colV) in experimental models of lung transplantation was shown to ameliorate the complex pathology known as "chronic rejection." The link between colV autoimmunity and progressive graft dysfunction and subsequent development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) has been established in human lung transplant recipients. We hypothesized that intravenous injection of colV inhibits development of lung fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced lung injury mouse model. Experimental animals were injected intravenously with saline or colV 10 days before intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. Pulmonary inflammation was monitored and quantified for the presence of cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid by flow cytometry and histology of lung tissue. ColV-pre-treated animals showed a significant reduction in lung inflammation compared with non-treated animals, according to histology and morphometry. The number of inflammatory cells in the BAL fluid was significantly reduced and associated with a lower proportion of gammadelta T cells and CD4(+) T cells in the colV-pre-treated group. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9; also known as gelatinase A and gelatinase B, respectively) levels in the BAL fluid were significantly reduced in colV-pre-treated mice compared with the non-treated mice. In addition, intravenous injection of colV was associated with a significant reduction in the relative expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17 and IL-22 in cells present in BAL fluid at 7 and 14 days after bleomycin instillation. Pre-treatment by intravenous injection of colV inhibits bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting IL-6 and IL-17 production. Fibrosis treatment in this context therefore should target induction of colV tolerance and Th17 development. Copyright (c) 2010

  8. Pan-PPAR agonist IVA337 is effective in experimental lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avouac, Jerome; Konstantinova, Irena; Guignabert, Christophe; Pezet, Sonia; Sadoine, Jeremy; Guilbert, Thomas; Cauvet, Anne; Tu, Ly; Luccarini, Jean-Michel; Junien, Jean-Louis; Broqua, Pierre; Allanore, Yannick

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the antifibrotic effects of the pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist IVA337 in preclinical mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis and related pulmonary hypertension (PH). IVA337 has been evaluated in the mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and in Fra-2 transgenic mice, this latter being characterised by non-specific interstitial pneumonia and severe vascular remodelling of pulmonary arteries leading to PH. Mice received two doses of IVA337 (30 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg) or vehicle administered by daily oral gavage up to 4 weeks. IVA337 demonstrated at a dose of 100 mg/kg a marked protection from the development of lung fibrosis in both mouse models compared with mice receiving 30 mg/kg of IVA337 or vehicle. Histological score was markedly reduced by 61% in the bleomycin model and by 50% in Fra-2 transgenic mice, and total lung hydroxyproline concentrations decreased by 28% and 48%, respectively, as compared with vehicle-treated mice. IVA337 at 100 mg/kg also significantly decreased levels of fibrogenic markers in lesional lungs of both mouse models. In addition, IVA337 substantially alleviated PH in Fra-2 transgenic mice by improving haemodynamic measurements and vascular remodelling. In primary human lung fibroblasts, IVA337 inhibited in a dose-dependent manner fibroblast to myofibroblasts transition induced by TGF-β and fibroblast proliferation mediated by PDGF. We demonstrate that treatment with 100 mg/kg IVA337 prevents lung fibrosis in two complementary animal models and substantially attenuates PH in the Fra-2 mouse model. These findings confirm that the pan-PPAR agonist IVA337 is an appealing therapeutic candidate for these cardiopulmonary involvements. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. A novel segmental challenge model for bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Louise; Bacci, Barbara; Koumoundouros, Emmanuel; Barcham, Garry; Kimpton, Wayne; Nowell, Cameron J; Samuel, Chrishan; Snibson, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Idiopathic Pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal respiratory disease, characterized by a progressive fibrosis and worsening lung function. While the outcomes of recent clinical trials have resulted in therapies to slow the progression of the disease, there is still a need to develop alternative therapies, which are able to prevent fibrosis. This study uses a segmental lung infusion of bleomycin (BLM) to investigate pulmonary fibrosis in a physiologically relevant large animal species. Two separate lung segments in eight sheep received two fortnightly challenges of either 3U or 30U BLM per segment, and a third segment received saline (control). Lung function was assessed using a wedged-bronchoscope procedure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were assessed for inflammation, fibrosis and collagen content two weeks after the final dose of BLM. Instillation of both BLM doses resulted in prominent fibrosis in the treated lobes. More diffuse fibrosis and loss of alveolar airspace was observed in high-dose BLM-treated segments, while multifocal fibrosis was seen in low-dose BLM-treated segments. Extensive and disorganised collagen deposition occurred in the BLM-treated lobes, compared to controls. Significant loss of lung compliance was also observed in the BLM-treated lobes, which did not occur in controls. Fibrosis comparable to IPF was induced into isolated lung segments, without compromising the respiratory functioning of the animal. This model may have potential for investigating novel therapies for IPF by allowing direct comparison of multiple treatments with internal controls, and sampling and drug delivery that are clinically relevant.

  10. Superior vena cava obstruction caused by radiation induced venous fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, JWG; Schlosser, NJJ; Vujaskovic, Z; Van der Leest, AHD; Groen, HJM

    Superior vena cava syndrome is most often caused by lung carcinoma. Two cases are described in whom venous obstruction in the superior mediastinum was caused by local vascular fibrosis due to radiotherapy five and seven years earlier. The development of radiation injury to greater vessels is

  11. Radiation-induced gene expression in human subcutaneous fibroblasts is predictive of radiation-induced fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødningen, Olaug Kristin; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Alsner, Jan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients show a large variation in normal tissue reactions after ionizing radiation (IR) therapy. One of the most common long-term adverse effects of ionizing radiotherapy is radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), and several attempts have been made over the last...... years to develop predictive assays for RIF. Our aim was to identify basal and radiation-induced transcriptional profiles in fibroblasts from breast cancer patients that might be related to the individual risk of RIF in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fibroblast cell lines from 31 individuals......-treated fibroblasts. Transcriptional differences in basal and radiation-induced gene expression profiles were investigated using 15K cDNA microarrays, and results analyzed by both SAM and PAM. RESULTS: Sixty differentially expressed genes were identified by applying SAM on 10 patients with the highest risk of RIF...

  12. A comparative study on the hepatoprotective action of bear bile and coptidis rhizoma aqueous extract on experimental liver fibrosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ning

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim of the study Bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma have been used in Chinese medicine with a long tradition in treating heat-diseases. Both bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma are used to treat liver diseases in clinical practice of Chinese Medicine. Since bears are currently endangered, it raises the question whether the use of bear bile is ethical. To look for substitute for bear bile, the aim of this study is to compare the anti-fibrotic effects of Coptidis Rhizoma and its major component berberine with the actions of bear bile and its major compound tauroursodeoxycholic acid on experimental liver fibrosis in rats. Method Quality assessment was conducted with high performance liquid chromatography. The experimental liver fibrosis in rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride, alcohol, and bile duct ligation respectively. The biochemical criteria in the blood and tissue samples were measured to evaluate the anti-fibrotic properties and underlying mechanisms of the drugs. Results Coptidis Rhizoma Aqueous Extract (CRAE, berberine, and bear bile exerted anti-fibrotic properties on various liver fibrosis models in rats. CRAE and berberine significantly reduced the peroxidative stress in liver through increasing the superoxide dismutase enzyme activity. CRAE and berberine were able to excrete bilirubin products from the liver and protect hepatocytes from cholestatic damage. The effect of CRAE and berberine are comparable to that of bear bile. Conclusion Instead of using bear bile, CRAE and berberine can be potential substitutes in treating liver fibrosis.

  13. A comparative study on the hepatoprotective action of bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma aqueous extract on experimental liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Feng, Yibin; Cheung, Fan; Chow, Oi-Yee; Wang, Xuanbin; Su, Weiwei; Tong, Yao

    2012-11-29

    Bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma have been used in Chinese medicine with a long tradition in treating heat-diseases. Both bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma are used to treat liver diseases in clinical practice of Chinese Medicine. Since bears are currently endangered, it raises the question whether the use of bear bile is ethical. To look for substitute for bear bile, the aim of this study is to compare the anti-fibrotic effects of Coptidis Rhizoma and its major component berberine with the actions of bear bile and its major compound tauroursodeoxycholic acid on experimental liver fibrosis in rats. Quality assessment was conducted with high performance liquid chromatography. The experimental liver fibrosis in rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride, alcohol, and bile duct ligation respectively. The biochemical criteria in the blood and tissue samples were measured to evaluate the anti-fibrotic properties and underlying mechanisms of the drugs. Coptidis Rhizoma Aqueous Extract (CRAE), berberine, and bear bile exerted anti-fibrotic properties on various liver fibrosis models in rats. CRAE and berberine significantly reduced the peroxidative stress in liver through increasing the superoxide dismutase enzyme activity. CRAE and berberine were able to excrete bilirubin products from the liver and protect hepatocytes from cholestatic damage. The effect of CRAE and berberine are comparable to that of bear bile. Instead of using bear bile, CRAE and berberine can be potential substitutes in treating liver fibrosis.

  14. A New Oleanolic Acid Derivative against CCl4-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel hepatoprotective oleanolic acid derivative, 3-oxours-oleana-9(11, 12-dien-28-oic acid (Oxy-Di-OA, has been reported. In previous studies, we found that Oxy-Di-OA presented the anti-HBV (Hepatitis B Virus activity (IC50 = 3.13 µg/mL. Remarkably, it is superior to lamivudine in the inhibition of the rebound of the viral replication rate. Furthermore, Oxy-Di-OA showed good performance of anti-HBV activity in vivo. Some studies showed that liver fibrosis may affiliate with HBV gene mutations. In addition, the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of Oxy-Di-OA has not been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the protective effect of Oxy-Di-OA against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. Daily intraperitoneally administration of Oxy-Di-OA prevented the development of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, which was evidenced by histological study and immunohistochemical analysis. The entire experimental protocol lasted nine weeks. Oxy-Di-OA significantly suppressed the increases of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels (p < 0.05. Furthermore, Oxy-Di-OA could prevent expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1. It is worth noting that the high-dose group Oxy-Di-OA is superior to bifendate in elevating hepatic function. Compared to the model group, Oxy-Di-OA in the high-dose group and low-dose group can significantly reduce the liver and spleen indices (p < 0.05. The acute toxicity test showed that LD50 and a 95% confidence interval (CIs value of Oxy-Di-OA were 714.83 mg/kg and 639.73–798.73 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection in mice, respectively. The LD50 value of Oxy-Di-OA exceeded 2000 mg/kg via gavage in mice. In addition, a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV method was developed and validated to study the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the compound. After single-dose oral administration, time to reach peak concentration of Oxy-Di-OA (Cmax

  15. Role of IL-1β in experimental cystic fibrosis upon P. aeruginosa infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Palomo

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is associated with increased inflammatory responses to pathogen challenge. Here we revisited the role of IL-1β in lung pathology using the experimental F508del-CFTR murine model on C57BL/6 genetic background (Cftr(tm1eur or d/d, on double deficient for d/d and type 1 interleukin-1 receptor (d/d X IL-1R1-/-, and antibody neutralization. At steady state, young adult d/d mice did not show any signs of spontaneous lung inflammation. However, IL-1R1 deficiency conferred partial protection to repeated P. aeruginosa endotoxins/LPS lung instillation in d/d mice, as 50% of d/d mice succumbed to inflammation, whereas all d/d x IL-1R1-/- double mutants survived with lower initial weight loss and less pulmonary collagen and mucus production, suggesting that the absence of IL-1R1 signaling is protective in d/d mice in LPS-induced lung damage. Using P. aeruginosa acute lung infection we found heightened neutrophil recruitment in d/d mice with higher epithelial damage, increased bacterial load in BALF, and augmented IL-1β and TNF-α in parenchyma as compared to WT mice. Thus, F508del-CFTR mice show enhanced IL-1β signaling in response to P. aeruginosa. IL-1β antibody neutralization had no effect on lung homeostasis in either d/d or WT mice, however P. aeruginosa induced lung inflammation and bacterial load were diminished by IL-1β antibody neutralization. In conclusion, enhanced susceptibility to P. aeruginosa in d/d mice correlates with an excessive inflammation and with increased IL-1β production and reduced bacterial clearance. Further, we show that neutralization of IL-1β in d/d mice through the double mutation d/d x IL-1R1-/- and in WT via antibody neutralization attenuates inflammation. This supports the notion that intervention in the IL-1R1/IL-1β pathway may be detrimental in CF patients.

  16. Vildagliptin ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by inhibiting endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Tada, Yuji; Gladson, Santhi; Nishimura, Rintaro; Shimomura, Iwao; Karasawa, Satoshi; Tatsumi, Koichiro; West, James

    2017-10-16

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a late manifestation of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Sepsis is a major cause of ARDS, and its pathogenesis includes endotoxin-induced vascular injury. Recently, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was shown to play an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. On the other hand, dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 was reported to improve vascular dysfunction in an experimental sepsis model, although whether DPP-4 affects EndMT and fibrosis initiation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-EndMT effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in pulmonary fibrosis after systemic endotoxemic injury. A septic lung injury model was established by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in eight-week-old male mice (5 mg/kg for five consecutive days). The mice were then treated with vehicle or vildagliptin (intraperitoneally, 10 mg/kg, once daily for 14 consecutive days from 1 day before the first administration of LPS.). Flow cytometry, immunohistochemical staining, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was used to assess cell dynamics and EndMT function in lung samples from the mice. Lung tissue samples from treated mice revealed obvious inflammatory reactions and typical interstitial fibrosis 2 days and 28 days after LPS challenge. Quantitative flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs) expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) or S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) increased 28 days after LPS challenge. Similar increases in expression were also confirmed by qPCR of mRNA from isolated PVECs. EndMT cells had higher proliferative activity and migration activity than mesenchymal cells. All of these changes were alleviated by intraperitoneal injection of vildagliptin. Interestingly, vildagliptin and linagliptin significantly attenuated EndMT in the absence of immune

  17. Antifibrotic activity of hesperidin against dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshazly, Shimaa M; Mahmoud, Amr A A

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a significant health problem that may progress to cirrhosis and cancer. It may be caused by viruses or chemicals such as dimethylnitrosamine, which is used as a preservative in processed meats and industrial products. The present study was designed to investigate the antifibrotic effect of hesperidin (100 or 200 mg/kg, a flavanone glycoside with potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities) against liver fibrosis in rats compared to silymarin (100 mg/kg). Liver fibrosis was induced in rats using dimethylnitrosamine (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) three times per week on alternating days for 4 weeks. After 28 days, tissue and blood samples were collected to assess the protective effect of hesperidin. Dimethylnitrosamine caused liver fibrosis as evidenced by the elevation in the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin, as well as hepatic malondialdehyde content, gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, α-smooth muscle actin and caspase-3. In addition, dimethylnitrosamine caused a reduction in serum total protein, albumin and hepatic glutathione content. Treatment with hesperidin (100 or 200 mg/kg) successfully ameliorated the deleterious effects of dimethylnitrosamine on all tested parameters. Our study indicates a novel protective effect of hesperidin against dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis. Interestingly, the protection evoked by hesperidin (200 mg/kg) was superior to that of the standard silymarin.

  18. Blockade of advanced glycation end product formation attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dai-Shun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced glycation end products (AGEs have been proposed to be involved in pulmonary fibrosis, but its role in this process has not been fully understood. To investigate the role of AGE formation in pulmonary fibrosis, we used a bleomycin (BLM-stimulated rat model treated with aminoguanidine (AG, a crosslink inhibitor of AGE formation. Methods Rats were intratracheally instilled with BLM (5 mg/kg and orally administered with AG (40, 80, 120 mg/kg once daily for two weeks. AGEs level in lung tissue was determined by ELISA and pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated by Ashcroft score and hydroxyproline assay. The expression of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47, a collagen specific molecular chaperone, was measured with RT-PCR and Western blot. Moreover, TGFβ1 and its downstream Smad proteins were analyzed by Western blot. Results AGEs level in rat lungs, as well as lung hydroxyproline content and Ashcroft score, was significantly enhanced by BLM stimulation, which was abrogated by AG treatment. BLM significantly increased the expression of HSP47 mRNA and protein in lung tissues, and AG treatment markedly decreased BLM-induced HSP47 expression in a dose-dependent manner (p Conclusion These findings suggest AGE formation may participate in the process of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and blockade of AGE formation by AG treatment attenuates BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, which is implicated in inhibition of HSP47 expression and TGFβ/Smads signaling.

  19. Shikonin ameliorates isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial damage through suppressing fibrosis, inflammation, apoptosis and ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Dong-Lin

    2017-09-01

    Shikonin, isolated from the roots of herbal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, is a naphthoquinone. It has been reported to exert beneficial anti-inflammatory effects and anti-oxidant properties in various diseases. Isoproterenol (ISO) has been widely used to establish cardiac injury in vivo and in vitro. However, shikonin function in ISO-induced cardiac injury remains uncertain. In our study, we attempted to investigate the efficiency and possible molecular mechanism of shikonin in cardiac injury treatment induced by ISO. In vivo, C57BL6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 5mg/kg ISO to induce heart failure. And mice were given a gavage of shikonin (2 or 4mg/kg/d, for four weeks). Cardiac function, fibrosis indices, inflammation response, apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were calculated. Pathological alterations, fibrosis-, inflammation-, apoptosis- and ER stress-related molecules were examined. In ISO-induced cardiac injury, shikonin significantly ameliorated heart function, decreased myocardial fibrosis, suppressed inflammation, attenuated apoptosis and ER stress through impeding collagen accumulation, Toll like receptor 4/nuclear transcription factor κB (TLR4/NF-κB), Caspase-3 and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) signaling pathways activity, relieving heart failure in vivo. Also, in vitro, shikonin attenuated ISO-induced cardiac muscle cells by reducing fibrosis, inflammation, apoptosis and ER stress. Our findings indicated that shikonin treatment attenuated ISO-induced heart injury, providing an effective therapeutic strategy for heart failure treatment for future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Genistein alleviates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Du, Ning; Zhang, Longyin; Wu, Xianxian; Hu, Yingying; Li, Xiaoguang; Shen, Nannan; Li, Yang; Yang, Baofeng; Xu, Chaoqian; Fang, Zhiwei; Lu, Yanjie; Zhang, Yong; Du, Zhimin

    2015-12-01

    Pressure overload-induced cardiac interstitial fibrosis is viewed as a major cause of heart failure in patients with hypertension or aorta atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanisms of genistein, a natural phytoestrogen found in soy bean extract, on pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis. Genisten was administered to mice with pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction. Eight weeks later, its effects on cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis were determined. Its effects on proliferation, collagen production and myofibroblast transformation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and the signalling pathways were also assessed in vitro. Pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis were markedly attenuated by genistein. In cultured CFs, genistein inhibited TGFβ1-induced proliferation, collagen production and myofibroblast transformation. Genistein suppressed TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) expression and produced anti-fibrotic effects by blocking the TAK1/MKK4/JNK pathway. Further analysis indicated that it up-regulated oestrogen-dependent expression of metastasis-associated gene 3 (MTA3), which was found to be a negative regulator of TAK1. Silencing MTA3 by siRNA, or inhibiting the activity of the MTA3-NuRD complex with trichostatin A, abolished genistein's anti-fibrotic effects. Genistein improved cardiac function and inhibited cardiac fibrosis in response to pressure overload. The underlying mechanism may involve regulation of the MTA3/TAK1/MKK4/JNK signalling pathway. Genistein may have potential as a novel agent for prevention and therapy of cardiac disorders associated with fibrosis. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Fibrosis is not just fibrosis - basement membrane modelling and collagen metabolism differs between hepatitis B- and C-induced injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M J; Karsdal, Morten A; Kazankov, K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While morphological patterns differ, the molecular phenotype of liver fibrosis is considered a stereotypical response to chronic liver injury. However, with different cellular triggers and networks regulating fibrosis, the molecular responses of the injured liver may not be identical...

  2. Uso de vitamina C en la solución tumescente de liposucción como inductor de lipolisis y fibrosis: Trabajo experimental Use of vitamine C in liposuction tumescent solution as lipolisis and fibrosis inductor: Experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Antoniadis Petrakis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La Liposucción no permite siempre extraer todo el tejido adiposo causante de la lipodistrofia, por lo cual se plantea la necesidad de perfeccionar esta técnica. Nuestro objetivo es el demostrar que el uso de la vitamina C en la solución tumescente induce lipólisis y aumenta la fibrosis. El presente es un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, experimental y comparativo de una muestra de 30 ratas Sprague-Dawley de ambos sexos, a las cuales se les infiltró solución tumescente en el tejido subdérmico de la región inguinal, con vitamina C al grupo experimental y con solución tumescente sin vitamina C al grupo control, para su posterior estudio histológico macroscópico y microscópico. El 100% de las muestras con vitamina C evidenciaron cambios a nivel del tejido adiposo sugerentes de lipólisis y en el 82% se evidenciaron cambios en el tejido conectivo sugerentes de formación de colágeno joven. Concluimos que la vitamina C favorece la lipolisis y promueve la síntesis de colágeno cuando se utiliza como parte de la solución tumescente en animales de experimentaciónLiposuction does not always let to remove all the amount of adipose tissue which causes lipodistrophy, for that reason, it is recommended the necessity to improve that technique. We try to demonstrate that the use of vitamin C in the tumescence solution induces lipolysis and raises fibrosis. This article is a descriptive, prospective, experimental and comparative research of a sample of 30 mice of Sprague- Dawley type of both sexes, which were infiltrated with a tumescence solution in the subdermic inguinal region with vitamin C to the experimental group and with tumescence solution without vitamin C to the control group, for a further histological macroscopic as well as microscopic study. The results showed that 100% of the samples with vitamin C presented changes in the adipose tissue which suggested lipolysis, whereas 82% were evidence for the formation of young collagen. As a

  3. Protective roles of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhui; Shi, Yingying; He, Lian; Hao, Hairong; Wang, Baolan; Zheng, Yulong; Hu, Chengping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the protective effects of polysaccharides from (PGL) Ganoderma lucidum on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Our study demonstrated that treatment with PGL of 100-300mg/kg for 28 days led to significant reduction in the pulmonary index, inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, which was associated with increased levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase and decreased contents of malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline in the lung. These results indicated that PGL played a positive protective role in the pulmonary fibrosis and its possible mechanism was to improve lung antioxidant ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced lung injury in animals and its applicability to human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, James D; Sadofsky, Laura R; Hart, Simon P

    2015-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease of unknown etiology, for which there is no curative pharmacological therapy. Bleomycin, an anti-neoplastic agent that causes lung fibrosis in human patients has been used extensively in rodent models to mimic IPF. In this review, we compare the pathogenesis and histological features of human IPF and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (BPF) induced in rodents by intratracheal delivery. We discuss the current understanding of IPF and BPF disease development, from the contribution of alveolar epithelial cells and inflammation to the role of fibroblasts and cytokines, and draw conclusions about what we have learned from the intratracheal bleomycin model of lung fibrosis.

  5. The secretome of induced pluripotent stem cells reduces lung fibrosis in part by hepatocyte growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdhar, Amiq; Grad, Iwona; Tamò, Luca; Gugger, Mathias; Feki, Anis; Geiser, Thomas

    2014-11-10

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and irreversible fibrotic lung disease, resulting in respiratory insufficiency and reduced survival. Pulmonary fibrosis is a result of repeated alveolar epithelial microinjuries, followed by abnormal regeneration and repair processes in the lung. Recently, stem cells and their secretome have been investigated as a novel therapeutic approach in pulmonary fibrosis. We evaluated the potential of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) conditioned media (iPSC-cm) to regenerate and repair the alveolar epithelium in vitro and improve bleomycin induced lung injury in vivo. IPSC-cm was collected from cultured iPSC derived from human foreskin fibroblasts and its biological effects on alveolar epithelial wound repair was studied in an alveolar wound healing assay in vitro. Furthermore, iPSC-cm was intratracheally instilled 7 days after bleomycin induced injury in the rat lungs and histologically and biochemically assessed 7 days after instillation. iPSC-cm increased alveolar epithelial wound repair in vitro compared with medium control. Intratracheal instillation of iPSC-cm in bleomycin-injured lungs reduced the collagen content and improved lung fibrosis in the rat lung in vivo. Profibrotic TGFbeta1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-sma) expression were markedly reduced in the iPSC-cm treated group compared with control. Antifibrotic hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was detected in iPSC-cm in biologically relevant levels, and specific inhibition of HGF in iPSC-cm attenuated the antifibrotic effect of iPSC-cm, indicating a central role of HGF in iPSC-cm. iPSC-cm increased alveolar epithelial wound repair in vitro and attenuated bleomycin induced fibrosis in vivo, partially due to the presence of HGF and may represent a promising novel, cell free therapeutic option against lung injury and fibrosis.

  6. Protective Role of Andrographolide in Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a chronic devastating disease with poor prognosis. Multiple pathological processes, including inflammation, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT, apoptosis, and oxidative stress, are involved in the pathogenesis of IPF. Recent findings suggested that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is constitutively activated in IPF and acts as a central regulator in the pathogenesis of IPF. The aim of our study was to reveal the value of andrographolide on bleomycin-induced inflammation and fibrosis in mice. The indicated dosages of andrographolide were administered in mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. On day 21, cell counts of total cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes, alone with TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were measured. HE staining and Masson’s trichrome (MT staining were used to observe the histological alterations of lungs. The Ashcroft score and hydroxyproline content of lungs were also measured. TGF-β1 and α-SMA mRNA and protein were analyzed. Activation of NF-κB was determined by western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. On day 21 after bleomycin stimulation, andrographolide dose-dependently inhibited the inflammatory cells and TNF-α in BALF. Meanwhile, our data demonstrated that the Ashcroft score and hydroxyproline content of the bleomycin-stimulated lung were reduced by andrographolide administration. Furthermore, andrographloide suppressed TGF-β1 and α-SMA mRNA and protein expression in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Meanwhile, andrographolide significantly dose-dependently inhibited the ratio of phospho-NF-κB p65/total NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p65 DNA binding activities. Our findings indicate that andrographolide compromised bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis possibly through inactivation of NF-κB. Andrographolide holds promise as a novel drug to treat the devastating disease of pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. Antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory activity of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib in experimental models of lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, Lutz; Maillet, Isabelle; Quesniaux, Valérie; Holweg, Alexander; Ryffel, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib (BIBF 1120) is in clinical development for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To explore its mode of action, nintedanib was tested in human lung fibroblasts and mouse models of lung fibrosis. Human lung fibroblasts expressing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-α and -β were stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor BB (homodimer) (PDGF-BB). Receptor activation was assessed by autophosphorylation and cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-induced fibroblast to myofibroblast transformation was determined by α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) mRNA analysis. Lung fibrosis was induced in mice by intratracheal bleomycin or silica particle administration. Nintedanib was administered every day by gavage at 30, 60, or 100 mg/kg. Preventive nintedanib treatment regimen started on the day that bleomycin was administered. Therapeutic treatment regimen started at various times after the induction of lung fibrosis. Bleomycin caused increased macrophages and lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and elevated interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and collagen in lung tissue. Histology revealed chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Silica-induced lung pathology additionally showed elevated BAL neutrophils, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) levels, and granuloma formation. Nintedanib inhibited PDGF receptor activation, fibroblast proliferation, and fibroblast to myofibroblast transformation. Nintedanib significantly reduced BAL lymphocytes and neutrophils but not macrophages. Furthermore, interleukin-1β, KC, TIMP-1, and lung collagen were significantly reduced. Histologic analysis showed significantly diminished lung inflammation, granuloma formation, and fibrosis. The therapeutic effect was dependent on treatment start and duration. Nintedanib inhibited receptor tyrosine kinase activation and the proliferation and

  8. Simvastatin alleviates cardiac fibrosis induced by infarction via up-regulation of TGF-β receptor III expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Duan, Wenqi; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Lingling; Qile, Muge; Liu, Zengyan; Qiu, Fang; Zhao, Dan; Lu, Yanjie; Chu, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Statins decrease heart disease risk, but their mechanisms are not completely understood. We examined the role of the TGF-β receptor III (TGFBR3) in the inhibition of cardiac fibrosis by simvastatin. Experimental Approach Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice given simvastatin orally for 7 days. Cardiac fibrosis was measured by Masson staining and electron microscopy. Heart function was evaluated by echocardiography. Signalling through TGFBR3, ERK1/2, JNK and p38 pathways was measured using Western blotting. Collagen content and cell viability were measured in cultures of neonatal mouse cardiac fibroblasts (NMCFs). Interactions between TGFBR3 and the scaffolding protein, GAIP-interacting protein C-terminus (GIPC) were detected using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP). In vivo, hearts were injected with lentivirus carrying shRNA for TGFBR3. Key Results Simvastatin prevented fibrosis following MI, improved heart ultrastructure and function, up-regulated TGFBR3 and decreased ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation. Simvastatin up-regulated TGFBR3 in NMCFs, whereas silencing TGFBR3 reversed inhibitory effects of simvastatin on cell proliferation and collagen production. Simvastatin inhibited ERK1/2 and JNK signalling while silencing TGFBR3 opposed this effect. Co-IP demonstrated TGFBR3 binding to GIPC. Overexpressing TGFBR3 inhibited ERK1/2 and JNK signalling which was abolished by knock-down of GIPC. In vivo, suppression of cardiac TGFBR3 abolished anti-fibrotic effects, improvement of cardiac function and changes in related proteins after simvastatin. Conclusions and Implications TGFBR3 mediated the decreased cardiac fibrosis, collagen deposition and fibroblast activity, induced by simvastatin, following MI. These effects involved GIPC inhibition of the ERK1/2/JNK pathway. PMID:25884615

  9. Calcitonin gene-related peptide down-regulates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Li, Xian-Wei; Li, Xiao-Hui; Du, Jie; Li, Dai; Li, Yuan-Jian; Hu, Chang-Ping

    2016-12-01

    We have found that eIF3a plays an important role in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and up-regulation of eIF3a induced by TGF-β1 is mediated via the ERK1/2 pathway. Whether ERK1/2 - eIF3a signal pathway is involved in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-mediated pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis remains unknown. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (5 mg/kg) in rats. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts were cultured to investigate the proliferation by BrdU incorporation method and flow cytometry. Sensory CGRP depletion by capsaicin exacerbated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, as shown by a significant disturbed alveolar structure, marked thickening of the interalveolar septa and dense interstitial infiltration by inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, accompanied with increased expression of TGF-β1, eIF3a, phosphorylated ERK1/2, α-SMA, collagen I, and collagen III. Exogenous application of CGRP significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced proliferation and differentiation of pulmonary fibroblasts concomitantly with decreased expression of eIF3a, phosphorylated ERK1/2, α-SMA, collagen I, and collagen III. These effects of CGRP were abolished in the presence of CGRP 8-37 . These results suggest that endogenous CGRP is related to the development of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin, and the inhibitory effect of CGRP on proliferation of lung fibroblasts involves the ERK1/2 - eIF3a signaling pathway.

  10. Inhibitory effect of Newcastle disease virus on hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4

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    Ya-lin LI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the inhibitory effect of Newcastle diseases virus (NDV on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Methods Liver fibrosis model was reproduced in 30 Kunming mice by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4/peanut oil solution for 2 times a week, and the total treatment lasted for 8 weeks. Three days after last injection, NDV was injected through tail vein for 1 or 3 times (24h intervals. Twenty-four hours after NDV infusion, mice were sacrificed and the livers were removed for gross morphology observation. The liver tissue sections were stained by HE and Sirius red dyeing. α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression was detected by Western blotting. Results After CCl4 induction for 8 weeks, obvious fibrosis symptoms appeared in the liver of model mice, and the surface of liver tissue became hard with rough, with white patches on it. HE staining showed that there was loosening of tissue and enlarged perisinusoidal spaces in liver with fibrosis. Sirius red dyeing displayed abnormal collagen deposition in the fibrotic liver tissues. After NDV injection for 3 times, white spots on the surface of mouse liver were significantly reduced, and collagen deposition was lowered. Western blotting showed that α-SMA levels decreased with increasing frequency of NDV injection. Conclusion NDV may effectively suppress the development of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.11.003

  11. Glaucocalyxin A improves survival in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

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    Yang, Fei; Cao, Yiren; Zhang, Jian; You, Tao; Zhu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease with unclear etiology and poor prognosis. Despite numerous studies on the pathogenesis of IPF, only scant treatment options are available for the management of IPF. Glaucocalyxin A (GLA), an ent-Kaurane diterpenoid, has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic and anti-platelet activities. In this study, we evaluated the role of GLA as an anti-fibrotic agent in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice and investigated the underlying mechanisms by which GLA attenuates lung fibrosis. Intraperitoneal administration of GLA (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced collagen deposition and hydroxyproline content in mouse lungs treated with bleomycin. Importantly, GLA significantly improved survival in bleomycin treated mice. In addition, GLA reduced weight loss in mice that reflects cachexia due to pulmonary fibrosis. Mechanistically, GLA alleviated the infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils in lungs, attenuated the increases of proinflammatory cytokines in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and inhibited the activation of NF-κB in fibrotic lungs induced by bleomycin. These results provide evidence that GLA can effectively ameliorate pulmonary fibrosis through the antagonism of leukocyte infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine production, suggesting that it may become a potential anti-fibrotic agent in IPF management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice.

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    Li, X X; Jiang, D Y; Huang, X X; Guo, S L; Yuan, W; Dai, H P

    2015-12-21

    The specific role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis of mice, a model of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has not been characterized. We injected bleomycin intratracheally into TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. Twenty-one days after injection, mice were sacrificed and their lungs were harvested for pathological, hydroxyproline, mRNA expression, and collagen I analyses. Body weight changes and mortality were observed. Light microscopy showed that lung fibrosis was minimal in TLR4(-/-) compared to that in WT mice on day 21 after bleomycin instillation. The Ashcroft score was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice (3.667 ± 0.730 vs 4.945 ± 0.880, P bleomycin injection (0.281 ± 0.022 vs 0.371 ± 0.047, P bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice expressed significantly lower type I collagen mRNA levels (mesenchymal marker; 11.069 ± 2.627 vs 4.589 ± 1.440, P Bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice had a significantly lower mortality rate on day 21 than WT mice (33 vs 75%, P 0.05). Thus, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is TLR4-dependent and TLR4 promoted fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice.

  13. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells depletion may attenuate the development of silica-induced lung fibrosis in mice.

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    Fangwei Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Silicosis is an occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of silica dust characterized by lung inflammation and fibrosis. Previous study showed that Th1 and Th2 cytokines are involved in silicosis, but Th1/Th2 polarization during the development of silicosis is still a matter of debate. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells represent a crucial role in modulation of immune homeostasis by regulating Th1/Th2 polarization, but their possible implication in silicosis remains to be explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the implication of Treg cells in the development of silicosis, we generated the Treg-depleted mice model by administration of anti-CD25 mAbs and mice were exposed to silica by intratracheal instillation to establish experimental model of silica-induced lung fibrosis. The pathologic examinations show that the Treg-depleted mice are susceptive to severer inflammation in the early stage, with enhanced infiltration of inflammatory cells. Also, depletion of Treg cells causes a delay of the progress of silica-induced lung fibrosis in mice model. Further study of mRNA expression of cytokines reveals that depletion of Tregs leads to the increased production of Th1-cytokines and decreased production of Th2-cytokine. The Flow Cytometry and realtime PCR study show that Treg cells exert the modulation function both directly by expressing CTLA-4 at the inflammatory stage, and indirectly by secreting increasing amount of IL-10 and TGF-β during the fibrotic stage in silica-induced lung fibrosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that depletion of Tregs may attenuate the progress of silica-induced lung fibrosis and enhance Th1 response and decelerate Th1/Th2 balance toward a Th2 phenotype in silica-induced lung fibrosis. The regulatory function of Treg cells may depend on direct mechanism and indirect mechanism during the inflammatory stage of silicosis.

  14. Prevention of Pulmonary Fibrosis via Trichostatin A (TSA) in Bleomycin Induced Rats.

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    Ye, Qing; Li, Yanqin; Jiang, Handong; Xiong, Jianfei; Xu, Jiabo; Qin, Hui; Liu, Bin

    2014-10-20

    To investigate the effects of non selective histone deacetylase inhibitors Trichostatin A (TSA)on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. To investigate the effects of non selective histone deacetylase inhibitors Trichostatin A ( TSA ) on HDAC2, p-SMAD2, HDAC2 mRNA, SMAD2mRNA in pulmonary fibrosis rats and investigate impossible mechanism. 46 SPF level male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: ten for normal control group, fourteen for model control group I, twelve for model control group II and ten for treatment group. Rat pulmonary fibrosis was induced by bleomycin(5mg/kg) via single intratracheal perfusion in the two model control groups and treatment group. Normal control mice were instilled with a corresponding volume of 0.9% saline intratracheally. Treatment group was treated by the dilution of TSA 2mg/kg DMSO 60ul and0.9% saline 1.2ml intraperitoneal injection from the next day ,once a day for three days. Model control group II was treated by the dilution of DMSO 60ul and0.9% saline 1.2ml intraperitoneal injection from the next day once a day for three days. Model control group I and normal control group were treated by 0.9% saline 1.2ml intraperitoneal injection from the next day once a day for three days. All the animals were sacrificed on the 21 day after modeling. The pathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE)stain and masson trichrome stain. The expression of HDAC2 mRNA,SMAD2 mRNA were measured by real-time PCR. The protein level of HDAC2 and p-SMAD2 in serum was measured by Western blot. The pulmonary fibrosis in treatment group were significantly alleviated compared to the two model control groups (P0.05). Western blot indicated that the protein level of HDAC2 and p-SMAD2 in serum increased in the two model control groups compared with normal control group(P0.05). Non selective histone deacetylase inhibitors of Trichostatin A (TSA) can reduce the bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. TSA attenuates pulmonary

  15. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice

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    Lifang Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local renin-angiotensin system (RAS activation has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. It has been reported that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 could inhibit RAS-mediated epithelial injury and fibrogenesis and that ACE2 deficiency could aggravate acute and chronic lung injury. Through research, it could be deduced that ACE2 could protect against pulmonary fibrosis as a therapeutic target. Methods: Time-course analysis of the pathological characteristics of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis was undertaken in a mouse model, and the effect of exogenous ACE2 on lung fibrosis was studied. Immunohistchemistry (IHC staining and western blot (WB testing for AGT and ACE2 were performed to evaluate the regulation of local RAS. TUNEL staining was used to observe epithelial apoptosis. Leukocyte common antigen (LCA and pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A IHC staining and WB testing were performed to assess the inflammatory response and epithelial regeneration. Masson's staining and a hydroxyproline assay were performed to examine collagen deposition. IHC staining and WB testing for TGF-β1 and α-SMA were performed to investigate the regulation of pro-fibrotic cytokines and the activation of fibroblasts. Results: Exogenous ACE2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by reversing the reduction of local ACE2 and by suppressing the elevation of AGT. ACE2 decreased the apoptosis index and LCA levels and ameliorated the dynamic change in SP-A level, thus protecting against epithelial injury. Reductions of TGF-β1 and α-SMA were also found in ACE2-treated mice, indicating the inhibition of fibrogenesis. Conclusion: ACE2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis as an anti-inflammatory anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic agent, and it might be a promising therapeutic target for IPF.

  16. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifang; Wang, Yuxiang; Yang, Tuo; Guo, Yanfei; Sun, Tieying

    2015-01-01

    Local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). It has been reported that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) could inhibit RAS-mediated epithelial injury and fibrogenesis and that ACE2 deficiency could aggravate acute and chronic lung injury. Through research, it could be deduced that ACE2 could protect against pulmonary fibrosis as a therapeutic target. Time-course analysis of the pathological characteristics of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis was undertaken in a mouse model, and the effect of exogenous ACE2 on lung fibrosis was studied. Immunohistchemistry (IHC) staining and western blot (WB) testing for AGT and ACE2 were performed to evaluate the regulation of local RAS. TUNEL staining was used to observe epithelial apoptosis. Leukocyte common antigen (LCA) and pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) IHC staining and WB testing were performed to assess the inflammatory response and epithelial regeneration. Masson's staining and a hydroxyproline assay were performed to examine collagen deposition. IHC staining and WB testing for TGF-β1 and α-SMA were performed to investigate the regulation of pro-fibrotic cytokines and the activation of fibroblasts. Exogenous ACE2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by reversing the reduction of local ACE2 and by suppressing the elevation of AGT. ACE2 decreased the apoptosis index and LCA levels and ameliorated the dynamic change in SP-A level, thus protecting against epithelial injury. Reductions of TGF-β1 and α-SMA were also found in ACE2-treated mice, indicating the inhibition of fibrogenesis. ACE2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis as an anti-inflammatory anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic agent, and it might be a promising therapeutic target for IPF. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Treatment of Intestinal Fibrosis in Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease by the Pleiotropic Actions of a Local Rho Kinase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Tom; Devriese, Sarah; Castermans, Karolien; Boland, Sandro; Leysen, Dirk; Vandewynckel, Yves-Paul; Devisscher, Lindsey; Van den Bossche, Lien; Van Welden, Sophie; Dullaers, Melissa; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; De Rycke, Riet; Geboes, Karel; Bourin, Arnaud; Defert, Olivier; Hindryckx, Pieter; De Vos, Martine; Laukens, Debby

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal fibrosis resulting in (sub)obstruction is a common complication of Crohn's disease (CD). Rho kinases (ROCKs) play multiple roles in TGFβ-induced myofibroblast activation that could be therapeutic targets. Because systemic ROCK inhibition causes cardiovascular side effects, we evaluated the effects of a locally acting ROCK inhibitor (AMA0825) on intestinal fibrosis. Fibrosis was assessed in mouse models using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and adoptive T-cell transfer. The in vitro and ex vivo effects of AMA0825 were studied in different cell types and in CD biopsy cultures. ROCK is expressed in fibroblastic, epithelial, endothelial, and muscle cells of the human intestinal tract and is activated in inflamed and fibrotic tissue. Prophylactic treatment with AMA0825 inhibited myofibroblast accumulation, expression of pro-fibrotic factors, and accumulation of fibrotic tissue without affecting clinical disease activity and histologic inflammation in 2 models of fibrosis. ROCK inhibition reversed established fibrosis in a chronic DSS model and impeded ex vivo pro-fibrotic protein secretion from stenotic CD biopsies. AMA0825 reduced TGFβ1-induced activation of myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), down-regulating matrix metalloproteinases, collagen, and IL6 secretion from fibroblasts. In these cells, ROCK inhibition potentiated autophagy, which was required for the observed reduction in collagen and IL6 production. AMA0825 did not affect pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from other ROCK-positive cell types, corroborating the selective in vivo effect on fibrosis. Local ROCK inhibition prevents and reverses intestinal fibrosis by diminishing MRTF and p38 MAPK activation and increasing autophagy in fibroblasts. Overall, our results show that local ROCK inhibition is promising for counteracting fibrosis as an add-on therapy for CD. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Lung-specific loss of α3 laminin worsens bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Morales-Nebreda, Luisa I; Rogel, Micah R; Eisenberg, Jessica L; Hamill, Kevin J; Soberanes, Saul; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Chi, Monica; Cho, Takugo; Radigan, Kathryn A; Ridge, Karen M; Misharin, Alexander V; Woychek, Alex; Hopkinson, Susan; Perlman, Harris; Mutlu, Gokhan M; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Jones, Jonathan C R; Budinger, G R Scott

    2015-04-01

    Laminins are heterotrimeric proteins that are secreted by the alveolar epithelium into the basement membrane, and their expression is altered in extracellular matrices from patients with pulmonary fibrosis. In a small number of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, we found that the normal basement membrane distribution of the α3 laminin subunit was lost in fibrotic regions of the lung. To determine if these changes play a causal role in the development of fibrosis, we generated mice lacking the α3 laminin subunit specifically in the lung epithelium by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the surfactant protein C promoter (SPC-Cre) with mice expressing floxed alleles encoding the α3 laminin gene (Lama3(fl/fl)). These mice exhibited no developmental abnormalities in the lungs up to 6 months of age, but, compared with control mice, had worsened mortality, increased inflammation, and increased fibrosis after the intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Similarly, the severity of fibrosis induced by an adenovirus encoding an active form of transforming growth factor-β was worse in mice deficient in α3 laminin in the lung. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of α3 laminin in the lung epithelium does not affect lung development, but plays a causal role in the development of fibrosis in response to bleomycin or adenovirally delivered transforming growth factor-β. Thus, we speculate that the loss of the normal basement membrane organization of α3 laminin that we observe in fibrotic regions from the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis contributes to their disease progression.

  19. Non-invasive index of liver fibrosis induced by alcohol, thioacetamide and schistosomal infection in mice

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    El-Beltagy Doha M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non invasive approaches will likely be increasing utilized to assess liver fibrosis. This work provides a new non invasive index to predict liver fibrosis induced in mice. Methods Fibrosis was generated by thioacetamide (TAA, chronic intake of ethanol, or infection with S. mansoni in 240 mice. Both progression and regression of fibrosis (after treatment with silymarin and/or praziquantel were monitored. The following methods were employed: (i The METAVIR system was utilized to grade and stage liver inflammation and fibosis; (ii Determination of hepatic hydroxyproline and collagen; and (iii Derivation of a new hepatic fibrosis index from the induced changes, and its prospective validation in a group of 70 mice. Results The index is composed of 4 serum variable including total proteins, γ-GT, bilirubin and reduced glutathione (GSH, measured in diseased, treated and normal mice. These parameters were highly correlated with both the histological stage and the grade. They were combined in a logarithmic formula, which non-invasively scores the severity of liver fibrosis through a range (0 to 2, starting with healthy liver (corresponding to stage 0 to advanced fibrosis (corresponding stage 3.Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC for the accuracy of the index to predict the histological stages demonstrated that the areas under the curve (AUC were 0.954, 0.979 and 0.99 for index values corresponding to histological stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Also, the index was correlated with stage and grade, (0.947 and 0.859, respectively. The cut off values that cover the range between stages 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 are 0.4, 1.12 and 1.79, respectively. The results in the validation group confirmed the accuracy of the test. The AUROC was 0.869 and there was good correlation with the stage of fibrosis and grade of inflammation. Conclusion The index fulfils the basic criteria of non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis since it is liver

  20. IL-17A deficiency mitigates bleomycin-induced complement activation during lung fibrosis.

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    Cipolla, Ellyse; Fisher, Amanda J; Gu, Hongmei; Mickler, Elizabeth A; Agarwal, Manisha; Wilke, Carol A; Kim, Kevin K; Moore, Bethany B; Vittal, Ragini

    2017-12-01

    Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and complement (C') activation have each been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have reported that IL-17A induces epithelial injury via TGF-β in murine bronchiolitis obliterans; that TGF-β and the C' cascade present signaling interactions in mediating epithelial injury; and that the blockade of C' receptors mitigates lung fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of IL-17A in regulating C' in lung fibrosis. Microarray analyses of mRNA isolated from primary normal human small airway epithelial cells indicated that IL-17A (100 ng/ml; 24 h; n = 5 donor lungs) induces C' components (C' factor B, C3 , and GPCR kinase isoform 5), cytokines ( IL8 , -6 , and -1B ), and cytokine ligands ( CXCL1 , -2 , -3 , -5 , -6 , and -16 ). IL-17A induces protein and mRNA regulation of C' components and the synthesis of active C' 3a (C3a) in normal primary human alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECs). Wild-type mice subjected to IL-17A neutralization and IL-17A knockout ( il17a -/- ) mice were protected against bleomycin (BLEO)-induced fibrosis and collagen deposition. Further, BLEO-injured il17a -/- mice had diminished levels of circulating Krebs Von Den Lungen 6 (alveolar epithelial injury marker), local caspase-3/7, and local endoplasmic reticular stress-related genes. BLEO-induced local C' activation [C3a, C5a, and terminal C' complex (C5b-9)] was attenuated in il17a -/- mice, and IL-17A neutralization prevented the loss of epithelial C' inhibitors (C' receptor-1 related isoform Y and decay accelerating factor), and an increase in local TUNEL levels. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of il17a in fibrotic mice arrested the progression of lung fibrosis, attenuated cellular apoptosis (caspase-3/7) and lung deposition of collagen and C' (C5b-9). Compared to normals, plasma from IPF patients showed significantly higher hemolytic activity. Our findings demonstrate that limiting complement activation by

  1. Genotype tunes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissue tension to induce matricellular fibrosis and tumor progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laklai, Hanane; Miroshnikova, Yekaterina A.; Pickup, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    by increasing matricellular fibrosis and tissue tension. In contrast, epithelial STAT3 ablation attenuated tumor progression by reducing the stromal stiffening and epithelial contractility induced by loss of TGF-β signaling. In PDAC patient biopsies, higher matricellular protein and activated STAT3 were......Fibrosis compromises pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDAC) treatment and contributes to patient mortality, yet antistromal therapies are controversial. We found that human PDACs with impaired epithelial transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling have high epithelial STAT3 activity and develop...... stiff, matricellular-enriched fibrosis associated with high epithelial tension and shorter patient survival. In several KRAS-driven mouse models, both the loss of TGF-β signaling and elevated β1-integrin mechanosignaling engaged a positive feedback loop whereby STAT3 signaling promotes tumor progression...

  2. Pioglitazone Alleviates Cardiac Fibrosis and Inhibits Endothelial to Mesenchymal Transition Induced by Pressure Overload

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    Wen-Ying Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cardiac fibrosis, characterized by an unbalanced production and degradation of extracellular matrix components, is a common pathophysiology of multiple cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies suggested that endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT could be a source of activated fibroblasts and contribute to cardiac fibrosis. Here, the role of pioglitazone (PIO in cardiac fibrosis and EndMT was elaborated. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to aortic banding (AB, which was used to construct a model of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. PIO and GW9662 was given for 4 weeks to detect the effects of PIO on EndMT. Results: Our results showed PIO treatment attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, dysfunction and fibrosis response to pressure overload. Mechanistically, PIO suppressed the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway activated by 4-week AB surgery. Moreover, PIO dramatically inhibited EndMT in vivo and in vitro stimulated by pressure overload or TGF-β. A selective antagonist of PPAR-γ, GW9662, neutralized the anti-fibrotic effect and abolished the inhibitory effect of EndMT during the treatment of PIO. Conclusion: Our data implied that PIO exerts an alleviative effect on cardiac fibrosis via inhibition of the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway and EndMT by activating PPAR-γ.

  3. Highly Selective Endothelin-1 Receptor A Inhibition Prevents Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitsopoulos, Nikolaos; Nikitopoulou, Ioanna; Maniatis, Nikolaos A; Magkou, Christina; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Orfanos, Stylianos E

    2017-11-09

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic disease, which progressively leads to respiratory failure and ultimately death. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a vasoconstrictor secreted by endothelial cells, promotes vasoconstriction by activation of its receptors A and B. We addressed the role of highly selective ET-1 receptor A (ETA) inhibition in the pathogenesis of experimental pulmonary fibrosis by bleomycin (BLM). BLM sulfate (2 U/mL) or saline was intratracheally administered to C57/Bl6 mice (4 groups; n = 5-11/group). Pretreatment with the highly selective ETA receptor inhibitor sitaxentan (15 mg/kg/day) was started 1 day prior to BLM injection and continued for the duration of the experiment. Lung mechanics were assessed prior to sacrifice at days 7, 14, and 21 after BLM, followed by procurement of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, and lung tissue samples. Time-dependent effects of BLM exposure included decreased static compliance and increased lung elastance, airspace inflammation and microvascular permeability, histological acute lung injury and fibrosis, and lung collagen deposition. Pretreatment with highly selective ETA receptor inhibitor had no adverse effect on control mice but improved lung mechanics and lung injury score in addition to decreasing BALF pleocytosis, protein content, and collagen deposition in BLM-treated mice. Mortality from BLM reached 40% and occurred primarily during the inflammatory stage of the model but was abrogated by sitaxentan pretreatment. We conclude that in our BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis model, prophylactic highly selective ETA inhibition improves survival, preserves lung function, attenuates lung injury, and reduces collagen deposition. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Suppression of von Hippel-Lindau Protein in Fibroblasts Protects against Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

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    Zhou, Qiyuan; Chen, Tianji; Zhang, Wei; Bozkanat, Melike; Li, Yongchao; Xiao, Lei; van Breemen, Richard B; Christman, John W; Sznajder, Jacob I; Zhou, Guofei

    2016-05-01

    We have reported that von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) expression is elevated in human and mouse fibrotic lungs and that overexpression of pVHL stimulates fibroblast proliferation. We sought to determine whether loss of pVHL in fibroblasts prevents injury and fibrosis in mice that are treated with bleomycin. We generated heterozygous fibroblast-specific pVHL (Fsp-VHL) knockdown mice (Fsp-VHL(+/-)) and homozygous Fsp-VHL knockout mice (Fsp-VHL(-/-)) by crossbreeding vhlh 2-lox mice (VHL(fl/fl)) with Fsp-Cre recombinase mice. Our data show that Fsp-VHL(-/-) mice, but not Fsp-VHL(+/-) mice, have elevated red blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin content, and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) targets, indicating HIF activation. To examine the role of pVHL in bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis in vivo, we administered PBS or bleomycin to age-, sex-, and strain-matched 8-week-old VHL(fl/fl), Fsp-VHL(+/-), and Fsp-VHL(-/-) mice. In Fsp-VHL(+/-) and Fsp-VHL(-/-) mice, bleomycin-induced collagen accumulation, fibroblast proliferation, differentiation, and matrix protein dysregulation were markedly attenuated. Suppression of pVHL also decreased bleomycin-induced Wnt signaling and prostaglandin E2 signaling but did not affect bleomycin-induced initial acute lung injury and lung inflammation. These results indicate that pVHL has a pivotal role in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, possibly via an HIF-independent pathway. Paradoxically, pVHL does not affect bleomycin-induced lung injury and inflammation, indicating a separation of the mechanisms involved in injury/inflammation from those involved in pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Study of the therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus and α-lipoic acid against dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairy M.A. Zoheir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus (LB and α-lipoic acid (ALA were investigated to compare their protective effects against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Animals were either injected intraperitoneally with DMN to induce hepatic fibrosis, or were left untreated (negative control. For the DMN + LB and DMN + ALA treatment groups, at two weeks of DMN treatment LB or ALA was added to the feed and supplementation continued until the experimental endpoint at sixty days. At the study endpoint, expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, COL1-α1 genes and the concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde were measured in liver tissues, while GOT, GPT, and ALP concentrations were measured in blood. Body weights remained higher in NC and DMN + LB groups compared to DMN and DMN + ALA groups, while activity of GOT and GPT in serum was lower in DMN + LB and DMN + ALA groups compared to the DMN group. Compared to other treatment groups, in the DMN group expression of both TGF-β1 and, COL1-α1 mRNAs and pro-inflammatory cytokines increased, while that of 1L-10 decreased. Furthermore, LB and ALA treatments increased antioxidant activity of glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde in comparison to the DMN group. Between LB and ALA treatments, glutathione concentration was higher in the DMN + LB group, while malondialdehyde was lower. Our results indicate that both LB and ALA exert hepatoprotective effects against DMN-induced liver fibrosis. Their beneficial effects may be partly associated with down-regulation of both TGF-β1 and COL1-α1 signaling, which may be accounted for reduction of increased oxidative stress and TNF-α production.

  6. Pirfenidone attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by regulating Nrf2/Bach1 equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Lu, Fuai; Kang, Lirong; Wang, Zhihua; Wang, Yongfu

    2017-04-18

    Oxidative stress is one of the important factors involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The equilibrium of Nuclear factor-erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/[BTB (broad-complex, tramtrack and bric-a-brac) and CNC (cap'n'collar protein) homology 1, Bach1] determines the expression level of antioxidant factors, further regulating the function of oxidation/antioxidation capacity. Pirfenidone (PFD) is one of two currently for IPF therapy approved drugs. PFD regulates intracellular antioxidants, inhibits secretion of inflammatory cytokines and collagen synthesis. However the mechanisms of its antioxidant effects remain elusive. Effects of PFD treatment were studied in mouse lung fibroblasts (MLF) following induction by transforming-growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and in mice following bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The mRNA and protein levels of oxidative stress-related factors Nrf2/Bach1 and their downstream antioxidant factors heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Fibrosis-related cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and myofibroblast markers type 1 collagen α1 (COL1A1) levels in supernate of MLF, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and BALF were detected by ELISA, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by 2',7'- dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and lung pathological/morphological alterations in mice were observed by HE and Masson to assess the antioxidant mechanism and therapeutic effects on pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. PFD inhibited Bach1 mRNA and protein expressions in mouse lung fibroblasts induced by TGF-β1 and lung tissues with pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Furthermore, it improved Nrf2, Ho-1 and Gpx1 mRNA and protein expressions. After PFD treatment, COL1A1and IL-6 levels in supernate of MLF, serum, and BALF as well as ROS in lung tissues and MDA in serum and BALF from

  7. Changes in expression of cytokines in polyhexamethylene guanidine-induced lung fibrosis in mice: Comparison of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Jeon, Doin; Kim, Hyeon-Young; Lee, Kyuhong

    2018-01-15

    Inhalation of polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) causes irreversible pulmonary injury, such as pulmonary fibrosis. However, the mechanism underlying PHMG-induced lung injury is unclear. In this study, we compared the difference in time-dependent lung injury between PHMG- and bleomycin (BLM)-treated mice and determined cytokines involved in inducing lung injury by performing cytokine antibody array analysis. Mice were treated once with 1.8mg/kg BLM or 1.2mg/kg PHMG through intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed on days 7 and 28. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis showed that the number of neutrophils was significantly higher in PHMG-treated mice than in BLM-treated mice on day 7. Histopathological analysis showed inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis mainly in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli in the lungs of PHMG- and BLM-treated mice. However, continuous macrophage infiltration in the alveolar space and bronchioloalveolar epithelial hyperplasia (BEH) were only observed in PHMG-treated mice. Cytokine antibody array analysis showed that 15 and eight cytokines were upregulated in PHMG- and BLM-treated mice, respectively, on day 7. On day 28, 13 and five cytokines were upregulated in PHMG and BLM-treated mice, respectively. In addition, the expressed cytokines between days 7 and 28 in BLM-treated mice were clearly different, but were similar in PHMG-treated mice. Consequently, between PHMG- and BLM-treated mice, we observed differences in the expression patterns and types of cytokines. These differences are considered to be a result of the inflammatory processes induced by both substances, which may mainly involve macrophage infiltration. Therefore, continuous induction of the inflammatory response by PHMG may play an important role in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. TGF-beta-induced fibrosis and SMAD signaling: oligo decoys as natural therapeutics for inhibition of tissue fibrosis and scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    Transforming-growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a pleiotrophic growth factor that is synthesized by many cells in the body. This growth factor is chemotactic for fibroblasts, stimulates fibroblast proliferation, and increases the synthesis of a number of extracellular matrix proteins including collagens. The TGF-beta activator protein is a transacting factor, which binds to the TGF-beta element in the distal promoter of the COL1A1 collagen gene and induces transcription of this gene. Although transient TGF-beta 1 activity participates in repair and regeneration of tissues, persistent TGF-beta 1 function affects excessive fibrosis and ultimately scarring of both skin and internal organs. Scarring of internal organ (e.g., liver and lung) results in a loss of function and ultimately death may occur. The central issue of this review is that phosphorothioate double-stranded decoys or other decoys decrease procollagen gene expression, procollagen synthesis, and collagen during fibrogenesis. The rationale is that the decoys containing the TGF-beta element or other gene transcription regulatory CIS-elements bind the transacting proteins preventing the latter from binding to the CIS-element in the 5'-flanking region of the natural gene resulting in transcription inhibition. We will, in part, focus on aspects involved in TGF-beta 1-induced fibrosis that occur during fibrogenesis and the use of the dsTGF-beta element containing oligodeoxynucleotide decoys to control excessive collagen synthesis, and deposition resulting from persistent TGF-beta. In our model of regulation of collagen synthesis, these double-stranded oligo decoys act as promoter competitors, binding to the activator protein either in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. The significance of the proposed studies is that these novel natural antifibrotics will mimic the effect of glucocorticoids on collagen synthesis during fibrogenesis without the unwanted side effects of these steroids. Based on our previous studies

  9. Preventive effect of halofuginone on concanavalin A-induced liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liang

    Full Text Available Halofuginone (HF is an active component of extracts derived from the plant alkaloid febrifugine and has shown therapeutic promise in animal models of fibrotic disease. Our main objectives were to clarify the suppressive effect of HF on concanavalin A (ConA-induced liver fibrosis. ConA injection into the tail vein caused a great increase in the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, while orally administration of HF significantly decreased the levels of the transaminases. In addition, the levels of hyaluronic acid (HA, procollagen III (PCIII and TGF-β1 in the serum and collagen I, α-SMA, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2 and Smad3 in the liver tissue were significantly lowered with the treatment of HF. Histological examination also demonstrated that HF significantly reduced the severity of liver fibrosis. Since ConA-induced liver fibrosis is caused by the repeated activation of T cells, immunomodulatory substances might be responsible for the suppressive effect of HF. We found that the production of nuclear factor (NF-kB in the serum was increased in ConA-treated group, while decreased significantly with the treatment of HF. The changes of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in the serum followed the same rhythm. All together, our findings indicate that orally administration HF (10ppm would attenuate the liver fibrosis by suppressing the synthesis of collagen I and inflammation-mediated liver injury.

  10. Essential role for the ATG4B protease and autophagy in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Sandra; Maciel, Mariana; Herrera, Iliana; Nava, Teresa; Vergara, Fabián; Gaxiola, Miguel; López-Otín, Carlos; Selman, Moisés; Pardo, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a critical cellular homeostatic process that controls the turnover of damaged organelles and proteins. Impaired autophagic activity is involved in a number of diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis suggesting that altered autophagy may contribute to fibrogenesis. However, the specific role of autophagy in lung fibrosis is still undefined. In this study, we show for the first time, how autophagy disruption contributes to bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in vivo using an Atg4b-deficient mouse as a model. Atg4b-deficient mice displayed a significantly higher inflammatory response at 7 d after bleomycin treatment associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration and significant alterations in proinflammatory cytokines. Likewise, we found that Atg4b disruption resulted in augmented apoptosis affecting predominantly alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells. At 28 d post-bleomycin instillation Atg4b-deficient mice exhibited more extensive and severe fibrosis with increased collagen accumulation and deregulated extracellular matrix-related gene expression. Together, our findings indicate that the ATG4B protease and autophagy play a crucial role protecting epithelial cells against bleomycin-induced stress and apoptosis, and in the regulation of the inflammatory and fibrotic responses. PMID:25906080

  11. The Effects of Silymarin in Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice

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    L. Safaeian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Silymarin, the active principle of Silybum marianum, has antifibrotic effects in hepatic fibrosis by several mechanisms. Since the pathogenesis of fibroproliferative diseases is similar, the effect of silymarin in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated in this study.Methods: Silymarin (50 mg/kg, i.p. was administered two days before the bleomycin instillation (3 U/kg and throughout the test interval in mice. After two weeks, lung tissues of mice were evaluated for fibrosis by biochemical measurement of collagen deposition and histological analysis of pathological lung changes. Data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett analysis. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Pretreatment with Silymarin significantly (P<0.05 prevented the increase in lung collagen content and also partially inhibited the histologic changes induced by bleomycin. The wet lung weight in silymarin group was similar to that of control group and significantly lower than bleomycin group (P<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that silymarin may prevent the collagen deposition and inflammation and may be protective in fibrogenic effects of bleomycin on lung.Keywords: Silymarin; Bleomycin; Pulmonary Fibrosis; Hydroxyproline.

  12. Prostaglandin D2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Inflammation and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

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    Taiki Kida

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disease with limited therapeutic options. Although it is well known that lipid mediator prostaglandins are involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether genetic disruption of hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS affects the bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in mouse. Compared with H-PGDS naïve (WT mice, H-PGDS-deficient mice (H-PGDS-/- represented increased collagen deposition in lungs 14 days after the bleomycin injection. The enhanced fibrotic response was accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 on day 3. H-PGDS deficiency also increased vascular permeability on day 3 and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in lungs on day 3 and 7. Immunostaining showed that the neutrophils and macrophages expressed H-PGDS, and its mRNA expression was increased on day 3and 7 in WT lungs. These observations suggest that H-PGDS-derived PGD2 plays a protective role in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis.

  13. Ultrastructural investigation of the protective effects of propolis on bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, G; Kismet, K; Kuru, S; Kaya, F; Senes, M; Bayrakceken, Y; Yumusak, N; Celikkan, F T; Erdemli, E; Celemli, O G; Sorkun, K; Koca, G

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of propolis on bleomycin induced lung fibrosis and compared these effects to prednisolone treatment. Forty rats were divided into four groups of ten: group 1 was treated with intratracheal infusion of 0.2 ml physiological saline followed by daily treatment with 0.5 ml physiological saline for 20 days. In the remaining groups (groups 2 - 4), 5 mg/kg bleomycin was given via the trachea. Rats in group 2 were given 0.5 ml physiological saline. Rats in group 3 were treated with 100 mg/kg propolis, and 10 mg/kg prednisolone was given to rats in group 4. The treatments for all groups were continued for 20 days. On postoperative day 21, blood and lung samples were taken for biochemistry, histopathology and electron microscopy evaluation. We compared oxidative stress parameters and found lower malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase levels, and higher total sulfhydryl levels and catalase activities for the bleomycin + propolis group than for the bleomycin and bleomycin + prednisolone groups. The highest mean fibrosis score was detected in the bleomycin group. Although the mean fibrosis scores of the bleomycin + propolis and bleomycin + prednisolone groups were not significantly different, electron microscopy revealed that propolis diminished bleomycin induced lung fibrosis more effectively than prednisolone. The effects of propolis might be due to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  14. Prostaglandin D2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Inflammation and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Taiki; Ayabe, Shinya; Omori, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Maehara, Toko; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Murata, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disease with limited therapeutic options. Although it is well known that lipid mediator prostaglandins are involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether genetic disruption of hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) affects the bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in mouse. Compared with H-PGDS naïve (WT) mice, H-PGDS-deficient mice (H-PGDS-/-) represented increased collagen deposition in lungs 14 days after the bleomycin injection. The enhanced fibrotic response was accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 on day 3. H-PGDS deficiency also increased vascular permeability on day 3 and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in lungs on day 3 and 7. Immunostaining showed that the neutrophils and macrophages expressed H-PGDS, and its mRNA expression was increased on day 3and 7 in WT lungs. These observations suggest that H-PGDS-derived PGD2 plays a protective role in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis.

  15. Silibinin attenuates radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis and reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong Sun; Han, Na-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Hae-June

    2017-09-19

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for cancer patients, but its use is often restricted by the tolerance of normal tissue. As cancer patients live longer, delayed radiation effects on normal tissue have become a concern. Radiation-induced enteropathy, including inflammatory bowel disease and fibrosis, are major issues for long-term cancer survivors. To investigate whether silibinin attenuates delayed radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice, we focused on intestinal fibrotic changes. Silibinin improved delayed radiation injuries in mice in association with decreased collagen deposition within the intestines and deceased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels in the intestine and plasma. Treating mice bearing CT26 mouse colon cancer tumors with both silibinin and radiation stimulated tumor regression more than radiation alone. We also investigated the effect of silibinin on the radiation-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the primary mechanism of fibrosis. We assessed changes in E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin expression, and demonstrated that silibinin attenuates radiation-induced EMT. Irradiating intestinal epithelial cells increased TGF-β1 levels, but silibinin suppressed TGF-β1 expression by inhibiting Smad2/3 phosphorylation. These results suggest silibinin has the potential to serve as a useful therapeutic agent in patients with radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis.

  16. The green tea extract epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOU, HUA; WEI, LI; SUN, WAN-LIANG; WANG, LEI; YANG, ZAI-LIANG; LIU, YUAN; ZHENG, KE; WANG, YING; ZHANG, WEI-JING

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea, on irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and elucidated its mechanism of action. A rat model of irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis was generated using a 60Co irradiator and a dose of 22 Gy. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with EGCG (25 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (DEX; 5 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. Mortality rates and lung index values were calculated. The severity of fibrosis was evaluated by assaying the hydroxyproline (Hyp) contents of pulmonary and lung tissue sections post-irradiation. Alveolitis and fibrosis scores were obtained from semi-quantitative analyses of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson’s trichrome lung section staining, respectively. The serum levels of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were also measured. Surfactant protein-B (SPB) and α-SMA expression patterns were evaluated using immunohistochemistry, and the protein levels of nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and its associated antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 enzyme (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) were examined via western blot analysis. Treatment with EGCG, but not DEX, reduced mortality rates and lung index scores, improved histological changes in the lung, reduced collagen depositions, reduced MDA content, enhanced SOD activity, inhibited (myo)fibroblast proliferation, protected alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells, and regulated serum levels of TGF-β1, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. Treatment with EGCG, but not DEX, activated Nrf-2 and its downstream antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO-1. Taken together, these results showed that EGCG treatment significantly inhibits irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, the results suggested promising clinical EGCG therapies to treat this disorder. PMID:24736877

  17. Pulmonary delivery of docosahexaenoic acid mitigates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary fibrosis is an untreatable, fatal disease characterized by excess deposition of extracellular matrix and inflammation. Although the etiology of pulmonary fibrosis is unknown, recent studies have implicated dysregulated immune responses and wound healing. Since n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may beneficially modulate immune responses in a variety of inflammatory disorders, we investigated the therapeutic role of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a single n-3 PUFA, in lung fibrosis. Methods Intratracheal DHA or PBS was administered to mouse lungs 4 days prior to intratracheal bleomycin treatment. Body weight and survival were monitored for 21 days. Bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and lung inflammatory cells, cytokines, eicosanoids, histology and lung function were determined on serial days (0, 3, 7, 14, 21) after bleomycin injury. Results Intratracheal administration of DHA mitigated bleomycin-induced lung injury. Mice pretreated with DHA had significantly less weight loss and mortality after bleomycin injury. The lungs from DHA-pretreated mice had markedly less fibrosis. DHA pretreatment also protected the mice from the functional changes associated with bleomycin injury. Bleomycin-induced cellular inflammation in BALF and lung tissue was blunted by DHA pretreatment. These advantageous effects of DHA pretreatment were associated with decreased IL-6, LTB4, PGE2 and increased IL-10. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that intratracheal administration of DHA, a single PUFA, protected mice from the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. These results suggest that further investigations regarding the role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fibrotic lung injury and repair are needed. PMID:24742272

  18. Role of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3a in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Wei; Wu, Yue-Han; Li, Xiao-Hui; Li, Dai; Du, Jie; Hu, Chang-Ping; Li, Yuan-Jian

    2015-02-15

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3a (eIF3a) is a multifunctional protein and plays an important role in regulation of cellular function including proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, we tested the function of eIF3a in pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (5mg/kg) in rats. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts were cultured for proliferation investigation by BrdU incorporation method and flow cytometry. The expression/level of eIF3a, TGF-β1, ERK1/2 and α-SMA were analyzed by ELISA, real-time PCR or western blot. Results showed that the expression of eIF3a was obviously increased in lungs of pulmonary fibrosis rats accompanied by up-regulation of α-SMA and collagens. In cultured pulmonary fibroblasts, application of exogenous TGF-β1 induced cell proliferation and differentiation concomitantly with up-regulation of eIF3a expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The effects of TGF-β1-induced proliferation of fibroblasts and up-regulation of α-SMA were abolished by eIF3a siRNA. TGF-β1-induced eIF3a expression was reversed in the presence of PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2. These findings suggest that eIF3a plays an important role in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by regulating pulmonary fibroblasts׳ function, and up-regulation of eIF3a induced by TGF-β1 is mediated via the ERK1/2 pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regression of fibrosis and reversal of cirrhosis in rats by galectin inhibitors in thioacetamide-induced liver disease.

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    Peter G Traber

    Full Text Available Galectin-3 protein is critical to the development of liver fibrosis because galectin-3 null mice have attenuated fibrosis after liver injury. Therefore, we examined the ability of novel complex carbohydrate galectin inhibitors to treat toxin-induced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Fibrosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injections with thioacetamide (TAA and groups were treated with vehicle, GR-MD-02 (galactoarabino-rhamnogalaturonan or GM-CT-01 (galactomannan. In initial experiments, 4 weeks of treatment with GR-MD-02 following completion of 8 weeks of TAA significantly reduced collagen content by almost 50% based on Sirius red staining. Rats were then exposed to more intense and longer TAA treatment, which included either GR-MD-02 or GM-CT-01 during weeks 8 through 11. TAA rats treated with vehicle developed extensive fibrosis and pathological stage 6 Ishak fibrosis, or cirrhosis. Treatment with either GR-MD-02 (90 mg/kg ip or GM-CT-01 (180 mg/kg ip given once weekly during weeks 8-11 led to marked reduction in fibrosis with reduction in portal and septal galectin-3 positive macrophages and reduction in portal pressure. Vehicle-treated animals had cirrhosis whereas in the treated animals the fibrosis stage was significantly reduced, with evidence of resolved or resolving cirrhosis and reduced portal inflammation and ballooning. In this model of toxin-induced liver fibrosis, treatment with two galectin protein inhibitors with different chemical compositions significantly reduced fibrosis, reversed cirrhosis, reduced galectin-3 expressing portal and septal macrophages, and reduced portal pressure. These findings suggest a potential role of these drugs in human liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  20. Effects of iloprost on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats compared with methyl-prednisolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Aytemur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prostacyclin (PGI2 has been shown to inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to test the preventive effects of intraperitoneally administered iloprost, a stable PGI2 analog, on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and to compare the effects of iloprost with the effects of methyl-prednisolone, a traditional therapy. Methods: Rats were randomly allocated into four groups: 1. Saline alone (n = 6; 2. Bleomycin + placebo (n = 7; 3. Bleomycin + methyl-prednisolone (n = 7; 4. Bleomycin + iloprost (n = 7. Fibrotic changes in the lungs were demonstrated by analyzing the cellular composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, histological evaluation and lung hydroxyproline content. Results: Fibrosis was made in the lungs of rats by bleomycin experimentally. Fibrosis scores in the methyl-prednisolone and the iloprost groups were significantly lower than in the placebo group (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the score of the iloprost group was significantly lower than the score of the methyl-prednisolone group. The hydroxyproline content was significantly less in the methyl-prednisolone and the iloprost groups (p < 0.05. In the placebo group, the neutrophil percentage in bronchoalveolar lavage was significantly higher than in the other groups, whereas the macrophage percentage in placebo group was significantly lower (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Iloprost has protective effect on the pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin and it may be more effective in decreasing fibrotic changes than methyl-prednisolone. Resumo: Objetivo: A prostaciclina (PGI2 é conhecida por inibir a expressão de mediadores pró-inflamatórios e pró-fibróticos na fibrose pulmonar. Neste estudo, procurou-se testar os efeitos preventivos do iloprost administrado por via intraperitoneal, um análogo estável do PGI2, na fibrose

  1. Alpha macroglobulins and the low-density-lipoprotein-related protein alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor in experimental renal fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, H; Diamond, [No Value; Ding, GH; Kaysen, GA

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the location of non-specific proteinase inhibitors and their receptor in experimental glomerular and interstitial fibrosis. The alpha macroglobulins alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) and alpha-1-inhibitor 3 (alpha 1I3) are proteinase inhibitors, including

  2. Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT/SLCO2A1 Protects the Lung from Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Nakanishi

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin (PG E2 exhibits an anti-fibrotic effect in the lung in response to inflammatory reactions and is a high-affinity substrate of PG transporter (SLCO2A1. The present study aimed to evaluate the pathophysiological relevance of SLCO2A1 to bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Slco2a1 protein was expressed in airway and alveolar type I (ATI and II (ATII epithelial cells, and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry further demonstrated cell surface expression of Slco2a1 in ATI cells in wild type (WT C57BL/6 mice. PGE2 uptake activity was abrogated in ATI-like cells from Slco2a1-deficient (Slco2a1-/- mice, which was clearly observed in the cells from WT mice. Furthermore, the PGE2 concentrations in lung tissues were lower in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice. The pathological relevance of SLCO2A1 was further studied in mouse BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis models. BLM (1 mg/kg or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline was intratracheally injected into WT and Slco2a1-/- mice, and BLM-induced fibrosis was evaluated on day 14. BLM induced more severe fibrosis in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice, as indicated by thickened interstitial connective tissue and enhanced collagen deposition. PGE2 levels were higher in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but lower in lung tissues of Slco2a1-/- mice. Transcriptional upregulation of TGF-β1 was associated with enhanced gene transcriptions of downstream targets including plasminogen activator inhitor-1. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant activation of protein kinase C (PKC δ along with a modest activation of Smad3 in lung from Slco2a1-/- mice, suggesting a role of PKCδ associated with TGF-β signaling in aggravated fibrosis in BLM-treated Slco2a1-/- mice. In conclusion, pulmonary PGE2 disposition is largely regulated by SLCO2A1, demonstrating that SLCO2A1 plays a critical role in protecting the lung from BLM-induced fibrosis.

  3. Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT/SLCO2A1) Protects the Lung from Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takeo; Hasegawa, Yoshitaka; Mimura, Reo; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Uetoko, Yuka; Komori, Hisakazu; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi; Tamai, Ikumi

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 exhibits an anti-fibrotic effect in the lung in response to inflammatory reactions and is a high-affinity substrate of PG transporter (SLCO2A1). The present study aimed to evaluate the pathophysiological relevance of SLCO2A1 to bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Slco2a1 protein was expressed in airway and alveolar type I (ATI) and II (ATII) epithelial cells, and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry further demonstrated cell surface expression of Slco2a1 in ATI cells in wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. PGE2 uptake activity was abrogated in ATI-like cells from Slco2a1-deficient (Slco2a1-/-) mice, which was clearly observed in the cells from WT mice. Furthermore, the PGE2 concentrations in lung tissues were lower in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice. The pathological relevance of SLCO2A1 was further studied in mouse BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis models. BLM (1 mg/kg) or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline) was intratracheally injected into WT and Slco2a1-/- mice, and BLM-induced fibrosis was evaluated on day 14. BLM induced more severe fibrosis in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice, as indicated by thickened interstitial connective tissue and enhanced collagen deposition. PGE2 levels were higher in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but lower in lung tissues of Slco2a1-/- mice. Transcriptional upregulation of TGF-β1 was associated with enhanced gene transcriptions of downstream targets including plasminogen activator inhitor-1. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant activation of protein kinase C (PKC) δ along with a modest activation of Smad3 in lung from Slco2a1-/- mice, suggesting a role of PKCδ associated with TGF-β signaling in aggravated fibrosis in BLM-treated Slco2a1-/- mice. In conclusion, pulmonary PGE2 disposition is largely regulated by SLCO2A1, demonstrating that SLCO2A1 plays a critical role in protecting the lung from BLM-induced fibrosis.

  4. Evaluating the inhibitory potential of sulindac against the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ramesh; Brahmankar, Mahesh; Kushwah, Lokendra; Suresh, Balakrishnan

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the protective effect of sulindac on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Animals were divided into saline group, bleomycin group (single intra-tracheal instillation of bleomycin) and bleomycin+sulindac (orally from day 1 to day 20). Bleomycin administration reduced the body weight, altered antioxidant status (such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione) while it increased the lung weight, hydroxyproline content, collagen deposition and lipid peroxidation. However, simultaneous administration of sulindac improved the body weight, antioxidant status and decreased the collagen deposition in lungs. Moreover, the levels of inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α increased in bleomycin-induced group, whereas, on treatment with sulindac the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α were found reduced. Finally, histological evidence also supported the ability of sulindac to inhibit bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The results of the present study indicate that sulindac can be used as an agent against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential susceptibility of inbred mouse strains to chlorine-induced airway fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Schlueter, Connie F.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorine is a reactive gas that is considered a chemical threat agent. Humans who develop acute lung injury from chlorine inhalation typically recover normal lung function; however, a subset can experience chronic airway disease. To examine pathological changes following chlorine-induced lung injury, mice were exposed to a single high dose of chlorine, and repair of the lung was analyzed at multiple times after exposure. In FVB/NJ mice, chlorine inhalation caused pronounced fibrosis of larger airways that developed by day 7 after exposure and was associated with airway hyperreactivity. In contrast, A/J mice had little or no airway fibrosis and had normal lung function at day 7. Unexposed FVB/NJ mice had less keratin 5 staining (basal cell marker) than A/J mice in large intrapulmonary airways where epithelial repair was poor and fibrosis developed after chlorine exposure. FVB/NJ mice had large areas devoid of epithelium on day 1 after exposure leading to fibroproliferative lesions on days 4 and 7. A/J mice had airways covered by squamous keratin 5-stained cells on day 1 that transitioned to a highly proliferative reparative epithelium by day 4 followed by the reappearance of ciliated and Clara cells by day 7. The data suggest that lack of basal cells in the large intrapulmonary airways and failure to effect epithelial repair at these sites are factors contributing to the development of airway fibrosis in FVB/NJ mice. The observed differences in susceptibility to chlorine-induced airway disease provide a model in which mechanisms and treatment of airway fibrosis can be investigated. PMID:23171502

  6. MicroRNA Expression Profiling in CCl₄-Induced Liver Fibrosis of Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jeongeun; Park, Jungwook; Wang, Sihyung; Kim, Jieun; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Seo, Young-Su; Jung, Youngmi

    2016-06-17

    Liver fibrosis is a major pathological feature of chronic liver diseases, including liver cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally and play important roles in various kinds of diseases; however, miRNA-associated hepatic fibrogenesis and its acting mechanisms are poorly investigated. Therefore, we performed an miRNA microarray in the fibrotic livers of Mus musculus treated with carbon-tetrachloride (CCl₄) and analyzed the biological functions engaged by the target genes of differentially-expressed miRNAs through gene ontology (GO) and in-depth pathway enrichment analysis. Herein, we found that four miRNAs were upregulated and four miRNAs were downregulated more than two-fold in CCl₄-treated livers compared to a control liver. Eight miRNAs were predicted to target a total of 4079 genes. GO analysis revealed that those target genes were located in various cellular compartments, including cytoplasm, nucleolus and cell surface, and they were involved in protein-protein or protein-DNA bindings, which influence the signal transductions and gene transcription. Furthermore, pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the 72 subspecialized signaling pathways were associated with CCl₄-induced liver fibrosis and were mostly classified into metabolic function-related pathways. These results suggest that CCl₄ induces liver fibrosis by disrupting the metabolic pathways. In conclusion, we presented several miRNAs and their biological processes that might be important in the progression of liver fibrosis; these findings help increase the understanding of liver fibrogenesis and provide novel ideas for further studies of the role of miRNAs in liver fibrosis.

  7. Inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis cascade implications in bisphenol A-induced liver fibrosis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elswefy, Sahar El-Sayed; Abdallah, Fatma Rizk; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini; Wahba, Alaa Samir; Hasan, Rehab Abdallah

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a key monomer in the production of plastics. It has been shown to be hepatotoxic. Inflammation and oxidative stress are closely linked with liver fibrosis, the major contributing factor to hepatic failure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to BPA on the development of hepatic fibrosis in male rats and to determine the cross-talk between the hepatic cytokine network, oxidative stress and apoptosis. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three equal groups as follows: the first group was given no treatment (normal control group); the second group was given corn oil once daily by oral gavage for 8 weeks (vehicle control group); and the third group received BPA (50 mg/kg body weight/day, p.o.) for 8 weeks. BPA administration induced liver fibrosis as reflected in an increase in serum hepatic enzymes activities, hepatic hydroxyproline content and histopathological changes particularly increased collagen fibre deposition around the portal tract. In addition, there was inflammation (as reflected in increase in interleukin-1beta 'IL-1β', decrease in interleukin-10 'IL-10' serum levels and increase in IL-1β/IL-10 ratio), oxidative stress (as reflected in increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level, reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH) content and inhibition of catalase (CAT) activity) and apoptosis [as reflected in an increase in caspase-3 level and a decrease in numbers of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-immunopositive hepatocytes]. Interestingly, BPA had an upregulating effect on an extracellular matrix turnover gene [as reflected in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)] and a downregulating effect on its inhibitor gene [as reflected in tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)] expression. Thus, the mechanism by which BPA induced liver fibrosis seems to be related to stimulation of the inflammatory response, along with oxidative stress, the apoptotic pathway and activation

  8. Targeted Correction and Restored Function of the CFTR Gene in Cystic Fibrosis Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Ana M. Crane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently developed reprogramming and genome editing technologies make possible the derivation of corrected patient-specific pluripotent stem cell sources—potentially useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Starting with skin fibroblasts from patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, we derived and characterized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines. We then utilized zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs, designed to target the endogenous CFTR gene, to mediate correction of the inherited genetic mutation in these patient-derived lines via homology-directed repair (HDR. We observed an exquisitely sensitive, homology-dependent preference for targeting one CFTR allele versus the other. The corrected cystic fibrosis iPSCs, when induced to differentiate in vitro, expressed the corrected CFTR gene; importantly, CFTR correction resulted in restored expression of the mature CFTR glycoprotein and restoration of CFTR chloride channel function in iPSC-derived epithelial cells.

  9. High doses of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea induces cardiac fibrosis in mice.

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    Cai, Yi; He, Shu-Qiao; Hong, Hui-Qi; Cai, Yue-Peng; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Mei

    2015-12-01

    Tea is the most consumed beverage in the world. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major green tea polyphenol, is effective in the prevention of several chronic diseases, and is marketed as part of many dietary supplements. We have now examined the myocardiotoxic effect of high doses of EGCG in mice. EGCG (500 and 1000 mg/kg·d) induced cardiac collagen synthesis and fibrosis-related protein expression, such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in mice. Moreover, EGCG decreased the protein expression of p-AMPK and increased the levels of p-p70S6 K and p-S6. This is the first evidence that high oral doses of EGCG could induce cardiac fibrosis, and shed new light on the understanding of EGCG-mediated myocardiotoxicity.

  10. [Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Xiaopi Pill in preventing rats from dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Ning, Bing-bing; Ren, Shuang; Zhang, Li-jun; Zhang, Wen-meng; Chen, Jia-mei; Chen, Gao-feng; Zhang, Hua; Mu, Yong-ping; Liu, Ping

    2012-11-01

    To explore the intervention effects of Xiaopi Pill (XPW), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on the development progress of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Liver fibrosis model was established by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5% DMN 2 mL/kg thrice a week for 4 weeks. Rats were divided into control group given saline and treatment group given XPW during the 3rd week of DMN injections. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, and then liver histological changes, liver function and mRNA expression of the liver fibrosis-associated markers were observed. (1) At the end of the 2nd and 4th weeks of DMN injection, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased significantly in rats (Pliver were found at the end of the 4th week, including a complete round structure of false flocculus round, meantime, the hydroxyproline content of hepatic tissue was increased significantly at the end of the 2nd and 4th weeks (Pliver fibrosis in rats can be suppressed by XPW; the mechanism may be associated with inhibition of the activated hepatic stellate cells.

  11. Blocking the 4-1BB Pathway Ameliorates Crystalline Silica-induced Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice

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    Li, Chao; Du, Sitong; Lu, Yiping; Lu, Xiaowei; Liu, Fangwei; Chen, Ying; Weng, Dong; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Long term pulmonary exposure to crystalline silica leads to silicosis that manifests progressive interstitial fibrosis, eventually leading to respiratory failure and death. Despite efforts to eliminate silicosis, clinical cases continue to occur in both developing and developed countries. The exact mechanisms of crystalline silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain elusive. Herein, we find that 4-1BB is induced in response to crystalline silica injury in lungs and that it is highly expressed d...

  12. Attenuation of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice by vaccinating against TGF-β1.

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    Xiaobao Fan

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 is the pivotal pro-fibrogenic cytokine in hepatic fibrosis. Reducing the over-produced expression of TGF-β1 or blocking its signaling pathways is considered to be a promising therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of attenuating hepatic fibrosis by vaccination against TGF-β1 with TGF-β1 kinoids. Two TGF-β1 kinoid vaccines were prepared by cross-linking TGF-β1-derived polypeptides (TGF-β1(25-[41-65] and TGF-β1(30-[83-112] to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH. Immunization with the two TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently elicited the production of high-levels of TGF-β1-specific antibodies against in BALB/c mice as tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Western blotting. The antisera neutralized TGF-β1-induced growth-inhibition on mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu and attenuated TGF-β1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation, α-SMA, collagen type 1 alpha 2 (COL1A2, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 expression in the rat hepatic stellate cell (HSC line, HSC-T6. Vaccination against TGF-β1 with the kinoids significantly suppressed CCl4-induced collagen deposition and the expression of α-SMA and desmin, attenuated hepatocyte apoptosis and accelerated hepatocyte proliferation in BALB/c mice. These results demonstrated that immunization with the TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently attenuated CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis and liver injury. Our study suggests that vaccination against TGF-β1 might be developed into a feasible therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic fibrotic liver diseases.

  13. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice induces chronic lung inflammation, iBALT formation, and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupelli, Madhulika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chiba, Norika; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Jones, Heather D; Peterson, Ellena; Chen, Shuang; Arditi, Moshe; Crother, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) lung infection can induce chronic lung inflammation and is associated with not only acute asthma but also COPD exacerbations. However, in mouse models of CP infection, most studies have investigated specifically the acute phase of the infection and not the longer-term chronic changes in the lungs. We infected C57BL/6 mice with 5 × 10(5) CP intratracheally and monitored inflammation, cellular infiltrates and cytokine levels over time to investigate the chronic inflammatory lung changes. While bacteria numbers declined by day 28, macrophage numbers remained high through day 35. Immune cell clusters were detected as early as day 14 and persisted through day 35, and stained positive for B, T, and follicular dendritic cells, indicating these clusters were inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs). Classically activated inflammatory M1 macrophages were the predominant subtype early on while alternatively activated M2 macrophages increased later during infection. Adoptive transfer of M1 but not M2 macrophages intratracheally 1 week after infection resulted in greater lung inflammation, severe fibrosis, and increased numbers of iBALTS 35 days after infection. In summary, we show that CP lung infection in mice induces chronic inflammatory changes including iBALT formations as well as fibrosis. These observations suggest that the M1 macrophages, which are part of the normal response to clear acute C. pneumoniae lung infection, result in an enhanced acute response when present in excess numbers, with greater inflammation, tissue injury, and severe fibrosis.

  14. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice induces chronic lung inflammation, iBALT formation, and fibrosis.

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    Madhulika Jupelli

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP lung infection can induce chronic lung inflammation and is associated with not only acute asthma but also COPD exacerbations. However, in mouse models of CP infection, most studies have investigated specifically the acute phase of the infection and not the longer-term chronic changes in the lungs. We infected C57BL/6 mice with 5 × 10(5 CP intratracheally and monitored inflammation, cellular infiltrates and cytokine levels over time to investigate the chronic inflammatory lung changes. While bacteria numbers declined by day 28, macrophage numbers remained high through day 35. Immune cell clusters were detected as early as day 14 and persisted through day 35, and stained positive for B, T, and follicular dendritic cells, indicating these clusters were inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs. Classically activated inflammatory M1 macrophages were the predominant subtype early on while alternatively activated M2 macrophages increased later during infection. Adoptive transfer of M1 but not M2 macrophages intratracheally 1 week after infection resulted in greater lung inflammation, severe fibrosis, and increased numbers of iBALTS 35 days after infection. In summary, we show that CP lung infection in mice induces chronic inflammatory changes including iBALT formations as well as fibrosis. These observations suggest that the M1 macrophages, which are part of the normal response to clear acute C. pneumoniae lung infection, result in an enhanced acute response when present in excess numbers, with greater inflammation, tissue injury, and severe fibrosis.

  15. MnTBAP Inhibits Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis by Regulating VEGF and Wnt Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatadri, Rajkumar; Krishnan V. Iyer, Anand; Ramesh, Vani; Wright, Clayton; Castro, Carlos A.; Yakisich, Juan S.; Azad, Neelam

    2017-01-01

    Cellular oxidative stress is implicated not only in lung injury but also in contributing to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrate that a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic and peroxynitrite scavenger, manganese (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP) significantly inhibited bleomycin-induced fibrogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation into the underlying mechanisms revealed that MnTBAP targets canonical Wnt and non-canonical Wnt/Ca2+ signaling pathways, both of which were upregulated by bleomycin treatment. The effect of MnTBAP on canonical Wnt signaling was significant in vivo but inconclusive in vitro and the non-canonical Wnt/Ca2+ signaling pathway was observed to be the predominant pathway regulated by MnTBAP in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, we show that the inhibitory effects of MnTBAP involve regulation of VEGF which is upstream of the Wnt signaling pathway. Overall, the data show that the superoxide scavenger MnTBAP attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by targeting VEGF and Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:27649046

  16. Structural and functional correlations in a large animal model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Louise; Bacci, Barbara; Koumoundouros, Emmanuel; Barcham, Garry; Milne, Marjorie; Kimpton, Wayne; Samuel, Chrishan; Snibson, Ken

    2015-07-31

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a severe and progressive respiratory disease with poor prognosis. Despite the positive outcomes from recent clinical trials, there is still no cure for this disease. Pre-clinical animal models are currently largely limited to small animals which have a number of shortcomings. We have previously shown that fibrosis is induced in isolated sheep lung segments 14 days after bleomycin treatment. This study aimed to determine whether bleomycin-induced fibrosis and associated functional changes persisted over a seven-week period. Two separate lung segments in nine sheep received two challenges two weeks apart of either, 3U bleomycin (BLM), or saline (control). Lung function in these segments was assessed by a wedged-bronchoscope procedure after bleomycin treatment. Lung tissue, and an ex vivo CT analysis were used to assess for the persistence of inflammation, fibrosis and collagen content in this model. Fibrotic changes persisted up to seven weeks in bleomycin-treated isolated lung segments (Pathology scores: bleomycin12.27 ± 0.07 vs. saline 4.90 ± 1.18, n = 9, p = 0.0003). Localization of bleomycin-induced injury and increased tissue density was confirmed by CT analysis (mean densitometric CT value: bleomycin -698 ± 2.95 Hounsfield units vs. saline -898 ± 2.5 Hounsfield units, p = 0.02). Masson's trichrome staining revealed increased connective tissue in bleomycin segments, compared to controls (% blue staining/total field area: 8.5 ± 0.8 vs. 2.1 ± 0.2 %, n = 9, p bleomycin-treated segments were significantly less compliant from baseline at 7 weeks post treatment compared to control-treated segments (2.05 ± 0.88 vs. 4.97 ± 0.79 mL/cmH20, n = 9, p = 0.002). There was also a direct negative correlation between pathology scores and segmental compliance. We show that there is a correlation between fibrosis and correspondingly poor lung function which persist for up to

  17. Rac2 is required for alternative macrophage activation and bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis; a macrophage autonomous phenotype.

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    Shweta Joshi

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a chronic lung disease characterized by cellular phenotype alterations and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The alternative activation of macrophages in the lungs has been associated as a major factor promoting pulmonary fibrosis, however the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. In the present study, we have defined a molecular mechanism by which signals transmitted from the extracellular matrix via the α4β1 integrin lead to the activation of Rac2 which regulates alternative macrophage differentiation, a signaling axis within the pulmonary macrophage compartment required for bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis. Mice deficient in Rac2 were protected against bleomycin-induced fibrosis and displayed diminished collagen deposition in association with lower expression of alternatively activated profibrotic macrophage markers. We have demonstrated a macrophage autonomous process by which the injection of M2 and not M1 macrophages restored the bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis susceptibility in Rac2-/- mice, establishing a critical role for a macrophage Rac2 signaling axis in the regulation of macrophage differentiation and lung fibrosis in vivo. We also demonstrate that markers of alternative macrophage activation are increased in patients with IPF. Taken together, these studies define an important role for an integrin-driven Rac2 signaling axis in macrophages, and reveal that Rac2 activation is required for polarization of macrophages towards a profibrotic phenotype and progression of pulmonary fibrosis in vivo.

  18. Rac2 is required for alternative macrophage activation and bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis; a macrophage autonomous phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulcic, Muamera; Jiang, Min; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Hagood, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease characterized by cellular phenotype alterations and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The alternative activation of macrophages in the lungs has been associated as a major factor promoting pulmonary fibrosis, however the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. In the present study, we have defined a molecular mechanism by which signals transmitted from the extracellular matrix via the α4β1 integrin lead to the activation of Rac2 which regulates alternative macrophage differentiation, a signaling axis within the pulmonary macrophage compartment required for bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis. Mice deficient in Rac2 were protected against bleomycin-induced fibrosis and displayed diminished collagen deposition in association with lower expression of alternatively activated profibrotic macrophage markers. We have demonstrated a macrophage autonomous process by which the injection of M2 and not M1 macrophages restored the bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis susceptibility in Rac2-/- mice, establishing a critical role for a macrophage Rac2 signaling axis in the regulation of macrophage differentiation and lung fibrosis in vivo. We also demonstrate that markers of alternative macrophage activation are increased in patients with IPF. Taken together, these studies define an important role for an integrin-driven Rac2 signaling axis in macrophages, and reveal that Rac2 activation is required for polarization of macrophages towards a profibrotic phenotype and progression of pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. PMID:28817691

  19. Antifibrotic properties of transarterial oncolytic VSV therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in rats with thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomonte, Jennifer; Marozin, Sabrina; De Toni, Enrico N; Rizzani, Antonia; Esposito, Irene; Steiger, Katja; Feuchtinger, Annette; Hellerbrand, Claus; Schmid, Roland M; Ebert, Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) shows promise for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its safety and efficacy when administered in a setting of hepatic fibrosis, which occurs in the majority of clinical cases, is unknown. We hypothesized that VSV could provide a novel benefit to the underlying fibrosis, due to its ability to replicate and cause cell death specifically in activated hepatic stellate cells. In addition to the ability of VSV to produce a significant oncolytic response in HCC-bearing rats in the background of thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis without signs of hepatotoxicity, we observed a significant downgrading of fibrosis stage, a decrease in collagen content in the liver, and modulation of gene expression in favor of fibrotic regression. Together, this work suggests that VSV is not only safe and effective for the treatment of HCC with underlying fibrosis, but it could potentially be developed for clinical application as a novel antifibrotic agent.

  20. Megakaryoblastic leukemia-1 is required for the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Bernau, Ksenija; Ngam, Caitlyn; Torr, Elizabeth E; Acton, Benjamin; Kach, Jacob; Dulin, Nickolai O; Sandbo, Nathan

    2015-03-27

    Fibrosing disorders of the lung, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, are characterized by progressive extracellular matrix accumulation that is driven by myofibroblasts. The transcription factor megakaryoblastic leukemia-1 (MKL1) mediates myofibroblast differentiation in response to several profibrotic stimuli, but the role it plays in mediating pulmonary fibrosis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we utilized mice that had a germline deletion of MKL1 (MKL1 (-,-)) to determine the role that MKL1 plays in the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Bleomycin or normal saline were intratracheally delivered to 9 to 12 week old female MKL1 (+,+) and MKL1 (-,-) mice. Mice were assessed for weight loss and survival to 28 days. Inflammatory responses were assessed through bronchoalveolar lavage at days 3 and 7 post-treatment. The development of pulmonary fibrosis was characterized using hydroxyproline assay and histological staining. MKL1 (+,+) and MKL1 (-,-) mouse lung fibroblasts were isolated to compare morphologic, gene expression and functional differences. MKL1 (-,-) mice demonstrated increased survival, attenuated weight loss, and decreased collagen accumulation compared to wild-type animals 28-days after intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. Histological analysis demonstrated decreased trichrome, smooth muscle α-actin, and fibronectin staining in MKL1(-,-) mice compared to MKL1 (+,+) controls. Differential cell counts from bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated that there was attenuated neutrophilia 3 days after bleomycin administration, but no difference at day 7. Isolated mouse lung fibroblasts from MKL1 (-,-) mice had decreased contractility and deposited less fibronectin matrix compared to wild-type controls, suggesting a defect in key remodeling functions. Altogether, these data demonstrate that MKL1 plays a significant role in mediating the fibrotic response to bleomycin injury. Loss of MKL1 attenuated early neutrophil influx, as

  1. Forskolin, a hedgehog signalling inhibitor, attenuates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Agroudy, Nermeen N; El-Naga, Reem N; El-Razeq, Rania Abd; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2016-11-01

    Liver fibrosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide with very limited therapeutic options. Given the pivotal role of activated hepatic stellate cells in liver fibrosis, attention has been directed towards the signalling pathways underlying their activation and fibrogenic functions. Recently, the hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway has been identified as a potentially important therapeutic target in liver fibrosis. The present study was designed to explore the antifibrotic effects of the potent Hh signalling inhibitor, forskolin, and the possible molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either CCl4 and/or forskolin for 6 consecutive weeks. Serum hepatotoxicity markers were determined, and histopathological evaluation was performed. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed by measuring α-SMA expression and collagen deposition by Masson's trichrome staining and hydroxyproline content. The effects of forskolin on oxidative stress markers (GSH, GPx, lipid peroxides), inflammatory markers (NF-κB, TNF-α, COX-2, IL-1β), TGF-β1 and Hh signalling markers (Ptch-1, Smo, Gli-2) were also assessed. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was significantly reduced by forskolin, as indicated by decreased α-SMA expression and collagen deposition. Forskolin co-treatment significantly attenuated oxidative stress and inflammation, reduced TGF-β1 levels and down-regulated mRNA expression of Ptch-1, Smo and Gli-2 through cAMP-dependent PKA activation. In our model, forskolin exerted promising antifibrotic effects which could be partly attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as to its inhibition of Hh signalling, mediated by cAMP-dependent activation of PKA. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Overexpression of cathepsin K during silica-induced lung fibrosis and control by TGF-β

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    Lison Dominique

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung fibrosis is characterized by tissue remodeling resulting from an imbalance between synthesis and degradation of extracellular organic matrices. To examine whether cathepsin(s (Cat are important in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, we assessed the expression of four Cat known for their collagenolytic activity in a model of silica-induced lung fibrosis. Methods Different strains of mice were transorally instilled with 2.5 mg crystalline silica or other particles. Cat expression (Cat K, S, L and B was quantified in lung tissue and isolated pulmonary cells by quantitative RT-PCR. In vitro, we assessed the effect of different cytokines, involved in lung inflammatory and fibrotic responses, on the expression of Cat K by alveolar macrophages and fibroblasts. Results In lung tissue, Cat K transcript was the most strongly upregulated in response to silica, and this upregulation was intimately related to the fibrotic process. In mouse strains known for their differential response to silica, we showed that the level of Cat K expression following silica treatment was inversely related to the level of TGF-β expression and the susceptibility of these strains to develop fibrosis. Pulmonary macrophages and fibroblasts were identified as Cat K overproducing cells in the lung of silicotic mice. In vitro, Cat K was downregulated in mouse and human lung fibroblasts by the profibrotic growth factor TGF-β1. Conclusion Altogether, these data suggest that while Cat K may contribute to control lung fibrosis, TGF-β appears to limit its overexpression in response to silica particles.

  3. Dasatinib Attenuates Pressure Overload Induced Cardiac Fibrosis in a Murine Transverse Aortic Constriction Model.

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    Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian

    Full Text Available Reactive cardiac fibrosis resulting from chronic pressure overload (PO compromises ventricular function and contributes to congestive heart failure. We explored whether nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NTKs play a key role in fibrosis by activating cardiac fibroblasts (CFb, and could potentially serve as a target to reduce PO-induced cardiac fibrosis. Our studies were carried out in PO mouse myocardium induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC. Administration of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, dasatinib, via an intraperitoneally implanted mini-osmotic pump at 0.44 mg/kg/day reduced PO-induced accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins and improved left ventricular geometry and function. Furthermore, dasatinib treatment inhibited NTK activation (primarily Pyk2 and Fak and reduced the level of FSP1 positive cells in the PO myocardium. In vitro studies using cultured mouse CFb showed that dasatinib treatment at 50 nM reduced: (i extracellular accumulation of both collagen and fibronectin, (ii both basal and PDGF-stimulated activation of Pyk2, (iii nuclear accumulation of Ki67, SKP2 and histone-H2B and (iv PDGF-stimulated CFb proliferation and migration. However, dasatinib did not affect cardiomyocyte morphologies in either the ventricular tissue after in vivo administration or in isolated cells after in vitro treatment. Mass spectrometric quantification of dasatinib in cultured cells indicated that the uptake of dasatinib by CFb was greater that that taken up by cardiomyocytes. Dasatinib treatment primarily suppressed PDGF but not insulin-stimulated signaling (Erk versus Akt activation in both CFb and cardiomyocytes. These data indicate that dasatinib treatment at lower doses than that used in chemotherapy has the capacity to reduce hypertrophy-associated fibrosis and improve ventricular function.

  4. Loss of TRPV4 Function Suppresses Inflammatory Fibrosis Induced by Alkali-Burning Mouse Corneas.

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    Yuka Okada

    Full Text Available In humans suffering from pulmonary disease and a mouse model, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 channel activation contributes to fibrosis. As a corneal alkali burn induces the same response, we determined if such an effect is also attributable to TRPV4 activation in mice. Accordingly, we determined if the alkali burn wound healing responses in wild-type (WT mice are different than those in their TRPV4-null (KO counterpart. Stromal opacification due to fibrosis in KO (n = 128 mice was markedly reduced after 20 days relative to that in WT (n = 157 mice. Immunohistochemistry revealed that increases in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophage infiltration declined in KO mice. Semi-quantitative real time RT-PCR of ocular KO fibroblast cultures identified increases in proinflammatory and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 chemoattractant gene expression after injury. Biomarker gene expression of fibrosis, collagen1a1 and α-smooth muscle actin were attenuated along with macrophage release of interleukin-6 whereas transforming growth factor β, release was unchanged. Tail vein reciprocal bone marrow transplantation between WT and KO chimera mouse models mice showed that reduced scarring and inflammation in KO mice are due to loss of TRPV4 expression on both corneal resident immune cells, fibroblasts and infiltrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages. Intraperitoneal TRPV4 receptor antagonist injection of HC-067047 (10 mg/kg, daily into WT mice reproduced the KO-phenotype. Taken together, alkali-induced TRPV4 activation contributes to inducing fibrosis and inflammation since corneal transparency recovery was markedly improved in KO mice.

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis

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    Gao Hong-Ying

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid B and Matrine. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was studied in animal models using Wistar rats. Organ coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, hexadecenoic acid (HA, laminin (LN, hydroxyproline (Hyp, and glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver tissues were measured, respectively. Histopathological changes in the livers were studied by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining and Masson Trichrome (MT examination. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN and Hyp was observed in the Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treated groups, suggesting that the salt had hepatoprotective effects. The depletion of GSH and SOD, as well as MDA accumulation in liver tissues was suppressed by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt too. The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA measured by immunohistology was significantly reduced by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treatment attenuated the necro-inflammation and fibrogenesis induced by CCl4 injection, and thus it is promising as a therapeutic anti-fibrotic agent against hepatic fibrosis.

  6. Protective Effect of Pistacia lentiscus Oil Against Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis and Oxidative Stress in Rat.

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    Abidi, Anouar; Aissani, Nadhem; Sebai, Hichem; Serairi, Raja; Kourda, Nadia; Ben Khamsa, Saloua

    2017-04-01

    We aimed in the present study to investigate the protective effect of Pistacia lentiscus oil against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis as well as the involvement of oxidative stress in such protection. In this respect, adult male Wistar rats were used and divided into three groups of twenty each: control (NaCl, 0.9%), bleomycin, and bleomycin (4 mg/kg b.w.) + P. lentiscus oil (3 g/kg, b.w.). Animals were pretreated for 30 days before the induction of fibrosis by bleomycin and 1 wk after the induction of fibrosis. The oil principal compounds detected by gas chromatography analysis are: Linoleic and palmitic acids (70.6 and 24.7%, respectively). Our data demonstrated that P. lentiscus oil protected against bleomycin-induced fibrosis as evidenced by TGFβ immunostaining increase in lungs fibrocytes as well as inflammatory infiltrate. We also showed that acute bleomycin-induced fibrosis was accompanied by an oxidative stress in lung tissue as assessed by an increase of lipid peroxidation as well as antioxidant enzyme activities depletion such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). More importantly, P. lentiscus oil treatment reversed all bleomycin-induced oxidative stress parameters disturbances. In conclusion, we suggest that P. lentiscus oil had potent protective effects against bleomycin-induced fibrosis due in part to its antioxidant properties.

  7. miR-200b-containing microvesicles attenuate experimental colitis associated intestinal fibrosis by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Zhou, Cheng-Zhi; Zhu, Rui; Fan, Heng; Liu, Xing-Xing; Duan, Xue-Yun; Tang, Qing; Shou, Zhe-Xing; Zuo, Dong-Mei

    2017-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by the decrease of E-cadherin (E-Cad) and increase in vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), was demonstrated to participate in inflammatory bowel disease-related fibrosis. miR-200b plays an anti-fibrosis role in inhibiting EMT by targeting ZEB1 and ZEB2. But the stability of exogenous miR-200b in blood limits its application. Microvesicles (MVs), which can transfer miRNAs among cells and prevent them from degradation, may provide an excellent transport system for the delivery of miR-200b in the treatment of fibrosis. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were transfected with lentivirus to overexpress miR-200b. The MVs packaged with miRNA-200b were harvested for the anti-fibrotic treatment using in vitro (transforming growth factor beta 1-mediated EMT in intestinal epithelial cells: IEC-6) and in vivo (TNBS-induced intestinal fibrosis in rats) models. The pathological morphology was observed, and the fibrosis related proteins, such as E-Cad, vimentin, α-SMA, ZEB1, and ZEB2, were detected. MiR-200b-MVs would significantly reverse the morphology in TGF-β1-treated IEC-6 cells and improve the TNBS-induced colon fibrosis histologically. The treatment of miR-200b-MVs increased miR-200b levels both in the IEC-6 cells and colon, resulting in a significant prevention EMT and alleviation of fibrosis. The expression of E-Cad was increased, and the expressions of vimentin and α-SMA were decreased. ZBE1 and ZEB2, the targets of miR-200b, were also decreased. miR-200b could be transferred from genetically modified BMSCs to the target cells or tissue by MVs. The mechanisms of miR-200b-MVs in inhibiting colonic fibrosis were related to suppressing the development of EMT by targeting ZEB1and ZEB2. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Age and sex dimorphisms contribute to the severity of bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redente, Elizabeth F.; Jacobsen, Kristen M.; Solomon, Joshua J.; Lara, Abigail R.; Faubel, Sarah; Keith, Rebecca C.; Henson, Peter M.; Downey, Gregory P.

    2011-01-01

    Fibrotic interstitial pneumonias are more prevalent in males of advancing age, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms. To evaluate the contributions of age and sex to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, we intratracheally instilled young (8–12 wk) and aged (52–54 wk) male and female mice with bleomycin and assessed the development and severity of fibrotic lung disease by measurements of lung collagen levels, static compliance, leukocyte infiltration, and stereological quantification of fibrotic areas in histological sections. We also quantified proinflammatory and profibrotic chemokine and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Aged male mice developed more severe lung disease, indicated by increased mortality, increased collagen deposition, and neutrophilic alveolitis compared with aged female mice or young mice of either sex. Aged male mice also exhibited increased levels of transforming growth factor-β, IL-17A, and CXCL1 in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Young male mice developed a more fibrotic disease after bleomycin instillation compared with female mice, regardless of age. There was no difference in fibrosis between young and aged female mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that the variables of advanced age and male sex contribute to the severity of pulmonary fibrosis in this model. Our findings also emphasize the importance of stratifying experimental groups on the basis of age and sex in experimental and epidemiological studies of this nature. PMID:21743030

  9. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

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    Farkaad A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY, and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

  10. Protective effect of ambroxol against paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Qiao-Ming; Yang, Li-Tao; Sun, Hai-chen

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the possible therapeutic effect of ambroxol on pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=144, 200-250 g) were divided into four groups (Control, Ambroxol, Paraquat, and Paraquat+Ambroxol group) and sacrificed on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28. Several significant oxidant stress markers (MDA, SOD and GSH-PX), MPO activity, cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, TGF-β1, MMP-2 and TIMP-1), total inflammatory cell count, hydroxyproline content, collagen I and III mRNA were analyzed. In Paraquat group, the MDA, MPO activity, hydroxyproline contents, the mRNA expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, TGF-β1, MMP-2, TIMP-1, collagen I, collagen III and the number of total inflammatory cells were up-regulated in lung tissue, but SOD and GSH-PX activity were down-regulated in lung tissue compared with Control group (pambroxol group, the MDA, MPO activity, hydroxyproline content, the mRNA expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, TGF-β1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 collagen I, collagen III and the number of total inflammatory cells were significantly decreased, while the SOD and GSH-PX activities in lung tissue were increased compared with Paraquat group (pAmbroxol could markedly reduce such damage in lung tissue and prevent pulmonary fibrosis. The results of this study indicated that ambroxol could reduce lung damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat.

  11. Evaluating the Ameliorative Potential of Quercetin against the Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Wistar Rats

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    Ramesh Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study deals with the effect of a dietary flavanoid quercetin on fibrotic lung tissue in rats. Bleomycin was administered by single intratracheal instillation to Wistar rats to induce lung fibrosis. The pathologies associated with this included significantly reduced antioxidant capacity, ultimately leading to protracted inflammation of the lung tissue. The hallmark of this induced fibrosis condition was an excessive collagen deposition in peribronchial and perialveolar regions of the lung. Oral quercetin treatment over a period of twenty days resulted in significant reversal of the pathologies. The antioxidant defense in lung tissue was revived. Moreover, activity of the collagenase MMP-7, which was high in fibrotic tissue, was seen restored after quercetin administration. Trichome staining of lung tissue sections showed high collagen deposition in fibrotic rats, which may be a direct result of increased mobilization of collagen by MMP-7. This was appreciably reduced in quercetin treated animals. These results point towards an important protective role of quercetin against idiopathic lung fibrosis, which remains a widely prevalent yet incurable condition in the present times.

  12. The Effects of Silymarin in Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice

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    L Safaeian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Silymarin, the active principle of Silybum marianum, has antifibrotic effects in hepatic fibrosis by several mechanisms. Since the pathogenesis of fibroproliferative diseases is similar, the effect of silymarin in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated in this study.

    Methods: Silymarin (50 mg/kg, i.p. was administered two days before the bleomycin instillation (3 U/kg and throughout the test interval in mice. After two weeks, lung tissues of mice were evaluated for fibrosis by biochemical measurement of collagen deposition and histological analysis of pathological lung changes. Data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett analysis. P<0.05 was considered as significant.

    Results: Pretreatment with Silymarin significantly (P<0.05 prevented the increase in lung collagen content and also partially inhibited the histologic changes induced by bleomycin. The wet lung weight in silymarin group was similar to that of control group and significantly lower than bleomycin group (P<0.001.    

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that silymarin may prevent the collagen deposition and inflammation and may be protective in fibrogenic effects of bleomycin on lung

  13. Fasudil, a Rho-Kinase Inhibitor, Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice

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    Zuojun Xu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF involve multiple pathways, such as inflammation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, coagulation, oxidative stress, and developmental processes. The small GTPase, RhoA, and its target protein, Rho-kinase (ROCK, may interact with other signaling pathways known to contribute to pulmonary fibrosis. This study aimed to determine the beneficial effects and mechanisms of fasudil, a selective ROCK inhibitor, on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Our results showed that the Aschcroft score and hydroxyproline content of the bleomycin-treated mouse lung decreased in response to fasudil treatment. The number of infiltrated inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was attenuated by fasudil. In addition, fasudil reduced the production of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. These findings suggest that fasudil may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  14. Adiponectin attenuates lung fibroblasts activation and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat.

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    Rong Yao

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most common complications of paraquat (PQ poisoning, which demands for more effective therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests adiponectin (APN may be a promising therapy against fibrotic diseases. In the current study, we determine whether the exogenous globular APN isoform protects against pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-treated mice and human lung fibroblasts, and dissect the responsible underlying mechanisms. BALB/C mice were divided into control group, PQ group, PQ + low-dose APN group, and PQ + high-dose APN group. Mice were sacrificed 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after PQ treatment. We compared pulmonary histopathological changes among different groups on the basis of fibrosis scores, TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA pulmonary content via Western blot and real-time quantitative fluorescence-PCR (RT-PCR. Blood levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were determined by ELISA. Human lung fibroblasts WI-38 were divided into control group, PQ group, APN group, and APN receptor (AdipoR 1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA group. Fibroblasts were collected 24, 48, and 72 hours after PQ exposure for assay. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined via Kit-8 (CCK-8 and fluorescein Annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling. The protein and mRNA expression level of collagen type III, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2 were measured by Western blot and RT-PCR. APN treatment significantly decreased the lung fibrosis scores, protein and mRNA expression of pulmonary TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA content, and blood MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Pretreatment with APN significantly attenuated the reduced cell viability and up-regulated collagen type III expression induced by PQ in lung fibroblasts, (p<0.05. APN pretreatment up-regulated AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, expression in WI-38 fibroblasts. AdipoR1 siRNA abrogated APN-mediated protective effects in PQ-exposed fibroblasts. Taken together, our data suggests APN protects against PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a

  15. Serum amyloid P therapeutically attenuates murine bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via its effects on macrophages.

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    Lynne A Murray

    Full Text Available Macrophages promote tissue remodeling but few mechanisms exist to modulate their activity during tissue fibrosis. Serum amyloid P (SAP, a member of the pentraxin family of proteins, signals through Fcgamma receptors which are known to affect macrophage activation. We determined that IPF/UIP patients have increased protein levels of several alternatively activated pro-fibrotic (M2 macrophage-associated proteins in the lung and monocytes from these patients show skewing towards an M2 macrophage phenotype. SAP therapeutically inhibits established bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, when administered systemically or locally to the lungs. The reduction in aberrant collagen deposition was associated with a reduction in M2 macrophages in the lung and increased IP10/CXCL10. These data highlight the role of macrophages in fibrotic lung disease, and demonstrate a therapeutic action of SAP on macrophages which may extend to many fibrotic indications caused by over-exuberant pro-fibrotic macrophage responses.

  16. Neurogenic cardiomyopathy in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesdangsakonwut, S; Sunden, Y; Yamada, K; Nishizono, A; Sawa, H; Umemura, T

    2015-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies have been rarely described in rabbits. Here we report myocardial necrosis of the ventricular wall in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies. Myocardial lesions were found only in rabbits with brain lesions, and the severity of the cardiac lesions was proportional to that of the brain lesions. Neither the frequency nor the cumulative dose of anesthesia was related to the incidence or the severity of the myocardial lesions. The myocardial lesions were characterized by degeneration and/or necrosis of myocardial cells and were accompanied by contraction band necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The brain lesions due to rabies virus infection were most prominent in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem, and medulla. Rabies virus antigen was not found in the hearts of any rabbits. Based on these findings, the myocardial lesions were classified as neurogenic cardiomyopathy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Periostin-Binding DNA Aptamer Treatment Ameliorates Peritoneal Dialysis-Induced Peritoneal Fibrosis

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    Bo Young Nam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal fibrosis is a major complication in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients, which leads to dialysis discontinuation. Periostin, increased by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 stimulation, induces the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes. Aberrant periostin expression has been demonstrated to be associated with PD-related peritoneal fibrosis. Therefore, the effect of periostin inhibition by an aptamer-based inhibitor on peritoneal fibrosis was evaluated. In vitro, TGF-β1 treatment upregulated periostin, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, and Snail expression and reduced E-cadherin expression in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs. Periostin small interfering RNA (siRNA treatment ameliorated the TGF-β1-induced periostin, fibronectin, α-SMA, and Snail expression and restored E-cadherin expression in HPMCs. Similarly, the periostin-binding DNA aptamer (PA also attenuated fibronectin, α-SMA, and Snail upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation in TGF-β1-stimulated HPMCs. In mice treated with PD solution for 4 weeks, the expression of periostin, fibronectin, α-SMA, and Snail was significantly increased in the peritoneum, whereas E-cadherin expression was significantly decreased. The thickness of the submesothelial layer and the intensity of Masson’s trichrome staining in the PD group were significantly increased compared to the untreated group. These changes were significantly abrogated by the intraperitoneal administration of PA. These findings suggest that PA can be a potential therapeutic strategy for peritoneal fibrosis in PD patients.

  18. Non-invasive evaluation of liver stiffness after splenectomy in rabbits with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Jun; Ling, Wen-Wu; Wang, Hong; Meng, Ling-Wei; Cai, He; Peng, Bing

    2016-12-14

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) in animal models and determine the longitudinal changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ after splenectomy at different stages of fibrosis. Liver stiffness was measured in sixty-eight rabbits with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis at different stages and eight healthy control rabbits by ElastPQ. Liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained at scheduled time points to assess liver function and degree of fibrosis. Thirty-one rabbits with complete data that underwent splenectomy at different stages of liver fibrosis were then included for dynamic monitoring of changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ and liver function according to blood tests. LSM by ElastPQ was significantly correlated with histologic fibrosis stage (r = 0.85, P splenectomy (especially F1) may delay liver fibrosis progression. ElastPQ is an available, convenient, objective and non-invasive technique for assessing liver stiffness in rabbits with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. In addition, liver stiffness measurements using ElastPQ can dynamically monitor the changes in liver stiffness in rabbit models, and in patients, after splenectomy.

  19. Induced sputum in young healthy children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forton, Julian

    2015-10-01

    Young children with CF are often asymptomatic and non-productive, yet CF lung disease occurs early in life. Cough swabs are used routinely to sample bacteria from the CF respiratory tract in non-productive healthy children; bronchoscopy is used to definitively sample the lower airway, but is an invasive procedure. Induced sputum is a non-invasive approach to sampling the lower airway. The article concentrates on how well it is tolerated in children, how successful it is in identifying respiratory pathogens, and how it may be important in routine surveillance if 16S technology is to be used in the clinical forum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Astragalus injection attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via down-regulating Jagged1/Notch1 in lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Liao, Shiping; Zhang, Zhongwei; Wang, Bo; Wan, Lihong

    2016-03-01

    Inhibition of Notch signalling is a potential therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. This study was designed to investigate the antifibrosis effects and possible mechanism of astragalus injection (AI) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (5 mg/kg) in male SD rats. All rats received daily intraperitoneally administration of dexamethasone (DEX, 3 mg/kg), astragalus injection (AI, 8 g/kg) or saline 1 day after bleomycin instillation daily for 28 days. Histological changes in the lung were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle protein (α-SMA) was assayed by immunohistochemical (IHC). The mRNA and protein level of Jagged1, Notch1 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was analysed by qPCR and Western blot. BLM-induced severe alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis; together with significant elevation of α-SMA, TGF-β1, Jagged1 and Notch1. Astragalus injection (AI, 8 g/kg) administration notably attenuated the degree of alveolitis and lung fibrosis, and markedly reduced the elevated levels of α-SMA, TGF-β1, Jagged1 and Notch1 in lungs. Astragalus injection (AI, 8 g/kg) may exert protective effects on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via downregulating Jagged1/Notch1 in lung. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  1. Plasma lipid profiling of different types of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride and lomustine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Saito, Kosuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Yoshiro

    2016-04-12

    Plasma lipid profiling has emerged as a useful tool for understanding the pathophysiology of hepatic injury and disease. Hepatic fibrosis results from chronic, progressive damage to the liver and can lead, in turn, to more serious conditions such as hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the plasma lipid profiles of two types of hepatic fibrosis in order to aid the understanding of the pathophysiology of hepatic fibrosis. A liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry platform was used to reveal and compare the plasma lipid profiles of two types of chemical-induced hepatic fibrosis. Rat models of centrilobular fibrosis and bile duct fibrosis were established via chronic exposure to the known fibrogenic hepatotoxins, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or lomustine (LS), respectively, over a 28-day period. To delineate the specific alterations in the lipid profiles as a result of the hepatic fibrosis, we also employed non-fibrogenic hepatotoxicants (2-acetamidofluorene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, and ethambutol) as well as 3-day treatment of CCl4 and LS, which did not induce fibrosis. Our assay platform identified 228 lipids in the rat plasma, and the global lipid profile clearly distinguished these models from the control via principal component analysis. In addition, the alteration of the plasma lipid profile caused by CCl4 and LS were clearly different. Furthermore, a number of lipids were identified as specific alterations caused by fibrosis induced only by CCl4 and LS, respectively. Three lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC[18:3], LPC[20:4], and LPC[22:6]), and three phosphatidylcholines (PC[18:2/20:4], PC[40:8], and PC[20:4/22:6]) are specific circulating lipids, the levels of which were altered by both CCl4 and LS treatment; however, their levels were decreased by chronic exposure to CCl4 and increased by chronic exposure to LS. These results suggest that different types of chemical-induced hepatic fibrosis demonstrate clear

  2. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin–Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shanshan; Pan, Xiujie; Xu, Long; Yang, Zhihua [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Guo, Renfeng [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Gu, Yongqing; Li, Ruoxi; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Du, Li; Zhou, Pingkun [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Zhu, Maoxiang, E-mail: zhumx@nic.bmi.ac.cn [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}FoxP3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated on days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Conclusions: Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  3. Rac2 is involved in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation leading to pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi, Narcy; Puttagunta, Lakshmi; Chung, Kerri L; Davidson, Courtney; Rey-Parra, Juliana; Chao, Danny V; Thebaud, Bernard; Lacy, Paige; Vliagoftis, Harissios

    2014-06-27

    Pulmonary fibrotic diseases induce significant morbidity and mortality, for which there are limited therapeutic options available. Rac2, a ras-related guanosine triphosphatase expressed mainly in hematopoietic cells, is a crucial molecule regulating a diversity of mast cell, macrophage, and neutrophil functions. All these cell types have been implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis in a variety of animal models. For the studies described here we hypothesized that Rac2 deficiency protects mice from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. To determine the role of Rac2 in pulmonary fibrosis we used a bleomycin-induced mouse model. Anesthetized C57BL/6 wild type and rac2-/- mice were instilled intratracheally with bleomycin sulphate (1.25 U/Kg) or saline as control. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected at days 3 and 7 of treatment and analyzed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). On day 21 after bleomycin treatment, we measured airway resistance and elastance in tracheotomized animals. Lung sections were stained for histological analysis, while homogenates were analyzed for hydroxyproline and total collagen content. BLM-treated rac2-/- mice had reduced MMP-9 levels in the BAL on day 3 and reduced neutrophilia and TNF and CCL3/MIP-1α levels in the BAL on day 7 compared to BLM-treated WT mice. We also showed that rac2-/- mice had significantly lower mortality (30%) than WT mice (70%) at day 21 of bleomycin treatment. Lung function was diminished in bleomycin-treated WT mice, while it was unaffected in bleomycin-treated rac2-/- mice. Histological analysis of inflammation and fibrosis as well as collagen and hydroxyproline content in the lungs did not show significant differences between BLM-treated rac2-/- and WT and mice that survived to day 21. Rac2 plays an important role in bleomycin-induced lung injury. It is an important signaling molecule leading to BLM-induced mortality and it also mediates the physiological changes seen in the airways

  4. Aldosterone induces fibrosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage in livers of male rats independent of blood pressure changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queisser, Nina; Happ, Kathrin; Link, Samuel [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany); Jahn, Daniel [Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine II, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany); Zimnol, Anna [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany); Geier, Andreas [Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine II, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany); Schupp, Nicole, E-mail: schupp@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor blockers show antifibrotic potential in hepatic fibrosis. The mechanism of this protective effect is not known yet, although reactive oxygen species seem to play an important role. Here, we investigated the effects of elevated levels of aldosterone (Ald), the primary ligand of the mineralocorticoid receptor, on livers of rats in a hyperaldosteronism model: aldosterone-induced hypertension. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated for 4 weeks with aldosterone. To distinguish if damage caused in the liver depended on increased blood pressure or on increased Ald levels, the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone was given in a subtherapeutic dose, not normalizing blood pressure. To investigate the impact of oxidative stress, the antioxidant tempol was administered. Aldosterone induced fibrosis, detected histopathologically, and by expression analysis of the fibrosis marker, α-smooth muscle actin. Further, the mRNA amount of the profibrotic cytokine TGF-β was increased significantly. Fibrosis could be reduced by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and also by blocking the mineralocorticoid receptor. Furthermore, aldosterone treatment caused oxidative stress and DNA double strand breaks in livers, as well as the elevation of DNA repair activity. An increase of the transcription factor Nrf2, the main regulator of the antioxidative response could be observed, and of its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. All these effects of aldosterone were prevented by spironolactone and tempol. Already after 4 weeks of treatment, aldosteroneinfusion induced fibrosis in the liver. This effect was independent of elevated blood pressure. DNA damage caused by aldosterone might contribute to fibrosis progression when aldosterone is chronically increased. - Highlights: • Aldosterone has direct profibrotic effects on the liver independent of blood pressure. • Fibrosis is mediated by the mineralocorticoid receptor and

  5. Renal Denervation Findings on Cardiac and Renal Fibrosis in Rats with Isoproterenol Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Kai; Wang, Shengchan; Lu, Dasheng; Li, Zhenzhen; Geng, Jie; Fang, Ping; Wang, Ying; Shan, Qijun

    2015-12-01

    Cardio-renal fibrosis plays key roles in heart failure and chronic kidney disease. We sought to determine the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on cardiac and renal fibrosis in rats with isoproterenol induced cardiomyopathy. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to Control (n = 10) and isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiomyopathy group (n = 50). At week 5, 31 survival ISO-induced cardiomyopathy rats were randomized to RDN (n = 15) and Sham group (n = 16). Compared with Control group, ejection fraction was decreased, diastolic interventricular septal thickness and left atrial dimension were increased in ISO-induced cardiomyopathy group at 5 week. After 10 weeks, cardio-renal pathophysiologic results demonstrated that the collagen volume fraction of left atrio-ventricular and kidney tissues reduced significantly in RDN group compared with Sham group. Moreover the pro-fibrosis factors (TGF-β1, MMP2 and Collagen I), inflammatory cytokines (CRP and TNF-α), and collagen synthesis biomarkers (PICP, PINP and PIIINP) concentration significantly decreased in RDN group. Compared with Sham group, RDN group showed that release of noradrenaline and aldosterone were reduced, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) axis was downregulated. Meanwhile, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-1-7 (Ang-(1-7))/mas receptor (Mas-R) axis was upregulated. RDN inhibits cardio-renal fibrogenesis through multiple pathways, including reducing SNS over-activity, rebalancing RAAS axis.

  6. Enhanced cough reflex in a model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, Joan Antoni; Aguilera, Mònica; Domènech, Anna; Tarrasón, Gema; Prats, Neus; Miralpeix, Montse; De Alba, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Fibrotic lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, are associated with spontaneous dry cough and hypersensitivity to tussive agents. Understanding the pathophysiology driving enhanced cough may help us to define better therapies for patients. We hypothesized that lung fibrosis induced by intratracheal bleomycin would exacerbate the cough reflex induced by tussive agents in guinea pigs. Disease progression in the lungs was characterized at days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after bleomycin administration. Inflammatory and fibrotic markers, as well as neurotrophin levels, were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or lung tissue. Cough sensitivity to citric acid, capsaicin and allylisothiocyanate was evaluated in conscious animals at days 14 and 21 after bleomycin administration. Pulmonary lesions evolved from an early inflammatory phase (from day 1 to day 7) to a fibrotic stage (between days 14 and 28). Fibrosis was related to increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (day 21: saline, 0.26 ng/ml; bleomycin, 0.49 ng/ml). At day 14, we also observed increased cough reflexes to citric acid (163%), capsaicin (125%) and allylisothiocyanate (178%). Cough exacerbation persisted, but at a lower extent, by day 21 for capsaicin (100%) and allylisothiocyanate (54%). Moreover, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, suggested to induce nerve remodelling in chronic cough, were also enhanced (day 1: saline, 14.21 pg/ml; bleomycin, 30.09 pg/ml). In summary, our model of bleomycin-induced cough exacerbation may be a valuable tool to investigate cough hypersensitivity and develop antitussive therapies for fibrotic lung diseases. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  7. Bone marrow stem cells expressing keratinocyte growth factor via an inducible lentivirus protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Susana Aguilar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many common diseases of the gas exchange surface of the lung have no specific treatment but cause serious morbidity and mortality. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF is characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury, interstitial inflammation, fibroblast proliferation and collagen accumulation within the lung parenchyma. Keratinocyte Growth Factor (KGF, also known as FGF-7 is a critical mediator of pulmonary epithelial repair through stimulation of epithelial cell proliferation. During repair, the lung not only uses resident cells after injury but also recruits circulating bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC. Several groups have used Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs as therapeutic vectors, but little is known about the potential of Hematopoietic Stem cells (HSCs. Using an inducible lentiviral vector (Tet-On expressing KGF, we were able to efficiently transduce both MSCs and HSCs, and demonstrated that KGF expression is induced in a regulated manner both in vitro and in vivo. We used the in vivo bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model to assess the potential therapeutic effect of MSCs and HSCs. While both populations reduced the collagen accumulation associated with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, only transplantation of transduced HSCs greatly attenuated the histological damage. Using double immunohistochemistry, we show that the reduced lung damage likely occurs through endogenous type II pneumocyte proliferation induced by KGF. Taken together, our data indicates that bone marrow transplantation of lentivirus-transduced HSCs can attenuate lung damage, and shows for the first time the potential of using an inducible Tet-On system for cell based gene therapy in the lung.

  8. S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine attenuates liver fibrosis in experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

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    Mazo DF

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel FC Mazo,1 Marcelo G de Oliveira,2 Isabel VA Pereira,1 Bruno Cogliati,3 José T Stefano,1 Gabriela FP de Souza,2 Fabíola Rabelo,1 Fabiana R Lima,4 Venâncio A Ferreira Alves,4 Flair J Carrilho,1 Claudia PMS de Oliveira1 1University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, Clinical Division, Hepatology Branch (LIM-07, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 3University of Sao Paulo School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Pathology, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 4University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Department of Pathology (LIM14, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: S-Nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC is a water soluble primary S-nitrosothiol capable of transferring and releasing nitric oxide and inducing several biochemical activities, including modulation of hepatic stellate cell activation. In this study, we evaluated the antifibrotic activity of SNAC in an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH induced in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a choline-deficient, high trans fat diet and exposed to diethylnitrosamine for 8 weeks. The rats were divided into three groups: SNAC, which received oral SNAC solution daily; NASH, which received the vehicle; and control, which received standard diet and vehicle. Genes related to fibrosis (matrix metalloproteinases [MMP]-13, -9, and -2, transforming growth factor ß-1 [TGFß-1], collagen-1a, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase [TIMP-1 and -2] and oxidative stress (heat-shock proteins [HSP]-60 and -90 were evaluated. SNAC led to a 34.4% reduction in the collagen occupied area associated with upregulation of MMP-13 and -9 and downregulation of HSP-60, TIMP-2, TGFß-1, and collagen-1α. These results indicate that oral SNAC administration may represent a potential antifibrotic treatment for NASH. Keywords: nitric oxide, S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine, fibrogenesis, NASH, diethylnitrosamine

  9. The cationic amino acid transporter 2 is induced in inflammatory lung models and regulates lung fibrosis

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    Rothenberg Marc E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine is an amino acid that serves as a substrate for the enzymes nitric oxide synthase (NOS and arginase, leading to synthesis of NO and ornithine, respectively. As such, arginine has the potential to influence diverse fundamental processes in the lung. Methods We used mice deficient in cationic amino acid transporter (CAT 2 in models of allergic airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. Results We report that the arginine transport protein CAT2 was over-expressed in the lung during the induction of allergic airway inflammation. Furthermore, CAT2 mRNA was strongly induced by transgenically over-expressed IL-4, and allergen-induced expression was dependent upon signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription (STAT 6. In situ mRNA hybridization demonstrated marked staining of CAT2, predominantly in scattered mononuclear cells. Analysis of allergic airway inflammation and bleomycin-induced inflammation in CAT2-deficient mice revealed that while inflammation was independent of CAT2 expression, bleomycin-induced fibrosis was dependent upon CAT2. Mechanistic analysis revealed that arginase activity in macrophages was partly dependent on CAT2. Conclusion Taken together, these results identify CAT2 as a regulator of fibrotic responses in the lung.

  10. Dietary Flaxseed Oil Protects against Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats

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    Joshua Lawrenz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin, a widely used antineoplastic agent, has been associated with severe pulmonary toxicity, primarily fibrosis. Previous work has shown a reduction in bleomycin-induced lung pathology by long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Treatment by short-chain omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, found in dietary flaxseed oil may also reduce lung fibrosis, as previously evidenced in the kidney. To test this hypothesis, 72 rats were divided between diets receiving either 15% (w/w flaxseed oil or 15% (w/w corn oil (control. These groups were further divided to receive either bleomycin or vehicle (saline via an oropharyngeal delivery, rather than the traditional intratracheal instillation. Lungs were harvested at 2, 7, and 21 days after bleomycin or saline treatment. Animals receiving flaxseed oil showed a delay in edema formation (=0.025 and a decrease in inflammatory cell infiltrate and vasculitis (=0.04 and 0.007, resp.. At days 7 and 21, bleomycin produced a reduction in pulmonary arterial lumen patency (=0.01, but not in rats that were treated with flaxseed oil. Bleomycin-treated rats receiving flaxseed oil had reduced pulmonary septal thickness (=0.01, signifying decreased fibrosis. Dietary flaxseed oil may prove beneficial against the side effects of this highly effective chemotherapeutic agent and its known toxic effects on the lung.

  11. Roflumilast Prevents the Metabolic Effects of Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis in a Murine Model.

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    Javier Milara

    Full Text Available Fibrotic remodeling is a process common to chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, pulmonary fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and asthma. Based on preclinical studies phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 inhibitors may exhibit beneficial anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling properties for the treatment of these respiratory disorders. Effects of PDE4 inhibitors on changes in the lung metabolome in models of pulmonary fibrotic remodeling have not yet been explored. This work studies the effects of the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast on changes in the lung metabolome in the common murine model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR metabolic profiling of intact lung tissue. Metabolic profiling reveals strong differences between fibrotic and non-fibrotic tissue. These differences include increases in proline, glycine, lactate, taurine, phosphocholine and total glutathione and decreases in global fatty acids. In parallel, there was a loss in plasma BH4. This profile suggests that bleomycin produces alterations in the oxidative equilibrium, a strong inflammatory response and activation of the collagen synthesis among others. Roflumilast prevented most of these metabolic effects associated to pulmonary fibrosis suggesting a favorable anti-fibrotic profile.

  12. Coenzyme Q10 prevents oxidative stress and fibrosis in isoprenaline induced cardiac remodeling in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulla, Anayt; Mohamed, Mustafe Khalid; Sikder, Biswajit; Rahman, Afm Towheedur; Sumi, Farzana Akther; Hossain, Murad; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Rahman, G M Sayedur; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2017-04-20

    The objective of the present study aimed to investigate the effect of CoQ10 treatment on isoprenaline (ISO)-induced cardiac remodeling in rats. Rats were divided into three groups namely Control group, ISO treated group and CoQ10 + ISO treated group, each consisting of 6 rats. The cardiac specific CK-MB, AST, ALT activity and other oxidative stress parameters were estimated in heart and kidneys. Additionally histological examination was also performed to visualize the inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in both tissues. Administration of ISO resulted in an increase in the heart-to-body weight (HW/BW) ratio and an also increased the serum CK-MB, AST and ALT enzyme activity. Serum levels of lipid peroxidation products, and oxidative stress markers showed significant increase in ISO-treated rats. Histopathological examination of heart tissue revealed focal areas of endocardium degeneration, mononuclear cells infiltration, fibrous tissue deposition, and increased thickness of the myocardium of left ventricle. Similar degeneration was also found in kidneys. Treatment with CoQ10 (100 mg/kg) significantly improved the oxidative stresses in ISO treated rats. Moreover, CoQ10 treatment prevented inflammatory cells infiltration and reduced fibrosis in ISO administered rats. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that CoQ10 may prevent the development of cardiac remodeling, and fibrosis in ISO administered rats.

  13. Chinese herbal medicine Shenqi Detoxification Granule inhibits fibrosis in adenine induced chronic renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Min; Cai, Pingping; Ma, Hongbo; Meng, Hongyan; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Si, Guomin

    2014-01-01

    Progressive fibrosis accompanies all chronic renal disease, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF,) and platelet-derived growth factor-B, (PDGF-B,) play important roles in extra-cellular matrix abnormal accumulation, while endothelin-1 (ET-1) nitric oxide (NO,) are related to endothelial dysfunction, which mediates the progression of renal fibrosis. Shenqi Detoxification Granule (SDG), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, has been used for treatment of chronic renal failure in clinic for many years. In order to evaluate the efficacy, and explore the mechanism of SDG to inhibit the progression of renal fibrosis, study was carried out using the adenine-induced Wister rats as the CRF model, and losartan as postive control drug. Levels of serum creatinine [Scr], and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin (ALB), 24hrs, urine protein (24hUP), triacylglycerol (TG), and cholesterol (CHO), together with ET-1, and NO were detected. Pathological changes of renal tissues were observed by HE, staining. In addition, CTGF and PDGF-B expression were analyzed by immuno-histo-chemistry. The results indicated that SDG can effectively reduce Scr, BUN, 24hUP, TG, and CHO levels, increase ALB levels, inhibit renal tissue damage in CRF rats, and the mechanism maybe reduce PDGF-B, CTGF expression and ET-1/NO. Shenqi Detoxification Granule is a beneficial treatment for chronic renal failure.

  14. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis in amiodarone-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinas, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) have previously been demonstrated to be synthesized in greater than normal amounts following a single intratracheal insufflation of bleomycin in hamsters. This suggests that GAG may play a role in the propagation of pulmonary fibrotic reactions. To further test this hypothesis, GAG synthesis was studied in a new hamster model of interstitial lung injury, induced by the cardiac drug, aminodarone. Animals received a single intratracheal instillation of 1.25 mg aminodarone. At 4, 9, and 21 days post-insufflation, the animals were sacrificed, their lungs removed, and 1 mm fragments placed in explant culture for 6 hours at 37/sup 0/C in the presence of /sup 35/S-sulfate. The labeled GAG were isolated and measured for /sup 35/S incorporation. The author then isolated the hexosamine portions of the respective GAGs, Heparan Sulfate (HEP S), Chondroitin-6-Sulfate (Ch-6-S) and Chondroitin-4-Sulfate and Dermatan Sulfate (CH-4-S and DS) using the enzyme ABC and paper chromatography. They also studied the GAG content and distribution in hamster lung fibroblasts incorporated with /sup 35/S for 48 hours and subjected to either 0, 0.01 mg, 0.1 mg, or 1 mg of aminodarone. GAG synthesis is increased at an early stage following the induction of lung injury by aminodarone and remains elevated for a 3 week period. The change in GAG distribution boards elevated CH-4-S and DS may be characteristic of interstitial diseases in general. The GAGs that are synthesized by fibroblasts may be responsible for the increased CH-4-S and DS synthesis.

  15. Geraniol attenuates fibrosis and exerts anti-inflammatory effects on diet induced atherogenesis by NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Muthukumaran; Chandrasekaran, Balaji; Namasivayam, Nalini

    2015-09-05

    Atherosclerosis is now generally accepted as a chronic inflammatory condition. The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a key regulator of inflammation, immune responses, cell survival and cell proliferation. Tissue remodeling plays a significant role during the phase of inflammation and oxidative stress. In our study we have evaluated the effect of geraniol (GOH), a natural terpenoid on oxidative stress, inflammation and tissue remodeling in experimental animals. Experimental animals (hamsters) were divided into four groups; group 1 were control animals; group 2 were animals fed GOH alone (100mg/kg b.w. p.o); group 3 were animals fed atherogenic diet (standard pellet diet+10% coconut oil+0.25% cholesterol); group 4 animals were fed atherogenic diet as in group 3+GOH (100mg/kg b.w). At the end of the experimental period animals were killed and liver, heart and aorta tissues were analyzed for lipid peroxidation markers, non enzymic antioxidants and collagen distribution using histological studies like Milligan's trichrome and Picrosirius red staining. As inflammation plays a key role in tissue remodeling we also targeted the key inflammatory cytokine, NF-κB. GOH supplementation greatly prevented the remodeling of tissues by enhancing the free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus in conclusion it can be suggested that GOH (100mg/kg b.w) prevents the atherogenic diet induced fibrosis in experimental hamsters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Brd4 inhibition attenuates unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced fibrosis by blocking TGF-β-mediated Nox4 expression

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    Baoshang Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncovering new therapeutic targets for renal fibrosis holds promise for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases. Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET protein inhibitors have been shown to effectively ameliorate pathological fibrotic responses. However, the pharmacological effects and underlying mechanisms of these inhibitors in renal fibrosis remain elusive. In this study, we determined that the inhibition of Brd4, a BET family member, with a selective potent chemical inhibitor, JQ1, could prevent the development of renal fibrosis and block the progression of fibrosis in rats that have undergone unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO. Inhibiting Brd4 with either JQ1 or genetic knockdown resulted in decreased expression of fibrotic genes such as α-smooth muscle actin, collagen IV and fibronectin both in UUO-induced fibrosis and upon TGF-β1 stimulation in HK-2 cells. Brd4 inhibition also suppressed the oxidative stress induced by UUO in vivo or by TGF-β1 in HK-2 cells. Moreover, Nox4, which is constitutively active in renal cells and is involved in the generation of hydrogen peroxide, was up-regulated during UUO-mediated fibrosis and induced by TGF-β1 in HK-2 cells, and this up-regulation could be blunted by Brd4 inhibition. Consistently, Nox4-mediated ROS generation and fibrotic gene expression were attenuated upon Brd4 inhibition. Further, the transcriptional activity of Nox4 was suppressed by JQ1 or siRNA against Brd4. Additionally, Smad3 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which are upstream signals of Nox4 expression, were inhibited both in JQ1-administered UUO rats and Brd4-inhibited HK-2 cells. In conclusion, these results indicated that the inhibition of Brd4 might protect against renal fibrosis by blocking the TGF-β-Nox4-ROS-fibrosis axis, suggesting that Brd4 could be a promising therapeutic target.

  17. Effects and mechanisms of Acremoniumterricola milleretal mycelium on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-Peng; Yin, Yan-Yan; Li, Xia

    2011-01-01

    Acremoniumterricola milleretal mycelium (AMM) is one of the most precious traditional Chinese medicines. It has numerous protective effects on organs, and has been used in Chinese herb prescription to treat refractory diseases. Our preliminary studies demonstrated that AMM had hepatoprotective activity in acute liver injury. We further investigated the effects of AMM on liver fibrosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and explore its possible mechanisms. The animal model was established by injection with 50% CCl(4) subcutaneously in male Sprague-Dawley rats twice a week for eight weeks. Meanwhile, AMM (175, 350 and 700 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically per day until sacrifice. We found that treatment with AMM (175, 350 and 700 mg/kg) decreased CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum transaminase activities, hyaluronic acid, laminin and procollagen type III levels, and contents of hydroxyproline in liver tissues. It also restored the decreased SOD and GSH-Px activities and inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidative products during CCl(4) treatment. Moreover, AMM (350 and 700 mg/kg) decreased the elevation of TGF-β1 by 19.6% and 34.3%, respectively. In the pathological study, liver injury and the formation of liver fibrosis in rates treated by AMM were improved significantly. Immunoblot analysis showed that AMM (175, 350 and 700 mg/kg) inhibited Smad 2/3 phosphorylation, and elevated inhibitor Smad 7 expression. These results suggested that AMM could protect liver damage and inhibit the progression of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl(4), and its mechanisms might be associated with its ability to scavenge free radicals, decrease the level of TGF-β1 and block TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.

  18. Interactive effects of cerium oxide and diesel exhaust nanoparticles on inducing pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jane Y.C., E-mail: jym1@cdc.gov [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Young, Shih-Houng; Mercer, Robert R.; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Ma, Joseph K. [School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Castranova, Vincent [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Cerium compounds have been used as a fuel-borne catalyst to lower the generation of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), but are emitted as cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO{sub 2}) along with DEP in the diesel exhaust. The present study investigates the effects of the combined exposure to DEP and CeO{sub 2} on the pulmonary system in a rat model. Specific pathogen-free male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to CeO{sub 2} and/or DEP via a single intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed at various time points post-exposure. This investigation demonstrated that CeO{sub 2} induces a sustained inflammatory response, whereas DEP elicits a switch of the pulmonary immune response from Th1 to Th2. Both CeO{sub 2} and DEP activated AM and lymphocyte secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ, respectively. However, only DEP enhanced the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in response to ex vivo LPS or Concanavalin A challenge that was not affected by the presence of CeO{sub 2}, suggesting that DEP suppresses host defense capability by inducing the Th2 immunity. The micrographs of lymph nodes show that the particle clumps in DEP + CeO{sub 2} were significantly larger than CeO{sub 2} or DEP, exhibiting dense clumps continuous throughout the lymph nodes. Morphometric analysis demonstrates that the localization of collagen in the lung tissue after DEP + CeO{sub 2} reflects the combination of DEP-exposure plus CeO{sub 2}-exposure. At 4 weeks post-exposure, the histological features demonstrated that CeO{sub 2} induced lung phospholipidosis and fibrosis. DEP induced lung granulomas that were not significantly affected by the presence of CeO{sub 2} in the combined exposure. Using CeO{sub 2} as diesel fuel catalyst may cause health concerns. - Highlights: • DEP induced acute lung inflammation and switched immune response from Th1 to Th2. • DEP induced lung granulomas were not affected by the presence of CeO{sub 2}. • CeO{sub 2} induced sustained lung

  19. Slit2 ameliorates renal inflammation and fibrosis after hypoxia-and lipopolysaccharide-induced epithelial cells injury in vitro

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    Zhou, Xiangjun [Department of Urology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei (China); Yao, Qisheng, E-mail: yymcyqs@126.com [Department of Urology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei (China); Sun, Xinbo; Gong, Xiaoxin; Yang, Yong; Chen, Congbo [Department of Urology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei (China); Shan, Guang [Department of Urology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei (China)

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxic acute kidney injury (AKI) is often incompletely repaired and leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is characterized by tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. The Slit2 family of secreted glycoproteins is expressed in the kidney, it has been shown to exert an anti-inflammatory activity and prevent ischemic renal injury in vivo. However, whether Slit2 reduces renal fibrosis and inflammation after hypoxic and inflammatory epithelial cells injury in vitro remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether Slit2 ameliorated fibrosis and inflammation in two renal epithelial cells line challenged with hypoxia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Renal epithelial cells were treated with hypoxia and LPS to induce cell injury. Hoechst staining and Western blot analysis was conducted to examine epithelial cells injury. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tested the inflammatory factor interleukin (IL)−1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Western blot analysis determined the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)−1α, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Results revealed that hypoxia induced epithelial cells apoptosis, inflammatory factor IL-1β and TNF-α release and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. LPS could exacerbate hypoxia -induced epithelial cells apoptosis, IL-1β and TNF-α release and fibrosis. Slit2 reduced the expression of fibronectin, the rate of epithelial cell apoptosis, and the expression of inflammatory factor. Slit2 could also inhibit the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB, but not the expression of HIF-1α. Therefore, Slit2 attenuated inflammation and fibrosis after LPS- and hypoxia-induced epithelial cells injury via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, but not depending on the HIF-1α signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Slit2 ameliorates inflammation after hypoxia-and LPS-induced epithelial cells injury

  20. Long-term treatment with royal jelly improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Hamid Reza; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Ghafourian, Mehri; Arzi, Ardeshir; Rezaie, Anahita; Javad-Moosavi, Seyed Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fibrotic potential of royal jelly (RJ) powder against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The rats were given RJ orally (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg per day) for 7 consecutive days before the administration of single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (BLM) at 7.5 IU/kg. RJ doses were continued for 21 days after BLM exposure. Fibrotic changes in the lungs were studied by cell count and analysis of cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), histopathological examination, and assaying oxidative stress biomarkers in lung tissue. The results showed that BLM administration significantly increased the fibrotic changes, collagen content, and levels of malondialdehyde and decreased total thiol and glutathione peroxidase antioxidant contents in the rats' lung tissue. An increase in the level of cell counts and pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines such as TNF-α and TGF-β in BALF was observed. Also, it significantly decreased IFN-γ, an anti-fibrotic cytokine, in BALF. However, RJ (50 and 100 mg/kg) reversed all of these biochemical indices as well as histopathological alterations induced by BLM. The present study demonstrates that RJ, by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, attenuates oxidative damage and fibrosis induced by BLM.

  1. The anti-fibrotic effect of inhibition of TGFβ-ALK5 signalling in experimental pulmonary fibrosis in mice is attenuated in the presence of concurrent γ-herpesvirus infection

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    Natalia Smoktunowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available TGFβ-ALK5 pro-fibrotic signalling and herpesvirus infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study we addressed the role of TGFβ-ALK5 signalling during the progression of fibrosis in a two-hit mouse model of murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68 infection on the background of pre-existing bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Assessment of total lung collagen levels in combination with ex vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT analysis of whole lungs demonstrated that MHV-68 infection did not enhance lung collagen deposition in this two-hit model but led to a persistent and exacerbated inflammatory response. Moreover, µCT reconstruction and analysis of the two-hit model revealed distinguishing features of diffuse ground-glass opacities and consolidation superimposed on pre-existing fibrosis that were reminiscent of those observed in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF. Virally-infected murine fibrotic lungs further displayed evidence of extensive inflammatory cell infiltration and increased levels of CCL2, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-10. Blockade of TGFβ-ALK5 signalling attenuated lung collagen accumulation in bleomycin-alone injured mice, but this anti-fibrotic effect was reduced in the presence of concomitant viral infection. In contrast, inhibition of TGFβ-ALK5 signalling in virally-infected fibrotic lungs was associated with reduced inflammatory cell aggregates and increased levels of the antiviral cytokine IFNγ. These data reveal newly identified intricacies for the TGFβ-ALK5 signalling axis in experimental lung fibrosis, with different outcomes in response to ALK5 inhibition depending on the presence of viral infection. These findings raise important considerations for the targeting of TGFβ signalling responses in the context of pulmonary fibrosis.

  2. Cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction in experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy are ameliorated by alpha-lipoic acid

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    Li Chun-jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA, a naturally occurring compound, exerts powerful protective effects in various cardiovascular disease models. However, its role in protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM has not been elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ALA on cardiac dysfunction, mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS, extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and interrelated signaling pathways in a diabetic rat model. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by I.V. injection of streptozotocin (STZ at 45 mg/kg. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal groups with or without ALA treatment, and diabetes groups with or without ALA treatment. All studies were carried out 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. Cardiac catheterization was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Mitochondrial oxidative biochemical parameters were measured by spectophotometeric assays. Extracellular matrix content (total collagen, type I and III collagen was assessed by staining with Sirius Red. Gelatinolytic activity of Pro- and active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 levels were analyzed by a zymogram. Cardiac fibroblasts differentiation to myofibroblasts was evaluated by Western blot measuring smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β. Key components of underlying signaling pathways including the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, p38 MAPK and ERK were also assayed by Western blot. Results DCM was successfully induced by the injection of STZ as evidenced by abnormal heart mass and cardiac function, as well as the imbalance of ECM homeostasis. After administration of ALA, left ventricular dysfunction greatly improved; interstitial fibrosis also notably ameliorated indicated by decreased collagen deposition, ECM synthesis as well as enhanced ECM degradation. To further assess the underlying mechanism of improved DCM by ALA, redox status and cardiac remodeling associated

  3. Oxidative/Nitrative Stress and Inflammation Drive Progression of Doxorubicin-Induced Renal Fibrosis in Rats as Revealed by Comparing a Normal and a Fibrosis-Resistant Rat Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Csaba Imre; Erdélyi, Katalin; Kökény, Gábor; Lajtár, Enikő; Godó, Mária; Révész, Csaba; Kaucsár, Tamás; Kiss, Norbert; Sárközy, Márta; Csont, Tamás; Krenács, Tibor; Szénási, Gábor; Pacher, Pál; Hamar, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Chronic renal fibrosis is the final common pathway of end stage renal disease caused by glomerular or tubular pathologies. Genetic background has a strong influence on the progression of chronic renal fibrosis. We recently found that Rowett black hooded rats were resistant to renal fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the role of sustained inflammation and oxidative/nitrative stress in renal fibrosis progression using this new model. Our previous data suggested the involvement of podocytes, thus we investigated renal fibrosis initiated by doxorubicin-induced (5 mg/kg) podocyte damage. Doxorubicin induced progressive glomerular sclerosis followed by increasing proteinuria and reduced bodyweight gain in fibrosis-sensitive, Charles Dawley rats during an 8-week long observation period. In comparison, the fibrosis-resistant, Rowett black hooded rats had longer survival, milder proteinuria and reduced tubular damage as assessed by neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) excretion, reduced loss of the slit diaphragm protein, nephrin, less glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and matrix deposition assessed by periodic acid-Schiff, Picro-Sirius-red staining and fibronectin immunostaining. Less fibrosis was associated with reduced profibrotic transforming growth factor-beta, (TGF-β1) connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and collagen type I alpha 1 (COL-1a1) mRNA levels. Milder inflammation demonstrated by histology was confirmed by less monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) mRNA. As a consequence of less inflammation, less oxidative and nitrative stress was obvious by less neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (p47phox) and NADPH oxidase-2 (p91phox) mRNA. Reduced oxidative enzyme expression was accompanied by less lipid peroxidation as demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and less protein nitrosylation demonstrated by nitrotyrosine (NT) immunohistochemistry and quantified by Western blot. Our results demonstrate that mediators of fibrosis, inflammation and

  4. The antifibrotic effects of alveolar macrophages 5-HT2C receptors blockade on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaidy, Samah M; Essawy, Soha S

    2016-12-01

    The most widespread chronic fibrosing lung disease is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Lung serotonin (5-HT) content is increased during pulmonary fibrosis with the implication of 5-HT2 receptors in the pathogenesis. Serotonin plays important roles in alveolar macrophages function through 5-HT2C receptors activation. Numerous studies described the important role of 5-HT2A/B receptor blockers in suppressing different types of fibrosis as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The current study pointed to examine the antifibrotic effects of RS-102221 and/or terguride through in vivo model of pulmonary fibrosis. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis was through a single dose of intra-tracheal bleomycin instillation (5mg/kg dissolved in phosphate buffer saline) in adult male albino Wistar rats. Next day of bleomycin instillation, intraperitoneal injection of RS-102221 (0.5mg/kg/d) and/or terguride (1.2mg/kg/d) were administered and continued for 14 days. Noticeable increase in 5-HT2C receptors expression was observed in fibrotic lung tissues with marked allocation belonging to alveolar macrophages. Either RS-102221 or terguride reduced the increments in lung water contents, grading of lung fibrosis, lung tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF- β1 ) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in lung injury and fibrosis-induced by bleomycin. Moreover, collagen content and myofibroblasts-alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SМA) were significantly decreased. Additionally, the simultaneous administration of RS-102221 with terguride had a synergistic outcome compared to that obtained by individual monotherapy. These findings suggested the potential use of 5-HT2A/B/C antagonists as anti-fibrotic agents in lung fibrosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  5. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Claus; van Gennip, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Moser C, van Gennip M, Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PO, Lee B, Hougen HP, Calum H, Ciofu O, Givskov M, Molin S, Hoiby N. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis. APMIS 2009; 117: 95-107. The dominant cause of premature...... death in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chronic lung infection often lasts for decades with just one clone. However, as a result of inflammation, antibiotic treatment and different niches in the lungs, the clone undergoes...... and 2003) of the chronic lung infection of one CF patient using the seaweed alginate embedment model. The results showed that the non-mucoid clones reduced their virulence over time, resulting in faster clearing of the bacteria from the lungs, improved pathology and reduced pulmonary production...

  6. Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT Cells Prevent Autoimmunity, but Induce Pulmonary Inflammation in Cystic Fibrosis

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    Nanna Siegmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Inflammation is a major and critical component of the lung pathology in the hereditary disease cystic fibrosis. The molecular mechanisms of chronic inflammation in cystic fibrosis require definition. Methods: We used several genetic mouse models to test a role of iNKT cells and ceramide in pulmonary inflammation of cystic fibrosis mice. Inflammation was determined by the pulmonary cytokine profil and the abundance of inflammatory cells in the lung. Results: Here we provide a new concept how inflammation in the lung of individuals with cystic fibrosis is initiated. We show that in cystic fibrosis mice the mutation in the Cftr gene provokes a significant up-regulation of iNKT cells in the lung. Accumulation of iNKT cells serves to control autoimmune disease, which is triggered by a ceramide-mediated induction of cell death in CF organs. Autoimmunity becomes in particular overt in cystic fibrosis mice lacking iNKT cells and although suppression of the autoimmune response by iNKT cells is beneficial, IL-17+ iNKT cells attract macrophages and neutrophils to CF lungs resulting in chronic inflammation. Genetic deletion of iNKT cells in cystic fibrosis mice prevents inflammation in CF lungs. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate an important function of iNKT cells in the chronic inflammation affecting cystic fibrosis lungs. iNKT cells suppress the auto-immune response induced by ceramide-mediated death of epithelial cells in CF lungs, but also induce a chronic pulmonary inflammation.

  7. Hypoxia-preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells attenuate bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ying-Wei; Choo, Kong-Bung; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Hung, Tsai-Hsien; Chen, Young-Bin; Hsieh, Chung-Hsing; Kuo, Han-Pin; Chong, Kowit-Yu

    2015-05-20

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive diffuse parenchymal lung disorder of unknown etiology. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a novel approach with great therapeutic potential for the treatment of lung diseases. Despite demonstration of MSC grafting, the populations of engrafted MSCs have been shown to decrease dramatically 24 hours post-transplantation due to exposure to harsh microenvironments. Hypoxia is known to induce expression of cytoprotective genes and also secretion of anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic factors. Hypoxic preconditioning is thought to enhance the therapeutic potency and duration of survival of engrafted MSCs. In this work, we aimed to prolong the duration of survival of engrafted MSCs and to enhance the effectiveness of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis transplantation therapy by the use of hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs. Hypoxic preconditioning was achieved in MSCs under an optimal hypoxic environment. The expression levels of cytoprotective factors and their biological effects on damaged alveolar epithelial cells or transforming growth factor-beta 1-treated fibroblast cells were studied in co-culture experiments in vitro. Furthermore, hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs (HP-MSCs) were intratracheally instilled into bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice at day 3, and lung functions, cellular, molecular and pathological changes were assessed at 7 and 21 days after bleomycin administration. The expression of genes for pro-survival, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and growth factors was upregulated in MSCs under hypoxic conditions. In transforming growth factor-beta 1-treated MRC-5 fibroblast cells, hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs attenuated extracellular matrix production through paracrine effects. The pulmonary respiratory functions significantly improved for up to 18 days of hypoxia-preconditioned MSC treatment. Expression of inflammatory factors and fibrotic factor were all downregulated in the lung tissues of the

  8. Inhibition of the αvβ6 integrin leads to limited alteration of TGF-α-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madala, Satish K.; Korfhagen, Thomas R.; Schmidt, Stephanie; Davidson, Cynthia; Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Ikegami, Machiko; Violette, Shelia M.; Weinreb, Paul H.; Sheppard, Dean

    2014-01-01

    A number of growth factors and signaling pathways regulate matrix deposition and fibroblast proliferation in the lung. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptors and the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family are active in diverse biological processes and are central mediators in the initiation and maintenance of fibrosis in many diseases. Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) is a ligand for the EGFR, and doxycycline (Dox)-inducible transgenic mice conditionally expressing TGF-α specifically in the lung epithelium develop progressive fibrosis accompanied with cachexia, changes in lung mechanics, and marked pleural thickening. Although recent studies demonstrate that EGFR activation modulates the fibroproliferative effects involved in the pathogenesis of TGF-β induced pulmonary fibrosis, in converse, the direct role of EGFR induction of the TGF-β pathway in the lung is unknown. The αvβ6 integrin is an important in vivo activator of TGF-β activation in the lung. Immunohistochemical analysis of αvβ6 protein expression and bronchoalveolar analysis of TGF-β pathway signaling indicates activation of the αvβ6/TGF-β pathway only at later time points after lung fibrosis was already established in the TGF-α model. To determine the contribution of the αvβ6/TGF-β pathway on the progression of established fibrotic disease, TGF-α transgenic mice were administered Dox for 4 wk, which leads to extensive fibrosis; these mice were then treated with a function-blocking anti-αvβ6 antibody with continued administration of Dox for an additional 4 wk. Compared with TGF-α transgenic mice treated with control antibody, αvβ6 inhibition significantly attenuated pleural thickening and altered the decline in lung mechanics. To test the effects of genetic loss of the β6 integrin, TGF-α transgenic mice were mated with β6-null mice and the degree of fibrosis was compared in adult mice following 8 wk of Dox administration. Genetic ablation of

  9. The autocrine role of tryptase in pressure overload-induced mast cell activation, chymase release and cardiac fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Li

    2016-03-01

    Results and conclusion: The results indicate the presence of PAR-2 on MCs and that tryptase inhibition and nedocromil prevented TAC-induced fibrosis and increases in MC density, activation, and chymase release. Tryptase also significantly increased chymase concentration in ventricular slice culture media, which was prevented by the tryptase inhibitor. Hydroxyproline concentration in culture media was significantly increased with tryptase incubation as compared to the control group and the tryptase group incubated with nafamostat mesilate or chymostatin. We conclude that tryptase contributes to TAC-induced cardiac fibrosis primarily via activation of MCs and the amplified release of chymase.

  10. BBC3 in macrophages promoted pulmonary fibrosis development through inducing autophagy during silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijun; Cheng, Yusi; Yang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Fang, Shencun; Zhang, Wei; Han, Bing; Zhou, Zewei; Yao, Honghong; Chao, Jie; Liao, Hong

    2017-03-09

    Following inhalation into the lungs, silica particles are engulfed by alveolar macrophages, which triggers endogenous or exogenous apoptosis signaling pathways. As an inducer of apoptosis, the role of BBC3/PUMA (BCL2-binding component 3) in macrophages during silicosis remains unknown. Here, we exposed U937 cell-derived macrophages (UDMs) to SiO2 in vitro to explore the function of BBC3 in SiO2-induced disease. We found that SiO2 induced increased BBC3 expression, as well as macrophage activation and apoptosis. Knockdown of Bbc3 with specific siRNA significantly mitigated the SiO2-induced effects. In addition, our results clearly showed increased levels of autophagy in macrophages exposed to SiO2. However, inhibition of BBC3 decreased the occurrence of autophagy. Furthermore, we observed that the blockade of autophagy with 3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor, inhibited SiO2-induced macrophage activation and apoptosis. In contrast, rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, further enhanced the effects induced by SiO2. The conditioned medium from macrophages exposed to SiO2 promoted the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts, and the inhibition of BBC3/autophagy reduced the effects of the conditioned medium on fibroblasts. In the mouse model of silicosis, Bbc3 knockout mice clearly exhibited decreased levels of autophagy and fibrosis progression. These results suggest that downregulation of BBC3 expression may become a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of silicosis.

  11. Corilagin Attenuates Aerosol Bleomycin-Induced Experimental Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Guo, Qiong-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Ju; Li, Xiao; Li, Wen-Ting; Ma, Xi-Tao; Ma, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressing lethal disease with few clinically effective therapies. Corilagin is a tannin derivative which shows anti-inflammatory and antifibrotics properties and is potentiated in treating IPF. Here, we investigated the effect of corilagin on lung injury following bleomycin exposure in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis. Corilagin abrogated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis as assessed by H&E; Masson’s trichrome staining and lung hydroxyproline content in lung tissue. Corilagin reduced the number of apoptotic lung cells and prevented lung epithelial cells from membrane breakdown, effluence of lamellar bodies and thickening of the respiratory membrane. Bleomycin exposure induced expression of MDA, IKKα, phosphorylated IKKα (p-IKKα), NF-κB P65, TNF-α and IL-1β, and reduced I-κB expression in mice lung tissue or in BALF. These changes were reversed by high-dose corilagin (100 mg/kg i.p) more dramatically than by low dose (10 mg/kg i.p). Last, corilagin inhibits TGF-β1 production and α-SMA expression in lung tissue samples. Taken together, these findings confirmed that corilagin attenuates bleomycin-induced epithelial injury and fibrosis via inactivation of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokine release and NF-κB and TGF-β1 signaling. Corilagin may serve as a promising therapeutic agent for pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24886817

  12. Asiatic acid ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin (BLM) via suppressing pro-fibrotic and inflammatory signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shu-Hong; Liu, Yan-Wei; Wei, Feng; Tan, Hui-Zhen; Han, Zhi-Dong

    2017-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is known as a life-threatening disease with high mortality and limited therapeutic strategies. In addition, the molecular mechanism by which pulmonary fibrosis developed is not fully understood. Asiatic acid (AA) is a triterpenoid, isolated from Centella asiatica, exhibiting efficient anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. In our study, we attempted to explore the effect of Asiatic acid on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. The findings indicated that pre-treatment with Asiatic acid inhibited BLM-induced lung injury and fibrosis progression in mice. Further, Asiatic acid down-regulates inflammatory cells infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in lung tissue specimens induced by BLM. Also, Asiatic acid apparently suppressed transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) expression in tissues of lung, accompanied with Collagen I, Collagen III, α-SMA and matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 decreasing, as well as Smads and ERK1/2 inactivation. Of note, Asiatic acid reduces NOD-like receptor, pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. The findings indicated that Asiatic acid might be an effective candidate for pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions Induce Fibrosis Mediated by TGF-β1 Cytokine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Isalira Peroba Rezende; de Moraes, Alan César Nunes; do Nascimento, Ana Lúcia Rosa; Salata, Camila; Goldenberg, Regina Coeli dos Santos; de Carvalho, Jorge José; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Veloso

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate radiation-induced lesions on the skin in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: Cutaneous wounds were induced in Wistar rats by 4 MeV energy electron beam irradiation, using a dose rate of 240 cGy/min, for 3 different doses (10 Gy, 40 Gy, and 60 Gy). The skin was observed 5, 10, and 25 days (D) after ionizing radiation exposition. Results: Infiltrate inflammatory process was observed in D5 and D10, for the 40 Gy and 60 Gy groups, and a progressive increase of transforming growth factor β1 is associated with this process. It could also be noted a mischaracterization of collagen fibers at the high-dose groups. Conclusion: It was observed that the lesions caused by ionizing radiation in rats were very similar to radiodermatitis in patients under radiotherapy treatment. Advances in Knowledge: This study is important to develop strategies to prevent radiation-induced skin reactions. PMID:28507463

  14. Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions Induce Fibrosis Mediated by TGF-β1 Cytokine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherley Borba Vieira de Andrade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to investigate radiation-induced lesions on the skin in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: Cutaneous wounds were induced in Wistar rats by 4 MeV energy electron beam irradiation, using a dose rate of 240 cGy/min, for 3 different doses (10 Gy, 40 Gy, and 60 Gy. The skin was observed 5, 10, and 25 days (D after ionizing radiation exposition. Results: Infiltrate inflammatory process was observed in D5 and D10, for the 40 Gy and 60 Gy groups, and a progressive increase of transforming growth factor β1 is associated with this process. It could also be noted a mischaracterization of collagen fibers at the high-dose groups. Conclusion: It was observed that the lesions caused by ionizing radiation in rats were very similar to radiodermatitis in patients under radiotherapy treatment. Advances in Knowledge: This study is important to develop strategies to prevent radiation-induced skin reactions.

  15. NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Contributes to Mechanical Stretch-Induced Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhou; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yu-Jian; Mao, Yan-Fei; Dong, Wen-Wen; Ding, Zhong-Nuo; Meng, Guang-Xun; Jiang, Lai; Zhu, Xiao-Yan

    2018-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation can induce lung fibrosis. This study aimed to investigate whether ventilator-induced lung fibrosis was associated with endothelial-mesenchymal transition and to uncover the underlying mechanisms. Randomized, controlled animal study and cell culture study. University research laboratory. Adult male Institute of Cancer Research, NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) knockout and wild-type mice. Primary cultured mouse lung vascular endothelial cells. Institute of Cancer Research, NLRP3 knockout and wild-type mice were subjected to mechanical ventilation (20 mL/kg) for 2 hours. Mouse lung vascular endothelial cells were subjected to cyclic stretch for 24 hours. Mice subjected to mechanical ventilation exhibited increases in collagen deposition, hydroxyproline and type I collagen contents, and transforming growth factor-β1 in lung tissues. Ventilation-induced lung fibrosis was associated with increased expression of mesenchymal markers (α smooth muscle actin and vimentin), as well as decreased expression of endothelial markers (vascular endothelial-cadherin and CD31). Double immunofluorescence staining showed the colocalization of CD31/α smooth muscle actin, CD31/vimentin, and CD31/fibroblast-specific protein-1 in lung tissues, indicating endothelial-mesenchymal transition formation. Mechanical ventilation also induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in lung tissues. In vitro direct mechanical stretch of primary mouse lung vascular endothelial cells resulted in similar NLRP3 activation and endothelial-mesenchymal transition formation, which were prevented by NLRP3 knockdown. Furthermore, mechanical stretch-induced endothelial-mesenchymal transition and pulmonary fibrosis were ameliorated in NLRP3-deficient mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Mechanical stretch may promote endothelial-mesenchymal transition and pulmonary fibrosis through a NLRP3-dependent pathway. The inhibition of endothelial-mesenchymal transition by

  16. Naringenin prevents experimental liver fibrosis by blocking TGFβ-Smad3 and JNK-Smad3 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aquino, Erika; Zarco, Natanael; Casas-Grajales, Sael; Ramos-Tovar, Erika; Flores-Beltrán, Rosa E; Arauz, Jonathan; Shibayama, Mineko; Favari, Liliana; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Segovia, José; Muriel, Pablo

    2017-06-28

    To study the molecular mechanisms involved in the hepatoprotective effects of naringenin (NAR) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Thirty-two male Wistar rats (120-150 g) were randomly divided into four groups: (1) a control group (n = 8) that received 0.7% carboxy methyl-cellulose (NAR vehicle) 1 mL/daily p.o.; (2) a CCl4 group (n = 8) that received 400 mg of CCl4/kg body weight i.p. 3 times a week for 8 wk; (3) a CCl4 + NAR (n = 8) group that received 400 mg of CCl4/kg body weight i.p. 3 times a week for 8 wk and 100 mg of NAR/kg body weight daily for 8 wk p.o.; and (4) an NAR group (n = 8) that received 100 mg of NAR/kg body weight daily for 8 wk p.o. After the experimental period, animals were sacrificed under ketamine and xylazine anesthesia. Liver damage markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP), reduced glutathione (GSH), glycogen content, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and collagen content were measured. The enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was assessed. Liver histopathology was performed utilizing Masson's trichrome and hematoxylin-eosin stains. Zymography assays for MMP-9 and MMP-2 were carried out. Hepatic TGF-β, α-SMA, CTGF, Col-I, MMP-13, NF-κB, IL-1, IL-10, Smad7, Smad3, pSmad3 and pJNK proteins were detected via western blot. NAR administration prevented increases in ALT, AP, γ-GTP, and GPx enzymatic activity; depletion of GSH and glycogen; and increases in LPO and collagen produced by chronic CCl4 intoxication (P < 0.05). Liver histopathology showed a decrease in collagen deposition when rats received NAR in addition to CCl4. Although zymography assays showed that CCl4 produced an increase in MMP-9 and MMP-2 gelatinase activity; interestingly, NAR administration was associated with normal MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity (P < 0.05). The anti-inflammatory, antinecrotic and antifibrotic effects of NAR may be attributed to its ability to prevent NF

  17. Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor–2 Deficiency Confers Protection against Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury and Fibrosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long Shuang; Fu, Panfeng; Patel, Priya; Harijith, Anantha; Sun, Tianjiao; Zhao, Yutong; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Chun, Jerold

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury, the accumulation of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling through its G protein–coupled receptors is critical for its various biological functions. Recently, LPA and LPA receptor 1 were implicated in lung fibrogenesis. However, the role of other LPA receptors in fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we use a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model to investigate the roles of LPA2 in pulmonary fibrogenesis. In the present study, we found that LPA2 knockout (Lpar2−/−) mice were protected against bleomycin-induced lung injury, fibrosis, and mortality, compared with wild-type control mice. Furthermore, LPA2 deficiency attenuated the bleomycin-induced expression of fibronectin (FN), α–smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen in lung tissue, as well as levels of IL-6, transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β), and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In human lung fibroblasts, the knockdown of LPA2 attenuated the LPA-induced expression of TGF-β1 and the differentiation of lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, resulting in the decreased expression of FN, α-SMA, and collagen, as well as decreased activation of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2, Akt, Smad3, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Moreover, the knockdown of LPA2 with small interfering RNA also mitigated the TGF-β1–induced differentiation of lung fibroblasts. In addition, LPA2 deficiency significantly attenuated the bleomycin-induced apoptosis of alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells in the mouse lung. Together, our data indicate that the knockdown of LPA2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, and this may be related to an inhibition of the LPA-induced expression of TGF-β and the activation and differentiation of fibroblasts. PMID:23808384

  18. Exercise attenuates pulmonary injury in mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Luana O; Oliveira, Fabrício M S; Ribeiro, Tatiana M S; Almeida, Pedro W M; Cardoso, Jefferson A; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria da Glória; Caliari, Marcelo V

    2012-08-01

    Human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with unknown etiology and poor prognosis in which patients present a decrease in functional exercise tolerance and quality of life. At present, no treatment which can improve the prognosis of this disease is available. Many biomarkers of pulmonary fibrosis have been studied, and surfactant protein A (SP-A) expression is considered a specific marker of lung disease. This study aimed to investigate the influence of exercise training on exercise endurance capacity and murine-lung lesions induced by bleomycin (BLM). Thirty-four male Balb/c mice were subdivided into four groups: control sedentary (C-SED), bleomycin-treated sedentary (BLM-SED), control exercised (C-EXE) and bleomycin-treated exercised (BLM-EXE). Mice received 6.25 U/kg of BLM or saline via intratracheal instillation. After adaptation in a swimming pool, the animals started training one hour per day, with 60% of maximum load obtained in exercise endurance capacity assessment, five days/week for four weeks. The lungs were collected 48 h after the second endurance capacity assessment, fixed in buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were analyzed using histochemical and immunohistochemical reactions for digital morphometry of pulmonary fibrosis, type I collagen, SP-A and type II pneumocytes (PII). The exercise endurance capacity of groups C-EXE (9.20 ± 0.81 min) and BLM-EXE (8.40 ± 0.82 min) increased significantly when compared with groups C-SED (5.84 ± 0.4 min) and BLM-SED (5.67 ± 0.60 min). The amounts of connective tissue, type I collagen, PII and SP-A increased significantly in the BLM-SED group. Exercise training significantly attenuated this response as observed in the BLM-EXE group. The present study shows that exercise training can prevent the decline of exercise endurance capacity and attenuate the progression of IPF.

  19. Naringin Reduces Hyperglycemia-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis by Relieving Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi A Adebiyi

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia promotes myocardial fibrotic lesions through upregulation of PKC and p38 in response to redox changes. The effects of naringin on hyperglycemia-induced myocardial fibrotic changes and its putative effects on PKC-β and p38 protein expression in type 1 rat model of diabetes are hereby investigated.Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups I-VI. Groups I and II, were orally treated with distilled water {3.0 ml/kg body weight (BW} and naringin (50 mg/kg BW, respectively. Groups III, IV, V and VI were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, BW and were similarly treated with subcutaneous insulin (8.0 I.U/kg BW, twice daily, naringin (50 mg/kg BW, distilled water (3.0 ml/Kg BW and ramipril (3.0 mg/kg/BW, respectively. The animals were sacrificed after 56 days by halothane overdose; blood and heart samples removed for further analysis.The untreated diabetic rats exhibited significantly increased oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase activity, increased cardiac fibrosis, PKC-β and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase expression compared to controls. Naringin treatment significantly ameliorated these changes in diabetic rats compared to the untreated diabetic controls.Naringin's amelioration of myocardial fibrosis by modulating p38 and PKC-β protein expression possibly through its known antioxidant actions and may therefore be useful in retarding the progression of fibrosis in a diabetic heart.

  20. The absence of reactive oxygen species production protects mice against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

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    Boichot Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species and tissue remodeling regulators, such as metalloproteinases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs, are thought to be involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated these factors in the fibrotic response to bleomycin of p47phox -/- (KO mice, deficient for ROS production through the NADPH-oxidase pathway. Methods Mice are administered by intranasal instillation of 0.1 mg bleomycin. Either 24 h or 14 days after, mice were anesthetized and underwent either bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lung removal. Results BAL cells from bleomycin treated WT mice showed enhanced ROS production after PMA stimulation, whereas no change was observed with BAL cells from p47phox -/- mice. At day 1, the bleomycin-induced acute inflammatory response (increased neutrophil count and MMP-9 activity in the BAL fluid was strikingly greater in KO than wild-type (WT mice, while IL-6 levels increased significantly more in the latter. Hydroxyproline assays in the lung tissue 14 days after bleomycin administration revealed the absence of collagen deposition in the lungs of the KO mice, which had significantly lower hydroxyproline levels than the WT mice. The MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio did not change at day 1 after bleomycin administration in WT mice, but increased significantly in the KO mice. By day 14, the ratio fell significantly from baseline in both strains, but more in the WT than KO strains. Conclusions These results suggest that NADPH-oxidase-derived ROS are essential to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. The absence of collagen deposition in KO mice seems to be associated with an elevated MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in the lungs. This finding highlights the importance of metalloproteinases and protease/anti-protease imbalances in pulmonary fibrosis.

  1. The preventive role of levosimendan against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Sayar, Ilyas; Cankaya, Murat; Gürbüzel, Ahmet; Demirtas, Levent; Bakirci, Eftal Murat; Capoglu, Ilyas

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of levosimendan used in the treatment of acute congestive heart failure upon pulmonary fibrosis in rats induced with bleomycin (BL) were analyzed. A total of 33 male Sprague-Dawley type rats were categorized into five groups randomly. About 2.5U/kg BL was intratracheally administered to the rats in the BL, BL+L1, BL+L2, and BL+L3 groups, and 0.9% saline was intratracheally administered at the same rate to the control group. 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg levosimendan was intraperitoneally administered to the BL+L1, BL+L2, and BL+L3 groups, respectively. Blood and tissue samples were taken from the rats euthanized to determine the changes in erythrocyte enzyme activities and to conduct histopathological evaluations after 14 days. With values between 0 and 3, histopathological scoring damage was assessed by the presence of inflammation and fibrosis in a semiquantitative manner. Compared with those in the C group, glutathione reductase (GR) and Catalase (CAT) enzymes decreased in the BL group; compared with that in the BL group, GR increased in the BL+L1 and BL+L3 groups, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) increased in the BL+L3 group, and CAT increased in the BL+L2 and BL+L3 groups (pfibrosis occurred in all rats in the BL group, and tissue damage was noticed to be generally less in the BL+L1, BL+L2, and BL+L3 groups (ppulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Boswellia serrata and Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts reduce DMN-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice by TGF-beta1 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferra, R; Vetuschi, A; Catitti, V; Ammanniti, S; Pompili, S; Melideo, D; Frieri, G; Gaudio, E; Latella, G

    2012-10-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is characterised by a progressive accumulation of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including collagen that occurs in chronic liver diseases. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta)/Smad3 signalling plays a major role in tissue fibrogenesis acting as a potent stimulus of ECM accumulation. To evaluate the effects of a combined therapy with anti-inflammatory Boswellia and anti-fibrotic Salvia extracts on the course of chronic hepatitis-associated fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in mice, as well as on the hepatic expression of TGF-beta1 and Smad proteins. Chronic hepatitis-associated fibrosis was induced in mice by intraperitoneal DMN administration. Mice were assigned to 5 groups: controls; DMN without any treatment; DMN treated orally with Boswellia extracts (50 mg/kg/day); DMN treated orally with Salvia extracts (150 mg/ kg/day); DMN treated orally with both Boswellia (50 mg/kg/day) and Salvia extracts (150 mg/kg/ day). The liver was excised for macroscopic examination and histological, morphometric and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses. For IHC, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), collagen types I-III, TGF-beta1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), Smad3, Smad7, CD3, PCNA and TUNEL antibodies were used. The combined oral administration of Boswellia and Salvia extracts improved the course and macroscopic findings of DMN-induced chronic hepatitis-associated fibrosis. The histological severity of the hepatic fibrosis showed a marked improvement following treatment and was associated with a reduction in the hepatic expression of alpha-SMA, collagen I-III, CTGF, TGF-beta1, Smad3, and Smad7. These data demonstrate that co-treatment of Boswellia plus Salvia extracts is effective in preventing hepatic fibrosis in DMN-induced chronic hepatitis. The anti-fibrotic properties are mainly related to Salvia extracts and appear to be mediated by the inhibition of the TGF-beta1/Smad3 pathway.

  3. Protective Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Alveolar Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Yun-Qian; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Mao, Yan-Fei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Liu, Yu-Jian; Jiang, Lai

    2017-05-19

    BACKGROUND Fibrotic change is one of the important reasons for the poor prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The present study investigated the effects of hydrogen-rich saline, a selective hydroxyl radical scavenger, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male ICR mice were divided randomly into 5 groups: Control, LPS-treated plus vehicle treatment, and LPS-treated plus hydrogen-rich saline (2.5, 5, or 10 ml/kg) treatment. Twenty-eight days later, fibrosis was assessed by determination of collagen deposition, hydroxyproline, and type I collagen levels. Development of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was identified by examining protein expressions of E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 content, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined. RESULTS Mice exhibited increases in collagen deposition, hydroxyproline, type I collagen contents, and TGF-β1 production in lung tissues after LPS treatment. LPS-induced lung fibrosis was associated with increased expression of α-SMA, as well as decreased expression of E-cadherin. In addition, LPS treatment increased MDA levels but decreased T-AOC, CAT, and SOD activities in lung tissues, indicating that LPS induced pulmonary oxidative stress. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment at doses of 2.5, 5, or 10 ml/kg significantly attenuated LPS-induced pulmonary fibrosis. LPS-induced loss of E-cadherin in lung tissues was largely reversed, whereas the acquisition of α-SMA was dramatically decreased by hydrogen-rich saline treatment. In addition, hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS Hydrogen-rich saline may protect against LPS-induced EMT and pulmonary fibrosis through suppressing oxidative stress.

  4. Recurrent exposure to subclinical lipopolysaccharide increases mortality and induces cardiac fibrosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbur Y W Lew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating subclinical lipopolysaccharide (LPS occurs in health and disease. Ingesting high fatty meals increases LPS that cause metabolic endotoxemia. Subclinical LPS in periodontal disease may impair endothelial function. The heart may be targeted as cardiac cells express TLR4, the LPS receptor. It was hypothesized that recurrent exposure to subclinical LPS increases mortality and causes cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice were injected with intraperitoneal saline (control, low dose LPS (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, or moderate dose LPS (10 or 20 mg/kg, once a week for 3 months. Left ventricular (LV function (echocardiography, hemodynamics (tail cuff pressure and electrocardiograms (telemetry were measured. Cardiac fibrosis was assessed by picrosirius red staining and LV expression of fibrosis related genes (QRT-PCR. Adult cardiac fibroblasts were isolated and exposed to LPS. RESULTS: LPS injections transiently increased heart rate and blood pressure (<6 hours and mildly decreased LV function with full recovery by 24 hours. Mice tolerated weekly LPS for 2-3 months with no change in activity, appearance, appetite, weight, blood pressure, LV function, oximetry, or blood chemistries. Mortality increased after 60-90 days with moderate, but not low dose LPS. Arrhythmias occurred a few hours before death. LV collagen fraction area increased dose-dependently from 3.0±0.5% (SEM in the saline control group, to 5.6±0.5% with low dose LPS and 9.7±0.9% with moderate dose LPS (P<0.05 moderate vs low dose LPS, and each LPS dose vs control. LPS increased LV expression of collagen Iα1, collagen IIIα1, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, periostin and IL-6 (P<0.05 moderate vs low dose LPS and vs control. LPS increased α-SMA immunostaining of myofibroblasts. LPS dose-dependently increased IL-6 in isolated adult cardiac fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent exposure to subclinical LPS increases mortality and induces cardiac fibrosis.

  5. Obesity-Induced Diabetes and Lower Urinary Tract Fibrosis Promote Urinary Voiding Dysfunction in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaee-Kermani, Mehrnaz; Rodriguez-Nieves, Jose A.; Mehra, Rohit; Vezina, Chad A.; Sarma, Aruna V.; Macoska, Jill A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progressive aging- and inflammation-associated fibrosis effectively remodels the extracellular matrix (ECM) to increase prostate tissue stiffness and reduce urethral flexibility, resulting in urinary flow obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). In the current study, we sought to test whether senescence-accelerated mouse prone (SAMP)6 mice, which were reported to develop prostatic fibrosis, would also develop LUTS, and whether these symptoms would be exacerbated by diet-induced obesity and concurrent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). METHODS To accomplish this, SAMP6 and AKR/J background strain mice were fed regular mouse chow, low fat diet chow, or high fat diet chow for 8 months, then subjected to glucose tolerance tests, assessed for plasma insulin levels, evaluated for urinary voiding function, and assessed for lower urinary tract fibrosis. RESULTS The results of these studies show that SAMP6 mice and AKR/J background strain mice develop diet-induced obesity and T2DM concurrent with urinary voiding dysfunction. Moreover, urinary voiding dysfunction was more severe in SAMP6 than AKR/J mice and was associated with pronounced prostatic and urethral tissue fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, these studies suggest that obesity, T2DM, lower urinary tract fibrosis, and urinary voiding dysfunction are inextricably and biologically linked. Prostate. PMID:23532836

  6. Structure Activity Relationships of Engineered Nanomaterials in inducing NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Chronic Lung Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Sun, Bingbing; Liu, Sijin; Xia, Tian

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that certain engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) could induce chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis, however, the key structure activity relationships (SARs) that the link the physicochemical properties and the fibrogenic effects have not been thoroughly reviewed. Recently, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the SAR, and it has been demonstrated that ENMs including rare earth oxides (REOs), graphene and graphene oxides (GO), fumed silica, as well as high aspect ratio materials (such as CNTs and CeO 2 nanowires etc .) could trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β production in macrophages and subsequent series of profibrogenic cytokines, i.e. TGF-β1 and PDGF-AA in vitro and in vivo , resulting in synergistically cell-cell communication among macrophages, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts in a process named epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and collagen deposition in the lung as the adverse outcomes. Interestingly, different ENMs engage a range of distinct pathways leading to the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β production in macrophages, which include frustrated phagocytosis, physical piercing, plasma membrane perturbation or damage to lysosomes due to high aspect ratio, particle structure, surface reactivity, transformation, etc . Furthermore, ENM's properties determine the biopersistence in vivo, which also play a major role in chronic lung fibrosis. Based on these progresses, we reviewed recent findings in the literature on the major SARs leading to chronic lung effects.

  7. The Protective Effect of Naringin against Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Nergiz H.; Kara, Haki; Elagoz, Sahende; Deveci, Koksal; Gungor, Huseyin; Arslanbas, Emre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of naringin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups (control, bleomycin alone, bleomycin + naringin 40, and bleomycin + naringin 80) were used. Rats were administered a single dose of bleomycin (5 mg/kg; via the tracheal cannula) alone or followed by either naringin 40 mg/kg (orally) or naringin 80 mg/kg (orally) or water (1 mL, orally) for 14 days. Rats and lung tissue were weighed to determine the lung index. TNF-α and IL-1β levels, hydroxyproline content, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assayed. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, and 0.1% toluidine blue. TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA levels and hydroxyproline content significantly increased (p bleomycin group (p bleomycin and may provide supportive therapy for conventional treatment methods for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26977316

  8. Pharmacological Targeting of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Affords Protection from Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C. Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease that remains refractory to therapy. Despite increasing evidence that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) contributes to fibrosis, its importance in pulmonary fibrosis is under debate. We addressed whether PAR-2

  9. Pharmacological targeting of protease-activated receptor 2 affords protection from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Lin (Cong); J. von der Thusen (Jan); J. Daalhuisen (Joost); M. Ten Brink (Marieke); B. Crestani (Bruno); T. van der Poll (Tom); K. Borensztajn (Keren); C. Arnold Spek (C.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease that remains refractory to therapy. Despite increasing evidence that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) contributes to fibrosis, its importance in pulmonary fibrosis is under debate. We addressed

  10. Osthole Alleviates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Modulating Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/Angiotensin-(1–7) Axis and Decreasing Inflammation Responses in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hao, Yuewen; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    ...) induced acute lung injury (ALI) via an ACE2 pathway. Here we further investigated the protective effects of osthole on bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis and attempted to determine the underlying mechanism...

  11. TRIF promotes angiotensin II-induced cross-talk between fibroblasts and macrophages in atrial fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dao-Liang [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Ming-Jian; Guo, Meng; Zhan, Yang-Yang; Liu, Fang [National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Li [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Liang, E-mail: zhaol_zg@163.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Quan-Xing, E-mail: wqxejd@126.com [National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Liu, Xu, E-mail: liuxu_xk@163.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-08-14

    Aims: Atrial fibroblasts and macrophages have long been thought to participate in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, which specific mediator may regulate the interaction between them remains unclear. Methods and results: We provided the evidence for the involvement of Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF), an important inflammation-related molecule, in the pathophysiology of AF. Patients with AF showed higher levels of angiotensin II (AngII) and TRIF expression and larger number of macrophages infiltration in left atria appendage than individuals with sinus rhythm (SR). In the cell study, AngII induced chemokines expressions in mouse atrial fibroblasts and AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblasts induced the chemotaxis of macrophages, which were reduced by losartan and TRIF siRNA. Meanwhile, AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblasts proliferation was enhanced by macrophages. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that TRIF may be a crucial factor promoting the interaction between atrial fibroblasts and macrophages, leading to atrial fibrosis. - Highlights: • Compared with SR, AF showed higher TRIF expression in left atrial appendage. • TRIF siRNA reversed macrophage chemotaxis induced by AngII-treated fibroblast. • TRIF siRNA reversed chemokines expressions induced by AngII in fibroblast. • AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblast proliferation was enhanced by macrophage.

  12. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis | Onawunmi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (1977) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis. OA Onawunmi. Abstract. No abstract.

  13. Inhibition of cellular transdifferentiation by losartan minimizes but does not reverse type 2 diabetes-induced renal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoni, Carine P; Maquigussa, Edgar; Passos, Clévia S; Pereira, Luciana G; Boim, Mirian A

    2015-09-01

    Transformer Growth Factor (TGF-β1) and angiotensin II (AngII) induce epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and myofibroblastic transdifferentiation (MFT) contributing to renal fibrosis. The present study evaluated the capacity of an AT1 receptor blocker (losartan) to induce the regression of pre-existing fibrosis via interference with MFT and EMT in a rat model of type 2 diabetes, and in cultured mesangial cells (MCs) stimulated with high glucose and AngII. After 12 weeks of diabetes induction (D12 group), animals showing evidence of nephropathy, were divided in groups untreated for additional 8 weeks (D20 group) and treated for additional 8 weeks with losartan (D20+los group). D12 animals presented hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, proteinuria, increased levels of TGF-β1 and MFT/EMT markers. Losartan stabilized all of these parameters and hindered the progression of fibrosis, but it did not reverse the pre-existing fibrotic manifestations. Losartan reduced TGF-β1 in the tubules, but not in the glomeruli. Stimulated MC exhibited myofibroblast phenotype and capacity for migration, which were completely reversed by losartan. Cellular transition may play a role in diabetes-inducing renal fibrogenesis in both AngII-TGF-β1 axis-dependent and independent manners. Losartan was efficient in preventing cells from undergoing further transdifferentiation, but this strategy was not sufficient to induce regression of the pre-existing tissue fibrosis. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Parental knowledge reduces long term anxiety induced by false-positive test results after newborn screening for cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, A.M.M.; Pal, S.M. van der; Reijntjens, A.J.T.; Loeber, J.G.; Dompeling, E.; Dankert-Roelse, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: False-positive screening results in newborn screening for cystic fibrosis may lead to parental stress, family relationship problems and a changed perception of the child's health. Aim of the study: To evaluate whether parental anxiety induced by a false positive screening result

  15. Partial mastectomy and m. latissimus dorsi reconstruction for radiation-induced fibrosis after breast-conserving cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N. van Geel (Albert); T. Lans (Titia); R. Haen (Roel); R.T.J. Wai (Rudi Tjong Joe); M. Menke-Pluijmers

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Patients with severe complaints of radiation-induced fibrosis after breast-conserving therapy and not responding to conservative therapy, were treated by partial mastectomy and m. latissimus dorsi reconstruction. Method: To determine the feasibility and outcome of this

  16. Dextrose-induced subsynovial connective tissue fibrosis in the rabbit carpal tunnel: A potential model to study carpal tunnel syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oh, S.; Ettema, A.M.; Zhao, C.; Zobitz, M.E.; Wold, L.E.; An, K.N.; Amadio, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    In this pilot study, hypertonic dextrose solution was used to induce fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) and create an animal model of potential use in the study of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The SSCT of the carpal tunnel in 15 New Zealand white rabbits were injected with 0.05 ml

  17. Longitudinal assessment of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by Micro-CT correlates with histological evaluation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruscitti, F. (Francesca); Ravanetti, F. (Francesca); J. Essers (Jeroen); Y. Ridwan (Yanto); Belenkov, S. (Sasha); W.G. Vos (Wim G.); Ferreira, F. (Francisca); A. Kleinjan (Alex); P.M. van Heijningen (Paula ); C. Van Holsbeke (Cedric); Cacchioli, A. (Antonio); Villetti, G. (Gino); Stellari, F.F. (Franco Fabio)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The intratracheal instillation of bleomycin in mice induces early damage to alveolar epithelial cells and development of inflammation followed by fibrotic tissue changes and represents the most widely used model of pulmonary fibrosis to investigate human IPF. Histopathology

  18. Ketamine-induced bladder fibrosis involves epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition mediated by transforming growth factor-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junpeng; Chen, Yang; Gu, Di; Zhang, Guihao; Chen, Jiawei; Zhao, Jie; Wu, Peng

    2017-10-01

    Bladder wall fibrosis is a major complication of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC), but the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of ketamine-induced fibrosis in association with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups, which received saline, ketamine, ketamine combined with a TGF-β receptor inhibitor (SB-505124) for 16 wk, or 12 wk of ketamine and 4 wk of abstinence. In addition, the profibrotic effect of ketamine was confirmed in SV-40 immortalized human uroepithelial (SV-HUC-1) cells. The ketamine-treated rats displayed voiding dysfunction and decreased bladder compliance. Bladder fibrosis was accompanied by the appearance of a certain number of cells expressing both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, indicating that epithelial cells might undergo EMT upon ketamine administration. Meanwhile, the expression level of TGF-β1 was significantly upregulated in the urothelium of bladders in ketamine-treated rats. Treatment of SV-HUC-1 cells with ketamine increased the expression of TGF-β1 and EMT-inducing transcription factors, resulting in the downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin. Administration of SB-505124 inhibited EMT and fibrosis both in vitro and vivo. In addition, withdrawal from ketamine did not lead to recovery of bladder urinary function or decreased fibrosis. Taken together, our study shows for the first time that EMT might contribute to bladder fibrosis in KC. TGF-β1 may have an important role in bladder fibrogenesis via an EMT mechanism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Nrf2 Regulates the Risk of a Diesel Exhaust Inhalation-Induced Immune Response during Bleomycin Lung Injury and Fibrosis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ji Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of diesel exhaust (DE on an experimental model of bleomycin (BLM-induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. BLM was intravenously administered to both Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2−/− C57BL/6J mice on day 0. The mice were exposed to DE for 56 days from 28 days before the BLM injection to 28 days after the BLM injection. Inhalation of DE induced significant inhibition of airway clearance function and the proinflammatory cytokine secretion in macrophages, an increase in neutrophils, and severe lung inflammatory injury, which were greater in Nrf2−/− mice than in Nrf2+/+ mice. In contrast, inhalation of DE was observed to induce a greater increase of hydroxyproline content in the lung tissues and significantly higher pulmonary antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression in the Nrf2+/+ mice than in Nrf2−/− mice. DE is an important risk factor, and Nrf2 regulates the risk of a DE inhalation induced immune response during BLM lung injury and fibrosis in mice.

  20. Nrf2 Regulates the Risk of a Diesel Exhaust Inhalation-Induced Immune Response during Bleomycin Lung Injury and Fibrosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Ji; Shimizu, Takako; Shinkai, Yusuke; Hirata, Yukiyo; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Takeda, Ken; Azuma, Arata; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2017-03-17

    The present study investigated the effects of diesel exhaust (DE) on an experimental model of bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. BLM was intravenously administered to both Nrf2 +/+ and Nrf2 -/- C57BL/6J mice on day 0. The mice were exposed to DE for 56 days from 28 days before the BLM injection to 28 days after the BLM injection. Inhalation of DE induced significant inhibition of airway clearance function and the proinflammatory cytokine secretion in macrophages, an increase in neutrophils, and severe lung inflammatory injury, which were greater in Nrf2 -/- mice than in Nrf2 +/+ mice. In contrast, inhalation of DE was observed to induce a greater increase of hydroxyproline content in the lung tissues and significantly higher pulmonary antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression in the Nrf2 +/+ mice than in Nrf2 -/- mice. DE is an important risk factor, and Nrf2 regulates the risk of a DE inhalation induced immune response during BLM lung injury and fibrosis in mice.

  1. Senolytic drugs target?alveolar epithelial cell function and attenuate experimental lung fibrosis ex vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Mareike; Korfei, Martina; Mutze, Kathrin; Klee, Stephan; Skronska-Wasek, Wioletta; Alsafadi, Hani N.; Ota, Chiharu; Costa, Rita; Schiller, Herbert B.; Lindner, Michael; Wagner, Darcy E; G?nther, Andreas; K?nigshoff, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disease with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The incidence of IPF increases with age, and ageing-related mechanisms such as cellular senescence have been proposed as pathogenic drivers. The lung alveolar epithelium represents a major site of tissue injury in IPF and senescence of this cell population is probably detrimental to lung repair. However, the potential pathomechanisms of alveolar epithelial cell senescence and...

  2. Celastrol-Induced Suppression of the MiR-21/ERK Signalling Pathway Attenuates Cardiac Fibrosis and Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Myocardial fibrosis results in myocardial remodelling and dysfunction. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, has been suggested to have cardioprotective effects. However, its underlying mechanism is unknown. This study investigated the ability of celastrol to prevent cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Animal and cell models of cardiac fibrosis were used in this study. Myocardial fibrosis was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in mice. Cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were evaluated based on histological and biochemical measurements. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. The levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 signalling were measured using Western blotting, while the expression of miR-21was analyzed by real-time qRT-PCR in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies, cultured cardiac fibroblasts (CFs were treated with TGF-β1 and transfected with microRNA-21(miR21. Results: Celastrol treatment reduced the increased collagen deposition and down-regulated α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, brain natriuretic peptides (BNP, beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC, miR-21 and p-ERK/ERK. Cardiac dysfunction was significantly attenuated by celastrol treatment in the TAC mice model. Celastrol treatment reduced myocardial fibroblast viability and collagen content and down-regulated α-SMA in cultured CFs in vitro. Celastrol also inhibited the miR-21/ERK signalling pathway. Celastrol attenuated miR-21 up-regulation by TGF-β1 and decreased elevated p-ERK/ERK levels in CFs transfected with miR-21. Conclusion: MiR-21/ERK signalling could be a potential therapeutic pathway for the prevention of myocardial fibrosis. Celastrol ameliorates myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction, these probably related to miR-21/ERK signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Calpain Inhibition Attenuates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Fibrosis in Diet-induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniappan, Latha; Javidan, Aida; Jiang, Weihua; Mohammadmoradi, Shayan; Moorleghen, Jessica J; Katz, Wendy S; Balakrishnan, Anju; Howatt, Deborah A; Subramanian, Venkateswaran

    2017-10-31

    Adipose tissue macrophages have been proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying these processes are not completely defined. Calpains are calcium-dependent neutral cysteine proteases that modulate cellular function and have been implicated in various inflammatory diseases. To define whether activated calpains influence diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue macrophage accumulation, mice that were either wild type (WT) or overexpressing calpastatin (CAST Tg), the endogenous inhibitor of calpains were fed with high (60% kcal) fat diet for 16 weeks. CAST overexpression did not influence high fat diet-induced body weight and fat mass gain throughout the study. Calpain inhibition showed a transient improvement in glucose tolerance at 5 weeks of HFD whereas it lost this effect on glucose and insulin tolerance at 16 weeks HFD in obese mice. However, CAST overexpression significantly reduced adipocyte apoptosis, adipose tissue collagen and macrophage accumulation as detected by TUNEL, Picro Sirius and F4/80 immunostaining, respectively. CAST overexpression significantly attenuated obesity-induced inflammatory responses in adipose tissue. Furthermore, calpain inhibition suppressed macrophage migration to adipose tissue in vitro. The present study demonstrates a pivotal role for calpains in mediating HFD-induced adipose tissue remodeling by influencing multiple functions including apoptosis, fibrosis and inflammation.

  4. Aerobic Exercise Attenuated Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Th2-Dominant Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Santos Andrade-Sousa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise (AE in reducing bleomycin-induced fibrosis in mice of a Th2-dominant immune background (BALB/c.BALB/c mice were distributed into: sedentary, control (CON, Exercise-only (EX, sedentary, bleomycin-treated (BLEO and bleomycin-treated+exercised (BLEO+EX; (n = 8/group. Following treadmill adaptation, 15 days following a single, oro-tracheal administration of bleomycin (1.5U/kg, AE was performed 5 days/week, 60min/day for 4 weeks at moderate intensity (60% of maximum velocity reached during a physical test and assessed for pulmonary inflammation and remodeling, and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL.At 45 days post injury, compared to BLEO, BLEO+EX demonstrated reduced collagen deposition in the airways (p<0.001 and also in the lung parenchyma (p<0.001. In BAL, a decreased number of total leukocytes (p<0.01, eosinophils (p<0.001, lymphocytes (p<0.01, macrophages (p<0.01, and neutrophils (p<0.01, as well as reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (CXCL-1; p<0.01, (IL-1β; p<0.001, (IL-5; p<0.01, (IL-6; p<0.001, (IL-13; p<0.01 and pro-fibrotic growth factor IGF-1 (p<0.001 were observed. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased (p<0.001.AE attenuated bleomycin-induced collagen deposition, inflammation and cytokines accumulation in the lungs of mice with a predominately Th2-background suggesting that therapeutic AE (15-44 days post injury attenuates the pro-inflammatory, Th2 immune response and fibrosis in the bleomycin model.

  5. The Pattern of Elastic Fiber Breakdown in Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis May Reflect Microarchitectural Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingjian; Ma, Shuren; Turino, Gerard; Cantor, Jerome

    2017-02-01

    Desmosine and isodesmosine (DID) are unique elastin crosslinks that may serve as biomarkers for elastic fiber degradation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Previously, our laboratory found that the ratio of free to peptide-bound DID in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) showed a significant positive correlation with the extent of airspace enlargement in an elastase model of pulmonary emphysema. To further evaluate this hypothesis, our laboratory measured this ratio in a bleomycin (BLM) model of pulmonary fibrosis, which involved different microarchitectural changes than those associated with pulmonary emphysema. Syrian hamsters were instilled intratracheally with 1.0 unit BLM in 0.2 ml of normal saline (controls received the vehicle alone), and BALF was analyzed for both free and total DID, using a combination of liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Total BALF DID was significantly increased in hamsters receiving BLM at 1 week post-treatment (92 vs 13 pg/ml; p induced emphysema, free/bound DID was lower in BLM-treated animals compared to controls at both 1 week (0.76 vs 0.84) and 2 weeks post-treatment (0.69 vs 0.86), though the differences were not statistically significant. These results indicate that it may be possible to identify specific pulmonary microarchitecture changes, based on the ratio of free to peptide-bound DID. It is speculated that the proportionate decrease in free DID in BLM-induced fibrosis may be due to preservation of intact elastic fibers as the lung injury progresses.

  6. Gentiopicroside ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice via inhibiting inflammatory and fibrotic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Yong-Yan; Wang, Ying-Xia; Cheng, Meng-Qun; Yin, Jian-Bing; Zhang, Xuan; Hong, Zhi-Peng

    2018-01-22

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic and ultimately fatal interstitial lung disease of various causes. The advent of nintedanib and pirfenidone provides treatment options for PF patients for the first time. However, the adverse effects of the two drugs such as gastrointestinal disorders and hepatic dysfunction often lead to treatment discontinuation. Gentiopicroside (GPS) is a natural secoiridoid glycoside from gentian species of medicinal plants, and has a variety of pharmacological activities, including hepatoprotective and cholagogic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and smooth muscle relaxing activities. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutical effects of GPS on bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF in mice. Severe lung inflammation and fibrosis were observed in BLM-treated mice. GPS significantly ameliorated inflammatory and fibrotic responses in lungs of PF mice which were confirmed by histopathological examinations including light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, GPS significantly decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1β in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and reduced the content of hydroxyproline in lungs of PF mice. Furthermore, GPS significantly downregulated the expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF in lungs of PF mice. In vitro, GPS inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition of A549 cells stimulated by TGF-β1, in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that GPS has the potential as an ideal drug candidate for PF, as it has both anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Alveolar epithelial cells and TGF-β1 may be the main target cells and molecule of GPS on BLM-induced PF, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Amelioration of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model by a combination therapy of bosentan and imatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilakapati, Shanmuga Reddy; Serasanambati, Mamatha; Vissavajjhala, Prabhakar; Kanala, Jagadeeshwara Reddy; Chilakapati, Damodar Reddy

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by alveolitis, progressing into fibrosis. Due to the involvement of both endothelin and platelet-derived growth factor signaling in IPF, combination effects of a bosentan and imatinib were studied in mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Mice subjected to bleomycin instillation (0.05 U) and were administered with either bosentan (100 mg/kg) and/or imatinib (50 mg/kg). Inflammatory cell count, total protein estimation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung edema, superoxide dismutase, catalase, myeloperoxidase activities, and Hematoxylin & Eosin staining were performed on day 7. Hydroxyproline content, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), collagens I and III gene expression analysis, immunohistochemistry, matrix metalloproteinases-9 and -2 activities, trichrome and sirius red staining were performed on day 21. Combination treatment with bosentan and imatinib prevented bleomycin-induced mortality and loss of body weight more than the individual agents. On day 7, the combination therapy attenuated bleomycin-induced increase of total and differential inflammatory cell counts, total proteins, lung wet/dry weight ratio, myeloperoxidase activity, lung inflammatory cell infiltration more than individual agents alone. Bosentan but not imatinib ameliorated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, which were lowered following bleomycin instillation. On day 21, combination therapy ameliorated bleomycin-induced increase of fibrosis score, collagen deposition, protein and gene expression of SMA, mRNA levels of collagens-I and -III, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -2 activities more than monotherapy. Combination of bosentan and imatinib exerted more enhanced protection against bleomycin-induced inflammation and fibrosis than either of the agents alone.

  8. Deletion of c-FLIP from CD11bhiMacrophages Prevents Development of Bleomycin-induced Lung Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbrey, Alexandra L; Barthel, Lea; Mohning, Michael P; Redente, Elizabeth F; Mould, Kara J; Thomas, Stacey M; Leach, Sonia M; Danhorn, Thomas; Gibbings, Sophie L; Jakubzick, Claudia V; Henson, Peter M; Janssen, William J

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease with complex pathophysiology and fatal prognosis. Macrophages (MΦ) contribute to the development of lung fibrosis; however, the underlying mechanisms and specific MΦ subsets involved remain unclear. During lung injury, two subsets of lung MΦ coexist: Siglec-F hi resident alveolar MΦ and a mixed population of CD11b hi MΦ that primarily mature from immigrating monocytes. Using a novel inducible transgenic system driven by a fragment of the human CD68 promoter, we targeted deletion of the antiapoptotic protein cellular FADD-like IL-1β-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) to CD11b hi MΦ. Upon loss of c-FLIP, CD11b hi MΦ became susceptible to cell death. Using this system, we were able to show that eliminating CD11b hi MΦ present 7-14 days after bleomycin injury was sufficient to protect mice from fibrosis. RNA-seq analysis of lung MΦ present during this time showed that CD11b hi MΦ, but not Siglec-F hi MΦ, expressed high levels of profibrotic chemokines and growth factors. Human MΦ from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis expressed many of the same profibrotic chemokines identified in murine CD11b hi MΦ. Elimination of monocyte-derived MΦ may help in the treatment of fibrosis. We identify c-FLIP and the associated extrinsic cell death program as a potential pathway through which these profibrotic MΦ may be pharmacologically targeted.

  9. Effectiveness of rosiglitazone on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis: Assessed by micro-computed tomography and pathologic scores

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    Jin, Gong Yong; Bok, Se Mi; Han, Young Min [Department of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Ja [Department of Pathology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon-Ha [Department of Radiology, Iksan Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Ri [Department of Internal Medicine and Research Center for Pulmonary Disorders, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Chul, E-mail: leeyc@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine and Research Center for Pulmonary Disorders, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists exhibit potent anti-fibrotic effects in the lung and other tissues. Recently, micro-computed tomography (CT) has been a useful tool for the investigation of lung diseases in small animals and is now increasingly applied to visualize and quantify the pulmonary structures. However, there is little information on the assessment for therapeutic effects of PPAR{gamma} agonists on the pulmonary fibrosis in mice using micro-CT. This study was aimed to determine the capability of micro-CT in examining the effects of rosiglitazone on pulmonary fibrosis. We used a murine model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis to evaluate the feasibility of micro-CT in evaluating the therapeutic potential of rosiglitazone on pulmonary fibrosis, comparing with pathologic scores. On micro-CT findings, ground glass opacity (80%) and consolidation (20%) were observed predominantly at 3 weeks after the instillation of bleomycin, and the radiologic features became more complex at 6 weeks. In bleomycin-instilled mice treated with rosiglitazone, the majority (80%) showed normal lung features on micro-CT. Radiological-pathologic correlation analyses revealed that ground glass opacity and consolidation were correlated closely with acute inflammation, while reticular opacity was well correlated with histological honeycomb appearance. These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis in mice and that the visualization of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis using micro-CT is satisfactory to assess the effects of rosiglitazone. It implies that micro-CT can be applied to evaluate therapeutic efficacies of a variety of candidate drugs for lung diseases.

  10. Caffeine prevents experimental liver fibrosis by blocking the expression of TGF-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauz, Jonathan; Zarco, Natanael; Segovia, José; Shibayama, Mineko; Tsutsumi, Victor; Muriel, Pablo

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that caffeine exerts beneficial effects on the liver; however, the molecular mechanisms by which caffeine exerts beneficial effects on the liver are poorly defined. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of caffeine in preventing thioacetamide (TAA)-induced cirrhosis in rats. Cirrhosis was induced by chronic TAA administration and the effects of coadministration of caffeine for 8 weeks were evaluated, including control groups. The administration of TAA induced liver cirrhosis, which was inhibited by caffeine. Caffeine prevents elevation of liver enzymes. Liver histopathology and hydroxyproline levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with TAA plus caffeine compared with TAA only. Caffeine shows antioxidant properties by restoring the redox equilibrium [lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels]. Western blot assays showed blockade of the expression of transforming growth factor-β and its downstream inductor connective tissue growth factor. Similarly, caffeine decreases messenger RNA levels of these profibrogenic proteins. In addition, caffeine inhibits hepatic stellate cells because of blockade of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin; in the western blot assay, we also found low levels of mRNA of collagen α1. Zymography assays showed that caffeine had an effect on the activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, but no effect on the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, using RT-PCR. Our results show that caffeine prevents experimental cirrhosis; the mechanisms of action are associated with its antioxidant properties and mainly by its ability to block the elevation of the profibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor-β, which may be associated with attenuation of the inflammatory and fibrotic processes.

  11. NLRP3 inflammasome blockade reduces liver inflammation and fibrosis in experimental NASH in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, Auvro R; Wree, Alexander; Robertson, Avril A B; Yeh, Matthew M; Johnson, Casey D; Van Rooyen, Derrick M; Haczeyni, Fahrettin; Teoh, Narci C-H; Savard, Christopher; Ioannou, George N; Masters, Seth L; Schroder, Kate; Cooper, Matthew A; Feldstein, Ariel E; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2017-05-01

    NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation occurs in Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We used the first small molecule NLRP3 inhibitor, MCC950, to test whether inflammasome blockade alters inflammatory recruitment and liver fibrosis in two murine models of steatohepatitis. We fed foz/foz and wild-type mice an atherogenic diet for 16weeks, gavaged MCC950 or vehicle until 24weeks, then determined NAFLD phenotype. In mice fed an methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet, we gavaged MCC950 or vehicle for 6weeks and determined the effects on liver fibrosis. In vehicle-treated foz/foz mice, hepatic expression of NLRP3, pro-IL-1β, active caspase-1 and IL-1β increased at 24weeks, in association with cholesterol crystal formation and NASH pathology; plasma IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, ALT/AST all increased. MCC950 treatment normalized hepatic caspase 1 and IL-1β expression, plasma IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-6, lowered ALT/AST, and reduced the severity of liver inflammation including designation as NASH pathology, and liver fibrosis. In vitro, cholesterol crystals activated Kupffer cells and macrophages to release IL-1β; MCC950 abolished this, and the associated neutrophil migration. MCD diet-fed mice developed fibrotic steatohepatitis; MCC950 suppressed the increase in hepatic caspase 1 and IL-1β, lowered numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in the liver, and improved liver fibrosis. MCC950, an NLRP3 selective inhibitor, improved NAFLD pathology and fibrosis in obese diabetic mice. This is potentially attributable to the blockade of cholesterol crystal-mediated NLRP3 activation in myeloid cells. MCC950 reduced liver fibrosis in MCD-fed mice. Targeting NLRP3 is a logical direction in pharmacotherapy of NASH. Fatty liver disease caused by being overweight with diabetes and a high risk of heart attack, termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is the most common serious liver disease with no current treatment. There could be several causes of inflammation

  12. Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) correlates with radiation-induced lung fibrosis

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    Jung, Myung Gu; Jeong, Ye Ji; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sujae [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    MMPs are classified into five subgroups: collagenases (MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13), gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9), stromelysins (MMP-3, MMP-10, MMP-11), as well as metalloelastase (MMP-12), the membrane-type MMPs (MMP14, MMP15), and other MMPS (e. g., MMP-19, and MMP20). MMP-12 (matrix metalloproteinase12), also known as macrophage metalloelastase, was first identified as an elastolytic metalloproteinase secreted by inflammatory macrophages 30 years ago. MMP-12 degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) components to facilitate tissue remodeling. It can degrade elastin and other substrates, such as type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, gelatin, vitronectin, entactin, heparin, and chondroitin sulfates. In the lung, MMP-12 is identified in alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers as an elastolytic MMP. Inactivation of the MMP-12 gene in knockout mice demonstrates a critical role of MMP-12 in smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of MMP-12 by radiation in lung, so we evaluate that MMP-12 expression pattern in normal lung tissue and cancer cell following radiation. Radiation induced lung injury most commonly occurs as a result of radiation therapy administered to treat cancer. The present study demonstrates that MMP-12 was highly increased in the lung damaged by radiation Thus, MMP-12 might be of potential relevance as a clinically diagnostic tool and sensitive biomarker for radiation induced lung injury and fibrosis.

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis Based on Isobaric Tag for Quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiejun; Jia, Yanlong; Ma, Yongkang; Cao, Liang; Chen, Xiaobing; Qiao, Baoping

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a destructive pulmonary disease and the molecular mechanisms underlying PF are unclear. This study investigated differentially expressed proteins associated with the occurrence and development of PF in rat lung tissue with bleomycin-induced PF. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the PF model group (n = 8) and the control group (n = 8). After successfully establishing the rat PF model induced by bleomycin, the differentially expressed proteins in the 2 groups were identified through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis. A total of 146 differentially expressed proteins were identified; 88 of which displayed increased abundance and 58 were downregulated in the PF rat model group. Most functional proteins were associated with extracellular matrix, inflammation, damage response, vitamin A synthesis and metabolism. Critical proteins related to PF development and progression was identified, such as type V collagen-3, arachidonic acid 12-lipoxygenase, arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenase and cytochrome P4501A1. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins were enriched in extracellular matrix receptor interaction pathway, renin-angiotensin system and metabolic pathway of retinol. The proteins expressed in bleomycin-induced PF rat model provide important data for further functional analysis of proteins involved in PF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Histochemical and cellular changes accompanying the appearance of lung fibrosis in an experimental mouse model for Hermansky Pudlak syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerla, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Hermansky Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a heterogeneous recessive genetic disease with a tendency to develop lung fibrosis with aging. A mouse strain with two mutant HPS genes affecting separate vesicle trafficking pathways, C57BL/6-Hps1ep-Ap3b1pe, exhibits severe lung abnormalities at young ages, including enlarged alveolar type II (ATII) cells with giant lamellar bodies and foamy alveolar macrophages (AMs), which are readily identified histologically. In this study, the appearance of lung fibrosis in older animals was studied using classical histological and biochemical methods. The HPS double mutant mice, but not Chediak Higashi syndrome (C57BL/6-Lystbg-J-J, CHS) or C57BL/6J black control (WT) mice, were found to develop lung fibrosis at about 17 months of age using Masson trichrome staining, which was confirmed by hydroxyproline analysis. TGF β1 levels were elevated in bronchial alveolar lavage samples at all ages tested in the double mutant, but not WT or CHS mice, indicative of a prefibrotic condition in this experimental strain; and AMs were highly positive for this cytokine using immunohistochemistry staining. Prosurfactant protein C staining for ATII cells showed redistribution and dysmorphism of these cells with aging, but there was no evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition of ATII cells by dual staining for prosurfactant C protein and α-smooth muscle actin. This investigation showed that the HPS double mutant mouse strain develops interstitial pneumonia (HPSIP) past 1 year of age, which may be initiated by abnormal ATII cells and exacerbated by AM activation. With prominent prefibrotic abnormalities, this double mutant may serve as a model for interventive therapy in HPS. PMID:20603711

  15. Simvastatin Reduces Capsular Fibrosis around Silicone Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyu Jin; Park, Ki Rin; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae Gon; Kim, Yong-Ha

    2016-08-01

    Capsular fibrosis and contracture occurs in most breast reconstruction patients who undergo radiotherapy, and there is no definitive solution for its prevention. Simvastatin was effective at reducing fibrosis in various models. Peri-implant capsular formation is the result of tissue fibrosis development in irradiated breasts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of simvastatin on peri-implant fibrosis in rats. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to an experimental group (9 rats, 18 implants) or a control group (9 rats, 18 implants). Two hemispherical silicone implants, 10 mm in diameter, were inserted in subpanniculus pockets in each rat. The next day, 10-Gy of radiation from a clinical accelerator was targeted at the implants. Simvastatin (15 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage in the experimental group, while animals in the control group received water. At 12 weeks post-implantation, peri-implant capsules were harvested and examined histologically and by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The average capsular thickness was 371.2 μm in the simvastatin group and 491.2 μm in the control group. The fibrosis ratio was significantly different, with 32.33% in the simvastatin group and 58.44% in the control group (P simvastatin group compared to the control group (P simvastatin reduces radiation-induced capsular fibrosis around silicone implants in rats. This finding offers an alternative therapeutic strategy for reducing capsular fibrosis and contracture after implant-based breast reconstruction.

  16. Cthrc1 lowers pulmonary collagen associated with bleomycin-induced fibrosis and protects lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Andrew P; Beyer, Megyn; Miller, Ryan; LeClair, Renee J

    2017-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) involves collagen deposition that results in a progressive decline in lung function. This process involves activation of Smad2/3 by transforming growth factor (TGF)- β and Wnt signaling pathways. Collagen Triple Helix Repeat-Containing-1 (Cthrc1) protein inhibits Smad2/3 activation. To test the hypothesis that Cthrc1 limits collagen deposition and the decline of lung function, Cthrc1 knockout (Cthrc1 -/- ) and wild-type mice (WT) received intratracheal injections of 2.5 U/kg bleomycin or saline. Lungs were harvested after 14 days and Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) TGF- β , IL1- β , hydroxyproline and lung compliance were assessed. TGF- β was significantly higher in Cthrc1 -/- compared to WT (53.45 ± 6.15 ng/mL vs. 34.48 ± 11.05) after saline injection. Bleomycin injection increased TGF- β in both Cthrc1 -/- (66.37 ± 8.54 ng/mL) and WT (63.64 ± 8.09 ng/mL). Hydroxyproline was significantly higher in Cthrc1 -/- compared to WT after bleomycin-injection (2.676 ± 0.527  μ g/mg vs. 1.889 ± 0.520, P  = 0.028). Immunohistochemistry of Cthrc1 -/- lung sections showed intracellular localization and activation of β -catenin Y654 in areas of tissue remodeling that was not evident in WT Lung compliance was significantly reduced by bleomycin in Cthrc1 -/- but there was no effect in WT animals. These data suggest Cthrc1 reduces fibrotic tissue formation in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and the effect is potent enough to limit the decline in lung function. We conclude that Cthrc1 plays a protective role, limiting collagen deposition and could form the basis of a novel therapy for pulmonary fibrosis. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. EM703 improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by the inhibition of TGF-β signaling in lung fibroblasts

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    Inagaki Hirofumi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fourteen-membered ring macrolides have been effective in reducing chronic airway inflammation and also preventing lung injury and fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice via anti-inflammatory effects. EM703 is a new derivative of erythromycin (EM without the bactericidal effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of EM703 in an experimental model of bleomycin-induced lung injury and subsequent fibrosis in mice. Methods Seven-week-old male ICR mice were used. All experiments used eight mice/group, unless otherwise noted in the figure legends. Bleomycin was administered intravenously to the mice on day 0. EM703 was orally administered daily to mice. All groups were examined for cell populations in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and for induction of messenger RNA (mRNA of Smad3 and Smad4 in the lung tissues by reverse transcriptase (RT-polymerase chainreaction (PCR on day 7. Fibroblastic foci were assessed histologically, and the hydroxyproline content was chemically determined in the lung tissues on day 28. We performed assay of proliferation and soluble collagen production, and examined the induction of mRNA of Smad3 and Smad4 by RT-PCR in murine lung fibroblast cell line MLg2908. We also examined Smad3, Smad4 and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3 protein assay by western blotting in MLg2908. Results Bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, and the infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils into the airspace were inhibited by EM703. The expression of Smad3 and Smad4 mRNA was clearly attenuated by bleomycin, but was recovered by EM703. EM703 also inhibited fibroblast proliferation and the collagen production in lung fibroblasts induced by Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β. The expression of Smad3 and Smad4 mRNA in murine lung fibroblasts disappeared due to TGF-β, but was recovered by EM703. EM703 inhibited the expression of p-Smad2/3 and Smad4 protein in murine lung fibroblasts induced by TGF

  19. The Protective Effect of Naringin against Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergiz H. Turgut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of naringin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups (control, bleomycin alone, bleomycin + naringin 40, and bleomycin + naringin 80 were used. Rats were administered a single dose of bleomycin (5 mg/kg; via the tracheal cannula alone or followed by either naringin 40 mg/kg (orally or naringin 80 mg/kg (orally or water (1 mL, orally for 14 days. Rats and lung tissue were weighed to determine the lung index. TNF-α and IL-1β levels, hydroxyproline content, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were assayed. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were determined. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and 0.1% toluidine blue. TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA levels and hydroxyproline content significantly increased (p<0.01 and GPx and SOD activities significantly decreased in bleomycin group (p<0.01. Naringin at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-1β activity, hydroxyproline content, and MDA level (p<0.01 and increased GPx and SOD activities (p<0.05. Histological evidence supported the results. These results show that naringin has the potential of reducing the toxic effects of bleomycin and may provide supportive therapy for conventional treatment methods for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  20. A PDGFRα-Mediated Switch toward CD9high Adipocyte Progenitors Controls Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelin, Geneviève; Ferreira, Adaliene; Liu, Yuejun; Atlan, Michael; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Pelloux, Véronique; Botbol, Yair; Ambrosini, Marc; Fradet, Magali; Rouault, Christine; Hénégar, Corneliu; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Poitou, Christine; Torcivia, Adriana; Nail-Barthelemy, Raphael; Bichet, Jean-Christophe; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Clément, Karine

    2017-03-07

    Obesity-induced white adipose tissue (WAT) fibrosis is believed to accelerate WAT dysfunction. However, the cellular origin of WAT fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we show that adipocyte platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive (PDGFRα+) progenitors adopt a fibrogenic phenotype in obese mice prone to visceral WAT fibrosis. More specifically, a subset of PDGFRα+ cells with high CD9 expression (CD9high) originates pro-fibrotic cells whereas their CD9low counterparts, committed to adipogenesis, are almost completely lost in the fibrotic WAT. PDGFRα pathway activation promotes a phenotypic shift toward PDGFRα+CD9high fibrogenic cells, driving pathological remodeling and altering WAT function in obesity. These findings translated to human obesity as the frequency of CD9high progenitors in omental WAT (oWAT) correlates with oWAT fibrosis level, insulin-resistance severity, and type 2 diabetes. Collectively, our data demonstrate that in addition to representing a WAT adipogenic niche, different PDGFRα+ cell subsets modulate obesity-induced WAT fibrogenesis and are associated with loss of metabolic fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nigella sativa, a traditional Tunisian herbal medicine, attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Anouar; Robbe, Alexandre; Kourda, Nadia; Ben Khamsa, Saloua; Legrand, Alexandre

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis in rats. The rat model of pulmonary fibrosis (PF) was established by intratracheal instillation of BLM, and the effect of 1ml/kg oral NSO treatment once daily observed. The effect of NSO was studied over a period of 50daysusing 1 H RMN analysis on the urine and broncho alveolar lavage fluid (Balf) of the rats. Histopathological (inflammation and fibrosis) and immunohistochemical (TGF-β1 density) changes were evaluated. Results found that the BLM group showed a significant increase in inflammatory index (II), fibrosis score (FS) and TGF-β1 distribution in the lung inflammatory infiltrate, accompanied by a decreased urinary secretion of Krebs cycle intermediates, including acetate, pyruvate, carnitine, trimethylamine-N-oxide and succinate. However, at the same time point, NSO treated rats had a reduced II and FS, and had an increased urinary secretion of histidine, fumarate, allantoin and malate. In conclusion, NSO treatment attenuated the effects of BLM-induced PF, by supporting lung, liver and kidney activity in resisting PF. These findings provide an insight into the preventive and therapeutic potential of NSO in the treatment of PF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. DNaseI Protects against Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Fibrosis Mediated by Mitochondrial DNA

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    Guo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paraquat (PQ poisoning is a lethal toxicological challenge that served as a disease model of acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanism is undetermined and no effective treatment has been discovered. Methods and Findings. We demonstrated that PQ injures mitochondria and leads to mtDNA release. The mtDNA mediated PBMC recruitment and stimulated the alveolar epithelial cell production of TGF-β1 in vitro. The levels of mtDNA in circulation and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF were elevated in a mouse of PQ-induced lung injury. DNaseI could protect PQ-induced lung injury and significantly improved survival. Acute lung injury markers, such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, and marker of fibrosis, collagen I, were downregulated in parallel with the elimination of mtDNA by DNaseI. These data indicate a possible mechanism for PQ-induced, mtDNA-mediated lung injury, which may be shared by other causes of lung injury, as suggested by the same protective effect of DNaseI in bleomycin-induced lung injury model. Interestingly, increased mtDNA in the BALF of patients with amyopathic dermatomyositis-interstitial lung disease can be appreciated. Conclusions. DNaseI targeting mtDNA may be a promising approach for the treatment of PQ-induced acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis that merits fast tracking through clinical trials.

  3. TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation promotes myofibroblast differentiation of LR-MSCs and exacerbates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiwei; Ma, Tan; Cao, Honghui; Chen, Yabing; Wang, Cong; Chen, Xiang; Xiang, Zou; Han, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible lung disease of unknown cause. It has been reported that both lung resident mesenchymal stem cells (LR-MSCs) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) play important roles in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. However, the underlying connections between LR-MSCs and TNF-α in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis are still elusive. In this study, we found that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit were both upregulated in bleomycin-induced fibrotic lung tissue. In addition, we discovered that TNF-α promotes myofibroblast differentiation of LR-MSCs through activating NF-κB signaling. Interestingly, we also found that TNF-α promotes the expression of β-catenin. Moreover, we demonstrated that suppression of the NF-κB signaling could attenuate myofibroblast differentiation of LR-MSCs and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis which were accompanied with decreased expression of β-catenin. Our data implicates that inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway may provide a therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis, a disease that warrants more effective treatment approaches. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The exacerbating roles of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the preventive effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) against pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuta; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Hayasaka, Marina; Yamada, Yusei; Miyata, Keishi; Endo, Motoyoshi; Kondo, Yuki; Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Irikura, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru; Oike, Yuichi; Irie, Tetsumi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), an important transcription factor that regulates the inflammatory reaction during the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, in the development of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin (BLM) in mice. An intratracheal injection of BLM transiently increased the expression of CHOP mRNA and protein in an early phase (days 1 and 3) in mice lungs. BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis was significantly attenuated in Chop gene deficient (Chop KO) mice, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, the inflammatory reactions evaluated by protein concentration, the total number of leucocytes and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the mRNA expression of interleukin 1b and caspase 11, and the apoptotic cell death were suppressed in Chop KO mice compared with those in WT mice. In addition, administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a pharmacological agent that can inhibit CHOP expression, inhibited the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation, and the increase in Chop mRNA expression in WT mice in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the ER stress-induced transcription factor, CHOP, at least in part, plays an important role in the development of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice, and that the inhibition of CHOP expression by a pharmacological agent, such as TUDCA, may be a promising strategy for the prevention of pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Apelin on the Alleviative Effect of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker in Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction-Induced Renal Fibrosis

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    Masashi Nishida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apelin is a selective endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, which genetically has closest identity to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT-1. The effects of the apelin/APJ system on renal fibrosis still remain unclear. Methods: We examined the effects of the apelin/APJ system on renal fibrosis during AT-1 blockade in a mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO model. Results: We obtained the following results: (1 At UUO day 7, mRNA expressions of apelin/APJ and phosphorylations of Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in the UUO kidney were increased compared to those in the nonobstructed kidney. (2 AT-1 blockade by the treatment with losartan resulted in a further increase of apelin mRNA as well as phosphorylations of Akt/eNOS proteins, and this was accompanied by alleviated renal interstitial fibrosis, decreased myofibroblast accumulation, and a decreased number of interstitial macrophages. (3 Blockade of the APJ receptor by the treatment with F13A during losartan administration completely abrogated the effects of losartan in the activation of the Akt/eNOS pathway and the amelioration of renal fibrosis. (4 Inhibition of NOS by the treatment with L-NAME also resulted in a further increase in renal fibrosis compared to the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that increased nitric oxide production through the apelin/APJ/Akt/eNOS pathway may, at least in part, contribute to the alleviative effect of losartan in UUO-induced renal fibrosis.

  6. Oxidative/Nitrative Stress and Inflammation Drive Progression of Doxorubicin-Induced Renal Fibrosis in Rats as Revealed by Comparing a Normal and a Fibrosis-Resistant Rat Strain.

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    Csaba Imre Szalay

    Full Text Available Chronic renal fibrosis is the final common pathway of end stage renal disease caused by glomerular or tubular pathologies. Genetic background has a strong influence on the progression of chronic renal fibrosis. We recently found that Rowett black hooded rats were resistant to renal fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the role of sustained inflammation and oxidative/nitrative stress in renal fibrosis progression using this new model. Our previous data suggested the involvement of podocytes, thus we investigated renal fibrosis initiated by doxorubicin-induced (5 mg/kg podocyte damage. Doxorubicin induced progressive glomerular sclerosis followed by increasing proteinuria and reduced bodyweight gain in fibrosis-sensitive, Charles Dawley rats during an 8-week long observation period. In comparison, the fibrosis-resistant, Rowett black hooded rats had longer survival, milder proteinuria and reduced tubular damage as assessed by neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL excretion, reduced loss of the slit diaphragm protein, nephrin, less glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and matrix deposition assessed by periodic acid-Schiff, Picro-Sirius-red staining and fibronectin immunostaining. Less fibrosis was associated with reduced profibrotic transforming growth factor-beta, (TGF-β1 connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, and collagen type I alpha 1 (COL-1a1 mRNA levels. Milder inflammation demonstrated by histology was confirmed by less monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 mRNA. As a consequence of less inflammation, less oxidative and nitrative stress was obvious by less neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (p47phox and NADPH oxidase-2 (p91phox mRNA. Reduced oxidative enzyme expression was accompanied by less lipid peroxidation as demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE and less protein nitrosylation demonstrated by nitrotyrosine (NT immunohistochemistry and quantified by Western blot. Our results demonstrate that mediators of fibrosis

  7. Diethylcarbamazine Reduces Chronic Inflammation and Fibrosis in Carbon Tetrachloride- (CCl4- Induced Liver Injury in Mice

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    Sura Wanessa Santos Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of DEC on the CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Chronic inflammation was induced by i.p. administration of CCl4 0.5 μL/g of body weight through two injections a week for 6 weeks. DEC (50 mg/kg was administered by gavage for 12 days before finishing the CCl4 induction. Histological analyses of the DEC-treated group exhibited reduced inflammatory process and prevented liver necrosis and fibrosis. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses of the DEC-treated group showed reduced COX-2, IL1β, MDA, TGF-β, and αSMA immunopositivity, besides exhibiting decreased IL1β, COX-2, NFκB, IFNγ, and TGFβ expressions in the western blot analysis. The DEC group enhanced significantly the IL-10 expression. The reduction of hepatic injury in the DEC-treated group was confirmed by the COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression levels. Based on the results of the present study, DEC can be used as a potential anti-inflammatory drug for chronic hepatic inflammation.

  8. Mesoporous carbon nanomaterials induced pulmonary surfactant inhibition, cytotoxicity, inflammation and lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunan; Yang, Yi; Xu, Bolong; Wang, Shunhao; Li, Bin; Ma, Juan; Gao, Jie; Zuo, Yi Y; Liu, Sijin

    2017-12-01

    Environmental exposure and health risk upon engineered nanomaterials are increasingly concerned. The family of mesoporous carbon nanomaterials (MCNs) is a rising star in nanotechnology for multidisciplinary research with versatile applications in electronics, energy and gas storage, and biomedicine. Meanwhile, there is mounting concern on their environmental health risks due to the growing production and usage of MCNs. The lung is the primary site for particle invasion under environmental exposure to nanomaterials. Here, we studied the comprehensive toxicological profile of MCNs in the lung under the scenario of moderate environmental exposure. It was found that at a low concentration of 10μg/mL MCNs induced biophysical inhibition of natural pulmonary surfactant. Moreover, MCNs at similar concentrations reduced viability of J774A.1 macrophages and lung epithelial A549 cells. Incubating with nature pulmonary surfactant effectively reduced the cytotoxicity of MCNs. Regarding the pro-inflammatory responses, MCNs activated macrophages in vitro, and stimulated lung inflammation in mice after inhalation exposure, associated with lung fibrosis. Moreover, we found that the size of MCNs played a significant role in regulating cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory potential of this nanomaterial. In general, larger MCNs induced more pronounced cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects than their smaller counterparts. Our results provided valuable information on the toxicological profile and environmental health risks of MCNs, and suggested that fine-tuning the size of MCNs could be a practical precautionary design strategy to increase safety and biocompatibility of this nanomaterial. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. [Role of Yes-associated protein 1 in angiotensinⅡ-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M X; Zheng, B B; Sun, N N; Zheng, Z M; Yang, Q J; Meng, Y

    2017-07-25

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of Yes-associated protein 1 (Yap1) in angiotensinⅡ(AngⅡ)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods:In vivo, 18 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three equal groups with 6 rats in each group, including control group, bleomycin-treated group (BLM), and BLM+ AngⅡ group. 28 days later, the lung tissues in all groups were harvested for the HE and Masson staining as well as the immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for Yap1. In vitro, the isolated fibroblasts were treated with 10(-7) mmol/L AngⅡor the AngⅡ-targeted inhibitor irbesartan for the scheduled time for mRNA and protein expressions of Yap1, PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), and collagen Ⅰusing PCR and Western blot, as well as the translocation test from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of Yap1 and TAZ. Subsequently, the fibroblasts were assigned into 4 groups: the empty plasmid (vector) group, the vector+ AngⅡ group, the Yap1 shRNA group, and the Yap1 shRNA+ AngⅡ group. Western blot was used to detect the relative expressions of Yap1, TAZ, Smad3 and collagen Ⅰ. The CCK-8 and EdU assays were performed to determine the proliferative capacity. Results:In vivo, severe lung fibrosis and increased Yap1 expression of IHC staining were found in BLM group. Additionally, more severe lung fibrosis and higher Yap1 expression were detected in the BLM+ AngⅡ group than the BLM group (both P<0.05). In vitro, both the mRNA and protein relative expressions of Yap1, TAZ and collagenⅠ were markedly higher in AngⅡ-treated groups than the control group (all P<0.05). Meanwhile, the relative expression of phosphorylated Yap1 reached its peak at 2 h after AngⅡ stimulation. In the protein translocation tests, after treated with AngⅡ for 24 h, the relative protein levels of Yap1 and TAZ in the nucleus of the AngⅡ group were significantly higher than those in the control group (0.382±0.007 vs 0.031±0.001, 1.097±0.030 vs 0.357±0.015). However, the relative protein expressions in the

  10. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates cadmium-induced chronic renal injury and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglou; Du, Lifen; Li, Jingjing; Song, Hongping

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious environmental problem. Kidney is a main target organ of Cd toxicity. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against chronic renal injury and fibrosis induced by CdCl2. Rat model was induced by exposing to 250 mg/L CdCl2 through drinking water. The renal function was evaluated by detecting the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCR). The oxidative stress was measured by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and renal enzymatic antioxidant status. Additionally, the renal levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad3, phosphorylation-Smad3 (pp-Smad3), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and E-cadherin were measured by western blot assay. Renal levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21), miR-29a/b/c and miR-192 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that EGCG ameliorated the CdCl2-induced renal injury, inhibited the level of oxidative stress, normalized renal enzymatic antioxidant status and E-cadherin level, as well as attenuated the over generation of TGF-β1, pp-Smad3, vimentin and α-SMA. EGCG also decreased the production of miR-21 and miR-192, and enhanced the levels of miR-29a/b/c. These results showed that EGCG could attenuate Cd induced chronic renal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Epithelial cell mitochondrial dysfunction and PINK1 are induced by transforming growth factor-beta1 in pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Avignat S Patel

    Full Text Available Epithelial cell death is a major contributor to fibrogenesis in the lung. In this study, we sought to determine the function of mitochondria and their clearance (mitophagy in alveolar epithelial cell death and fibrosis.We studied markers of mitochondrial injury and the mitophagy marker, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1, in IPF lung tissues by Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and immunofluorescence. In vitro experiments were carried out in lung epithelial cells stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. Changes in cell function were measured by Western blotting, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. In vivo experiments were performed using the murine bleomycin model of lung fibrosis.Evaluation of IPF lung tissue demonstrated increased PINK1 expression by Western blotting and immunofluorescence and increased numbers of damaged mitochondria by TEM. In lung epithelial cells, TGF-β1 induced mitochondrial depolarization, mitochondrial ROS, and PINK1 expression; all were abrogated by mitochondrial ROS scavenging. Finally, Pink1-/- mice were more susceptible than control mice to bleomycin induced lung fibrosis.TGF-β1 induces lung epithelial cell mitochondrial ROS and depolarization and stabilizes the key mitophagy initiating protein, PINK1. PINK1 ameliorates epithelial cell death and may be necessary to limit fibrogenesis.

  12. Azithromycin reduces spontaneous and induced inflammation in ΔF508 cystic fibrosis mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Legssyer (Rachida); F. Huaux (François); J. Lebacq (Jean); M. Delos (Monique); E. Marbaix (Etienne); P. Lebecque (Patrick); D. Lison (Dominique); B.J. Scholte (Bob); P. Wallemacq (Pierre); T. Leal (Teresinha)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Inflammation plays a critical role in lung disease development and progression in cystic fibrosis. Azithromycin is used for the treatment of cystic fibrosis lung disease, although its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that azithromycin

  13. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor gene deletion alters bleomycin-induced lung injury, but not development of pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habgood, Anthony N; Tatler, Amanda L; Porte, Joanne; Wahl, Sharon M; Laurent, Geoffrey J; John, Alison E; Johnson, Simon R; Jenkins, Gisli

    2016-06-01

    following lung injury. However, these changes do not prevent the development of lung fibrosis. Overall, these data suggest that the absence of Slpi does not markedly modify the development of lung fibrosis following bleomycin-induced lung injury.

  14. The effect of AT1 receptor blockade on bax and bcl-2 expression in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

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    L Safaeian

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background and the purpose of the study: Recent studies have indicated the role of apoptosis and angiotensin in the pathogenesis of bleomycin induced-pulmonary fibrosis. Losartan, an angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R antagonist, has ameliorated apoptosis and fibrosis from bleomycin. In this study, alterations in the expression of apoptosis-regulatory genes (bcl-2 and bax were investigated in different cells of lung tissue of mice treated with bleomycin in the presence of losartan. Methods: Losartan (10 mg/kg, i.p. was given to mice two days before administration of bleomycin (3 U/kg and throughout the test period. After two weeks, lung tissues of mice were evaluated for fibrosis by biochemical measurement of collagen deposition and semiquantitative analysis of pathological changes of the lung. The expression of bcl-2 and bax was assessed by immunohistochemical assay using biotin-streptavidin staining method on paraffin-embedded lung tissues. Results and major conclusion: Pre-treatment with losartan significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the increase in lung collagen content and also inhibited the histological changes induced by bleomycin. Immunohistochemical studies showed that losartan significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the bax/bcl-2 expression ratio in the alveolar epithelial cells, lymphocytes, macrophages and interstitial myofibroblasts. Losartan also inhibited the bcl-2 upregulation which was educed by bleomycin in neutrophils. By reduction of bax/bcl-2 ratio as a determinant of susceptibility of a cell to apoptosis, losartan exerted protective effects on the alveolar epithelial cells that may be important in the amelioration of pulmonary fibrosis. These results may help to better understanding of the role of angiotensin II and apoptosis in pulmonary fibrosis.

  15. Tight blood glycaemic and blood pressure control in experimental diabetic nephropathy reduces extracellular matrix production without regression of fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Bryan R; Betz, Boris; Sheldrake, Tara A; Manning, Jonathan R; Dunbar, Donald R; Dobyns, Abigail; Hughes, Jeremy; Mullins, John J

    2014-12-01

    Regression of albuminuria and renal fibrosis occurs in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) following tight control of blood glucose and blood pressure, however the pathways that promote regression remain poorly understood and we wished to characterize these using a rodent model. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in Cyp1a1mRen2 rats and hypertension was generated by inducing renin transgene expression with dietary indole-3-carbinol (I-3-C) for 28 weeks. At this point an 'injury cohort' was culled, while in a 'reversal cohort' glycaemia was tightly controlled using insulin implants and blood pressure normalized by withdrawing dietary I-3-C for a further 8 weeks. Pathways activated during and following reversal of diabetes and hypertension were assessed by microarray profiling. Tight control of blood glucose and blood pressure reduced albuminuria and renal hypertrophy, but had no impact on renal fibrosis. 85 genes were up-regulated specifically during the injury phase, including genes encoding multiple myofibroblast and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Conversely, 314 genes remained persistently elevated during reversal including genes linked to innate/adaptive immunity, phagocytosis, lysosomal processing and degradative metalloproteinases (MMPs). Despite increased MMP gene expression, MMP activity was suppressed during both injury and reversal, in association with up-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) protein. Physical separation of the TIMP-1/MMP complexes during zymography of tissue homogenate restored MMP activity. Normalization of blood glucose and pressure ameliorates albuminuria and inhibits excess ECM production, however persistent TIMP-1 expression hinders attempts at ECM remodelling. Therapies which counteract the action of TIMPs may accelerate scar resolution. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  16. The Effects of Trimetazidine and Sildenafil on Bilateral Cavernosal Nerve Injury Induced Oxidative Damage and Cavernosal Fibrosis in Rats

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    Dogan Atilgan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sildenafil and trimetazidine on bilateral cavernosal nerve injury-induced oxidative damage and fibrotic changes in cavernosal tissue in rat model. Material and Methods. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; each group consist 8 rats (control, BCI, BCI + TMZ, and BCI + sildenafil groups. Tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and protein carbonyl (PC levels were determined biochemically and distribution of cavernosal fibrosis density among groups was performed histopathologically. Results. Tissue SOD levels in BCI group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05. Tissue MDA and PC levels in BCI group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. TMZ and sildenafil administration significantly increased tissue SOD levels (P<0.05 and reduced tissue MDA and PC levels (P<0.05. Histologically, the degree of cavernosal fibrosis and collagen density was higher in BCI group in comparison to control, TMZ-treated, and sildenafil-treated groups. Conclusion. BCI caused oxidative damage and increased cavernosal fibrosis in rat penis. TMZ and sildenafil treatment decreased oxidative damage and reduced the degree of fibrosis in penile tissue due to BCI.

  17. Enalapril mitigates radiation-induced pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis if started 35 days after whole-thorax irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Fish, Brian L; Moulder, John E; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Medhora, Meetha

    2013-11-01

    Victims of a radiological attack or nuclear accident may receive high-dose, heterogeneous exposures from radiation to the chest that lead to lung damage. Our goal is to develop countermeasures to mitigate such injuries. We used WAG/RijCmcr rats receiving 13 Gy to the whole thorax to induce pulmonary fibrosis within 210 days. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril was evaluated as a mitigator of these injuries at two doses (18 and 36 mg/m(2)/day) and 8 schedules: starting at 7, 35, 70, 105 and 140 days and continuing to 210 days or starting at 7 days and stopping at 30, 60 or 90 days after whole-thorax irradiation. The earliest start date at 7 days after irradiation would provide an adequate window of time for triage and dosimetry. Survival after 35 days, as permitted by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) was also recorded as a primary end point of pneumonitis. Pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated using the Sircol biochemical assay to measure lung collagen. Our results indicated that a short course of either dose of enalapril from 7-90 days improved survival. However, pulmonary fibrosis was only mitigated by the higher dose of enalapril (36 mg/m(2)/day). The latest effective start date for the drug was 35 days after irradiation. These results indicate that ACE inhibitors can be started at least a month after irradiation for mitigation of pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis.

  18. TRPM7 is involved in angiotensin II induced cardiac fibrosis development by mediating calcium and magnesium influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Chen, Shaorui; Xiao, Chuyao; Jia, Yanyan; Guo, Jinlei; Jiang, Jianmin; Liu, Peiqing

    2014-05-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is involved in a lot of cardiovascular pathological processes. Cardiac fibrosis can block conduction, cause hypoxia, strengthen myocardial stiffness, create electrical heterogeneity, and hamper systolic ejection, which is associated with the development of arrhythmia, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Besides the initial stimulating factors, the cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) are the principal responsible cells in the fibrogenesis cascade of events. TRPM7, a member of the TRPM (Melastatin) subfamily, is a non-selective cation channel, which permeates both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Here we demonstrated TRPM7 expression in CFs, and 2-APB (TRPM7 inhibitor), inhibited Ang II-induced CTGF, α-SMA expression and CFs proliferation. Besides, knocking down TRPM7 by shRNA, we proved that TRPM7 mediated both calcium and magnesium changes in cardiac fibroblasts which contribute to fibrosis progress. This study suggested that TRPM7 should play a pivotal role in cardiac fibroblast functions associated to cardiac fibrosis development. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cigarette smoke-induced Ca2+ release leads to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Julia E; Sheridan, John T; Polk, William; Davies, Catrin M; Tarran, Robert

    2014-03-14

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects 64 million people and is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease includes both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, and in the case of chronic bronchitis represents an inflammatory response of the airways that is associated with mucus hypersecretion and obstruction of small airways. Recently, it has emerged that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) leads to an inhibition of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel, causing airway surface liquid dehydration, which may play a role in the development of chronic bronchitis. CS rapidly clears CFTR from the plasma membrane and causes it to be deposited into aggresome-like compartments. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) responsible for the internalization of CFTR following CS exposure. Our studies revealed that CS triggered a rise in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) that may have emanated from lysosomes. Furthermore, chelation of cytoplasmic Ca(2+), but not inhibition of protein kinases/phosphatases, prevented CS-induced CFTR internalization. The macrolide antibiotic bafilomycin A1 inhibited CS-induced Ca(2+) release and prevented CFTR clearance from the plasma membrane, further linking cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and CFTR internalization. We hypothesize that CS-induced Ca(2+) release prevents normal sorting/degradation of CFTR and causes internalized CFTR to reroute to aggresomes. Our data provide mechanistic insight into the potentially deleterious effects of CS on airway epithelia and outline a hitherto unrecognized signaling event triggered by CS that may affect the long term transition of the lung into a hyper-inflammatory/dehydrated environment.

  20. Induced pluripotent stem cells inhibit bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice through suppressing TGF-β1/Smad-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and irreversible fibrotic lung disorder with high mortality and few treatment options. Recently, induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells have been considered as an ideal resource for stem cell-based therapy. Although an earlier study demonstrated the therapeutic effect of iPS cells on pulmonary fibrosis, the exact mechanisms remain obscure. The present study investigated the effects of iPS cells on inflammatory responses, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 signaling pathway, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT during bleomycin (BLM-induced lung fibrosis. A single intratracheal instillation of BLM (5 mg/kg was performed to induce pulmonary fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice. Then, iPS cells (c-Myc-free were administrated intravenously at 24 h following BLM instillation. Three weeks after BLM administration, pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated. As expected, treatment with iPS cells significantly limited the pathological changes, edema, and collagen deposition in lung tissues of BLM-induced mice. Mechanically, treatment with iPS cells obviously repressed the expression ratios of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 to its tissue inhibitor -2 (TIMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 in BLM-induced pulmonary tissues. In addition, iPS cell administration remarkably suppressed BLM-induced up-regulation of pulmonary inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. We further demonstrated that transplantation of iPS cells markedly inhibited BLM-mediated activation of TGF-β1/Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2/3 (Smad2/3 and EMT in lung tissues through up-regulating epithelial marker E-cadherin and down-regulating mesenchymal markers including fibronectin, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin. Moreover, in vitro, iPS cell-conditioned medium (iPSC-CM profoundly inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT signaling pathway in mouse

  1. Amelioration of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in hamsters by dietary supplementation with taurine and niacin: biochemical mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Giri, S. N.; Blaisdell, R; Rucker, R B; Wang, Q; Hyde, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (BL) involves an excess production of reactive oxygen species, unavailability of adequate levels of NAD and ATP to repair the injured pulmonary epithelium, and an overexuberant lung collagen reactivity followed by deposition of highly cross-linked mature collagen fibrils resistant to enzymatic degradation. In the present study, we have demonstrated that dietary supplementation with taurine and niacin offered al...

  2. Compromised peroxisomes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a vicious cycle inducing a higher fibrotic response via TGF-β signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruqaj, Gani; Karnati, Srikanth; Vijayan, Vijith; Kotarkonda, Lakshmi Kanth; Boateng, Eistine; Zhang, Wenming; Ruppert, Clemens; Günther, Andreas; Shi, Wei; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2015-04-21

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease, and its pathogenic mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Peroxisomes are known to be important in ROS and proinflammatory lipid degradation, and their deficiency induces liver fibrosis. However, altered peroxisome functions in IPF pathogenesis have never been investigated. By comparing peroxisome-related protein and gene expression in lung tissue and isolated lung fibroblasts between human control and IPF patients, we found that IPF lungs exhibited a significant down-regulation of peroxisomal biogenesis and metabolism (e.g., PEX13p and acyl-CoA oxidase 1). Moreover, in vivo the bleomycin-induced down-regulation of peroxisomes was abrogated in transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor II knockout mice indicating a role for TGF-β signaling in the regulation of peroxisomes. Furthermore, in vitro treatment of IPF fibroblasts with the profibrotic factors TGF-β1 or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was found to down-regulate peroxisomes via the AP-1 signaling pathway. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms by which reduced peroxisomal functions contribute to enhanced fibrosis were further studied. Direct down-regulation of PEX13 by RNAi induced the activation of Smad-dependent TGF-β signaling accompanied by increased ROS production and resulted in the release of cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TGF-β) and excessive production of collagen I and III. In contrast, treatment of fibroblasts with ciprofibrate or WY14643, PPAR-α activators, led to peroxisome proliferation and reduced the TGF-β-induced myofibroblast differentiation and collagen protein in IPF cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that compromised peroxisome activity might play an important role in the molecular pathogenesis of IPF and fibrosis progression, possibly by exacerbating pulmonary inflammation and intensifying the fibrotic response in the patients.

  3. Lipidomics Revealed Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis-Induced Hepatic Lipid Disorders Corrected with Treatment of Baicalin in a Murine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Changfeng; Wang,Yiqi; Fan, Yongsheng; Li, Haichang; WANG, CHUNYAN; Zhang, Jida; Zhang, Shuijuan; Han, Xianlin; Wen, Chengping

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease. The current standard treatment with glucocorticoids (GCs) leads to many adverse effects, and its effectiveness is questionable. Thus, it is critical and urgent to find new drug(s) for treatment of IPF. Baicalin (BAI) is an attractive candidate for this purpose. Herein, utilizing shotgun lipidomics, we revealed that IPF could lead to a lipid disorder of the liver in an animal model induced by bleomycin and confirmed through histopath...

  4. Characterization of lung stem cell niches in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In lung fibrosis, alveolar epithelium degenerates progressively. The goal of regenerative medicine is to aid repair and regeneration of the lost tissues in parenchyma and airways for which mobilization of tissue-resident endogenous or bone marrow-derived exogenous stem cells niches is a critical step. We used a lung injury model in mice to identify and characterize functional lung stem cells to clarify how stem cell niches counteract this degenerative process. Methods Short term assay (STA) - Bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis were assessed in a model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in wild-type (WT), gp91phox-/- (NOX-/-), and gp91phoxMMP-12 double knockout (DKO) mice on C57Bl/6 background and Hoechst 33322 dye effluxing side population (SP) cells characterized. Long term assay (LTA) - In a bleomycin induced lung fibrosis model in C57Bl6 mice, the number of mature cells were quantified over 7, 14, and 21 days in bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood (PB), lung parenchyma (LP) and brochoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid by FACS. BrdU pulse chase experiment (10 weeks) was used to identify label retaining cells (LRC). BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were characterized by hematopoietic (CD45+), pluripotency (TTF1+, Oct3/4+, SSEA-3+, SSEA-4+, Sca1+, Lin-, CD34+, CD31+), and lung lineage-specific (SPC+, AQP-5+, CC-10+) markers. Clonogenic potential of LRCs were measured by CFU-c assays. Results STA- In lung, cellularity increased by 5-fold in WT and 6-fold in NOX-/- by d7. Lung epithelial markers were very low in expression in all SP flow sorted from lung of all three genotypes cultured ex vivo. (p bleomycin, the SP in NOX-/- lung increased by 3.6-fold over WT where it increased by 20-fold over controls. Type I and II alveolar epithelial cells progressively diminished in all three genotypes by d21 post-bleomycin. D7 post-bleomycin, CD45+ cells in BALf in NOX-/- was 1.7-fold > WT, 57% of which were Mf that decreased by 67% in WT and 83% in NOX-/- by d21.LTA

  5. Cardiac fibrosis in mice expressing an inducible myocardial-specific Cre driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lexow

    2013-11-01

    Tamoxifen-inducible Cre-mediated manipulation of animal genomes has achieved wide acceptance over the last decade, with numerous important studies heavily relying on this technique. Recently, a number of groups have reported transient complications of using this protocol in the heart. In the present study we observed a previously unreported focal fibrosis and depressed left-ventricular function in tamoxifen-treated αMHC-MerCreMer-positive animals in a Tβ4shRNAflox × αMHC-MerCreMer cross at 6–7 weeks following standard tamoxifen treatment, regardless of the presence of the floxed transgene. The phenotype was reproduced by treating mice from the original αMHC-MerCreMer strain with tamoxifen. In the acute phase after tamoxifen treatment, cell infiltration into the myocardium was accompanied by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ, Ccl2 and markers of hypertrophy (ANF, BNP, Col3a1. These observations highlight the requirement for including tamoxifen-treated MerCreMer littermate controls to avert misinterpretation of conditional mutant phenotypes. A survey of the field as well as the protocols presented here suggests that controlling the parameters of tamoxifen delivery is important in avoiding the chronic MerCreMer-mediated cardiac phenotype reported here.

  6. The LIM-only protein FHL2 attenuates lung inflammation during bleomycin-induced fibrosis.

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    Abdulaleem Alnajar

    Full Text Available Fibrogenesis is usually initiated when regenerative processes have failed and/or chronic inflammation occurs. It is characterised by the activation of tissue fibroblasts and dysregulated synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. FHL2 (four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2 is a scaffolding protein that interacts with numerous cellular proteins, regulating signalling cascades and gene transcription. It is involved in tissue remodelling and tumour progression. Recent data suggest that FHL2 might support fibrogenesis by maintaining the transcriptional expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and the excessive synthesis and assembly of matrix proteins in activated fibroblasts. Here, we present evidence that FHL2 does not promote bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, but rather suppresses this process by attenuating lung inflammation. Loss of FHL2 results in increased expression of the pro-inflammatory matrix protein tenascin C and downregulation of the macrophage activating C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN. Consequently, FHL2 knockout mice developed a severe and long-lasting lung pathology following bleomycin administration due to enhanced expression of tenascin C and impaired activation of inflammation-resolving macrophages.

  7. Eucapnic Voluntary Hyperventilation to Detect Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Stephen E; Hayes, Don; Parsons, Jonathan P; Wisely, Clayton E; Kopp, Ben; McCoy, Karen S; Mastronarde, John G

    2015-10-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has not been well studied in cystic fibrosis (CF), and eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) testing has not been used as an objective assessment of EIB in CF to date. A prospective cohort pilot study was completed where standard EVH testing was completed by 10 CF patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥70% of predicted. All patients also completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with pre- and post-CPET spirometry as a comparative method of detecting EIB. No adverse events occurred with EVH testing. A total of 20% (2/10) patients were diagnosed with EIB by means of EVH. Both patients had clinical symptoms consistent with EIB. No patient had a CPET-based exercise challenge consistent with EIB. EVH testing was safe and effective in the objective assessment for EIB in patients with CF who had well-preserved lung function. It may be a more sensitive method of detecting EIB then exercise challenge.

  8. Hypocellular scar formation or aberrant fibrosis induced by an intrastromal corneal ring: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Hema L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intrastromal corneal rings or segments are approved for the treatment of myopia and astigmatism associated with keratoconus. We describe a clinicopathological case of intrastromal corneal rings. For the first time, the molecular pathological findings of intrastromal corneal rings in the cornea are illustrated. Case presentation A 47-year-old African-American man with a history of keratoconus and failure in using a Rigid Gas Permeable contact lens received an intrastromal corneal ring implant in his left eye. Due to complications, penetrating keratoplasty was performed. The intrastromal corneal ring channels were surrounded by a dense acellular (channel haze and/or hypocellular (acidophilic densification collagen scar and slightly edematous keratocytes. Mild macrophage infiltration was found near the inner aspect of the intrastromal corneal rings. Molecular analyses of the microdissected cells surrounding the intrastromal corneal ring channels and central corneal stroma revealed 10 times lower relative expression of IP-10/CXCL10 mRNA and two times higher CCL5 mRNA in the cells surrounding the intrastromal corneal ring, as compared to the central corneal stroma. IP-10/CXCL10 is a fibrotic and angiostatic chemokine produced by macrophages, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Conclusion An intrastromal corneal ring implant can induce hypocellular scar formation and mild inflammation, which may result from aberrant release of fibrosis-related chemokines.

  9. Attenuation of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by oxymatrine is associated with regulation of fibroblast proliferation and collagen production in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Sun, Renshan; Hu, Jianming; Mo, Ziyao; Yang, Zifeng; Liao, Dongjiang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2008-09-01

    There is no satisfactory treatment for pulmonary fibrosis, which is characterized by altered control of proliferation of mesenchymal fibroblasts and extracellular matrix production. Oxymatrine is an alkaloid extracted from the Chinese herb Sophora japonica (Sophora flavescens Ait.) with capacities of anti-inflammation, inhibition of immune reaction, antivirus, protection against acute lung injury and antihepatic fibrosis. In this study, the effect of oxymatrine on pulmonary fibrosis was investigated using a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. The results showed that bleomycin challenge provoked severe pulmonary fibrosis with marked increase in hydroxyproline content of lung tissue and lung fibrosis fraction, which was prevented by oxymatrine in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, bleomycin injection resulted in a marked increase of myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde level that was attenuated by oxymatrine. Administration of oxymatrine inhibited the proliferation of murine lung fibroblasts, arrested the cells at G(0)/G(1) phase and reduced the expression of cell cycle regulatory protein, cyclin D1 in vitro. Furthermore, the steady-state production of collagen and the expression of alpha1(I) pro-collagen and alpha2(I) pro-collagen mRNA in fibroblasts were inhibited by oxymatrine in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that oxymatrine may attenuate pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice, partly through inhibition of inflammatory response and lipid peroxidation in lung induced by bleomycin and reduction of fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis.

  10. Adult Lung Spheroid Cells Contain Progenitor Cells and Mediate Regeneration in Rodents With Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Eric; Cores, Jhon; Hensley, M Taylor; Anthony, Shirena; Vandergriff, Adam; de Andrade, James B M; Allen, Tyler; Caranasos, Thomas G; Lobo, Leonard J; Cheng, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Lung diseases are devastating conditions and ranked as one of the top five causes of mortality worldwide according to the World Health Organization. Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for lung regeneration. Previous animal and clinical studies have focused on the use of mesenchymal stem cells (from other parts of the body) for lung regenerative therapies. We report a rapid and robust method to generate therapeutic resident lung progenitors from adult lung tissues. Outgrowth cells from healthy lung tissue explants are self-aggregated into three-dimensional lung spheroids in a suspension culture. Without antigenic sorting, the lung spheroids recapitulate the stem cell niche and contain a natural mixture of lung stem cells and supporting cells. In vitro, lung spheroid cells can be expanded to a large quantity and can form alveoli-like structures and acquire mature lung epithelial phenotypes. In severe combined immunodeficiency mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, intravenous injection of human lung spheroid cells inhibited apoptosis, fibrosis, and infiltration but promoted angiogenesis. In a syngeneic rat model of pulmonary fibrosis, lung spheroid cells outperformed adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in reducing fibrotic thickening and infiltration. Previously, lung spheroid cells (the spheroid model) had only been used to study lung cancer cells. Our data suggest that lung spheroids and lung spheroid cells from healthy lung tissues are excellent sources of regenerative lung cells for therapeutic lung regeneration. The results from the present study will lead to future human clinical trials using lung stem cell therapies to treat various incurable lung diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. The data presented here also provide fundamental knowledge regarding how injected stem cells mediate lung repair in pulmonary fibrosis. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Modeling pulmonary fibrosis by abnormal expression of telomerase/apoptosis/collagen V in experimental usual interstitial pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, E.R.; Pincelli, M.S. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teodoro, W.R.; Velosa, A.P.P. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, V.; Rangel, M.P.; Barbas-Filho, J.V.; Capelozzi, V.L. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-06-04

    Limitations on tissue proliferation capacity determined by telomerase/apoptosis balance have been implicated in pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, collagen V shows promise as an inductor of apoptosis. We evaluated the quantitative relationship between the telomerase/apoptosis index, collagen V synthesis, and epithelial/fibroblast replication in mice exposed to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at high oxygen concentration. Two groups of mice were analyzed: 20 mice received BHT, and 10 control mice received corn oil. Telomerase expression, apoptosis, collagen I, III, and V fibers, and hydroxyproline were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, in situ detection of apoptosis, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and histomorphometry. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of increased alveolar epithelial cells type 1 (AEC1) in apoptosis. Immunostaining showed increased nuclear expression of telomerase in AEC type 2 (AEC2) between normal and chronic scarring areas of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Control lungs and normal areas from UIP lungs showed weak green birefringence of type I and III collagens in the alveolar wall and type V collagen in the basement membrane of alveolar capillaries. The increase in collagen V was greater than collagens I and III in scarring areas of UIP. A significant direct association was found between collagen V and AEC2 apoptosis. We concluded that telomerase, collagen V fiber density, and apoptosis evaluation in experimental UIP offers the potential to control reepithelization of alveolar septa and fibroblast proliferation. Strategies aimed at preventing high rates of collagen V synthesis, or local responses to high rates of cell apoptosis, may have a significant impact in pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. Effect of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy on Myocardial Fibrosis and Relevant Cytokines in a Canine Model With Experimental Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Gong, Xue; Chen, Haiyan; Qin, Shengmei; Zhou, Nianwei; Su, Yangang; Ge, Junbo

    2017-04-01

    Though cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has now proved to be effective on cardiac reverse remodeling, data on the underlying molecular changes are limited. The present study aims to investigate the expression of cytokines concerning myocardial fibrosis in dyssynchronous heart failure (HF) and the potential benefits of CRT. Left bundle branch ablation and rapid pacing was performed to induce a canine model of asynchronous HF. Animals were randomly divided into sham group, HF control group, and CRT group. Echocardiographic data including septum-to-posterior wall motion delay (SPWMD) and standard deviation of the time to peak systolic velocity (Ts-SD) were collected. Histologic samples from lateral left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) free wall were analyzed and compared among different groups. Serum concentrations of NT-proBNP, TGF-β1 , and osteopontin (OPN) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Protein and mRNA expressions of TGF-β1 /Smad and OPN from myocardial tissues were also detected and compared. CRT improved cardiac function and corrected intraventricular dyssynchrony with increased LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and decreased SPWMD and Ts-SD (P < 0.05). Histological analysis showed that CRT restored cardiomyocyte diameter (from 4.50 to 6.08 μm) and collagen volume fraction (from 19.33% to 11.21%) of LV (P < 0.01), but had little effect on RV. Serum TGF-β1 and OPN level were also reversed toward normal level after CRT (P < 0.05). Compared with sham group, a significantly higher protein and mRNA expressions of TGF-β1 /Smad and OPN were observed in HF control group, which were significantly downregulated in CRT group (P < 0.01). By means of coordinating LV dyssynchrony, cellular and molecular reverse remodeling relevant to fibrosis inhibition could also be invoked by CRT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. MicroRNA-21 Mediates Angiotensin II-Induced Liver Fibrosis by Activating NLRP3 Inflammasome/IL-1β Axis via Targeting Smad7 and Spry1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zuo-Wei; Luo, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Guo-Zhen; Li, Yang; Pan, Miao-Xia; Yang, Ren-Qiang; Ling, Xu-Guang; Huang, Shan; Ma, Xiao-Xin; Jin, Si-Yi; Wang, Dan; Li, Xu

    2017-07-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII), a vasoconstrictive peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), promotes hepatic fibrogenesis and induces microRNA-21(mir-21) expression. Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] is a peptide of the RAS, which attenuates liver fibrosis. Recently, it was reported that the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome participated in liver fibrosis. However, it remains unclear how mir-21 mediates AngII-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We investigate the role of AngII-induced mir-21 in the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1β axis in liver fibrosis. In vivo, circulating mir-21 was upregulated in patients with liver fibrosis and was positively correlated with liver fibrosis and oxidation. Treatment with Ang-(1-7) inhibited mir-21, NLRP3 inflammasome, and liver fibrosis after bile duct ligation (BDL) or AngII infusion. Inhibition of mir-21 suppressed the Smad7/Smad2/3/NOX4, Spry1/ERK/NF-κB pathway, NLRP3 inflammasome, and liver fibrosis induced by AngII infusion. In vitro, AngII upregulated mir-21 expression via targeting Smad7 and Spry1 in primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In contrast, Ang-(1-7) suppressed mir-21 expression and oxidation induced by AngII. Overexpression of mir-21 promoted oxidation, and collagen production enhanced the effect of AngII on NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the Spry1/ERK/NF-κB, Smad7/Smad2/3/NOX4 pathways. However, downregulation of mir-21 exerted the opposite effects. Innovation and Conclusions: Mir-21 mediates AngII-activated NLRP3 inflammasome and resultant HSC activation via targeting Spry1 and Smad7. Ang-(1-7) protected against BDL or AngII infusion-induced hepatic fibrosis and inhibited mir-21 expression. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1-20.

  14. MicroRNA-21 Mediates Angiotensin II-Induced Liver Fibrosis by Activating NLRP3 Inflammasome/IL-1β Axis via Targeting Smad7 and Spry1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zuo-Wei; Luo, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Guo-Zhen; Li, Yang; Pan, Miao-Xia; Yang, Ren-Qiang; Ling, Xu-Guang; Huang, Shan; Ma, Xiao-Xin; Jin, Si-Yi; Wang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Angiotensin II (AngII), a vasoconstrictive peptide of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), promotes hepatic fibrogenesis and induces microRNA-21(mir-21) expression. Angiotensin-(1–7) [Ang-(1–7)] is a peptide of the RAS, which attenuates liver fibrosis. Recently, it was reported that the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome participated in liver fibrosis. However, it remains unclear how mir-21 mediates AngII-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We investigate the role of AngII-induced mir-21 in the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1β axis in liver fibrosis. Results: In vivo, circulating mir-21 was upregulated in patients with liver fibrosis and was positively correlated with liver fibrosis and oxidation. Treatment with Ang-(1–7) inhibited mir-21, NLRP3 inflammasome, and liver fibrosis after bile duct ligation (BDL) or AngII infusion. Inhibition of mir-21 suppressed the Smad7/Smad2/3/NOX4, Spry1/ERK/NF-κB pathway, NLRP3 inflammasome, and liver fibrosis induced by AngII infusion. In vitro, AngII upregulated mir-21 expression via targeting Smad7 and Spry1 in primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In contrast, Ang-(1–7) suppressed mir-21 expression and oxidation induced by AngII. Overexpression of mir-21 promoted oxidation, and collagen production enhanced the effect of AngII on NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the Spry1/ERK/NF-κB, Smad7/Smad2/3/NOX4 pathways. However, downregulation of mir-21 exerted the opposite effects. Innovation and Conclusions: Mir-21 mediates AngII-activated NLRP3 inflammasome and resultant HSC activation via targeting Spry1 and Smad7. Ang-(1–7) protected against BDL or AngII infusion-induced hepatic fibrosis and inhibited mir-21 expression. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1–20. PMID:27502441

  15. Hepatoprotective effects of naturally fermented noni juice against thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats

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    Yi-Ling Lin

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Naturally fermented NJ manifests a protective potential on liver fibrosis via the enhancement of antioxidant capacities, as well as decreasing endoplasmic-reticulum stress and MMP-2/MMP-9 activities.

  16. Novel form of miR-29b suppresses bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Yuko Yamada

    Full Text Available MicroRNA 29b (miR-29b replacement therapy is effective for suppressing fibrosis in a mouse model. However, to develop clinical applications for miRNA mimics, the side effects of nucleic acid drugs have to be addressed. In this study, we focused on miRNA mimics in order to develop therapies for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We developed a single-stranded RNA, termed "miR-29b Psh-match," that has a unique structure to avoid problems associated with the therapeutic uses of miRNAs. A comparison of miR-29b Psh-match and double-stranded one, termed "miR-29b mimic" indicated that the single-stranded form was significantly effective towards fibrosis according to both in vivo and in vitro experiments. This novel form of miR-29b may become the foundation for developing an effective therapeutic drug for pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. High endogenous activated protein C levels attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Isermann, Berend; Weiler, Hartmut; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, Chris A.

    2016-01-01

    Coagulation activation accompanied by reduced anticoagulant activity is a key characteristic of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Although the importance of coagulation activation in IPF is well studied, the potential relevance of endogenous anticoagulant activity in IPF progression

  18. Targeting protease activated receptor-1 with P1pal-12 limits bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Cong; Duitman, Janwillem; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; von der Thüsen, Jan; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C. Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating fibrotic diffuse parenchymal lung disease which remains refractory to pharmacological therapies. Therefore, novel treatments are urgently required. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that mediates critical

  19. Effect of ALDH2 on High Glucose-Induced Cardiac Fibroblast Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Fibrosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiaoyu Gu; Tingting Fang; Pinfang Kang; Junfeng Hu; Ying Yu; Zhenghong Li; Xiangyang Cheng; Qin Gao

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed firstly to observe whether ALDH2 was expressed in neonate rat cardiac fibroblasts, then to investigate the effect of activation of ALDH2 on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and fibrosis...

  20. Dietary Curcumin Increases Antioxidant Defenses in Lung, Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis, and Improves Survival in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James C.; Kinniry, Paul A.; Arguiri, Evguenia; Serota, Matthew; Kanterakis, Stathis; Chatterjee, Shampa; Solomides, Charalambos C.; Javvadi, Prashanthi; Koumenis, Constantinos; Cengel, Keith A.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of lung radiotherapy is limited by radiation tolerance of normal tissues and by the intrinsic radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells. The chemopreventive agent curcumin has known antioxidant and tumor cell radiosensitizing properties. Its usefulness in preventing radiation-induced pneumonopathy has not been tested previously. We evaluated dietary curcumin in radiation-induced pneumonopathy and lung tumor regression in a murine model. Mice were given 1%or 5%(w/w) dietary curcumin or control diet prior to irradiation and for the duration of the experiment. Lungs were evaluated at 3 weeks after irradiation for acute lung injury and inflammation by evaluating bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid content for proteins, neutrophils and at 4 months for pulmonary fibrosis. In a separate series of experiments, an orthotopic model of lung cancer using intravenously injected Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells was used to exclude possible tumor radioprotection by dietary curcumin. In vitro, curcumin boosted antioxidant defenses by increasing heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) levels in primary lung endothelial and fibroblast cells and blocked radiation-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dietary curcumin significantly increased HO-1 in lungs as early as after 1 week of feeding, coinciding with a steady-state level of curcumin in plasma. Although both 1% and 5% w/w dietary curcumin exerted physiological changes in lung tissues by significantly decreasing LPS-induced TNF-α production in lungs, only 5%dietary curcumin significantly improved survival of mice after irradiation and decreased radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Importantly, dietary curcumin did not protect LLC pulmonary metastases from radiation killing. Thus dietary curcumin ameliorates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and increases mouse survival while not impairing tumor cell killing by radiation. PMID:20426658

  1. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3- (1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Yang, Jun; Sun, Guo-Ying; Liu, Tian; Duan, Jia-Xi; Zhou, Hui-Fang; Lee, Kin Sing; Hammock, Bruce D; Fang, Xiang; Jiang, Jian-Xin; Guan, Cha-Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), the metabolites of arachidonic acid derived from the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) epoxygenases, are mainly metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to their corresponding diols. EETs but not their diols, have anti-inflammatory properties and inhibition of sEH might provide protective effects against inflammatory fibrosis. We test the effects of a selected sEH inhibitor, 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in mice. A mouse model of PF was established by intratracheal injection of bleomycin and TPPU was administered for 21 days after bleomycin injection. We found TPPU treatment improved the body weight loss and survival rate of bleomycin-stimulated mice. Histological examination showed that TPPU treatment alleviated bleomycin-induced inflammation and maintained the alveolar structure of the pulmonary tissues. TPPU also decreased the bleomycin-induced deposition of collagen and the expression of procollagen I mRNA in lung tissues of mice. TPPU decreased the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels in the serum of bleomycin-stimulated mice. Furthermore, TPPU inhibited the proliferation and collagen synthesis of mouse fibroblasts and partially reversed TGF-β1-induced α-smooth muscle actin expression. Our results indicate that the inhibition of sEH attenuates bleomycin-induced inflammation and collagen deposition and therefore prevents bleomycin-induced PF in a mouse model.

  2. Azelastine hydrochloride (Azeptin) inhibits peplomycin (PLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis by contradicting the up-regulation of signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, K; Yamamoto, T; Ueta, E; Osaki, T

    1997-10-01

    Inhibition of peplomycin (PLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis by azelastine hydrochloride (Azeptin) was examined using ICR mice, and the effects of both drugs on signal transduction were investigated. Microscopically, Azeptin (a total of 56 mg/kg for 28 days) suppressed pulmonary fibrosis in mice which received an i.p. injection of a total of 60 or 75 mg/kg PLM. In parallel with the microscopic findings, smaller amounts of collagen were synthesized in the lungs of Azeptin-injected mice. PLM enhanced the expression of interleukin-1 beta- and transforming growth factor-beta-mRNA in lungs. In contrast, Azeptin suppressed the expression. Compatible with these in vivo results, Azeptin and PLM contradictively regulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation and c-myc mRNA expression in human gingival and mouse pulmonary fibroblasts. In addition, NF-kappa B was activated by fibroblast treatment with 5 micrograms/ml PLM for 1 h, but intranuclear NF-kappa B was decreased by cell treatment with 10(-5) M Azeptin. From these results, it is concluded that Azeptin inhibits PLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis by antagonizing the up-regulation of signal transduction.

  3. [The coordinated effect of the excessive protein and cholesterin intake on inducing rat myocardial fibrosis and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-Hua; Li, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Wen; Lu, Wen-Ning; Liu, Ning; Liu, Xiu-Hua; Tang, Chao-Shu

    2004-02-01

    To investigate the coordinated role and its mechanism of the high protein and hypercholesterol intake on inducing rat myocardial fibrosis. The tissue level of the collagen in left ventricule, the concentrations of the plasma and the cardiac tissue angiotensin II (Ang II) and Aldosterone (Ald), the serum concentration of nitrite (NO2-), in the Wistar rats on diet which adding 20% protein or/and 100 mg/d cholesterin in the rat standard foods for 8 weeks, were measured by the colorimetric analysis of the hydroxyproline, by the radioimmunoassay, and by the assay of Griess, respectively. 1.69 times left ventricular collagen contents, 0.7 times plasma concentrations of total cholesterin, 1.5 times levels of the plasma Ang II and 1 time myocardial ald contents were higher, and the serum NO2- concentration was significant lower, in the rats of the high protein and hypercholesterol intake than in the rats of the high protein intake. That 0.48 times left ventricular collagen contents, 0.23 times plasma Ang II in the high protein and hypercholesterol intake rats were higher than in the high cholesterin intake rats. The excessive protein and cholesterin intake can induce the coordinated effect on developing the myocardial fibrosis of rats. And the mechanism of the fibrosis in rat left ventricule maybe result with the activation of RAAS and the endothelial injury.

  4. Preventive Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Si, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Jian; Han, Jian; Liang, Xu; Xu, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Yi-Ting; Li, Guo-Yu; Wang, Hang-Yu; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2016-06-03

    Rhodiola rosea L. (RRL) possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including lung-protective activity, and has been utilized in folk medicine for several 100 years. However, the lung-protective mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the possible lung-protective activity mechanism of RRL in a pulmonary fibrosis (PF) rat model. Lung fibrotic injury was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by single intratracheal instillation of saline containing bleomycin (BLM; 5 mg/kg). The rats were administered 125, 250, or 500 mg/kg of a 95% ethanol extract of RRL for 28 days. The animals were killed to detect changes in body weight, serum levels of glutathione (GSH) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), as well as lung tissue hydroxyproline (HYP) content. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to observe the histopathological changes in lung tissues. Additionally, target-related proteins were measured by Western blotting. RRL alleviated the loss of body weight induced by instilling BLM in PF rats, particularly at the 500 mg/kg per day dose. RRL reduced HYP (p < 0.01) and increased GSH and T-SOD contents. BALF levels of TNF-α, TGF-β1, and IL-6 decreased significantly in the RRL-treated groups. Expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and α-smooth muscle actin decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in response to RRL. Moreover, the levels of TGF-β1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in lung tissues also decreased in the RRL-treated groups. RRL alleviated BLM-induced PF in rats. Our results reveal that the protective effects of RRL against fibrotic lung injury in rats are correlated with its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-fibrotic properties. MMP-9 may play

  5. Preventive Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola rosea L. (RRL possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including lung-protective activity, and has been utilized in folk medicine for several 100 years. However, the lung-protective mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the possible lung-protective activity mechanism of RRL in a pulmonary fibrosis (PF rat model. Lung fibrotic injury was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by single intratracheal instillation of saline containing bleomycin (BLM; 5 mg/kg. The rats were administered 125, 250, or 500 mg/kg of a 95% ethanol extract of RRL for 28 days. The animals were killed to detect changes in body weight, serum levels of glutathione (GSH and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD, as well as lung tissue hydroxyproline (HYP content. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to observe the histopathological changes in lung tissues. Additionally, target-related proteins were measured by Western blotting. RRL alleviated the loss of body weight induced by instilling BLM in PF rats, particularly at the 500 mg/kg per day dose. RRL reduced HYP (p < 0.01 and increased GSH and T-SOD contents. BALF levels of TNF-α, TGF-β1, and IL-6 decreased significantly in the RRL-treated groups. Expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and α-smooth muscle actin decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in response to RRL. Moreover, the levels of TGF-β1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in lung tissues also decreased in the RRL-treated groups. RRL alleviated BLM-induced PF in rats. Our results reveal that the protective effects of RRL against fibrotic lung injury in rats are correlated with its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-fibrotic properties. MMP-9 may

  6. Mistletoe alkaloid fractions alleviates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis through inhibition of hepatic stellate cell activation via TGF-β/Smad interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Wang, Chi; Li, Ying-Ying; Wang, Xue-Cong; An, Jian-Duo; Wang, Yun-Jiao; Wang, Xue-Jiang

    2014-12-02

    Mistletoe (Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai) has long been categorized as a traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In addition to its application in cancer therapy, mistletoe has also been used in the treatment of chronic hepatic disorders in China. In the present study, we investigated the antifibrotic effect and mechanisms of action of mistletoe extracts in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. An experimental model of hepatic fibrosis was established by intraperitoneal injection of rats with CCl4 for 8 weeks. Rats were subsequently treated with a mistletoe alkaloid fraction preparation via oral administration (120mg/kg daily for 8 weeks) or with distilled water as a control. Histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson׳s trichrome staining. The expression of markers relevant to hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation in the liver was assessed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The anti-fibrosis activity and mechanisms of action of mistletoe alkaloid fractions were further investigated in the HSC-T6 HSC line, following treatment with mistletoe alkaloid fractions (12mg/ml) for 48h. Hepatic fibrosis decreased markedly in CCl4-treated animals following treatment with mistletoe alkaloid fractions, compared to controls. The mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), procollagen I and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were significantly downregulated, by about 40%, 40% and 45%, respectively, in liver tissues from rats treated with mistletoe alkaloid fractions. Furthermore, significant downregulation of TGF-β1, TGF-β1 receptor, phosphorylated Smad 2 and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) proteins, by about 45%, 30% and 40%, respectively, was also observed in liver tissues from mistletoe alkaloid fractions-treated rats. In contrast, Smad 7 levels were significantly increased by about 30% in mistletoe alkaloid

  7. Polyphenol rich ethanolic extract from Boerhavia diffusa L. mitigates angiotensin II induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Prathapan; Varghese, Mathews V; S, Abhilash; P, Salin Raj; Mathew, Anil K; Nair, Anupama; Nair, R Harikumaran; K G, Raghu

    2017-03-01

    Boerhavia diffusa is a renowned edible medicinal plant extensively used against different ailments including heart diseases in the traditional system of medicine in several countries. The present study aims to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Boerhavia diffusa (BDE) on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in male wistar rats and to identify the active components present in it. A substantial increase of hypertrophy markers such as cardiac mass index, concentration of ANP and BNP, cardiac injury markers like CK-MB, LDH and SGOT, has been observed in hypertrophied groups whereas BDE treatment attenuated these changes when compared to hypertrophied rats. Moreover, Ang II induced myocardial oxidative stress was reduced by BDE which was apparent from diminished level of lipid and protein oxidation products, increased activities of membrane bound ATPases and endogenous antioxidant enzymes along with enhanced translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to nucleus. It appears that BDE evokes its antioxidant effects by attenuating lipid peroxidation, enhancing the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytoplasm to nucleus as well as by regulating the metabolism of glutathione. The extent of fibrosis during cardiac hypertrophy was determined by histopathology analysis and the results revealed that BDE treatment considerably reduced the fibrosis in the heart. HPLC analysis of BDE leads to the identification of four compounds viz., quercetin, kaempferol, boeravinone B and caffeic acid. The study substantiate the effect of B. diffusa in protecting the heart from pathological hypertrophy and the attenuation of cardiac abnormalities may be partly attributed through the reduction of oxidative stress and cardiac fibrosis. Since the plant is widely used as a green leafy vegetable, incorporation of this plant in diet may be an alternative way for the prevention and better management of heart diseases and associated complications. Copyright

  8. Therapeutic advantage of inhaled tacrolimus-bound albumin nanoparticles in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jisoo; Lee, Changkyu; Hwang, Ha Shin; Kim, Bomi; Thao, Le Quang; Lee, Eun Seong; Oh, Kyung Taek; Lim, Jong-Lae; Choi, Han-Gon; Youn, Yu Seok

    2016-02-01

    Tacrolimus (Tac) is an immunosuppressant that inhibits translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells and has therapeutic potential for pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a sustained-release type inhaled Tac formulation for treating bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Inhalation has many meaningful advantages over injections, such as improved patient compliance, safety, and therapeutic effect. To this end, we fabricated inhalable albumin nanoparticles with bound Tac (Tac Alb-NPs) at a daily therapeutic dose (60 μg/mouse) using a high-pressure homogenizer via nanoparticle albumin-bound technology. The Tac Alb-NPs were spherical, ∼ 182.1 ± 28.5 nm in size, with a zeta potential of -34.5 ± 0.3 mV, and the Tac incorporation efficiency was as high as ∼ 85.3%. The bound tacrolimus was released gradually from Tac Alb-NPs for ∼ 24 h, which was sufficient time for pulmonary delivery. Most of all, the inhaled Tac Alb-NPs displayed remarkable anti-fibrotic efficacy in mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, which was much better than the efficacy resulting from intraperitoneal administration of Tac (60 μg/mouse) based on histopathological results (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining). Furthermore, the inhaled Cy5.5-labelled Tac Alb-NPs were visualized throughout the lungs of mice for ∼ 48 h, indicating direct exposure to fibrotic tissues in lung lesions. In conclusion, Tac Alb-NPs offer great potential as an inhalation delivery formulation for treating pulmonary fibrosis. Additionally, these NPs would be particularly useful as an effective and safe prototype for delivering practically insoluble therapeutic agents into the lungs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Autophagy in Hepatic Fibrosis

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    Yang Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic fibrosis is usually associated with chronic liver diseases caused by infection, drugs, metabolic disorders, or autoimmune imbalances. Effective clinical therapies are still lacking. Autophagy is a cellular process that degrades damaged organelles or protein aggregation, which participates in many pathological processes including liver diseases. Autophagy participates in hepatic fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate cells and may participate as well through influencing other fibrogenic cells. Besides that, autophagy can induce some liver diseases to develop while it may play a protective role in hepatocellular abnormal aggregates related liver diseases and reduces fibrosis. With a better understanding of the potential effects of autophagy on hepatic fibrosis, targeting autophagy might be a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis in the near future.

  10. Spontaneous liver fibrosis induced by long term dietary vitamin D deficiency in adult mice is related to chronic inflammation and enhanced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Longdong; Kong, Ming; Han, Yuan-Ping; Bai, Li; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Sujun; Yuan, Hong; Duan, Zhongping

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed an association between vitamin D deficiency and various chronic liver diseases. However, it is not known whether lack of vitamin D can induce spontaneous liver fibrosis in an animal model. To study this, mice were fed either a control diet or a vitamin D deficient diet (VDD diet). For the positive control, liver fibrosis was induced with carbon tetrachloride. Here we show, for the first time, that liver fibrosis spontaneously developed in mice fed the VDD diet. Long-term administration of a VDD diet resulted in necro-inflammation and liver fibrosis. Inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleulin-1, interleukin-6, Toll-like-receptor 4, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were up-regulated in the livers of the mice fed the VDD diet. Conversely, the expression of Th2/M2 markers such as IL-10, IL-13, arginase 1, and heme oxygenase-1 were down-regulated in the livers of mice fed the VDD diet. Transforming growth factor-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase 13, which are important for fibrosis, were induced in the livers of mice fed the VDD diet. Moreover, the VDD diet triggered apoptosis in the parenchymal cells, in agreement with the increased levels of Fas and FasL, and decreased Bcl2 and Bclx. Thus, long-term vitamin D deficiency can provoke chronic inflammation that can induce liver apoptosis, which consequently activates hepatic stellate cells to initiate liver fibrosis.

  11. A Chinese Herbal Medicine, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Prevents Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chen Chien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN- induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation.

  12. Experimental hypocalcemia induced by hemodialysis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, N; Oishi, A; Sato, J; Sato, R; Naito, Y

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate whether hemodialysis with a dialysate containing no calcium (Ca-free HD) can induce hypocalcemia and restore the clinical signs and blood biochemical changes in naturally occurred hypocalcemic disorder in ruminants, the clinical signs and the changes in plasma electrolytes and minerals concentrations were observed in goats during 6-hr hemodialysis. The four goats received hemodialysis with the dialysate containing calcium (Ca HD), and 10 days later they had Ca-free HD. The plasma ionized Ca (Ca++) and total Ca (TCa) concentrations were not affected by Ca HD, whereas the levels significantly decreased during whole period of Ca-free HD. The Ca++ and TCa concentrations were 0.69+/-0.06 mmol/l and 5.9+/-0.3 mg/dl at 6 hr of Ca-free HD, respectively. The clinical signs observed during Ca-free HD seemed to resemble to those in naturally occurred hypocalcemic cases that were reported previously. Therefore, Ca-free HD was suggested to be one of the possible methods to induce experimental hypocalcemia in ruminants.

  13. Local delivery of biodegradable pirfenidone nanoparticles ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Ruchit; Redente, Elizabeth F.; Thakur, Ashish; Riches, David W. H.; Kompella, Uday B.

    2012-12-01

    Our purpose was to assess sustained delivery and enhanced efficacy of pirfenidone-loaded nanoparticles after intratracheal instillation. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles containing pirfenidone (NPs) were prepared and characterized. Biodistribution of NPs and solution was assessed using LC-MS after intratracheal administration in C57Bl/6 mice at 3 and 24 h and 1 week post-administration. Efficacy was tested in C57Bl/6 mice in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model. Mice received 10 μg pirfenidone intratracheally in solution or NPs, once a week, for 3 weeks after bleomycin administration. Drug effects were monitored on day 28. Lung hydroxyproline content, total number of cells, and numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were assessed. Numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils were assessed in the lung as well. NPs sustained significantly higher levels of pirfenidone in the lungs and BAL at 24 h and 1 week, compared to the solution group. Pirfenidone solution and NPs significantly reduced hydroxyproline levels by 57 and 81%, respectively, compared to bleomycin alone. At the end of 4 weeks, BAL cellularity was reduced by 25.4% and 56% with solution and NP treatment, respectively. The numbers of lymphocytes and neutrophils in the BAL were also reduced by 58.9 and 82.4% for solution and 74.5% and 89.7% for NPs, respectively. The number of inflammatory macrophages in the lung was reduced by 62.8% and the number of neutrophils was reduced by 59.1% in the NP group and by 37.7% and 44.5%, respectively, in the solution group, compared to bleomycin alone. In conclusion, nanoparticles sustain lung pirfenidone delivery and enhance its anti-fibrotic efficacy.

  14. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates hepatic fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Todd R. [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bettaieb, Ahmed [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kodani, Sean; Dong, Hua [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan [Department of Internal Medicine: Cardiovascular, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Haj, Fawaz G. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine: Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D., E-mail: bdhammock@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Liver fibrosis is a pathological condition in which chronic inflammation and changes to the extracellular matrix lead to alterations in hepatic tissue architecture and functional degradation of the liver. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce fibrosis in the heart, pancreas and kidney in several disease models. In this study, we assess the effect of sEH inhibition on the development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced mouse model by monitoring changes in the inflammatory response, matrix remolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) was administered in drinking water. Collagen deposition in the liver was increased five-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group, and this was returned to control levels by TPPU treatment. Hepatic expression of Col1a2 and 3a1 mRNA was increased over fifteen-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group relative to the Control group, and this increase was reduced by 50% by TPPU treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in the livers of CCl{sub 4}-treated animals was attenuated by TPPU treatment. In order to support the hypothesis that TPPU is acting to reduce the hepatic fibrosis and ER stress through its action as a sEH inhibitor we used a second sEH inhibitor, trans-4-(4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy)-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), and sEH null mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the sEH may play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl{sub 4}, presumably by reducing endogenous fatty acid epoxide chemical mediators acting to reduce ER stress. - Highlights: • We administer an inhibitor of sEH in a CCl4 murine model. • sEH inhibition reduces liver collagen deposition and pro-fibrotic gene expression. • sEH inhibition induces MMP-1a activity.

  15. Puerarin attenuates renal fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis via MAPK signal pathways in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Bai, Chen; Sun, Xinbo; Gong, Xiaoxin; Yang, Yong; Chen, Congbo; Shan, Guang; Yao, Qisheng

    2017-11-01

    Puerarin (PR) is an isoflavonoid isolated from the root of the plant Pueraria lobata and has been widely used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Oxidative stress and epithelial cell apoptosis play important roles in the renal fibrotic process. The present study aimed to determine whether or not PR inhibits renal fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis. In vivo, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) induced renal fibrosis, and epithelial cell apoptosis. A total of 24 mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: sham, UUO alone, UUO +50 mg/kg PR, and UUO +100 mg/kg PR. In vitro, 200 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced epithelial cell apoptosis. The experiments were dived into four groups: control, H2O2 alone, H2O2+50 μM PR, and H2O2+100 μM PR. Tubular injury was measured in the renal cortex of the mice through periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) was measured through Sirius red (SR), immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, and Western blot. Renal epithelial cell apoptosis was measured through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick-End labeling (TUNEL), flow cytometry (FCM), and Hoechst assays. The protein expression of NOX4, caspase3, ERK, P38, and JNK was assessed through Western blot. PAS staining showed that PR decreased renal tubular injury in UUO mice. SR and IHC staining demonstrated that PR decreased the accumulation of ECM. PR treatment significantly inhibited epithelial cell apoptosis according to the results of TUNEL, FCM, Hoechst, and Western blot. Furthermore, NOX4 increased in UUO mice and decreased with PR treatment. H2O2-derived oxidative stress activated epithelial apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and PR treatment significantly reversed it. These results suggest that PR treatment ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibiting oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis through

  16. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis by Suppressing TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naping Hu

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis is the common pathological foundation of many chronic kidney diseases (CKDs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA can preserve renal function by inhibiting the progression of renal fibrosis and the potential mechanisms.Renal fibrosis was induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO performed on 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice. HSYA (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg were intragastrically administered. Sham group and model group were administered with the same volume of vehicle. Serum and kidney samples were collected 14 days after the UUO surgery. Serum biochemical indicators were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer. Histological changes were evaluated by HE and Masson staining. In vitro, the anti-fibrotic effect of HSYA was tested on human recombinant transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 stimulated HK-2 cells. The protein levels of α-SMA, collagen-I and fibronectin in kidney tissue and HK-2 cells were measured by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The protein levels of apoptosis-relative and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling were detected by western blot.HSYA slowed the development of renal fibrosis both in vivo and in vitro. In UUO rats, renal function index suggested that HSYA treatment decreased the level of serum creatinine (Scr and blood urea nitrogen (BUN rose by UUO (P<0.05. HE staining and Masson staining demonstrated that kidney interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and inflammatory cell infiltration were notably attenuated in the high-dose HSYA group compared with the model group. The expressions of α-SMA, collagen-I and fibronectin were decreased in the UUO kidney and HK-2 cells of the HSYA-treatment group. Moreover, HSYA reduced the apoptotic rate of HK-2 cells stimulated by TGF-β1. Further study revealed that HSYA regulated the TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway both in kidney tissue and HK-2 cells.These results suggested that HSYA had a protective effect against fibrosis in renal

  17. SNP in TXNRD2 Associated With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis: A Study of Genetic Variation in Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism and Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsen, Hege, E-mail: hege.edvardsen@rr-research.no [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Landmark-Høyvik, Hege [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Reinertsen, Kristin V. [National Resource Centre for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Zhao, Xi [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Grenaker-Alnæs, Grethe Irene; Nebdal, Daniel [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Syvänen, Ann-Christine [Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Rødningen, Olaug [Department of Medical Genetics, OUS Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens [Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Ahus University Hospital (Norway); Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Fosså, Sophie D. [K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); National Resource Centre for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Kristensen, Vessela N. [Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Department of Clinical Molecular Biology (EpiGen), Division of Medicine, Ahus University Hospital (Norway)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify noninvasive markers of treatment-induced side effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated after irradiation, and genetic variation in genes related to ROS metabolism might influence the level of radiation-induced adverse effects (AEs). Methods and Materials: 92 breast cancer (BC) survivors previously treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy were assessed for the AEs subcutaneous atrophy and fibrosis, costal fractures, lung fibrosis, pleural thickening, and telangiectasias (median follow-up time 17.1 years). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 203 genes were analyzed for association to AE grade. SNPs associated with subcutaneous fibrosis were validated in an independent BC survivor material (n=283). The influence of the studied genetic variation on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of 18 genes previously associated with fibrosis was assessed in fibroblast cell lines from BC patients. Results: Subcutaneous fibrosis and atrophy had the highest correlation (r=0.76) of all assessed AEs. The nonsynonymous SNP rs1139793 in TXNRD2 was associated with grade of subcutaneous fibrosis, the reference T-allele being more prevalent in the group experiencing severe levels of fibrosis. This was confirmed in another sample cohort of 283 BC survivors, and rs1139793 was found significantly associated with mRNA expression level of TXNRD2 in blood. Genetic variation in 24 ROS-related genes, including EGFR, CENPE, APEX1, and GSTP1, was associated with mRNA expression of 14 genes previously linked to fibrosis (P≤.005). Conclusion: Development of subcutaneous fibrosis can be associated with genetic variation in the mitochondrial enzyme TXNRD2, critically involved in removal of ROS, and maintenance of the intracellular redox balance.

  18. Serum levels of WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP-1): a noninvasive biomarker of renal fibrosis in subjects with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiang; Tu, Yue Ju; Li, Yi; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Wei; Chen, Sha Sha; Li, Li; Chung, Arthur Ck; Lan, Hui Yao; Chen, Hai Yong; Li, Gui Sen; Wang, Li

    2017-01-01

    WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP-1) is an extracellular matrix-related protein that plays multiple roles in cellular physiology and pathology. Accumulating evidence shows that WISP-1 is involved in the process underlying fibrotic diseases. However, the correlation between WISP-1 and renal fibrosis is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that WISP-1 levels might be correlated with renal fibrosis and could be used as a noninvasive biomarker to screen for renal fibrosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We first measured the WISP-1 expression levels using a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced renal fibrosis tubular epithelial cell (TEC) model and a mouse model of obstructive nephropathy. We then evaluated the correlation between serum WISP-1 levels and fibrosis scores in biopsy-proven renal fibrosis of patients with CKD. Based on the findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies, the levels of WISP-1 and fibrotic parameters (collagen I, fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin) were significantly increased in the fibrotic models. Consistently, patients with focal proliferative IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerular sclerosis and diabetic nephropathy displayed markedly elevated serum WISP-1 levels and fibrosis scores of renal biopsies compared with normal subjects and patients with minimal change disease (PWISP-1 levels were positively correlated with fibrosis scores in the renal biopsies of these patients (r=0.475, P=0.0001). Thus, serum WISP-1 levels may be used as a potential noninvasive biomarker of renal fibrosis in patients with CKD.

  19. Kinin B1 receptor antagonism is equally efficient as angiotensin receptor 1 antagonism in reducing renal fibrosis in experimental obstructive nephropathy, but is not additive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eHuart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease. Currently, inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system (RAS remain the sole therapy in human displaying antifibrotic properties. Further antifibrotic molecules are needed. We have recently reported that the delayed blockade of the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R reduced the development of fibrosis in two animal models of renal fibrosis. The usefulness of new drugs also resides in outperforming the gold standards and eventually being additive or complementary to existing therapies. Methods: In this study we compared the efficacy of a B1R antagonist (B1Ra with that of an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1a in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO model of renal fibrosis and determined whether bi-therapy presented higher efficacy than any of the drugs alone. Results: B1R antagonism was as efficient as the gold-standard AT1a treatment. However bitherapy did not improve the antifibrotic effects at the protein level. We sought for the reason of the absence of this additive effect by studying the expression of a panel of genes involved in the fibrotic process. Interestingly, at the molecular level the different drugs targeted different players of fibrosis that, however, in this severe model did not result in improved reduction of fibrosis at the protein level. Conclusions: As the B1R is induced specifically in the diseased organ and thus potentially displays low side effects it might be an interesting alternative in cases of poor tolerability to RAS inhibitors.

  20. Kinin B1 receptor antagonism is equally efficient as angiotensin receptor 1 antagonism in reducing renal fibrosis in experimental obstructive nephropathy, but is not additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huart, Antoine; Klein, Julie; Gonzalez, Julien; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte; Neau, Eric; Delage, Christine; Calise, Denis; Ribes, David; Schanstra, Joost P.; Bascands, Jean-Loup

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, inhibitors of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) remain the sole therapy in human displaying antifibrotic properties. Further antifibrotic molecules are needed. We have recently reported that the delayed blockade of the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) reduced the development of fibrosis in two animal models of renal fibrosis. The usefulness of new drugs also resides in outperforming the gold standards and eventually being additive or complementary to existing therapies. Methods: In this study we compared the efficacy of a B1R antagonist (B1Ra) with that of an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1a) in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of renal fibrosis and determined whether bi-therapy presented higher efficacy than any of the drugs alone. Results: B1R antagonism was as efficient as the gold-standard AT1a treatment. However, bitherapy did not improve the antifibrotic effects at the protein level. We sought for the reason of the absence of this additive effect by studying the expression of a panel of genes involved in the fibrotic process. Interestingly, at the molecular level the different drugs targeted different players of fibrosis that, however, in this severe model did not result in improved reduction of fibrosis at the protein level. Conclusions: As the B1R is induced specifically in the diseased organ and thus potentially displays low side effects it might be an interesting alternative in cases of poor tolerability to RAS inhibitors. PMID:25698969

  1. Bleomycin Induces Molecular Changes Directly Relevant to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Model for “Active” Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Gaurav; Phillips, Jonathan E.; Garrido, Rosario; Harris, Paul; Burns, Lisa; Renteria, Lorena; Woods, John; Chen, Leena; Allard, John; Ravindran, Palanikumar; Bitter, Hans; Liang, Zhenmin; Hogaboam, Cory M.; Kitson, Chris; Budd, David C.; Fine, Jay S.; Bauer, Carla MT.; Stevenson, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    The preclinical model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, used to investigate mechanisms related to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), has incorrectly predicted efficacy for several candidate compounds suggesting that it may be of limited value. As an attempt to improve the predictive nature of this model, integrative bioinformatic approaches were used to compare molecular alterations in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice and patients with IPF. Using gene set enrichment analysis we show for the first time that genes differentially expressed during the fibrotic phase of the single challenge bleomycin model were significantly enriched in the expression profiles of IPF patients. The genes that contributed most to the enrichment were largely involved in mitosis, growth factor, and matrix signaling. Interestingly, these same mitotic processes were increased in the expression profiles of fibroblasts isolated from rapidly progressing, but not slowly progressing, IPF patients relative to control subjects. The data also indicated that TGFβ was not the sole mediator responsible for the changes observed in this model since the ALK-5 inhibitor SB525334 effectively attenuated some but not all of the fibrosis associated with this model. Although some would suggest that repetitive bleomycin injuries may more effectively model IPF-like changes, our data do not support this conclusion. Together, these data highlight that a single bleomycin instillation effectively replicates several of the specific pathogenic molecular changes associated with IPF, and may be best used as a model for patients with active disease. PMID:23565148

  2. Curcumin protects against myocardial infarction-induced cardiac fibrosis via SIRT1 activation in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jie Xiao, Xi Sheng, Xinyu Zhang, Mengqi Guo, Xiaoping JiKey Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric, protects against myocardial injury by alleviating oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis. However, the role of curcumin and its mechanism of action on interstitial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI are poorly understood. To clarify, MI was induced by a permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in adult mice, and the effects of curcumin were evaluated 4 weeks after the MI event. In vitro, we treated cardiac fibroblasts (CFs with Ang II, and investigated the anti-fibrotic mechanism of curcumin. Our results showed that curcumin significantly attenuated collagen deposition in vivo and inhibited CF proliferation and migration, and MMP expression. In addition, we found that the down-regulation of SIRT1 after MI was attenuated by curcumin pretreatment, which indicated that the activation of SIRT1 might be involved in the protective action of curcumin. This hypothesis was confirmed by genetic inhibition of SIRT1 (siRNA-SIRT1 in Ang II-treated CFs. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism underlying the anti-fibrotic effects of curcumin in the heart.Keywords: curcumin, myocardial infarction, angiotensin II, cardiac fibroblasts, fibrosis, SIRT1

  3. [Effect of amygdalin on serum proteinic biomarker in pulmonary fibrosis of bleomycin-induced rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai-Ke; Song, Fu-Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Li, He; Zhang, Jian-Peng

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate effect of amygdalin on expression of four biomarkers in the animal model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Rats were given one dose (5 mg/kg) of bleomycin in bleomycin-treated groups, amygdalin-treated groups and saline in controls by intratracheal instillation exposed surgically. The amygdalin-treated groups rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of amygdalin (15 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)). The rats were sacrificed 7, 14 and 28 days after bleomycin administration. Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro Plus detected I and III collagen expressed in Paraffin-embedded lung sections stained with Sirius red. Surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) with weak cationic proteinchip (CM10) detected differentially expressed proteins in the pooled serum samples of all groups. Consistent fibrotic responses were found in all bleomycin and amygdalin-tread groups. On the 7th, 14th and 28th day after bleomycin or saline instillation, four differentially expressed proteins were detected in the pooled serum of all groups rats, consisting of 4 proteins with mass/charge ratio of 3530.7, 7043.5, 8332.6 and 9068.0, respectively. Compared with control groups, protein peaks intensity ratio with mass/charge ratio of 3530.7 on 7, 28 d and 7043.5, 8332.6 and 9068.0 on 7, 14 and 28 d was > 2 in bleomycin-treated groups. Compared with amygdalin-treated groups, protein peaks intensity with mass/charge ratio of 3530.7 at 7, 14, 28 d had no change almost, but protein peaks intensity ratio with mass/charge ratio of 7043.5 at 7 d, 8332.6 on 28 d and 9068.0 on 14 d was > 2 in bleomycin-tread groups. All the four protein peaks intensity had no change almost at other point. Amygdalin may reduce the bleomycin-induced increase of differentially expressed protein peak intensities in rat serum.

  4. Peroxiredoxin 5 Protects TGF-β Induced Fibrosis by Inhibiting Stat3 Activation in Rat Kidney Interstitial Fibroblast Cells.

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    Hoon-In Choi

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis is a common final pathway of end-stage kidney disease which is induced by aberrant accumulation of myofibroblasts. This process is triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS and proinflammatory cytokines generated by various source of injured kidney cells. Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prdx5 is a thiol-dependent peroxidase that reduces oxidative stress by catalyzing intramolecular disulfide bonds. Along with its antioxidant effects, expression level of Prdx5 also was involved in inflammatory regulation by immune stimuli. However, the physiological effects and the underlying mechanisms of Prdx5 in renal fibrosis have not been fully characterized. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO for 1 or 7 days. For the in vitro model, NRK49F cells, a rat kidney interstitial fibroblast cell lines, were treated with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β for 0, 1, 3, or 5 days. To access the involvement of its peroxidase activity in TGF-β induced renal fibrosis, wild type Prdx5 (WT and double mutant Prdx5 (DM, converted two active site cysteines at Cys 48 and Cys 152 residue to serine, were transiently expressed in NRK49F cells. The protein expression of Prdx5 was reduced in UUO kidneys. Upregulation of fibrotic markers, such as fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, declined at 5 days in time point of higher Prdx5 expression in TGF-β treated NRK49F cells. The overexpression of wild type Prdx5 by transient transfection in NRK49F cells attenuated the TGF-β induced upregulation of fibronectin and α-SMA. On the other hand, the transient transfection of double mutant Prdx5 did not prevent the activation of fibrotic markers. Overexpression of Prdx5 also suppressed the TGF-β induced upregulation of Stat3 phosphorylation, while phosphorylation of Smad 2/3 was unchanged. In conclusion, Prdx5 protects TGF-β induced fibrosis in NRK49F cells by modulating Stat3 activation in a peroxidase activity dependent manner.

  5. Sub-aortic obstruction of left ventricular outflow tract secondary to benfluorex-induced endocardial fibrosis

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    Catherine Szymanski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients exposed to benfluorex have an increased risk of restrictive organic valvular heart disease. Aortic and mitral regurgitations caused by fibrotic valve disease are the most common features observed in exposure to fenfluramine derivatives in general and benfluorex in particular. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, a well-documented case in which obstructive sub-aortic endocardium fibrosis within the left ventricular outflow tract is related with exposure to a drug that modifies the metabolism of serotonin. It now remains to be established whether extensive fibrosis of the myocardium in addition to well-documented valvular fibrosis may develop in patients exposed to amphetamine-derived drugs affecting the serotonin system.

  6. Curcumin inhibits glial scar formation by suppressing astrocyte-induced inflammation and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo.

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    Yuan, Jichao; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Haitao; Chen, Yaxing; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Lan; Chu, Weihua; Wen, Zexian; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiangkai

    2017-01-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to glial scar formation by astrocytes, which severely hinders neural regeneration. Curcumin (cur) can inhibit glial scar formation, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using both in vivo and in vitro experiments, the current study investigated the phenotypic transformation of astrocytes following cur and siRNA intervention during the processes of inflammation and fibrosis and determined details of the relationship between cur treatment and the glial scar components GFAP and CSPG. We found that cur and NF-κb p65 siRNA could inhibit astrocyte activation through suppressing NF-κb signaling pathway, which led to down-regulate the expression of chemokines MCP-1, RANTES and CXCL10 released by astrocytes and decreased macrophage and T-cell infiltration, thus reducing the inflammation in the glial scar. In addition, silencing SOX-9 may reduce the deposition of extracellular matrix CSPG; whereas its over-expression could increase the CSPG expression. Cur suppressedSOX-9-inducedCSPG deposition, reduced α-SMA (an important symbol of fibrosis) expression in astrocytes, altered astrocyte phenotype, and inhibited glial scar formation by regulating fibrosis. This study confirmed that cur could regulate both the NF-κb and SOX9 signaling pathways and reduce the expression of intracellular and extracellular glial scar components through dual-target regulating both inflammation and fibrosis after SCI in the rat. This study provides an important hypothesis centered on the dual inhibition of intracellular and extracellular glial scar components as a treatment strategy for SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Amniotic fluid stem cells inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via CCL2 modulation in bronchoalveolar lavage.

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    Orquidea Garcia

    Full Text Available The potential for amniotic fluid stem cell (AFSC treatment to inhibit the progression of fibrotic lung injury has not been described. We have previously demonstrated that AFSC can attenuate both acute and chronic-fibrotic kidney injury through modification of the cytokine environment. Fibrotic lung injury, such as in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, is mediated through pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokine activity. Thus, we hypothesized that AFSC treatment might inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis through cytokine modulation. In particular, we aimed to investigate the effect of AFSC treatment on the modulation of the pro-fibrotic cytokine CCL2, which is increased in human IPF patients and is correlated with poor prognoses, advanced disease states and worse fibrotic outcomes. The impacts of intravenous murine AFSC given at acute (day 0 or chronic (day 14 intervention time-points after bleomycin injury were analyzed at either day 3 or day 28 post-injury. Murine AFSC treatment at either day 0 or day 14 post-bleomycin injury significantly inhibited collagen deposition and preserved pulmonary function. CCL2 expression increased in bleomycin-injured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, but significantly decreased following AFSC treatment at either day 0 or at day 14. AFSC were observed to localize within fibrotic lesions in the lung, showing preferential targeting of AFSC to the area of fibrosis. We also observed that MMP-2 was transiently increased in BAL following AFSC treatment. Increased MMP-2 activity was further associated with cleavage of CCL2, rendering it a putative antagonist for CCL2/CCR2 signaling, which we surmise is a potential mechanism for CCL2 reduction in BAL following AFSC treatment. Based on this data, we concluded that AFSC have the potential to inhibit the development or progression of fibrosis in a bleomycin injury model during both acute and chronic remodeling events.

  8. Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells Inhibit the Progression of Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via CCL2 Modulation in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

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    Garcia, Orquidea; Carraro, Gianni; Turcatel, Gianluca; Hall, Marisa; Sedrakyan, Sargis; Roche, Tyler; Buckley, Sue; Driscoll, Barbara; Perin, Laura; Warburton, David

    2013-01-01

    The potential for amniotic fluid stem cell (AFSC) treatment to inhibit the progression of fibrotic lung injury has not been described. We have previously demonstrated that AFSC can attenuate both acute and chronic-fibrotic kidney injury through modification of the cytokine environment. Fibrotic lung injury, such as in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), is mediated through pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokine activity. Thus, we hypothesized that AFSC treatment might inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis through cytokine modulation. In particular, we aimed to investigate the effect of AFSC treatment on the modulation of the pro-fibrotic cytokine CCL2, which is increased in human IPF patients and is correlated with poor prognoses, advanced disease states and worse fibrotic outcomes. The impacts of intravenous murine AFSC given at acute (day 0) or chronic (day 14) intervention time-points after bleomycin injury were analyzed at either day 3 or day 28 post-injury. Murine AFSC treatment at either day 0 or day 14 post-bleomycin injury significantly inhibited collagen deposition and preserved pulmonary function. CCL2 expression increased in bleomycin-injured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), but significantly decreased following AFSC treatment at either day 0 or at day 14. AFSC were observed to localize within fibrotic lesions in the lung, showing preferential targeting of AFSC to the area of fibrosis. We also observed that MMP-2 was transiently increased in BAL following AFSC treatment. Increased MMP-2 activity was further associated with cleavage of CCL2, rendering it a putative antagonist for CCL2/CCR2 signaling, which we surmise is a potential mechanism for CCL2 reduction in BAL following AFSC treatment. Based on this data, we concluded that AFSC have the potential to inhibit the development or progression of fibrosis in a bleomycin injury model during both acute and chronic remodeling events. PMID:23967234

  9. Prevention of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by aerosolization of heparin or urokinase in rabbits.

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    Günther, Andreas; Lübke, Norbert; Ermert, Monika; Schermuly, Ralph T; Weissmann, Norbert; Breithecker, Andreas; Markart, Philipp; Ruppert, Clemens; Quanz, Karin; Ermert, Leander; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner

    2003-12-01

    Bleomycin is a well known fibrogenic agent, provoking an initial adult respiratory distress syndrome-like injury with subsequent strong fibroproliferative response. Severe abnormalities of the alveolar surfactant system, which may be linked to the appearance of alveolar fibrin deposition, have been implicated in the pathogenetic sequence of events. Using a model of standardized aerosol delivery of 1.8 U bleomycin/kg body weight in rabbits, we investigated the influence of repetitive nebulization of heparin or urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) on the development of lung fibrosis. In an "early" (Days 2-12 postbleomycin) or "late" (Days 14-24 post-bleomycin) treatment protocol, approximately 3,500 U heparin or approximately 6,500 U u-PA was delivered to the bronchoalveolar space. Within four weeks, the bleomycin challenge provoked severe pulmonary fibrosis with reduction of lung compliance, marked increase in soluble collagen (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) and hydroxyproline content (lung tissue), a typical reticular fibrosis pattern on high-resolution computed tomography, and typical histologic findings. Therapeutic intervention resulted in a far-reaching normalization of compliance, suppression of soluble collagen and hydroxyproline accumulation, and virtual abrogation of the computed tomography scan and histologic features of lung fibrosis, with most prominent effects seen in the early heparin and late u-PA administration. No bleeding complications occurred. These findings strongly support the concept that alveolar fibrin generation is an important event in the development of postbleomycin lung fibrosis. "Compartmentalized" anticoagulation and/or fibrinolysis via inhalational deposition of interventional agents in the alveolar compartment may thus offer a new therapeutic strategy for prevention of fibrosis.

  10. Adiponectin attenuates lung fibroblasts activation and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat.

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    Yao, Rong; Cao, Yu; He, Ya-rong; Lau, Wayne Bond; Zeng, Zhi; Liang, Zong-an

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most common complications of paraquat (PQ) poisoning, which demands for more effective therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests adiponectin (APN) may be a promising therapy against fibrotic diseases. In the current study, we determine whether the exogenous globular APN isoform protects against pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-treated mice and human lung fibroblasts, and dissect the responsible underlying mechanisms. BALB/C mice were divided into control group, PQ group, PQ + low-dose APN group, and PQ + high-dose APN group. Mice were sacrificed 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after PQ treatment. We compared pulmonary histopathological changes among different groups on the basis of fibrosis scores, TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA pulmonary content via Western blot and real-time quantitative fluorescence-PCR (RT-PCR). Blood levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were determined by ELISA. Human lung fibroblasts WI-38 were divided into control group, PQ group, APN group, and APN receptor (AdipoR) 1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) group. Fibroblasts were collected 24, 48, and 72 hours after PQ exposure for assay. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined via Kit-8 (CCK-8) and fluorescein Annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling. The protein and mRNA expression level of collagen type III, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2 were measured by Western blot and RT-PCR. APN treatment significantly decreased the lung fibrosis scores, protein and mRNA expression of pulmonary TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA content, and blood MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in a dose-dependent manner (ppulmonary fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner, via suppression of lung fibroblast activation. Functional AdipoR1 are expressed by human WI-38 lung fibroblasts, suggesting potential future clinical applicability of APN against pulmonary fibrosis.

  11. Hepatocyte Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Mediates the Development of Liver Fibrosis in a Mouse Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

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    Omar A Mesarwi

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. This progression correlates with the severity of OSA-associated hypoxia. In mice with diet induced obesity, hepatic steatosis leads to liver tissue hypoxia, which worsens with exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Emerging data has implicated hepatocyte cell signaling as an important factor in hepatic fibrogenesis. We hypothesized that hepatocyte specific knockout of the oxygen sensing α subunit of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1, a master regulator of the global response to hypoxia, may be protective against the development of liver fibrosis.Wild-type mice and mice with hepatocyte-specific HIF-1α knockout (Hif1a-/-hep were fed a high trans-fat diet for six months, as a model of NAFLD. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius red stain and hydroxyproline assay. Liver enzymes, fasting insulin, and hepatic triglyceride content were also assessed. Hepatocytes were isolated from Hif1a-/-hep mice and wild-type controls and were exposed to sustained hypoxia (1% O2 or normoxia (16% O2 for 24 hours. The culture media was used to reconstitute type I collagen and the resulting matrices were examined for collagen cross-linking.Wild-type mice on a high trans-fat diet had 80% more hepatic collagen than Hif1a-/-hep mice (2.21 μg collagen/mg liver tissue, versus 1.23 μg collagen/mg liver tissue, p = 0.03, which was confirmed by Sirius red staining. Body weight, liver weight, mean hepatic triglyceride content, and fasting insulin were similar between groups. Culture media from wild-type mouse hepatocytes exposed to hypoxia allowed for avid collagen cross-linking, but very little cross-linking was seen when hepatocytes were exposed to normoxia, or when hepatocytes from Hif1a-/-hep mice were used in hypoxia or normoxia.Hepatocyte HIF-1 mediates an increase in liver fibrosis in a mouse model of NAFLD, perhaps due to liver

  12. Transgenically-expressed secretoglobin 3A2 accelerates resolution of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

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    Cai, Yan; Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Tomita, Takeshi; Kurotani, Reiko; Okamoto, Minoru; Kido, Taketomo; Abe, Hiroyuki; Mitzner, Wayne; Guha, Arjun; Kimura, Shioko

    2015-07-16

    Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2, a cytokine-like secretory protein of small molecular weight, is predominantly expressed in airway epithelial cells. While SCGB3A2 is known to have anti-inflammatory, growth factor, and anti-fibrotic activities, whether SCGB3A2 has any other roles, particularly in lung homeostasis and disease has not been demonstrated in vivo. The aim of this study was to address these questions in mice. A transgenic mouse line that expresses SCGB3A2 in the lung using the human surfactant protein-C promoter was established. Detailed histological, immunohistochemical, physiological, and molecular characterization of the Scgb3a2-transgenic mouse lungs were carried out. Scgb3a2-transgenic and wild-type mice were subjected to bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model, and their lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were collected at various time points during 9 weeks post-bleomycin treatment for further analysis. Adult Scgb3a2-transgenic mouse lungs expressed approximately five-fold higher levels of SCGB3A2 protein in comparison to wild-type mice as determined by western blotting of lung tissues. Immunohistochemistry showed that expression was localized to alveolar type II cells in addition to airway epithelial cells, thus accurately reflecting the site of surfactant protein-C expression. Scgb3a2-transgenic mice showed normal lung development and histology, and no overt gross phenotypes. However, when subjected to a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model, they initially exhibited exacerbated fibrosis at 3 weeks post-bleomycin administration that was more rapidly resolved by 6 weeks as compared with wild-type mice, as determined by lung histology, Masson Trichrome staining and hydroxyproline content, inflammatory cell numbers, expression of collagen genes, and proinflammatory cytokine levels. The decrease of fibrosis coincided with the increased expression of SCGB3A2 in Scgb3a2-transgenic lungs. These results demonstrate that SCGB3A2 is an anti

  13. Reversal effect of Jagged1 signaling inhibition on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats

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    Tang, Guiju; Weng, Zhihong; Song, Jun; Chen, Yixiong

    2017-01-01

    The role of the Notch ligand Jagged1 in hepatic fibrosis remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the role of Jagged1 in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and development of hepatic fibrosis in rats. In vitro, Jagged1 in HSCs was downregulated and upregulated by Jagged1 siRNA and pcDNA3.1 Jagged1, respectively. The levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and HSC activation markers were assessed using western blot analysis. The proliferati...

  14. Toxoplasma gondii GRA15IIeffector-induced M1 cells ameliorate liver fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosomiasis japonica.

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    Xie, Yuanyuan; Wen, Huiqin; Yan, Ke; Wang, Shushu; Wang, Xuesong; Chen, Jian; Li, Yuanling; Xu, Yuanhong; Zhong, Zhengrong; Shen, Jilong; Chu, Deyong

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies indicated that type II Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) GRA15 II favored the generation of classically activated macrophages (M1), whereas type I/III TgROP16 I/III promoted the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages (M2). A number of studies have demonstrated that M2 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of the liver fibrogenesis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. The purpose of the present study was to explore the inhibitory effect of Toxoplasma-derived TgGRA15 II on mouse hepatic fibrosis with schistosomiasis. The gra15 II and rop16 I/III genes were amplified from strains T. gondii PRU and Chinese 1 Wh3, respectively. Lentiviral vectors containing the gra15 II or rop16 I/III plasmid were constructed and used to infect the RAW264.7 cell line. The polarization of the transfected cells was evaluated, followed by co-culture of the biased macrophages with mouse hepatic stellate JS1 cells. Then, mice were injected with GRA15 II -driven macrophages via the tail vein and infected with S. japonicum cercariae. TgGRA15 II induced a M1-biased response, whereas TgROP16 I/III drove the macrophages to a M2-like phenotype. The in vitro experiments indicated that JS1 cell proliferation and collagen synthesis were decreased following co-culture with TgGRA15 II -activated macrophages. Furthermore, mice inoculated with TgGRA15 II -biased macrophages displayed a notable alleviation of collagen deposition and granuloma formation in their liver tissues. Our results suggest that TgGRA15 II -induced M1 cells may dampen the M2 dominant pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and granulomatosis. These results provide insights into the use of parasite-derived immunomodulators as potential anti-fibrosis agents and to re-balance the schistosomiasis-induced immune response.

  15. Antifibrotic effects of Artemisia capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi in a carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatic fibrosis animal model.

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    Wang, Jing-Hua; Choi, Min-Kyung; Shin, Jang-Woo; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Son, Chang-Gue

    2012-03-06

    Artemisia capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi, both members of the Compositae family, have been indiscriminately used for various liver disorders as traditional hepatotherapeutic medicines in Korea for many years. In this study, the anti-hepatofibrotic effects of Artemisia capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi were comparatively analyzed using a carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis rat model. Hepatic fibrosis was induced via a 10-week course of intraperitoneal CCl(4) injections (50% dissolved in olive oil, 2mL/kg, twice per week). Water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC) or Artemisia iwayomogi (AI) was orally administered six times per week from the 5th to the 10th week. AI (50mg/kg) significantly attenuated the CCl(4)-induced excessive release of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum (p<0.05), and hydroxyproline and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in liver tissue (p<0.05). Further, AI markedly ameliorated the depletion of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue (p<0.01). Unexpectedly, AC did not exert any effects on the above parameters. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that AI drastically reduced inflammation, necrosis, fatty infiltration, collagen accumulation, and activation of hepatic satellite cells in liver tissue. These changes were not observed with AC treatment. Several critical genes of fibrosis-related cytokines including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor beta (PDGF-β), and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were more prominently downregulated by AI compared to AC treatment. Our results show that AI exerts greater hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects as compared with AC via enhancing antioxidant capacity and downregulating fibrogentic cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ameliorative potential of linagliptin and/or calcipotriol on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis: In vivo and in vitro study.

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    Kabel, Ahmed M; Abd Elmaaboud, Maaly A; Atef, Aliaa; Baali, Mohammed H

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a serious medical problem that may significantly compromise respiratory functions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of linagliptin and/or calcipotriol on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying this effect. One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 6 equal groups as follows: control group; bleomycin group; bleomycin+carboxymethylcellulose group; bleomycin+linagliptin group; bleomycin+calcipotriol group and bleomycin+linagliptin+calcipotriol group. Lung weight/body weight index, lung tissue hydroxyproline, collagen, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Also, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for total and differential leucocytic count, lactate dehydrogenase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1). Vascular response to potassium chloride, phenylephrine and carbachol as well as tracheal response to carbachol were measured. Also, lung tissue was subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. Administration of linagliptin and/or calcipotriol induced significant decrease in the lung weight/body weight index, total leucocytic count, BALF lactate dehydrogenase activity, IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-β1 associated with significant decrease in lung tissue MDA, Nrf2, HO-1, TLR4, hydroxyproline and collagen content with significant increase in tissue GPx and CAT and improvement of the pulmonary architecture, vascular and tracheal response compared to bleomycin group. These effects were significant in linagliptin/calcipotriol combination group compared to the use of each of these drugs alone. In conclusion, linagliptin/calcipotriol combination may represent an effective therapeutic modality for amelioration of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

  17. Type V collagen induced tolerance suppresses collagen deposition, TGF-β and associated transcripts in pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Ragini Vittal

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a fatal interstitial lung disease characterized by progressive scarring and matrix deposition. Recent reports highlight an autoimmune component in IPF pathogenesis. We have reported anti-col(V immunity in IPF patients. The objective of our study was to determine the specificity of col(V expression profile and anti-col(V immunity relative to col(I in clinical IPF and the efficacy of nebulized col(V in pre-clinical IPF models.Col(V and col(I expression profile was analyzed in normal human and IPF tissues. C57-BL6 mice were intratracheally instilled with bleomycin (0.025 U followed by col(V nebulization at pre-/post-fibrotic stage and analyzed for systemic and local responses.Compared to normal lungs, IPF lungs had higher protein and transcript expression of the alpha 1 chain of col(V and col(I. Systemic anti-col(V antibody concentrations, but not of anti-col(I, were higher in IPF patients. Nebulized col(V, but not col(I, prevented bleomycin-induced fibrosis, collagen deposition, and myofibroblast differentiation. Col(V treatment suppressed systemic levels of anti-col(V antibodies, IL-6 and TNF-α; and local Il-17a transcripts. Compared to controls, nebulized col(V-induced tolerance abrogated antigen-specific proliferation in mediastinal lymphocytes and production of IL-17A, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ. In a clinically relevant established fibrosis model, nebulized col(V decreased collagen deposition. mRNA array revealed downregulation of genes specific to fibrosis (Tgf-β, Il-1β, Pdgfb, matrix (Acta2, Col1a2, Col3a1, Lox, Itgb1/6, Itga2/3 and members of the TGF-β superfamily (Tgfbr1/2, Smad2/3, Ltbp1, Serpine1, Nfkb/Sp1/Cebpb.Anti-col(V immunity is pathogenic in IPF, and col(V-induced tolerance abrogates bleomycin-induced fibrogenesis and down regulates TGF- β-related signaling pathways.

  18. Connective tissue growth factor stimulates the proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts during paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Yang, Zhizhou; Sun, Zhaorui; Liu, Hongmei; Ren, Yi; Shao, Danbing; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Jinfeng; Wolfram, Joy; Wang, Feng; Nie, Shinan

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that paraquat (PQ) poisoning can cause severe lung injury during the early stages of exposure, finally leading to irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an essential growth factor that is involved in tissue repair and pulmonary fibrogenesis. In the present study, the role of CTGF was examined in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ poisoning. Histological examination revealed interstitial edema and extensive cellular thickening of interalveolar septa at the early stages of poisoning. At 2 weeks after PQ administration, lung tissue sections exhibited a marked thickening of the alveolar walls with an accumulation of interstitial cells with a fibroblastic appearance. Masson's trichrome staining revealed a patchy distribution of collagen deposition, indicating pulmonary fibrogenesis. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples demonstrated that CTGF expression was significantly upregulated in the PQ-treated group. Similarly, PQ treatment of MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells caused an increase in CTGF in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the addition of CTGF to MRC-5 cells triggered cellular proliferation and migration. In addition, CTGF induced the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, as was evident from increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen. These findings demonstrate that PQ causes increased CTGF expression, which triggers proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts. Therefore, CTGF may be important in PQ-induced pulmonary fibrogenesis, rendering this growth factor a potential pharmacological target for reducing lung injury.

  19. Loss of Twist1 in the Mesenchymal Compartment Promotes Increased Fibrosis in Experimental Lung Injury by Enhanced Expression of CXCL12

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    Tan, Jiangning; Tedrow, John R.; Nouraie, Mehdi; Dutta, Justin A.; Miller, David T.; Li, Xiaoyun; Yu, Shibing; Chu, Yanxia; Juan-Guardela, Brenda; Kaminski, Naftali; Ramani, Kritika; Biswas, Partha S.; Zhang, Yingze

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease characterized by the accumulation of apoptosis-resistant fibroblasts in the lung. We have previously shown that high expression of the transcription factor Twist1 may explain this prosurvival phenotype in vitro. However, this observation has never been tested in vivo. We found that loss of Twist1 in COL1A2+ cells led to increased fibrosis characterized by very significant accumulation of T cells and bone marrow–derived matrix-producing cells. We found that Twist1-null cells expressed high levels of the T cell chemoattractant CXCL12. In vitro, we found that the loss of Twist1 in IPF lung fibroblasts increased expression of CXCL12 downstream of increased expression of the noncanonical NF-κB transcription factor RelB. Finally, blockade of CXCL12 with AMD3100 attenuated the exaggerated fibrosis observed in Twist1-null mice. Transcriptomic analysis of 134 IPF patients revealed that low expression of Twist1 was characterized by enrichment of T cell pathways. In conclusion, loss of Twist1 in collagen-producing cells led to increased bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, which is mediated by increased expression of CXCL12. Twist1 expression is associated with dysregulation of T cells in IPF patients. Twist1 may shape the IPF phenotype and regulate inflammation in fibrotic lung injury. PMID:28179498

  20. GHK Peptide Inhibits Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice by Suppressing TGFβ1/Smad-Mediated Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

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    Xiao-Ming Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an irreversible and progressive fibrotic lung disease that leads to declines in pulmonary function and, eventually, respiratory failure and has no effective treatment. Gly-His-Lys (GHK is a tripeptide involved in the processes of tissue regeneration and wound healing and has significant inhibitory effects on transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 secretion. The effect of GHK on fibrogenesis in pulmonary fibrosis and the exact underlying mechanism have not been studied previously. Thus, this study investigated the effects of GHK on bleomycin (BLM-induced fibrosis and identified the pathway that is potentially responsible for these effects.Methods: Intratracheal injections of 3 mg/kg BLM were administered to induce pulmonary fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice. GHK was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 2.6, 26, and 260 μg/ml/day every other day from the 4th to the 21st day after BLM instillation. Three weeks after BLM instillation, pulmonary injury and pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated by the hematoxylin-eosin (HE and Masson’s trichrome (MT staining. Chronic inflammation index was used for the histological assessments by two pathologists blindly to each other. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in BALF and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in lung extracts were measured. For the pulmonary fibrosis evaluation, the fibrosis index calculated based on MT staining, collagen deposition and active TGF-β1 expression detected by ELISA, and the expression of TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA, fibronectin, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 by western blotting. The epithelial mesenchymal transition index, E-cadherin, and vimentin was also detected by western blot. The statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA and the comparison between different groups were performed.Results: Treatment with GHK at all three doses reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial thickness and attenuated BLM-induced pulmonary

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-α promotes cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis in the mouse through tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 production in hepatic stellate cells.

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    Yosuke Osawa

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, which is a mediator of hepatotoxicity, has been implicated in liver fibrosis. However, the roles of TNF-α on hepatic stellate cell (HSC activation and liver fibrosis are complicated and remain controversial. To explore this issue, the role of TNF-α in cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis was examined by comparing between TNF-α(-/- mice and TNF-α(+/+ mice after bile duct ligation (BDL. Serum TNF-α levels in mice were increased by common BDL combined with cystic duct ligation (CBDL+CDL. TNF-α deficiency reduced liver fibrosis without affecting liver injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, and liver regeneration after CBDL+CDL. Increased expression levels of collagen α1(I mRNA, transforming growth factor (TGF-β mRNA, and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA protein by CBDL+CDL in the livers of TNF-α(-/- mice were comparable to those in TNF-α(+/+ mice. Exogenous administration of TNF-α decreased collagen α1(I mRNA expression in isolated rat HSCs. These results suggest that the reduced fibrosis in TNF-α(-/- mice is regulated in post-transcriptional level. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. TIMP-1 expression in HSCs in the liver was increased by CBDL+CDL, and the induction was lower in TNF-α(-/- mice than in TNF-α(+/+ mice. Fibrosis in the lobe of TIMP-1(-/- mice with partial BDL was also reduced. These findings indicate that TNF-α produced by cholestasis can promote liver fibrosis via TIMP-1 production from HSCs. Thus, targeting TNF-α and TIMP-1 may become a new therapeutic strategy for treating liver fibrosis in cholestatic liver injury.

  2. Hydroxylase inhibition regulates inflammation-induced intestinal fibrosis through the suppression of ERK-mediated TGF-β1 signaling. [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manresa, Mario C; Tambuwala, Murtaza M; Radhakrishnan, Praveen; Harnoss, Jonathan M; Brown, Eric; Cavadas, Miguel A; Keogh, Ciara E; Cheong, Alex; Barrett, Kim E; Cummins, Eoin P; Schneider, Martin; Taylor, Cormac T

    2016-12-01

    Fibrosis is a complication of chronic inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, a condition which has limited therapeutic options and often requires surgical intervention. Pharmacologic inhibition of oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylases, which confer oxygen sensitivity upon the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway, has recently been shown to have therapeutic potential in colitis, although the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of hydroxylase inhibition on inflammation-driven fibrosis in a murine colitis model. Mice exposed to dextran sodium sulfate, followed by a period of recovery, developed intestinal fibrosis characterized by alterations in the pattern of collagen deposition and infiltration of activated fibroblasts. Treatment with the hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine ameliorated fibrosis. TGF-β1 is a key regulator of fibrosis that acts through the activation of fibroblasts. Hydroxylase inhibition reduced TGF-β1-induced expression of fibrotic markers in cultured fibroblasts, suggesting a direct role for hydroxylases in TGF-β1 signaling. This was at least in part due to inhibition of noncanonical activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. In summary, pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibition ameliorates intestinal fibrosis through suppression of TGF-β1-dependent ERK activation in fibroblasts. We hypothesize that in addition to previously reported immunosupressive effects, hydroxylase inhibitors independently suppress profibrotic pathways. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression is upregulated in oral submucous fibrosis

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    Rajendran R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We tested the hypothesis that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS modulates angiogenesis in human models and this information could be extrapolated in elucidating the pathophysiology of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. A hypothesis which looks inadequate, but is deep rooted in literature is the epithelial alteration ("atrophy" seen in OSF and the events that lead to its causation. This aspect was tried to be addressed and an alternative pathogenetic pathway for the disease is proposed. Materials and Methods: This immunohistochemical study sought to investigate the expression of iNOS in OSF samples (n= 30 a using monospecific antibody (SC- 2050, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc to the protein and also to correlate it with different grades of epithelial dysplasia associated with the disease. Twenty (20 healthy adults acted as controls. Results: iNOS staining was not demonstrated in normal oral epithelium. In oral epithelial dysplasia, staining was seen in all cases (100% in the basal layers of the epithelium and in 30% of cases it extended into the parabasal compartments as well. iNOS staining was uniformly positive in moderate dysplasia with an increase in intensity and distribution noted as the severity of dysplasia progressed. There were highly significant differences in overall positivity for iNOS in epithelium between cases and controls (Mann-Whitney U = 11.000, Wilcoxon W = 221.00, P = 0.000. Significant comparisons were made of mild Vs moderate dysplasia (Mann-Whitney U = 48.000, P = 0.014 Conclusions: This study supports our earlier morphological assessment (image analysis of the nature of vascularity in OSF mucosa. The significant vasodilation noticed in these cases argues against the concept of ischemic atrophy of the epithelium. This observation of vascularity and iNOS expression helped to explain the vasodilation noticed (sinusoids in this disease; NO being a net vasodilator. The mechanism of activation of iNOS in dysplasia is

  4. Proteomic Profiling of Human Liver Biopsies: Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Fibrosis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

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    Diamond, Deborah L.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Paeper, Bryan; Proll, Sean; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Carithers, Jr., Robert L.; Larson , Anne M.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2007-09-01

    Liver biopsies from HCV-infected patients offer the unique opportunity to study human liver biology and disease in vivo. However, the low protein yields associated with these small samples present a significant challenge for proteomic analysis. In this study we describe the application of an ultra-sensitive proteomics platform for performing robust quantitative proteomic studies on microgram amounts of HCV-infected human liver tissue from 15 patients at different stages of fibrosis. A high quality liver protein data base containing 5,920 unique protein identifications supported high throughput quantitative studies using 16O:18O stable isotope labeling in combination with the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach. A total of 1,641 liver biopsy proteins were quantified and ANOVA identified 210 proteins exhibiting statistically significant differences associated with fibrosis stage. Hierarchical clustering revealed that biopsies representative of later fibrosis stages (e.g. Batts-Ludwig stages 3-4) exhibited a distinct protein expression profile indicating an apparent down-regulation of many proteins when compared to samples from earlier fibrosis stages (e.g. Batts-Ludwig stages 0-2). Functional analysis of these signature proteins suggests that impairment of key mitochondrial processes including fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, and response to oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species occurs during advanced stage 3-4 fibrosis. In conclusion, the results reported here represent a significant advancement in clinical proteomics providing to our knowledge, the first demonstration of global proteomic alterations accompanying liver disease progression in patients chronically infected with HCV. Our findings contribute to a generally emerging theme associating oxidative stress and hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction with HCV pathogenesis.

  5. Positional cloning reveals strain-dependent expression of Trim16 to alter susceptibility to bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

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    Anguel N Stefanov

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease of significant morbidity, with no effective therapeutics and an as yet incompletely defined genetic basis. The chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin induces pulmonary fibrosis in susceptible C57BL/6J mice but not in mice of the C3H/HeJ strain, and this differential strain response has been used in prior studies to map bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis susceptibility loci named Blmpf1 and Blmpf2. In this study we isolated the quantitative trait gene underlying Blmpf2 initially by histologically phenotyping the bleomycin-induced lung disease of sublines of congenic mice to reduce the linkage region to 13 genes. Of these genes, Trim16 was identified to have strain-dependent expression in the lung, which we determined was due to sequence variation in the promoter. Over-expression of Trim16 by plasmid injection increased pulmonary fibrosis, and bronchoalveolar lavage levels of both interleukin 12/23-p40 and neutrophils, in bleomycin treated B6.C3H-Blmpf2 subcongenic mice compared to subcongenic mice treated with bleomycin only, which follows the C57BL/6J versus C3H/HeJ strain difference in these traits. In summary we demonstrate that genetic variation in Trim16 leads to its strain-dependent expression, which alters susceptibility to bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

  6. Collagen crosslink location: a molecular marker for fibrosis in lungs of rats with experimental silicosis

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    Gerriets, J.E.; Reiser, K.M.; Last, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Collagen content is increased in lungs of animals with experimental silicosis. They hypothesize that the collagen deposited in such fibrotic lungs differs structurally from normal lung collagen. Silicotic lung collagen shows an increase in lysine hydroxylation. In addition, the ratio of the difunctional crosslinks DHLNL (dihydroxylysinonorleucine) to HLNL (hydroxylysinonorleucine) is sharply elevated compared to that in control lungs. The peptide ..cap alpha..1(I)CB7 x ..cap alpha..2(I)CB1 crosslinked by HLNL was demonstrated in NaB/sup 3/H/sub 4/-reduced, CNBr-digested collagen from rat tail tendon by peptide purification, followed by periodate oxidation and amino acid analysis. Further structural analysis of this peptide was obtained by digestion of the crosslinked peptide with trypsin and purification of the tryptic peptide containing this crosslink followed by amino acid analysis. They then examined the analogous collagenous peptide in normal and silicotic lungs and analyzed the crosslink it contained. They observed that DHLNL was present at specific sites previously containing HLNL; that is, the collagen in fibrotic lungs is altered at specific sites by post-translational modification of a lysine residue by hydroxylation in a predictable way. They conclude that such unusual hydroxylation of a specific lysine residue in the ..cap alpha..2 chain provides a molecular marker for fibrotic lung collagen.

  7. Solanum nigrum Protects against Hepatic Fibrosis via Suppression of Hyperglycemia in High-Fat/Ethanol Diet-Induced Rats

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    Cheng-Jeng Tai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs signal through the receptor for AGE (RAGE, which can lead to hepatic fibrosis in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. We investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts from Solanum nigrum (AESN on AGEs-induced RAGE signaling and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat diet with ethanol. Methods: An animal model was used to evaluate the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of AESN in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 30% with ethanol (10%. Male Wistar rats (4 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6: (1 control (basal diet; (2 HFD (30% + ethanol (10% (HFD/ethanol; (3 HFD/ethanol + AESN (100 mg/kg, oral administration; and (4 HFD/ethanol + pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, oral administration and treated with HFD for 6 months in the presence or absence of 10% ethanol in dietary water. Results: We found that AESN improved insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and downregulated lipogenesis via regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, PPARγ co-activator (PGC-1α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and fatty acid synthase (FAS mRNA levels in the liver of HFD/ethanol-treated rats. In turn, AESN may delay and inhibit the progression of hepatic fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA inhibition and MMP-2 production. Conclusions: These results suggest that AESN may be further explored as a novel anti-fibrotic strategy for the prevention of liver disease.

  8. Therapeutic use of fisetin, curcumin, and mesoporous carbaon nanoparticle loaded fisetin in bleomycin-induced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

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    Srabani Kar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating disease of unknown etiology, for which there is no curative pharmacological therapy. Bleomycin, an anti-neoplastic agent that causes lung fibrosis in human patients has been used extensively in rodent models to mimic IPF. The conventional therapy has been steroids and immunosuppressive agents. But only a minority of patients responds to such a therapy. IPF is a progressive, ultimately fatal disorder for which substantive medical therapy is desperately needed. Fisetin is a flavonol which inhibits the activity of several pro-inflammatory cytokines. The polyphenol curcumin is used to treat inflammatory diseases, abdominal disorders, and a variety of other ailments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of fistine, curcumin and mesoporous carbaon nanoparticle (MCN loaded fisetin as an anti-inflammatory agents against bleomycin-induced changes in mice with IPF. In our study, flavonoids showed their anti fibrotic action. The inflammatory cell count was greatly increased for bleo treated individuals and effectiveness of fisein was increased after addition of MCN particles with it, curcumin also showed anti- inflammatory effects. In another experiment, bleomycin effectively inhibits the cellular recruitment to the spleen and treatment with fisetin, and curcumin increases the cellular recruitment in spleen. Colony count was also increased in MCN+fisetin treated groups, and it was statistically significant. We also observed the increased level of cytokines with fisetin treatment, with curcumin treatment and with MCN +fisetin treatment as compared to the bleo treated sample. In conclusion, the present research suggests that fisetin and curcumin and MCN loaded fisetin may be a promising therapeutic agent for bleomycin-induced changes in mice with IPF. This will open up new perspectives for a potential role of these drugs as a molecular target in Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. [Biomed

  9. Therapies for bleomycin induced lung fibrosis through regulation of TGF-beta1 induced collagen gene expression.

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    Cutroneo, Kenneth R; White, Sheryl L; Phan, Sem H; Ehrlich, H Paul

    2007-06-01

    This review describes normal and abnormal wound healing, the latter characterized by excessive fibrosis and scarring, which for lung can result in morbidity and sometimes mortality. The cells, the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and the growth factors regulating the synthesis, degradation, and deposition of the ECM proteins will be discussed. Therapeutics with particular emphasis given to gene therapies and their effects on specific signaling pathways are described. Bleomycin (BM), a potent antineoplastic antibiotic increases TGF-beta1 transcription, TGF-beta1 gene expression, and TGF-beta protein. Like TGF-beta1, BM acts through the same distal promoter cis-element of the COL1A1 gene causing increased COL1 synthesis and lung fibrosis. Lung fibroblasts exist as subpopulations with one subset predominantly responding to fibrogenic stimuli which could be a specific cell therapeutic target for the onset and development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  10. Experimental model to induce obesity in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinicius Von Diemen; Eduardo Neubarth Trindade; Manoel Roberto Maciel Trindade

    2006-01-01

    .... Obesity can be induced in animals by neuroendocrine, dietary or genetic changes. The most widely used models to induce obesity in rats are a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH...

  11. Pulmonary Fibrosis in BALB/c Mice Caused by Long-Term Instillation of Bleomycin

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAJIMA, Masamitsu

    1992-01-01

    It is well-known that bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is difficult to produce in BALB/c mice. To see whether bleomycin could induce pulmonary fibrosis in BALB/c mice, we repeatedly administered this drug through the airway for 10 consecutive days. Our experiment clearly showed that fibrosis can be induced, although it was rather mild, and also suggested that the bronchiolar and alveolar epithelia are the primary sites of injury. We believe this experimental model may be useful in studyin...

  12. Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α/Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 1 Axis by Dichloroacetate Suppresses Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Justin; Choi, Hyunsung; Hsieh, Meng-Hsiung; Neugent, Michael L; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Hayenga, Heather N; Singh, Pankaj K; Shackelford, David B; Lee, In-Kyu; Shulaev, Vladimir; Dhar, Shanta; Takeda, Norihiko; Kim, Jung-Whan

    2018-02-01

    Hypoxia has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases. Aberrantly activated myofibroblasts are the primary pathological driver of fibrotic progression, yet how various microenvironmental influences, such as hypoxia, contribute to their sustained activation and differentiation is poorly understood. As a defining feature of hypoxia is its impact on cellular metabolism, we sought to investigate how hypoxia-induced metabolic reprogramming affects myofibroblast differentiation and fibrotic progression, and to test the preclinical efficacy of targeting glycolytic metabolism for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrotic progression was evaluated in two independent, fibroblast-specific, promoter-driven, hypoxia-inducible factor (Hif) 1A knockout mouse models and in glycolytic inhibitor, dichloroacetate-treated mice. Genetic and pharmacological approaches were used to explicate the role of metabolic reprogramming in myofibroblast differentiation. Hypoxia significantly enhanced transforming growth factor-β-induced myofibroblast differentiation through HIF-1α, whereas overexpression of the critical HIF-1α-mediated glycolytic switch, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) was sufficient to activate glycolysis and potentiate myofibroblast differentiation, even in the absence of HIF-1α. Inhibition of the HIF-1α/PDK1 axis by genomic deletion of Hif1A or pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 significantly attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Our findings suggest that HIF-1α/PDK1-mediated glycolytic reprogramming is a critical metabolic alteration that acts to promote myofibroblast differentiation and fibrotic progression, and demonstrate that targeting glycolytic metabolism may prove to be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  13. Intratracheal Instillation of High Dose Adenoviral Vectors Is Sufficient to Induce Lung Injury and Fibrosis in Mice

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    Zhou, Qiyuan; Chen, Tianji; Bozkanat, Melike; Ibe, Joyce Christina F.; Christman, John W.; Raj, J. Usha; Zhou, Guofei

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) vectors are common tools in gene therapy. Since Ad vectors are known to activate innate and adaptive immunity, we investigated whether intratracheal administration of Ad vectors alone is sufficient to induce lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. Methods We instilled Ad viruses ranging from 107 to 1.625×109 ifu/mouse as well as the same volume of PBS and bleomycin. 14 and 21 days after administration, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and mouse lung tissues. We measured the protein concentration, total and differential cell counts, and TGF-β1 production, performed Trichrome staining and Sircol assay, determined gene and protein levels of profibrotic cytokines, MMPs, and Wnt signaling proteins, and conducted TUNEL staining and co-immunofluorescence for GFP and α-SMA staining. Results Instillation of high dose Ad vectors (1.625×109 ifu/mouse) into mouse lungs induced high levels of protein content, inflammatory cells, and TGF-β1 in BALF, comparable to those in bleomycin-instilled lungs. The collagen content and mRNA levels of Col1a1, Col1a2, PCNA, and α-SMA were also increased in the lungs. Instillation of both bleomycin and Ad vectors increased expression levels of TNFα and IL-1β but not IL-10. Instillation of bleomycin but not Ad increased the expression of IL-1α, IL-13 and IL-16. Treatment with bleomycin or Ad vectors increased expression levels of integrin α1, α5, and αv, MMP9, whereas treatment with bleomycin but not Ad vectors induced MMP2 expression levels. Both bleomycin and Ad vectors induced mRNA levels of Wnt2, 2b, 5b, and Lrp6. Intratracheal instillation of Ad viruses also induced DNA damages and Ad viral infection-mediated fibrosis is not limited to the infection sites. Conclusions Our results suggest that administration of Ad vectors induces an inflammatory response, lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis in a dose dependent manner. PMID:25551570

  14. Antifibrotic effect of aloe vera in viral infection-induced hepatic periportal fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Sahar K; El-Bedewy, Mohamed; Yagi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic effects of aloe vera in patients with liver fibrosis. METHODS: Aloe vera high molecular weight fractions (AHM) were processed by patented hyper-dry system in combination of freeze-dry technique with microwave and far infrared-ray radiation. Fifteen healthy volunteers as the control group and 40 patients were included. The patients were randomly subdivided into two equal groups: the conventional group was treated with placebo (starch), and AHM group was treated with 0.15 gm/d AHM, both for 12 consecutive weeks. The patients were investigated before and after treatment. Serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and matrixmetalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were determined. The reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver were assayed and the expression of hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was identified by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: At the start of the study, the hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed fibro-proliferated bile ductules, thick fibrous septa and dense inflammatory cellular infiltration in the patients before treatment. The use of AHM for 12 wk significantly ameliorated the fibrosis, inhibited the inflammation, and resulted in minimal infiltration and minimal fibrosis compared to the conventional group. The enzyme activities of the liver (ALT, AST and ALP) were attenuated after treatment in both groups, and the decrease in the AHM group was more significant as compared with the conventional group. Similar to the AST, the MDA levels were significantly higher before treatment, and were attenuated after treatment in both groups. In contrast, the hepatic glutathione content in the patients were decreased significantly in the AHM group compared to the controls. The serum levels of the fibrosis markers (HA, TGF-β and MMP-2) were also reduced

  15. Pentoxifylline Regulates Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression and Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation in Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis

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    Jong-Geol Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF is a serious late complication of radiotherapy. In vitro studies have demonstrated that pentoxifylline (PTX has suppressing effects in extracellular matrix production in fibroblasts, while the antifibrotic action of PTX alone using clinical dose is yet unexplored. Materials and Methods. We used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histopathological analysis to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of PTX in a rat model of RILF. Results. Micro-CT findings showed that lung density, volume loss, and mediastinal shift are significantly increased at 16 weeks after irradiation. Simultaneously, histological analysis demonstrated thickening of alveolar walls, destruction of alveolar structures, and excessive collagen deposition in the irradiated lung. PTX treatment effectively attenuated the fibrotic changes based on both micro-CT and histopathological analyses. Western analysis also revealed increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor- (PAI- 1 and fibronectin (FN and PTX treatment reduced expression of PAI-1 and FN by restoring protein kinase A (PKA phosphorylation but not TGF-β/Smad in both irradiated lung tissues and epithelial cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the antifibrotic effect of PTX on radiation-induced lung fibrosis and its effect on modulation of PKA and PAI-1 expression as possible antifibrotic mechanisms.

  16. Total Glucosides of Danggui Buxue Tang Attenuate BLM-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Regulating Oxidative Stress by Inhibiting NOX4

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    Ping Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis (PF is a serious chronic lung disease with unknown pathogenesis. Researches have confirmed that oxidative stress which is regulated by NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4, a main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS, is an important molecular mechanism underlying PF. Previous studies showed that total glucosides of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBTG, an extract from a classical traditional Chinese herbal formula, Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT, attenuated bleomycin-induced PF in rats. However, the mechanisms of DBTG are still not clear. We hypothesize that DBTG attenuates PF through regulating the level of oxidative stress by inhibiting NOX4. And we found that fibrosis indexes hydroxyproline (HYP and type I collagen (Col-I were lower in DBTG groups compared with the model group. In addition, the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were also much more decreased than the model group. For oxidative stress indicators, DBTG blunted the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, 8-iso-prostaglandin in lung homogenates. Treatment with DBTG restrained the expression of NOX4 compared to the model group. Present study confirms that DBTG inhibits BLM-induced PF by modulating the level of oxidative stress via suppressing NOX4.

  17. Therapeutic benefits of young, but not old, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a chronic mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Jun; Elliot, Sharon J; Gerth, David J; Xia, Xiaomei; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Choi, Rhea; Catanuto, Paola; Shahzeidi, Shahriar; Toonkel, Rebecca L; Shah, Rahil H; El Salem, Fadi; Glassberg, Marilyn K

    2015-12-01

    The observation that pulmonary inflammatory lesions and bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis spontaneously resolve in young mice, whereas remaining irreversible in aged mice suggests that impairment of pulmonary regeneration and repair is associated with aging. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may promote repair after injury, we postulated that differences in MSCs from aged mice may underlie postinjury fibrosis in aging. The potential for young-donor MSCs to inhibit BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in aged male mice (>22 months) has not been studied. Adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) from young (4 months) and old (22 months) male mice were infused 1 day after intratracheal BLM administration. At 21-day sacrifice, aged BLM mice demonstrated lung fibrosis by Ashcroft score, collagen content, and α(v)-integrin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Lung tissue from aged BLM mice receiving young ASCs exhibited decreased fibrosis, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity, oxidative stress, and markers of apoptosis vs BLM controls. Lung mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was also decreased in aged BLM mice receiving young-donor ASCs vs BLM controls. In contrast, old-donor ASC treatment in aged BLM mice did not reduce fibrosis and related markers. On examination of the cells, young-donor ASCs had decreased mRNA expression of MMP-2, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor, and protein kinase B (AKT) activation compared with old-donor ASCs. These results show that the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in aged mice could be blocked by young-donor ASCs and that the mechanisms involve changes in collagen turnover and markers of inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Atorvastatin Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Suppressing iNOS Expression and the CTGF (CCN2/ERK Signaling Pathway

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    Bo Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disorder with high mortality rate. To date, despite the fact that extensive research trials are ongoing, pulmonary fibrosis continues to have a poor response to available medical therapy. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, known for its broad pharmacological activities, remains a remedy against multiple diseases. The present study investigated the antifibrotic potential of atorvastatin against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and to further explore the possible underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that atorvastatin administration significantly ameliorated the bleomycin mediated histological alterations and blocked collagen deposition with parallel reduction in the hydroxyproline level. Atorvastatin reduced malondialdehyde (MDA level and lung indices. Atorvastatin also markedly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in lung tissues and, thus, prevented nitric oxide (NO release in response to bleomycin challenge. Furthermore, atorvastatin exhibited target down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF (CCN2 and phosphorylation extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK expression. Taken together, atorvastatin significantly ameliorated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, via the inhibition of iNOS expression and the CTGF (CCN2/ERK signaling pathway. The present study provides evidence that atorvastatin may be a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of lung fibrosis.

  19. Aldosterone/NaCl-induced renal and cardiac fibrosis is modulated by TGF-β responsiveness of T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Barbara; Rabe, Sindy; Schneider, Bettina; Ruhs, Stefanie; Grossmann, Claudia; Hauptmann, Steffen; Blessing, Manfred; Neumann, Joachim; Gekle, Michael

    2011-05-01

    We examined the contribution of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-T-cell signaling to aldosterone (aldo)/salt-induced fibrosis in the kidneys and the hearts of FVB/N wild-type (WT) or transgenic (Tg) mice expressing a dominant-negative TGF-β type II receptor in T cells (hCD2-ΔkTβRII). Animals received aldo through osmotic minipumps and had access to either 1% NaCl (aldo/NaCl group) or tap water (vehicle group) for 4 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured during this period via a tail cuff. The animals were then killed, and urine, blood, kidneys and hearts were collected. Systolic blood pressure did not differ between the groups. Aldo/NaCl enhanced renal, cardiac and left ventricular weight in WT animals slightly, but only renal weight was increased in Tg animals. Urinary protein excretion was enhanced in Tg animals (fourfold) and increased further in WT (twofold) and Tg (1.8-fold) mice on aldo/NaCl treatment. Aldo/NaCl increased interstitial fibrosis in the kidneys (1.5-fold) and the hearts of WT (2.5-fold) animals. Under control conditions, Tg mouse cardiac (3.2-fold) and renal (1.7-fold) tissues were slightly more fibrotic compared with WT, and this condition was not further aggravated by aldo/NaCl. Aldo/NaCl-induced mRNA expression of renal fibronectin (10.7-fold in WT) but not of renal collagen mRNA expression (WT: Col1a1 7.7-fold; Col3a1, 3.1-fold; and Col4a1 3.3-fold) was abrogated in Tg animals. In hearts, aldo/NaCl-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA (twofold) expression depended on TGF-β-T-cell signaling. Our results indicate that (i) aldo/NaCl can induce renal and cardiac damage in the absence of blood pressure changes, (ii) the elimination TGF-β-T-cell cross-talk leads to renal and cardiac fibrosis but does not exacerbate aldo/NaCl-induced damage and (iii) the pathological aldo/NaCl effect is modified, in part, by TGF-β-T-cell cross-talk.

  20. Protective Effect of Infliximab, a Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alfa Inhibitor, on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Nejat; Erboga, Mustafa; Aktas, Cevat; Bilir, Bulent; Aydin, Murat; Sengul, Aysun; Ates, Zehra; Topcu, Birol; Gurel, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the preventive effect of Infliximab (IFX), a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor, on bleomycin (BLC)-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Rats were assigned into four groups as follows: I-BLC group, a single intra-tracheal BLC (2.5 mg/kg) was installed; II-control group, a single intra-tracheal saline was installed; III-IFX + BLC group, a single-dose IFX (7 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), 72 h before the intra-tracheal BLC installation; IV-IFX group, IFX (7 mg/kg) was administered alone i.p. on the same day with IFX + BLC group. All animals were sacrificed on the 14th day of BLC installation. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, interleukin (IL)-6, periostin, YKL-40, nitric oxide (NO) in rat serum were measured, as well as, myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and reduced glutathione (GSH), hydroxyproline, malondialdehyde (MDA) content in lung homogenates. Lung tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for quantitative histological evaluation. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and cell apoptosis in the lung tissues were determined quantitatively by immunohistochemical staining (INOS) and by TUNNEL staining, respectively. BLC installation worsened antioxidant status (such as SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH, MPO), while it increased the serum TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-6, periostin, YKL-40, and lipid peroxidation, and collagen deposition, measured by MDA and hydroxyproline, respectively. IFX pretreatment improved antioxidant status as well as BLC-induced lung pathological changes, while it decreased the TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-6, periostin, YKL-40, lipid peroxidation and collagen deposition. Finally, histological, immunohistochemical, and TUNNEL evidence also supported the ability of IFX to prevent BLC-induced lung fibrosis. The results of the present study indicate that IFX pretreatment can attenuate

  1. Huang Qi Decoction Prevents BDL-Induced Liver Fibrosis Through Inhibition of Notch Signaling Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Ying; Chen, Jia-Mei; Liu, Cheng; Du, Guang-Li; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Shi-Li; Liu, Cheng-Hai; Mu, Yong-Ping; Liu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Notch signaling has been demonstrated to be involved in ductular reactions and fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that Huang Qi Decoction (HQD) can prevent the progression of cholestatic liver fibrosis (CLF). However, whether HQD affects the Notch signaling pathway is unclear. In this study, CLF was established by common bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. At the end of the first week, the rats were randomly divided into a model group (i.e., BDL), an HQD group, and a sorafenib positive control group (SORA) and were treated for 3 weeks. Bile duct proliferation and liver fibrosis were determined by tissue staining. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway was evaluated by analyzing expressions of Notch-1, -2, -3, and -4, Jagged (JAG) 1, and Delta like (DLL)-1, -3, and -4. The results showed that HQD significantly reduced the deposition of collagen and the Hyp content of liver tissue and inhibited the activation of HSCs compared with the BDL group. In addition, HQD significantly decreased the protein and mRNA expressions of TGF-[Formula: see text]1 and [Formula: see text]-SMA. In contrast, HQD significantly enhanced expression of the Smad 7 protein. HQD also reduced biliary epithelial cell proliferation, and reduced the mRNA levels of CK7, CK8, CK18, SRY-related high mobility group-box gene (SOX) 9, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and the positive areas of CK19 and OV6. In addition, the mRNA and protein expressions of Notch-3, -4, JAG1, and DLL-1, -3 were significantly reduced in the HQD compared to the BDL group. These results demonstrated that HQD may prevent biliary liver fibrosis through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway, and it may be a potential treatment for cholestatic liver disease.

  2. Effect of anti-inflammatory steroids on the activity of selected lysosomal hydrolases in serum of rats with experimental liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drózdz, M; Olczyk, K; Kucharz, E

    1983-07-01

    Liver fibrosis was produced in rats by subcutaneous injections of carbon tetrachloride. The effect of anti-inflammatory steroids (hydrocortisone, prednisone, dexamethasone) on the activity of serum lysosomal hydrolases (beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, beta-glucosidase and alpha-mannosidase) was investigated in healthy and CCl4 poisoned rats. The marked increase of enzymatic activity in blood serum was observed in animals with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Quite opposite results were found in normal rats treated with glucocorticosteroids. In rats which were given both carbon tetrachloride and corticosteroids the obtained values of serum enzymatic activity did not have a uniform character as compared to controls or CCl4 intoxicated rats. Presumable mechanisms of the results obtained are discussed.

  3. Heterogenic transplantation of bone marrow-derived rhesus macaque mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Fu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis is a disease that causes high morbidity and has become a major health problem. Liver fibrosis can lead to the end stage of liver diseases (livercirrhosisand hepatocellularcarcinoma. Currently, liver transplantation is the only effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. However, the shortage of organ donors, high cost of medical surgery, immunological rejection and transplantation complications severely hamper liver transplantation therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been regarded as promising cells for clinical applications in stem cell therapy in the treatment of liver diseases due to their unique multipotent differentiation capacity, immunoregulation and paracrine effects. Although liver fibrosis improvements by MSC transplantation in preclinical experiments as well as clinical trials have been reported, the in vivo fate of MSCs after transportation and their therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. In this present study, we isolated MSCs from the bone marrow of rhesus macaques. The cells exhibited typical MSC markers and could differentiate into chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes, which were not affected by labeling with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. The harvested MSCs respond to interferon-γ stimulation and have the ability to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. EGFP-labeled MSCs (1 × 106 cells were transplanted into mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis via tail vein injection. The ability of the heterogenic MSC infusion to ameliorate liver fibrosis in mice was evaluated by a blood plasma chemistry index, pathological examination and liver fibrosis-associated gene expression. Additionally, a small number of MSCs that homed and engrafted in the mouse liver tissues were evaluated by immunofluorescence analysis. Our results showed that the transplantation of heterogenic MSCs derived from monkey bone marrow can be used to treat liver fibrosis in the mouse model and that the

  4. Proteomic Profiling of Radiation-Induced Skin Fibrosis in Rats: Targeting the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenjie [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cyrus Tang Hematology Center, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Luo, Judong [Department of Radiotherapy, Changzhou Tumor Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou (China); Sheng, Wenjiong; Xue, Jiao; Li, Ming [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Ji, Jiang [Department of Dermatology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Pengfei [Department of Gastroenterology, the Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University, Jiangyin (China); Zhang, Xueguang [Institute of Medical Biotechnology and Jiangsu Stem Cell Key Laboratory, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cao, Jianping [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Zhang, Shuyu, E-mail: zhang.shuyu@hotmail.com [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cyrus Tang Hematology Center, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of radiation-induced skin fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Rat skin was irradiated to 30 or 45 Gy with an electron beam. Protein expression in fibrotic rat skin and adjacent normal tissues was quantified by label-free protein quantitation. Human skin cells HaCaT and WS-1 were treated by x-ray irradiation, and the proteasome activity was determined with a fluorescent probe. The effect of proteasome inhibitors on Transforming growth factor Beta (TGF-B) signaling was measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The efficacy of bortezomib in wound healing of rat skin was assessed by the skin injury scale. Results: We found that irradiation induced epidermal and dermal hyperplasia in rat and human skin. One hundred ninety-six preferentially expressed and 80 unique proteins in the irradiated fibrotic skin were identified. Through bioinformatic analysis, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway showed a significant fold change and was investigated in greater detail. In vitro experiments demonstrated that irradiation resulted in a decline in the activity of the proteasome in human skin cells. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib suppressed profibrotic TGF-β downstream signaling but not TGF-β secretion stimulated by irradiation in HaCaT and WS-1 cells. Moreover, bortezomib ameliorated radiation-induced skin injury and attenuated epidermal hyperplasia. Conclusion: Our findings illustrate the molecular changes during radiation-induced skin fibrosis and suggest that targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome system would be an effective countermeasure.

  5. Local apoptosis promotes collagen production by monocyte-derived cells in transforming growth factor β1-induced lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xueyan; Mathai, Susan K; Murray, Lynne A; Russell, Thomas; Reilkoff, Ronald; Chen, Qingsheng; Gulati, Mridu; Elias, Jack A; Bucala, Richard; Gan, Ye; Herzog, Erica L

    2011-05-17

    Collagen-containing leukocytes (CD45+Col-I+) accumulate in diseased and fibrotic tissues. However, the precise identity of these cells and whether injury is required for their recruitment remain unknown. Using a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis in which an inducible, bioactive form of the human transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 gene is targeted to the lung, we characterized the cell surface phenotype of collagen-containing CD45+ cells in the lung and tested the hypothesis that apoptotic cell death responses are essential to the accumulation of CD45+Col-I+ cells. Our studies demonstrate that CD45+Col-I+ cells appearing in the TGF-β1-exposed murine lung express markers of the monocyte lineage. Inhibition of apoptosis via pharmacological caspase blockade led to a significant reduction in CD45+Col-I+ cells, which appear to accumulate independently of alternatively activated macrophages. There are also increased levels of apoptosis and greater numbers of CD45+Col-I+ in the lung tissue of patients with two distinct forms of fibrotic lung disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease, when compared to lung from healthy normal controls. These findings are accompanied by an increase in collagen production in cultured monocytes obtained from subjects with fibrotic lung disease. Treatment of these cultured cells with the caspase inhibitor carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD/fmk) reduces both apoptosis and collagen production in all subjects. Interventions that prevent collagen production by monocytes via modulation of caspase activation and of apoptosis may be ameliorative in monocyte-associated, TGF-β1-driven processes such as pulmonary fibrosis.

  6. Prostaglandin E₂ protects murine lungs from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and lung dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dackor, Ryan T; Cheng, Jennifer; Voltz, James W; Card, Jeffrey W; Ferguson, Catherine D; Garrett, Ryan C; Bradbury, J Alyce; DeGraff, Laura M; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Flake, Gordon P; Travlos, Gregory S; Ramsey, Randle W; Edin, Matthew L; Morgan, Daniel L; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2011-11-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is a lipid mediator that is produced via the metabolism of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase enzymes. In the lung, PGE(2) acts as an anti-inflammatory factor and plays an important role in tissue repair processes. Although several studies have examined the role of PGE(2) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in rodents, results have generally been conflicting, and few studies have examined the therapeutic effects of PGE(2) on the accompanying lung dysfunction. In this study, an established model of pulmonary fibrosis was used in which 10-12-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were administered a single dose (1.0 mg/kg) of bleomycin via oropharyngeal aspiration. To test the role of prostaglandins in this model, mice were dosed, via surgically implanted minipumps, with either vehicle, PGE(2) (1.32 μg/h), or the prostacyclin analog iloprost (0.33 μg/h) beginning 7 days before or 14 days after bleomycin administration. Endpoints assessed at 7 days after bleomycin administration included proinflammatory cytokine levels and measurement of cellular infiltration into the lung. Endpoints assessed at 21 days after bleomycin administration included lung function assessment via invasive (FlexiVent) analysis, cellular infiltration, lung collagen content, and semiquantitative histological analysis of the degree of lung fibrosis (Ashcroft method). Seven days after bleomycin administration, lymphocyte numbers and chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 expression were significantly lower in PGE(2)- and iloprost-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated controls (P bleomycin challenge, PGE(2) also protected against the decline in lung static compliance, lung fibrosis, and collagen production that is associated with 3 wk of bleomycin exposure. However, PGE(2) had no therapeutic effect on these parameters when administered 14 days after bleomycin challenge. In summary, PGE(2) prevented the decline in lung static compliance and protected against lung fibrosis when it

  7. Prostaglandin E2 protects murine lungs from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and lung dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dackor, Ryan T.; Cheng, Jennifer; Voltz, James W.; Card, Jeffrey W.; Ferguson, Catherine D.; Garrett, Ryan C.; Bradbury, J. Alyce; DeGraff, Laura M.; Lih, Fred B.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Flake, Gordon P.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Ramsey, Randle W.; Edin, Matthew L.; Morgan, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a lipid mediator that is produced via the metabolism of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase enzymes. In the lung, PGE2 acts as an anti-inflammatory factor and plays an important role in tissue repair processes. Although several studies have examined the role of PGE2 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in rodents, results have generally been conflicting, and few studies have examined the therapeutic effects of PGE2 on the accompanying lung dysfunction. In this study, an established model of pulmonary fibrosis was used in which 10–12-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were administered a single dose (1.0 mg/kg) of bleomycin via oropharyngeal aspiration. To test the role of prostaglandins in this model, mice were dosed, via surgically implanted minipumps, with either vehicle, PGE2 (1.32 μg/h), or the prostacyclin analog iloprost (0.33 μg/h) beginning 7 days before or 14 days after bleomycin administration. Endpoints assessed at 7 days after bleomycin administration included proinflammatory cytokine levels and measurement of cellular infiltration into the lung. Endpoints assessed at 21 days after bleomycin administration included lung function assessment via invasive (FlexiVent) analysis, cellular infiltration, lung collagen content, and semiquantitative histological analysis of the degree of lung fibrosis (Ashcroft method). Seven days after bleomycin administration, lymphocyte numbers and chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 expression were significantly lower in PGE2- and iloprost-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated controls (P bleomycin challenge, PGE2 also protected against the decline in lung static compliance, lung fibrosis, and collagen production that is associated with 3 wk of bleomycin exposure. However, PGE2 had no therapeutic effect on these parameters when administered 14 days after bleomycin challenge. In summary, PGE2 prevented the decline in lung static compliance and protected against lung fibrosis when it was administered

  8. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This ... blood may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  9. Titanium nanoparticle inhalation induces renal fibrosis in mice via an oxidative stress upregulated transforming growth factor-β pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Tong; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Huang, Kuo-How; Lin, Wei-Chou; Chen, Chang-Mu; Guan, Siao-Syun; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2015-03-16

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Nano-TiO2) are gradually being used extensively in clinical settings, industry, and daily life. Accumulation studies showed that Nano-TiO2 exposure is able to cause injuries in various animal organs, including the lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. However, it remains unclear whether exposure of Nano-TiO2 by inhalation causes renal fibrosis. Here, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) related signaling molecules in chronic renal damage after Nano-TiO2 inhalation in mice. Mice were treated with Nano-TiO2 (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/week) or microparticle-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) by nonsurgical intratracheal instillation for 4 weeks. The results showed that Nano-TiO2 inhalation increased renal pathological changes in a dose-dependent manner. No renal pathological changes were observed in microparticle-TiO2-instilled mice. Nano-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) possessed the ability to precipitate in the kidneys, determined by transmission electron microscopy and increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen. The expressions of markers of ROS/RNS and renal fibrosis markers, including nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), and collagen I, determined by immunohistochemical staining were increased in the kidneys. Furthermore, Nano-TiO2-induced renal injury could be mitigated by iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine treatment in transcription level. The in vitro experiments showed that Nano-TiO2 significantly and dose-dependently increased the ROS production and the expressions of HIF-1α and TGFβ in human renal proximal tubular cells, which could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine treatment. Taken together, these results suggest Nano-TiO2 inhalation might induce renal fibrosis through a ROS/RNS-related HIF-1α-upregulated TGF-β signaling pathway.

  10. Stat-6 signaling pathway and not Interleukin-1 mediates multi-walled carbon nanotube-induced lung fibrosis in mice: insights from an adverse outcome pathway framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikota, Jake; Banville, Allyson; Goodwin, Laura Rose

    2017-01-01

    Background: The accumulation of MWCNTs in the lung environment leads to inflammation and the development of disease similar to pulmonary fibrosis in rodents. Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) are a framework for defining and organizing the key events that comprise the biological changes leading...... to undesirable events. A putative AOP has been developed describing MWCNT-induced pulmonary fibrosis; inflammation and the subsequent healing response induced by inflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in disease progression. The objective of the present study was to address a key data gap in this AOP......: empirical data supporting the essentiality of pulmonary inflammation as a key event prior to fibrosis. Specifically, Interleukin-1 Receptor1 (IL-1R1) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6) knock-out (KO) mice were employed to target inflammation and the subsequent healing response...

  11. Rapamycin attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the expression of metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 in lung tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoguang; Dai, Huaping; Ding, Ke; Xu, Xuefeng; Pang, Baosen; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and devastating form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in the clinic. There is no effective therapy except for lung transplantation. Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive drug with potent antifibrotic activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and the relation to the expression of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with intratracheal injection of 0.3 ml of bleomycin (5 mg/kg) in sterile 0.9% saline to make the pulmonary fibrosis model. Rapamycin was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg per gavage, beginning one day before bleomycin instillation and once daily until animal sacrifice. Ten rats in each group were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after bleomycin administration. Alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis were semi-quantitatively assessed after HE staining and Masson staining under an Olympus BX40 microscope with an IDA-2000 Image Analysis System. Type I and III collagen fibers were identified by Picro-sirius-polarization. Hydroxyproline content in lung tissue was quantified by a colorimetric-based spectrophotometric assay, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry and by realtime quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Bleomycin induced alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis of rats was inhibited by rapamycin. Significant inhibition of alveolitis and hydroxyproline product were demonstrated when daily administration of rapamycin lasted for at least 14 days. The inhibitory efficacy on pulmonary fibrosis was unremarkable until rapamycin treatment lasted for at least 28 days (P pulmonary fibrosis, which is associated with decreased expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1.

  12. Inhibitory effect of l-mimosine on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats: Role of eIF3a and p27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Wei; Hu, Chang-Ping; Li, Yuan-Jian; Gao, Yuan-Xing; Wang, Xiang-Ming; Yang, Jie-Ren

    2015-07-01

    It has also been shown that the decreased expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3a (eIF3a) by L-mimosine caused cell cycle arrest. Our previous study has found that eIF3a is involved in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Whether the eIF3a/p27 signal pathway is involved in the inhibitory effect of L-mimosine on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis remains unknown. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (5 mg/kg) in rats. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts were cultured to investigate the proliferation by BrdU incorporation method and flow cytometry. The expression of eIF3a, p27, α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III was analyzed by qPCR and Western blot. In vivo, L-mimosine treatment significantly ameliorated the bleomycin-mediated histological fibrosis alterations and blocked collagen deposition concomitantly with reversing bleomycin-induced expression up-regulation of eIF3a, α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III (both mRNA and protein) and expression down- regulation of p27. In vitro, L-mimosine remarkably attenuated proliferation of pulmonary fibroblasts and expression of α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III induced by TGF-β1, and this inhibitory effect of L-mimosine was accompanied by inhibiting eIF3a expression and increasing p27 expression. Knockdown of eIF3a gene expression reversed TGF-β1-induced proliferation of fibroblasts, down-regulation of p27 expression and up-regulation of α-SMA, collagen I, and collagen III expression. These results suggest that L-mimosine inhibited the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats via the eIF3a/p27 pathway. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Targeting CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis by RNA interference-mediated inhibition of cyclin E1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangen, Jörg-Martin; Hammerich, Linda; Sonntag, Roland; Baues, Maike; Haas, Ute; Lambertz, Daniela; Longerich, Thomas; Lammers, Twan; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian; Liedtke, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Initiation and progression of liver fibrosis requires proliferation and activation of resting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Cyclin E1 (CcnE1) is the regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and controls cell cycle re-entry. We have recently shown that genetic inactivation of CcnE1 prevents activation, proliferation, and survival of HSCs and protects from liver fibrogenesis. The aim of the present study was to translate these findings into preclinical applications using an RNA interference (RNAi)-based approach. CcnE1-siRNA (small interfering RNA) efficiently inhibited CcnE1 gene expression in murine and human HSC cell lines and in primary HSCs, resulting in diminished proliferation and increased cell death. In C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice, delivery of stabilized siRNA using a liposome-based carrier targeted approximately 95% of HSCs, 70% of hepatocytes, and 40% of CD45+ cells after single injection. Acute CCl4 -mediated liver injury in WT mice induced endogenous CcnE1 expression and proliferation of surviving hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells, including CD45+ leukocytes. Pretreatment with CcnE1-siRNA reverted CcnE1 induction to baseline levels of healthy mice, which was associated with reduced liver injury, diminished proliferation of hepatocytes and leukocytes, and attenuated overall inflammatory response. For induction of liver fibrosis, WT mice were challenged with CCl4 for 4-6 weeks. Co-treatment with CcnE1-siRNA once a week was sufficient to continuously block CcnE1 expression and cell-cycle activity of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells, resulting in significantly ameliorated liver fibrosis and inflammation. Importantly, CcnE1-siRNA also prevented progression of liver fibrosis if applied after onset of chronic liver injury. Therapeutic targeting of CcnE1 in vivo using RNAi is feasible and has high antifibrotic activity. (Hepatology 2017;66:1242-1257). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. TLR4 Deficiency Protects against Hepatic Fibrosis and Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Pre-Carcinogenic Liver Injury in Fibrotic Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Nicole Weber

    Full Text Available The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common consequence of advanced liver fibrosis but the interactions between fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis are still poorly understood. Recently it has been shown that HCC promotion depends on Toll-like receptor (TLR 4. Pre-cancerogenous events can be modelled in mice by the administration of a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, with HCC formation depending amongst others on interleukin (IL 6 production. Mice lacking the hepatocanalicular phosphatidylcholine transporter ABCB4 develop liver fibrosis spontaneously, resemble patients with sclerosing cholangitis due to mutations of the orthologous human gene, and represent a valid model to study tumour formation in pre-injured cholestatic liver. The aim of this study was to investigate DEN-induced liver injury in TLR4-deficient mice with biliary fibrosis.ABCB4-deficient mice on the FVB/NJ genetic background were crossed to two distinct genetic backgrounds (TLR4-sufficient C3H/HeN and TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ for more than 10 generations. The two congenic knockout and the two corresponding wild-type mouse lines were treated with a single dose of DEN for 48 hours. Phenotypic differences were assessed by measuring hepatic collagen contents, inflammatory markers (ALT, CRP, IL6 as well as hepatic apoptosis (TUNEL and proliferation (Ki67 rates.Hepatic collagen accumulation is significantly reduced in ABCB4-/-:TLR4-/-double-deficient mice. After DEN challenge, apoptosis, proliferation and inflammatory markers are decreased in TLR4-deficient in comparison to TLR4-sufficient mice. When combining ABCB4 and TLR4 deficiency with DEN treatment, hepatic IL6 expression and proliferation rates are lowest in fibrotic livers from the double-deficient line. Consistent with these effects, selective digestive tract decontamination in ABCB4-/- mice also led to reduced tumor size and number after DEN.This study demonstrates that liver injury upon DEN challenge

  15. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Alleviate Radiation-Induced Muscular Fibrosis by Suppressing the Expression of TGF-β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to investigate the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs transplantation on irradiation-induced skeletal muscle fibrosis. Sixty-four rabbits were randomly divided into ASCs group and PBS group followed by irradiation at unilateral hip with a single dose of 80 Gy. Nonirradiated side with normal skeletal muscle served as normal control. Skeletal muscle tissues were collected from eight rabbits in each group at 1 w, 4 w, 8 w, and 26 w after irradiation. Migration of ASCs was observed in the peripheral tissues along the needle passage in the injured muscle. The proportion of the area of collagen fibers to the total area in sections of ASCs group was lower than those of PBS groups at 4 w, 8 w, and 26 w after irradiation. Significant decrease was noted in the integrated optimal density of the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 in the ASCs group compared with those of PBS group at 4 w, 8 w, and 26 w after irradiation. Moreover, the expression of TGF-β1 was lower in the ASCs group compared to those of the PBS group at each time point determined by Western blot analysis. ASCs transplantation could alleviate irradiation fibrosis by suppressing the level of TGF-β1 in the irradiated skeletal muscle.

  16. Effects of montelukast on subepithelial/peribronchial fibrosis in a murine model of ovalbumin induced chronic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, In Sik; Jeon, Woo Young; Shin, Hyeun Kyoo; Lee, Mee Young

    2013-11-01

    Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, is used commercially as a maintenance treatment for asthma and to relieve allergic symptoms. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of montelukast against the airway inflammation and fibrosis using a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA) induced chronic asthma. The animals received OVA challenge three times a week for 4 weeks. Montelukast (30 mg/kg) was administrated orally once a day for 4 weeks. The administration of montelukast caused a reduction in elevated interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, eotaxin, immunoglobulin (Ig), inflammatory cell infiltration into the airways, and mucus production after repeated OVA challenges. To investigate the antifibrotic mechanism of montelukast, we examined the expression of profibrotic mediators, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and Smad3 proteins in the lung tissue using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The administration of montelukast reduced the overexpression of profibrotic proteins in the lung tissue, which was confirmed by immnunohistochemistry. These results are consistent with a histopathological examination of lung tissue with Masson's trichrome stain. In conclusion, the administration of montelukast reduced airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis by reducing the release of Th2 cytokines and the expression of VEGF, TGF-β1/Smad3 in the lung tissue. © 2013.

  17. Accelerated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in Hjv-/- mice, associated with an oxidative burst and precocious profibrogenic gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Sebastiani

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemochromatosis is commonly associated with liver fibrosis. Likewise, hepatic iron overload secondary to chronic liver diseases aggravates liver injury. To uncover underlying molecular mechanisms, hemochromatotic hemojuvelin knockout (Hjv-/- mice and wild type (wt controls were intoxicated with CCl(4. Hjv-/- mice developed earlier (by 2-4 weeks and more acute liver damage, reflected in dramatic levels of serum transaminases and ferritin and the development of severe coagulative necrosis and fibrosis. These responses were associated with an oxidative burst and early upregulation of mRNAs encoding α1-(I-collagen, the profibrogenic cytokines TGF-β1, endothelin-1 and PDGF and, notably, the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hence, CCl4-induced liver fibrogenesis was exacerbated and progressed precociously in Hjv-/- animals. Even though livers of naïve Hjv-/- mice were devoid of apparent pathology, they exhibited oxidative stress and immunoreactivity towards α-SMA antibodies, a marker of hepatic stellate cells activation. Furthermore, they expressed significantly higher (2-3 fold vs. wt, p<0.05 levels of α1-(I-collagen, TGF-β1, endothelin-1 and PDGF mRNAs, indicative of early fibrogenesis. Our data suggest that hepatic iron overload in parenchymal cells promotes oxidative stress and triggers premature profibrogenic gene expression, contributing to accelerated onset and precipitous progression of liver fibrogenesis.

  18. The Antioxidative Effect of Chamomile, Anthocyanoside and their Combination on Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Iraj; Emami, SeyedAlireza

    2015-08-01

    Bleomycin is a small peptide with 1500Daltun of molecular weight which has two junction areas in two molecule's opposite sides, one of them to relate to the DNA and the other to relate to the iron. Iron is a crucially important factor in free radical production and cytotoxic activity of bleomycin. The study attempts to study, and compare, the effect of using Chamomile, Anthocyanoside and their combination, as anti-inflammatory agent to ameliorates, to prevent or control the development of fibrosis due to Bleomycin (BLM). to prepare pulmonary fibrosis model, male Wistar rats weighting 180-220g were assigned to specific groups Rats of each group received intratracheally 1U/100 g of BLM. 20 rats were divided to five comparable groups, as(1) BLM group, (2) saline group, (3) Chamomile group, (4) Anthocyanoside group, (5) combination of Anthocyanoside and Chamomile group. Antioxidative combinations were given as pretreatment and treatment after the rats received Bleomycine. After 3 week, Malondialdehyde (MDA)was measured for each rat's lung. After three weeks, MDA was reduced, compared to BLM group, to 44.27%, 37.80% and 46.07% in Anthocyanoside, Chamomiland combination group, respectively. It was concluded from the present study that administration of combination of Chamomile and Anthocyanoside lead to a significant reduction in Bleomycin-induced MDA. The mechanism of the effect of these combinations is possibly the result of phenolic combinations as antioxidant and oxy free radical scavenger and inhibitor of lipid peroxidation.

  19. A Combination of Podophyllotoxin and Rutin Alleviates Radiation-Induced Pneumonitis and Fibrosis through Modulation of Lung Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Verma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are predominant consequences of radiation exposure, whether planned or accidental. The present study, demonstrates radioprotective potential of a formulation, prepared by combining podophyllotoxin and rutin (G-003M, in mice exposed to 11 Gy thoracic gamma radiation (TGR. Treated mice were observed for survival and other symptomatic features. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS/nitric oxide (NO was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage cells. DNA damage and cell death were assessed in alveolar cells by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay. Total protein (TP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF/serum of mice to assess lung vascular permeability. Interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, cluster of differentiation 45, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and nitrotyrosine were also estimated in lungs/BALF of differentially treated mice. Our observations revealed 100% survival in G-003M-pretreated mice against 66.50% in 11 Gy TGR exposed. Other symptoms like reduction in graying of hair, weight loss, and breathing rate were also observed in pretreated groups. Significant decline in ROS/NO and cell death in formulation pretreated mice were also observed. Decreased level of TP, LDH, and ALP in BALF/serum samples revealed G-003M-induced inhibition in lung permeability. Level of IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 in the lungs of these mice was found corresponding to control group at 8 weeks posttreatment. On the contrary, these cytokines raised significantly in 11 Gy TGR-exposed mice. Lung pneumonitis and fibrosis were found significantly countered in these mice. The observations revealed that G-003M could regulate immune system by curtailing radiation-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress, which has helped in minimizing radiation-inflicted pneumonitis and

  20. c-Src Inhibition Improves Cardiovascular Function but not Remodeling or Fibrosis in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callera, Glaucia E; Antunes, Tayze T; He, Ying; Montezano, Augusto C; Yogi, Alvaro; Savoia, Carmine; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-11-01

    c-Src plays an important role in angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling. Whether this member of the Src family kinases is involved in the development of Ang II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular damage in vivo remains unknown. Here, we studied Ang II-infused (400 ng/kg/min) mice in which c-Src was partially deleted (c-Src(+/-)) and in wild-type (WT, c-Src(+/+)) mice treated with a c-Src inhibitor (CGP077675; 25 mg/kg/d). Ang II increased blood pressure and induced endothelial dysfunction in WT mice, responses that were ameliorated in c-Src(+/-) and CGP077675-treated mice. Vascular wall thickness and cross-sectional area were similarly increased by Ang II in WT and c-Src(+/-) mice. CGP077675 further increased cross-sectional area in hypertensive mice. Cardiac dysfunction (ejection fraction and fractional shortening) in Ang II-infused WT mice was normalized in c-Src(+/-) mice. Increased oxidative stress (plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hydrogen peroxide, and vascular superoxide generation) in Ang II-infused WT mice was attenuated in c-Src-deficient and CGP077675-treated mice. Hyperactivation of vascular c-Src, ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2), and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) in hypertensive mice was normalized in CGP077675-treated and c-Src(+/-) mice. Vascular fibronectin was increased by Ang II in all groups and further augmented by CGP077675. Cardiac fibrosis and inflammation induced by Ang II were amplified in c-Src(+/-) and CGP-treated mice. Our data indicate that although c-Src downregulation attenuates development of hypertension, improves endothelial and cardiac function, reduces oxidative stress, and normalizes vascular signaling, it has little beneficial effect on fibrosis. These findings suggest a divergent role for c-Src in Ang II-dependent hypertension, where c-Src may be more important in regulating redox-sensitive cardiac and vascular function than fibrosis and remodeling. © 2016 American Heart Association

  1. NLRP3 participates in the regulation of EMT in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Rui; Zhu, Yong; Yao, Jiayi; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Jinfeng; Xie, Hui; Wang, Ruilan

    2017-08-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and irreversible lung disease. Studies have shown that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the development of IPF. The NLRP3 inflammasome is reported to be activated and play an important role in many respiratory diseases. However, whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in alveolar epithelial cells as well as the regulatory role of NLRP3 in EMT have not been reported. In this study, we transfected NLRP3 siRNA into A549 and RLE-6TN cells and treated them with bleomycin (BLM) for 24h. Then, we detected the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome-related proteins, EMT-related proteins and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) via western blotting, immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA and protein level of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 increased after treatment with BLM. The IL-1β levels were significantly decreased after inhibition of NLRP3 and caspase-1. E-cadherin expression increased and α-SMA was reduced in the BLM group when inhibited by NLRP3. The level of TGF-β1 was reduced after NLRP3 silencing. These results indicated that the NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in alveolar epithelial cells and that NLRP3 may regulate EMT through TGF-β1. These results may extend our understanding of the mechanism of pulmonary fibrosis and provide a new therapeutic target for pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ATM sequence variants and risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis after postmastectomy radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the hypothesis that women who are carriers of genetic alterations in the ATM gene are more likely to develop subcutaneous fibrosis after radiotherapy for treatment of breast cancer compared with patients who do not possess DNA sequence variations in this gene. METHODS...... in breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy...... AND MATERIALS: DNA samples isolated from fibroblast cell lines established from 41 women treated with postmastectomy radiotherapy for breast cancer were screened for genetic variants in ATM using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). A minimum follow-up of 2 years enabled analysis of late...

  3. Role of histamine H4 receptor ligands in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Laura; Pini, Alessandro; Rosa, Arianna Carolina; Lanzi, Cecilia; Durante, Mariaconcetta; Chazot, Paul Louis; Krief, Stéphane; Schreeb, Annemarie; Stark, Holger; Masini, Emanuela

    2016-09-01

    Fibrosis of lung tissue is a disease where a chronic inflammatory process determines a pathological remodelling of lung parenchyma. The animal model obtained by intra-tracheal administration of bleomycin in C57BL/6 mice is one of the most validated murine model. Bleomycin stimulates oxidative stress and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Histamine H4R have recently been implicated in inflammation and immune diseases. This study was focused to investigate the effects of H4R ligands in the modulation of inflammation and in the reduction of lung fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice treated with bleomycin. C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle, JNJ7777120 (JNJ, selective H4R antagonist) or ST-1006 (partial H4R agonist), ST-994 (H4R neutral antagonist) and ST-1012 (inverse H4R agonist) at equimolar doses, released by micro-osmotic pumps for 21days. Airway resistance to inflation was assayed and lung samples were processed to measure malondialdehyde (TBARS); 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG); myeloperoxidase (MPO); COX-2 expression and activity as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Fibrosis and airway remodelling were evaluated throughout transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), percentage of positive Goblet cells, smooth muscle layer thickness determination. Our results indicated that JNJ, ST-994 and ST-1012 decreased inflammation and oxidative stress markers, i.e. the number of infiltrating leukocytes evaluated as lung tissue MPO, COX-2 expression and activity, TBARS and 8OHdG production. They also reduced the level of TGF-β, a pro-fibrotic cytokine, collagen deposition, thickness of smooth muscle layer, Goblet cells hyperplasia; resulting in a decrease of airway functional impairment. The results here reported clearly demonstrated that H4R ligands have a beneficial effect in a model of lung fibrosis in the mouse, thus indicating that H4R antagonists or inverse agonists could be a novel therapeutic strategy for lung inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016

  4. TAK1 as the mediator in the protective effect of propofol on renal interstitial fibrosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiping; Zhou, Jun; Ou, Weiming; Li, Yun; Liu, Meifang; Yang, Chengxiang

    2017-09-15

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), which is a major cause of acute and chronic renal dysfunction, induces both apoptosis and fibrotic processes. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) was implicated in the processes of inflammation and fibrosis. The protective effect of propofol on renal functionality after acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice has been identified, whereas the mechanisms underlying fibrosis induced by kidney injury remain obscure. Herein, we investigated whether the protective effect of propofol on renal interstitial fibrosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury was modulated by TAK1 in renal ischemia /reperfusion (I/R) mouse models. The results of immunohistochemistry and western blotting revealed that TAK1 was significantly upregulated in IR group versus the control group, which was reversed by propofol administration. In addition, fibronectin (FN), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type I collagen (COL1) were significantly downregulated and Tunnel staining revealed the number of tubular apoptotic cells was markedly reduced in IRP group versus IR group. Collectively, our results validated that propofol could ameliorate the IRI-induced renal interstitial fibrosis in mice by downregulation of TAK1 and inhibition of apoptosis at the early stage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Influence of Chongcao Yigan Capsule on function of intestinal flora and chemoprevention for patients with chronic hepatitis B-induced liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Hu; Cao, Zheng-Yu; Shen, Yang; Lv, Yu-Feng; Tao, Guang-Rong; Chen, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Hapatitis B visus (CHB)-induced fibrosis is a precancerous condition of liver. To explore the influence of Chongcao Preparation (Chongcao Yigan Capsule) on the function of intestinal flora and chemoprevention for patients with CHB-induced liver fibrosis. A total of 136 patients with CHB-induced liver fibrosis were randomly divided into control group treated with lamivudine (LAM) and research group added with Chongcao Yigan Capsule for totally 48 weeks. The changes of intestinal flora, secretory immunoglobin A (SIgA), serum albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PALB), IgA and IgG at different time points in both groups were observed. Before treatment, there was no significant difference between two groups in each index (P>0.05). After treatment, the intestinal flora were evidently optimized in research group than treatment before (Pintestinal flora, increase SIgA, serum ALB and PALB concentrations and significantly improve serum IgA and IgG as well as strengthen the immunological function and autologous repair capacity of patients with CHB-induced liver fibrosis.

  6. Amelioration of diabetes-induced cavernosal fibrosis by antioxidant and anti-transforming growth factor-β1 therapies in inducible nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Monica G; Moon, Joanne; Rivera, Steve; Rajfer, Jacob; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F

    2012-02-01

    •  To investigate whether sustained long-term separate treatments of diabetic inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (iNOSKo) mice with allopurinol, an antioxidant inhibiting xanthine oxidoreductase, decorin, a transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) -binding antagonist, and molsidomine, a long-life nitric oxide donor, prevent the processes of diabetes-induced cavernosal fibrosis. •  Eight week old male iNOS knock out (iNOSKo) mice were made diabetic by injecting 150 mg/kg B.W Streptozotocin (1P) with were either left untreated or treated with the oral antioxidant allopurinol (40 mg/kg/day), or decoin (50 mg, 1P, twice), as an anti-TGFβ1 agent (n = 8/group). •  Glycemia and oxidative stress markers were determined in blood and urine. •  Paraffin-embedded tissue sections from the penile shaft were subjected to Masson trichrome staining for the smooth muscle (smc)/collagen ratio, and imunostaining for smc content, profibrotic factors, oxidative stress, cell replication and cell death markers followed by quantitative image analysis. •  Eight-week treatment with either allopurinol or decorin counteracted the decrease in smooth muscle cells and the increase in apoptosis and local oxidative stress within the corpora tissue. •  Decorin but not allopurinol increased the smooth muscle cell/collagen ratio, whereas allopurinol but not decorin inhibited systemic oxidative stress. •  Molsidomine was effective in reducing both local and systemic oxidative stress, but did not prevent corporal fibrosis. •  Both allopurinol and decorin appear as promising approaches either as a single or a combined pharmacological modality for protecting the diabetic corpora from undergoing apoptosis and fibrosis although their functional effects still need to be defined. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  7. The Effect of Resveratrol on Surgery-Induced Epidural Fibrosis in Laminectomy Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifeng Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidural fibrosis (EF is a common complication for the patients who underwent laminectomy. Recently, EF is thought to cause recurrent postoperative pain after laminectomy. Resveratrol has been shown to exert its anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antiproliferative multifaceted properties. The object of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the prevention of postlaminectomy EF formation in laminectomy rats. A controlled double-blinded study was performed on 60 healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent lumbar laminectomy at the L1-L2 levels. They were divided randomly into 3 groups (1, 2, and 3 of 20 rats each—group 1: resveratrol treatment group; group 2: resveratrol dilution saline treatment group; group 3: sham group (rats underwent laminectomy without treatment. All rats were killed 4 weeks after operation. The Rydell score, hydroxyproline content, vimentin cells density, fibroblasts density, and inflammatory factors expressional levels all suggested better results in resveratrol group than the other two groups. Resveratrol is able to inhibit fibroblasts proliferation, and TGF-β1 and IL-6 expressions and prevent epidural fibrosis in postlaminectomy rat.

  8. Experimentally induced secondary cryptorchidism: Effects on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptorchidism may interfere with spermatogenesis but not the functions of the Leydig cells. This study investigated the effects of induced Secondary cryptorchidism growth performance of Djallonké lambs. A total of eighteen Djallonké lambs were assigned randomly to one of six treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of ...

  9. Gypenosides Ameliorate Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis by Inhibiting the Differentiation of Hepatic Progenitor Cells into Myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiamei; Li, Xuewei; Hu, Yonghong; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Hua; Mu, Yongping; Liu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Gypenosides (GPs), the predominant components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, exert antifibrotic effects; however, the mechanisms underlying their ability to ameliorate liver fibrosis are unclear. Liver fibrosis was induced in C57BL/6 mice via subcutaneous injection of 10% carbon tetrachloride (CCl[Formula: see text] three times a week for two weeks. Then, CCl4 was administered in conjunction with intragastric GPs for another three weeks. For in vitro analyses, WB-F344, hepatatic progenitor cells (HPCs) were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-[Formula: see text]1) with or without GPs for 48[Formula: see text]h. The results showed that alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, deposition of collagen, hydroxyproline content, and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin ([Formula: see text]-SMA) and collagen type I (Col I) were significantly decreased after treatment with GPs ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). In the 5M CCl4 group, the expression of HPC markers, Sox9 and cytokeratin 19 (CK19), was significantly increased compared with the normal or GPs-treated group ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Immunostaining showed that the number of Sox9 and [Formula: see text]-SMA double-positive cells was higher in the 5M CCl4 group than in the normal group, but the addition of GPs caused this cell number to decrease. In WB-F344 cells, the expression of [Formula: see text]-SMA and Col I was significantly increased after treatment with TGF-[Formula: see text], whereas in the GPs treatment group, expression was markedly decreased ([Formula: see text]). The levels of TGF-[Formula: see text] and TGF-[Formula: see text]R1 were markedly reduced after GPs treatment both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, GPs ameliorated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis via the inhibition of TGF-[Formula: see text] signaling, consequently inhibiting the differentiation of HPCs into myofibroblasts.

  10. Netrin-1 Regulates Fibrocyte Accumulation in the Decellularized Fibrotic Sclerodermatous Lung Microenvironment and in Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huanxing; Zhu, Yangyang; Pan, Hongyi; Chen, Xiaosong; Balestrini, Jenna L; Lam, TuKiet T; Kanyo, Jean E; Eichmann, Anne; Gulati, Mridu; Fares, Wassim H; Bai, Hanwen; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A; Gan, Ye; Peng, Xueyan; Moore, Meagan W; White, Eric S; Sava, Parid; Gonzalez, Anjelica L; Cheng, Yuwei; Niklason, Laura E; Herzog, Erica L

    2016-05-01

    protected against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and fibrocyte accumulation. Factors present in the lung matrices of patients with scleroderma regulate fibrocyte accumulation via a netrin-1-dependent pathway. Netrin-1 regulates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Netrin-1 might be a novel therapeutic target in SSc-related ILD. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Intestinal flora imbalance promotes alcohol-induced liver fibrosis by the TGFβ/smad signaling pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Hao, Xiuxian; Xu, Lili; Cui, Jing; Xue, Li; Tian, Zibin

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal flora performs a crucial role in human health and its imbalance may cause numerous pathological changes. The liver can also affect the intestinal function through bile secretion via the enterohepatic cycle. The pathophysiological association between the gut and the liver is described as the gut-liver axis. The present study investigated the role of intestinal flora in alcohol-induced liver fibrosis. A total of 36 C57 mice were randomly and equally divided into 3 different dietary regimes: Group I (alcohol injury; received alcohol); group II (alcohol injury with flora imbalance; received alcohol plus lincomycin hydrochloride) and group III (alcohol injury with corrected flora imbalance; received alcohol, lincomycin hydrochloride and extra probiotics). The present study then investigated several indicators of liver damage. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in mice serum were studied. Masson staining and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining was also performed, and the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (smad) 3 and smad4 proteins in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of the mice was examined using western blot analysis. The levels of serum ALP, AST and ALT were the highest in group II mice, and all 3 levels decreased in group III mice compared with those from group II. The degree of liver fibrosis was aggravated in group II mice compared with group I mice. The apoptosis of HSCs was significantly inhibited in group II mice, but was increased in group III mice. The HSCs in group II mice exhibited higher expression of smad3 and smad4, whilst group III mice (with corrected intestinal flora imbalance) exhibited downregulated expression of smad3 and smad4. The present data indicates that the intestinal flora perform a significant role in maintaining liver homeostasis. Furthermore, an imbalance of intestinal flora can exacerbate alcohol-induced

  12. Pregestational type 2 diabetes mellitus induces cardiac hypertrophy in the murine embryo through cardiac remodeling and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue; Yang, Penghua; Reece, E Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental evidence has implied that pregnant women with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their children are at an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous mouse model study revealed that maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus induces structural heart defects in their offspring. This study aims to determine whether maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus induces embryonic heart hypertrophy in a murine model of diabetic embryopathy. The type 2 diabetes mellitus embryopathy model was established by feeding 4-week-old female C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat diet for 15 weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy in embryos at embryonic day 17.5 was characterized by measuring heart size and thickness of the right and left ventricle walls and the interventricular septum, as well as the expression of β-myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide, insulin-like growth factor-1, desmin, and adrenomedullin. Cardiac remodeling was determined by collagen synthesis and fibronectin synthesis. Fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining and determining the expression of connective tissue growth factor, osteopontin, and galectin-3 genes. Cell apoptosis also was measured in the developing heart. The thicknesses of the left ventricle walls and the interventricular septum of embryonic hearts exposed to maternal diabetes were significantly thicker than those in the nondiabetic group. Maternal diabetes significantly increased β-myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide, insulin-like growth factor-1, and desmin expression, but decreased expression of adrenomedullin. Moreover, collagen synthesis was significantly elevated, whereas fibronectin synthesis was suppressed, in embryonic hearts from diabetic dams, suggesting that cardiac remodeling is a contributing factor to cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac fibrosis marker, galectin-3, was induced by maternal diabetes. Furthermore, maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus

  13. Alternaria induces STAT-6 dependent acute airway eosinophila and epithelial FIZZ1 expression that promotes airway fibrosis and epithelial thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Taylor A.; Khorram, Naseem; Sugimoto, Kotaro; Sheppard, Dean; Rosenthal, Peter; Youn Cho, Jae; Pham, Alexa; Miller, Marina; Croft, Michael; Broide, David H.

    2012-01-01

    The fungal allergen, Alternaria, is specifically associated with severe asthma, including life-threatening exacerbations. To better understand the acute innate airway response to Alternaria, naïve WT mice were challenged once intranasally with Alternaria. Naïve WT mice developed significant BAL eosinophila following Alternaria challenge when analyzed 24 hours later. In contrast to Alternaria, neither Aspergillus nor Candida induced BAL eosinophilia. Gene microarray analysis of airway epithelial cell brushings demonstrated that Alternaria-challenged naïve WT mice had an over 20 fold increase level of expression of “Found in Inflammatory Zone 1” (FIZZ1/Retnla), a resistin-like molecule. Lung immunostaining confirmed strong airway epithelial FIZZ1 expression present as early as 3 hours after a single Alternaria challenge that persisted for at least 5 days and was significantly reduced in STAT6-deficient, but not PAR-2-deficient mice. Bone marrow chimera studies revealed that STAT6 expressed in lung cells was required for epithelial FIZZ1 expression, while in contrast, STAT6 present in bone marrow derived cells contributed to airway eosinophilia. Studies investigating which cells in the non-challenged lung bind FIZZ1 demonstrated that CD45+CD11c+ (macrophages and dendritic cells) as well as collagen-1 producing CD45 negative cells (fibroblasts) can bind to FIZZ1. Importantly, direct administration of recombinant FIZZ1 to naïve WT mice led to airway eosinophilia, peribronchial fibrosis, and increased thickness of the airway epithelium. Thus, Alternaria induces STAT-6 dependent acute airway eosinophila and epithelial FIZZ1 expression that promotes airway fibrosis and epithelial thickness. This may provide some insight into the uniquely pathogenic aspects of Alternaria-associated asthma. PMID:22327070

  14. Morin ameliorates chemically induced liver fibrosis in vivo and inhibits stellate cell proliferation in vitro by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MadanKumar, Perumal; NaveenKumar, Perumal; Manikandan, Samidurai [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Devaraj, Halagowder [Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); NiranjaliDevaraj, Sivasithamparam, E-mail: niranjali@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-06-01

    The anti-fibrotic effect of morin was examined in LX-2 cells (culture-activated human hepatic stellate cells) and in diethylnitrosamine induced rat model of liver fibrosis. The in vitro study was designed to determine whether morin affects the survival of cultured LX-2 cells, while the in vivo study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-fibrotic efficacy of morin on diethylnitrosamine induced liver fibrosis in male albino Wistar rat. The activities of liver function enzymes in serum, liver lipid peroxide levels, activities of serum antioxidant enzymes and liver architecture were monitored to cast light on the antioxidant and hepatoprotective nature of morin. To establish the anti-fibrotic effects of morin, the levels of key Wnt signaling molecules which are strongly associated with the signal transduction pathway of HSC activation were measured. Overall, from the in vitro results, it was observed that morin at 50 μM concentration inhibited the proliferation of cultured LX-2 cells, inhibited Wnt signaling and induced G1 cell cycle arrest. The in vivo results further confirmed that morin by downregulating the expressions of GSK-3β, β-catenin and cyclin D1 ameliorated DEN-induced liver fibrosis. Hence morin could be employed as a promising chemopreventive natural supplement for liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • In vivo and in vitro results revealed the active participation of Wnt signaling. • Morin at 50 μM inhibited LX-2 cell proliferation by suppressing Wnt signaling. • Morin exhibited hepatoprotective effects against DEN induced liver fibrosis. • Morin inhibited HSC activation in vivo by downregulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  15. Gene Expression Patterns Associated With Histopathology in Toxic Liver Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Danielle L; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M; Tawa, Gregory J; Baer, Christine E; Permenter, Matthew G; McDyre, Bonna C; Dennis, William E; Boyle, Molly H; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Streicker, Michael A; Snowden, Bobbi S; Lewis,