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Sample records for experimentally induced dyspnea

  1. Predicting Dyspnea Inducers by Molecular Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gálvez-Llompart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available QSAR based on molecular topology (MT is an excellent methodology used in predicting physicochemical and biological properties of compounds. This approach is applied here for the development of a mathematical model capable to recognize drugs showing dyspnea as a side effect. Using linear discriminant analysis, it was found a four-variable regression equations enabling a predictive rate of about 81% and 73% in the training and test sets of compounds, respectively. These results demonstrate that QSAR-MT is an efficient tool to predict the appearance of dyspnea associated with drug consumption.

  2. Use of post-exercise laryngoscopy to evaluate exercise induced dyspnea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2010-10-01

    We present the case of a child with asthma who continued to have marked exercise induced dyspnea despite appropriate treatment, and in the face of adequate control of all other asthma symptoms. Spirometry showed a marked truncation of inspiratory flow, and laryngoscopy performed immediately after exercise showed laryngomalacia with dynamic, partial inspiratory obstruction. Exercise induced laryngomalacia (EIL) is a rare cause of exercise induced dyspnea which is diagnosed by post exercise flexible laryngoscopy and may require supraglottoplasty.

  3. Effect of experimental modulation of mood on perception of exertional dyspnea in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod; Morris, Norman R; Adams, Lewis

    2016-01-15

    In many diseases across a range of pathologies (e.g., cardiopulmonary, neuromuscular, and cancer), chronic dyspnea, particularly on exertion, is a major debilitating symptom often associated with clinical anxiety/depression. This study aims to explore the interaction between mood state and exertional dyspnea in a healthy population. Following familiarization, 20 healthy subjects (27-54 years old) performed six 5-min treadmill tests on three separate days. On each day subjects viewed randomly assigned images designed to induce positive, negative, or neutral mood states (International Affective Picture System). For each condition, at minute intervals, subjects rated dyspnea (sensory and affective domains) in the first test and mood (valence and arousal domains) in the second test. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2 , liters/min), carbon dioxide production (V̇CO2, liters/min), ventilation (V̇E, liters/min), respiratory frequency (f(R), beats/min), and heart rate (HR, bpm), were measured throughout the exercise. V̇O2, V̇CO2, V̇E, HR, and f(R) were not statistically significantly different among the three mood states (P > 0.05). Mood valence was significantly higher with parallel viewing of positive (last 2-min mean ± SE = 6.9 ± 0.2) compared with negative pictures (2.4 ± 0.2; P negative (sensory: 5.6 ± 0.3; affective: 3.3 ± 0.5) compared with positive mood (sensory: 4.4 ± 0.4, P positive mood alleviates both the sensory and affective domains of exertional dyspnea in healthy subjects. Thus the treatment of anxiety/depression in dyspenic populations could be a worthwhile therapeutic strategy in increasing symptom-limited exercise tolerance, thereby contributing to improved quality of life. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Psychogenic dyspnea

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    Tushar R Sahasrabudhe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea is a very common presenting complaint of a patient. Though commonly due to an organic disease, dyspnea can be a manifestation of underlying anxiety disorder. Three typical patterns of psychogenic dyspnea, viz. panic attack, psychogenic hyperventilation, and compulsive sighing, have been reviewed in this article. The article also comments on the diagnostic features and treatment of these patterns. The overlap with organic causes of dyspnea such as bronchial asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD has also been discussed. For literature review, a Medline and Pubmed search was conducted using appropriate keywords. Articles were also identified from the authors′ own knowledge of the literature as well as reference lists in articles retrieved.

  5. [Child dyspnea].

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    Levieux, Karine; Bihouée, Tiphaine

    2015-05-01

    The management of children dyspnea depends on the severity and symptomatology. The severity assessment requires knowledge of the standards of respiratory rate by age and signs of failure ventilatory mechanics. Recognize the time of dyspnea is important because it guides the diagnosis. Inspiratory dyspnea is most often due to viral laryngitis but an age of less than 6 months or no vaccination against Haemophilus should suggest other urgent diagnostics. Dyspnea with inspiratory and expiratory wheeze is a sign of tracheal damage and needs specialized hospital care. Expiratory dyspnea is the sign of a lower airway affection. A first episode of wheezing during epidemics sign acute bronchiolitis whose support is purely symptomatic with DRP and nutritional splitting. Corticosteroids, bronchodilators and chest physiotherapy are not indicated. Asthma attack is defined as a third episode of wheezing, that requires the administration of salbutamol with an inhalation room, and even oral corticosteroids. Febrile dyspnea must seek auscultatory or radiological abnormalities confirming pneumonia to be treated by a probabilistic and emergency antibiotherapy.

  6. Brain Responses during the Anticipation of Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cornelia Stoeckel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea is common in many cardiorespiratory diseases. Already the anticipation of this aversive symptom elicits fear in many patients resulting in unfavorable health behaviors such as activity avoidance and sedentary lifestyle. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying these anticipatory processes. We induced dyspnea using resistive-load breathing in healthy subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blocks of severe and mild dyspnea alternated, each preceded by anticipation periods. Severe dyspnea activated a network of sensorimotor, cerebellar, and limbic areas. The left insular, parietal opercular, and cerebellar cortices showed increased activation already during dyspnea anticipation. Left insular and parietal opercular cortex showed increased connectivity with right insular and anterior cingulate cortex when severe dyspnea was anticipated, while the cerebellum showed increased connectivity with the amygdala. Notably, insular activation during dyspnea perception was positively correlated with midbrain activation during anticipation. Moreover, anticipatory fear was positively correlated with anticipatory activation in right insular and anterior cingulate cortex. The results demonstrate that dyspnea anticipation activates brain areas involved in dyspnea perception. The involvement of emotion-related areas such as insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala during dyspnea anticipation most likely reflects anticipatory fear and might underlie the development of unfavorable health behaviors in patients suffering from dyspnea.

  7. Brain Responses during the Anticipation of Dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, M Cornelia; Esser, Roland W; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian; von Leupoldt, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Dyspnea is common in many cardiorespiratory diseases. Already the anticipation of this aversive symptom elicits fear in many patients resulting in unfavorable health behaviors such as activity avoidance and sedentary lifestyle. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying these anticipatory processes. We induced dyspnea using resistive-load breathing in healthy subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blocks of severe and mild dyspnea alternated, each preceded by anticipation periods. Severe dyspnea activated a network of sensorimotor, cerebellar, and limbic areas. The left insular, parietal opercular, and cerebellar cortices showed increased activation already during dyspnea anticipation. Left insular and parietal opercular cortex showed increased connectivity with right insular and anterior cingulate cortex when severe dyspnea was anticipated, while the cerebellum showed increased connectivity with the amygdala. Notably, insular activation during dyspnea perception was positively correlated with midbrain activation during anticipation. Moreover, anticipatory fear was positively correlated with anticipatory activation in right insular and anterior cingulate cortex. The results demonstrate that dyspnea anticipation activates brain areas involved in dyspnea perception. The involvement of emotion-related areas such as insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala during dyspnea anticipation most likely reflects anticipatory fear and might underlie the development of unfavorable health behaviors in patients suffering from dyspnea.

  8. Brain Responses during the Anticipation of Dyspnea

    OpenAIRE

    M Cornelia Stoeckel; Esser, Roland W; Matthias Gamer; Christian Büchel; Andreas von Leupoldt

    2016-01-01

    Dyspnea is common in many cardiorespiratory diseases. Already the anticipation of this aversive symptom elicits fear in many patients resulting in unfavorable health behaviors such as activity avoidance and sedentary lifestyle. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying these anticipatory processes. We induced dyspnea using resistive-load breathing in healthy subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blocks of severe and mild dyspnea alternated, each preceded by anticipa...

  9. [Acute dyspnea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, P; Orliaguet, G

    2003-07-01

    Diagnosis of an acute obstructive dyspnea in children is very difficult, especially in the prehospital setting, because there are many possible causes. However, some of them may rapidly become life-threatening and therefore require a rapid prehospital management by a team staffed by a physician. The main causes of acute dyspnea in children usually include: obstructive dyspnea (acute laryngitis, foreign body aspiration, bronchiolotis, acute asthma), pulmonary infections and cardiac dyspnea, as well as dyspnea from other origins (cardiovascular collapse, hyperthermia, acidosis, intoxication, deshydratation). Following the assessment of the severity of the illness, the prehospital management should aimed at restoring an optimal oxygenation, before initiating a treatment adapted to the cause of the disease.

  10. The affective dimension of dyspnea improves in a dyspnea self-management program with exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donesky, Doranne; Nguyen, Huong Q; Paul, Steven M; Carrieri-Kohlman, Virginia

    2014-04-01

    The perception of dyspnea includes both sensory and affective dimensions that are shaped by emotions and psychological, social, and environmental experiences. Previous investigators have studied either measurement or strategies to decrease the affective dimension with laboratory-induced dyspnea. Few have reported the effect of a therapeutic clinical intervention on the affective dimension of dyspnea. (1) To evaluate the effects of three different versions of a dyspnea self-management program (DM) on the affective dimension of dyspnea, measured by dyspnea-related anxiety (DA) and dyspnea-related distress (DD); and (2) to determine the stability of DA and DD over two baseline incremental treadmill tests (ITTs). Participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were randomly assigned to three 12 month DMs with varying doses of supervised exercise (DM, DM-Exposure, and DM-Training). The measurements of the affective dimension, DA and DD, were rated during ITTs on two baseline days and at two, six, and 12 months. Changes over time in DA and DD were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. Participants in the DM-Training group who received 24 nurse-coached exercise sessions had significantly greater reductions in DA and DD compared with those who had four exercise sessions (DM-Exposure) or only received a home-walking program (DM). Reductions in DA and DD in the DM-Training group were only maintained through six months. There were no significant differences in ratings of DA and DD at end between the two baseline ITTs. These findings provide initial support for the positive impact of a self-management program with nurse-coached exercise on the affective dimension of dyspnea. Further investigation of interventions that target the affective dimension in addition to the sensory dimension of dyspnea should be encouraged. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hiatal hernia: An unusual presentation of dyspnea

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    Mirdamadi, Seied Ahmad; Arasteh, Mahfar

    2010-01-01

    Context: Hiatal hernia is an infrequent but serious cause of dyspnea. We report a case of acute dyspnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea secondary to hiatal hernia and epicardial fat pad. Case Report: A 78-year-old woman presented with dyspnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. Lab data and physical examination were normal. Computed tomography scan demonstrated a large hiatal hernia and epicardial fat pad. Conclusion: Although rare, hiatal hernia should be suspected in patients who develop unexplained dyspnea. PMID:22737680

  12. Nebulized opioids to treat dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, S

    1999-01-01

    Breathlessness secondary to cancer and nonmalignant disease is very distressing and exhausting to patients and families. Patient quality of life and functionality can be greatly improved with effective management. The pathophysiology and treatment of dyspnea are where the science of pain management was 20 years ago. While the optimal therapy for dyspnea would be to treat the underlying cause, this is frequently not possible. Research results evaluating dosages and effectiveness of nebulized morphine are conflicting. Some researchers have reported dramatic benefit to patients in relieving the symptoms of dyspnea, increasing exercise endurance, and improving function. Other studies have reported no significant differences between nebulized morphine and saline with or without oxygen. Studies that administer single predetermined doses that are not titrated to relief in patients that do not have end-stage lung or cardiac disease may report false-negative results. Other factors such as the placebo effect of saline and oxygen, if not controlled, may cause false-positive results. The dramatic positive benefits documented warrant further investigation on the appropriate patient selection criteria and therapeutic potential. Clearly, large scale randomized trials on opioid nebulized treatments for patients with severe dyspnea need to be published to reach a clear consensus outlining efficacy and administration parameters. Until that time, we must rely on anecdotal reports for treatment options. Such reports of the effectiveness of nebulized morphine as an alternative to hospital or hospice admission are encouraging for patients and family members managing severe dyspnea in the home.

  13. Cigarette Smoking and Dyspnea Perception

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    Scano Giorgio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms in adults. The relationship of dyspnea with cigarette smoking has been examined in smokers and ex-smokers and the beneficial effects of smoking cessation have been demonstrated. Recent studies reported that in subjects who smoke cigarettes the risk of developing respiratory symptoms is higher in a dose-dependent way. Environmental tobacco smoke heavily influences the incidence of respiratory symptoms in both adults and in children. Up to the present time, the mechanisms whereby cigarette smoking causes dyspnea perception remain to be defined. Abnormalities in sensory nerves might diminish the perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers. In this regard, it has been postulated that prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke may lead to chronic depletion of sensory nerve neurotransmitters. Eosinophil airway inflammation has been proposed as a determinant of breathlessness via mechanisms affecting either the mechanical pathways that control breathlessness or the afferent nerves involved in perception of dyspnea. An increased number of eosinophils in some smokers implies the possibility that smoking may trigger immunological or other reactions associated with eosinophilia. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is by far one of the greatest risk factors for most respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea. Smoking is associated with the development of symptoms in a dose-dependent way and eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR increase the risk of developing dyspnea.

  14. Assessing exertional dyspnea in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Swigris, JJ; Streiner, DL; Brown, KK; Belkin, A; Green, KE; Wamboldt, FS; Schwarz, M; Zisman, DA; Hunninghake, G; Chapman, J; Olman, M; Lubell, S; Morrison, LD; Steele, MP; Haram, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dyspnea is a hallmark symptom of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and dyspnea induced physical activity limitation is a prominent driver of quality of life impairment among IPF patients. Methods: We examined response data for the 21 physical activity items (the first 21 of 24) from the University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (UCSD) collected at baseline in a recently conducted IPF trial. We used Rasch analysis and hypothesis testing with convention...

  15. Amygdala response to anticipation of dyspnea is modulated by 5-HTTLPR genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, M Cornelia; Esser, Roland W; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael; Büchel, Christian; von Leupoldt, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Dyspnea anticipation and perception varies largely between individuals. To investigate whether genetic factors related to negative affect such as the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impact this variability, we investigated healthy, 5-HTTLPR stratified volunteers using resistive load induced dyspnea together with fMRI. Alternating blocks of severe and mild dyspnea ("perception") were differentially cued ("anticipation") and followed by intensity and unpleasantness ratings. In addition, volunteers indicated their anticipatory fear during the anticipation periods. There were no genotype-based group differences concerning dyspnea intensity and unpleasantness or brain activation during perception of severe vs. mild dyspnea. However, in risk allele carriers, higher anticipatory fear was paralleled by stronger amygdala activation during anticipation of severe vs. mild dyspnea. These results suggest a role of the 5-HTTLPR genotype in fearful dyspnea anticipation. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

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    Woisard, Virginie; Liu, Xuelai; Bes, Marie Christine Arné; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2017-02-01

    Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. This study is a retrospective study describing patients who underwent an injection of botulinum toxin for laryngeal dyspnea in the ENT Department from 2005 to 2015 years. The inclusion criteria were a dyspnea associated with a laryngeal dysfunction, confirmed by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Information concerning the causes of the dyspnea, the botulinum toxin BT-A injections procedure, post-injection follow-up, and respiratory outcome were collected for all patients included. In the group of 13 patients included, the main cause identified as principal factor linked with the short breath was: a bilateral VF paralysis (Patel et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:686-689, 7), laryngeal dystonia (Balkissoon and Kenn, Semin Respir Crit Care Med 33:595-605, 2), Anxiety syndrome associated with unilateral vocal fold paralysis or asthma (Marcinow et al., Laryngoscope 124:1425-1430, 3), and an isolated asthma (Zwirner et al., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 254:242-245, 1). Nine out of the thirteen patients were improved by the injections. A BT-A-induced stable benefit for four patients led them to stop the injections in the follow-up. Good outcome was observed in five other patients (main cause: bilateral VP paralysis), allowing a progressive lengthening of the delay between BT-A injections. Four patients did not report a positive risk/benefit ratio after BT-A injections; two of them (with bilateral VF paralysis), because of respiratory side effects and

  17. Dyspnea assessment and adverse events during sputum induction in COPD

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    Moschandreas Joanna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation of normal or hypertonic saline during sputum induction (SI may act as an indirect bronchoconstrictive stimulus leading to dyspnea and lung function deterioration. Our aim was to assess dyspnea and adverse events in COPD patients who undergo SI following a safety protocol. Methods Sputum was induced by normal and hypertonic (4.5% saline solution in 65 patients with COPD of varying severity. In order to minimize saline-induced bronchoconstriction a protocol based on the European Respiratory Society sputum induction Task group report was followed. Dyspnea change was scored using the Borg scale and lung function was assessed by spirometry and oximetry. Results Borg score changes [median(IQR 1.5(0–2] were observed during SI in 40 subjects; 16 patients required temporary discontinuation of the procedure due to dyspnea-general discomfort and 2 did not complete the session due to dyspnea-wheezing. The change in Borg dyspnea score was significantly correlated with oxygen saturation and heart rate changes and with discontinuation of the procedure due to undesired symptoms. 19 subjects presented an hyperresponsive reaction (decline>20% from baseline FEV1. No significant correlation between Borg changes and FEV1decline was found. Patients with advanced COPD presented significantly greater Borg and oxygen saturation changes than patients with less severe disease (p = 0.02 and p = 0.001, respectively. Baseline FEV1, oxygen saturation and 6MWT demonstrated significant diagnostic values in distinguishing subjects who develop an adverse physiologic reaction during the procedure. Conclusion COPD patients undergoing SI following a safety protocol do not experience major adverse events. Dyspnea and oxygen desaturation is more likely to occur in patients with disease in advanced stages, leading to short discontinuation or less frequently to termination of the procedure. Baseline FEV1, oxygen saturation and 6MWT may have a

  18. Relationship between anxiety and dyspnea on exertion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, J.N.; Sanderman, R.; Postema, K.; van Sonderen, E.; Wempe, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Dyspnea limits exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is known to induce anxiety. Little is known whether anxiety contributes to exercise-induced dyspnea, which in turn might influence the outcome of diagnostic tests. The aim of the present study was to examine

  19. Evaluation of Dyspnea in the Elderly.

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    Mahler, Donald A

    2017-11-01

    Dyspnea is due to an imbalance between the demand to breathe and the ability to breathe. The prevalence is ∼30% for those 65 years or older with walking on a level surface or up an incline. Dyspnea is a strong predictor of mortality in elderly individuals. Anemia, cardiovascular disease, deconditioning, psychological disorders, and respiratory diseases are common causes of dyspnea. Initial treatments to relieve breathing discomfort should be directed toward improving the pathophysiology of the underlying disease. Simple and inexpensive strategies to relieve dyspnea are available. This article provides an update on the evaluation of chronic dyspnea in elderly individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A sigh of relief or a sigh of expected relief: Sigh rate in response to dyspnea relief.

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    Vlemincx, Elke; Meulders, Michel; Luminet, Olivier

    2017-08-09

    Research has suggested that sighs may serve a regulatory function during stress and emotions by facilitating relief. Evidence supports the hypotheses that sighs both express and induce relief from stress. To explore the potential role of sighs in the regulation of symptoms, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between sighs and relief of symptoms, and relief of dyspnea, specifically. Healthy volunteers participated in two studies (N = 44, N = 47) in which dyspnea was induced by mild (10 cmH2 O/l/s) or high (20 cmH2 0/l/s) inspiratory resistances. Dyspnea relief was induced by the offset of the inspiratory resistances (transitions from high and mild inspiratory resistance to no resistance). Control comparisons included dyspnea increases (transitions from no or mild inspiratory resistance to high inspiratory resistance) and dyspnea continuations (continuations of either no resistance or a high resistance). In Experiment 1, dyspnea levels were cued. In Experiment 2, no cues were provided. Sigh rate during dyspnea relief was significantly higher compared to control conditions, and sigh rate increased as self-reported dyspnea decreased. Additionally, sigh rate was higher during cued dyspnea relief compared to noncued dyspnea relief. These results suggest that sighs are important markers of dyspnea relief. Moreover, sighs may importantly express dyspnea relief, as they are related to experiential dyspnea decreases and occur more frequently during expected dyspnea relief. These findings suggest that sighs may not only be important in the regulation of stress and emotions, but also may be functional in the regulation of dyspnea. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. [Dyspnea in the terminal stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsack, T

    2001-10-01

    From all symptoms in palliative medicine those concerning respiration are most excruciating and most difficult to treat. No other symptom is more dependent on psychosocial circumstances and on the atmosphere around the patient. Therefore the relief of respiratory problems is as important as the therapy of pain. A consequent therapy comprises besides drug therapy (adrenocortical steroids, brochodilators, opioids, sedatives and sometimes antibiotics) also physiotherapy and in special cases oncological treatment and radiotherapy. A team present twenty-four hours a day, the training of relatives and friends, the frank dealing with the patient's anxiety of suffocation are the basis of all therapeutic measures. Dyspnea often is the reason for a longer stay in a palliative care unit.

  2. Measures of dyspnea in pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisafulli Ernesto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dyspnea is the main symptom perceived by patients affected by chronic respiratory diseases. It derives from a complex interaction of signals arising in the central nervous system, which is connected through afferent pathway receptors to the peripheral respiratory system (airways, lung, and thorax. Notwithstanding the mechanism that generates the stimulus is always the same, the sensation of dyspnea is often described with different verbal descriptors: these descriptors, or linguistic 'clusters', are clearly influenced by socio-individual factors related to the patient. These factors can play an important role in identifying the etiopathogenesis of the underlying cardiopulmonary disease causing dyspnea. The main goal of rehabilitation is to improve dyspnea; hence, quantifying dyspnea through specific tools (scales is essential in order to describe the level of chronic disability and to assess eventual changes after intervention. Improvements, even if modest, are likely to determine clinically relevant changes (minimal clinically important difference, MCID in patients. Currently there exist a large number of scales to classify and characterize dyspnea: the most frequently used in everyday clinical practice are the clinical scales (e.g. MRC or BDI/TDI, in which information is obtained directly from the patients through interview and psychophysical scales (such as the Borg scale or VAS, which assess symptom intensity in response to a specific stimulus, e.g. exercise. It is also possible to assess the individual's dyspnea in relation to specific situations, e.g. chronic dyspnea (with scales that classify patients according to different levels of respiratory disability; exertional dyspnea (with tools that can measure the level of dyspnea in response to a physical stimulus; and transitional (or 'follow up' dyspnea (with scales that measure the effect in time of a treatment intervention, such as rehabilitation.

  3. Role of biomarkers in patients with dyspnea.

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    Gori, C S; Magrini, L; Travaglino, F; Di Somma, S

    2011-02-01

    The use of biomarkers has been demonstrated useful in many acute diseases both for diagnosis, prognosis and risk stratification. The purpose of this review is to analyze several biomarkers of potential use in patients referring to Emergency Department with acute dyspnea. The role of natriuretic peptides has a proven utility in the diagnosis, risk stratification, patient management and prediction of outcome in acute and chronic heart failure (HF). New immunoassays are available for the detection of mid-region prohormones in patients with acute dyspnea such as Mid-region pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and Mid-region pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP). Also procalcitonin, copeptin and D-dimer, which are markers of inflammation, bacterial infections and sepsis, seem to be useful in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea. Conventional and high-sensitivity troponins are fundamental, not only in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes, but also as indicators of mortality in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Further studies with randomized controlled clinical trials will be needed to prove the theoretical clinical advantages offered by a shortness of breath biomarkers in terms of diagnostic, prognostic, cost effective work-up and management of patients with acute dyspnea. A multimarker pannel approach performed by rapid and accurate assays could be useful for emergency physicians to promptly identify different causes of dyspnea thus managing to improve diagnosis, treatment and risk stratification.

  4. Dyspnea in Pregnancy: An Unusual Cause

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences · January - June 2014 · Vol 3 · Issue 1. 68 ... Eventration of diaphragm is usually asymptomatic, but can present with symptoms ranging from mild dyspnea to a life‑threatening emergency. ... The labor was augmented with oxytocin and second stage was cut short by ...

  5. Giant Hiatal Hernia Which Causes Dyspnea

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    Muhammet Sayan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hiatal hernia refers to circumstance in which content of abdomen, especially stomach, herniate to through the esophageal hiatus into the mediastinum. Variable symptoms occur such as epigastric pain, dyspnea, dyspepsia. The indications for surgery, symptomatic patients which refractory to medical therapy, obstruction and bleeding.

  6. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis | Onawunmi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (1977) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis. OA Onawunmi. Abstract. No abstract.

  7. Medical image of the week: refractory dyspnea

    OpenAIRE

    Malo J; Reyes N; Rischard F

    2012-01-01

    A 61 year old man with an extensive smoking history and emphysema was referred for evaluation of dyspnea refractory to standard therapy. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism 5 months prior to presentation and has been on warfarin since that time. Review of the patient’s CT scan performed prior to the visit demonstrated dilated main; right; and left pulmonary arteries (Figure 1). Also visualized was an eccentrically located thrombus with areas of calcification and central recanalization...

  8. Proposing a standardized method for evaluating patient report of the intensity of dyspnea during exercise testing in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareendran, Asha; Leidy, Nancy K; Monz, Brigitta U; Winnette, Randall; Becker, Karin; Mahler, Donald A

    2012-01-01

    Measuring dyspnea intensity associated with exercise provides insights into dyspnea-limited exercise capacity, and has been used to evaluate treatment outcomes for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Three patient-reported outcome scales commonly cited for rating dyspnea during exercise are the modified Borg scale (MBS), numerical rating scale for dyspnea (NRS-D), and visual analogue scale for dyspnea (VAS-D). Various versions of each scale were found. Our objective was to evaluate the content validity of scales commonly used in COPD studies, to explore their ability to capture patients' experiences of dyspnea during exercise, and to evaluate a standardized version of the MBS. A two-stage procedure was used, with each stage involving one-on-one interviews with COPD patients who had recently completed a clinic-based exercise event on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. An open-ended elicitation interview technique was used to understand patients' experiences of exercise-induced dyspnea, followed by patients completing the three scales. The cognitive interviewing component of the study involved specific questions to evaluate the patients' perspectives of the content and format of the scales. Results from Stage 1 were used to develop a standardized version of the MBS, which was then subjected to further content validity assessment during Stage 2. Thirteen patients participated in the two-stage process (n = 6; n = 7). Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) percent predicted was 40%, mean age 57 years, and 54% were male. Participants used a variety of terms to describe the intensity and variability of exercise-induced dyspnea. Subjects understood the instructions and format of the standardized MBS, and were able to easily select a response to report the level of dyspnea associated with their recent standardized exercise. This study provides initial evidence in support of using a standardized version of the MBS version for quantifying dyspnea intensity

  9. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Medical image of the week: refractory dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malo J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 61 year old man with an extensive smoking history and emphysema was referred for evaluation of dyspnea refractory to standard therapy. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism 5 months prior to presentation and has been on warfarin since that time. Review of the patient’s CT scan performed prior to the visit demonstrated dilated main; right; and left pulmonary arteries (Figure 1. Also visualized was an eccentrically located thrombus with areas of calcification and central recanalization. Echocardiography confirmed the presence of elevated pulmonary pressures consistent with a diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH. Medical therapy and a referral for pulmonary artery endarterectomy are being considered.

  11. [A rare cause of dyspnea on exertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Uberto; Rosini, Costanza F; Scala, Raffaele; Magnolfi, Anna Lisa; Felici, Massimo; Bolognese, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Vascular rings are rare anomalies accounting for 1% to 3% of all congenital heart diseases with a similar frequency in both sexes, which can result in a variable degree of extrinsic compression of the trachea and esophagus. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with symptomatic dyspnea and double aortic arch that caused esophageal tracheal compression. Considering the little impact of the functional vascular anomaly in our case, a conservative approach was adopted with clinical and functional annual follow-up.

  12. Intrathoracic Caecal Perforation Presenting as Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Granier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bochdalek hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that is usually diagnosed in the neonatal period and incidentally in asymptomatic adults. Small bowel incarceration in a right-sided Bochdalek hernia is exceptional for an adult. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman was admitted for acute dyspnea, tachycardia, hypotension, and fever. Five days before, she had been experiencing an episode of diffuse abdominal pain. The admission chest X-ray was interpreted as right pleural effusion and pneumothorax with left mediastinal shift. Chest tube drainage was purulent. The thoracoabdominal CT examination suspected an intestinal incarceration through a right diaphragmatic defect. At laparotomy, a right-sided Bochdalek hernia was confirmed with a complete necrosis of the incarcerated caecum. Ileocaecal resection was performed, but the patient died from delayed septic complications. Conclusion. Intrathoracic perforation of the caecum is a rare occurrence; delayed diagnosis due to misleading initial symptoms may lead to severe complications and poor prognosis.

  13. Cross-sectional assessment of exertional dyspnea in otherwise healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahut, Bruno; Fuchs-Climent, Deborah; Plantier, Laurent; Karila, Chantal; Refabert, Luc; Chevalier-Bidaud, Brigitte; Beydon, Nicole; Peiffer, Claudine; Delclaux, Christophe

    2014-08-01

    Exertional dyspnea during sport at school in children with asthma or in otherwise healthy children is commonly attributed to exercise-induced asthma (EIA), but when a short-acting beta agonist (SABA) trial fails to improve symptoms the physician is often at a loose end. The aims were to prospectively assess the causes of exertional dyspnea in children/adolescents with or without asthma using a cardiopulmonary exercise test while receiving a SABA and to assess the effects of standardized breathing/reassurance therapy. Seventy-nine patients (12.2 ± 2.3 years, 41 girls, 49 with previously diagnosed asthma) with dyspnea unresponsive to SABA were prospectively included. Exercise test outcomes depicted normal or subnormal performance with normal ventilatory demand and capacity in 53/79 children (67%) defining a physiological response. The remaining 26 children had altered capacity (resistant EIA [n = 17, 9 with previous asthma diagnosis], vocal cord dysfunction [n = 2]) and/or increased demand (alveolar hyperventilation [n = 3], poor conditioning [n = 7]). Forty-two children who had similar characteristics than the remaining 37 children underwent the two sessions of standardized reassurance therapy. They all demonstrated an improvement that was rated "large." The degree of improvement correlated with % predicted peak V'O2 (r = -0.37, P = 0.015) and peak oxygen pulse (r = -0.45, P = 0.003), whatever the underlying dyspnea cause. It suggested a higher benefit in those with poorer conditioning condition. The most frequent finding in children/adolescents with mild exertional dyspnea unresponsive to preventive SABA is a physiological response to exercise, and standardized reassurance afforded early clinical improvement, irrespective of the dyspnea cause. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Experimental hypocalcemia induced by hemodialysis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, N; Oishi, A; Sato, J; Sato, R; Naito, Y

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate whether hemodialysis with a dialysate containing no calcium (Ca-free HD) can induce hypocalcemia and restore the clinical signs and blood biochemical changes in naturally occurred hypocalcemic disorder in ruminants, the clinical signs and the changes in plasma electrolytes and minerals concentrations were observed in goats during 6-hr hemodialysis. The four goats received hemodialysis with the dialysate containing calcium (Ca HD), and 10 days later they had Ca-free HD. The plasma ionized Ca (Ca++) and total Ca (TCa) concentrations were not affected by Ca HD, whereas the levels significantly decreased during whole period of Ca-free HD. The Ca++ and TCa concentrations were 0.69+/-0.06 mmol/l and 5.9+/-0.3 mg/dl at 6 hr of Ca-free HD, respectively. The clinical signs observed during Ca-free HD seemed to resemble to those in naturally occurred hypocalcemic cases that were reported previously. Therefore, Ca-free HD was suggested to be one of the possible methods to induce experimental hypocalcemia in ruminants.

  15. Intravenous Fentanyl for Dyspnea at the End of Life: Lessons for Future Research in Dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, G S; Qu, L M; Tan, Y Y; Yee, A C P

    2016-04-01

    To determine the efficacy of intravenous (IV) Fentanyl in dyspnoeic patients with advanced cancer. Dyspnoeic patients with advanced cancer satisfying the selection criteria received (IV) Fentanyl and were evaluated for response 24 hours post-administration in a prospective observational study. Altogether 36 patients were enrolled into the study. However, data from only 16 patients could be analysed as 20 patients had died or were too sick to self-report scores. Seven out of 16 patients responded to IV Fentanyl although the result was not statistically significant (non-responders versus responders: 56.3% vs 43.8%, p = 0.33). The strongest correlations for variables predictive of responder status were the absence of anxiety and lung metastases. This exploratory study shows that IV Fentanyl can alleviate dyspnea in some patients but is an example of the difficulties conducting dyspnea research. Future studies would benefit from novel developments in the areas of measuring dyspnea in dying patients and statistical analysis of small sample sizes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The Interpretation of Dyspnea in the Patient with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc H. Lavietes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians have noted dyspnea in severely ill asthmatic patients to be associated with fright or panic; in more stable patients dyspnea may reflect characteristics including lung function, personality and behavioral traits. This study evaluates the symptom of dyspnea in 32 asthmatic patients twice: first when acutely ill and again after an initial response to therapy. Spirometry was performed, dyspnea quantified (Borg scale, and panic assessed with a specialized measure of acute panic (the acute panic inventory (API in the 32 patients before and again after treatment. After treatment, questionnaires to evaluate somatization and panic disorder were also administered. When acutely ill, both the API and all spirometric measures (PEFR; FEV1; IC correlated with dyspnea. Multiple linear regression showed that measures of the API, the peak expiratory flow rate, and female sex taken together accounted for 41% of dyspnea in acute asthma. After treatment, the API again predicted dyspnea while spirometric data did not. Those subjects who described themselves as having chronic panic disorder reported high grades of dyspnea after treatment also. We conclude that interpretations of the self-report of asthma differ between acutely ill and stable asthmatic patients.

  17. How does negative affectivity contribute to medically unexplained dyspnea?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karel P. Van de Woestijne

    2004-01-01

    @@ Typical for medically unexplained dyspnea is the combination of respiratory complaints, specifically dyspnea, the absence of any disability that might explain these complaints, and, in addition, a high level of anxiety. When the latter is quantified by the STAI-state and trait anxiety inventory,1 the resulting scores are significantly higher than those observed in organic pulmonary disorders.

  18. Proposing a standardized method for evaluating patient report of the intensity of dyspnea during exercise testing in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hareendran A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Asha Hareendran,1 Nancy K Leidy,2 Brigitta U Monz,3 Randall Winnette,1 Karin Becker,3 Donald A Mahler41United BioSource Corporation, London, UK; 2United BioSource Corporation, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany; 4Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH, USABackground: Measuring dyspnea intensity associated with exercise provides insights into dyspnea-limited exercise capacity, and has been used to evaluate treatment outcomes for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Three patient-reported outcome scales commonly cited for rating dyspnea during exercise are the modified Borg scale (MBS, numerical rating scale for dyspnea (NRS-D, and visual analogue scale for dyspnea (VAS-D. Various versions of each scale were found. Our objective was to evaluate the content validity of scales commonly used in COPD studies, to explore their ability to capture patients' experiences of dyspnea during exercise, and to evaluate a standardized version of the MBS.Methods: A two-stage procedure was used, with each stage involving one-on-one interviews with COPD patients who had recently completed a clinic-based exercise event on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. An open-ended elicitation interview technique was used to understand patients' experiences of exercise-induced dyspnea, followed by patients completing the three scales. The cognitive interviewing component of the study involved specific questions to evaluate the patients' perspectives of the content and format of the scales. Results from Stage 1 were used to develop a standardized version of the MBS, which was then subjected to further content validity assessment during Stage 2.Results: Thirteen patients participated in the two-stage process (n = 6; n = 7. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 percent predicted was 40%, mean age 57 years, and 54% were male. Participants used a variety of terms to describe the intensity and variability of exercise-induced dyspnea. Subjects

  19. Experimental model to induce obesity in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinicius Von Diemen; Eduardo Neubarth Trindade; Manoel Roberto Maciel Trindade

    2006-01-01

    .... Obesity can be induced in animals by neuroendocrine, dietary or genetic changes. The most widely used models to induce obesity in rats are a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH...

  20. Dalhousie dyspnea scales: construct and content validity of pictorial scales for measuring dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianosi Paul T

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because there are no child-friendly, validated, self-report measures of dyspnea or breathlessness, we developed, and provided initial validation, of three, 7-item, pictorial scales depicting three sub-constructs of dyspnea: throat closing, chest tightness, and effort. Methods We developed the three scales (Throat closing, Chest tightness, and Effort using focus groups with 25 children. Subsequently, seventy-nine children (29 children with asthma, 30 children with cystic fibrosis. and 20 children who were healthy aged 6 to 18 years rated each picture in each series, using a 0–10 scale. In addition, each child placed each picture in each series on a 100-cm long Visual Analogue Scale, with the anchors "not at all" and "a lot". Results Children aged eight years or older rated the scales in the correct order 75% to 98% correctly, but children less than 8 years of age performed unreliably. The mean distance between each consecutive item in each pictorial scale was equal. Conclusion Preliminary results revealed that children aged 8 to 18 years understood and used these three scales measuring throat closing, chest tightness, and effort appropriately. The scales appear to accurately measure the construct of breathlessness, at least at an interval level. Additional research applying these scales to clinical situations is warranted.

  1. Unexplained dyspnea in a patient of chronic arsenicosis: A diagnostic challenge and learning curve for physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabha Sengupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic exposure causes cutaneous effects like hyperkeratosis, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, non-cirrhotic portal hypertension, hepatomegaly, peripheral neuropathy, respiratory involvement, bad obstetrical outcome, hematological disturbances, and diabetes mellitus. Here we present a case of a 24-year-old lady, with chronic exposure to arsenic, presenting to us with progressive dyspnea. We found pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH as a cause of her dyspnea. PAH can occur in arsenicosis, secondary to arsenic-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, lung fibrosis, and portal hypertension, which we excluded by appropriate investigations in our case. We also excluded a familial or heritable form of PAH. Thus, with the exclusion of all these secondary causes of PAH, as well as a hereditary cause, we came to a conclusion that this PAH might be due to chronic arsenic exposure. To the best of our knowledge, no case of PAH in chronic arsenicosis has been reported to date.

  2. Experimentally induced secondary cryptorchidism: Effects on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptorchidism may interfere with spermatogenesis but not the functions of the Leydig cells. This study investigated the effects of induced Secondary cryptorchidism growth performance of Djallonké lambs. A total of eighteen Djallonké lambs were assigned randomly to one of six treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of ...

  3. Dyspnea Management in Palliative Home Care: A Case Series in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rojanasak Thongkhamcharoen; Katrina Breaden; Meera Agar; Ednin Hamzah

    2012-01-01

    Managing dyspnea at home is a challenging task. Although a competent palliative home care team can assist a patient to live at home with better pain control, dyspnea is usually not as well managed. In the Asian context, there are few research studies in dyspnea management in palliative home care. This paper aims to illustrate the cultural context that has an impact on dyspnea management at home and the assessment and management of dyspnea in a community palliative care setting in Malaysia. Th...

  4. Status of experimental data for neutron induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    A short review is presented on the status of experimental data for neutron induced reactions above 20 MeV based on the EXFOR data base and journals. Experimental data which were obtained in a systematic manner and/or by plural authors are surveyed and tabulated for the nuclear data evaluation and the benchmark test of the evaluated data. (author). 61 refs.

  5. Experimental induced avian E. coli salpingitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Several types of Escherichia coli have been associated with extra-intestinal infections in poultry, however, they may vary significantly in their virulence potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the virulence of five strains of E. coli obtained from different disease......) had a distinct ability to cause disease. Results of the study shows major differences in virulence of different strains of E. coli in ascending infections; however, there was no indication of tissue-specific adaptation, since strains obtained from lesions unrelated to the reproductive system were...... fully capable of causing experimental infection. In conclusion, the study provides evidence for the clinical outcome of infection with E. coli in poultry is largely influenced by the specific strain as well as individual host factors....

  6. Experimental synchronization of circuit oscillations induced by common telegraph noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ken; Nakao, Hiroya

    2009-03-01

    Experimental realization and quantitative investigation of common-noise-induced synchronization of limit-cycle oscillations subject to random telegraph signals are performed using an electronic oscillator circuit. Based on our previous formulation [K. Nagai, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036217 (2005)], dynamics of the circuit is described as random-phase mappings between two limit cycles. Lyapunov exponents characterizing the degree of synchronization are estimated from experimentally determined phase maps and compared with linear damping rates of phase differences measured directly. Noisy on-off intermittency of the phase difference as predicted by the theory is also confirmed experimentally.

  7. Is there a clinically meaningful difference in patient reported dyspnea in acute heart failure? An analysis from URGENT Dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Peter S; Lane, Kathleen A; Tavares, Miguel; Storrow, Alan B; Shen, Changyu; Peacock, W Frank; Nowak, Richard; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Laribi, Said; Hollander, Judd E; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Collins, Sean P

    Dyspnea is the most common presenting symptom in patients with acute heart failure (AHF), but is difficult to quantify as a research measure. The URGENT Dyspnea study compared 3 scales: (1) 10 cm VAS, (2) 5-point Likert, and (3) a 7-point Likert (both VAS and 5-point Likert were recorded in the upright and supine positions). However, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) to patients has not been well established. We performed a secondary analysis from URGENT Dyspnea, an observational, multi-center study of AHF patients enrolled within 1 h of first physician assessment in the ED. Using the anchor-based method to determine the MCID, a one-category change in the 7-point Likert was used as the criterion standard ('minimally improved or worse'). The main outcome measures were the change in visual analog scale (VAS) and 5-point Likert scale from baseline to 6-h assessment relative to a 1-category change response in the 7-point Likert scale ('minimally worse', 'no change', or 'minimally better'). Of the 776 patients enrolled, 491 had a final diagnosis of AHF with responses at both time points. A 10.5 mm (SD 1.6 mm) change in VAS was the MCID for improvement in the upright position, and 14.5 mm (SD 2.0 mm) in the supine position. However, there was no MCID for worsening, as few patients reported worse dyspnea. There was also no significant MCID for the 5-point Likert scale. A 10.5 mm change is the MCID for improvement in dyspnea over 6 h in ED patients with AHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasound v. sham ultrasound for experimentally induced delayed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a double-blind controlled trial, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was experimentally induced in both bicep muscles of 15 females. Sham US was applied to one bicep (n=15 biceps) and pulsed active US to the other bicep (n=15 biceps) of each participant, 48 and 72 h after induction of DOMS. Primary and ...

  9. Experimental observation of direct current voltage-induced phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    September 2006 physics pp. 441–447. Experimental observation of direct current voltage-induced phase synchronization. HAIHONG LI1, WEIQING LIU1,2, QIONGLING DAI1 and JINGHUA XIAO1. 1School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876,. China. 2School of Science, Jiangxi ...

  10. Experimentally Induced Learned Helplessness: How Far Does it Generalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffin, Keith; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed whether experimentally induced learned helplessness on a cognitive training task generalized to a situationally dissimilar social interaction test task. No significant differences were observed between groups on the subsequent test task, showing that helplessness failed to generalize. (Author/ABB)

  11. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the assessment of exertional dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriya Datta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea on exertion is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. It is usually investigated by resting tests such as pulmonary function tests and echocardiogram, which may at times can be non-diagnostic. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET measures physiologic parameters during exercise which can enable accurate identification of the cause of dyspnea. Though CPET has been around for decades and provides valuable and pertinent physiologic information on the integrated cardiopulmonary responses to exercise, it remains underutilized. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensible overview of the underlying principles of exercise physiology, indications and contraindications of CPET, methodology and interpretative strategies involved and thereby increase the understanding of the insights that can be gained from the use of CPET.

  12. Parapharyngeal space lipomatosis with secondary dyspnea, disphagia and disphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Ortega, Dorian Yarih; Gomez-Pedraza, Antonio; Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Parapharyngeal space tumors are a small percentage of all head and neck neoplasms. Due to their anatomic location, they represent a therapeutic challenge. To our knowledge, 11 cases of parapharyngeal lipomatous tumors have been reported in the literature. Case: A 48 year old male with chief complaints of dyspnea, dysphagia and dysphonia was found to have a parapharyngeal space tumor. He was scheduled to undergo lumpectomy and neck exploration. Discussion: Benign tumors rep...

  13. A new functional status outcome measure of dyspnea and anxiety for adults with lung disease: the dyspnea management questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore Norweg, Anna; Whiteson, Jonathan; Demetis, Spiro; Rey, Mariano

    2006-01-01

    To develop and psychometrically test the Dyspnea Management Questionnaire (DMQ), a new multidimensional measure of dyspnea in adults with chronic obstructive lung disease. Eighty-five participants were recruited with diagnoses of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, n = 73) and asthma (n = 12). The total sample was predominately female (65%) and married (34%), with 64.9% white and a mean age of 75 years (SD = 9.6, n = 76), diagnosed with pulmonary disease 4.8 years ago (SD = 4.4), 32% requiring the use of supplemental oxygen. Participants were also African American (29.9%), Asian (2.6%), and Hispanic (2.6%); n = 77. An initial item pool of 74 items was drawn for the DMQ aided by qualitative interview data, literature review, and pilot testing with 3 adults with COPD. Several analyses were used to reduce the item pool. An interdisciplinary panel of 12 experts evaluated the content validity of the DMQ items. To evaluate test-retest reliability, respondents with stable COPD (n = 26) completed the questionnaire twice within a mean interval of 18 days (SD = 7.17). The DMQ was compared with the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form (SF-12) Health Survey, the Seattle Obstructive Lung Disease Questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The resulting DMQ is a 30-item scale that measures 5 conceptually derived dimensions: dyspnea intensity, dyspnea-related anxiety, fearful activity avoidance, self-efficacy for activity, and satisfaction with strategy use. It has a 7-point Likert-type scale and third Flesch-Kincaid reading grade level. A panel of 12 experts supported the content validity of the DMQ. It showed high internal consistency (alpha = .87 to .96) and test-retest reliability over 2.5 weeks (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.71 to 0.95). Dyspnea intensity, dyspnea-related anxiety, and fearful activity avoidance subscales of DMQ-30 and composite score were moderately to highly correlated with 3 Seattle Obstructive Lung Disease

  14. Gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Taha, Mona M; Younis, Nahla N; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Hamouda, Hamdi A; Eldosouky, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hala

    2010-10-01

    Gastritis, an inflammation of gastric mucosa, may be due to many pathological factors and infection, such as with Helicobacter pylori. The use of experimental models of gastritis is important to evaluate the biochemical changes and study chemotherapeutic intervention. In a previous study we demonstrated an acute gastritis model induced by iodoacetamide. Our objective in this study was to evaluate a new gastritis model induced by H. pylori infection in experimental rats in terms of certain biomarkers in serum and mucosal tissues in addition to histopathological examination. Gastritis was induced in 20 albino Wistar rats by H. pylori isolated from antral biopsy taken from a 49-year-old male patient endoscopically diagnosed as having H. pylori infection. Another ten rats were used as controls. Serum gastrin, pepsinogen I activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and gastric mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were measured. Immunostaining for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine and DNA fragmentation were used to further evaluate H. pylori-induced gastritis. Serum gastrin, IL-6, mucosal MPO activity, and PGE(2) demonstrated significant increases joined with a decreased serum pepsinogen I activity (P gastritis models demonstrated massive oxidative stress and pronounced injury in mucosal tissue. Since our model in rats reflected the clinical picture of H. pylori infection, it can be considered as a consistent model to study chemotherapeutic intervention for this type of gastritis.

  15. Vaccination with IL-6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL-6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Jensen, Lene; Andersson, Christina

    2007-01-01

    ; yet they appear healthy and do not exhibit overt clinical or laboratory abnormalities. We induced comparable levels of aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb-IL-6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental...... allergic encephalitis. Furthermore, aAb-IL-6 carrying mice displayed increased plasma TNFalpha concentrations upon challenge with LPS. Taken together, induction of IL-6 autoantibodies was possible in different mouse strains. The autoantibodies influenced experimental inflammation. This immunotherapeutic...

  16. Modified Medical Research Council scale vs Baseline Dyspnea Index to evaluate dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thierry Perez,1 Pierre Régis Burgel,2 Jean-Louis Paillasseur,3 Denis Caillaud,4 Gaetan Deslée,5 Pascal Chanez,6 Nicolas Roche2 For the INITIATIVES BPCO Scientific Committee 1Clinique des Maladies Respiratoires, CHRU de Lille, Université Lille Nord de France, Lille, 2Service de Pneumologie, Groupe Hospitalier Cochin Broca Hotel Dieu, AP HP et Université René Descartes, 3EFFI-STAT, Paris, 4Service de Pneumologie, Hôpital Gabriel Montpied, CHU de Clermont Ferrand, Clermont Ferrand, 5Service de Pneumologie, Hôpital Maison Blanche, CHU de Reims, Reims, 6Département des Maladies respiratoires, AP-HM, Université de Méditerranée, Marseille, France Background: Assessment of dyspnea in COPD patients relies in clinical practice on the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC scale, whereas the Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI is mainly used in clinical trials. Little is known on the correspondence between the two methods.Methods: Cross-sectional analysis was carried out on data from the French COPD cohort Initiatives BPCO. Dyspnea was assessed by the mMRC scale and the BDI. Spirometry, plethysmography, Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, exacerbation rates, and physician-diagnosed comorbidities were obtained. Correlations between mMRC and BDI scores were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. An ordinal response model was used to examine the contribution of clinical data and lung function parameters to mMRC and BDI scores.Results: Data are given as median (interquartile ranges, [IQR]. Two-hundred thirty-nine COPD subjects were analyzed (men 78%, age 65.0 years [57.0; 73.0], forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] 48% predicted [34; 67]. The mMRC grade and BDI score were, respectively, 1 [1–3] and 6 [4–8]. Both BDI and mMRC scores were significantly correlated at the group level (rho =-0.67; P<0.0001, but analysis of individual data revealed a large scatter of BDI scores for any given m

  17. Effects of Caffeine and Lycopene in Experimentally Induced Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Ozlem; Topsakal, Senay; Haligur, Mehmet; Aydogan, Ahmet; Dincoglu, Dilnur

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global epidemic with increasing prevalence. The disease is chronic in nature, and patients must use antidiabetic drugs or insulin during their lifespan. Because of the difficulty of using injectable insulin preparations, patients and practitioners prefer to use oral antidiabetic drugs for prophylaxis and treatment. There are, however, numerous adverse effects of antidiabetic drugs and rapidly increasing attention is being paid to new nutraceutical drugs with fewer adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine and lycopene on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM in rats. Caffeine and lycopene were administered to the study groups by oral gavages for 1 month whereafter experimental diabetes was induced in 90 rats in 6 groups. There were no pathological effects of lycopene and caffeine on the pancreas. Marked vacuolization and degeneration were observed in STZ-treated groups. Caffeine and lycopene decreased the pathological findings and lowered the blood and urine glucose levels in the rats with STZ-induced DM, whereas these compounds increased serum insulin levels. This study showed that caffeine and lycopene provided protective effects against experimentally induced DM. The protective effects of lycopene were observed to be much greater than those of caffeine.

  18. Microcirculation alterations in experimentally induced gingivitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Masato; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Shun-Suke; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Maeda, Shingo; Iimura, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to morphologically examine the gingival microvascular network using a microvascular resin cast (MRC) technique, and to investigate how inflammatory disease functionally affects gingival microcirculation using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). We used four beagle dogs with healthy periodontal tissue as experimental animals. To cause periodontal inflammation, dental floss was placed around the cervical neck portions of the right premolars. The unmanipulated left premolars served as controls, and received plaque control every 7 days. After 90 days, gingivitis was induced in the experimental side, while the control side maintained healthy gingiva. To perform morphological examinations, we used an MRC method involving the injection of low-viscosity synthetic resin into the blood vessels, leading to peripheral soft-tissue dissolution and permitting observation of the bone, teeth, and vascular cast. Gingival blood flow was estimated using an LDF meter. The control gingival vasculature showed hairpin-loop-like networks along the tooth surface. The blood vessels had diameters of 20-40 μm and were regularly arranged around the cervical portion. On the other hand, the vasculature in the experimental group was twisted and gathered into spiral forms, with blood vessels that had uneven surfaces and smaller diameters of 8-10 μm. LDF revealed reduced gingival blood flow in the group with experimentally induced gingivitis compared to controls. The actual measurements of gingival blood flow by LDF were in agreement with the alterations that would be expected based on the gingivitis-induced morphological alterations observed with the MRC technique.

  19. Creatine kinase activity in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Zapryanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute inflammation on total creatine kinase (CK activity in dogs. In these animals, CK is an enzyme found predominantly in skeletal muscle and significantly elevated serum activity is largely associated with muscle damage. Plasma increases in dogs are associated with cell membrane leakage and will therefore be seen in any condition associated with muscular inflammation. The study was induced in 15 mongrel male dogs (n=9 in experimental group and n=6 in control group at the age of two years and body weight 12-15 kg. The inflammation was reproduced by inoculation of 2 ml turpentine oil subcutaneously in lumbar region. The plasma activity of creatine kinase was evaluated at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 hours after inoculation and on days 7, 14 and 21 by a kit from Hospitex Diagnostics. In the experimental group, the plasma concentrations of the CK-activity were increased at the 48th hour (97.48±6.92 U/L and remained significantly higher (p<0.05 at the 72 hour (97.43±2.93 U/L compared to the control group (77.08±5.27 U/L. The results of this study suggest that the evaluation of creatine kinase in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation has a limited diagnostic value. It was observed that the creatine kinase activity is slightly affected by the experimentally induced acute inflammation in dogs.

  20. Dysphagia and dyspnea by lingual thyroid mass: An appropriate approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ghiasi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lingual thyroid is a rare embryological anomaly originated from the thyroid gland failure that descends from the foramen cecum to its normal eutopic pre-laryngeal site. The case in this study was a 39 year old female, presenting with the sensation of a foreign body, progressive dysphagia and dyspnea. Indirect laryngoscopy revealed a large well-defined mass in the tongue base. Imaging studies confirmed the diagnosis of large ectopic lingual thyroid. The surgery was performed via an external cervical approach due to the mass size. The decision on the best treatment looks into the mass position, size, symptoms, airway emergency and medical facilities.

  1. [A case of laryngeal papilloma with sudden dyspnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabiszczak, Maciej; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Borucki, Lukasz; Iwanik, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    Laryngeal papilloma is one of the most common non-malignant tumors of the larynx. In adult they are included to pre-cancerous diseases. In morphological examination, it is a solid tumor. Often it is possible to cure them during one surgical procedure. The disease is mostly localized on the anterior commissurae region, vocal fold, ventricules, and on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. If the malignant transformation is suspected, a large excision with margin has to be performed, completed by a histological evaluation. A case of a huge laryngeal papilloma with dyspnea is presented.

  2. The effect of experimentally-induced subacromial pain on proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, Gisela; Osborne, Hamish; Wassinger, Craig

    2015-02-01

    Shoulder injuries may be associated with proprioceptive deficits, however, it is unknown whether these changes are due to the experience of pain, tissue damage, or a combination of these. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of experimentally-induced sub-acromial pain on proprioceptive variables. Sub-acromial pain was induced via hypertonic saline injection in 20 healthy participants. Passive joint replication (PJR) and threshold to detection of movement direction (TTDMD) were assessed with a Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer for baseline control, experimental pain and recovery control conditions with a starting position of 60° shoulder abduction. The target angle for PJR was 60° external rotation, starting from 40°. TTDMD was tested from a position of 20° external rotation. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine differences between PJR absolute and variable errors and TTDMD for the control and experimental conditions. Pain was elicited with a median 7 on the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. TTDMD was significantly decreased for the experimental pain condition compared to baseline and recovery conditions (≈30%, P = 0.003). No significant differences were found for absolute (P = 0.152) and variable (P = 0.514) error for PJR. Movement sense was enhanced for the experimental sub-acromial pain condition, which may reflect protective effects of the central nervous system in response to the pain. Where decreased passive proprioception is observed in shoulders with injuries, these may be due to a combination of peripheral tissue injury and neural adaptations that differ from those due to acute pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Machine Induced Experimental Background Conditions in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Levinsen, Yngve Inntjore; Stapnes, Steinar

    2012-09-19

    The Large Hadron Collider set a new energy record for particle accelerators in late 2009, breaking the previous record held by Tevatron of 2 TeV collision energy. The LHC today operates at a collision energy of 7 TeV. With higher beam energy and intensity, measures have to be taken to ensure optimal experimental conditions and safety of the machine and detectors. Machine induced experimental background can severely reduce the quality of experimental triggers and track reconstruction. In a worst case, the radiation levels can be damaging for some of the subdetectors. The LHC is a particular challenge in this regard due to the vastly different operating conditions of the different experiments. The nominal luminosity varies by four orders of magnitude. The unprecedented stored beam energy and the amount of superconducting elements can make it challenging to protect the accelerator itself as well. In this work we have simulated and measured the machine induced background originating from various sources: the beam...

  4. Experimental Sleep Restriction Facilitates Pain and Electrically Induced Cortical Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matre, Dagfinn; Hu, Li; Viken, Leif A.; Hjelle, Ingri B.; Wigemyr, Monica; Knardahl, Stein; Sand, Trond; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep restriction (SR) has been hypothesized to sensitize the pain system. The current study determined whether experimental sleep restriction had an effect on experimentally induced pain and pain-elicited electroencephalographic (EEG) responses. Design: A paired crossover study. Intervention: Pain testing was performed after 2 nights of 50% SR and after 2 nights with habitual sleep (HS). Setting: Laboratory experiment at research center. Participants: Self-reported healthy volunteers (n = 21, age range: 18–31 y). Measurements and Results: Brief high-density electrical stimuli to the forearm skin produced pinprick-like pain. Subjective pain ratings increased after SR, but only in response to the highest stimulus intensity (P = 0.018). SR increased the magnitude of the pain-elicited EEG response analyzed in the time-frequency domain (P = 0.021). Habituation across blocks did not differ between HS and SR. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) was reduced after SR (P = 0.039). Pressure pain threshold of the trapezius muscle region also decreased after SR (P = 0.017). Conclusion: Sleep restriction (SR) increased the sensitivity to pressure pain and to electrically induced pain of moderate, but not low, intensity. The increased electrical pain could not be explained by a difference in habituation. Increased response magnitude is possibly related to reduced processing within the somatosensory cortex after partial SR. Citation: Matre D, Hu L, Viken LA, Hjelle IB, Wigemyr M, Knardahl S, Sand T, Nilsen KB. Experimental sleep restriction facilitates pain and electrically induced cortical responses. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1607–1617. PMID:26194577

  5. Local and Systemic Inflammatory Responses to Experimentally Induced Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Shaneen J.; Seymour, Gregory J.; Ford, Pauline J.

    2013-01-01

    This study profiled the local and systemic inflammatory responses to experimentally induced gingivitis. Eight females participated in a 21-day experimental gingivitis model followed by a 14-day resolution phase. Bleeding on probing and plaque index scores were assessed before, during, and after resolution of gingival inflammation, and samples of saliva, GCF, and plasma were collected. Samples were assessed for biomarkers of inflammation using the BioPlex platform and ELISA. There were no significant changes in GCF levels of cytokines during the experimental phase; however, individual variability in cytokine profiles was noted. During resolution, mean GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased and were significantly lower than baseline levels (P = 0.003, P = 0.025, and P = 0.007, resp.). Furthermore, changes in GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α during resolution correlated with changes in plaque index scores (r = 0.88, P = 0.004; r = 0.72, P = 0.042; r = 0.79, P = 0.019, resp.). Plasma levels of sICAM-1 increased significantly during the experimental phase (P = 0.002) and remained elevated and significantly higher than baseline levels during resolution (P gingivitis adds to the systemic inflammatory burden of an individual. PMID:24227893

  6. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Winther, Annika; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven...... healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0 degrees...... -105 degrees) at a speed of approximately 120 degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder muscles...

  7. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven...... healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0A degrees......-105A degrees) at a speed of approximately 120A degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder...

  8. Corticostriatal Plastic Changes in Experimental L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Ghiglieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Parkinson’s disease (PD, alteration of dopamine- (DA- dependent striatal functions and pulsatile stimulation of DA receptors caused by the discontinuous administration of levodopa (L-DOPA lead to a complex cascade of events affecting the postsynaptic striatal neurons that might account for the appearance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID. Experimental models of LID have been widely used and extensively characterized in rodents and electrophysiological studies provided remarkable insights into the inner mechanisms underlying L-DOPA-induced corticostriatal plastic changes. Here we provide an overview of recent findings that represent a further step into the comprehension of mechanisms underlying maladaptive changes of basal ganglia functions in response to L-DOPA and associated to development of LID.

  9. Experimental identification of pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes 4.5-48 mm). The experimental campaign involved seventy-one male and female human adults and covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed between 4954 individual tests. When walking on a laterally moving surface, motion-induced forces develop also...... with the acceleration of the treadmill depends on the frequency of the movement, such that pedestrians (on average) add to the overall modal mass for low frequency motion and subtract from the overall modal mass at higher frequencies....

  10. Experimental forearm immobilization in humans induces cold and mechanical hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkelsen, Astrid J; Bach, Flemming W; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a painful condition of unknown etiology. Clinical and experimental observations suggest that limb immobilization may induce symptoms and signs characteristic of complex regional pain syndrome. This study examined the effect of forearm immobilization on regional sensory and autonomic functions in healthy subjects. Thermal and mechanical sensitivity, skin temperature, and vasoconstrictor responses were measured in 30 healthy subjects before and 0, 3, and 28 days after scaphoid cast immobilization. Fifteen subjects served as nonimmobilized controls. At cast removal, 27 subjects experienced pain at joint movement. Cast immobilization induced cold hyperalgesia in glabrous and hairy skin on the immobilized hand and induced significant skin temperature differences between the control and the immobilized hand at cast removal and after 3 days. Immobilization also reduced pain threshold at skin fold testing at all time points after cast removal. All measures except pain threshold at skin fold testing were normalized after 28 days. Immobilization did not affect thermal detection, heat pain, and pressure pain thresholds; resting skin perfusion; or vasoconstrictor responses induced by mental stress or deep inspirations. Four weeks of forearm immobilization caused transient changes in skin temperature, mechanosensitivity, and thermosensitivity, without alteration in the sympathetically mediated vascular tone.

  11. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  12. Experimental arthritis induced by a clinical Mycoplasma fermentans isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Antonio; Yáñez, Antonio; León-Tello, Gloria; Gil, Constantino; Giono, Silvia; Barba, Eduardo; Cedillo, Lilia

    2002-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, it was detected in the joints and blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but it is not clear yet how the bacteria enter the body and reach the joints. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of M. fermentans to induce experimental arthritis in rabbits following inoculation of the bacteria in the trachea and knee joints. Methods P-140 and PG-18 strains were each injected in the knee joints of 14 rabbits in order to evaluate and compare their arthritogenicity. P-140 was also injected in the trachea of 14 rabbits in order to test the ability of the bacteria to reach the joints and induce arthritis. Results M. fermentans produced an acute arthritis in rabbits. Joint swelling appeared first in rabbits injected with P-140, which caused a more severe arthritis than PG-18. Both strains were able to migrate to the uninoculated knee joints and they were detected viable in the joints all along the duration of the experiment. Changes in the synovial tissue were more severe by the end of the experiment and characterized by the infiltration of neutrophils and substitution of adipose tissue by connective tissue. Rabbits intracheally injected with P-140 showed induced arthritis and the bacteria could be isolated from lungs, blood, heart, kidney, spleen, brain and joints. Conclusion M. fermentans induced arthritis regardless of the inoculation route. These findings may help explain why mycoplasmas are commonly isolated from the joints of rheumatic patients. PMID:12057023

  13. An experimental model of hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saruc M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that acute pancreatitis is a complication of massive hemolysis with a prevalence of about 20%. We describe an experimental model of hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis. Hemolytic anemia was induced in rats by a single ip injection of 60 mg/kg of 20 mg/ml acetylphenylhydrazine (APH in 20% (v/v ethanol on the first experimental day (day 0. One hundred and fifty Wistar albino rats weighing 180-200 g were divided into three groups of 50 animals each: groups 1, 2 and 3 were injected ip with APH, 20% ethanol, and physiological saline, respectively. Ten rats from each group were sacrificed on study days 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Serum amylase, lipase levels and pancreatic tissue tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF contents were determined and a histological examination of the pancreas was performed. No hemolysis or pancreatitis was observed in any of the rats in groups 2 and 3. In group 1, massive hemolysis was observed in 35 (70% of 50 rats, moderate hemolysis in seven (14%, and no hemolysis in eight (16%. Thirty-three of 35 (94.2% rats with massive hemolysis had hyperamylasemia, and 29 of these rats (82.8% had histologically proven pancreatitis. The most severe pancreatitis occurred on day 3, as demonstrated by histology. Tissue TNF-alpha and PAF levels were statistically higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Acute massive hemolysis induced acute pancreatitis, as indicated by histology, in almost 80% of cases. Hemolysis may induce acute pancreatitis by triggering the release of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines.

  14. Experimental neurocysticercosis: absence of IL-4 induces lower encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidelberto Matos Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most severe clinical manifestation of cysticercosis. One of the factors responsible for its symptomatology is the host inflammatory response. Therefore the influence of interleukin 4 (IL-4 on the induction of encephalitis in experimental NCC was evaluated. Methods BALB/c (WT and BALB/c (IL-4-KO mice were inoculated intracranially with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and euthanized at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days later, the encephala removed and histopathologically analyzed. Results The absence of IL-4 induced greater parasitism. In the initial phase of the infection, IL-4-KO showed a lower intensity in the inflammatory infiltration of polimorphonuclear cells in the host-parasite interface and intra-parenquimatous edema. The IL-4-KO animals, in the late phase of the infection, showed lower intensity of ventriculomegaly, encephalitis, and meningitis, and greater survival of the parasites in comparison with the WT animals. Conclusion The absence of IL-4 induced lower inflammatory infiltration, ventriculomegaly and perivasculitis in experimental NCC.

  15. Hypolipidemic effect of arborium plus in experimentally induced hypercholestermic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Devarakonda; Rajesh, Enjamoori; Raghava, Doonaboina; Raghavan, Tangaraj Vijaya; Surulivel, Mukanthan Karupiah Munirajan

    2010-06-01

    Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of the ayurvedic herbal formulation Arborium Plus [Hyppophae ramnoides L. fruit juice (S) and Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Linn flower juice (R) in a 1:4 ratio] on triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), atherogenic index (AI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs CRP) in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Four groups of rabbits were subjected to different treatments for 8 weeks: control group, CHOL group (1% w/w cholesterol for 8 weeks), S+R group (1% w/w cholesterol and Arborium Plus for 8 weeks), and A group (1% w/w cholesterol and atorvastatin for 8 weeks). The results showed significant increases in TG, TC, LDL, AI, and hs CRP in hypercholesterolemic rabbits which was significantly reduced in Arborium Plus-treated hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The data demonstrated that the Arborium Plus formulation was associated with hypolipidemic effects in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  16. Experimental Sleep Restriction Facilitates Pain and Electrically Induced Cortical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matre, Dagfinn; Hu, Li; Viken, Leif A; Hjelle, Ingri B; Wigemyr, Monica; Knardahl, Stein; Sand, Trond; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    Sleep restriction (SR) has been hypothesized to sensitize the pain system. The current study determined whether experimental sleep restriction had an effect on experimentally induced pain and pain-elicited electroencephalographic (EEG) responses. A paired crossover study. Pain testing was performed after 2 nights of 50% SR and after 2 nights with habitual sleep (HS). Laboratory experiment at research center. Self-reported healthy volunteers (n = 21, age range: 18-31 y). Brief high-density electrical stimuli to the forearm skin produced pinprick-like pain. Subjective pain ratings increased after SR, but only in response to the highest stimulus intensity (P = 0.018). SR increased the magnitude of the pain-elicited EEG response analyzed in the time-frequency domain (P = 0.021). Habituation across blocks did not differ between HS and SR. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) was reduced after SR (P = 0.039). Pressure pain threshold of the trapezius muscle region also decreased after SR (P = 0.017). Sleep restriction (SR) increased the sensitivity to pressure pain and to electrically induced pain of moderate, but not low, intensity. The increased electrical pain could not be explained by a difference in habituation. Increased response magnitude is possibly related to reduced processing within the somatosensory cortex after partial SR. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Experimental and analytical studies on pedestrian induced footbridge vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Valur; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Einarsson, Baldvin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from experimental study on human-induced vibrations of three lively footbridges in Reykjavik. The project was funded by the Icelandic Public Roads Administration with two main focus areas; validating the FE-models used at the design stage in terms of dynamic characteri......This paper presents results from experimental study on human-induced vibrations of three lively footbridges in Reykjavik. The project was funded by the Icelandic Public Roads Administration with two main focus areas; validating the FE-models used at the design stage in terms of dynamic...... with two equal spans crossing the same highway and was built in 2000. A commercially available finite element program (SAP2000) was used in the design phase to model the bridges. The FE-models were updated after the initial tests in order to have the frequencies and damping of the fundamental vibration...... modes corresponding to the measured values. The models were subsequently used to calculate the predicted acceleration according to the preliminary version of the Eurocode (ENV 1992-2: Concrete bridges) using time-history analysis with a moving load as representative for a single pedestrian. The load...

  18. Measuring Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion in Healthy Adults and with Respiratory Disease: New Pictorial Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Pianosi, Paolo T; Zhang, Zhen; Hernandez, Paul; Huebner, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyspnea or perceived exertion during exercise is most commonly measured using Borg or visual analog scales, created for use in adults. In contrast, pictorial scales have been promoted for children due to skepticism concerning applicability of the said scales in pediatrics. We sought to validate our newly created, pictorial Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales in adult populations and compare ratings with the Borg scale. Methods Dyspnea and perceived exertion ratings obta...

  19. A Large Intra-Abdominal Hiatal Hernia as a Rare Cause of Dyspnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cem; Akın, Fatih; Cullu, Nesat; Özseker, Burak; Kirli, İsmail; Altun, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Giant hiatal hernias, generally seen at advanced ages, can rarely cause cardiac symptoms such as dyspnea and chest pain. Here, we aimed to present a case with a large hiatal hernia that largely protruded to intrathoracic cavity and caused dyspnea, particularly at postprandial period, by compressing the left atrium and right pulmonary vein. We considered presenting this case as large hiatal hernia is a rare, intra-abdominal cause of dyspnea. PMID:26229693

  20. A Large Intra-Abdominal Hiatal Hernia as a Rare Cause of Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant hiatal hernias, generally seen at advanced ages, can rarely cause cardiac symptoms such as dyspnea and chest pain. Here, we aimed to present a case with a large hiatal hernia that largely protruded to intrathoracic cavity and caused dyspnea, particularly at postprandial period, by compressing the left atrium and right pulmonary vein. We considered presenting this case as large hiatal hernia is a rare, intra-abdominal cause of dyspnea.

  1. Exertional dyspnea in mitochondrial myopathy: clinical features and physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Katja; Taivassalo, Tanja; Wyrick, Phil; Wood, Helen; Babb, Tony G; Haller, Ronald G

    2011-10-01

    Exertional dyspnea limits exercise in some mitochondrial myopathy (MM) patients, but the clinical features of this syndrome are poorly defined, and its underlying mechanism is unknown. We evaluated ventilation and arterial blood gases during cycle exercise and recovery in five MM patients with exertional dyspnea and genetically defined mitochondrial defects, and in four control subjects (C). Patient ventilation was normal at rest. During exercise, MM patients had low Vo(2peak) (28 ± 9% of predicted) and exaggerated systemic O(2) delivery relative to O(2) utilization (i.e., a hyperkinetic circulation). High perceived breathing effort in patients was associated with exaggerated ventilation relative to metabolic rate with high VE/VO(2peak), (MM = 104 ± 18; C = 42 ± 8, P ≤ 0.001), and Ve/VCO(2peak)(,) (MM = 54 ± 9; C = 34 ± 7, P ≤ 0.01); a steeper slope of increase in ΔVE/ΔVCO(2) (MM = 50.0 ± 6.9; C = 32.2 ± 6.6, P ≤ 0.01); and elevated peak respiratory exchange ratio (RER), (MM = 1.95 ± 0.31, C = 1.25 ± 0.03, P ≤ 0.01). Arterial lactate was higher in MM patients, and evidence for ventilatory compensation to metabolic acidosis included lower Pa(CO(2)) and standard bicarbonate. However, during 5 min of recovery, despite a further fall in arterial pH and lactate elevation, ventilation in MM rapidly normalized. These data indicate that exertional dyspnea in MM is attributable to mitochondrial defects that severely impair muscle oxidative phosphorylation and result in a hyperkinetic circulation in exercise. Exaggerated exercise ventilation is indicated by markedly elevated VE/VO(2), VE/VCO(2), and RER. While lactic acidosis likely contributes to exercise hyperventilation, the fact that ventilation normalizes during recovery from exercise despite increasing metabolic acidosis strongly indicates that additional, exercise-specific mechanisms are responsible for this distinctive pattern of exercise ventilation.

  2. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Winther, Annika; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Krogsgaard, Michael R; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2009-04-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0 degrees -105 degrees) at a speed of approximately 120 degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows that acute pain both subacromially and in the supraspinatus muscle modulates coordination of the shoulder muscles during voluntary movements. During painful conditions, an increased activity was detected in the antagonist (latissimus), which support the idea that localized pain affects muscle activation in a way that protects the painful structure. Further, the changes in muscle activity following subacromial pain induction tend to expand the subacromial space and thereby decrease the load

  3. In vivo Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimentally Induced Neurologic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Zheng, Yong Mu; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Fraser, Nigel; Rorke, Lucy; Fu, Zhen Fang; Hanlon, Cathleen; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the brain tissue of rats and mice under the following experimental conditions: in rats infected with borna disease virus and rabies virus, in mice infected with herpes simplex virus, and in rats after the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The results showed that iNOS mRNA, normally nondetectable in the brain, was present in animals after viral infection or after induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The induction of iNOS mRNA coincided with the severity of clinical signs and in some cases with the presence of inflammatory cells in the brain. The results indicate that nitric oxide produced by cells induced by iNOS may be the toxic factor accounting for cell damage and this may open the door to approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  4. Method for inducing experimental pneumococcal meningitis in outbred mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintorino Marcella

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with the highest mortality among bacterial meningitis and it may also lead to neurological sequelae despite the use of antibiotic therapy. Experimental animal models of pneumococcal meningitis are important to study the pathogenesis of meningitis, the host immune response induced after infection, and the efficacy of novel drugs and vaccines. Results In the present work, we describe in detail a simple, reproducible and efficient method to induce pneumococcal meningitis in outbred mice by using the intracranial subarachnoidal route of infection. Bacteria were injected into the subarachnoid space through a soft point located 3.5 mm rostral from the bregma. The model was tested with several doses of pneumococci of three capsular serotypes (2, 3 and 4, and mice survival was recorded. Lethal doses killing 50 % of animals infected with type 2, 3 and 4 S. pneumoniae were 3.2 × 10, 2.9 × 10 and 1.9 × 102 colony forming units, respectively. Characterisation of the disease caused by the type 4 strain showed that in moribund mice systemic dissemination of pneumococci to blood and spleen occurred. Histological analysis of the brain of animals infected with type 4 S. pneumoniae proved the induction of meningitis closely resembling the disease in humans. Conclusions The proposed method for inducing pneumococcal meningitis in outbred mice is easy-to-perform, fast, cost-effective, and reproducible, irrespective of the serotype of pneumococci used.

  5. Dyspnea and reversibility of antiplatelet agents: ticagrelor, elinogrel, cangrelor, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L; Sibbing, Dirk; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    Oral reversible platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (ticagrelor and elinogrel) cause double-digit rates of dyspnea, while irreversible oral antiplatelet drugs (aspirin, ticlopidoine, clopidogrel, and prasugrel) or intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (abciximab, eptifibatide, or tirofiban) do not increase the incidence of dyspnea in randomized trials. Dyspnea after oral reversible antiplatelet agents remains unexplained. A transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) hypothesis has been proposed. The dyspnea risks after cangrelor, an intravenous reversible antiplatelet agent, are not well defined but may offer a universal mechanism linking TRALI, dyspnea, and reversible platelet inhibition. We analyzed safety data from recent head-to-head randomized trials with reversible antiplatelet agents (ticagrelor, elinogrel, and cangrelor) compared to irreversible (clopidogrel/placebo) comparators. All three reversible antiplatelet agents cause excess dyspnea. In contrast to the high double-digit rates after oral ticagrelor or elinogrel, the dyspnea risks after intravenous cangrelor were smaller (<2%) but still consistently and significantly higher than in the corresponding control arms. The clinical utility of reversible antiplatelet strategies has been challenged. Despite a potential advantage of fewer bleeding events during heart surgery, reversible antiplatelet agents carry the risk of potential autoimmune reactions manifesting as dyspnea. Repeated binding and unbinding cycles, impaired platelet turnover, and lung sequestration or apoptosis of overloaded destructive platelets are among the potential mechanism(s) responsible for dyspnea after reversible antiplatelet agents.

  6. Dyspnea and dysphagia associated to hypopharyngeal fibrolipoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Mendez Saenz, MD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomas are benign lesions conformed by fat and connective tissue, classified as histologic variants of lipomas. They are rarely located in the head and neck and represent less than 0.6% of the benign tumors of the larynx and hypopharynx. Their clinical presentation depends on its location and size. We present the case of a 51-year-old male patient who reported progressive dyspnea, dysphagia and obstructive sleep symptoms with a duration of 3 months, without apparent cause. A pharyngolaryngeal fiberoptic endoscopy showed a smooth, rounded mass in the posterior wall of the hypopharynx, partially obstructing the laryngeal vestibule, creating a valve effect. Complete trans-cervical resection of the lesion was performed after the airway was secured by means of a tracheotomy. The final histopathology report was fibrolipoma. He is currently asymptomatic and without evidence of relapse one year after the procedure.

  7. Severe dyspnea in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Poble

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is a genetic disease in which pulmonary complications are rare, but severe, especially pulmonary hypertension (PH. The mechanisms underlying the onset of PH in patients with NF1 are unclear and might be multifactorial. In particular, the frequent presence of pulmonary parenchymal lesions makes etiological diagnosis of PH difficult. We describe here the case of a patient with NF1 admitted to our clinic with dyspnea and right heart failure revealing severe pre-capillary PH. Parenchymal lesions were mild and PH was attributed to pulmonary vascular involvement. Clinical and hemodynamic conditions of the patient improved under pulmonary arterial hypertension-specific combination therapy. This case suggests that treatment of PH due to pulmonary vascular involvement in NF1 may be aligned with recommendations for PAH treatment.

  8. Parapharyngeal space lipomatosis with secondary dyspnea, disphagia and disphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ortega, Dorian Yarih; Gomez-Pedraza, Antonio; Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama

    2015-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumors are a small percentage of all head and neck neoplasms. Due to their anatomic location, they represent a therapeutic challenge. To our knowledge, 11 cases of parapharyngeal lipomatous tumors have been reported in the literature. A 48 year old male with chief complaints of dyspnea, dysphagia and dysphonia was found to have a parapharyngeal space tumor. He was scheduled to undergo lumpectomy and neck exploration. Benign tumors represented 70% of all cases. Open neck surgery is considered the gold-standard of treatment. It is important to bear in mind the lipomas of the parapharyngeal space to establish an accurate diagnosis and implement timely, appropriate treatment in order to avoid future complications and reduce morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental arthritis induced by a clinical Mycoplasma fermentans isolate

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    Giono Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, it was detected in the joints and blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but it is not clear yet how the bacteria enter the body and reach the joints. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of M. fermentans to induce experimental arthritis in rabbits following inoculation of the bacteria in the trachea and knee joints. Methods P-140 and PG-18 strains were each injected in the knee joints of 14 rabbits in order to evaluate and compare their arthritogenicity. P-140 was also injected in the trachea of 14 rabbits in order to test the ability of the bacteria to reach the joints and induce arthritis. Results M. fermentans produced an acute arthritis in rabbits. Joint swelling appeared first in rabbits injected with P-140, which caused a more severe arthritis than PG-18. Both strains were able to migrate to the uninoculated knee joints and they were detected viable in the joints all along the duration of the experiment. Changes in the synovial tissue were more severe by the end of the experiment and characterized by the infiltration of neutrophils and substitution of adipose tissue by connective tissue. Rabbits intracheally injected with P-140 showed induced arthritis and the bacteria could be isolated from lungs, blood, heart, kidney, spleen, brain and joints. Conclusion M. fermentans induced arthritis regardless of the inoculation route. These findings may help explain why mycoplasmas are commonly isolated from the joints of rheumatic patients.

  10. Mechanisms of blast induced brain injuries, experimental studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risling, M; Plantman, S; Angeria, M; Rostami, E; Bellander, B-M; Kirkegaard, M; Arborelius, U; Davidsson, J

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) potentially induced by blast waves from detonations result in significant diagnostic problems. It may be assumed that several mechanisms contribute to the injury. This study is an attempt to characterize the presumed components of the blast induced TBI. Our experimental models include a blast tube in which an anesthetized rat can be exposed to controlled detonations of explosives that result in a pressure wave with a magnitude between 130 and 260 kPa. In this model, the animal is fixed with a metal net to avoid head acceleration forces. The second model is a controlled penetration of a 2mm thick needle. In the third model the animal is subjected to a high-speed sagittal rotation angular acceleration. Immunohistochemical labeling for amyloid precursor protein revealed signs of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in the penetration and rotation models. Signs of punctuate inflammation were observed after focal and rotation injury. Exposure in the blast tube did not induce DAI or detectable cell death, but functional changes. Affymetrix Gene arrays showed changes in the expression in a large number of gene families including cell death, inflammation and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus after both acceleration and penetration injuries. Exposure to the primary blast wave induced limited shifts in gene expression in the hippocampus. The most interesting findings were a downregulation of genes involved in neurogenesis and synaptic transmission. These experiments indicate that rotational acceleration may be a critical factor for DAI and other acute changes after blast TBI. The further exploration of the mechanisms of blast TBI will have to include a search for long-term effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurogenic cardiomyopathy in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesdangsakonwut, S; Sunden, Y; Yamada, K; Nishizono, A; Sawa, H; Umemura, T

    2015-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies have been rarely described in rabbits. Here we report myocardial necrosis of the ventricular wall in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies. Myocardial lesions were found only in rabbits with brain lesions, and the severity of the cardiac lesions was proportional to that of the brain lesions. Neither the frequency nor the cumulative dose of anesthesia was related to the incidence or the severity of the myocardial lesions. The myocardial lesions were characterized by degeneration and/or necrosis of myocardial cells and were accompanied by contraction band necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The brain lesions due to rabies virus infection were most prominent in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem, and medulla. Rabies virus antigen was not found in the hearts of any rabbits. Based on these findings, the myocardial lesions were classified as neurogenic cardiomyopathy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. [Hemosiderin-laden macrophages count in sputum in diagnosis of dyspnea of heart origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Casado, Jesús; Belda, José; Bayés-Genís, Antonio; Margarit, Gisela; López, Laura; Casan, Pere; Hernán Cotes, Carlos; Antón, Antonio; Santaló, Miguel; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi

    2005-04-23

    The respiratory or heart origin of dyspnea is not always easy to find out using the available diagnostic tools. Many patients present both heart and lung diseases that cause dyspnea. The role of hemosiderin-laden macrophages count (HC) in sputum in this context has not been well settled so far. The objective was to describe the prediction usefulness of HC in patients suffering from dyspnea of heart origin, and to find out if HC changed after administering treatment. HC was analyzed in 61 patients whose main symptom was dyspnea in the emergency department, and it was evaluated by means of clinical history, clinical course and performance of lung function tests and echocardiography. 35 patients were classified as having dyspnea of heart origin, 17 as having dyspnea of lung origin and 9 had dyspnea of both origins. The HC was higher in patients with dyspnea of heart origin 37% (95% CI, 26-47) or cardiopulmonary origin 30% (95% CI, 8-52) than in patients with dyspnea of lung origin 15% (95% CI, 4-27), and it remained higher despite administering treatment. The sensitivity (52%), specificity (88%), positive predictive value (92%) and negative predictive value (58%) was established for a 30% HC cutoff. The prediction model of heart origin dyspnea presented an area under the ROC curve of 0.978 (95% CI, 0.95-1). HC reflects the severity of pulmonary venocapillar disturbance, identifies the majority of patients suffering from current or past heart failure or severe cardiac dysfunction, and is useful for the prediction of dyspnea of heart origin. HC utility should focus on selected patients.

  13. Inflammation-induced preterm lung maturation: lessons from animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy J M; Westover, Alana J

    2017-06-01

    Intrauterine inflammation, or chorioamnionitis, is a major contributor to preterm birth. Prematurity per se is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality resulting from lung immaturity but exposure to chorioamnionitis reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Animal experiments have identified that an increase in pulmonary surfactant production by the preterm lungs likely underlies this decreased risk of RDS in infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. Further animal experimentation has shown that infectious or inflammatory agents in amniotic fluid exert their effects on lung development by direct effects within the developing respiratory tract, and probably not by systemic pathways. Differences in the effects of intrauterine inflammation and glucocorticoids demonstrate that canonical glucocorticoid-mediated lung maturation is not responsible for inflammation-induced changes in lung development. Animal experimentation is identifying alternative lung maturational pathways, and transgenic animals and cell culture techniques will allow identification of novel mechanisms of lung maturation that may lead to new treatments for the prevention of RDS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Acute pulmonary injury induced by experimental muscle trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombra, Márcia Andréa da Silva Carvalho; Vasconcelos, Marcelo Pinho Pessoa de; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho; Escalante, Rodrigo Dornfeld; Garcia, José Huygens Parente; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de

    2011-01-01

    To develop an easily reproducible model of acute lung injury due to experimental muscle trauma in healthy rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomized in 3 groups (n=6): G-1- control, G-2 - saline+trauma and G-3 - dexamethasone+trauma. Groups G-1 and G-2 were treated with saline 2,0 ml i.p; G-3 rats were treated with dexamethasone (DE) (2 mg/kg body weight i.p.). Saline and DE were applied 2h before trauma and 12h later. Trauma was induced in G-2 and G-3 anesthetized (tribromoethanol 97% 100 ml/kg i.p.) rats by sharp section of anterior thigh muscles just above the knee, preserving major vessels and nerves. Tissue samples (lung) were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and histopathological evaluation. Twenty-four hours after muscle injury there was a significant increase in lung neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity and edema, all reversed by dexamethasone in G-3. Trauma by severance of thigh muscles in healthy rats is a simple and efficient model to induce distant lung lesions.

  15. Antioxidant Effects of Probiotics in Experimentally Induced Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginel, Basak; Aydin, Fatih A; Erginel, Turgay; Tanik, Canan; Abbasoglu, Semra D; Soysal, Feryal G; Keskin, Erbug; Celik, Alaaddin; Salman, Tansu

    2016-02-01

    An experimental study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of probiotics on gut mucosa in peritonitis through antioxidant mechanisms. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were divided equally into four groups. The rats in Group 1 (control group) underwent laparotomy only. In group 2 (peritonitis group), peritonitis was induced in the rats by the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. In group 3, the rats were treated with probiotics for five days after CLP-induced peritonitis. The last group of rats (group 4) were fed probiotics for five days before the CLP procedure and five days after the surgery. On the fifth day after surgery, all rats were killed, and tissue samples from the terminal ileum were obtained to evaluate the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH). Histopathologic examinations were also performed to evaluate the grade of intestinal injury. Myeloperoxidase and MDA activities were increased, GSH concentrations were decreased in group 2, compared with group 1. Intestinal MPO activities in group 4 were decreased compared with group 1 and group 2, indicating a reduction in oxidant activity. Malondialdehyde decreased in group 3 and decreased even more in group 4, compared with the peritonitis group (group 2). Glutathione concentrations were increased in group 4 compared with group 2 and group 3 (p peritonitis, which may be related to antioxidant mechanisms. This antioxidant effect of probiotics might occur when pre-conditioning with probiotics before peritonitis because there is sufficient time to prepare the tissues for oxidative damage.

  16. Do beta-blockers alter dyspnea and fatigue in advanced lung cancer? A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Paul; Ellis, Peter M; Pond, Gregory R; Goffin, John R

    2012-09-01

    Dyspnea is common in lung cancer and may be partially attributable to increased ventilatory drive due to muscle weakness. The sympathetic component of this pathway might be mitigated by β-blockers. A retrospective review of new patients with stage III-IV non-small lung cancer or any small cell lung cancer was undertaken to assess the impact of β-blocker use on dyspnea and fatigue. Data were abstracted for clinical characteristics, β-blocker use, and pre-treatment Edmonton Symptom Assessment System dyspnea and fatigue scores. Of 348 patients assessed, 202 met eligibility criteria. The median age was 67, 55.4% were female, 18.8% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 5.9% had active coronary artery disease. Over 60% of patients scored 4/10 or higher on their dyspnea and fatigue scores. While dyspnea and fatigue were moderately associated, no association was found between β-blocker use and either symptom. Recorded dosages of β-blockers were low. COPD was associated with dyspnea and fatigue, while anemia was associated with fatigue. Dyspnea and fatigue are prevalent and increased in the presence of COPD and anemia. No association between β-blocker use and dyspnea or fatigue scores was observed. This may be attributable to inadequate dosing or to retrospective bias.

  17. Evaluation of a provocative dyspnea severity score in acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouEzzeddine, Omar F; Lala, Anuradha; Khazanie, Prateeti P; Shah, Ravi; Ho, Jennifer E; Chen, Horng H; Pang, Peter S; McNulty, Steven E; Anstrom, Kevin J; Hernandez, Adrian F; Redfield, Margaret M

    2016-02-01

    The acute heart failure (AHF) Syndromes International Working Group proposed that dyspnea be assessed under standardized, incrementally provocative maneuvers and called for studies to assess the feasibility of this approach. We sought to assess the feasibility and statistical characteristics of a novel provocative dyspnea severity score (pDS) versus the traditional dyspnea visual analog scale (DVAS) in an AHF trial. At enrollment, 24, 48 and 72hours, 230 ROSE-AHF patients completed a DVAS. Dyspnea was then assessed with 5-point Likert dyspnea scales administered during 4 stages (A: upright-with O2, B: upright-without O2, C: supine-without O2 and D: exercise-without O2). Patients with moderate or less dyspnea were eligible for the next stage. At enrollment, oxygen withdrawal and supine provocation were highly feasible (≥97%), provoking more severe dyspnea (≥1 Likert point) in 24% and 42% of eligible patients, respectively. Exercise provocation had low feasibility with 38% of eligible patients unable to exercise due to factors other than dyspnea. A pDS was constructed from Likert scales during the 3 feasible assessment conditions (A-C). Relative to DVAS, the distribution of the pDS was more skewed with a high "ceiling effect" at enrollment (23%) limiting sensitivity to change. Change in pDS was not related to decongestion or 60-day outcomes. Although oxygen withdrawal and supine provocation are feasible and elicit more severe dyspnea, exercise provocation had unacceptable feasibility in this AHF cohort. The statistical characteristics of a pDS based on feasible provocation measures do not support its potential as a robust dyspnea assessment tool in AHF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental chaotic quantification in bistable vortex induced vibration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.

    2017-02-01

    The study of energy harvesting by means of vortex induced vibration systems has been initiated a few years ago and it is considered to be potential as a low water current energy source. The energy harvester is realized by exposing an elastically supported blunt structure under water flow. However, it is realized that the system will only perform at a limited operating range (water flow) that is attributed to the resonance phenomenon that occurs only at a frequency that corresponds to the fluid flow. An introduction of nonlinear elements seems to be a prominent solution to overcome the problem. Among many nonlinear elements, a bistable spring is known to be able to improve the harvested power by a vortex induced vibrations (VIV) based energy converter at the low velocity water flows. However, it is also observed that chaotic vibrations will occur at different operating ranges that will erratically diminish the harvested power and cause a difficulty in controlling the system that is due to the unpredictability in motions of the VIV structure. In order to design a bistable VIV energy converter with improved harvested power and minimum negative effect of chaotic vibrations, the bifurcation map of the system for varying governing parameters is highly on demand. In this study, chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter enhanced by a bistable stiffness element are quantified in a wide range of the governing parameters, i.e. damping and bistable gap. Chaotic vibrations of the bistable VIV energy converter are simulated by utilization of a wake oscillator model and quantified based on the calculation of the Lyapunov exponent. Ultimately, a series of experiments of the system in a water tunnel, facilitated by a computer-based force-feedback testing platform, is carried out to validate the existence of chaotic responses. The main challenge in dealing with experimental data is in distinguishing chaotic response from noise-contaminated periodic responses as noise will smear

  19. An experimental model of vitreous motion induced by eye rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Andrea; Lagazzo, Alberto; Repetto, Rodolfo; Stocchino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    During eye rotations the vitreous humour moves with respect to the eye globe. This relative motion has been suggested to possibly have an important role in inducing degradation of the gel structure, which might lead to vitreous liquefaction and/or posterior vitreous detachment. Aim of the present work is to study the characteristics of vitreous motion induced by eye rotations. We use an experimental setup, consisting of a Perspex model of the vitreous chamber that, for simplicity, is taken to have a spherical shape. The model is filled with an artificial vitreous humour, prepared as a solution of agar powder and hyaluronic acid sodium salt in deionised water, which has viscoelastic mechanical properties similar to those of the real vitreous. The model rotates about an axis passing through the centre of the sphere and velocity measurements are taken on the equatorial plane orthogonal to the axis of rotation, using an optical technique. The results show that fluid viscoelasticity has a strong influence on flow characteristics. In particular, at certain frequencies of oscillation of the eye model, fluid motion can be resonantly excited. This means that fluid velocity within the domain can be significantly larger than that of the wall. The frequencies for which resonant excitation occurs are within the range of possible eye rotations frequencies. Therefore, the present results suggest that resonant excitation of vitreous motion is likely to occur in practice. This, in turn, implies that eye rotations produce large stresses on the retina and within the vitreous that may contribute to the disruption of the vitreous gel structure. The present results also have implications for the choice of the ideal properties for vitreous substitute fluids.

  20. Pathogenesis of rhinitis in rats with experimentally induced hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyigor, Hulya; Basak, Sema; Kozaci, Didem; Culhaci, Nil; Dost, Turhan; Ulutas, Pinar

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is accepted as one of the hormonal factors leading to non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal obstruction and runny nose due to an increase in submucosal connective tissue and mucous gland hypertrophy are the prominent symptoms in hypothyroidism-induced rhinitis at humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the biochemical and histopathological changes in the nasal mucosa of the rats with thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism and to compare them with those of a control group. A total of 60 adult male Wistar Albino rats were included in the study. The rats constituting the test and the control groups were randomly divided into 3 subgroups (T1-3 and C 1-3). While the rats in the test group underwent thyroidectomy, in the control group the incision was sutured without any interventions after exposure of thyroid tissues of the rats. The nasal and paranasal sinus regions of all the rats were carefully dissected and tissue samples were obtained for pathological examinations. In the rats in T1, T2, and T3, the decrease in serum glucuronic acid levels before and after thyroidectomy was statistically significant (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.002, respectively). The difference between the test and the control groups was statistically significant in terms of inflammation at the end of 12 weeks (p = 0.002). An increase in acid mucopolysaccharidase production due to TSH has been suggested to cause congestion in tissues. Although our study supports the data in the literature up to date, we consider that further clinical and experimental studies are necessary for this verification.

  1. The Cell Nucleus in Physiological and Experimentally Induced Hypometabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, M.

    The main problem for manned space mission is, at present, represented by the mass penalty associated to the human presence. An efficient approach could be the induction of a hypometabolic stasis in the astronauts, thus drastically reducing the physical and psychological requirements of the crew. On the other hand, in the wild, a reduction in resource consumptions physiologi- cally occurs in certain animals which periodically enter hibernation, a hypometabolic state in which both the energy need and energy offer are kept at a minimum. During the last twelve years, we have been studying different tissues of hibernating dormice, with the aim of analyzing their features during the euthermia -hibernation-arousal cycle as well as getting insight into the mechanisms allowing adaptation to hypometabolism. We paid particular attention to the cell nucleus, as it is the site of chief metabolic functions, such as DNA replication and RNA transcription. Our observations revealed no significant modification in the basic features of cell nuclei during hibernation; however, the cell nuclei of hibernating dormice showed unusual nuclear bodies containing molecules involved in RNA pathways. Therefore, we supposed that they could represent storage/assembly sites of several factors for processing some RNA which could be slowly synthesised during hibernation and rapidly and abundantly released in early arousal in order to meet the increased metabolic needs of the cell. The nucleolus also underwent structural and molecular modifications during hibernation, maybe to continue important nucleolar functions, or, alternatively, permit a most efficient reactivation upon arousal. On the basis of the observations made in vivo , we recently tried to experimentally induce a reversible hypometabolic state in in vitro models, using cell lines derived from hibernating and non-hibernating species. By administering the synthetic opioid DADLE, we could significantly reduce both RNA transcrip- tion and

  2. Elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema: insights from experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Antunes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several distinct stimuli can be used to reproduce histological and functional features of human emphysema, a leading cause of disability and death. Since cigarette smoke is the main cause of emphysema in humans, experimental researches have attempted to reproduce this situation. However, this is an expensive and cumbersome method of emphysema induction, and simpler, more efficacious alternatives have been sought. Among these approaches, elastolytic enzymes have been widely used to reproduce some characteristics of human cigarette smoke-induced disease, such as: augmentation of airspaces, inflammatory cell influx into the lungs, and systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, the use of elastase-induced emphysema models is still controversial, since the disease pathways involved in elastase induction may differ from those occurring in smoke-induced emphysema. This indicates that the choice of an emphysema model may impact the results of new therapies or drugs being tested. The aim of this review is to compare the mechanisms of disease induction in smoke and elastase emphysema models, to describe the differences among various elastase models, and to establish the advantages and disadvantages of elastase-induced emphysema models. More studies are required to shed light on the mechanisms of elastase-induced emphysema.Diversos estímulos podem ser utilizados para reproduzir características histológicas e funcionais do enfisema humano, uma das principais causas de incapacidade e morte. Uma vez que a fumaça de cigarro é a principal causa de enfisema em humanos, estudos experimentais têm tentado reproduzir esta situação. No entanto, esse é um método dispendioso e complicado para a indução do enfisema e, alternativas mais simples e eficazes, têm sido pesquisadas. Entre essas abordagens, enzimas elastolíticas vêm sendo amplamente utilizadas para reproduzir algumas das características do enfisema humano, tais como: aumento dos espaços a

  3. Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Kraemer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1, brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2, sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3, ischemic buttons by grasping the parietal peritoneum and ligating the base with Vicryl suture (group 4, bipolar electrocoagulation of the peritoneum (group 5, and traumatisation by electrocoagulation followed by closure of the resulting peritoneal defect using Vicryl sutures (group 6. Upon second look, there were significant differences in the adhesion incidence between the groups (P<0.01. Analysis of the fraction of adhesions showed that groups 2 (0% and 5 (4% were significantly less than the other groups (P<0.01. Furthermore, group 6 (69% was significantly higher than group 1 (48% (P<0.05 and group 4 (47% (P<0.05. There was no difference between group 3 (60% and group 6 (P=0.2. From a clinical viewpoint, comparison of different electrocoagulation modes and pharmaceutical adhesion barriers is possible with standardised models.

  4. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnskov, Uffe

    2005-12-14

    Much epidemiological evidence suggests that hydrocarbon exposure may induce glomerulonephritis and worsen its course in many patients. The mechanisms are unknown, however, no specific microscopic pattern has been identified, and it has also been argued that hydrocarbon exposure causes tubular damage mainly. Studying experimental animals may best answer these questions, and as no systematic review of glomerulonephritis produced experimentally by hydrocarbon exposure has been performed previously, I found it relevant to search for and analyse such studies. Animal experiments having mimicked human glomerulonephritis by hydrocarbon exposure were sought on Medline and Toxnet Twenty-six experiments using thirteen different hydrocarbons were identified. Several human subtypes were observed including IgA nephritis, mesangial, proliferative and extracapillary glomerulonephritis, focal and focal-segmental sclerosis, minimal change nephropathy, anti-GBM and anti-TBM nephritis, and glomerulonephritis associated with peiarteritis nodosa. Glomerular proteinuria was seen in 10/12 experiments that included urine analyses, and renal failure in 5/8 experiments that included measurements of glomerular function. All experiments resulted in various degrees of tubular damage as well. In most studies, where the animals were examined at different times during or after the exposure, the renal microscopic and functional changes were seen immediately, whereas deposits of complement and immunoglobulins appeared late in the course, if at all. These experiments are in accord with epidemiological evidence that hydrocarbon exposure may cause glomerulonephritis and worsen renal function. Probable mechanisms include an induction of autologous antibodies and a disturbance of normal immunological functions. Also, tubular damage may increase postglomerular resistance, resulting in a glomerular deposition of macromolecules. In most models a causal role of glomerular immune complex formation was

  5. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravnskov Uffe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much epidemiological evidence suggests that hydrocarbon exposure may induce glomerulonephritis and worsen its course in many patients. The mechanisms are unknown, however, no specific microscopic pattern has been identified, and it has also been argued that hydrocarbon exposure causes tubular damage mainly. Studying experimental animals may best answer these questions, and as no systematic review of glomerulonephritis produced experimentally by hydrocarbon exposure has been performed previously, I found it relevant to search for and analyse such studies. Methods Animal experiments having mimicked human glomerulonephritis by hydrocarbon exposure were sought on Medline and Toxnet Results Twenty-six experiments using thirteen different hydrocarbons were identified. Several human subtypes were observed including IgA nephritis, mesangial, proliferative and extracapillary glomerulonephritis, focal and focal-segmental sclerosis, minimal change nephropathy, anti-GBM and anti-TBM nephritis, and glomerulonephritis associated with peiarteritis nodosa. Glomerular proteinuria was seen in 10/12 experiments that included urine analyses, and renal failure in 5/8 experiments that included measurements of glomerular function. All experiments resulted in various degrees of tubular damage as well. In most studies, where the animals were examined at different times during or after the exposure, the renal microscopic and functional changes were seen immediately, whereas deposits of complement and immunoglobulins appeared late in the course, if at all. Conclusion These experiments are in accord with epidemiological evidence that hydrocarbon exposure may cause glomerulonephritis and worsen renal function. Probable mechanisms include an induction of autologous antibodies and a disturbance of normal immunological functions. Also, tubular damage may increase postglomerular resistance, resulting in a glomerular deposition of macromolecules. In most

  6. Anticoccidial effect of mananoligosacharide against experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Naila; Faheem, Hassan; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Alhidary, Ibrahim A; Abudabos, Alaeldein M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find the effect of mananoligosacharide (MOS) in comparison with amprolium hydrochloride on performance and integrity of gut in experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler. A total of 300, day-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly allocated to four treatments. Each group was further divided into five replicates of 15 birds each. Group A was kept as control; group B was contaminated with Eimeria tenella, while groups C and D were infected with E. tenella and treated with MOS (0.8 g/kg feed) and anticoccidial drug, amprolium hydrochloride (12 g/100 l water), respectively. The results showed that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly higher (P coccidiosis during 5th, 7th, 10th, and 12th day post infection (dpi). Furthermore, the OPG was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in infected groups treated with MOS and amprolium at the studied periods (5, 7, and 10 dpi). At 12 dpi, the infected group treated with MOS showed significantly lower OPG compared to the other groups suggesting the effectiveness of MOS in comparison to amprolium. The result of pinpoint hemorrhages, thickness of cecal wall, bloody fecal contents, and mucoid contents in the cecum were significant highly (P < 0.05) in birds fed with infected oocytes. It was also noted that the differences were not significant in these parameters between amprolium and MOS-treated birds showing the effectiveness of the prebiotic agent. It was concluded from the results of the present study that MOS improved growth performance and reversed the lesions of E. tenella.

  7. Management of dyspnea and respiratory insufficiency as a main palliayive care in malignant pleural effusions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Valchev; Zl. Ilinov; E. Obretenov

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to answer the question whether the treatment of these patients leads to control of respiratory failure by relieving and eliminating dyspnea and preserving the patients...

  8. Self-hypnosis for management of chronic dyspnea in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, R D

    2001-02-01

    Hypnotherapy can be useful in the management of anxiety, discomfort, and psychosomatic symptoms, all of which may contribute to a complaint of dyspnea. Therefore, instruction in self-hypnosis was offered to 17 children and adolescents with chronic dyspnea, which had not resolved despite medical therapy, and who were documented to have normal lung function at rest. This report documents the result of this intervention. A retrospective chart review identified all patients followed by a single pediatric pulmonologist (R.D.A.), with a chief complaint of chronic dyspnea from April 1998 through December 1999. These patients had been evaluated and treated for medical diseases according to their history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. The pulmonologist offered to teach self-hypnosis to all of these patients, who comprise the cohort in this report. Chronic dyspnea was defined as recurrent difficulty breathing or shortness of breath at rest or with exertion, which had existed for at least 1 month in patients who had not suffered within a month from an acute pulmonary illness. The pulmonologist was trained in hypnosis through his attendance at three 20-hour workshops. Hypnosis was taught to individual patients in 1 or two 15- to 45-minute sessions. Patients were taught hypnotic self-induction techniques and imagery to achieve relaxation. Additionally, imagery relating to dyspnea was developed by coaching patients to change their imagined lung appearance from a dyspneic to a healthy state. Patients were encouraged to practice self-hypnosis regularly and to use lung imagery to eliminate dyspnea if it occurred. Seventeen patients (13 males and 4 females) with chronic dyspnea were documented to have normal pulmonary function at rest. Their mean age was 13.4 years (range: 8-18 years). Twelve of the 17 previously were diagnosed with other conditions, such as allergies, asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux. Fifteen of the 17 manifested at least 1 other symptom

  9. An Elderly Female with Dyspnea and Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Van Heukelom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of Present Illness: A 55-year-old female presented via transfer from a referring hospital with 48 hours of abdominal pain, vomiting and dyspnea. She was found to be in severe distress. Her temperature was 37.5° C (99.5° F, heart rate 130 beats per minute, respiratory rate 47 breaths per minute, blood pressure 80/48, and oxygen saturation of 95% on a non-rebreather mask. She had distended neck veins, diminished breath sounds on the left hemi-thorax, and a distended abdomen. A chest x-ray that had been obtained at the referring hospital was immediately reviewed. The decision was made to intubate the patient. Following intubation, a nasogastric tube was placed with marked improvement in her hemodynamics. An abdomen-pelvis CT was obtained which showed a para-esophageal hernia with the majority of the stomach located in the left hemi-thorax and evidence of a bowel obstruction. Significant findings: Radiography shows a dilated, gas-filled structure that fills nearly the entire left hemi-thorax. Lung markings are visible in the uppermost portion of the left hemi-thorax. There is mediastinal shift to the right. In the visualized portion of the abdomen, dilated loops of bowel are also visualized. This constellation of findings is consistent with a tension gastrothorax. Discussion: Tension gastrothorax is a rare complication of blunt trauma, diaphragmatic hernias, and certain surgical procedures.1,2 Clinically, a tension gastrothorax may mimic that of a tension pneumothorax, making it difficult to diagnose.3,4 Stabilizing treatment includes decompressing the stomach by means of a nasogastric (NG tube.2 Placement may be difficult due the intra-thoracic position of the stomach leading to kinking of the tube. The attempt to place an NG tube can lead to hyperventilation and air swallowing, which can aggravate gastric distention.4 Failure to decompress the stomach, however, may lead to patient decompensation and cardiac arrest.5 Definitive treatment

  10. Reliability of verbal descriptors of dyspnea and their relationship with perceived intensity and unpleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Leupoldt, A; Petersen, S; Scheuchl, S; Füllekrug, K; Gerwin, C; Reer, R; Ziegler, M; Braumann, K M; Dahme, B

    2006-01-01

    Verbal descriptors of dyspnea have been suggested as being useful in providing information on the underlying pathophysiology. However, little is known about the reliability of these descriptors. The present study examined the reliability of a German language list of respiratory symptom descriptors and studied the association of these descriptors with the intensity and unpleasantness of perceived dyspnea. Fourteen healthy volunteers performed cycle-ergometer exercise and voluntary breath-holding during which they rated the perceived intensity (VAS-I) and unpleasantness (VAS-U) of dyspnea on visual analog scales. Following this, they judged their sensations of dyspnea using the list of symptom descriptors. Both conditions were repeated in reverse order on a subsequent occasion 10 days apart. Ventilatory measures, heart rate, blood lactate, VAS-I and VAS-U during cycle-exercise as well as breath-holding time, VAS-I and VAS-U during breath-holding showed no differences between both occasions. Separate hierarchical cluster analyses identified four clusters of verbal descriptors of dyspnea which were widely comparable between both occasions: effort, speed, obstruction and suffocation. Separate multidimensional scaling analyses (MDS) confirmed these four clusters for each occasion. On both days, perceived unpleasantness of dyspnea was correlated with all four clusters during cycle-exercise, while perceived intensity showed only correlations with effort or speed, respectively. No such correlations were obtained for breath-holding. The results suggest that separable clusters of German language descriptors of dyspnea are reliably used by healthy volunteers. The obtained clusters are widely comparable to previously described clusters in other languages and are differently related to the intensity and unpleasantness of perceived dyspnea.

  11. SHORT TERM EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE-TENS ON LUNG FUNCTIONS AND DYSPNEA FOR SUBJECTS WITH MODERATE COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Babu. K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture TENS is used to improve pain instead of invasive acupuncture. Acupuncture shown to improve dyspnoea and lung functions in COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients. The purpose of the study is to determine Short term effectiveness of Acupuncture-TENS in reducing dyspnea and improving lung functions for subjects with moderate COPD. Method: An experimental study design, selected 30 geriatric subjects with COPD randomized 15 subjects into each Study and Control group. Study group received Acu-TENS for 45 minutes for total 5 sessions, while control group received placebo TENS. Outcome measurements such as breathlessness using Modified Borg Scale (MBS, Lung functions using Pulmonary Function Test (PFT was measured before and after intervention. Results: Analysis from pre-intervention to post-intervention within study group found that there is statistically significant change in means of MBS, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and within control group there is a statistically significant change in means of MBS, but there is no statistically significant change in means of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. When post-intervention means were compared between the groups there is no statistically significant difference in means of MBS and FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion: It is concluded that one week of Acu-TENS on EXL1 point found no significant effect on improving dyspnea and lung functions in subjects with moderate COPD in geriatric populations.

  12. Experimentally induced helper dispersal in colonially breeding cooperative cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, D.; Heg-Bachar, Z.; Brouwer, L.; Taborsky, M.

    2008-01-01

    The 'benefits of philopatry' hypothesis states that helpers in cooperatively breeding species derive higher benefits from remaining home, instead of dispersing and attempting to breed independently. We tested experimentally whether dispersal options influence dispersal propensity in the

  13. Relationship between Dyspnea Descriptors and Underlying Causes of the Symptom; a Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Ali Sajadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: History taking and physical examination help clinicians identify the patient’s problem and effectively treat it. This study aimed to evaluate the descriptors of dyspnea in patients presenting to emergency department (ED with asthma, congestive heart failure (CHF, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on all patients presenting to ED with chief complaint of dyspnea, during 2 years. The patients were asked to describe their dyspnea by choosing three items from the valid and reliable questionnaire or articulating their sensation. The relationship between dyspnea descriptors and underlying cause of symptom was evaluated using SPSS version 16. Results: 312 patients with the mean age of 60.96±17.01 years were evaluated (53.2% male. Most of the patients were > 65 years old (48.7% and had basic level of education (76.9%.  "My breath doesn’t go out all the way" with 83.1%, “My chest feels tight " with 45.8%, and "I feel that my airway is obstructed" with 40.7%, were the most frequent dyspnea descriptors in asthma patients. "My breathing requires work" with 46.3%, "I feel that I am suffocating" with 31.5%, and "My breath doesn’t go out all the way" with 29.6%, were the most frequent dyspnea descriptors in COPD patients. "My breathing is heavy" with 74.4%, "A hunger for more air” with 24.4%, and "I cannot get enough air" with 23.2%, were the most frequent dyspnea descriptors in CHF patients. Except for “My breath does not go in all the way”, there was significant correlation between studied dyspnea descriptors and underlying disease (p = 0.001 for all analyses. Conclusion: It seems that dyspnea descriptors along with other findings from history and physical examination could be helpful in differentiating the causes of the symptom in patients presenting to ED suffering from dyspnea.  

  14. carpal arthrodesis for the management of experimentally induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INDUCED RADIAL NERVE PARALYSIS IN DOGS. HASSAN', A.Z. ... desensitization. Three weeks post surgery, three animals in the control group showed ... voluntary motor and reflex abnormalities are often ... paralysis following injury due to.

  15. Active Lifestyle Is Associated With Reduced Dyspnea and Greater Life Satisfaction in Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garshick, Eric; Mulroy, Sara; Graves, Daniel E; Greenwald, Karen; Horton, John A; Morse, Leslie R

    2016-10-01

    To assess the relations between measures of activity with dyspnea and satisfaction with life in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional survey. Five SCI centers. Between July 2012 and March 2015, subjects (N=347) with traumatic SCI ≥1 year after injury who used a manual wheelchair or walked with or without an assistive device reported hours spent away from home or yard on the previous 3 days, sports participation, and planned exercise. Not applicable. Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and dyspnea. Dyspnea was defined as shortness of breath when hurrying on the level or going up a slight hill, going slower than people the same age on the level because of breathlessness, or stopping for breath when going at your own pace, or after about 100yd (or after a few minutes) on the level. Dyspnea prevalence was 30%. Adjusting for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mobility mode, race, and season, there was a significant linear trend between greater SWLS scores and quartiles of time spent away from the home or yard (P=.0002). SWLS score was greater if participating in organized sports (P=.01), although was not significantly greater with planned exercise (P=.093). Planned exercise was associated with a reduced odds ratio (OR) of dyspnea (.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], .34-.95; P=.032), but organized sports was not (P=.265). Dyspnea was not significantly increased in persons who spent the fewest hours outside their home or yard (≤7h) compared with people who spent the most hours outside their home or yard (>23h) (OR=1.69; 95% CI, 0.83-3.44; P=.145). In SCI, a planned exercise program is associated with less dyspnea. An active lifestyle characterized by greater time spent away from home or yard and sports participation is associated with greater SWLS scores. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of High-Flow Nasal Cannula for Acute Dyspnea and Hypoxemia in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittayamai, Nuttapol; Tscheikuna, Jamsak; Praphruetkit, Nattakarn; Kijpinyochai, Sunthorn

    2015-10-01

    Acute dyspnea and hypoxemia are 2 of the most common problems in the emergency room. Oxygen therapy is an essential supportive treatment to correct these issues. In this study, we investigated the physiologic effects of high-flow nasal oxygen cannula (HFNC) compared with conventional oxygen therapy (COT) in subjects with acute dyspnea and hypoxemia in the emergency room. A prospective randomized comparative study was conducted in the emergency department of a university hospital. Forty subjects were randomized to receive HFNC or COT for 1 h. The primary outcome was level of dyspnea, and secondary outcomes included change in breathing frequency, subject comfort, adverse events, and rate of hospitalization. Common causes of acute dyspnea and hypoxemia were congestive heart failure, asthma exacerbation, COPD exacerbation, and pneumonia. HFNC significantly improved dyspnea (2.0 ± 1.8 vs 3.8 ± 2.3, P = .01) and subject comfort (1.6 ± 1.7 vs 3.7 ± 2.4, P = .01) compared with COT. No statistically significant difference in breathing frequency was found between the 2 groups at the end of the study. HFNC was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were found. The rate of hospitalization in the HFNC group was lower than in the COT group, but there was no statistically significant difference (50% vs 65%, P = .34). HFNC improved dyspnea and comfort in subjects presenting with acute dyspnea and hypoxemia in the emergency department. HFNC may benefit patients requiring oxygen therapy in the emergency room. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Prolonged drug-induced hypothermia in experimental stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig; Reith, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    regimen with saline only. All rats were killed 7 days after MCAO. Infarct volume was quantified stereologically. The mean body temperature (35.6 + 1.0 degrees C) during 24 hours after bolus injection of Talipexole was significantly lower than in control rats (37.3 +/- 0.5 degrees C), P ... that the core body temperature was reduced by 1.7 degrees C for 24 hours after MCAO in rats treated with Talipexole. This treatment induced a significant reduction of infarct volume at 7 days after focal ischemia by 47%. We suggest that the reduction in infarct volume is related to drug-induced hypothermia...... in focal ischemia by pharmacological alteration of the central thermoregulatory set-point. We tested the hypothesis that the dopaminergic agonist Talipexole, which induces hypothermia, reduces infarct size. Body temperature was monitored by a radio-pill-implant. Rats had reversible occlusion of the middle...

  18. Summer mastitis experimentally induced by Hydrotaea irritans exposed to bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirico, J.; Jonsson, P.; Kjellberg, S.; Thomas, G.

    1997-01-01

    Summer mastitis is an acute suppurative bacterial infection of the udder in heifers and dry cows. To ascertain the possible role of flies in the transmission of the disease, experimental exposures of recipient heifers to Hydrotaea irritans previously exposed to bacteria were carried out. Flies were

  19. Experimental observation of direct current voltage-induced phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of two uncoupled distinct Chua circuits driven by a common direct current voltage is explored experimentally. It was found that, with increasing current intensity, the dominant frequencies of these two Chua circuits will first vary at different speeds, approach an identical value for a certain current intensity and ...

  20. Reversal of experimental varicocele-induced testicular toxicity by L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    testicular volumes, caudal epididymal sperm characteristics, testicular histology and serum hormone levels were evaluated. Results showed that the testes of the rats that were given vitamin C post experimental varicocele had better physiological, biochemical and histological profiles than those of the untreated animals.

  1. Pharmacokinetic changes of halofantrine in experimentally-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was hypothesized in this study that alterations in plasma lipoprotein profile and disturbed gastrointestinal motility as observed in diabetes mellitus may influence the disposition of halofantrine (HF), a highly lipophilic antimalarial drug. Therefore, using a rat model of diabetes mellitus induced by administration of alloxan ...

  2. Influence of physical restraint on the onset of experimentally induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of intermittent repeated physical restraint on the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) was in-vestigated in this study. The study compared the onset of DM in mice dosed with streptozotocin (STZ), a DM-inducing drug, with immediate subsequent exposure to either physical restraint stress or non- exposure to the stress.

  3. Trajectory of Dyspnea and Respiratory Distress among Patients in the Last Month of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Margaret L; Kiernan, Jason M; Strandmark, John; Yarandi, Hossein N

    2018-02-01

    The trajectory of dyspnea has been reported among patients approaching the end of life. However, patients near death have been dropped from longitudinal studies or excluded altogether because of an inability to self-report; proxy estimates have been reported. It is not known whether dyspnea or respiratory distress remains stable, escalates, or abates as patients reach last days. Determine trajectory of dyspnea (self-reported) and respiratory distress (observed) among patients who were approaching death. A prospective, repeated-measures study of dyspnea/respiratory distress among a sample of hospice patients was done. Measures were collected at each patient encounter from hospice enrollment until patient death. Dyspnea was measured in response to "Are you short of breath?" and using the numeric rating scale anchored at 0 and 10. Nurses measured respiratory distress with the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale (RDOS). Patient consciousness (Reaction Level Scale), nearness to death (Palliative Performance Scale), diagnoses, and demographics were recorded. Data for the 30-day interval before death were analyzed. The sample was 91 patients who were female (58%) and Caucasian (83%) with dementia (32%), heart failure (26%), and cancer (13%). RDOS increased significantly from mild distress 30 days before death to moderate/severe distress on the day of death (F = 10.8, p Respiratory distress escalated in the last days. Inability to self-report raises care concerns about under-recognition and under-treatment of respiratory distress.

  4. [Hyperventilation syndrome and bronchial asthma: role of verbal dyspnea characteristics in differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    To investigate verbal dyspnea characteristics in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) and hyperventilation syndrome (HVS). The trial covered 52 patients with BA, 10 patients with BA combination with HVS and 18 patients with HVS. Verbal dyspnea characteristics were studied with PM. Simon questionnaire. The examination of the patients was made using scale HADS. Naimigen questionnaire, body plethysmography, bronchodilation test, capnography with spontaneous hyperventilation test, analysis of arterial blood gas composition. Most commonly BA patients characterized dyspnea with such words as "I am breathless" (n = 8, 33.3%), "I breathe with effort" (n = 6, 25%) and "I feel suffocation" (n = 6, 25%). HVS patients characterized their dyspnea most often as "air shortage" (n = 14, 77.8%), "I can't take a deep breath" (n = 10, 55.6%), "breathing needs concentration" (n = 6, 33.3%) and "I have to grasp air with mouth" (n = 5, 17.9%). The latter description correlated with capnometric markers of HVS and responses to Naimigen questionnaire. The description "I feel suffocation" directly correlated with BA stage by GINA and bronchial obstruction severity. Verbal dyspnea characteristics differ in BA and HVS patients and this can be used in differential diagnosis of these conditions.

  5. Corilagin Attenuates Aerosol Bleomycin-Induced Experimental Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Guo, Qiong-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Ju; Li, Xiao; Li, Wen-Ting; Ma, Xi-Tao; Ma, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressing lethal disease with few clinically effective therapies. Corilagin is a tannin derivative which shows anti-inflammatory and antifibrotics properties and is potentiated in treating IPF. Here, we investigated the effect of corilagin on lung injury following bleomycin exposure in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis. Corilagin abrogated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis as assessed by H&E; Masson’s trichrome staining and lung hydroxyproline content in lung tissue. Corilagin reduced the number of apoptotic lung cells and prevented lung epithelial cells from membrane breakdown, effluence of lamellar bodies and thickening of the respiratory membrane. Bleomycin exposure induced expression of MDA, IKKα, phosphorylated IKKα (p-IKKα), NF-κB P65, TNF-α and IL-1β, and reduced I-κB expression in mice lung tissue or in BALF. These changes were reversed by high-dose corilagin (100 mg/kg i.p) more dramatically than by low dose (10 mg/kg i.p). Last, corilagin inhibits TGF-β1 production and α-SMA expression in lung tissue samples. Taken together, these findings confirmed that corilagin attenuates bleomycin-induced epithelial injury and fibrosis via inactivation of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokine release and NF-κB and TGF-β1 signaling. Corilagin may serve as a promising therapeutic agent for pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24886817

  6. The therapeutic use of music for dyspnea and anxiety in patients with COPD who live at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, S; Graydon, J; Sidani, S; Hall, L

    1999-09-01

    The purposes of this repeated measures study were to examine the feasibility of using music as an intervention for dyspnea and anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who live in their homes and to examine the effect of music on anxiety and dyspnea. Twenty-four participants who experienced dyspnea at least once a week were studied over a 5-week period. Baseline data were collected on Week 1. Measures of anxiety and dyspnea were taken on Week 2, prior to and immediately following the use of music. These measures were repeated on Week 5. There was a significant decrease in dyspnea following the use of music as reported in the music diary (p music on Week 2. There was no significant change in anxiety or dyspnea over the 5-week period.

  7. McArdle's Disease Presenting as Unexplained Dyspnea in a Young Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nha Voduc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available McArdle's disease is a rare, inherited deficiency of myophosphorylase, an enzyme required for the utilization of glycogen. Patients with myophosphorylase deficiency classically present with exercise intolerance, leg pain and muscle fatigue. The case of a young woman with exertional dyspnea and leg cramps is described. Exercise testing confirmed the presence of exercise intolerance and demonstrated an accelerated heart rate response, despite the absence of an anaerobic threshold and a respiratory exchange ratio of less than 1.0. Subsequent ischemic forearm testing and muscle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of myophosphorylase deficiency. Evaluation of lung mechanics with esophageal pressure measurements demonstrated the presence of respiratory muscle weakness and early fatiguability, suggesting that the patient's dyspnea might have been attributable to an increased respiratory effort. Dyspnea is not a classic symptom associated with myophosphorylase deficiency, although subclinical respiratory muscle impairment may be present. No previous studies have evaluated respiratory muscle function during exercise in patients with myophosphorylase deficiency.

  8. Cultural adaptation and reliability analysis of the Modified Dyspnea Index for the Brazilian culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Cinthya Tamie Passos; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme; de Barros Leite Domingues, Gabriela; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Stoller, James K

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to present the cross-cultural adaptation process of the Modified Dyspnea Index to the Brazilian culture and to investigate its content validity and reliability. This process included the steps of translation, back translation and review by two experts to assess semantic, conceptual, idiomatic, cultural and metabolic equivalence. The Index of Content Validity was used to evaluate the extent of inter-observer agreement. A Guide to implement the Modified Dyspnea Index was developed and validated. Two different professionals assessed the reliability of the Brazilian version of the Modified Dyspnea Index, according to the inter-observer equivalence criterion, with 31 patients, indicating a Kappa coefficient=0.960 (p<0.001). In conclusion, the Brazilian version of MDI presented evidence of interobserver equivalence when applied by different health professionals in the population of cardiac patients.

  9. A review of the effects of glutamine-enriched diets on experimentally induced enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombeau, J L

    1990-01-01

    Studies in animal models of enterocolitis have failed to confirm the purported metabolic and functional benefits of bowel rest induced by use of an elemental diet. Recent reports have demonstrated that glutamine-supplemented diets ameliorate or reverse many of the adverse effects of experimentally induced enterocolitis. Human studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  10. Requirement for Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 Expression on Vascular Cells To Induce Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Stoelcker, Benjamin; Hehlgans, Thomas; Weigl, Karin; Bluethmann, Horst; Grau, Georges E.; Männel, Daniela N.

    2002-01-01

    Using tumor necrosis factor receptor type 2 (TNFR2)-deficient mice and generating bone marrow chimeras which express TNFR2 on either hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic cells, we demonstrated the requirement for TNFR2 expression on tissue cells to induce lethal cerebral malaria. Thus, TNFR2 on the brain vasculature mediates tumor necrosis factor-induced neurovascular lesions in experimental cerebral malaria.

  11. [Fetal experimentation, transplantations, cosmetics and their connection with induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Calderón, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The increase in induced abortion produces large numbers of cells, tissues and organs, which are used in several fields of Medicine, either in research or in treatment. The main uses are in Cardiology, Hematology, Metabolism, Embryology, Neurology, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and Transplantations. Flavor enhancers and cosmetics also benefit. Utilitarianism has led to an increase in abortion-originated cell and tissue banks. Abortion is justified through the manipulation of language. Vested interests give rise to complicity in researchers and society as a whole. Abortion and tissue 'donation' cannot be split; since fresh tissues are involved there is a symbiotic relationship between them. Valid consent is not possible. A contradiction emerges, the nasciturus is not desired or valued but fetal organs are. When someone is deprived of his rights it is because another wants to enslave them. Research must have a moral base. Knowledge should not be increased at any price. Something that is legal and well intentioned is not always morally acceptable. The duty of omission is applicable. Means to achieve a goal must be ethical means. Educational efforts to restore respect for the human embryo and fetus must be promoted. Technical advances are not always in accordance with human nature and dignity. Research and treatment that do not resort to cells, tissues and organs obtained from induced abortions should be promoted.

  12. Effect of menthol in experimentally induced ulcers: pathways of gastroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozza, A L; Hiruma-Lima, C A; Takahira, R K; Padovani, C R; Pellizzon, C H

    2013-11-25

    Based on ethnopharmacological indications that Mentha species may be used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, this study aimed to characterize the gastroprotective mechanisms of menthol (ME), the major compound of the essential oil from species of the genus Mentha. The gastroprotective action of ME was analyzed in gastric ulcers that were induced by ethanol or indomethacin in Wistar male rats. The mechanisms responsible for the gastroprotective effect were assessed by analyzing the amount of mucus secreted, involvement of non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) compounds, involvement of calcium ion channels and NO/cGMP/K(+)ATP pathway, gastric antisecretory activity and the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The anti-diarrheal activity and acute toxicity of ME were also evaluated. Oral treatment with ME (50mg/kg) offered 88.62% and 72.62% of gastroprotection against ethanol and indomethacin, respectively. There was an increased amount of mucus and PGE2 production. The gastroprotective activity of ME involved NP-SH compounds and the stimulation of K(+)ATP channels, but not the activation of calcium ion channels or the production of NO. The oral administration of ME induced an antisecretory effect as it decreased the H(+) concentration in gastric juice. ME displayed anti-diarrheal and antiperistaltic activity. There were no signs of toxicity in the biochemical analyses performed in the rats' serum. These results demonstrated that ME provides gastroprotective and anti-diarrheal activities with no toxicity in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The German CPU Registry: Dyspnea independently predicts negative short-term outcome in patients admitted to German Chest Pain Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellenkamp, Kristian; Darius, Harald; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Erbel, Raimund; Haude, Michael; Hamm, Christian; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Heusch, Gerd; Mudra, Harald; Münzel, Thomas; Schmitt, Claus; Schumacher, Burghard; Senges, Jochen; Voigtländer, Thomas; Maier, Lars S

    2015-02-15

    While dyspnea is a common symptom in patients admitted to Chest Pain Units (CPUs) little is known about the impact of dyspnea on their outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dyspnea on the short-term outcome of CPU patients. We analyzed data from a total of 9169 patients admitted to one of the 38 participating CPUs in this registry between December 2008 and January 2013. Only patients who underwent coronary angiography for suspected ACS were included. 2601 patients (28.4%) presented with dyspnea. Patients with dyspnea at admission were older and frequently had a wide range of comorbidities compared to patients without dyspnea. Heart failure symptoms in particular were more common in patients with dyspnea (21.0% vs. 5.3%, pCPU patients. Our data show that dyspnea is associated with a fourfold higher 3month mortality which is underestimated by the established ACS risk scores. To improve their predictive value we therefore propose to add dyspnea as an item to common risk scores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental Evidence of Boundary Induced Coupling Currents in LHC Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Ang, Z

    1996-01-01

    The field quality of 10 m long LHC dipole models has been measured with short rotating coils to explore its dependence on time and position. Multipoles exhibit a longitudinal periodic variation, with period equal to the twist pitch length. This periodicity is shown here to have at least two components with very different time constants. The amplitude of the component with the shorter time constant, in the range of 100 to 300 s, depends on position and time. Larger amplitudes are measured at early times after a ramp and close to regions with incomplete cable transposition with respect to the non-uniform external field change. As the multipoles periodicity is due to current imbalance in the cables, we attribute the short time scale variations to the presence of space and time decaying boundary induced coupling currents (BICC's) in the cable. An estimate of their value is given

  15. Experimental diet-induced atherosclerosis in Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, H; Nevarez, J G; Wakamatsu, N; Clubb, S; Cray, C; Tully, T N

    2013-11-01

    Spontaneous atherosclerosis is common in psittaciformes, and clinical signs associated with flow-limiting stenosis are encountered in pet birds. Nevertheless, a psittacine model of atherosclerosis has not been developed for research investigations. Sixteen captive-bred Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) were used in this study. While 4 control birds were fed a maintenance diet, 12 other birds were fed an atherogenic diet composed of 1% cholesterol controlling for a calorie-to-protein ratio for periods ranging from 2 to 8 months. The birds were euthanized at the end of their respective food trial period. Histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, and cholesterol measurement were performed on the ascending aorta and brachiocephalic and pulmonary arteries. Plasma lipoproteins, cholesterol, and triglycerides were also measured on a monthly basis. Significant atherosclerotic lesions were induced within 2 months and advanced atherosclerotic lesions within 4 to 6 months. The advanced lesions were histologically similar to naturally occurring lesions identified in the same parrot species with a lipid core and a fibrous cap. Ultrastructurally, there were extracellular lipid, foam cell, and endothelial changes. Arterial cholesterol content increased linearly over time. Plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) significantly increased over time by an average of 5- and 15-fold, respectively, with a shift from high-density lipoprotein to LDL as the main plasma lipoprotein. Quaker parrots also exhibited high plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity that increased, although not significantly, over time. This experiment demonstrates that in Quaker parrots fed 1% cholesterol, advanced atherosclerosis can be induced relatively quickly, and lesions resemble those found in other avian models and humans.

  16. Alleviating effects of morin against experimentally-induced diabetic osteopenia

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    Abuohashish Hatem M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant flavonoids are emerging as potent therapeutic drugs effective against a wide range of aging diseases particularly bone metabolic disorders. Morin (3,5,7,20,40-pentahydroxyflavone, a member of flavonols, is an important bioactive compound by interacting with nucleic acids, enzymes and protein. The present study was designed to investigate the putative beneficial effect of morin on diabetic osteopenia in rats. Methods Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic model was used by considering 300 mg/dl fasting glucose level as diabetic. Morin (15 and 30 mg/kg was treated for five consecutive weeks to diabetic rats. Serum levels of glucose, insulin, deoxypyridinoline cross links (DPD, osteocalcin (OC, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP, telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated. Femoral bones were taken for micro CT scan to measure trabecular bone mineral density (BMD and other morphometric parameters. Results Significant bone loss was documented as the level of bone turnover parameters including DPD, OC, BALP and CTX were increased in serum of diabetic rats. Morin treatment significantly attenuated these elevated levels. Bone micro-CT scan of diabetic rats showed a significant impairment in trabecular bone microarchitecture, density and other morphometric parameters. These impairments were significantly ameliorated by morin administration. Serum levels of glucose, TBARS, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated, while the level of insulin and GSH was decreased in diabetic rats. These serum changes in diabetic rats were bring back to normal values after 5 weeks morin treatment. Conclusion These findings revealed the protective effect of morin against diabetic induced osteopenia. We believed that this effect is through its both the anti

  17. Compartment syndrome–induced microvascular dysfunction: an experimental rodent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Sanders, David W.; Bihari, Aurelia; Parry, Neil; Gray, Daryl; Badhwar, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute compartment syndrome (CS) is a limb-threatening disease that results from increased intracompartmental pressure. The pathophysiologic mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly understood. This study was designed to measure the effects of increased intracompartmental pressure on skeletal muscle microcirculation, inflammation and cellular injury using intravital videomicroscopy (IVVM) in a clinically relevant small animal model. Methods We induced CS in 10 male Wistar rats (175–250 g), using a saline infusion technique. Intracompartmental pressure was controlled between 30 and 40 mm Hg and maintained for 45 minutes. After fasciotomy, the extensor digitorum longus muscle was visualized using IVVM, and perfusion was quantified. We quantified leukocyte recruitment to measure the inflammatory response. We measured muscle cellular injury using a differential fluorescent staining technique. Results The number of nonperfused capillaries increased from 12.7 (standard error of the mean [SEM] 1.4 ) per mm in the control group to 30.0 (SEM 6.7) per mm following 45 minutes of elevated intracompartmental pressure (CS group; p = 0.031). The mean number of continuously perfused capillaries (and SEM) decreased from 78.4 (3.2) per mm in the control group to 41.4 (6.9) per mm in the CS group (p = 0.001). The proportion of injured cells increased from 5.0% (SEM 2.1%) in the control group to 16.3% (SEM 6.8%) in the CS group (p = 0.006). The mean number of activated leukocytes increased from 3.6 (SEM 0.7) per 100 μm2 in the control group to 8.6 (SEM 1.8) per 100 μm2 in the CS group (p = 0.033). Conclusion Early CS-induced microvascular dysfunction resulted in a decrease in nutritive capillary perfusion and an increase in cellular injury and was associated with a severe acute inflammatory component. PMID:21443836

  18. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Cavitation Induced Feedline Instability from an Orifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Matthew A.; Lineberry, David M.; Ahuja, Vineet; Frederick, Robert A,

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the results of an experimental investigation into the cavitation instabilities created by a circular orifice conducted at the University of Alabama in Huntsville Propulsion Research Center. This experiment was conducted in concert with a computational simulation to serve as a reference point for the simulation. Testing was conducted using liquid nitrogen as a cryogenic propellant simulant. A 1.06 cm diameter thin orifice with a rounded inlet was tested in an approximately 1.25 kg/s flow with inlet pressures ranging from 504.1 kPa to 829.3 kPa. Pressure fluctuations generated by the orifice were measured using a high frequency pressure sensor located 0.64 tube diameters downstream of the orifice. Fast Fourier Transforms were performed on the high frequency data to determine the instability frequency. Shedding resulted in a primary frequency with a cavitation related subharmonic frequency. For this experiment, the cavitation instability ranged from 153 Hz to 275 Hz. Additionally, the strength of the cavitation occur red as a function of cavitation number. At lower cavitation numbers, the strength of the cavitation instability ranged from 2.4 % to 7 % of the inlet pressure. However, at higher cavitation numbers, the strength of the cavitation instability ranged from 0.6 % to 1 % of the inlet pressure.

  20. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Cho, Duk-Yeon; Yun, Yo-Sep; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-09-01

    Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  1. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vasant More

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson’s disease dementia and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  2. Health status, mood, and cognition in experimentally induced subclinical thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, M H; Schuff, K G; Carlson, N E; Carello, P; Janowsky, J S

    2008-05-01

    Our objective was to determine whether subclinical thyrotoxicosis alters health status, mood, and/or cognitive function. This was a double-blinded, randomized, cross-over study of usual dose l-T(4) (euthyroid arm) vs. higher dose l-T(4) (subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm) in hypothyroid subjects. A total of 33 hypothyroid subjects receiving l-T(4) were included in the study. Subjects underwent measurements of health status, mood, and cognition: Short Form 36 (SF-36); Profile of Mood States (POMS); and tests of declarative memory (Paragraph Recall, Complex Figure), working memory (N-Back, Subject Ordered Pointing, and Digit Span Backwards), and motor learning (Pursuit Rotor). These were repeated after 12 wk on each of the study arms. Mean TSH levels decreased from 2.15 to 0.17 mU/liter on the subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm (P learning was better during the subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm, whereas declarative and working memory measures did not change. This improvement was related to changes in the SF-36 physical component summary and POMS tension subscales and free T(3) levels. We found slightly impaired physical health status but improvements in measures of mental health and mood in l-T(4) treated hypothyroid subjects when subclinical thyrotoxicosis was induced in a blinded, randomized fashion. Motor learning was also improved. These findings suggest that thyroid hormone directly affects brain areas responsible for affect and motor function.

  3. Serum protein concentrations in calves with experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis

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    Fagliari J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy 2 to 4-week-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into control and infected groups. Control calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5ml of Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution (DPBSS. Infected calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5x10(9 log-phase Mannheimia haemolytica organisms suspended in 5ml of DPBSS. Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes before and one, two, four and six hours after inoculation. Serum protein concentrations were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 D (ceruloplasmin, 60,000 D (a 1-antitrypsin, 45,000 D (haptoglobin, and 40,000 D (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, compared with concentrations in control calves. Results indicate that acute phase proteins increase more rapidly after the onset of inflammation than previously thought. Measurement of serum protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of the induced pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

  4. Experimental Optic Neuritis Induced by a Demyelinating Strain of Mouse Hepatitis Virus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindler, Kenneth S.; Kenyon, Lawrence C.; Dutt, Mahasweta; Hingley, Susan T.; Sarma, Jayasri Das

    2008-01-01

    Optic neuritis (ON), an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve disease, occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS). Pathological mechanisms and potential treatments for ON have been studied via experimental autoimmune MS models. However, evidence suggests that virus-induced inflammation is a likely etiology triggering MS and ON; experimental virus-induced ON models are therefore required. We demonstrate that MHV-A59, a mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain that causes brain and spinal cord inflammation and demyelination, induces ON by promoting mixed inflammatory cell infiltration. In contrast, MHV-2, a nondemyelinating MHV strain, does not induce ON. Results reveal a reproducible virus-induced ON model important for the evaluation of novel therapies. PMID:18579591

  5. Environmental enrichment restores cognitive deficits induced by experimental childhood meningitis

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    Tatiana Barichello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of environmental enrichment (EE on memory, cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the brain of adult rats subjected to experimental pneumococcal meningitis during infancy. Methods: On postnatal day 11, the animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension intracisternally at 1 × 106 CFU/mL and remained with their mothers until age 21 days. Animals were divided into the following groups: control, control + EE, meningitis, and meningitis + EE. EE began at 21 days and continued until 60 days of age (adulthood. EE consisted of a large cage with three floors, ramps, running wheels, and objects of different shapes and textures. At 60 days, animals were randomized and subjected to habituation to the open-field task and the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. After the tasks, the hippocampus and CSF were isolated for analysis. Results: The meningitis group showed no difference in performance between training and test sessions of the open-field task, suggesting habituation memory impairment; in the meningitis + EE group, performance was significantly different, showing preservation of habituation memory. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, there were no differences in behavior between training and test sessions in the meningitis group, showing aversive memory impairment; conversely, differences were observed in the meningitis + EE group, demonstrating aversive memory preservation. In the two meningitis groups, IL-4, IL-10, and BDNF levels were increased in the hippocampus, and BDNF levels in the CSF. Conclusions: The data presented suggest that EE, a non-invasive therapy, enables recovery from memory deficits caused by neonatal meningitis.

  6. Immune Cells and Molecular Networks in Experimentally Induced Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, E; Gaudin, A; Bienvenu, G; Amiaud, J; Farges, J C; Cuturi, M C; Moreau, A; Alliot-Licht, B

    2016-02-01

    Dental pulp is a dynamic tissue able to resist external irritation during tooth decay by using immunocompetent cells involved in innate and adaptive responses. To better understand the immune response of pulp toward gram-negative bacteria, we analyzed biological mediators and immunocompetent cells in rat incisor pulp experimentally inflamed by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]). Untreated teeth were used as control. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokine ligands, growth factors, and enzymes were evaluated at the transcript level, and the recruitment of the different leukocytes in pulp was measured by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis after 3 h, 9 h, and 3 d post-PBS or post-LPS treatment. After 3 d, injured rat incisors showed pulp wound healing and production of reparative dentin in both LPS and PBS conditions, testifying to the reversible pulpitis status of this model. IL6, IL1-β, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, MMP9, and iNOS gene expression were significantly upregulated after 3 h of LPS stimulation as compared with PBS. The immunoregulatory cytokine IL10 was also upregulated after 3 h, suggesting that LPS stimulates not only inflammation but also immunoregulation. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis revealed a significant, rapid, and transient increase in leukocyte levels 9 h after PBS and LPS stimulation. The quantity of dendritic cells was significantly upregulated with LPS versus PBS. Interestingly, we identified a myeloid-derived suppressor cell-enriched cell population in noninjured rodent incisor dental pulp. The percentage of this population, known to regulate immune response, was higher 9 h after inflammation triggered with PBS and LPS as compared with the control. Taken together, these data offer a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of dental pulp immunity that may be elicited by gram-negative bacteria. © International & American

  7. Experimental particle acceleration by water evaporation induced by shock waves

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    Scolamacchia, T.; Alatorre Ibarguengoitia, M.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Cimarelli, C.

    2010-12-01

    Shock waves are commonly generated during volcanic eruptions. They induce sudden changes in pressure and temperature causing phase changes. Nevertheless, their effects on flowfield properties are not well understood. Here we investigate the role of gas expansion generated by shock wave propagation in the acceleration of ash particles. We used a shock tube facility consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave (450 mm long, 28 mm in internal diameter), pressurized with Ar gas, and a low-pressure tank at atmospheric conditions (LP). A copper diaphragm separated the HP autoclave from a 180 mm tube (PVC or acrylic glass) at ambient P, with the same internal diameter of the HP reservoir. Around the tube, a 30 cm-high acrylic glass cylinder, with the same section of the LP tank (40 cm), allowed the observation of the processes occurring downstream from the nozzle throat, and was large enough to act as an unconfined volume in which the initial diffracting shock and gas jet expand. All experiments were performed at Pres/Pamb ratios of 150:1. Two ambient conditions were used: dry air and air saturated with steam. Carbon fibers and glass spheres in a size range between 150 and 210 μm, were placed on a metal wire at the exit of the PVC tube. The sudden decompression of the Ar gas, due to the failure of the diaphragm, generated an initial air shock wave. A high-speed camera recorded the processes between the first 100 μsec and several ms after the diaphragm failure at frame rates ranging between 30,000 and 50,000 fps. In the experiments with ambient air saturated with steam, the high-speed camera allowed to visualize the condensation front associated with the initial air shock; a maximum velocity of 788 m/s was recorded, which decreases to 524 m/s at distance of 0.5 ±0.2 cm, 1.1 ms after the diaphragm rupture. The condensation front preceded the Ar jet front exhausting from the reservoir, by 0.2-0.5 ms. In all experiments particles velocities following the initial

  8. Associations of depressive symptoms with gender, body mass index and dyspnea in primary care COPD patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavannes, N.H.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Schermer, T.R.J.; Hendriks, A.; Weel, C. van; Wouters, E.F.M.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that severe COPD is associated with depressive symptoms, possibly linked to exacerbations, dyspnea and hospitalisation. However, scarce data are available in primary care where most patients suffer from mild or moderate disease. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to reveal

  9. Right sided arcus aorta as a cause of dyspnea and chronic cough

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    Ozkaya Sevket

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Right sided arcus aorta (RSAA is a rare condition that is usually asymptomatic. Patients may present with exertional dyspnea and chronic cough. A recent article suggested that RSAA should be included in the differential diagnosis of asthma, especially in patients with intractable exertional dyspnea. We aimed to present the clinical, radiologic and spirometric features of thirteen patients with RSAA observed in four years at the Rize Education and Research Hospital and Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital. Methods The characteristics of patients with RSAA, including age, gender, symptoms, radiologic and spirometric findings, were retrospectively evaluated. Results A total of thirteen patients were diagnosed with RSAA. Their ages ranged from 17 to 86 years and the male to female ratio was 11:2. Seven of the patients (54% were symptomatic. The most common symptoms were exertional dyspnea, dysphagia and chronic cough. Five patients had received treatment for asthma with bronchodilators. Spirometry showed intrathoracic tracheal obstruction in five patients. Conclusions The RSAA anomaly occurs more frequently than might be estimated from the number of patients who are detected. Patients with intractable exertional dyspnea and chronic cough should be evaluated for the RSAA anomaly by thoracic CT.

  10. Platypnea-orthodeoxia due to osteoporosis and severe kyphosis: a rare cause for dyspnea and hypoxemia

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    Gerian C. Groenefeld

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Platypnea orthodeoxia is a rare disorder characterised by dyspnea and arterial desaturation, exacerbated by the upright position and relieved when the subject is recumbent. We report the case of a 79-year old woman admitted to hospital with dyspnea who was thought to have restrictive ventilatory impairment due to osteoporosis and severe kyphosis. Interestingly, the dyspnea was aggravated in the upright position, whereas the symptoms improved in the supine position. Arterial blood gas analysis confirmed orthodeoxia. The lung function test showed only a mild obstructive and restrictive ventilation disorder. Echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale and an aneurysm of the atrial septum protruding into the left atrium, despite normal right atrial pressure. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a prominent Eustachian valve guiding a blood flow from the inferior vena cava directly onto the atrial septum, thereby pushing open the patent foramen ovale. Contrast-enhanced echocardiography confirmed a spontaneous right-to-left shunt through the patent foramen ovale. It was assumed that the platypnea-orthodeoxia was caused by a prominent Eustachian valve redirected to the patent foramen ovale as a result of severe osteoporosis with subsequent thoracic kyphosis and a change in the position of the entire heart. The patient underwent permanent transcatheter closure of the patent foramen ovale after hemodynamic assessment had confirmed a significant right-to-left shunt through it. After the procedure the arterial oxygen pressure increased significantly in the upright position and dyspnea improved.

  11. Qualitative aspects of exertional dyspnea in patients with restrictive lung disease

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    Laveneziana Pierantonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Restrictive lung disease is a broad term encompassing a number of conditions in which lung volumes are reduced. Dyspnea is a common clinical manifestation of restrictive lung disease and frequently becomes a prominent and disabling symptom that undermines patients' ability to function and engage in activities of daily living (especially in those with more advanced restriction. Effective management of this disabling symptom awaits a better understanding of its underlying physiology. In recent decades, our understanding of the mechanisms of dyspnea in restrictive lung disease has been improved by a small, but significant, body of research. One approach to the study of dyspnea is to identify the major qualitative dimensions of the symptom in an attempt to uncover different underlying neurophysiologic mechanisms. This article will review the existing literature on the intensity and qualitative dimensions of dyspnea during exercise in patients with restrictive lung disease. The main focus will be on interstitial lung disease (ILD, since it is the prototypical restrictive disease.

  12. The prognostic value of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin in the evaluation of acute dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Justin J; McCarthy, Matthew W

    2018-02-01

    Acute dyspnea is a common chief complaint among patients who visit an emergency room and presents diagnostic challenges for clinicians in both identifying the etiology and determining the clinical severity. The study of biomarkers in the prognostication and risk stratification of these patients has been increasing, including the investigation of the prognostic value for mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM). Areas covered: In this review, the authors cover what is known about MR-proADM testing in patients presenting with acute dyspnea and the supporting evidence of its prognostic value in common conditions in medical patients with acute dyspnea, including acute heart failure, community acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute pulmonary embolism. Expert commentary: Numerous studies have proposed MR-proADM as a more accurate, prognostic tool in the evaluation of acute dyspnea than other biomarkers and consensus risk scores such as Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and quick SOFA (qSOFA). The authors review recent prospective studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses that demonstrate its prognostic value and role in risk stratification, including its use in biomarker-based triage algorithms as part of the diagnostic evaluation of the acutely dyspneic patient.

  13. Respiratory muscle activity and dyspnea during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duiverman, M. L.; de Boer, E. W. J.; van Eykern, L. A.; de Greef, M. H. G.; Jansen, D. F.; Wempe, J. B.; Kerstjens, H. A. M.; Wijkstra, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine by non-invasive EMG, whether during exercise: (1)COPD patients increase scalene and intercostal EMG activity, (2) increased EMG activity is associated with increased dyspnea, and (3) the ratio between EMG activity and volume displacement is increased in COPD compared to healthy

  14. Exercise tolerance and dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekerevac Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Peripheral muscle weakness and nutritional disorders, firstly loss of body weight, are common findings in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of pulmonary function parameters, nutritional status and state of peripheral skeletal muscles on exercise tolerance and development of dyspnea in COPD patients. Methods. Thirty COPD patients in stable state of disease were analyzed. Standard pulmonary function tests, including spirometry, body pletysmography, and measurements of diffusion capacity were performed. The 6-minute walking distance test (6MWD was done in order to assess exercise tolerance. Level of dyspnea was measured with Borg scale. In all patients midthigh muscle cross-sectional area (MTCSA was measured by computerized tomography scan. Nutritional status of patients was estimated according to body mass index (BMI. Results. Statistically significant correlations were found between parameters of pulmonary function and exercise tolerance. Level of airflow limitation and lung hyperinflation had significant impact on development of dyspnea at rest and especially after exercise. Significant positive correlation was found between MTCSA and exercise tolerance. Patients with more severe airflow limitation, lung hyperinflation and reduced diffusion capacity had significantly lower MTCSA. Conclusion. Exercise tolerance in COPD patients depends on severity of bronchoobstruction, lung hyperinflation and MTCSA. Severity of bronchoobstruction and lung hyperinflation have significant impact on dyspnea level.

  15. An experimental study on renal damage induced by melamine cyanurate

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    Guan-tian YU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the nephrotoxicity of melamine cyanurate in SD rats.Methods Ninety SPF SD rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups(30 each according to the doses of melamine cyanurate they received(0,200,400mg/kg,which were repectively given daily by gavage for 60 consecutive days.Six rats in each group were confined in metabolism cages for the first week,and urine samples were collected over a 24h period.Before drug administration,the blood samples and kidney pathology were evaluated in 6 rats of each group on day 4,14,31,45 and 60 to determine serum creatinine,blood urea nitrogen(BUN,serum uric acid and serum cystatin C.Results The urine volume of rats was significantly higher in 200mg/kg group than in normal controls(P < 0.05,while no statistical difference was found between 400mg/kg and control group.After administration of melamine cyanurate,the levels that of serum cystatin C increased significantly,while that of serum uric acid decreased markedly,as compared with the control group(P < 0.05.Significantly higher levels of BUN,serum cystatin C and creatinine were found in 200 mg/kg group(30-60 days and 400mg/kg group(4th day compared with that of control group(P < 0.01.On the 2nd day,specific crystals were found in the urinary sediment smears of melamine cyanurate group.The pathological changes in kidney included yellow discoloration and edema of the organ in 200mg/kg group(since 31st day and 400mg/kg group(since 4th day.Examination of pathological sections showed that there was deposition of a number of yellow,semi-transparent and concentric round crystals in renal tubules.Conclusions Administration of melamine cyanurate by gavage may induce crystal formation and cause renal dysfunction.Meanwhile,melamine cyanurate may have some diuretic function,thereby influence the metabolism and decrease the concentration of uric acid in blood.

  16. Accuracy of Nurse-Performed Lung Ultrasound in Patients With Acute Dyspnea: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumoli, Nicola; Vitale, Josè; Giorgi-Pierfranceschi, Matteo; Cresci, Alessandra; Cei, Marco; Basile, Valentina; Brondi, Barbara; Russo, Elisa; Giuntini, Lucia; Masi, Lorenzo; Cocciolo, Massimo; Dentali, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In clinical practice lung ultrasound (LUS) is becoming an easy and reliable noninvasive tool for the evaluation of dyspnea. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of nurse-performed LUS, in particular, in the diagnosis of acute cardiogenic pulmonary congestion. We prospectively evaluated all the consecutive patients admitted for dyspnea in our Medicine Department between April and July 2014. At admission, serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and LUS was performed by trained nurses blinded to clinical and laboratory data. The accuracy of nurse-performed LUS alone and combined with BNP for the diagnosis of acute cardiogenic dyspnea was calculated. Two hundred twenty-six patients (41.6% men, mean age 78.7 ± 12.7 years) were included in the study. Nurse-performed LUS alone had a sensitivity of 95.3% (95% CI: 92.6-98.1%), a specificity of 88.2% (95% CI: 84.0-92.4%), a positive predictive value of 87.9% (95% CI: 83.7-92.2%) and a negative predictive value of 95.5% (95% CI: 92.7-98.2%). The combination of nurse-performed LUS with BNP level (cut-off 400 pg/mL) resulted in a higher sensitivity (98.9%, 95% CI: 97.4-100%), negative predictive value (98.8%, 95% CI: 97.2-100%), and corresponding negative likelihood ratio (0.01, 95% CI: 0.0, 0.07). Nurse-performed LUS had a good accuracy in the diagnosis of acute cardiogenic dyspnea. Use of this technique in combination with BNP seems to be useful in ruling out cardiogenic dyspnea. Other studies are warranted to confirm our preliminary findings and to establish the role of this tool in other settings.

  17. Efficacy of guided imagery with theta music for advanced cancer patients with dyspnea: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Shu; Chao, Co-Shi Chantal; Yang, Wan-Ping; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2010-10-01

    Dyspnea is a frequent and devastating symptom among advanced cancer patients for which improved and low-cost palliative techniques are needed. A one-group repeated measures research design investigated the efficacy of guided imagery (GI) with theta music (M) on dyspnea in advanced cancer patients. The intervention consisted of four periods: (a) pretest; (b) intervention with peaceful non-M; (c) intervention with 10 min of GI with M (GI/M), with the first and last 3 min being M only (i.e., the middle 4 min was GI/M); and (d) posttest. Dyspnea outcome was measured with the Modified Borg Scale (MBS) for self-reported evaluation of dyspneic symptoms. Physiological parameters measured were pulse oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), end-tidal CO( 2) (EtCO(2)), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR). Posttest qualitative data were obtained via interview for subjective patient experience. Participants included 53 patients, 33% with lung cancer. GI/M produced a significant decrease in MBS scores; 90% of the subjects gave positive qualitative reviews of GI/M. SpO(2) did not change significantly over time. GI/M significantly increased EtCO(2), decreased RR, and decreased HR. This study demonstrates that GI/M is a useful intervention for palliative care of patients with dyspnea. M alone was demonstrated to be effective, while soothing non-M was not effective. GI/M was more effective than M alone. GI/M should be considered low-cost end-of-life palliative care for dyspnea.

  18. Inhaled morphine for palliation of dyspnea in end-stage cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Don; Anstead, Michael I; Warner, Rena T; Kuhn, Robert J; Ballard, Hubert O

    2010-05-01

    The successful use of inhaled morphine to relieve dyspnea in a patient with end-stage cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is described. A 48-year-old man with CF was hospitalized for a pulmonary exacerbation caused by infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). His medical history included long-standing depression, chronic pain, spinal stenosis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, iron-deficiency anemia, and colectomy. Over the two previous years, his chronic pain had progressively worsened, and he had developed narcotic dependency. The etiology of his pain was unclear. During this time, his pulmonary status had slowly deteriorated due to chronic infection with P. aeruginosa and MRSA. As his lung function had deteriorated, he and his family had declined consideration for lung transplantation and requested no heroic interventions when death was imminent. His medications at time of admission included supplemental oxygen, dornase alfa, ipratropium bromide, and albuterol. The opioids used by the patient at the time of admission included oral methadone, oral oxycodone, transdermal fentanyl, and oral morphine sulfate. Upon admission with this pulmonary exacerbation, the patient was started on antibiotics. His pain was eventually controlled with i.v. methadone and ketamine, but his dyspnea continued. Inhaled morphine sulfate 2 mg in 5 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection was started and administered every four hours. Clinically significant improvements in the patient's dyspnea, measured using a modified Borg score, were observed with subsequent doses. His dyspnea remained well controlled until his death two days later. Inhaled morphine was effective in relieving dyspnea in a patient with end-stage CF lung disease.

  19. Pulmonary vascular volume, impaired left ventricular filling and dyspnea: The MESA Lung Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Carrie P; Hoffman, Eric A; Lima, Joao A C; Kawut, Steven M; Bertoni, Alain G; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Habibi, Mohammadali; Hueper, Katja; Jacobs, David R; Kalhan, Ravi; Michos, Erin D; Post, Wendy S; Prince, Martin R; Smith, Benjamin M; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Liu, Chia-Ying; Zemrak, Filip; Watson, Karol E; Budoff, Matthew; Bluemke, David A; Barr, R Graham

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of impaired left ventricular (LV) filling has focused on intrinsic causes of LV dysfunction; however, pulmonary vascular changes may contribute to reduced LV filling and dyspnea. We hypothesized that lower total pulmonary vascular volume (TPVV) on computed tomography (CT) would be associated with dyspnea and decrements in LV end-diastolic volume, particularly among ever-smokers. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited adults without clinical cardiovascular disease in 2000-02. In 2010-12, TPVV was ascertained as the volume of arteries and veins in the lungs detectable on non-contrast chest CT (vessels ≥1 mm diameter). Cardiac measures were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dyspnea was self-reported. Of 2303 participants, 53% had ever smoked cigarettes. Among ever-smokers, a lower TPVV was associated with a lower LV end-diastolic volume (6.9 mL per SD TPVV), stroke volume, and cardiac output and with dyspnea (all P-values lung disease and those with 0-10 pack-years but were mostly non-significant among never-smokers. TPVV was associated smaller left atrial volume but not with LV ejection fraction or MRI measures of impaired LV relaxation. In a second sample of ever-smokers, a lower pulmonary microvascular blood volume on contrast-enhanced MRI was also associated with a lower LV end-diastolic volume (P-value = 0.008). Reductions in pulmonary vascular volume were associated with lower LV filling and dyspnea among ever-smokers, including those without lung disease, suggesting that smoking-related pulmonary vascular changes may contribute to symptoms and impair cardiac filling and function without evidence of impaired LV relaxation.

  20. Caring for dying patients in the intensive care unit: managing pain, dyspnea, anxiety, delirium, and death rattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Margaret L

    2015-01-01

    Critically ill patients receiving palliative care at the end of life are at high risk for experiencing pain, dyspnea, and death rattle. Nearly all these patients are at risk for the development of delirium. Patients who are alert may experience anxiety. Advanced practice nurses and staff nurses are integral to detecting and treating these symptoms. Pain, dyspnea, and anxiety should be routinely assessed by patient self-report when possible. Routine behavioral screening for delirium is recommended. Behavioral observation tools to detect pain and dyspnea and proxy assessments guide symptom identification when the patient cannot provide a self-report. Evidence-based interventions are offered for both prevention and treatment of pain, dyspnea, anxiety, and delirium. Death rattle does not produce patient distress, and current pharmacological treatment lacks an evidence base. Pain management has a robust evidence base compared to management of dyspnea, anxiety, and delirium among this population; well-designed, adequately powered studies are needed.

  1. Impact of Blunted Perception of Dyspnea on Medical Care Use and Expenditure, and Mortality in Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eEbihara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea is an alarming symptom responsible for millions of patient visits each year. Poor perception of dyspnea might be reasonably attributed to an inappropriately low level of fear and inadequate earlier medical treatment for both patients and physicians, resulting in subsequent intensive care. This study was conducted to evaluate medical care use and cost, and mortality according to the perception of dyspnea in community-dwelling elderly people. We analyzed baseline data from a community-based Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA in 2002. The perception of dyspnea in 479 Japanese community-dwelling elderly people with normal lung function was measured in August 2002. The sensation of dyspnea during breathing with a linear inspiratory resistance of 10, 20 and 30 cmH2O/L/s was rated using the Borg scale. According to the perception of dyspnea, we divided the elderly into tertiles and compared all hospitalizations, out-patient visits, costs and death through computerized linkage with National Health Insurance (NHI beneficiaries claims history files between August 2002 and March 2008. In-patient hospitalization days and medical care costs significantly increased with the blunted perception of dyspnea, resulting in an increase in total medical-costs with blunted perception of dyspnea. With low perception group as reference, the hazard ratios of all cause mortality were 0.65 (95%CI 0.23-1.89 for intermediate perception group and 0.31(0.10-0.97 for high perception group, indicating the mortality rate also significantly increased with the blunted perception of dyspnea after multivariates adjustment (p=0.04. The blunted perception of dyspnea is related to hospitalization, large medical costs and all-cause mortality in community-dwelling elderly people. These findings provide a rational for preventing serious illness with careful monitoring of objective conditions in the elderly.

  2. Experimental gastric ulcers induced by immobilization and electric shock of rats and their pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrodin, O. N.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism of development of experimental gastric ulcers, induced in rats by combined immobilization and electric shock, was analyzed pharmacologically with peripheral neurotropic agents. It is concluded that: (1) The most marked preventive effect in the development of the experimentally induced gastric ulcers was displayed by agents capable of blocking the ascending activation system of the reticular formation. (2) Sympathetic fibers, which disrupt the trophism of the gastric wall, form the efferent portion of the reflex arc. (3) Gastric secretion does not appear to be the primary cause of ulceration.

  3. Cardioprotective effect of amlodipine in oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhira Begum

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the administration of amlodipine ameliorates oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats. Adrenaline was administered and myocardial damage was evaluated biochemically [significantly increased serum aspertate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels of myocardial tissue] and histologically (morphological changes of myocardium. Amlodipine was administered as pretreatment for 14 days in adrenaline treated rats. Statistically significant amelioration in all the biochemical parameters supported by significantly improved myocardial morphology was observed in amlodipine pretreatment. It was concluded that amlodipine afforded cardioprotection by reducing oxidative stress induced in experimental myocardial infarction of catecholamine assault.

  4. Histometric assessment of the effect of diabetes mellitus on experimentally induced periodontitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepelassi, Eudoxie; Xynogala, Ioanna; Perrea, Despina; Agrogiannis, George; Pantopoulou, Alkistis; Patsouris, Efstratios; Vrotsos, Ioannis

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this interventional animal study was to assess histologically the effect of experimental diabetes in rats with experimental periodontitis in terms of alveolar bone loss and the effect of experimental periodontitis on glucose levels in diabetes. Forty-seven Wistar rats were studied: 12 healthy controls (C), 10 with experimental diabetes (D), 12 with experimental diabetes and experimental periodontitis (DP) and 13 with experimental periodontitis (P). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection and periodontitis was induced at the right second maxillary molar by ligation. Serum glucose levels were measured at specific time points. Sixty-one days after ligation, the rats were sacrificed. Histometric analysis assessed alveolar crest level. For ligated groups, alveolar bone loss was expressed as the difference in alveolar crest level between right and left maxillary molars. Diabetes alone did not statistically significantly affect alveolar crest level. The combination of diabetes and periodontitis caused greater alveolar bone loss (946.1 +/- 719.9 microm) than periodontitis alone (639.7 +/- 294.2 microm); however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Periodontitis did not significantly increase glucose levels in diabetic rats. The average glucose levels were 545.4 (499 - 563) and 504.5 (445 - 560) mg/dL for diabetic and diabetic ligated rats, respectively. Within its limits, this study demonstrated that the severity of alveolar bone loss in periodontitis was not significantly aggravated by diabetes and the serum glucose levels in diabetes were not affected by periodontitis.

  5. Cowhage-induced itch as an experimental model for pruritus. A comparative study with histamine-induced itch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru D P Papoiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histamine is the prototypical pruritogen used in experimental itch induction. However, in most chronic pruritic diseases, itch is not predominantly mediated by histamine. Cowhage-induced itch, on the other hand, seems more characteristic of itch occurring in chronic pruritic diseases. OBJECTIVES: We tested the validity of cowhage as an itch-inducing agent by contrasting it with the classical itch inducer, histamine, in healthy subjects and atopic dermatitis (AD patients. We also investigated whether there was a cumulative effect when both agents were combined. METHODS: Fifteen healthy individuals and fifteen AD patients were recruited. Experimental itch induction was performed in eczema-free areas on the volar aspects of the forearm, using different itch inducers: histamine, cowhage and their combination thereof. Itch intensity was assessed continuously for 5.5 minutes after stimulus application using a computer-assisted visual analogue scale (COVAS. RESULTS: In both healthy and AD subjects, the mean and peak intensity of itch were higher after the application of cowhage compared to histamine, and were higher after the combined application of cowhage and histamine, compared to histamine alone (p<0.0001 in all cases. Itch intensity ratings were not significantly different between healthy and AD subjects for the same itch inducer used; however AD subjects exhibited a prolonged itch response in comparison to healthy subjects (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Cowhage induced a more intense itch sensation compared to histamine. Cowhage was the dominant factor in itch perception when both pathways were stimulated in the same time. Cowhage-induced itch is a suitable model for the study of itch in AD and other chronic pruritic diseases, and it can serve as a new model for testing antipruritic drugs in humans.

  6. Experimentally induced stress in rheumatoid arthritis of recent onset: effects on peripheral blood lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, R.; Godaert, G. L.; Heijnen, C. J.; Vianen, M. E.; Wenting, M. J.; Nederhoff, M. G.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    To examine the effects of experimentally-induced stress on the mobilization of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of recent onset. Twenty-two (16 F, 6 M) patients (mean age 57.6 yrs.) and 23 (15 F, 8 M) healthy subjects (mean age 54.7 yrs.) were subjected

  7. Astrocytes and microglia express inducible nitric oxide synthase in mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, E H; Hardin-Pouzet, H; Verge, G

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), may play a role in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We show upregulation of iNOS mRNA in CNS of SJL/J mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using antibodies against mouse i...

  8. Diet shifts and population dynamics of estuarine foraminifera during ecosystem recovery after experimentally induced hypoxia crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, G.M.; Duijnstee, Ivo; Hazeleger, J.H.; Rossi, F.; Lourens, L.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Wolthers, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study shows foraminiferal dynamics after experimentally induced hypoxia within the wider context of ecosystem recovery. 13C-labeled bicarbonate and glucose were added to the sediments to examine foraminiferal diet shifts during ecosystem recovery and test-size measurements were used to deduce

  9. An experimental model of rhinovirus induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallia Patrick

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute exacerbations of COPD are a major cause of morbidity, mortality and hospitalisation. Respiratory viruses are associated with the majority of exacerbations but a causal relationship has not been demonstrated and the mechanisms of virus-induced exacerbations are poorly understood. Development of a human experimental model would provide evidence of causation and would greatly facilitate understanding mechanisms, but no such model exists. Methods We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of developing an experimental model of rhinovirus induced COPD exacerbations and to assess safety of rhinovirus infection in COPD patients. We carried out a pilot virus dose escalating study to assess the minimum dose of rhinovirus 16 required to induce experimental rhinovirus infection in subjects with COPD (GOLD stage II. Outcomes were assessed by monitoring of upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, lung function, and virus replication and inflammatory responses in nasal lavage. Results All 4 subjects developed symptomatic colds with the lowest dose of virus tested, associated with evidence of viral replication and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in nasal lavage. These were accompanied by significant increases in lower respiratory tract symptoms and reductions in PEF and FEV1. There were no severe exacerbations or other adverse events. Conclusion Low dose experimental rhinovirus infection in patients with COPD induces symptoms and lung function changes typical of an acute exacerbation of COPD, appears safe, and provides preliminary evidence of causation.

  10. Status of experimental data of proton-induced reactions for intermediate-energy nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Yamano, Naoki; Fukahori, Tokio

    1998-11-01

    The present status of experimental data of proton-induced reactions is reviewed, with particular attention to total reaction cross section, elastic and inelastic scattering cross section, double-differential particle production cross section, isotope production cross section, and activation cross section. (author)

  11. Bone marrow-derived versus parenchymal sources of inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonniere, Lyne; Hassan-Zahraee, Mina

    2004-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation is uncertain. Whereas experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is exacerbated in mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), inhibitor studies have suggested a pro-inflammatory role for NO. These discr...

  12. Experimental coronary sclerosis induced by immobilization of rabbits: A new model of arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyavokin, V. V.; Tjawokin, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for producing arteriosclerosis with coronary insufficiency in rabbits by means of immobilization is described and discussed. The experimentally induced atherosclerosis develops due to hypodynamics imposed by the reduced muscular activity without overloading with exogenous cholesterol. The atherosclerosis and coronary insufficiency are associated. With variations in the duration and extent of immobilization, coronary insufficiency alone or with atherosclerosis can be produced.

  13. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Shock-Induced Reactions in Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Jeffrey J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kohl, Ian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knepper, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farrow, Darcie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tappan, Alexander S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In this work, shock-induced reactions in high explosives and their chemical mechanisms were investigated using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Experimentally, ultrafast shock interrogation (USI, an ultrafast interferometry technique) and ultrafast absorption spectroscopy were used to interrogate shock compression and initiation of reaction on the picosecond timescale. The experiments yielded important new data that appear to indicate reaction of high explosives on the timescale of tens of picoseconds in response to shock compression, potentially setting new upper limits on the timescale of reaction. Theoretically, chemical mechanisms of shock-induced reactions were investigated using density functional theory. The calculations generated important insights regarding the ability of several hypothesized mechanisms to account for shock-induced reactions in explosive materials. The results of this work constitute significant advances in our understanding of the fundamental chemical reaction mechanisms that control explosive sensitivity and initiation of detonation.

  14. Mediastinal liposarcoma in a 30-year-old woman with dyspnea and chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernández-Tena, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediastinal liposarcoma (ML is a rare mesenchymal tumor, accounting for less than 1% of mediastinal tumors. They have a slow growth, so they may not give symptoms for a long time, until the tumor produces compression of close structures. The treatment of choice is surgery, which can be combined with chemo-radiotherapy. We present a case in which the diagnosis of a ML was made in a 30-year-old woman with dyspnea and chest pain.

  15. A Case of Dyspnea in Pancreatic cancer Treated through Herbal Acupunture Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Park Sang-Eun; Seo Sang-Ho; Hong Su-hyun; Kim Jae-Yeon; Shin Won-Tak; Youn Hyoun-Min; Hong Sang-Hoon

    2006-01-01

    Objective : This study planed to evaluate effect of oriental medicine therapy treatment method of dyspnea that happen from cancer of the pancreas patient who accompany Multiple metasis Methods : Patient complained dyspnoea during admission into dept . Of internal medicine, college of oriental medicine, Dong-eui Univ ,was appealed patient treated by Oriental medicine therapy that is of use Herb Medication and Herbal -acupuncture Treatment being diagnosed in lung asthenia including deficienc...

  16. Relationship Among Pulmonary Hypertension, Autoimmunity, Thyroid Hormones and Dyspnea in Patients With Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhur, Sayid Shafi; Baykiz, Derya; Kara, Sonat Pinar; Sahin, Ertan; Kuzu, Idris; Elbuken, Gulsah

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have reported conflicting results regarding the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) in patients with hyperthyroidism. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the association between PHT and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody, thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody, TSH, fT3, fT4 and dyspnea during daily activities in a large population of patients with hyperthyroidism. A total of 129 consecutive patients with hyperthyroidism, 37 with hypothyroidism and 38 euthyroid controls were enrolled in this study. The modified medical research council scale was used for the assessment of dyspnea in daily activities. All the patients and euthyroid controls underwent transthoracic echocardiography for the assessment of PHT. Mild PHT was present in 35%, 36%, 13.5% and 5% of the patients with Graves׳ disease, toxic multinodular goiter, hypothyroidism and euthyroid controls, respectively. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was higher in hyperthyroid patients with PHT than in those without PHT. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between modified medical research council scale and pulmonary artery systolic pressure as well as PVR in patients with hyperthyroidism. No association was found between PHT and serum TSH receptor antibody, thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody, TSH, fT3 and fT4 levels. Mild PHT is present in a significant proportion of patients with hyperthyroidism, regardless of etiology. PVR appears to be the main cause of PHT in patients with hyperthyroidism, and neither autoimmunity nor thyroid hormones are associated with PHT in these patients. Mild dyspnea during daily activities in patients with hyperthyroidism may be related to PHT; however, severe dyspnea requires further evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pain and dyspnea control in cancer patients of an urgency setting: nursing intervention results

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Ana Filipa Nunes; Tavares, Ana Patricia Marques; Mendonça, Susana Maria Sobral

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To outline best practices guidelines to control pain and dyspnea of cancer patients in an urgency setting. CONTENTS: PI[C]O question, with resource to EBSCO (Medline with Full Text, CINAHL, Plus with Full Text, British Nursing Index), retrospectively from September 2009 to 2014 and guidelines issued by reference entities: Oncology Nursing Society (2011), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2011; 2014) and Cancer Care Ontario (2010), with a total of 15 ...

  18. Evaluation of eight biomarkers to predict short-term mortality in patients with acute severe dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara-Somohano, Claire; Bonadona, Agnès; Carpentier, Françoise; Pavese, Patricia; Vesin, Aurélien; Hamidfar-Roy, Rebecca; Minet, Clémence; Vanzetto, Gerald; Schwebel, Carole; Timsit, Jean-Francois

    2017-08-01

    Being able to better predict risk and optimal care for patients presenting with acute dyspnea is critical. Prognostic biomarkers are well known: amino-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide, troponin, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin. Some were more recently developed: mid-regional pro-A-type natriuretic peptide (Mid Pro-ANP), mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), pro-endothelin, copeptin. The aim of the paper was to evaluate prognostic value of clinical findings and 8 biomarkers in patients with severe acute dyspnea. We designed a prospective cohort study targeting patients admitted in the Emergency Department and in Intensive Care Unit of a University Hospital. Inclusion criteria were acute dyspnea with SpO2 less than 92% and/or respiratory rate (RR) greater than or equal to 25 bpm. Clinical and biological data, including biomarker levels, were recorded. The contribution of the biomarkers in the prognosis was assessed using AUC-ROC curves and by multiple logistic regression. Three hundred and eighty four patients (median age 74 years, 28-day mortality 17%) were enrolled. All biomarkers were available for 317 patients. Main diagnoses were sepsis in 141 cases (36.7%), and acute heart failure in 84 (21.9%) cases. All biomarkers were correlated with prognosis. Pro-ADM (AUC-ROC=0.731; 95% CI: 0.658-0.804) showed the best accuracy. The parameters independently associated with prognosis led to a clinical/biological model with an AUC=0.809 and a good calibration (P (HLchi2)=0.9). Three biomarkers added prognostic information to the model: MR-proADM (P=0.005), copeptin (P=0.006) and troponin (P=0.05). Biomarkers can contribute to determine the day-28 outcome of patients with acute severe dyspnea.

  19. The effect of preferred music genre selection versus preferred song selection on experimentally induced anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy DeLoach

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of experimentally induced anxiety levels reached by subjects listening to no music (n = 30), subjects listening to music selected by the experimenter from the subject's preferred genre or artist listed as relaxing (n = 30), and subjects listening to a specific song they listed as relaxing (n = 30). Subjects consisted of 90 individuals, male and female, randomly assigned to one of the three groups mentioned above. Subjects in either music group filled out a questionnaire prior to participating in the study indicating their preference of music used for relaxation purposes. Subjects in Experimental Group 1 marked their preferred genres and/or artists, and Experimental Group 2 marked specific songs used for relaxation purposes. While the experimenter hypothesized subjects in Experimental Group 2 would show less anxiety than both the control group and Experimental Group 1, there were no significant differences found between the 2 music groups in anxiety levels reached. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the no music control group and both music groups in the anxiety level reached by subjects. Subjects listening to music, both songs chosen by the experimenter and subject selected songs, showed significantly less anxiety than subjects not listening to music.

  20. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... with dyspnea, left ventricular hypertrophy and/or systolic dysfunction was associated with a 2.6-fold increase in plasma proBNP concentration (p ...% to 17%). CONCLUSIONS: In the general population with dyspnea, plasma proBNP concentrations are increased in left ventricular dilatation, hypertrophy, systolic dysfunction, or diastolic dysfunction, but are unaffected by pulmonary dysfunction....

  1. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and dyspnea in air pollution-related respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naomi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Yano, Yudai; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Kotaki, Kenji; Kitagawa, Chika; Rikitomi, Naoto; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in Japan caused respiratory disease, such as chronic bronchitis and asthma, in many individuals in the 1960s. Although air pollution has decreased, many victims of air pollution-related respiratory disease are limited in their activities of daily living because of respiratory symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in victims of air pollution-related chronic bronchitis or asthma. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week (2-week inpatient followed by 10-week outpatient) pulmonary rehabilitation program. The program comprised conditioning, strength training, endurance training, and patient education. We assessed the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea grade, pulmonary function, peripheral muscle force, incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD), and physical activity at baseline and immediately after the program. Twenty-nine subjects (mean age 74.2 ± 10.1 years, 11 males) completed the program, including 11 subjects with COPD and 18 subjects with asthma. Following rehabilitation, the participants (n = 29) showed significant improvements in MMRC dyspnea grade, vital capacity % predicted, quadriceps force and ISWD (all P rehabilitation is an effective method of improving exercise capacity and dyspnea in officially acknowledged victims of air pollution-related asthma. In conclusion, we recommend that patients with chronic bronchitis or asthma, resulting from exposure to air pollution, are referred for pulmonary rehabilitation.

  2. Acupuncture Treatment for Dyspnea due to Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto-Miyazaki, Jun; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Nishiwaki, Ayuko; Endo, Junki; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Ohno, Yasushi; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2015-12-01

    Combined idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with pulmonary emphysema (CPFE) is a syndrome with a characteristic presentation of upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a major symptom of CPFE. We report a patient with DOE due to CPFE who was successfully treated with acupuncture. Case report. A 72-year-old Japanese man with a 4-year history of DOE was diagnosed with CPFE 2 years previously in another hospital. He received standard Western medicine treatment, which included bronchodilators. However, his DOE did not improve. Consequently, he visited our hospital for acupuncture treatment and received acupuncture treatment once a week for 1 year. After 10 weeks of acupuncture treatment, the results of the 6-minute walk test (6-minute walking distance, 379 m; lowest oxygen saturation, 86%; modified Borg dyspnea scale score: 2 units) were better than those at baseline (352 m, 84%, 4 units, respectively). These values were sustained at both 30 weeks (470 m, 88%, 1 unit) and 60 weeks (473 m, 85%, 2 units). Serum interstitial biomarkers, Krebs von den Lungen and surfactant protein-D, decreased after commencement of acupuncture therapy. A patient with CPFE showed improvements in dyspnea scores, exercise tolerance, and serum biomarkers during a 1-year course of acupuncture treatment. Use of acupuncture might be an effective adjunct therapy in relieving DOE due to CPFE. A large, well-designed cohort study that includes patients with CPFE treated with acupuncture should be conducted.

  3. Dalhousie Dyspnea and perceived exertion scales: psychophysical properties in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, Paolo T; Huebner, Marianne; Zhang, Zhen; McGrath, Patrick J

    2014-08-01

    Children and adolescents vary widely in their perception of, or capacity to rate, sensations during exercise using the Borg scale. We sought to measure sensory-perceptual responses obtained using Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales in 79 pediatric subjects during maximal exercise challenge and to determine the psychophysical function relationship(s). Concurrent validity was assessed by canonical plots of mean ratings on either scale, which showed showing very good correlations for perceived leg exertion vs work, and dyspnea vs ventilation. Both scales yielded similar results with respect to goodness of fit regardless of whether data was fitted to a power or quadratic function provided a delay term was included. The quadratic model fixed the exponent of the power law at 2 but, unlike a power model, allowed characterization of individual responses that increased and then plateaued. Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales offer an alternative to Borg scale during exercise in pediatric populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis modulate soy bean derived isoflavone biotransformation in diary cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk-Zieba, I; Woclawek-Potocka, I; Piskula, M K; Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Boruszewska, D; Bah, M M; Siemieniuch, M J; Skarzynski, D J

    2011-12-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis after feeding with soy bean. Sixteen cows were divided into four groups: control for mastitis group, cows with induced mastitis group, control for metritis group, and cows with induced metritis group. All cows were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on HPLC system. β-Glucuronidase activity in the blood plasma of cows was measured by fluorometric method. In the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis, we found considerably higher concentrations and time-dependent increase in isoflavone metabolites (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) with reference to cyclic cows (P cows with induced metritis compared with control cows (P cows with induced metritis, we found an increase in β-glucuronidase activity compared with control cows (P cows. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis increased isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism. Therefore, we suggest that cows with induced mastitis and metritis are more exposed to active isoflavone metabolite actions than healthy cows. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Ischemic conditioning protects from axoglial alterations of the optic pathway induced by experimental diabetes in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego C Fernandez

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness. Visual function disorders have been demonstrated in diabetics even before the onset of retinopathy. At early stages of experimental diabetes, axoglial alterations occur at the distal portion of the optic nerve. Although ischemic conditioning can protect neurons and synaptic terminals against ischemic damage, there is no information on its ability to protect axons. We analyzed the effect of ischemic conditioning on the early axoglial alterations in the distal portion of the optic nerve induced by experimental diabetes. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Retinal ischemia was induced by increasing intraocular pressure to 120 mm Hg for 5 min; this maneuver started 3 days after streptozotocin injection and was weekly repeated in one eye, while the contralateral eye was submitted to a sham procedure. The application of ischemia pulses prevented a deficit in the anterograde transport from the retina to the superior colliculus, as well as an increase in astrocyte reactivity, ultraestructural myelin alterations, and altered morphology of oligodendrocyte lineage in the optic nerve distal portion at early stages of experimental diabetes. Ischemia tolerance prevented a significant decrease of retinal glutamine synthetase activity induced by diabetes. These results suggest that early vision loss in diabetes could be abated by ischemic conditioning which preserved axonal function and structure.

  6. Ischemic conditioning protects from axoglial alterations of the optic pathway induced by experimental diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Diego C; Pasquini, Laura A; Dorfman, Damián; Aldana Marcos, Hernán J; Rosenstein, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness. Visual function disorders have been demonstrated in diabetics even before the onset of retinopathy. At early stages of experimental diabetes, axoglial alterations occur at the distal portion of the optic nerve. Although ischemic conditioning can protect neurons and synaptic terminals against ischemic damage, there is no information on its ability to protect axons. We analyzed the effect of ischemic conditioning on the early axoglial alterations in the distal portion of the optic nerve induced by experimental diabetes. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Retinal ischemia was induced by increasing intraocular pressure to 120 mm Hg for 5 min; this maneuver started 3 days after streptozotocin injection and was weekly repeated in one eye, while the contralateral eye was submitted to a sham procedure. The application of ischemia pulses prevented a deficit in the anterograde transport from the retina to the superior colliculus, as well as an increase in astrocyte reactivity, ultraestructural myelin alterations, and altered morphology of oligodendrocyte lineage in the optic nerve distal portion at early stages of experimental diabetes. Ischemia tolerance prevented a significant decrease of retinal glutamine synthetase activity induced by diabetes. These results suggest that early vision loss in diabetes could be abated by ischemic conditioning which preserved axonal function and structure.

  7. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough.

  8. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  9. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borel B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Borel,1,2 Courtney A Wilkinson-Maitland,3 Alan Hamilton,4 Jean Bourbeau,5 Hélène Perrault,6 Dennis Jensen,3,5,7 François Maltais2 1Laboratoire HAVAE, Université de Limoges, Limoges, France; 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, 3Clinical Exercise and Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montréal, QC, 4Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada Limited, Burlington, ON, 5Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 7Translational Research in Respiratory Diseases Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods: A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7, % predicted performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg/salbutamol (2.5 mg and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results: A total of 37 (92.5%, 36 (90%, 34 (85% and 27 (67.5% patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01 and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale

  10. Benefits of short inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, dyspnea, and inspiratory fraction in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Shahin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Barakat Shahin1, Michele Germain2, Alzahouri Kazem3, Guy Annat41Department of Physiology, University of Claude Bernard Lyon I, Lyon, France; 2Chef of the Service of EFR, Hospital of the Croix-Rousse at Lyon, France; 3Department of Medical Informatics, Hospital of St. Julien, Nancy, France; 4Department of Physiology, UFR Médecine Lyon Grange-Blanche Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, INSERM ESPRI ERI 22, Lyon, FranceAbstract: Static lung hyperinflation has important clinical consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Given that most of these patients have respiratory and peripheral muscle weakness, dyspnea and functional exercise capacity may improve as a result of inspiratory muscle training (IMT. The present study is designed to investigate the benefits of a short outpatient program of IMT on inspiratory muscle performance, exercise capacity, perception of dyspnea, and the inspiratory fraction (IF. Thirty patients (24 males, 6 females with significant COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] = 46.21% ± 6.7% predicted, FEV1 = 33.6% ± 8.04% predicted were recruited for this study and had 3 months of IMT (30 minutes/day for 6 days/week in an outpatient clinic. Following IMT, there was a statistically significant increase in inspiratory muscle performance (an increase of the maximal inspiratory pressure from 59% ± 19.1% to 79% ± 21.85% predicted; p = 0.0342, a decrease in dyspnea (from 5.8 ± 0.78 to 1.9 ± 0.57; p = 0.0001, an increase in the distance walked during the 6 minute walk test, from 245 ± 52.37 m to 302 ± 41.30 m, and finally an increase in the IF (the new prognostic factor in COPD from 27.6 ± 9.7% to 31.4% ± 9.8%. The present study concludes that in patients with significant COPD, IMT results in improvement in performance, exercise capacity, sensation of dyspnea, and moreover an improvement in the IF prognostic factor.Keywords: inspiratory muscle training, dyspnea, inspiratory

  11. Microbiological profile and calprotectin expression in naturally occurring and experimentally induced gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Roberto; Guarnelli, Maria Elena; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the microbiological profile and the calprotectin expression in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in spontaneous and experimentally induced gingival inflammation. Thirty-seven periodontally healthy subjects were evaluated in real life conditions (N-O gingivitis) as well as after 21 days of experimental gingivitis trial (E-I gingivitis). During the experimental gingivitis trial, in one maxillary quadrant (test quadrant), gingival inflammation was induced by oral hygiene abstention, while in the contralateral (control) quadrant, oral hygiene was routinely continued. The results of the study showed that (1) the microbiological profile of quadrants where gingival inflammation was experimentally induced (i.e., E-I test quadrants) differed significantly from that of either quadrants where gingival inflammation was controlled by proper plaque control (i.e., E-I control quadrants) or quadrants with N-O gingivitis, and (2) GCF calprotectin was significantly higher at E-I test quadrants compared to either E-I control quadrants or quadrants with N-O gingivitis. A positive intrasubject correlation was found between GCF concentration of calprotectin at sites presenting N-O and E-I gingivitis. N-O and E-I gingivitis showed a different microbiological profile of the subgingival environment. GCF calprotectin is a reliable marker of gingival inflammation, and its concentration in N-O gingivitis is correlated with its expression in E-I gingivitis. The modality of plaque accumulation seems to affect the subgingival microbiological profile associated with a gingivitis condition. Calprotectin levels in GCF may be regarded as a promising marker of the individual susceptibility to develop gingival inflammation in response to experimentally induced plaque accumulation.

  12. Experimental Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Induces Upstream Pericyte Loss and Vascular Destabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Dominguez

    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO leads to extensive vascular remodeling and is important cause of visual impairment. Although the vascular morphological changes following experimental vein occlusion have been described in a variety of models using angiography, the underlying cellular events are ill defined.We here show that laser-induced experimental BRVO in mice leads to a wave of TUNEL-positive endothelial cell (EC apoptosis in the upstream vascular network associated with a transient edema and hemorrhages. Subsequently, we observe an induction of EC proliferation within the dilated vein and capillaries, detected by EdU incorporation, and the edema resolves. However, the pericytes of the upstream capillaries are severely reduced, which was associated with continuing EC apoptosis and proliferation. The vascular remodeling was associated with increased expression of TGFβ, TSP-1, but also FGF2 expression. Exposure of the experimental animals to hypoxia, when pericyte (PC dropout had occurred, led to a dramatic increase in endothelial cell proliferation, confirming the vascular instability induced by the experimental BRVO.Experimental BRVO leads to acute endothelial cells apoptosis and increased permeability. Subsequently the upstream vascular network remains destabilized, characterized by pericyte dropout, un-physiologically high endothelial cells turnover and sensitivity to hypoxia. These early changes might pave the way for capillary loss and subsequent chronic ischemia and edema that characterize the late stage disease.

  13. Signs and symptoms in adult patients with acute dyspnea: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renier, Walter; Winckelmann, Karin Hoogma-von; Verbakel, Jan Y; Aertgeerts, Bert; Buntinx, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of patients with a new episode of acute dyspnea is a common challenge for Primary Care or Emergency Physicians. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms in adult patients with a new episode of acute dyspnea presenting to a GP or an Emergency Physician (EP). This was a diagnostic systematic review. Using MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, tracing references, and by contacting experts, studies were identified on the diagnostic accuracy of additional signs and symptoms in adult patients with acute or suddenly worsening dyspnea, presenting to a GP or an EP. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS and results were pooled using a random-effects model. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and positive and negative predictive values for a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) were calculated for the combination of acute dyspnea and each additional sign or symptom in the selected studies. Eight of the 24 identified studies were carried out in the ED and provided us with all the required data, including 4737 patients. All publications reported HF; two studies additionally investigated pulmonary embolism, acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, acute pulmonary infectious diseases, or acute coronary syndrome. The prevalence of HF in patients with acute dyspnea ranged from 25 to 59%. Heterogeneity was present in all analyses.Comparing signs and symptoms, sensitivity was very poor for the presence of fever (0.05) and sputum production (0.06), and poor for fatigue (0.36-0.76), orthopnea (0.2-0.76), paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (0.23-0.70), elevated jugular venous pressure (0.19-0.70), rales (0.32-0.88), and peripheral edema (0.29-0.77). Specificity was poor for fatigue (0.28-0.69), moderate for the presence of fever (0.76-0.88), sputum production (0.73-0.89), orthopnea (0.49-0.92), paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (0.52-0.93), and rales

  14. Experimental Study of the Laser-Induced Oxyhemoglobin Photodissociation in Cutaneous Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisbrecht Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new optical method for reduction of local tissue hypoxia is proposed. It is shown that this method of phototherapy allows the control of a local oxygen concentration in tissue. Different aspects of biomedical application of this phenomenon are discussed. The results of in vivo experimental investigation of the laser-induced photodissociation of oxyhemoglobin in cutaneous blood vessels and its role in tissue oxygenation are presented. The rates of oxygen saturation SpO2 in blood and their dependence on the wavelength of the transcutaneous laser irradiation have been experimentally measured.

  15. Laser induced deflection technique for absolute thin film absorption measurement: optimized concepts and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlig, Christian; Kufert, Siegfried; Bublitz, Simon; Speck, Uwe

    2011-03-20

    Using experimental results and numerical simulations, two measuring concepts of the laser induced deflection (LID) technique are introduced and optimized for absolute thin film absorption measurements from deep ultraviolet to IR wavelengths. For transparent optical coatings, a particular probe beam deflection direction allows the absorption measurement with virtually no influence of the substrate absorption, yielding improved accuracy compared to the common techniques of separating bulk and coating absorption. For high-reflection coatings, where substrate absorption contributions are negligible, a different probe beam deflection is chosen to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio. Various experimental results for the two different measurement concepts are presented.

  16. Impact of exercise capacity on dyspnea and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Frølich, Anne; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  17. Effect of intraoral and subcutaneous morphine on dyspnea at rest in terminal patients with primary lung cancer or lung metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Helle; Riis, Jette; Christrup, Lona Louring

    2013-01-01

    Dyspnea is considered as one of the most frequent and distressing symptoms in patients with advanced cancer, and systemic administration of morphine has been reported to have beneficial effect on this complaint.......Dyspnea is considered as one of the most frequent and distressing symptoms in patients with advanced cancer, and systemic administration of morphine has been reported to have beneficial effect on this complaint....

  18. Study of the relationship of dyspnea with depression and functional status in patients with interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda A. Abu Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Dyspnea is common in ILD and is strongly correlated with functional status and psychiatric disorders. Dyspnea score, functional status and psychiatric disorders are more affected in ILD with PHTN than in ILD without PHTN. Accordingly, routine screening for mental disorders is recommended for patients with ILD, and should be accompanied by accurate assessment of patient’s symptoms, particularly in patients with high levels of functional impairment.

  19. Clinical and experimental studies on effects of chemotherapeutic agents on radiation-induced pulmonary damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadasaki, Kouichi

    1988-12-01

    Clinical and experimental studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on radiation-induced pulmonary damage. In a clinical study, one hundred patients with lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed in terms of the development of radiation pneumonitis. In the patients treated with radiation and chemotherapy except for cisplatinum, radiation pneumonitis occurred more frequently and severely than patients with radiation alone. In an experimental study, male SD rats received 15 Gy radiation to the right lungs with or without injection of chemotherapeutic agents including cisplatinum, adriamycin or peplomycin. Histological changes and hydroxyproline contents of the lungs were evaluated at 2 or 5 months after treatment. Pulmonary damage was severer in rats with radiation and drugs than those with radiation alone. However, rats with cisplatinum had less damage than those with other drugs. In conclusion, radiation-induced pulmonary damage was enhanced by administration of several chemotherapeutic agents. However, cisplatinum seemed to enhance pulmonary damage less than other drugs. (author) 77 refs.

  20. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica in experimentally induced amoebic liver abscess: comparison of three staining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Zi Ning; Wong Weng Kin; Shaymoli Mustafa; Arefuddin Ahmed; Rahmah Noordin; Tan Gim Cheong; Olivos-Garcia Alfonso; Lim Boon Huat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of three different tissue stains, namely haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for detection of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) trophozoites in abscessed liver tissues of hamster. Methods: Amoebic liver abscess was experimentally induced in a hamster by injecting 1 × 106 of axenically cultured virulent E. histolytica trophozoites (HM1-IMSS strain) into the portal vein. After a week post-inocul...

  1. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Esherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte B.; Fogsgaard, Katrine; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2011-01-01

    Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS......) in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables....

  2. The effect of various drugs on experimentally induced ulcers in immobilized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, H.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments related to the importance of functional disorders in the central nervous system in connection with stomach diseases were performed on Wistar rats. Assuming that severe mental strains may be triggering factors for such disorders, testing of the effects of different drugs on experimentally induced ulcers in these rats was done. The immobilization method described by Bonfils was used. Particular importance was placed on the sex related difference which appeared.

  3. Neuropsychological consequences of experimentally-induced anxiety on working memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dunger, Warren

    2016-01-01

    Many theories addressing the complex anxiety-cognition interaction are built upon the notion that working memory is vulnerable to the effects of anxiety. However, most research has utilised studies of trait anxiety which does not allow direct inferences to be made between affect and cognitive performance, or exclude confounds such as pre-existing individual differences. As a result, a systematic review was undertaken to explore the neuropsychological consequences of experimentally-induced sta...

  4. Experimental study of corrosion-induced degradation of reinforced concrete elements

    OpenAIRE

    LOUKIL, Olfa; Adelaide, Lucas; Bouteiller, Véronique; Quiertant, Marc; Chaussadent, Thierry; Ragueneau, Frédéric; Bourbon, Xavier; Trenty, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of damage for reinforced concrete structures. Iron oxides produced during the corrosion process can induce concrete cracking, loss of adhesion at the steel-concrete interface, loss of reinforcing bar cross-section and even spalling of the concrete cover. In the presented research, the durability problems related to the corrosion of the reinforcement are investigated by combining experimental and numerical studies. However, this paper particul...

  5. The origin of dyspnea and its role in the reduction of exercise endurance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vasil'evich Sheyanov

    2010-01-01

    Results. Dyspnea during exercise was reported by 54 (52% patients with RA and 9 (9% control patients (p < 0.001. Dyspnea was more frequently detected and more significant in RA patients with other symptoms of respiratory organ lesions (cough, sputum discharge, chest pain on breathing and coughing, anemia, and emotional disorders of the anxious-depressive type. The degree of dyspnea correlated with DAS 28 scores (r = 0.33; p < 0.01. No correlation was found between lung function parameters and blood gas composition. Pulmonary MSCT in RA patients with dyspnea more frequently revealed signs of bronchiolitis and lesion of the lung as its interstitial fibrotic type. Conclusion. Dyspnea is a common symptom and an important factor in reducing EE and QL in patients with RA. Dyspnea in these patients has a multifactorial origin. Of importance in its occurrence are the involvement of the lung and bronchi in the pathological process irrespective of the lung function, as well as RA-associated factors (including anemia, and nosogenic emotional disorders (anxiety and/or depression.

  6. Managing dyspnea in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A Canadian Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniuk, Darcy D; Goodridge, Donna; Hernandez, Paul; Rocker, Graeme; Balter, Meyer; Bailey, Pat; Ford, Gordon; Bourbeau, Jean; O’Donnell, Denis E; Maltais, Francois; Mularski, Richard A; Cave, Andrew J; Mayers, Irvin; Kennedy, Vicki; Oliver, Thomas K; Brown, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Dyspnea is a cardinal symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and its severity and magnitude increases as the disease progresses, leading to significant disability and a negative effect on quality of life. Refractory dyspnea is a common and difficult symptom to treat in patients with advanced COPD. There are many questions concerning optimal management and, specifically, whether various therapies are effective in this setting. The present document was compiled to address these important clinical issues using an evidence-based systematic review process led by a representative interprofessional panel of experts. The evidence supports the benefits of oral opioids, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, chest wall vibration, walking aids and pursed-lip breathing in the management of dyspnea in the individual patient with advanced COPD. Oxygen is recommended for COPD patients with resting hypoxemia, but its use for the targeted management of dyspnea in this setting should be reserved for patients who receive symptomatic benefit. There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of anxiolytic medications, nebulized opioids, acupuncture, acupressure, distractive auditory stimuli (music), relaxation, hand-held fans, counselling programs or psychotherapy. There is also no evidence to support the use of supplemental oxygen to reduce dyspnea in nonhypoxemic patients with advanced COPD. Recognizing the current unfamiliarity with prescribing and dosing of opioid therapy in this setting, a potential approach for their use is illustrated. The role of opioid and other effective therapies in the comprehensive management of refractory dyspnea in patients with advanced COPD is discussed. PMID:21499589

  7. Managing dyspnea in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a Canadian Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniuk, Darcy D; Goodridge, Donna; Hernandez, Paul; Rocker, Graeme; Balter, Meyer; Bailey, Pat; Ford, Gord; Bourbeau, Jean; O'Donnell, Denis E; Maltais, Francois; Mularski, Richard A; Cave, Andrew J; Mayers, Irvin; Kennedy, Vicki; Oliver, Thomas K; Brown, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Dyspnea is a cardinal symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and its severity and magnitude increases as the disease progresses, leading to significant disability and a negative effect on quality of life. Refractory dyspnea is a common and difficult symptom to treat in patients with advanced COPD. There are many questions concerning optimal management and, specifically, whether various therapies are effective in this setting. The present document was compiled to address these important clinical issues using an evidence-based systematic review process led by a representative interprofessional panel of experts. The evidence supports the benefits of oral opioids, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, chest wall vibration, walking aids and pursed-lip breathing in the management of dyspnea in the individual patient with advanced COPD. Oxygen is recommended for COPD patients with resting hypoxemia, but its use for the targeted management of dyspnea in this setting should be reserved for patients who receive symptomatic benefit. There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of anxiolytic medications, nebulized opioids, acupuncture, acupressure, distractive auditory stimuli (music), relaxation, handheld fans, counselling programs or psychotherapy. There is also no evidence to support the use of supplemental oxygen to reduce dyspnea in nonhypoxemic patients with advanced COPD. Recognizing the current unfamiliarity with prescribing and dosing of opioid therapy in this setting, a potential approach for their use is illustrated. The role of opioid and other effective therapies in the comprehensive management of refractory dyspnea in patients with advanced COPD is discussed.

  8. Acute pulmonary injury induced by experimental muscle trauma Lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por trauma muscular experimental

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    Márcia Andréa da Silva Carvalho Sombra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an easily reproducible model of acute lung injury due to experimental muscle trauma in healthy rats. METHODS: Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomized in 3 groups (n=6: G-1- control, G-2 - saline+trauma and G-3 - dexamethasone+trauma. Groups G-1 and G-2 were treated with saline 2,0ml i.p; G-3 rats were treated with dexamethasone (DE (2 mg/kg body weight i.p.. Saline and DE were applied 2h before trauma and 12h later. Trauma was induced in G-2 and G-3 anesthetized (tribromoethanol 97% 100 ml/kg i.p. rats by sharp section of anterior thigh muscles just above the knee, preserving major vessels and nerves. Tissue samples (lung were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO assay and histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after muscle injury there was a significant increase in lung neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity and edema, all reversed by dexamethasone in G-3. CONCLUSION: Trauma by severance of thigh muscles in healthy rats is a simple and efficient model to induce distant lung lesions.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo facilmente reprodutível de lesão pulmonar aguda decorrente de trauma muscular experimental em ratos sadios. MÉTODOS: Dezoito ratos Wistar adultos foram randomizados em 3 grupos (n=6: G-1-controle, G-2 - trauma+salina e G-3 - trauma+dexametasona. Grupos G-1 e G-2 foram tratados com salina 2,0 ml ip, G-3 ratos foram tratados com dexametasona (DE (2 mg/kg peso corporal ip. Salina e DE foram aplicadas 2h antes e 12h depois do trauma. Trauma foi induzido em ratos G-2 e G-3 anestesiados (tribromoetanol 97% de 100 ml/kg, i.p. por secção da musculatura anterior da coxa logo acima da articulação do joelho, preservando os grandes vasos e nervos. Amostras de tecido (pulmão foram coletadas para avaliação da mieloperoxidase (MPO, e exames histopatológicos. RESULTADOS: Vinte e quatro horas após a indução da lesão muscular houve um aumento significativo na infiltração de neutr

  9. The role of experimentally-induced subacromial pain on shoulder strength and throwing accuracy.

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    Wassinger, Craig A; Sole, Gisela; Osborne, Hamish

    2012-10-01

    Shoulder injuries often comprise two separate yet related components, structural tissue damage and pain. The role of each of these components on shoulder function is difficult to ascertain. Experimental pain models allow the assessment of consequences of localized pain when applied to healthy individuals. By understanding the role of pain on shoulder function, clinicians will be able to more efficiently assess and treat shoulder injuries. The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of experimentally-induced sub-acromial pain on shoulder isokinetic rotational strength and throwing accuracy. This was a block counterbalanced, crossover, repeated measures study design utilizing 20 individuals without self-reported shoulder or cervical pathology. Shoulder function was measured with and without experimental pain injection (2 mL of 5% hypertonic saline) in the sub-acromial space. Functional tasks consisted of shoulder rotational strength utilizing isokinetic testing and throwing accuracy via the functional throwing performance index. The hypertonic saline induced moderate pain levels in all participants (4.3-5.1/10). Normalized shoulder internal (t = 3.76, p = 0.001) and external (t = 3.12, p = 0.006) rotation strength were both diminished in the painful condition compared to the pain free condition. Throwing accuracy was also reduced while the participants experienced pain (t = 3.99, p = 0.001). Moderate levels of experimental shoulder pain were sufficient to negatively influence shoulder strength and throwing accuracy in participants without shoulder pathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex Differences in Experimentally Induced Colitis in Mice: a Role for Estrogens.

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    Bábíčková, Janka; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Lengyelová, Eva; Bartoňová, Anastázie; Hodosy, Július; Gardlík, Roman; Celec, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Sex differences have been found in the incidence and progression of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The reported differences in observational studies are controversial, and the effects of sex hormones on the pathogenesis of IBD are not clear. The aim of this study was to analyze sex differences in the progression of experimentally induced colitis. Experimental colitis was induced in adult mice by adding 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) into drinking water. Male and female mice were used as intact, gonadectomized, and supplemented with either estradiol or testosterone. In comparison to males, female mice with induced colitis had significantly longer colon (p < 0.05), lower decrease in body weight (p < 0.001), and lower stool consistency score (p < 0.05). Histopathological analysis showed less inflammatory infiltrates (p < 0.001) and crypt damage (p < 0.001) in female mice. Female mice with colitis had also lower concentration of TNF-α in colon homogenates (p < 0.01). Supplementation with estradiol in ovariectomized mice ameliorated the severity of colitis. Female mice are partially protected against chemically induced colitis. This protection seems to be mediated by estradiol.

  11. Endocrine profiles of dairy cows following experimentally induced clinical mastitis during early lactation.

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    Hockett, M E; Hopkins, F M; Lewis, M J; Saxton, A M; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P; Schrick, F N

    2000-03-15

    Concentrations of LH, cortisol, estradiol-17beta (E(2)), prolactin and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGFM) were determined in cows with experimentally induced clinical mastitis during early lactation. Cows free of intramammary infection (IMI) and in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle were balanced by lactation number and days in milk and assigned to either control (n=5) or treatment (n=5) groups. Treated cows were infected experimentally (day 0), in two mammary quarters, with Streptococcus uberis and developed clinical mastitis within 60 h after inoculation as evidenced by increased mastitis scores, elevated rectal temperatures, mammary swelling and isolation of S. uberis pathogen. Four days following bacterial challenge, blood samples were collected every 20 min for 8 h for determination of PGFM and LH following administration of oxytocin and GnRH, respectively. Blood samples were also collected on days 0, 4 and 7 of the experiment to determine concentrations of E(2), prolactin and cortisol. Four days after bacterial challenge, concentrations of cortisol were higher (P=0.04) in experimentally infected cows than controls. Experimentally challenged cows had increased (P=0.02) concentrations of cortisol on days 4 and 7 compared with day 0. Control cows had no significant increase in blood cortisol during the experimental period. Baseline concentrations of PGFM did not differ between groups; however, peak concentrations of PGFM following oxytocin challenge were elevated (P=0.006) in cows with clinical mastitis compared with control animals. Prolactin, E(2) and LH did not differ between cows with clinical mastitis or controls. Experimentally induced mastitis during early lactation elevated concentrations of cortisol during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Furthermore, mastitic cows demonstrated an increased PGFM response following oxytocin administration. Altered reproductive efficiency in cows with clinical mastitis caused by Gram

  12. The role of periodontal ASIC3 in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats.

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    Gao, Meiya; Long, Hu; Ma, Wenqiang; Liao, Lina; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yang; Shan, Di; Huang, Renhuan; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the roles of Acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) in orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the experimental group (40g, n = 30) and the sham group (0g, n = 30). Closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary incisor and molars to achieve experimental tooth movement. Rat grimace scale (RGS) scores were assessed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the placement of the springs. ASIC3 immunostaining was performed and the expression levels of ASIC3 were measured through integrated optical density/area in Image-Pro Plus 6.0. Moreover, 18 rats were divided into APETx2 group (n = 6), amiloride group (n = 6), and vehicle group (n = 6), and RGS scores were obtained compared among them to verify the roles of ASIC3 in orofacial pain following tooth movement. ASIC3 expression levels became significantly higher in the experimental group than in sham group on 1, 3, and 5 days and became similar on 7 and 14 days. Pain levels (RGS scores) increased in both groups and were significantly higher in the experimental group on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days and were similar on 14 days. Periodontal ASIC3 expression levels were correlated with orofacial pain levels following experimental tooth movement. Periodontal administrations of ASIC3 antagonists (APETx2 and amiloride) could alleviate pain. This study needs to be better evidenced by RNA interference of ASIC3 in periodontal tissues in rats following experimental tooth movement. Moreover, we hope further studies would concentrate on the pain perception of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3(-/-)) mice. Our results suggest that periodontal ASIC3 plays an important role in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Inflammation-induced pain sensitization in men and women: does sex matter in experimental endotoxemia?

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    Wegner, Alexander; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Rebernik, Laura; Roderigo, Till; Engelbrecht, Elisa; Jäger, Marcus; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Benson, Sven

    2015-10-01

    A role of the innate immune system is increasingly recognized as a mechanism contributing to pain sensitization. Experimental administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) constitutes a model to study inflammation-induced pain sensitization, but all existing human evidence comes from male participants. We assessed visceral and musculoskeletal pain sensitivity after low-dose LPS administration in healthy men and women to test the hypothesis that women show greater LPS-induced hyperalgesia compared with men. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, healthy men (n = 20) and healthy women using oral contraceptives (n = 20) received an intravenous injection of 0.4 ng/kg body weight LPS or placebo. Pain sensitivity was assessed with established visceral and musculoskeletal pain models (ie, rectal pain thresholds; pressure pain thresholds for different muscle groups), together with a heartbeat perception (interoceptive accuracy) task. Plasma cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) were measured along with state anxiety at baseline and up to 6-hour postinjection. Lipopolysaccharide application led to significant increases in plasma cytokines and state anxiety and decreased interoceptive awareness in men and women (P < 0.001, condition effects), with more pronounced LPS-induced cytokine increases in women (P < 0.05, interaction effects). Although both rectal and pressure pain thresholds were significantly decreased in the LPS condition (all P < 0.05, condition effect), no sex differences in endotoxin-induced sensitization were observed. In summary, LPS-induced systemic immune activation leads to visceral and musculoskeletal hyperalgesia, irrespective of biological sex. These findings support the broad applicability of experimental endotoxin administration as a translational preclinical model of inflammation-induced pain sensitization in both sexes.

  14. The effect of obesity on dyspnea, exercise capacity, walk work and workload in patients with COPD.

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    Şahin, Hülya; Naz, İlknur; Varol, Yelda; Kömürcüoğlu, Berna

    2017-09-01

    COPD and obesity are major public health problems that cause mortality and morbidity all over the world. The combined of COPD and obesity is predicted to increase further in the coming years. Obesity primarily affects the pulmonary system by altering respiratory functions, exercise capacity, pulmonary gas exchange, and endurance and power of respiratory muscles. In this study, we aimed to compare the dyspnea sensation, exercise capacity, walk work and workload in obese COPD patients compared to preobese and normal overweight COPD patients. 218 patients with COPD were included in the study. According to the WHO criteria for body mass index (BMI), the patients were classified as normal-weight (BMI=18.5-24.9 kg/m2), pre-obese (BMI= 25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI= 30-39.9 kg/m2). All patient respiratory function tests and arterial blood gas analysis were performed. The mMRC dyspnea scale was used to assess the dyspnoea of the patients. The exercise capacities of the patients were determined by the 6-min walking test. Walk work and workload were calculated based on 6 minutes walking distance. The obtained values were compared between the three groups. The FEV1/FVC ratio and TLCO value in pulmonary function tests are significantly higher in obese COPD patients than in other patients, while the VC value is significantly lower in patients with COPD (p= 0.001, pfunction tests of patients with COPD. At the same time, it increases walkwork and workload. Despite all these changes, it has no negative effect on dyspnea perception and exercise capacity.

  15. Gender and respiratory factors associated with dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Aguirre-Jaime Armando

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale We had shown that COPD women expressed more dyspnea than men for the same degree of airway obstruction. Objectives Evaluate gender differences in respiratory factors associated with dyspnea in COPD patients. Methods In a FEV1 % matched population of 100 men and women with COPD we measured: age, MMRC, FEV1, FVC, TLC, IC/TLC, PaO2, PaCO2, DLCO, Pimax, P0.1, Ti/Ttot, BMI, ffmi, 6MWD and VAS scale before and after the test, the Charlson score and the SGRQ. We estimated the association between these parameters and MMRC scores. Multivariate analysis determined the independent strength of those associations. Results MMRC correlated with: BMI (men:-0.29, p = 0.04; women:-0.28, p = 0.05, ffmi (men:-0.39, p = 0.01, FEV1 % (men:-0.64, p 2 (men:-0.59, p 2 (men:0.27, p = 0.05, DLCO (men:-0.54, p 0.1/Pimax (men:0.46, p = 0.002; women:0.47, p = 0.005, dyspnea measured with the Visual Analog Scale before (men:0.37, p = 0.04; women:0.52, p = 0.004 and after 6MWD (men:0.52, p = 0.002; women:0.48, p = 0.004 and SGRQ total (men:0.50, p 0.1/Pimax in women (r2 = 0.30 and BMI, DLCO, PaO2 and P0.1/Pimax in men (r2 = 0.81 were the strongest predictors of MMRC scores. Conclusion In mild to severe COPD patients attending a pulmonary clinic, P0.1/Pimax was the unique predictor of MMRC scores only in women. Respiratory factors explain most of the variations of MMRC scores in men but not in women. Factors other than the respiratory ones should be included in the evaluation of dyspnea in women with COPD.

  16. Massive right atrial myxoma presenting as syncope and exertional dyspnea: case report

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    Bartosch Carla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary heart neoplasms are rare occurring with an estimated incidence of 0.0017-0.19%. Myxoma is the most prevalent primary heart tumor. The right atrium is an unusual localization, occurring only in 15-20% of myxoma cases. We report a rare case of a massive right atrial myxoma causing tricuspid valve obstruction and presenting as syncope and exertional dyspnea. This case illustrates the influence of myxoma's size, position and mobility as well as patient's body posture and respiration to the development of signs and symptoms. Three-dimensional echocardiography proved useful in surgery planning, allowing a better definition of the tumor outline and attachment.

  17. Dyspnea, Tachycardia, and New Onset Seizure as a Presentation of Wilms Tumor: A Case Report

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    Linda Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor is found in 1 in 10,000 children and most commonly presents in asymptomatic toddlers whose care givers notice a nontender abdominal mass in the right upper quadrant. This case of Wilms tumor presented as a critically ill eleven-year old with significant tachypnea, dyspnea, vague abdominal pain, intermittent emesis, new onset seizure, metabolic acidosis, and hypoxemia. This is the first case in the literature of Wilms Tumor with cavoatrial involvement and seizure and pulmonary embolism resulting in aggressive resuscitation and treatment. Treatment included anticoagulation, chemotherapy, nephrectomy, and surgical resection of thrombi, followed by adjunctive chemotherapy with pulmonary radiation.

  18. A 26-year-old man with dyspnea and chest pain

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    Saurabh Mittal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old smoker male presented with a history of sudden onset dyspnea and right-sided chest pain. Chest radiograph revealed large right-sided pneumothorax which was managed with tube thoracostomy. High-resolution computed tomography thorax revealed multiple lung cysts, and for a definite diagnosis, a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery-guided lung biopsy was performed followed by pleurodesis. This clinicopathologic conference discusses the clinical and radiological differential diagnoses, utility of lung biopsy, and management options for patients with such a clinical presentation.

  19. A 26-year-old man with dyspnea and chest pain.

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    Mittal, Saurabh; Jain, Akanksha; Arava, Sudheer; Hadda, Vijay; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Madan, Karan

    2017-01-01

    A 26-year-old smoker male presented with a history of sudden onset dyspnea and right-sided chest pain. Chest radiograph revealed large right-sided pneumothorax which was managed with tube thoracostomy. High-resolution computed tomography thorax revealed multiple lung cysts, and for a definite diagnosis, a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery-guided lung biopsy was performed followed by pleurodesis. This clinicopathologic conference discusses the clinical and radiological differential diagnoses, utility of lung biopsy, and management options for patients with such a clinical presentation.

  20. Experimental diabetes induces structural, inflammatory and vascular changes of Achilles tendons.

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    Rodrigo R de Oliveira

    Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate how the state of chronic hyperglycemia from experimental Diabetes Mellitus can influence the homeostatic imbalance of tendons and, consequently, lead to the characteristics of tendinopathy. Twenty animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups: control group, consisting of healthy rats and diabetic group constituted by rats induced to Diabetes Mellitus I. After twenty-four days of the induction of Diabetes type I, the Achilles tendon were removed for morphological evaluation, cellularity, number and cross-sectional area of blood vessel, immunohistochemistry for Collagen type I, VEGF and NF-κB nuclear localization sequence (NLS and nitrate and nitrite level. The Achilles tendon thickness (µm/100g of diabetic animals was significantly increased and, similarly, an increase was observed in the density of fibrocytes and mast cells in the tendons of the diabetic group. The average number of blood vessels per field, in peritendinous tissue, was statistically higher in the diabetic group 3.39 (2.98 vessels/field when compared to the control group 0.89 (1.68 vessels/field p = 0.001 and in the intratendinous region, it was observed that blood vessels were extremely rare in the control group 0.035 (0.18 vessels/field and were often present in the tendons of the diabetic group 0.89 (0.99 vessels/field. The immunohistochemistry analysis identified higher density of type 1 collagen and increased expression of VEGF as well as increased immunostaining for NFκB p50 NLS in the nucleus in Achilles tendon of the diabetic group when compared to the control group. Higher levels of nitrite/nitrate were observed in the experimental group induced to diabetes. We conclude that experimental DM induces notable structural, inflammatory and vascular changes in the Achilles tendon which are compatible with the process of chronic tendinopathy.

  1. Being slower, feeling older? Experimentally induced cognitive aging experiences have limited impact on subjective age.

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    Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-06-01

    Initial experimental research has shown that subjective age may change in response to induced aging experiences, but replication and extension are needed. The present study investigates if age-related cognitive gain or loss experiences evoke decreases/increases in subjective age. A multidimensional subjective age measure was used to explore domain-specific internalization effects. 78 individuals aged 59-70 years were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions and a control group. Participants took a cognitive attention test and received gain-oriented feedback on their accuracy or loss-oriented feedback on their processing speed. A mixed factors analysis of covariance was used to examine changes in feel age, look age, do age, and interest age. After being primed with age-related losses, participants reported older do ages as compared to before the experimental priming. Priming age-related gains had only a marginally significant effect on do age. All other subjective age dimensions remained unaffected by the experimental priming. Although previous research has shown that subjective age can be manipulated experimentally, findings from the present study underscore that a comprehensive and cross-domain improvement of subjective age may require personally relevant and repeated experiences of age-related gains.

  2. Effects of fisetin on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction and vascular dementia.

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    Hemanth Kumar, Boyina; Arun Reddy, Ravula; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Dinesh Kumar, B; Diwan, Prakash V

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of fisetin (FST) on hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction (ED) and vascular dementia (VaD) in rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: control, vehicle control, l-methionine, FST (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, p.o.), FST-per se (25 mg/kg, p.o.), and donepezil (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.). l-Methionine administration (1.7 g/kg, p.o.) for 32 days induced HHcy. ED and VaD induced by HHcy were determined by vascular reactivity measurements, behavioral analysis using Morris water maze and Y-maze, along with a biochemical and histological evaluation of thoracic aorta and brain tissues. Administration of l-methionine developed behavioral deficits; triggered brain lipid peroxidation (LPO); compromised brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE); and reduced the levels of brain superoxide dismutase (SOD), brain catalase (CAT), brain reduced glutathione (GSH), and serum nitrite; and increased serum homocysteine and cholesterol levels. These effects were accompanied by decreased vascular NO bioavailability, marked intimal thickening of the aorta, and multiple necrotic foci in brain cortex. HHcy-induced alterations in the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH, AChE, LPO, behavioral deficits, ED, and histological aberrations were significantly attenuated by treatment with fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that fisetin exerts endothelial and neuroprotective effects against HHcy-induced ED and VaD.

  3. Effects of Guchang Capsule on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

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    Baoshan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Guchang capsule (GC is a Chinese materia medica standardized product extracted from 15 Chinese traditional medical herbs and it has been clinically used in the treatment of intestinal disease. In this study, in order to extend the research of GC in intestinal disease, we were aiming to evaluate potential effects of GC on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS- induced murine experimental colitis and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. GC treatment attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss and reduced the mortality. Moreover, GC treatment prevented DSS-induced colonic pathological damage; meanwhile it inhibited proinflammatory cytokines production in colon tissues. In vitro, GC significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB in macrophage cells, and the expressions of several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs which were reported in regulating NF-κB signaling pathway were obviously affected by adding GC into culture medium. In conclusion, our data suggested that administration of GC exhibits therapeutic effects on DSS-induced colitis partially through regulating the expression of NF-κB related lncRNAs in infiltrating immune cells.

  4. Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats.

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    Devaraj, V C; Gopala Krishna, B; Viswanatha, G L; Satya Prasad, V; Vinay Babu, S N

    2011-07-01

    Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as 'Radish' is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine.

  5. Effects of experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism on crucial offspring rat brain enzyme activities.

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    Koromilas, Christos; Liapi, Charis; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Skandali, Nikolina; Al-Humadi, Hussam; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2014-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is known to exert significant structural and functional changes to the developing central nervous system, and can lead to the establishment of serious mental retardation and neurological problems. The aim of the present study was to shed more light on the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil-induced experimental hypothyroidism on crucial brain enzyme activities of Wistar rat offspring, at two time-points of their lives: at birth (day-1) and at 21 days of age (end of lactation). Under all studied experimental conditions, offspring brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was found to be significantly decreased due to maternal hypothyroidism, in contrast to the two studied adenosinetriphosphatase (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) activities that were only found to be significantly altered right after birth (increased and decreased, respectively, following an exposure to gestational maternal hypothyroidism) and were restored to control levels by the end of lactation. As our findings regarding the pattern of effects that maternal hypothyroidism has on the above-mentioned crucial offspring brain enzyme activities are compared to those reported in the literature, several differences are revealed that could be attributed to both the mode of the experimental simulation approach followed as well as to the time-frames examined. These findings could provide the basis for a debate on the need of a more consistent experimental approach to hypothyroidism during neurodevelopment as well as for a further evaluation of the herein presented and discussed neurochemical (and, ultimately, neurodevelopmental) effects of experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism, in a brain region-specific manner. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic hyperinflation and dyspnea during the 6-minute walk test in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

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    Satake M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Masahiro Satake,1 Takanobu Shioya,1 Sachiko Uemura,1 Hitomi Takahashi,2 Keiyu Sugawara,2 Chikage Kasai,2 Noritaka Kiyokawa,2 Toru Watanabe,2 Sayaka Sato,2 Atsuyoshi Kawagoshi2 1Department of Physical Therapy, Akita University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Akita, Japan; 2Department of Rehabilitation, Akita City Hospital, Akita, Japan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dynamic hyperinflation and dyspnea and to clarify the characteristics of dyspnea during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Twenty-three subjects with stable moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (age 73.8±5.8 years, all male took part in this study. During the 6MWT, ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were measured using a portable respiratory gas analysis system. Dyspnea and oxygen saturation were recorded at the end of every 2 minute period during the test. There was a significant decrease in inspiratory capacity during the 6MWT. This suggested that dynamic hyperinflation had occurred. Dyspnea showed a significant linear increase, and there was a significant negative correlation with inspiratory capacity. It was suggested that one of the reasons that dyspnea developed during the 6MWT was the dynamic hyperinflation. Even though the tidal volume increased little after 2 minutes, dyspnea increased linearly to the end of the 6MWT. These results suggest that the mechanisms generating dyspnea during the 6MWT were the sense of respiratory effort at an early stage and then the mismatch between central motor command output and respiratory system movement. Keywords: field walking test, chronic respiratory diseases, respiratory gas analysis, inspiratory capacity, IC, inspiratory reserve volume, IRV, Borg CR-10 scale, COPD

  7. Protective activity of gallic acid against glyoxal -induced renal fibrosis in experimental rats

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    Mohammed Jainuddin Yousuf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the protective activity of gallic acid (GA against glyoxal (GO an advanced glycation intermediate-induced renal fibrosis in experimental rats. Glyoxal (i.p at a dose of 15 mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks induces renal fibrosis. GA was administered orally (100 mg/Kg body weight/day along with GO for 4 weeks. The anti-fibrotic activity of GA was analyzed by measuring the collagen synthesis and deposition in renal tissues using mRNA expression analysis and Masson trichrome staining (MTS, respectively. The nephroprotective potential of GA was assessed by quantifying the markers of kidney damage such as serum blood-urea-nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (CR and alkaline phosphatase (AP. Moreover, basement membrane damage in renal tissues was analysed by periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS staining. GA co-treatment markedly suppressed the GO-induced elevation in mRNA expression of collagen I and III, MMP-2, MMP-9 and NOX (p < 0.05, respectively genes as compared with GO alone infused rats. In addition, GA co-treatment significantly attenuated the GO -induced elevation in serum markers such as BUN, CR and AP levels (p < 0.05, respectively. Furthermore, GA co-treatment restored back the decreased renal super oxide dismutase (SOD activity (p < 0.05 thereby assuage the reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and maintained the normal architecture of glomerulus. The present study clearly indicates that GO -induces renal fibrosis by enhancing GO/receptor of advanced glycation end product (RAGE induced ROS generation and GA effectively counteracted GO-induced renal fibrosis by its ROS quenching and anti-glycation activity.

  8. Effect of somatosensory amplification and trait anxiety on experimentally induced orthodontic pain.

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    Cioffi, Iacopo; Michelotti, Ambrosina; Perrotta, Stefania; Chiodini, Paolo; Ohrbach, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The perception of pain varies considerably across individuals and is affected by psychological traits. This study aimed to investigate the combined effects of somatosensory amplification and trait anxiety on orthodontic pain. Five-hundred and five adults completed the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SSAS). Individuals with combined STAI and SSAS scores below the 20th percentile (LASA group: five men and 12 women; mean age ± SD = 22.4 ± 1.3 yr) or above the 80th percentile (HASA group: 13 men and seven women; mean age ± SD = 23.7 ± 1.0 yr) were selected and filled in the Oral Behaviors Checklist (OBC). Orthodontic separators were placed for 5 d in order to induce experimental pain. Visual analog scales (VAS) were administered to collect ratings for occlusal discomfort, pain, and perceived stress. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were measured. A mixed regression model was used to evaluate pain and discomfort ratings over the 5-d duration of the study. At baseline, the LASA group had statistically significantly higher PPT values for the masseter muscle than did the HASA group. During the experimental procedure, the HASA group had statistically significantly higher discomfort and pain. A significant difference in pain ratings during the 5 d of the study was found for subjects in the HASA group. Higher OBC values were statistically significantly positively associated with pain. Somatosensory amplification and trait anxiety substantially affect experimentally induced orthodontic pain. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. Experimental study to explore the $\\rm ^8Be$ induced nuclear reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    CERN Document Server

    Qun-Gang, Wen; Shu-Hua, Zhou; Irgaziev, Bakhadir; Yuan-Yong, Fu; Spitaleri, Claudio; La Cognata, Marco; Jing, Zhou; Qiu-Ying, Meng; Lamia, Livio; Lattuada, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    To explore a possible indirect method for $\\rm ^8Be$ induced astrophysical reactions, the $\\rm ^9Be=({}^8Be+\\it n)$ cluster structure was studied via the Trojan Horse Method. It is the first time to study a super short life nucleus $\\rm ^8Be$ via the Trojan Horse Method, and it is the first time to make a valid test for $l=1$ Trojan-horse nucleus. The $\\rm ^9Be$ nucleus is assumed to have a ($\\rm {}^8Be+\\it n$) cluster structure and used as the Trojan-horse nucleus. The $\\rm ^8Be$ nucleus acts as a participant, while the neutron is a spectator to the virtual $\\rm ^8Be +{\\it d}\\rightarrow \\alpha + {}^6Li$ reaction via a suitable 3-body reaction $\\rm ^9Be +{\\it d}\\rightarrow \\alpha + {}^6Li +\\it n$. The experimental neutron momentum distribution inside $\\rm ^9Be$ was reconstructed. The agreement between experimental and theoretical momentum distribution indicates that there should be a ($\\rm {}^8Be+\\it n$) cluster structure inside $\\rm ^9Be$. Therefor the experimental study of $\\rm ^8Be$ induced reactions, for ...

  10. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Deficiency Attenuates Experimental Colitis-Induced Adipose Tissue Lipolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Nutrient deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating energy balance. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is an important endocrine metabolic regulator with emerging beneficial roles in lipid homeostasis. We investigated the impact of FGF21 in experimental colitis-induced epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT lipolysis. Methods. Mice were given 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS ad libitum for 7 days to induce colitis. The role of FGF21 was investigated using antibody neutralization or knockout (KO mice. Lipolysis index and adipose lipolytic enzymes were determined. In addition, 3T3-L1 cells were pretreated with IL-6, followed by recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21 treatment; lipolysis was assessed. Results. DSS markedly decreased eWAT/body weight ratio and increased serum concentrations of free fatty acid (FFA and glycerol, indicating increased adipose tissue lipolysis. eWAT intracellular lipolytic enzyme expression/activation was significantly increased. These alterations were significantly attenuated in FGF21 KO mice and by circulating FGF21 neutralization. Moreover, DSS treatment markedly increased serum IL-6 and FGF21 levels. IL-6 pretreatment was necessary for the stimulatory effect of FGF21 on adipose lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that experimental colitis induces eWAT lipolysis via an IL-6/FGF21-mediated signaling pathway.

  11. Effect of underwater treadmill exercise on postural sway in horses with experimentally induced carpal joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Melissa R; Haussler, Kevin K; Kawcak, Christopher E; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Reiser Ii, Raoul F

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of underwater treadmill exercise on static postural sway in horses with experimentally induced carpal joint osteoarthritis under various stance conditions. 16 horses. On day 0, osteoarthritis was induced arthroscopically in 1 randomly selected middle carpal joint of each horse. Beginning on day 15, horses were assigned to either underwater or overground (without water) treadmill exercise at the same speed, frequency, and duration. Two serial force platforms were used to collect postural sway data from each horse on study days -7, 14, 42, and 70. Horses were made to stand stationary on the force platforms under 3 stance conditions: normal square stance, base-narrow placement of the thoracic limbs, and removal of visual cues (blindfolded) during a normal square stance. The mean of 3 consecutive, 10-second trials in each condition was calculated and used for analysis. Displacement of the center of pressure differed significantly depending on the stance condition. Among horses exercised on the underwater treadmill, postural stability in both the base-narrow and blindfolded stance conditions improved, compared with findings for horses exercised on the overground treadmill. Horses exercised on the overground treadmill were only successful at maintaining a stable center of pressure during the normal square stance position. Variations in stance position had profound effects on the mechanics of standing balance in horses with experimentally induced carpal joint osteoarthritis. Underwater treadmill exercise significantly improved the horses' postural stability, which is fundamental in providing evidence-based support for equine aquatic exercise.

  12. Massive right atrial myxoma with dyspnea at rest in an elderly patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanović Radoslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary heart tumors are extremely rare and myxoma is the most common type of these tumors. Although intraatrial presentation is a predilection place, right atrial localization is atypical. The symptom triad is characteristic in the clinical presentation of the tumor: embolic complication, intracardiac blood flow obstruction and systemic manifestations like elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fever, anemia, body weight loss. Case report. We presented an elderly female patient with massive myxoma in the right atrium, 77 × 44 mm in diameter, which filled the entire right atrium and spread into the right ventricle, causing the tricuspid valve obstruction and dyspnea. It was visualized by transthoracic echocardiography and small and insignificant pericardial effusion was also seen. After surgical removal of the tumor, the patient remained without any symptoms and pericardial effusion. Conclusion. Tumors of the right heart have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained dyspnea in elderly patients. Transthoracic echocardiography is certainly necessary and mostly available diagnostic tool that can be of great help in diagnosing heart tumor as well as planning cardiac surgery, as it provides in most cases excellent visualization of the tumor and its relationship with other parts of the heart.

  13. Pulmonary Gas Exchange Abnormalities in Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Implications for Dyspnea and Exercise Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbehairy, Amany F; Ciavaglia, Casey E; Webb, Katherine A; Guenette, Jordan A; Jensen, Dennis; Mourad, Sahar M; Neder, J Alberto; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2015-06-15

    Several studies in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have shown a higher than normal ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide ([Formula: see text]e/[Formula: see text]co2) during exercise. Our objective was to examine pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities and the mechanisms of high [Formula: see text]e/[Formula: see text]co2 in mild COPD and its impact on dyspnea and exercise intolerance. Twenty-two subjects (11 patients with GOLD [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease] grade 1B COPD, 11 age-matched healthy control subjects) undertook physiological testing and a symptom-limited incremental cycle exercise test with arterial blood gas collection. Patients (post-bronchodilator FEV1: 94 ± 10% predicted; mean ± SD) had evidence of peripheral airway dysfunction and reduced peak oxygen uptake compared with control subjects (80 ± 18 vs. 113 ± 24% predicted; PArterial blood gases were within the normal range and effective alveolar ventilation was not significantly different from control subjects throughout exercise. The alveolar-arterial O2 tension gradient was elevated at rest and throughout exercise in COPD (Parterial to end-tidal CO2 difference were all higher (Parterial blood gas homeostasis but at the expense of earlier dynamic mechanical constraints, greater dyspnea, and exercise intolerance in mild COPD.

  14. The MCID of the transition dyspnea index is a total score of one unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Donald A; Witek, Theodore J

    2005-03-01

    The Baseline (BDI) and Transition (TDI) Dyspnea Indexes provide interview-based measurements of breathlessness related to activities of daily living. The BDI is a discriminative instrument that includes specific criteria for each of three components at a single point in time. The TDI is an evaluative instrument that includes specific criteria for each of three components to measure changes from a baseline state. Observational studies have shown that patients with COPD generally experience a gradual progression of breathing difficulty as measured by the TDI over time. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated excellent measurement characteristics of the TDI; these include responsiveness (ability to detect change) and construct validity (a change in the TDI correlates with changes in other variables). Supporting evidence for one unit as the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the TDI is based on: expert preference; use of the physician's global evaluation score as an anchor; and distribution estimates (standard error of measurement and 0.5 of the standard deviation). As an alternative to the interview process, self-administered computerized (SAC) versions of the BDI/TDI have been developed to provide direct patient-reported ratings of dyspnea. To further establish the MCID of the interview-administered and/or the SAC TDI, we recommend that a patient's report of global ratings of change by used as an independent standard or anchor.

  15. Dangers of flying high and diving low! An unusual case of dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Ramadas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant bullae are bullae that occupy at least 30 percent of a hemi thorax. This condition can rarely be idiopathic and not usually suspected in young patients with no risk factors. We describe a case of a giant solitary pulmonary bulla in a healthy young female with no known risk factors. 23-year-old female presented to the Emergency department with dyspnea and pleuritic right sided chest pain. She started experiencing these symptoms when she was on a 7-h flight and later experienced similar symptoms when she went scuba diving. Lung exam revealed decreased breath sounds on the right and she was saturating well on room air. Chest X-ray done showed a large bleb at the right lung apex. CT angiogram done was negative for pulmonary embolism, but confirmed a large bulla involving the right upper lobe. She had no history of lung diseases, marfanoid features, cigarette smoking, drug use or family history of similar condition. She underwent VAT assisted mini thoracotomy with resection of the right apical bulla and tube thoracostomy. Surgical pathology showed a pulmonary bleb with pleural fibrosis and prominent adhesions with parietal pleura and no evidence of malignancy. She was advised to avoid air travel and diving for 3 months and is doing well. Idiopathic giant pulmonary bullae have rarely been reported. It is a rare cause of dyspnea and chest pain in young adults. This may be suspected when patients develop symptoms with air travel and deep sea diving.

  16. Effects of Ouhyul Herbal Acupuncture on Experimentally Induced Endometrosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Suk Yuk

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Endometriosis is characterized by the ectopic growth of uterine tissue in various extrauterine locations. This study examined the macroscopic, hormonal and immunological effects of Ouhyul Herbal Acupuncture(OHA therapy on rats with experimentally induced endometriosis. Method : Endometrial tissue was implanted in the serosal wall of the small intestine in rats. The rats were divided randomly into an experimental group and control group. The experimental group was treated with OHA on Kwanwon(CV4 three times per week and the control group was administrated normal saline every day. After 6 weeks, the size of the ectopic uterine tissue was estimated and the serum progesterone, estradiol and cytokines(TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 concentrations were analyzed. Result : The size of the ectopic uterine tissue in the experimantal group was slightly smaller than that in the control group. The estradiol, IL-4 and IL-6 concentrations were significantly lower and the IL-10 concentration was significantly higher in the serum of the experimental group than in the control group. There was no significant difference in the concentrations of the other cytokines. Conclusion : These results suggest that OHA might be an effective method for treating dometriosis.

  17. Experimentally induced nasal hypersecretion does not reduce the efficacy of intranasal levocabastine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Stefan; Nielsen, K; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    In allergic rhinitis, a nasal H1-antihistamine spray seems to be well suited for usage on an as-needed basis, because it has a quick onset of action, and many patients prefer to take medicine only when they have symptoms. It is a prerequisite, however, that nasal hypersecretion during a rhinitis...... episode does not significantly reduce the efficacy of intranasal treatment by washing away the drug before it reaches the H1-histamine receptors. In order to investigate this problem, we have induced nasal hypersecretion with a methacholine challenge in one experiment and in four experiments we have......% (p antihistamine spray. We conclude that experimentally induced nasal hypersecretion does not reduce the efficacy...

  18. Experimental determination of cross section of alpha-induced reactions on natPd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Shubin, Yu. N.

    2005-04-01

    Alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions that result in the generation of several Ag (mass numbers 103, 104g, 105, 106m, 110m, 111, 112) and Cd (mass numbers 104, 105, 111m) radionuclides were investigated using the stacked-foil activation technique on natural palladium targets up to Eα = 37 MeV. Excitation functions are reported for the first time for reactions of the type natPd(α, pxn)*Ag (x = 1-5) and natPd(α, xn)*Cd (x = 1-5). The experimental results are compared with model calculations performed with the ALICE-IPPE code. For selected radionuclides useful in medical practice a comparison of possible production routes for α, p and d induced reactions on natPd is discussed.

  19. Experimental determination of activation cross section of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natPt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Shubin, Yu. N.; Kovalev, S.

    2006-10-01

    Alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions that result in the generation of several Hg (mass numbers 192, 193m, 193g, 195m, 195g, 197m, 197g, 199m) and Au (mass numbers 194, 195m, 195g, 196n, 196g, 198m, 198g, 199, 200m) radionuclides were investigated. The stacked-foil activation technique on natural platinum targets was used. Excitation functions are reported for Eα from threshold up to 37 MeV. Cross sections are reported for the first time for reactions of the type natPt(α, xn) ∗Hg ( x = 1-5) and natPd(α,p xn) ∗Au ( x = 1-5). The experimental results are compared with literature values and with model calculations performed with the ALICE-IPPE code. Use of the data for possible applications in comparison with our earlier results for proton and deuteron induced reactions is discussed.

  20. Antistressor activity of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) against experimentally induced oxidative stress in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, S; Satendra, S; Sushma, S; Anjana, T; Shashi, S

    2007-01-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) were evaluated for antistress activity against experimentally induced oxidative stress in albino rabbits. Animals of the test group received supplementation of 2 g fresh leaves of O. sanctum per rabbit for 30 days. Anemic hypoxia was induced chemically by injecting the rabbits with 15 mg sodium nitrite per 100 g body weight intraperitoneally. Results indicated that O. sanctum administration blunted the changes in cardiorespiratory (BP, HR, RR) parameters in response to stress. A significant (p sanctum leaves. Significant increase (p sanctum. Oxidative stress led to a lesser depletion of reduced glutathione (28.80%) and plasma superoxide dismutase (23.04%) in O. sanctum-treated rabbits. The results of this study suggest that the potential antistressor activity of O. sanctum is partly attributable to its antioxidant properties.

  1. Effect of ES products from Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) on experimentally induced colitis in adult zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Simon; Kania, Per Walter; Holm, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    with helminth-derived substances have supported this notion, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study therefore dissects to what extent a series of immune-related genes are modulated in zebrafish with experimentally induced colitis following exposure to excretory-secretory (ES) products isolated...... from larval Anisakis, a widely distributed fish nematode. Adult zebrafish intrarectally exposed to the colitis-inducing agent TNBS developed severe colitis leading to 80% severe morbidity, but if co-injected (ip) with Anisakis ES products, the morbidity rate was 50% at the end of the experiment (48...... hours post-exposure). Gene expression studies of TNBS-treated zebrafish showed clear upregulation of a range of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and effector molecules and some induction of genes related to the adaptive response. A distinct innate-driven immune response was seen in both TNBS...

  2. Experimental and numerical analysis of corrosion induced cover cracking in reinforced concrete beam

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Benjamin; Quiertant, Marc; Bouteiller, Véronique; Adelaide, Lucas; PERRAIS, Maxime; Tailhan, Jean-Louis; Cremona, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to present both experimental and numerical studies of the corrosion induced cracking pattern evolution of a reinforced concrete sample subjected to accelerated corrosion. The sample was a concrete beam (1000x250x100 mm3) reinforced with two rebars (20 mm diameter; 25 mm cover). The beam was not mechanically loaded. The corrosion process was applied on 500 mm rebar length on the central part. Rebars were intentiostatically corroded using a current density of 100µA/cm² of steel,...

  3. Numerical and experimental studies of the carbon etching in EUV-induced plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Astakhov, D I; Lee, C J; Ivanov, V V; Krivtsun, V M; Yakushev, O; Koshelev, K N; Lopaev, D V; Bijkerk, F

    2015-01-01

    We have used a combination of numerical modeling and experiments to study carbon etching in the presence of a hydrogen plasma. We model the evolution of a low density EUV-induced plasma during and after the EUV pulse to obtain the energy resolved ion fluxes from the plasma to the surface. By relating the computed ion fluxes to the experimentally observed etching rate at various pressures and ion energies, we show that at low pressure and energy, carbon etching is due to chemical sputtering, while at high pressure and energy a reactive ion etching process is likely to dominate.

  4. Experimental Research of Reliability of Plant Stress State Detection by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Fedotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental laboratory investigations of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of watercress and lawn grass were conducted. The fluorescence spectra were excited by YAG:Nd laser emitting at 532 nm. It was established that the influence of stress caused by mechanical damage, overwatering, and soil pollution is manifested in changes of the spectra shapes. The mean values and confidence intervals for the ratio of two fluorescence maxima near 685 and 740 nm were estimated. It is presented that the fluorescence ratio could be considered a reliable characteristic of plant stress state.

  5. Direct experimental measurement of SRS-induced spectral tilt in multichannel multispan communication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapin, Yu A; Nanii, Oleg E; Novikov, A G; Pavlov, V N; Plotskii, A Yu; Treshchikov, V N

    2012-09-30

    Nonlinear SRS-induced tilt of the spectrum of a multichannel DWDM signal is studied experimentally in standard singlemode fibreoptic communication lines. It is found that at a fixed spectral bandwidth and total power the nonlinear SRS tilt is independent of the number of channels, radiation source type, and the initial tilt (positive or negative). In a multispan line consisting of identical spans the total nonlinear tilt of the spectrum (in dB) is proportional to the number of spans, spectral width and total power. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  6. The identification of experimentally induced appendicitis using in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D O; Clarke, J R; Settle, R G; Sachdeva, A K; Wheeler, J E; Trerotola, S O; Wolf, G L; Rombeau, J L

    1985-07-01

    Appendicitis was induced in six New Zealand white rabbits. The appendices from these animals had significantly higher spin-lattice relaxation times, T1, as determined in vitro by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (10 controls vs 6 experimentals, 413 +/- 23 vs 455 +/- 41, X +/- SD, P less than (0.02). T1 correlated significantly with the water content of the appendiceal tissue (P less than 0.001). These findings suggest that in vivo NMR imaging techniques weighted on T1 might be able to identify human appendicitis noninvasively by detecting localized edema.

  7. NEURO-SHEILDING EFFECT OF ASIATICOSIDE AGAINST MPTP INDUCED VARIATIONS IN EXPERIMENTAL MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Sampath Uvarajan; Vanisree Arambakkam Janardhanam; Gopal Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is one of major neurodegenerative disorders caused by endogenous and exogenous neurotoxins. It is characterized by the progressive loss of dopominergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPc). The present study was aimed to investigate the potential role of asiaticoside against 1 – methyl 4 – phenyl 1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity in experimental mice. Mice were divided in to 4 groups : Group I received vehicle saline(0.2ml),group II wa...

  8. Anaesthetic-induced cardioprotection in an experimental model of the Takotsubo syndrome - isoflurane vs. propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oras, J; Redfors, B; Ali, A; Lundgren, J; Sihlbom, C; Thorsell, A; Seeman-Lodding, H; Omerovic, E; Ricksten, S-E

    2017-03-01

    Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is an acute cardiac condition with a substantial mortality for which no specific treatment is available. We have previously shown that isoflurane attenuates the development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in an experimental TS-model. We compared the effects of equi-anaesthetic doses of isoflurane, propofol and ketamine+midazolam on haemodynamics, global and regional LV systolic function and the activation of intracellular metabolic pathways in experimental TS. We hypothesized that cardioprotection in experimental TS is specific for isoflurane. Forty-five rats were randomized to isoflurane (0.6 MAC, n = 15), propofol (bolus 200 mg/kg+360 mg/kg/h, n = 15) or ketamine (100 mg/kg)+midazolam (10 mg/kg, n = 15) anaesthesia. Arterial pressure, heart rate and body temperature were continuously measured and arterial blood gas analysis was performed intermittently. TS was induced by intraperitoneal injection of isoprenaline, 50 mg/kg. LV echocardiography was performed 90 min after isoprenaline injection. Apical cardiac tissue was analysed by global discovery proteomics and pathway analysis. Isoprenaline-induced changes in arterial blood pressure, heart rate or body temperature did not differ between groups. LV ejection fraction was higher and extent of LV akinesia was lower with isoflurane, when compared with the propofol and the ketamine+midazolam groups. In this TS-model, the proteomic analysis revealed an up-regulation of pathways involved in inflammation, coagulation, endocytosis and lipid metabolism. This up-regulation was clearly attenuated with isoflurane compared to propofol. In an experimental model of TS, isoflurane, but not propofol, exerts a cardioprotective effect. The proteomic analysis suggests that inflammation might be involved in pathogenesis of TS. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Oral administration of ginseng ameliorates cyclosporine-induced pancreatic injury in an experimental mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Woo Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate whether ginseng has a protective effect in an experimental mouse model of cyclosporine-induced pancreatic injury. METHODS: Mice were treated with cyclosporine (30 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously and Korean red ginseng extract (0.2 or 0.4 g/kg/day, oral gavage for 4 weeks while on a 0.01% salt diet. The effect of ginseng on cyclosporine-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction was investigated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and measurements of serum insulin level, β cell area, macrophage infiltration, and apoptosis. Using an in vitro model, we further examined the effect of ginseng on a cyclosporine-treated insulin-secreting cell line. Oxidative stress was measured by the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in serum, tissue sections, and culture media. RESULTS: Four weeks of cyclosporine treatment increased blood glucose levels and decreased insulin levels, but cotreatment with ginseng ameliorated the cyclosporine-induced glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Pancreatic β cell area was also greater with ginseng cotreatment compared with cyclosporine monotherapy. The production of proinflammatory molecules, such as induced nitric oxide synthase and cytokines, and the level of apoptotic cell death also decreased in pancreatic β cell with ginseng treatment. Consistent with the in vivo results, the in vitro study showed that the addition of ginseng protected against cyclosporine-induced cytotoxicity, inflammation, and apoptotic cell death. These in vivo and in vitro changes were accompanied by decreases in the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in pancreatic β cell in tissue section, serum, and culture media during cotreatment of ginseng with cyclosporine. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that ginseng has a protective effect against cyclosporine-induced pancreatic β cell injury via reducing oxidative stress.

  10. Modeling Chemotherapy-Induced Hair Loss: From Experimental Propositions toward Clinical Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Sharov, Andrey A

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced hair loss is one of the most devastating side effects of cancer treatment. To study the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the hair follicle, a number of experimental models have been proposed. Yoon et al. report that transplantation of human scalp hair follicles onto chemotherapy-treated immunodeficient mice serves as an excellent in vivo model for chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Yoon et al. demonstrate that (i) the response of human hair follicles grafted onto immunodeficient mice to cyclophosphamide resembles the key features of the chemotherapy-induced hair loss seen in patients with cancer and (ii) this human in vivo model for chemotherapy-induced hair loss is closer to clinical reality than to any earlier models. Undoubtedly, this model will serve as a valuable tool for analyses of the mechanisms that underlie this devastating side effect of anti-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Induced Mild Hypothermia on Acid-Base Balance During Experimental Acute Sepsis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon, Karelle; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine; Ollivier, Hélène; L'Her, Erwan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of induced mild hypothermia (34°C) on acid-base balance in septic rats. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats median weight 306 g, range 251-333 g were used. After anesthesia and when the target temperature was reached (normothermia: 38°C or induced mild hypothermia: 34°C), sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and perforation. Measurements of cardiopulmonary parameters and blood samples were performed at T0h (occurring immediately after chirurgical procedures), T2h, T4h (at each temperature), and T6h (at 34°C only). Blood oxygen saturation, heart and respiratory rates, arterial blood pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure, sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium concentrations, hematocrit, blood lactate, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 concentrations were measured on anesthetized rats. Other parameters such as bicarbonate concentration, hemoglobin concentration, base excess, and anion gap were estimated from measured parameters. Main results showed that an increase in both cytokines concentrations was observed in septic rats compared with sham rats. This increase was less marked at 34°C compared with 38°C. Moreover, sepsis induction led to a marked metabolic acidosis and hypothermia delayed this acidosis. Induced mild hypothermia delays the evolution of cytokines and metabolic acidosis during experimental sepsis.

  12. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Abdelhakim Abdelaleem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups. Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7–15 days rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  13. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Neutron-induced interactions: index of experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, M.H.; Cullen, D.E.; Howerton, R.J.; Perkins, S.T.

    1976-07-04

    Indexes to the neutron-induced interaction data in the Experimental Cross Section Information Library (ECSIL) as of July 4, 1976 are tabulated. The tabulation has two arrangements: isotope (ZA) order and reaction-number order.

  14. Polioencefalomalacia experimental induzida por amprólio em ovinos Experimentally amprolium-induced polioencephalomalacia in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Para estabelecer um modelo experimental para o estudo da etiologia, patologia e patogênese da polioencefalomalacia em ruminantes, a condição foi induzida em cinco ovinos pela administração oral de amprólio nas doses diárias de 500 e 1.000mg/kg de peso animal, respectivamente por 28-59 dias e 13-39 dias. Todos os ovinos morreram ou foram eutanasiados in extremis após um curso clínico de 3-7 dias. Os sinais clínicos incluíam depressão, incoordenação, midríase, bruxismo, cegueira e decúbito com opistótono e movimentos de pedalagem. Salivação excessiva e posição de cavalete foi observada em um ovino e mioclonias em um outro. Os principais achados de necropsia restringiam-se ao sistema nervoso central e incluíam tumefação do encéfalo com achatamento dos giros telencefálicos e hemorragias nos lobos parietal e occipital do telencéfalo; as hemorragias ocorriam também nas áreas submeníngeas da medula espinhal e do mesencéfalo. Histologicamente, havia necrose segmentar laminar de neurônios (neurônios vermelhos associada a edema, tumefação de células endoteliais, hemorragias e infiltração por macrófagos espumosos (células gitter. Essas alterações eram mais marcadas nos lobos frontal, parietal e occipital do telencéfalo e havia uma demarcação abrupta entre as lesões e o neurópilo normal adjacente. Adicionalmente, lesões semelhantes, mas menos acentuadas, eram observadas no mesencéfalo, tálamo e hipocampo. Levando em consideração a reproducibilidade regular dos aspectos da polioencefalomalacia em ovinos pela administração de amprólio, esse modelo pode ser útil para o estudo da doença.In order to establish an experimental model for the study of the etiology, pathology, and pathogenesis of polioencephalomalacia in ruminants, the condition was induced in five sheep by oral administration of amprolium at daily doses of 500 and 1,000mg per kg of body weight respectively for 28-59 days and for 13-39 days

  15. Polioencefalomalacia experimental induzida por amprólio em bovinos Experimentally amprolium-induced polio-encephalomalacia in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula A. Nogueira

    2010-08-01

    pathogenesis of polioencephalomalacia (PEM in cattle, the condition was induced into four steers by oral administration of amprolium at daily doses of 500 and 350mg per kg of body weight respectively for 22 and 26-28 days. All steers died spontaneously or were euthanized in extremis after being sick for 4-7 days. Three steers that received the drug at 1,000mg/kg and two that received 500mg/kg died spontaneously with acute or subacute clinical signs and without lesions and signs of PEM. In those steers in which PEM was reproduced, the neurological signs included marked apathy, incoordination, sawhorse stance, occasional falls, hyperexcitability, muscle tremors, blindness, grinding of teeth, strabismus, nystagmus, mydriasis, opisthotonus, and lateral recumbency with paddling movements. Main gross lesions were restricted to the brain and included swelling, flattening, softening and yellow discoloration of the cerebral circumvolutions. Histologically, there was segmental laminar neuronal necrosis (red neurons associated with edema, swelling of endothelial cells, cleavage of laminar neuronal layers or between gray and white matter and moderate to severe infiltration by foamy macrophages (gitter cells. These changes were more marked in the frontal, parietal and occipital telencephalic lobes. Additionally, similar and moderate lesions were detected in the midbrain and hippocampus. Neuronal necrosis and edema affected uniformly the neurons layers of the grey matter of the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes. This experimental model of PEM with oral administration of amprolium may be useful for the study in cattle, as previously observed in sheep.

  16. Experimental and observational evidence for plume-induced subduction on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaille, A.; Smrekar, S. E.; Tomlinson, S.

    2017-04-01

    Why Venus lacks plate tectonics remains an unanswered question in terrestrial planet evolution. There is observational evidence for subduction--a requirement for plate tectonics--on Venus, but it is unclear why the features have characteristics of both mantle plumes and subduction zones. One explanation is that mantle plumes trigger subduction. Here we compare laboratory experiments of plume-induced subduction in a colloidal solution of nanoparticles to observations of proposed subduction sites on Venus. The experimental fluids are heated from below to produce upwelling plumes, which in turn produce tensile fractures in the lithosphere-like skin that forms on the upper surface. Plume material upwells through the fractures and spreads above the skin, analogous to volcanic flooding, and leads to bending and eventual subduction of the skin along arcuate segments. The segments are analogous to the semi-circular trenches seen at two proposed sites of plume-triggered subduction at Quetzalpetlatl and Artemis coronae. Other experimental deformation structures and subsurface density variations are also consistent with topography, radar and gravity data for Venus. Scaling analysis suggests that this regime with limited, plume-induced subduction is favoured by a hot lithosphere, such as that found on early Earth or present-day Venus.

  17. Acquired and Congenital Ocular Toxoplasmosis Experimentally Induced in Calomys callosus (Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    Maria de Fátima Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental model for acquired and congenital ocular toxoplasmosis as well as a model to induce experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU was investigated in Calomys callosus. Toxoplasma gondii, ME-49 strain, was used to infect males and pregnant- and not pregnant-females while S-antigen, a major glycoprotein of the retinal photoreceptor cell, was used to induce EAU. The ocular lesions elicited by T. gondii were characterized by the presence of cysts, free tachyzoites and inflammatory cells in the retina or related tissues. In the congenital form, 40% of the fetus presented ocular lesions, i.e., presence of cysts in the retina, vitreous, and extra-retinal tissues. In the acquired form, 75% of the females and 50% of the males presented unilateral ocular cysts both at 21 and 47 days post-infection. It was also demonstrated that S-antigen was not uveitogenic in the C. callosus model. No lesion was observed in the animals exclusively immunized with this retinal component, even when jacalin was used as additional adjuvant for polyclonal response to the retinal antigen. It can be concluded that C. callosus may constitute in a promising model for study both acquired and congenital ocular toxoplasmosis, particularly when it is important to make sure that a non autoimmune process is involved in the genesis of the ocular infection.

  18. Establishment of peritoneal liquid electrophoretogram from healthy horses and horses submitted to experimentally induced intestinal obstruction

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    A.F.S. Nogueira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The initial inflammatory stages of the colic syndrome include changes known as acute phase response. The aim of this study was to contribute with the establishment of reference values concerning the electrophoretogram of peritoneal liquid from healthy horses and horses submitted to experimentally induced intestinal obstruction. Twenty-one horses were allotted in four groups: duodenal obstruction (DG, ileum obstruction (IG, left-dorsal colon obstruction (MG, and control group (CG. Peritoneal liquid was sampled before obtruction (T0, with 3 hours of obstruction (T3 and 6, 30, 102 and 174 hours after desobstructing (T6, T30, T102 and T174, respectively. Total protein levels were determined by the biuret method and protein fractions were obtained by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The acute phase proteins (APP identified were Immunoglobulin-A, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α1-antitrypsin, heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin-G, haptoglobin, α1-acid glycoprotein and a still unnamed protein, which was called P24. There was no difference (P>0.3 in protein levels among groups, although a significant difference (P>0.05 was observed between distinct experimental moments in each group evidencing a higher response of the APP in the obstructed groups. The APP fractioning of the peritoneal liquid was standardized to establish a standard curve for healthy equines and those submitted to induced intestinal obstruction. Moreover, it was verified that the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was sensitive and effective to help diagnose abdominal inflammatory processes.

  19. Human experimental anxiety: actual public speaking induces more intense physiological responses than simulated public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Gorayeb, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    a) To perform a systematic and meta-analytic review to verify whether the Simulated Public Speaking Task (SPST) leads to a greater increase in self-rated anxiety than in physiological correlates of anxiety; and b) to compare the results obtained with the SPST with an actual public speaking task involving healthy volunteers. a) The PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched for studies involving the SPST prior to 2012. Eleven publications were eligible and provided data from 143 healthy volunteers for meta-analysis; b) 48 university students without somatic or psychiatric disorders were divided into three experimental groups of 16 subjects to undergo one of the following: SPST, real-world public speaking task (real-world), and control situation (control). The meta-analysis showed that the SPST induced a significant increase in the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) anxiety factor, but no significant increases in systolic blood pressure or heart rate. The empirical study showed that the real-world public speaking task increased heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure significantly more than the control and SPST conditions. These results suggest that real public speaking might be better than SPST in inducing experimental anxiety.

  20. Experimental investigation of flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Jaiswal, S; Sen, A

    2016-01-01

    We report on experimental observations of flow induced large amplitude dust-acoustic shock waves (DASW) in a complex plasma. The experiments have been carried out in a $\\Pi$ shaped DC glow discharge experimental device using kaolin particles as the dust component in a background of Argon plasma. A strong supersonic flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change of gas flow rate is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks whose dynamics are captured by fast video pictures of the evolving structures. The physical characteristics of these shocks are delineated through a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of flow speeds and potential hill heights. The observed evolution of the shock waves and their propagation characteristics are found to compare well with model numerical results based on a m...

  1. Experimental investigation of flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, S., E-mail: surabhijaiswal73@gmail.com; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2016-08-15

    We report on experimental observations of flow induced large amplitude dust-acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma. The experiments have been carried out in a Π shaped direct current glow discharge experimental device using kaolin particles as the dust component in a background of Argon plasma. A strong supersonic flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change in the gas flow rate is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks whose dynamics are captured by fast video pictures of the evolving structures. The physical characteristics of these shocks are delineated through a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of flow speeds and potential hill heights. The observed evolution of the shock waves and their propagation characteristics are found to compare well with model numerical results based on a modified Korteweg-de-Vries-Burgers type equation.

  2. Assessment of the Mechanistic Role of Cinnarizine in Modulating Experimentally-Induced Bronchial Asthma in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Maha M; Messiha, Basim A S; Salama, Abeer A A

    2015-01-01

    Calcium influx, inflammatory infiltration, cytokine production, immunoglobulin E activation and oxidative stress play coordinated roles in bronchial asthma pathogenesis. We aim to assess the protective effect of cinnarizine against experimentally induced bronchial asthma. Bronchial asthma was induced by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge. Rats were allocated into a normal control, an asthma control, a dexamethasone (standard) treatment, and 2 cinnarizine treatment groups. The respiratory functions tidal volume (TV) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in lung tissue, the allergic immunoglobulin IgE in serum, the absolute eosinophil count (AEC) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as the oxidative and nitrosative markers glutathione reduced (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in lung tissue and nitric oxide end products (NOx) in BALF were assessed, followed by a histopathological study. Cinnarizine administration significantly restored TV, PEFR, TNF-α, IL-5, IgE, AEC, GSH, SOD and NOx values back to normal levels, and significantly decreased perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammatory scores. Cinnarizine may protect against experimental bronchial asthma. Suppressant effect of cinnarizine on pro-inflammatory cytokines release, IgE antibody production, eosinophil infiltration as well as oxidative and nitrosative stress may explain its anti-asthmatic potential. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Obesogenic diet-induced gut barrier dysfunction and pathobiont expansion aggravate experimental colitis.

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    June-Chul Lee

    Full Text Available Consumption of a typical Western diet is a risk factor for several disorders. Metabolic syndrome is the most common disease associated with intake of excess fat. However, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is also greater in subjects consuming a Western diet, although the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We examined the morphological and functional changes of the intestine, the first site contacting dietary fat, in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD inducing obesity. Paneth cell area and production of antimicrobial peptides by Paneth cells were decreased in HFD-fed mice. Goblet cell number and secretion of mucin by goblet cells were also decreased, while intestinal permeability was increased in HFD-fed mice. HFD-fed mice were more susceptible to experimental colitis, and exhibited severe colonic inflammation, accompanied by the expansion of selected pathobionts such as Atopobium sp. and Proteobacteria. Fecal microbiota transplantation transferred the susceptibility to DSS-colitis, and antibiotic treatment abrogated colitis progression. These data suggest that an experimental HFD-induced Paneth cell dysfunction and subsequent intestinal dysbiosis characterized by pathobiont expansion can be predisposing factors to the development of inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Geographic Health's Way to Prevention of Diseases: A Case Study on Arsenic Spatial Dispersion and Dyspnea in Isfahan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Maasoume; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2014-11-01

    As geographic science discusses the analysis of environment, human beings and their mutual relations, thus the field of medical geography consists of being inspired from the relations between these two factors, analyzing environmental factors, their identification them and the state of their effects on human health, as well as determining the location of these factors. Some hazards that threat human health are the results of environmental factors and the relevant pollutions. Some important categories of diseases including (Shortness of Breath or, Dyspnea) have considerable differences in various places, as observed in their spatial prevalence and distribution maps. The record of patients with Dyspnea diseases were prepared for this descriptive research, for the period of 2009-2011, from the provincial health center, with the questionnaires were excluded patients with a family history of disease and the spatial diagram for disease prevalence was drawn according to the prepared data. The arsenic geographical distribution diagram in Isfahan province was also prepared and then the relation between an element of Arsenic in the province and the Dyspnea diseases were analyzed. The analyses showed that the highest rate of Arsenic is entered the soil via fertilizers to come eventually into the food cycle of humans. By analyzing the amount of used fertilizers in Isfahan province and the dispersion diagram of Arsenic in Isfahan province, it was found that the highest frequency of Arsenic is in places having agricultural base. The spatial dispersion of Dyspnea diseases also showed that the spreading of Dyspnea diseases is greater in places with higher scale of Arsenic. This study is a logical justification between the two diagrams to confirm the hypothesis regarding the effect of arsenic on Dyspnea.

  5. Experimental Setup to Assess Blast and Penetration-Induced Secondary Debris in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Environment by Paul S Duvall Approved for public release; distribution...Research Laboratory Experimental Setup to Assess Blast and Penetration-Induced Secondary Debris in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain...Induced Secondary Debris in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Environment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  6. Experimental tonic hand pain modulates the corticospinal plasticity induced by a subsequent hand deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatis, N; Gagné, M; Voisin, J I A V; Reilly, K T; Mercier, C

    2016-08-25

    Sensorimotor reorganization is believed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of phantom limb pain, but pain itself might modulate sensorimotor plasticity induced by deafferentation. Clinical and basic research support this idea, as pain prior to amputation increases the risk of developing post-amputation pain. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of experimental tonic cutaneous hand pain on the plasticity induced by temporary ischemic hand deafferentation. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in two experimental sessions (Pain, No Pain) in which transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess corticospinal excitability in two forearm muscles (flexor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis) before (T0, T10, T20, and T40) and after (T60 and T75) inflation of a cuff around the wrist. The cuff was inflated at T45 in both sessions and in the Pain session capsaicin cream was applied on the dorsum of the hand at T5. Corticospinal excitability was significantly greater during the Post-inflation phase (p=0.002) and increased similarly in both muscles (p=0.861). Importantly, the excitability increase in the Post-inflation phase was greater for the Pain than the No-Pain condition (p=0.006). Post-hoc analyses revealed a significant difference between the two conditions during the Post-inflation phase (p=0.030) but no difference during the Pre-inflation phase (p=0.601). In other words, the corticospinal facilitation was greater when pain was present prior to cuff inflation. These results indicate that pain can modulate the plasticity induced by another event, and could partially explain the sensorimotor reorganization often reported in chronic pain populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Strong protection induced by an experimental DIVA subunit vaccine against bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenna; Hägglund, Sara; Bréard, Emmanuel; Riou, Mickaël; Zohari, Siamak; Comtet, Loic; Olofson, Ann-Sophie; Gélineau, Robert; Martin, Guillaume; Elvander, Marianne; Blomqvist, Gunilla; Zientara, Stéphan; Valarcher, Jean Francois

    2014-11-20

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) infections in ruminants pose a permanent agricultural threat since new serotypes are constantly emerging in new locations. Clinical disease is mainly observed in sheep, but cattle were unusually affected during an outbreak of BTV seroype 8 (BTV-8) in Europe. We previously developed an experimental vaccine based on recombinant viral protein 2 (VP2) of BTV-8 and non-structural proteins 1 (NS1) and NS2 of BTV-2, mixed with an immunostimulating complex (ISCOM)-matrix adjuvant. We demonstrated that bovine immune responses induced by this vaccine were as good or superior to those induced by a classic commercial inactivated vaccine. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the experimental vaccine in cattle and, based on the detection of VP7 antibodies, assessed its DIVA compliancy following virus challenge. Two groups of BTV-seronegative calves were subcutaneously immunized twice at a 3-week interval with the subunit vaccine (n=6) or with adjuvant alone (n=6). Following BTV-8 challenge 3 weeks after second immunization, controls developed viremia and fever associated with other mild clinical signs of bluetongue disease, whereas vaccinated animals were clinically and virologically protected. The vaccine-induced protection was likely mediated by high virus-neutralizing antibody titers directed against VP2 and perhaps by cellular responses to NS1 and NS2. T lymphocyte responses were cross-reactive between BTV-2 and BTV-8, suggesting that NS1 and NS2 may provide the basis of an adaptable vaccine that can be varied by using VP2 of different serotypes. The detection of different levels of VP7 antibodies in vaccinated animals and controls after challenge suggested a compliancy between the vaccine and the DIVA companion test. This BTV subunit vaccine is a promising candidate that should be further evaluated and developed to protect against different serotypes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Time-Dependent Progression of Demyelination and Axonal Pathology in MP4-Induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

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    Johanna Prinz

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal pathology. Myelin basic protein/proteolipid protein (MBP-PLP fusion protein MP4 is capable of inducing chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in susceptible mouse strains mirroring diverse histopathological and immunological hallmarks of MS. Lack of human tissue underscores the importance of animal models to study the pathology of MS.Twenty-two female C57BL/6 (B6 mice were immunized with MP4 and the clinical development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was observed. Methylene blue-stained semi-thin and ultra-thin sections of the lumbar spinal cord were assessed at the peak of acute EAE, three months (chronic EAE and six months after onset of EAE (long-term EAE. The extent of lesional area and inflammation were analyzed in semi-thin sections on a light microscopic level. The magnitude of demyelination and axonal damage were determined using electron microscopy. Emphasis was put on the ventrolateral tract (VLT of the spinal cord.B6 mice demonstrated increasing demyelination and severe axonal pathology in the course of MP4-induced EAE. Additionally, mitochondrial swelling and a decrease in the nearest neighbor neurofilament distance (NNND as early signs of axonal damage were evident with the onset of EAE. In semi-thin sections we observed the maximum of lesional area in the chronic state of EAE while inflammation was found to a similar extent in acute and chronic EAE. In contrast to the well-established myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG model, disease stages of MP4-induced EAE could not be distinguished by assessing the extent of parenchymal edema or the grade of inflammation.Our results complement our previous ultrastructural studies of B6 EAE models and suggest that B6 mice immunized with different antigens constitute useful instruments to study the diverse

  9. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model

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    S. Rochelle Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM, affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  10. An automated, high-throughput experimental system for induced charge electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascall, Andrew J; Squires, Todd M

    2010-09-21

    Recent experiments in induced charge electrokinetics (ICEK) have shown that the standard theory generally overpredicts experimentally observed velocities. Such discrepancies reduce the efficacy of practical ICEK devices, and highlight our incomplete understanding of electrokinetic phenomena. Here, we present an automated experimental system that allows for the rapid collection of ICEK data under a variety of conditions ( approximately 1000 per day) to help develop and constrain new theories. We demonstrate this system by studying the ICEK slip flows over electrodes that have been controllably "contaminated" with a dielectric layer, either SiO(2) or an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer, of known thickness. We also develop a theory that accounts for the effects of the dielectric coatings surface chemistry that yields quantitative agreement with experiments over nearly a thousand distinct conditions in the SiO(2) system and present an additional three thousand experiments of flows over alkanethiol monolayers. Our experimental system allows the direct interrogation of the physico-chemical effects that influence ICEK flows and for the optimization of these flows in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  11. Radiological and histopathological evaluation of experimentally-induced periapical lesion in rats

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    Renata Cordeiro Teixeira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated experimentally-induced periapical bone loss sites using digital radiographic and histopathologic parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-seven Wistar rats were submitted to coronal opening of their mandibular right first molars. They were radiographed at 2, 15 and 30 days after the operative procedure by two digital radiographic storage phosphor plates (Digora®. The images were analyzed by creating a region of interest at the periapical region of each tooth (ImageJ and registering the corresponding pixel values. After the sacrifice, the specimens were submitted to microscopic analysis in order to confirm the pulpal and periapical status of the tooth. RESULTS: There was significant statistically difference between the control and test sides in all the experimental periods regarding the pixel values (two-way ANOVA; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The microscopic analysis proved that a periapical disease development occurred during the experimental periods with an evolution from pulpal necrosis to periapical bone resorption.

  12. The modified Medical Research Council scale for the assessment of dyspnea in daily living in obesity: a pilot study

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    Launois Claire

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyspnea is very frequent in obese subjects. However, its assessment is complex in clinical practice. The modified Medical Research Council scale (mMRC scale is largely used in the assessment of dyspnea in chronic respiratory diseases, but has not been validated in obesity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of the mMRC scale in the assessment of dyspnea in obese subjects and to analyze its relationships with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT, lung function and biological parameters. Methods Forty-five obese subjects (17 M/28 F, BMI: 43 ± 9 kg/m2 were included in this pilot study. Dyspnea in daily living was evaluated by the mMRC scale and exertional dyspnea was evaluated by the Borg scale after 6MWT. Pulmonary function tests included spirometry, plethysmography, diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide and arterial blood gases. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein and hemoglobin levels were analyzed. Results Eighty-four percent of patients had a mMRC ≥ 1 and 40% a mMRC ≥ 2. Compared to subjects with no dyspnea (mMRC = 0, a mMRC ≥ 1 was associated with a higher BMI (44 ± 9 vs 36 ± 5 kg/m2, p = 0.01, and a lower expiratory reserve volume (ERV (50 ± 31 vs 91 ± 32%, p = 0.004, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (86 ± 17 vs 101 ± 16%, p = 0.04 and distance covered in 6MWT (401 ± 107 vs 524 ± 72 m, p = 0.007. A mMRC ≥ 2 was associated with a higher Borg score after the 6MWT (4.7 ± 2.5 vs 6.5 ± 1.5, p  Conclusion This study confirms that dyspnea is very frequent in obese subjects. The differences between the “dyspneic” and the “non dyspneic” groups assessed by the mMRC scale for BMI, ERV, FEV1 and distance covered in 6MWT suggests that the mMRC scale might be an useful and easy-to-use tool to assess dyspnea in daily living in

  13. Managing Dyspnea in Patients with Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Canadian Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline

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    Darcy D Marciniuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea is a cardinal symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and its severity and magnitude increases as the disease progresses, leading to significant disability and a negative effect on quality of life. Refractory dyspnea is a common and difficult symptom to treat in patients with advanced COPD. There are many questions concerning optimal management and, specifically, whether various therapies are effective in this setting. The present document was compiled to address these important clinical issues using an evidence-based systematic review process led by a representative interprofessional panel of experts.

  14. Greater dyspnea is associated with lower health-related quality of life among European patients with COPD

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    Gruenberger JB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Bernard Gruenberger,1 Jeffrey Vietri,2 Dorothy L Keininger,1 Donald A Mahler3 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Basel-Stadt, Switzerland; 2Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, Horsham, PA, 3Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA Objective: Dyspnea is a defining symptom in the classification and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the degree of variation in burden among symptomatic COPD patients and the possible correlates of burden remain unclear. This study was conducted to characterize patients in Europe currently being treated for COPD according to the level of dyspnea in terms of sociodemographics, health-related quality of life, work productivity impairment, and health care resource use assessed by patient reports.Methods: Data were derived from the 5-EU 2013 National Health and Wellness Survey (N=62,000. Respondents aged ≥40 years who reported currently using a prescription for COPD were grouped according to their level of dyspnea as per the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines and compared on health status (revised Short Form 36 [SF-36]v2, work impairment (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, and number of health care visits in the past 6 months using generalized linear models with appropriate distributions and link functions.Results: Of the 768 respondents who met the inclusion criteria, 245 (32% were considered to have higher dyspnea (equivalent to modified Medical Research Council score ≥2. Higher dyspnea was associated with decrements ranging from 3.9 to 8.2 points in all eight domains of the SF-36 health profile after adjustment for sociodemographics, general health characteristics, and length of COPD diagnosis; mental component summary scores and Short Form-6D health utility scores were lower by 3.5 and 0.06 points, respectively. Adjusted mean activity impairment (55% vs 37%, P<0.001 and

  15. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

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    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  16. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba extract on experimental Bothrops venom-induced acute kidney injury.

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    Monique Silva Martines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV-induced AKI. METHODOLOGY: Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C, SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance, renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler, blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer, renal vascular resistance (RVR, urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method, hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit, fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. CONCLUSION: SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR.

  17. Experimental Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Induces Blunted Vasoconstriction and Functional Changes in the Rat Aorta

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    Cecilia Tufiño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic conditions increase vascular reactivity to angiotensin II in several studies but there are scarce reports on cardiovascular effects of hypercaloric diet (HD induced gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, so the objective of this work was to determine the effects of HD induced GDM on vascular responses. Angiotensin II as well as phenylephrine induced vascular contraction was tested in isolated aorta rings with and without endothelium from rats fed for 7 weeks (4 before and 3 weeks during pregnancy with standard (SD or hypercaloric (HD diet. Also, protein expression of AT1R, AT2R, COX-1, COX-2, NOS-1, and NOS-3 and plasma glucose, insulin, and angiotensin II levels were measured. GDM impaired vasoconstrictor response (P<0.05 versus SD in intact (e+ but not in endothelium-free (e− vessels. Losartan reduced GDM but not SD e− vasoconstriction (P<0.01 versus SD. AT1R, AT2R, and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression were significantly increased in GDM vessels (P<0.05 versus SD. Results suggest an increased participation of endothelium vasodilator mediators, probably prostaglandins, as well as of AT2 vasodilator receptors as a compensatory mechanism for vasoconstrictor changes generated by experimental GDM. Considering the short term of rat pregnancy findings can reflect early stage GDM adaptations.

  18. Microscopic evaluation of induced tooth movement after subluxation trauma: an experimental study in rats

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    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the histological alterations that occurred in the periodontal area of rat molars submitted to induced tooth movement (ITM right after an intentional trauma (subluxation. METHODS: Forty adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were selected. The animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5, according to the combination of variables: Group 1 - control (neither trauma nor ITM; Group 2 - ITM; Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 - dentoalveolar trauma groups corresponding, respectively, to 1, 3, 8 and 10 days after trauma; Groups 7 and 8 - the animals' molars were subjected to a 900 cN impact and, one and three days after the trauma event, tooth movement was induced. The rats' maxillary first molars were mesially moved during seven days with a closed coil (50 cN. After the experimental period of each group, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the right maxillas were removed and processed for histological analysis under light microscopy. RESULTS: In the animals of group 3, 4, 5 and 6, the histological alterations were not very significant. Consequently, the effect of induced tooth movement right after a subluxation event (groups 7 and 8 was very similar to those described for Group 2. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the quality of periodontal repair when ITM was applied to teeth that had suffered a subluxation trauma.

  19. Fumigaclavine C ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine experimental colitis via NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition

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    Wenjie Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of Fumigaclavine C, a fungal metabolite, on murine experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS and its possible mechanism were examined in vivo and vitro. Oral administration of Fumigaclavine C dose-dependently attenuated the loss of body weight and shortening of colon length induced by DSS. The disease activity index, histopathologic scores of musco was also significantly reduced by Fumigaclavine C treatment. Protein and mRNA levels of DSS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in colon, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17A, were markedly suppressed by Fumigaclavine C. At the same time, decreased activation of caspase-1 in peritoneal macrophages was detected in Fumigaclavine C -treated mice which suggested that the NLRP3 inflammasome activation was suppressed. Furthermore, in the LPS plus ATP cell model, we found that Fumigaclavine C dose-dependent inhibited IL-1β release and caspase-1 activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate the ability of Fumigaclavine C to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and give some evidence for its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  20. Effect of DATS on experimental corneal neovascularization induced by corneal suture in rats cornea

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    Xiao-Jun Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of diallyl trisulfide(DATSon experimental corneal neovascularization(CNVin rats induced by corneal suture and detect the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFand p-AKT in rats cornea. METHODS: The rat model of corneal neovascularization(CNVwas induced by corneal suture. Rats were randomly divided into Group A: physiological saline control group containing DMSO(10 rats; Group B: 25μmol/L DATS treatment group(10 rats; Group C: 50μmol/L DATS treatment group(10 rats; Group D: 100μmol/L DATS treatment group(10 rats; Group E: 200μmol/L DATS treatment group(10 rats. The occurrence and development of CNV were observed by slit-lamp microscope at 7d after suture, and the area of CNV were calculated.Two weeks later, HE staining was used to observe the pathological organization form of each cornea, and RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of VEGF mRNA and protein expression of VEGF and p-AKT between each groups. RESULTS: The blood vessel area of Group C, D and E was compared with that of Group A, the difference was statistically significant(PPPCONCLUSION: DATS can inhibit corneal neovascularization of the rats induced by suture. Its mechanism may be associated with suppression of VEGF secretion, down-regulation of VEGF and inactivation of p-AKT.

  1. Apatinib-loaded nanoparticles suppress vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis and experimental corneal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Koung Li; Kim, Danbi; Yeo, Yeongju; Han, Hyounkoo; Kim, Myung Goo; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hyuncheol; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Suh, Wonhee

    2017-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis is one of the major symptoms of severe ocular diseases, including corneal neovascularization. The blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) action has been recognized as an efficient strategy for treating corneal neovascularization. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether nanoparticle-based delivery of apatinib, a novel and selective inhibitor of VEGF receptor 2, inhibits VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and suppresses experimental corneal neovascularization. Water-insoluble apatinib was encapsulated in nanoparticles composed of human serum albumin (HSA)-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG). In vitro angiogenesis assays showed that apatinib-loaded HSA-PEG (Apa-HSA-PEG) nanoparticles potently inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation, scratch wounding migration, and proliferation of human endothelial cells. In a rat model of alkali burn injury-induced corneal neovascularization, a subconjunctival injection of Apa-HSA-PEG nanoparticles induced a significant decrease in neovascularization compared to that observed with an injection of free apatinib solution or phosphate-buffered saline. An in vivo distribution study using HSA-PEG nanoparticles loaded with fluorescent hydrophobic model drugs revealed the presence of a substantial number of nanoparticles in the corneal stroma within 24 h after injection. These in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that apatinib-loaded nanoparticles may be promising for the prevention and treatment of corneal neovascularization-related ocular disorders.

  2. Aloe vera gel protects liver from oxidative stress-induced damage in experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Taslima; Uddin, Borhan; Hossain, Shahdat; Sikder, Abdul Mannan; Ahmed, Sohel

    2013-05-07

    Aloe vera is a semi-tropical plant of Liliaceae family which has a wide range of applications in traditional medicine. In the present study, we sought to investigate the heptaoprotective potential of Aloe vera gel as a diet supplement. To achieve this goal, we have designed in vitro and in vivo experimental models of chemical-induced liver damage using male Sprague-Dawley rat. In the in vitro model, its effect was evaluated on Fenton's reaction-induced liver lipid peroxidation. Co-incubation with gel significantly reduced the generation of liver lipid peroxide (LPO). Next, to see the similar effect in vivo, gel was orally administered to rats once daily for 21 successive days. Following 1 hour of the last administration of gel, rats were treated with intra-peritoneal injection of CCl4. Dietary gel showed significant hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced damage as evident by restoration of liver LPO, serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin towards near normal. The beneficial effects were pronounced with the doses used (400 and 800 mg/kg body weight). Besides, we did not observe any significant drop in serum albumin, globulin as well as total protein levels of gel-administered rats. Histopathology of the liver tissue further supported the biochemical findings confirming the hepatoprotective potential of dietary gel.

  3. Hematological, antioxidant and protective performance of Usnea longissima on chemical induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals

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    Pritt Verma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigated the hematological, antioxidant and protective performance of Usnea longissima (U. longissima on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals. Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced by CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weigt 1:1 CCl4 i.p., ethanolic U. longissima extracts at a doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weigt were administered to and compared with Silymarin (25 mg/kg body weigt and hematological, antioxidant and enzymatic, non-enzymatic parameters were assessed through the liver functions test. All the observation was also supplemented with histopathological examination of liver sections. Results: Phytochemical investigation showed that ethanolic extract contains poly phenolic compounds tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins and acute toxicity study shows that ethanolic extract was safe up to 2 000 mg/kg body weight. The toxicant induced a rise in the plasma enzyme levels of ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin level. This increased level was significantly decreased by the extract at 400 mg/kg body weight than 200 mg/kg body weight. The animals were prevented (partly or fully which was showed in the histopathological changes using ethonolic U. longissima extract. Conclusions: The outcome of this study reveals that, there is a powerful antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of U. longissima. It is believed that the present constituents are responsible for courting the hepatic disease and alternative components have the power to act as free radical scavenging properties.

  4. A Case of Dyspnea in Pancreatic cancer Treated through Herbal Acupunture Treatment

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    Park Sang-Eun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study planed to evaluate effect of oriental medicine therapy treatment method of dyspnea that happen from cancer of the pancreas patient who accompany Multiple metasis Methods : Patient complained dyspnoea during admission into dept . Of internal medicine, college of oriental medicine, Dong-eui Univ ,was appealed patient treated by Oriental medicine therapy that is of use Herb Medication and Herbal -acupuncture Treatment being diagnosed in lung asthenia including deficiency of Eum and insufficiency of Gi of the lung(폐허(肺虛, the fire due to deficiency(허화(虛火, and loving warfare of symptoms evaluated through VAS (visual analog scales. Results & Conclusion : Patient's difficulty in breathing symptoms took a favorable turn after treatment. This study means that Oriental medicine therapy that is difficulty in breathing symptoms that happen from patient surely has effectiveness.

  5. EVALUATION OF UNEXPLAINED DYSPNEA IN A YOUNG ATHLETIC MALE WITH PECTUS EXCAVATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory B. Tardie

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Pectus excavatum (PE is a relatively common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall associated with reduced exercise capacity. Uncertainty exists over the nature of physiologic impairment in PE. Evidence suggests that myocardial compression exerted by the displaced sternum on the right heart chambers, disables the ability of the heart to augment stroke volume during exercise. This case study describes the evaluation of an athletic 20 year old Caucasian male, lifelong non-smoker, with severe pectus deformity and previous fixation procedure to repair a sternal fracture. The patient performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test to determine the etiology of his dyspnea with exertion. The patient demonstrated normal work output and normal aerobic capacity but displayed dynamic hyperinflation. Mechanical restriction of tidal volume expansion appeared to be the major contributors to exercise limitation. These results are compared and contrasted with similar cases reported in the literature

  6. Nontraumatic head and neck emergencies: a clinical approach. Part 1: cervicofacial swelling, dysphagia, and dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea Álvarez, B; Tuñón Gómez, M; Esteban García, L; García Hidalgo, C Y; Ruiz Peralbo, R M

    2016-01-01

    Nontraumatic emergencies of the head and neck represent a challenge in the field of neuroradiology for two reasons: first, they affect an area where the thorax joins the cranial cavity and can thus compromise both structures; second, they are uncommon, so they are not well known. Various publications focus on nontraumatic emergencies of the head and neck from the viewpoints of anatomic location or of particular diseases. However, these are not the most helpful viewpoints for dealing with patients in the emergency department, who present with particular signs and symptoms. We propose an analysis starting from the four most common clinical presentations of patients who come to the emergency department for nontraumatic head and neck emergencies: cervical swelling, dysphagia, dyspnea, and loss of vision. Starting from these entities, we develop an approach to the radiologic management and diagnosis of these patients. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A 29-Year-Old Man With Nonproductive Cough, Exertional Dyspnea, and Chest Discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh; Suh, James; Garofano, Suzette; Alpert, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    A 29-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of worsening dry cough, exertional dyspnea, chest tightness, and palpitations. He had been treated by his primary care physician with trials of guaifenesin/codeine, azithromycin, albuterol, and omeprazole without improvement. He denied wheezing, fever, sweats, anorexia, joint pain, swelling, or rash. He had no past medical history. He denied a history of tobacco smoking or IV drug use. He kept no pets, worked as a manager in an office environment, and had no history of occupational inhalational exposure. He reported using aerosolized insect spray to eradicate bed bugs in his house shortly before the cough began but did not report any acute symptoms when using the spray.

  8. [Agreement in asthmatics' perception of dyspnea during acute and chronic obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moragón, E; Perpiñá, M; Belloch, A; de Diego, A; Martínez-Francés, M E

    2005-07-01

    Three types of asthmatic patients can be identified during periods of clinical stability: "poor perceivers," "normal perceivers," and "over perceivers." When asthmatics undergo bronchial challenge in the laboratory, the same distinctions in type of perception can be observed. The aim of the present study was to determine the level of agreement between the 2 situations. A total of 93 patients with persistent moderate asthma (36 men and 57 women; mean age 40 years) were studied. We asked them to assess their dyspnea on a modified Borg scale when stable and after each histamine dose in a bronchial provocation test. When a patient's Borg scale assessment in stable situation was below the 25th percentile, that patient was classified as a poor perceiver. Patients were considered over perceivers if their score in stable situation was in the 75th percentile. Others were labeled normal perceivers. Type of perception during acute bronchoconstriction was defined in function of the change in Borg assessment once forced expiratory volume in the first second had decreased 20%: poor perceivers were those whose change in Borg assessment was in the 25th percentile, over perceivers were in the 75th percentile, and normal perceivers in the middle percentiles. In stable situation, 23 patients were poor perceivers, 58 were normal perceivers, and 12 were over perceivers. During bronchoconstriction, there were 23 poor perceivers, 47 normal perceivers, and 23 over perceivers. Agreement was estimated by a kappa index of 0.0574 for poor perception, 0.1521 for over perception, and 0.3980 for normal perception. Asthmatics' perception of dyspnea during periods of stability and during acute bronchoconstriction are independent phenomena. It is therefore not possible to infer how a patient will perceive an asthmatic attack by evaluating only how he or she perceives breathlessness during stable periods.

  9. Reported dyspnea and fatigue using different scales during the physical effort in COPD

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    Alaís Camargo Corcioli

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Therapy choice and its progression for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD should be based on their symptoms and clinical condition according to reports of dyspnea and fatigue. Therefore patient-reported scales have presented a key role during the communication with the patient. Objective: To verify if patients with COPD prefer the Modified Borg Scale (MBS, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Glasses Scale (GS, Faces Scale (FS or Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE during the six-minute walk test(6MWT, and to compare and correlate the scales with each other, with peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 and heart rate (HR. Methods: 28 patients with COPD (50% had mild to moderate COPD and 50% had severe to very severe were evaluated by a respiratory and cognitive assessment. Additionally, they performed the 6MWT, in which the scales were applied simultaneously (random order and patients reported their preference in the end of the test. Results: 57% of patients were illiterate or presented incomplete primary education and most of them (67% chose the FS or GS. Significant positive correlations were observed between instruments for both dyspnea and fatigue in the end of the 6MWT, which the strongest was between MBS and FS (r = 0.95. Nevertheless, there was no correlation between the scales and SpO2 and HR. Conclusion: As the majority of patients preferred pictured to numerical scales we suggest their use as a resource for therapeutic evaluation; MBS might be replace by FS, even though they have different scores and not scaled proportionally. However, this change must be carefully considered because there is the risk of dubious interpretation.

  10. Extended ceftiofur therapy for treatment of experimentally-induced Streptococcus uberis mastitis in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Almeida, R A; Gillespie, B E; Headrick, S J; Dowlen, H H; Johnson, D L; Lamar, K C; Chester, S T; Moseley, W M

    2004-10-01

    Streptococcus uberis is an important cause of mastitis in dairy cows throughout the world, particularly during the dry period, the period around calving, and during early lactation. Strategies for controlling Strep. uberis mastitis are poorly defined and are currently inadequate. Objectives of the present study were to evaluate efficacy of ceftiofur, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic, for treatment of experimentally induced Strep. uberis intramammary infections (IMI) in lactating dairy cows during early lactation and to determine whether extended therapy regimens enhanced efficacy of ceftiofur. Efficacy of extended ceftiofur intramammary therapy regimens was investigated in 37 mammary quarters of 23 dairy cows that developed clinical mastitis following experimental infection with Strep. uberis during early lactation. Cows that developed clinical mastitis during the challenge period were allocated randomly to 3 groups representing 3 different ceftiofur treatment regimens: 2-d (n = 7 mammary quarters), 5-d (n = 16 mammary quarters), and 8-d (n = 14 mammary quarters) treatment regimens. For all groups, 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride was administered via intramammary infusion. A bacteriological cure was defined as an experimentally infected quarter that was treated and was bacteriologically negative for the presence of Strep. uberis at 7, 14, 21, and 28 d posttreatment. Percentage of Strep. uberis IMI eliminated was 43, 88, and 100% for the 2-, 5-, and 8-d ceftiofur treatment regimens, respectively. Both the 5- and 8-d ceftiofur extended therapy treatment regimens had significantly higher bacterial cure rates than the standard 2-d ceftiofur treatment regimen. The bacterial cure rate of the 8-d ceftiofur extended therapy group was marginally better (P = 0.052) than the 5-d ceftiofur extended therapy group. Results of this study indicate that ceftiofur therapy was effective for eliminating Strep. uberis experimental IMI, and 5- and 8-d extended ceftiofur

  11. Experimental colitis delays and reduces the severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hablot, Julie; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Kokten, Tunay; El Omar, Reine; Netter, Patrick; Bastien, Claire; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Sokol, Harry; Moulin, David

    2017-01-01

    Amongst extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) occurring in IBD patients, rheumatologic manifestations are the most frequent. Understanding the relationships between arthritis and colitis is a prerequisite to improving the management of these patients. Microbiota of patients with IBD or rheumatologic diseases, like spondyloarthritis (SpA) is modified compared to healthy individual. Thus, we have evaluated the impact of colitis in the development of arthritis in mice and we have analyzed microbiota changes. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced at day 0 in DBA1 mice exposed or not to Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis between day 14 and day 21. Animals were monitored regularly for arthritis and colitis severity (clinical score, hindpaw edema). Fecal microbiota was studied by 16S rRNA deep sequencing at critical time points (D14, D14, D21 & D41). At day 41, histological scoring of the intestines and ankles were performed at the end of experiment. Induction of colitis slightly delayed arthritis onset (2 ± 1 days of delay) and reduced its severity (5.75 ± 1.62 in arthritis only group vs 4.00 ± 1.48 in arthritis + colitis group (p = 0.02 at day 28) macroscopically and histologically. In contrast, colitis severity was not influenced by arthritis development. Induction of colitis promoted a modification of microbiota composition and a decrease of α-diversity. Fecal microbiota composition was different between "colitis" and "arthritis+colitis" groups during colitis development. Interestingly a milder decrease of bacterial diversity in the "arthritis+colitis" group was observed. Concomitant experimental colitis protects mice against collagen-induced arthritis and this is associated with changes in gut microbiome composition.

  12. Experimental colitis delays and reduces the severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hablot, Julie; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Kokten, Tunay; El Omar, Reine; Netter, Patrick; Bastien, Claire; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Sokol, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Amongst extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) occurring in IBD patients, rheumatologic manifestations are the most frequent. Understanding the relationships between arthritis and colitis is a prerequisite to improving the management of these patients. Microbiota of patients with IBD or rheumatologic diseases, like spondyloarthritis (SpA) is modified compared to healthy individual. Thus, we have evaluated the impact of colitis in the development of arthritis in mice and we have analyzed microbiota changes. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced at day 0 in DBA1 mice exposed or not to Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis between day 14 and day 21. Animals were monitored regularly for arthritis and colitis severity (clinical score, hindpaw edema). Fecal microbiota was studied by 16S rRNA deep sequencing at critical time points (D14, D14, D21 & D41). At day 41, histological scoring of the intestines and ankles were performed at the end of experiment. Induction of colitis slightly delayed arthritis onset (2 ± 1 days of delay) and reduced its severity (5.75 ± 1.62 in arthritis only group vs 4.00 ± 1.48 in arthritis + colitis group (p = 0.02 at day 28) macroscopically and histologically. In contrast, colitis severity was not influenced by arthritis development. Induction of colitis promoted a modification of microbiota composition and a decrease of α-diversity. Fecal microbiota composition was different between “colitis” and “arthritis+colitis” groups during colitis development. Interestingly a milder decrease of bacterial diversity in the “arthritis+colitis” group was observed. Concomitant experimental colitis protects mice against collagen-induced arthritis and this is associated with changes in gut microbiome composition. PMID:28926599

  13. Heart disease induced by AAS abuse, using experimental mice/rats models and the role of exercise-induced cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riezzo, I; De Carlo, D; Neri, M; Nieddu, A; Turillazzi, E; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are all synthetic derivates of testosterone and are commonly used as sport performance enhancers in athletes. The heart is one of the organs most frequently affected by administration of anabolic steroids. A direct myocardial injury caused by AAS is supposed to determine marked hypertrophy in myocardial cells, extensive regional fibrosis and necrosis. A number of excellent studies, using animal models, were performed to evaluate the cardiac effects of AAS. It is known that exogenous administration induced cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo, and when combined with exercise, anabolic steroid use has been shown to change exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy to pathophysiological cardiac hypertrophy. However the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. It's described that sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarct; ventricular remodelling and cardiomyopathy do to AAS is related to apoptosis and oxidative stress when associated with exercise. Mechanical stimuli and circulating humoral factors (TNF-α, HSP-70, IL-1β) released by the heart and peripheral organs are responsible. Testosterone and derivates can work through genomic (activation of specific androgen receptor, interaction with coactivators and co-repressors transcription factors, gene regulation) and non-genomic mechanism (membrane-receptor-second messenger cascades). Chronic AAS abuse results in different patterns of pathologic alterations, which depend on type, dose, frequency, and mode of use. The difficulty in interpreting experimental data on animals (mice and rats) lies in the diversity of experiments (the diversity of substances, which show different properties, different mice / rats by sex and age, duration of treatment with AAS, dosages used, type, scope and exercise duration).

  14. Trehalose treatment suppresses inflammation, oxidative stress, and vasospasm induced by experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

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    Echigo Ryosuke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH frequently results in several complications, including cerebral vasospasm, associated with high mortality. Although cerebral vasospasm is a major cause of brain damages after SAH, other factors such as inflammatory responses and oxidative stress also contribute to high mortality after SAH. Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide in which two glucose units are linked by α,α-1,1-glycosidic bond, and has been shown to induce tolerance to a variety of stressors in numerous organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effect of trehalose on cerebral vasospasm, inflammatory responses, and oxidative stress induced by blood in vitro and in vivo. Methods Enzyme immunoassay for eicosanoids, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1, and western blotting analysis for cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and inhibitor of NF-κB were examined in macrophage-like cells treated with hemolysate. After treatment with hemolysate and hydrogen peroxide, the levels of lipid peroxide and amounts of arachidonic acid release were also analyzed. Three hours after the onset of experimental SAH, 18 Japanese White rabbits received an injection of saline, trehalose, or maltose into the cisterna magna. Angiographic and histological analyses of the basilar arteries were performed. In a separate study, the femoral arteries from 60 rats were exposed to fresh autologous blood. At 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 20 days after treatment, cryosections prepared from the femoral arteries were histologically analyzed. Results When cells were treated with hemolysate, trehalose inhibited the production of several inflammatory mediators and degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB and also suppressed the lipid peroxidation, the reactive oxygen species-induced arachidonic acid release in vitro. In the rabbit model, trehalose produced an inhibitory effect on vasospasm after the onset of experimental SAH, while maltose had only

  15. Nanolesions induced by heavy ions in human tissues: Experimental and theoretical studies

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    Marcus Bleicher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of energetic heavy ions are attracting increasing interest for their applications in cancer therapy and protection against space radiation. The cascade of events leading to cell death or late effects starts from stochastic energy deposition on the nanometer scale and the corresponding lesions in biological molecules, primarily DNA. We have developed experimental techniques to visualize DNA nanolesions induced by heavy ions. Nanolesions appear in cells as “streaks” which can be visualized by using different DNA repair markers. We have studied the kinetics of repair of these “streaks” also with respect to the chromatin conformation. Initial steps in the modeling of the energy deposition patterns at the micrometer and nanometer scale were made with MCHIT and TRAX models, respectively.

  16. Experimental study of the cross-sections of alpha-particle induced reactions on $^{209}$Bi

    CERN Document Server

    Hermanne, A; Shubin, Yu N; Szucs, Z; Takács, S; Tarkanyi, F; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2005.01.015

    2005-01-01

    alpha -particle-induced nuclear reactions for generation of /sup 211 /At used in therapeutic nuclear medicine and possible contaminants were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural bismuth targets up to E/sub alpha /=39 MeV. Excitation functions are reported for the reactions /sup 209/Bi( alpha ,2n)/sup 211/At, /sup 209/Bi( alpha ,3n)/sup 210/At and /sup 209/Bi( alpha , x)/sup 210/Po. Results obtained from direct alpha -emission measurements and gamma -spectra from decay products are compared and correspond well with earlier literature values. Thick target yields have been deduced from the experimental cross-sections and optimised production pathways for minimal contamination are presented. A comparison with the results of the theoretical model code ALICE-IPPE is discussed.

  17. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation to induced blood pressure changes in human experimental and clinical sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Bailey, Damian M

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that dynamic cerebral autoregulation to spontaneous fluctuations in blood pressure is enhanced following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion, a human experimental model of early sepsis, whereas by contrast it is impaired in patients with severe sepsis or septic......R). This was performed before and after LPS infusion in healthy volunteers, and within 72 h following clinical diagnosis of sepsis in patients. In healthy volunteers, thigh-cuff deflation caused a MAP reduction of 16 (13-20) % at baseline and 18 (16-20) % after LPS, while the MAP reduction was 12 (11-13) % in patients......(-1) ; P = 0·91 versus baseline; P = 0·14 versus LPS]. While our findings support the concept that dynamic cerebral autoregulation is enhanced during the very early stages of sepsis, they remain inconclusive with regard to more advanced stages of disease, because thigh-cuff deflation failed to induce...

  18. Experimental and numerical study of wave-induced backfilling beneath submarine pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Deniz; Ahmad, Joseph; Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    ). The time series of scour depths are closely monitored through video recordings. Systematic analysis of these has resulted in aclosed form expression for the backfilling time scale, which is demonstrated to be a full order of magnitude greater than the well-known time scale of scour (with both governed...... primarily by the Shields parameter).The developed expression is strictly valid for the current-to-wave backfilling scenarios considered, while likely serving as an upper limit for more general wave-induced backfilling circumstances. The experiments are complemented by similar backfilling simulations...... utilizing a fully-coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic CFD model. The numerical simulations demonstrate the ability of the model to predict backfilling towards expected equilibrium scour depths based on the new wave climate, with time scales reasonably inline with experimental expectations....

  19. The Measurement of Electron-Induced Erosion of Condensed Gases: Experimental Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Børgesen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Two experimental methods for measuring the erosion yield of condensed gases are described. One, the frequency-change method, utilizes a quartz-crystal microbalance operating at liquid-helium temperature. The other, the emissivity-change method is based on the strongly varying electron emission...... as a function of the condensed-gas film thickness. Satisfactory results have been obtained for both methods for solid Ne and D2 at electron energies up to 3 keV, and the mutual agreement is good as well. Accurate measurements are affected critically by the beam conditions, particularly if the erosion yield...... depends on the film thickness. The erosion yield has been measured for dominant electron sputtering of solid Ne ( ≈ 28 Ne-atoms/electron) as well as for beam-induced evaporation at 2 keV. In the latter case a clear lateral broadening of the erosion spot is observed....

  20. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations of {sup 3}He-induced nuclear reactions on zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abyad, M.; Mohamed, Gehan Y. [Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Physics Department (Cyclotron Facility), Cairo (Egypt); Ditroi, F.; Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-05-15

    Excitation functions of {sup 3}He-induced nuclear reactions on natural zinc were measured using the standard stacked-foil technique and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. From their threshold energies up to 27 MeV, the cross-sections for {sup nat}Zn ({sup 3}He,xn) {sup 69}Ge, {sup nat}Zn({sup 3}He,xnp) {sup 66,67,68}Ga, and {sup nat}Zn({sup 3}He,x){sup 62,65}Zn reactions were measured. The nuclear model codes TALYS-1.6, EMPIRE-3.2 and ALICE-IPPE were used to describe the formation of these products. The present data were compared with the theoretical results and with the available experimental data. Integral yields for some important radioisotopes were determined. (orig.)

  1. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations of 3He-induced nuclear reactions on zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abyad, M.; Mohamed, Gehan Y.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F.

    2017-05-01

    Excitation functions of 3He -induced nuclear reactions on natural zinc were measured using the standard stacked-foil technique and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. From their threshold energies up to 27MeV, the cross-sections for natZn (3He, xn) 69Ge, natZn(3He, xnp) 66,67,68Ga, and natZn(3He, x)62,65Zn reactions were measured. The nuclear model codes TALYS-1.6, EMPIRE-3.2 and ALICE-IPPE were used to describe the formation of these products. The present data were compared with the theoretical results and with the available experimental data. Integral yields for some important radioisotopes were determined.

  2. Induced expression of the antimicrobial peptide melittin inhibits experimental infection by Mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarev, Vassili N; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Biro, Judit; Miklodi, Dora; Shkarupeta, Marina M; Titova, Galina A; Akopian, Tatiana A; Govorun, Vadim M

    2004-05-01

    The in vivo action of the antimicrobial peptide melittin, expressed from a recombinant plasmid vector, on chickens experimentally infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum was studied. The plasmid vector pBI/mel2/rtTA includes the melittin gene under the control of an inducible tetracycline-dependent human cytomegalovirus promoter and the gene coding for the trans-activation protein rtTA. Aerosol administration of the vector, followed by infecting the chickens with M. gallisepticum 1226, is shown to inhibit development of infection. The inhibitory action was confirmed by a complex of clinical, pathomorphological, histological and serological studies, and also by comparing the M. gallisepticum reisolation frequency from the respiratory tract and internal organs. The data suggest that plasmid vectors expressing genes of antimicrobial peptides can be considered as potential agents for the prevention and treatment of mycoplasma infections in poultry farming.

  3. Use of Liposomal Gentamicin for Treatment of 5 Foals with Experimentally Induced Rhodococcus equi Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N D; Giguère, S; Burton, A J; Rocha, J N; Berghaus, L J; Brake, C N; Bordin, A I; Coleman, M C

    2016-01-01

    Adverse effects of, and bacterial resistance to, macrolides used to treat Rhodococcus equi infections have prompted search for clinically effective alternative antimicrobials. Liposomal gentamicin (LG) is effective against R. equi in vitro and decreases tissue concentrations of R. equi in experimentally infected mice. Effectiveness of LG treatment of foals with R. equi pneumonia, however, has not been described. Liposomal gentamicin is safe and effective for treating foals with R. equi pneumonia. Ten foals with experimentally induced R. equi pneumonia. Pilot treatment trial. Foals with pneumonia induced by intrabronchial instillation of R. equi were randomly allocated to receive either clarithromycin combined with rifampin (CLR + RIF) PO or LG IV, and followed by daily physical examinations and weekly thoracic ultrasonography and serum creatinine concentration determinations until the resolution of clinical signs. Treatment success was defined as the resolution of clinical signs and ultrasonographically identified pulmonary abscesses. All 10 foals were successfully treated. Two of 5 foals treated with LG developed azotemia within 1 week; LG was discontinued and treatment switched to CLR + RIF for these foals. None of the CLR + RIF treated foals developed azotemia. Liposomal gentamicin IV can be effective for treatment of R. equi pneumonia, but nephrotoxicity indicates that an alternative dosing interval or route (such as nebulization) will be needed before LG is adequately safe for clinical use. Larger comparative trials will be needed to evaluate the relative efficacy of a safer LG dosage regimen. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. An Experimental Study on the Wind-Induced Response of Variable Message Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Meyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Variable message sign (VMS systems are widely used in motorways to provide traffic information to motorists. Such systems are subjected to wind-induced structural vibration that can lead to damage due to fatigue. The limited information that is available on the safe wind design of VMS motivated a large scale testing that was conducted at the wall of wind (WOW Experimental Facility at Florida International University (FIU. One of the objectives of the present study was to experimentally assess the wind-induced force coefficients on VMS of different geometries and utilize these results to provide improved design guidelines. A comprehensive range of VMS geometries was tested, and mean normal and lateral force coefficients, in addition to the twisting moment coefficient and eccentricity ratio, were determined using the measured data for each model, for wind directions of 0° and 45°. The results confirmed that the mean drag coefficient on a prismatic VMS is smaller than the value of 1.7 suggested by American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO. An alternative to this value is presented in the form of a design matrix with coefficients ranging from 0.98 to 1.28, depending on the aspect and depth ratio of the VMS. Furthermore, results indicated that the corner modification on a VMS with chamfered edges demonstrated a reduction in the drag coefficient compared to sharper edges. Finally, the dynamic loading effects were considered by evaluating the gust effect factor, using the ASCE 7 formulations, for various VMS weights and geometries. The findings revealed a wide range of possible gust effect factors, both above and below the current AASHTO specification of 1.14. Future research may include different geometries of VMS and a wider range of wind directions.

  5. Effects of sevoflurane on ventilator induced lung injury in a healthy lung experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Moreno, A; García, J; Sánchez, C; Santos, M; García, J

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) causes a systemic inflammatory response in tissues, with an increase in IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in blood and tissues. Cytoprotective effects of sevoflurane in different experimental models are well known, and this protective effect can also be observed in VILI. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of sevoflurane in VILI. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed. Twenty female rats were studied. The animals were mechanically ventilated, without sevoflurane in the control group and sevoflurane 3% in the treated group (SEV group). VILI was induced applying a maximal inspiratory pressure of 35 cmH2O for 20 min without any positive end-expiratory pressure for 20 min (INJURY time). The animals were then ventilated 30 min with a maximal inspiratory pressure of 12 cmH2O and 3 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (time 30 min POST-INJURY), at which time the animals were euthanized and pathological and biomarkers studies were performed. Heart rate, invasive blood pressure, pH, PaO2, and PaCO2 were recorded. The lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was used as an index of lung edema. No differences were found in the blood gas analysis parameters or heart rate between the 2 groups. Blood pressure was statistically higher in the control group, but still within the normal clinical range. The percentage of pulmonary edema and concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in lung tissue in the SEV group were lower than in the control group. Sevoflurane attenuates VILI in a previous healthy lung in an experimental subclinical model in rats. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of curcumin in experimentally induced acute sinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdane, Leman; Cingi, Cemal; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; San, Turhan; Burukoglu, Dilek

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the possible beneficial effects of curcumin (CMN) in the treatment of sinusitis. An experimentally induced sinusitis model was created in rats, and the results were evaluated histologically. Thirty-two healthy, female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 270 to 310 g each, were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group. In Groups 2 to 4, experimentally induced acute sinusitis was developed, and the rats in those groups were given saline, sulbactam-ampicillin, and CMN, respectively, for 10 days. Then all rats were dissected, and samples of sinus mucosa were taken. Histologic examination was performed via light microscopy. In the sinusitis + antibiotic group, values of inflammation, vascular congestion, vascular dilatation, and subepithelial glandular atrophy were significantly higher; and values of mucosal damage and cilia loss, and hyperplasia of goblet cells, were not significantly different from those in the control group. In the sinusitis + CMN group, values of inflammation, vascular congestion, and vascular dilatation were significantly higher; and values of mucosal damage and cilia loss, hyperplasia of goblet cells, and subepithelial glandular atrophy were not significantly different from those of the control group. Histologic examination revealed that in the sinusitis + CMN group, a nearly normal appearance of the epithelial tissue and reduced cellular inflammation in connective tissue were observed. Minimal vascular congestion in connective tissue remained. The efficacy of CMN in acute sinusitis may be related to its potent anti-inflammatory effects on modulation of various inflammatory cytokines. When low side effects are taken into account, CMN therapy may be a promising option in the treatment of acute sinusitis.

  7. Experimental Neuromyelitis Optica Induces a Type I Interferon Signature in the Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oji, Satoru; Nicolussi, Eva-Maria; Kaufmann, Nathalie; Zeka, Bleranda; Schanda, Kathrin; Fujihara, Kazuo; Illes, Zsolt; Dahle, Charlotte; Reindl, Markus; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acute inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which predominantly affects spinal cord and optic nerves. Most patients harbor pathogenic autoantibodies, the so-called NMO-IgGs, which are directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) on astrocytes. When these antibodies gain access to the CNS, they mediate astrocyte destruction by complement-dependent and by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In contrast to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who benefit from therapies involving type I interferons (I-IFN), NMO patients typically do not profit from such treatments. How is I-IFN involved in NMO pathogenesis? To address this question, we made gene expression profiles of spinal cords from Lewis rat models of experimental neuromyelitis optica (ENMO) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found an upregulation of I-IFN signature genes in EAE spinal cords, and a further upregulation of these genes in ENMO. To learn whether the local I-IFN signature is harmful or beneficial, we induced ENMO by transfer of CNS antigen-specific T cells and NMO-IgG, and treated the animals with I-IFN at the very onset of clinical symptoms, when the blood-brain barrier was open. With this treatment regimen, we could amplify possible effects of the I-IFN induced genes on the transmigration of infiltrating cells through the blood brain barrier, and on lesion formation and expansion, but could avoid effects of I-IFN on the differentiation of pathogenic T and B cells in the lymph nodes. We observed that I-IFN treated ENMO rats had spinal cord lesions with fewer T cells, macrophages/activated microglia and activated neutrophils, and less astrocyte damage than their vehicle treated counterparts, suggesting beneficial effects of I-IFN.

  8. Experimental Neuromyelitis Optica Induces a Type I Interferon Signature in the Spinal Cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Oji

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an acute inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS which predominantly affects spinal cord and optic nerves. Most patients harbor pathogenic autoantibodies, the so-called NMO-IgGs, which are directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4 on astrocytes. When these antibodies gain access to the CNS, they mediate astrocyte destruction by complement-dependent and by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In contrast to multiple sclerosis (MS patients who benefit from therapies involving type I interferons (I-IFN, NMO patients typically do not profit from such treatments. How is I-IFN involved in NMO pathogenesis? To address this question, we made gene expression profiles of spinal cords from Lewis rat models of experimental neuromyelitis optica (ENMO and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. We found an upregulation of I-IFN signature genes in EAE spinal cords, and a further upregulation of these genes in ENMO. To learn whether the local I-IFN signature is harmful or beneficial, we induced ENMO by transfer of CNS antigen-specific T cells and NMO-IgG, and treated the animals with I-IFN at the very onset of clinical symptoms, when the blood-brain barrier was open. With this treatment regimen, we could amplify possible effects of the I-IFN induced genes on the transmigration of infiltrating cells through the blood brain barrier, and on lesion formation and expansion, but could avoid effects of I-IFN on the differentiation of pathogenic T and B cells in the lymph nodes. We observed that I-IFN treated ENMO rats had spinal cord lesions with fewer T cells, macrophages/activated microglia and activated neutrophils, and less astrocyte damage than their vehicle treated counterparts, suggesting beneficial effects of I-IFN.

  9. Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neul, Annkatrin; Schrödl, Wieland; Marschang, Rachel E; Bjick, Tina; Truyen, Uwe; von Buttlar, Heiner; Pees, Michael

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses. ANIMALS 42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes. PROCEDURES Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group were euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49, and 3 snakes from the control group were euthanized on day 49. Blood samples were collected from live snakes on days -6 (baseline), 4, 16, 28, and 49. Hematologic tests were performed and humoral responses assessed via hemagglutination-inhibition assays and ELISAs. Following euthanasia, gross pathological and histologic evaluations and virus detection were performed. RESULTS Severity of clinical signs of and immunologic responses to ferlavirus infection differed among snake groups. Hematologic values, particularly WBC and monocyte counts, increased between days 4 and 16 after infection. A humoral response was identified between days 16 and 28. Serum IgM concentrations increased from baseline earlier than IgY concentrations, but the IgY relative increase was higher at the end of the study. The hemagglutination-inhibition assay revealed that the strongest reactions in all infected groups were against the strain with which they had been infected. Snakes infected with genogroup A ferlavirus had the strongest immune response, whereas those infected with genogroup B had the weakest responses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this experimental study suggested that the ferlavirus strain with the highest virulence induced the weakest immune response in snakes.

  10. Development of an experimental model of neurocysticercosis-induced hydrocephalus. Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto Filho, Pedro Tadao; Zanini, Marco Antônio; Botta, Fabio Pires; Rodrigues, Marianna Vaz; Bazan, Rodrigo; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Biondi, Germano Francisco

    2015-12-01

    To develop an experimental model of neurocysticercosis-induced hydrocephalus There were used 17 rats. Ten animals were inoculated with Taenia crassiceps cysts into the subarachnoid. Five animals were injected with 0. ml of 25% kaolin (a standard solution for the development of experimental hydrocephalus) and two animals were injected with saline. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate enlargement of the ventricles after one or three months of inoculation. Volumetric study was used to quantify the ventricle enlargement. Seven of the 10 animals in the cyst group developed hydrocephalus, two of them within one month and five within three months after inoculation. Three of the five animals in the kaolin group had hydrocephalus and none in the saline group. Ventricle volumes were significantly higher in the 3-months MRI cyst subgroup than in the 1-month cyst subgroup. Differences between cyst subgroups and kaolin group did not reach statistical significance. The developed model may reproduce the human condition of neurocysticercosis-related hydrocephalus, which exhibits a slowly progressive chronic course.

  11. Different Subsets of Enteric Bacteria Induce and Perpetuate Experimental Colitis in Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Heiko C.; Schultz, Michael; Freitag, René; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Li, Fengling; Linde, Hans-Jörg; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Sartor, R. Balfour

    2001-01-01

    Resident bacteria are incriminated in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated the relative roles of various enteric bacteria populations in the induction and perpetuation of experimental colitis. HLA-B27 transgenic rats received antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, or vancomycin-imipenem) in drinking water or water alone in either prevention or treatment protocols. Mice were treated similarly with metronidazole or vancomycin-imipenem before or after receiving 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Germfree transgenic rats were colonized with specific-pathogen-free enteric bacteria grown overnight either in anaerobic or aerobic atmospheres. Nontransgenic rats colonized with anaerobic bacteria served as negative controls. Although preventive metronidazole significantly attenuated colitis in transgenic rats and DSS-treated mice, it had no therapeutic benefit once colitis was established. Ciprofloxacin also partially prevented but did not treat colitis in B27 transgenic rats. In both animal models vancomycin-imipenem most effectively prevented and treated colitis. Germfree transgenic rats reconstituted with enteric bacteria grown under anaerobic conditions had more aggressive colitis than those associated with aerobic bacteria. These results suggest that a subset of resident luminal bacteria induces colitis, but that a complex interaction of commensal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria provides the constant antigenic drive for chronic immune-mediated colonic inflammation. PMID:11254584

  12. Cardioprotective effect of Nerium oleander flower against isoproterenol-induced myocardial oxidative stress in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Veeraraghavan; Ananthi, Subhash; Chandronitha, Chandranayagam; Ramakrishnan, Ganapathy; Lakshmisundaram, Raman; Sundaram, Raman Lakshmi; Vasanthi, Hannah R

    2011-03-01

    Nerium oleander Linn (NOL) an evergreen shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae family has been reported to have a wide spectrum of bioactivities. In in vitro study, the free radical scavenging potential of the hydroethanolic extract of N oleander Linn (ENO) flower and its fractions (glycosidic and nonglycosidic) were studied using 2, 2(')-azino-di [3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate] (ABTS(*+) ) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) scavenging assay. ENO exhibited better radical scavenging activities than its fractions. Furthermore, the cardioprotective role of ENO (10, 30, 100 mg/kg, per oral [po]) was tested against isoproterenol-induced myocardial toxicity (ISO, 120 mg/kg per day, subcutaneously [sc], for 2 days at 48 hours interval) in experimental rats when compared to propranolol (5 mg/kg, po) which was the standard. Pretreatment with ENO (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) and propranolol for 2 weeks followed by ISO challenge in rats prevented the elevation of marker enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK-MB and creatine phosphokinase [CPK]), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in plasma. In addition, pretreatment with ENO and propranolol significantly attenuated the lipid peroxidation by maintaining the levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and nonenzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione and nitrite), which was also confirmed histologically. Taken together, the current study indicates that the hydroalcoholic extract of N oleander Linn flowers aid in cardioprotection probably by improving the antioxidant defense system during experimental myocardial necrosis.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Assessment of the Dynamical Behaviour of a Footbridge Under Human-Induced Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos da Silva José Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to perform an experimental and numerical assessment of an existing pedestrian footbridge located in the campus of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil. The structural system is based on an internal reinforced concrete footbridge spanning 24.5m, constituted by concrete beams and slabs and being currently used for pedestrian crossing. The modal testing of the structure was performed by dynamic monitoring through accelerometers installed on the structure as well as by a vibrometer device based on Laser Doppler Vibrometry using the SIMO and SISO acquisition techniques, respectively. Then, these experimental results were calibrated with a numerical model by the use of finite element method (FEM through the ANSYS program. Afterwards, a forced vibration analysis was performed on the structure based on human-induced loads considering two control groups: the first one is intended to excite the investigated footbridge to cause resonance motion with a controlled step frequency and the second one is related to freely random people crossing the footbridge as it occurs normally during its real life. Thus, the structural system dynamic response in terms of peak accelerations values were evaluated and compared to the current human comfort criteria.

  14. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy in ex vivo porcine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Caponero, Michele Arturo; Di Matteo, Francesco Maria; Martino, Margareth; Pandolfi, Monica; Silvestri, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) has been recently applied to pancreas in animal models for ablation purpose. Assessment of thermal effects due to the laser-pancreatic tissue interaction is a critical factor in validating the procedure feasibility and safety. A mathematical model based on bioheat equation and its experimental assessment was developed. The LITT procedure was performed on 40 ex vivo porcine pancreases, with an Nd:YAG (1064 nm) energy of 1000 J and power from 1.5 up to 10 W conveyed by a quartz optical fiber with 300 μm diameter. Six fiber Bragg grating sensors have been utilized to measure temperature distribution as a function of time at fixed distances from the applicator tip within pancreas undergoing LITT. Simulations and experiments show temperature variations Δ T steeply decreasing with distance from the applicator at higher power values: at 6 W, ∆T > 40 °C at 5 mm and Δ T is approximately equal to 5 °C at 10 mm. Δ T nonlinearly increases with power close to the applicator. Ablated and coagulated tissue volumes have also been measured and experimental results agree with theoretical ones. Despite the absence of data in the current literature on pancreas optical parameters, the model allowed a quite good prediction of thermal effects. The prediction of LITT effects on pancreas is necessary to assess laser dosimetry.

  15. Experimental study of boundary layer transition on an airfoil induced by periodically passing wake (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, T.C. [Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Jeon, W.P.; Kang, S.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes the phenomena of wake-induced transition of the boundary layers on a NACA0012 airfoil using measured phase-averaged data. Especially, the phase-averaged wall shear stresses are reasonably evaluated using the principle of Computational Preston Tube Method. Due to the passing wake, the turbulent patch is generated in the laminar boundary layer on the airfoil and the boundary layer becomes temporarily transitional. The patches propagate downstream with less speed than free-stream velocity and merge with each other at further downstream station, and the boundary layer becomes more transitional. The generation of turbulent patch at the leading edge of the airfoil mainly depends on velocity defects and turbulent intensity profiles of passing wakes. However, the growth and merging of turbulent patches depend on local streamwise pressure gradients as well as characteristics of turbulent patches. In this transition process, the present experimental data show very similar features to the previous numerical and experimental studies. It is confirmed that the two phase-averaged mean velocity dips appear in the outer region of transitional boundary layer for each passing cycle. Relatively high values of the phase-averaged turbulent fluctuations in the outer region indicate the possibility that breakdown occurs in the outer layer not near the wall. (author). 21 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Design and Testing of an Experimental Steam-Induced Burn Model in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Porumb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most of the current models for experimental burns pose difficulties in ensuring consistency and standardization. Aim of Study. We aimed to develop an automated, reproducible technique for experimental burns using steam-based heat transfer. Methods. The system developed for steam exposure was based on a novel, integrated, computer-controlled design. Three groups of rats were exposed to steam for 1, 3, and 7 seconds. The lesions were evaluated after 20 minutes, 48 hours, and 72 hours after burn induction. Results. One-second steam application produced a superficial second-degree burn; three-second application induced deep second-degree burn; and seven-second application led to a third-degree burn. Conclusion. The high level of automation of our integrated, computer-controlled system makes the difference between our system and other models, by ensuring the control of the duration of exposure, temperature, and pressure and eliminating as many potential human generated errors as possible. The automated system can accurately reproduce specific types of burns, according to histological assessment. This model could generate the reproducible data needed in the study of burn pathology and in order to assess new treatments.

  17. Experimental host preference of diapause and non-diapause induced Culex pipiens pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Ary; Gaugler, Randy

    2015-07-24

    Culex pipiens pipiens plays an important role in the transmission of several vector-borne pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV) in North America. Laboratory and field studies suggest that this species is ornithophilic but because of genetic hybridization with sibling species during the active mosquito season, it may occasionally feed on mammals. Adult female Cx. p. pipiens undergo a facultative diapause and may serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. To determine the effect of diapause on the innate host preference of Cx. p. pipiens emerging from winter hibernation, we conducted host-choice experiments using bird and mammal hosts. Mosquitoes were reared under non-diapause induced (NDI), diapause induced (DI), and field collected from overwintering (OW) hibernaculae. They were released into a large mesh enclosure housing two lard can traps, and given a choice between feeding on a dove or a rat. Host seeking Cx. p. pipiens were four times more likely to feed on the dove than the rat, regardless of experimental conditions. Under NDI conditions, Cx. p. pipiens were (p diapause in temperate habitats where winter survival is crucial for disease transmission cycles. Although we showed that Cx. p. pipiens prefers an avian to a mammalian host, nearly 20% of emerging mosquitoes in the spring could feed on mammals. Changes in host preferences may also contain valuable clues about transmission dynamics and subsequent timely interventions by vector control and public health practitioners.

  18. Effects of losartan on experimental varicocele-induced testicular germ cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, D; Oltulu, F; Uysal, A; Kose, T; Gunlusoy, B; Yigitturk, G; Turk, N S; Turan, T

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the potential protective effects of losartan on varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis, 24 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: a sham operation was performed in SHAM group, and experimental left varicocele was created in VAR and VAR + LOS groups. Additionally, in VAR + LOS group, losartan was administered for 30 days starting on the day of surgery. At the end of 30 days, all animals were sacrificed and left orchiectomy was performed. Testicular injury and spermatogenesis were evaluated according to Johnsen scoring system. To assess the nitrosative stress, immunohistochemical staining for endothelial nitric oxide synthase was used and evaluated by H-score and apoptotic index (AI) of germ cells was analysed by TUNEL method. A significant decrease in the mean Johnsen score (JS) was observed in VAR group compared with SHAM (p losartan administration, mean JS was significantly increased (p losartan acts as a potent protective agent against varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb in experimentally induced inflammation and nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh A Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gmelina arborea Roxb (Verbenaceae, also known as "Gambhari", is an important medicinal plant in the Ayurveda. There are no meticulous scientific reports on effect of the plant on inflammation and pain. Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of aqueous extracts (AE and methanol extracts (ME of G. arborea. Materials and Methods: The AE and ME of stembark of G. arborea was prepared by cold maceration and Soxhlet extraction technique respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in Wistar albino rats in a model of acute plantar inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated by using hot plate test and writhing test in Swiss albino mice. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: AE and ME at dose of 500 mg/kg showed maximum inhibition in carrageenan induced inflammation up to 30.15 and 31.21% respectively. In hot plate test, the AE and ME showed the maximum response of 8.8 ± 0.97 (P < 0.01 and 8.2 ± 1.24 (P < 0.01 respectively at dose of 500 mg/kg when compared with control. AE showed maximum inhibition of writhing response (84.3% as compared to ME (77.9% in writhing test at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Conclusion: The findings suggested that G. arborea possess significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.

  20. Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by virgin argan oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahcen, Said; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hakkou, Abdelkader; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    The argan tree plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role in South Morocco. Moreover, there is much evidence for the beneficial effects of virgin argan oil (VAO) on human health. Thus, this study investigated whether administering VAO to rats can prevent the development of diabetes. VAO extracted by a traditional method from the almonds of Argania spinosa (2 mL/kg) was administered orally (for 7 consecutive days) to rats before and during intraperitoneal alloxan administration (75 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days). An alloxan diabetic-induced untreated group and treated by table oil were used as control groups. Body mass, blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were evaluated. In the present study, subchronic treatment with VAO at a dose of 2 mL/kg, before the experimental induction of diabetes, prevented the body mass loss, induced a significant reduction of blood glucose and a significant increase of hepatic glycogen level (p < 0.001) compared with the untreated diabetic group. In conclusion, the present study shows that argan oil should be further investigated in a human study to clarify its possible role in reducing weight loss in diabetics, and even in inhibiting the development or progression of diabetes. This antidiabetic effect could be due to the richness of VAO in tocopherols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Experimental Protoporphyria: Effect of Bile Acids on Liver Damage Induced by Griseofulvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, María del Carmen; Ruspini, Silvina Fernanda; Afonso, Susana Graciela; Meiss, Roberto; Buzaleh, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris) was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA), dehydrocholic (DHA), chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO). The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris. PMID:25945334

  2. Antitussive effect of naringin on experimentally induced cough in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sen; Li, Peibo; Yang, Hongliang; Fang, Siqi; Su, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of action of naringin has been investigated in different models of experimentally induced cough in guinea pigs. In contrast to codeine phosphate (6 mg/kg, intravenous administration [i. v.]), naringin (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, i. v.) had no central antitussive effect on cough elicited by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. Naringin (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 µmol) could not prevent the cough reflex induced by stimulation of the trachea after intracerebroventricular injection (i. c. v.), while codeine phosphate (0.5 µmol) was highly effective. Further characterizing the peripheral mechanism of naringin, we found that its effect (50 mg/kg, i. v.) was not affected by the depletion of sensory neuropeptides, whereas levodropropizine (10 mg/kg, i. v.) lost its capacity to prevent cough in the capsaicin-desensitized guinea pig. Furthermore, pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i. p.]) significantly reduced the antitussive effect of pinacidil (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s. c.]), but could not antagonize the antitussive effect of naringin (30 mg/kg, s. c.). Our present results suggest that naringin is not a central antitussive drug. And naringin does not exert its peripheral antitussive effect through either the sensory neuropeptides system or the modulation of ATP-sensitive K (+) channels. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Experimental Analysis of the Potential Induced Degradation Effect on Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Akcaoğlu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy applications are increasing daily, and solar electricity, in the form of photovoltaics, is getting more and more important worldwide. As photovoltaics are connected both in series and in parallel, the panels are exposed to high potentials compared to the ground; thus, high voltage stress (HVS occurs. The scope of this paper is to analyze experimentally the potential induced degradation (PID in organic solar cells. To that end, organic solar cells are manufactured and are then undergone a series of voltage-dependent degradation and time-dependent voltage degradation tests. In addition to that, they are also exposed to gaseous oxygen, oxygen plasma, air degradation, and annealing, and the degradation effects are compared with PID results. From the analysis, it is apparent that annealing, air, gaseous oxygen, and oxygen plasma degradation have similar effects with PID, while due to simple diode characteristics, organic cells proved to be relatively durable to potential induced degradation. At low voltages (10 V, the organic cells withstood degradation adequately, with a drop of 23% in their initial efficiency. As voltage increased, the degradation rate increased considerably reaching a 93% efficiency drop when 30 V was applied for 20 minutes.

  4. Experimental Protoporphyria: Effect of Bile Acids on Liver Damage Induced by Griseofulvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA, dehydrocholic (DHA, chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO. The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed, superoxide dismutase (SOD, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH, and cytochrome P450 (CYP levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris.

  5. Experimental protoporphyria: effect of bile acids on liver damage induced by griseofulvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, María Del Carmen; Ruspini, Silvina Fernanda; Afonso, Susana Graciela; Meiss, Roberto; Buzaleh, Ana Maria; Batlle, Alcira

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris) was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA), dehydrocholic (DHA), chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO). The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris.

  6. Mouse models of multiple sclerosis: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Derrick P; Richards, Maureen H; Miller, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and Theiler's Murine Encephalitis Virus-Induced Demyelinating Disease (TMEV-IDD) are two clinically relevant murine models of multiple sclerosis (MS). Like MS, both are characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration into the CNS and demyelination. EAE is induced by either the administration of myelin protein or peptide in adjuvant or by the adoptive transfer of encephalitogenic T cell blasts into naïve recipients. The relative merits of each of these protocols are compared. Depending on the type of question being asked, different mouse strains and peptides are used. Different disease courses are observed with different strains and different peptides in active EAE. These variations are also addressed. Additionally, issues relevant to clinical grading of EAE in mice are discussed. In addition to EAE induction, useful references for other disease indicators such as DTH, in vitro proliferation, and immunohistochemistry are provided. TMEV-IDD is a useful model for understanding the possible viral etiology of MS. This section provides detailed information on the preparation of viral stocks and subsequent intracerebral infection of mice. Additionally, virus plaque assay and clinical disease assessment are discussed. Recently, recombinant TMEV strains have been created for the study of molecular mimicry which incorporate various 30 amino acid myelin epitopes within the leader region of TMEV.

  7. Induced ruminative and mindful attention in everyday life: an experimental ambulatory assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffziger, Silke; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Eisenbach, Christina; Koudela, Susanne; Reinhard, Iris; Zamoscik, Vera; Kirsch, Peter; Kuehner, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Rumination has been proposed as a risk factor for depression, while mindful attention might be protective. Differential effects of these attention foci have so far only been examined in the laboratory. Therefore, we conducted an experimental ambulatory assessment study using ruminative and mindful attention inductions in everyday life to examine their effects in a natural context. Fifty young adults carried palmtops over three weekdays (rumination induction day, mindful attention induction day, noninduction day; randomized cross-over design). Ten times a day, participants rated ruminative self-focus and mood. On the induction days, they were additionally subjected to 3-min inductions of ruminative or mindful attention at each assessment. The two induction modes exhibited differential immediate effects on ruminative self-focus and mood. While induced rumination immediately deteriorated valence and calmness, induced mindful attention specifically enhanced calmness. Depressive symptoms did not moderate these effects. While overall longer term effects of the inductions were missing, the mindful attention day was associated with slightly increasing positive valence over the day. The results need to be replicated in high-risk and patient samples to demonstrate the clinical significance of identified effects. Results confirm the emotional relevance of rumination and mindful attention in real world settings. Future work may test whether adaptive attention-focusing instructions delivered in daily life can support clinical interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell-specific regulation of Ferroportin transcription following experimentally-induced acute anemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrando, Deborah; Fiorito, Veronica; Marro, Samuele; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Ferroportin (FPN), the sole characterized iron exporter, is mainly controlled by the peptide hormone hepcidin in response to iron, erythroid factors, hypoxia, and inflammation. In addition, intracellular iron level controls FPN translation by modulating the binding of Iron Responsive Proteins at the 5'UTR of FPN mRNA. Recently, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)2α has been shown to regulate FPN expression in intestinal cells. Here we show that, during experimentally-induced acute anemia in mice, FPN is regulated at transcriptional level in a cell-specific manner. FPN mRNA level increases in duodenum and spleen macrophages, whereas it does not change in liver and is strongly down-regulated in erythroid precursors. These results were confirmed in Caco2, Raw264.7 and K562 cells treated with a hypoxic stimulus. Moreover, we found a differential expression of HIF1α and HIF2α in cells and tissues that might account for the specificity of FPN regulation. Thus, hypoxia, by directly controlling hepcidin and its target FPN, orchestrates a complex regulatory network aimed at ensuring rapid iron recovery from the periphery and efficient iron utilization in the erythroid compartment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Experimental Parkinson on Formalin-Induced Pain in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Pain is one of the preceding claims of Parkinson's disease (PD, that its mechanisms have not been fully identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical pain responses induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin in male parkinsonized rats.   Method : In this experimental study, 40 Wistar male rats were used and PD was established by stereotaxic injection of 6-OHDA toxin into the striatum. Parkinson's disease severity determined by apomorphine-induced rotation test and then the pain response of 4 groups, the control, sham and 2 weak or full Parkinson groups, were evaluated using formalin test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test.   Results : In both acute and chronic phases of the formalin test, the symptoms of pain in different groups were same, but at the interphase stage, pain intensity increased more in Parkinson 's rats, especially in full PD group compared to control (p<0.01.   Conclusion: These results suggest that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway have important modulating role on chronic pain.

  10. Experimentally induced masseter-pain changes masseter but not sternocleidomastoid muscle-related activity during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinato, Fernanda; Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C; Zeredo, Jorge Luis Lopes; Macedo, Sergio Bruzadelli; Corrêa, Eliane C R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of induced masseter-muscle pain on the amplitude of muscle activation, symmetry and coactivation of jaw- and neck-muscles during mastication. Twenty-eight male volunteers, mean age±SD 20.6±2.0years, participated in this study. Surface electromyography of the masseter and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles was performed bilaterally during mastication of a gummy candy before and after injections of monosodium glutamate solution and isotonic saline solution. As a result, we observed a decrease in the amplitude of activation of the masseter muscle on the working side (p=0.009; d=0.34) and a reduction in the asymmetry between the working and the balancing side during mastication (p=0.007; d=0.38). No changes were observed either on the craniocervical electromyographic variables. In conclusion, experimentally induced pain reduced the masseter muscle activation on the working side, thereby reducing the physiological masseters' recruitment asymmetry between the two sides during mastication. No effects on SCM activity were detected. These results may partly explain the initial maladaptative changes underlying TMD conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of ES products from Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) on experimentally induced colitis in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarder, S; Kania, P W; Holm, T L; von Gersdorff Jørgensen, L; Buchmann, K

    2017-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in developed countries is linked with elevated hygienic standards. One of the several factors involved in this question may be reduced exposure to the immunomodulatory effects of parasitic helminths. Several investigations on treatment of mice and humans with helminth-derived substances have supported this notion, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study therefore dissects to what extent a series of immune-related genes are modulated in zebrafish with experimentally induced colitis following exposure to excretory-secretory (ES) products isolated from larval Anisakis, a widely distributed fish nematode. Adult zebrafish intrarectally exposed to the colitis-inducing agent TNBS developed severe colitis leading to 80% severe morbidity, but if co-injected (ip) with Anisakis ES products, the morbidity rate was 50% at the end of the experiment (48 hours post-exposure). Gene expression studies of TNBS-treated zebrafish showed clear upregulation of a range of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and effector molecules and some induction of genes related to the adaptive response. A distinct innate-driven immune response was seen in both TNBS and TNBS + ES groups, but expression values were significantly depressed for several important pro-inflammatory genes in the TNBS + ES group, indicating protective mechanisms of Anisakis ES compounds on intestinal immunopathology in zebrafish. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An experimental study on embankment failure induced by prolonged immersion in floodwater

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    Yu-long Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged immersion in floodwater is one of the main causes of embankment failure or dam breaks, although failure mechanisms have not been extensively studied. In this study, an embankment model was constructed to investigate the influence of prolonged immersion in floodwater on the failure of an embankment. The results indicate that: (1 the phreatic surface gradually rises and negative pore pressures gradually dissipate with the time of prolonged immersion in floodwater, and, finally, a stable and fully saturated state is reached; (2 observable cracks and a heave phenomenon are found near the downstream toe and in the top stratum of the foundation, which are attributed to the large uplift pressure on the interface between the top stratum and the pervious substratum, the tremendous impact effect induced by the rapid rise in water level, and the reduction of shear strength of heavy silt loam. The present study enhances our in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of embankment failure induced by floodwater, and provides experimental data for validation of mathematical models of the embankment seepage failure.

  13. Development of an experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis subclinical mastitis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagno, Mirta C; Vissio, Claudina; Reinoso, Elina B; Raspanti, Claudia; Yaciuk, Raúl; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M

    2012-01-27

    Streptococcus uberis is a major environmental mastitis-causing pathogen. The infections are predominantly subclinical and are frequently undetected and untreated for extended periods of time. More information about the pathogenesis of S. uberis mastitis would be useful. To our knowledge, no experimental studies into the mastitis pathogenesis caused by S. uberis have been described in lactating goats. The aim of this study was to reproduce an experimentally induced S. uberis subclinical mastitis in lactating goats aimed to evaluate the inflammatory response, dynamics of infection and the pathological findings within the first hours of intramammary inoculation with S. uberis. Six Saanen goats in mid-lactation were inoculated with 1.7 × 10(8)cfu of S. uberis. Bacterial growth peaked in milk from challenged right mammary halves (RMH) at 4h PI. Shedding of viable bacteria showed a marked decrease at 20 h PI. Mean somatic cell counts in milk from the RMH peaked at 20 h PI. Inoculation with S. uberis was followed by a decrease in the mean total number of leukocytes. Signs and systemic symptoms were not evoked by intramammary inoculation. S. uberis could be isolated in tissue from all RMH. Histological examination of specimens of the RMH and lymph nodes of the goats showed an increased inflammatory response throughout the experiment. The histological findings correlated with the immunohistochemical detection of S. uberis in RMH. In conclusion, the experimental inoculation of S. uberis in lactating goats is capable of eliciting an inflammatory response and causing pathological changes, resulting in a subclinical mastitis. This investigation shows that goat might to represent a valuable model for the study of the mastitis pathogenesis caused by S. uberis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An experimental study of a circular cylinder's two-degree-of-freedom motion induced by vortex

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    Shin-Woong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of an experimental investigation of vortex-induced vibration (VIV of a flexibly mounted and rigid cylinder with two-degrees-of-freedom with respect to varying ratio of in-line natural frequency to cross-flow natural frequency, f∗, at a fixed low mass ratio. Combined in-line and cross-flow motion was observed in a sub-critical Reynolds number range. Three-dimensional displacement meter and tension meter were used to measure dynamic responses of the model. To validate the results and the experiment system, x and y response amplitudes and ratio of oscillation frequency to cross-flow natural frequency were compared with other experimental results. It has been found that the higher harmonics, such as third and more vibration components, can occur on a certain part of steel catenary riser under a condition of dual resonance mode. In the present work, however, due to the limitation of a size of circulating water channel, the whole test of a whole configuration of the riser at an adequate scale for VIV phenomenon was not able to be conducted. Instead, we have modeled a rigid cylinder and assumed that the cylinder is a part of steel catenary riser where the higher harmonic motions could occur. Through the experiment, we have found that even though the cylinder was assumed to be rigid, the occurrence of the higher harmonic motions was observed in a small reduced velocity (Vr range, where the influence of the in-line response is relatively large. The transition of the vortex shedding mode from one to another was examined by using time history of x and y directional displacement over all experimental cases. We also observed the influence of in-line restoring force power spectral density with f∗.

  15. The IL-33/ST2 pathway controls coxsackievirus B5-induced experimental pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesti-Costa, Renata; Silva, Grace K; Proença-Módena, José L; Carlos, Daniela; Silva, Maria L; Alves-Filho, José C; Arruda, Eurico; Liew, Foo Y; Silva, João S

    2013-07-01

    Coxsackievirus B (CVB) is a common cause of acute and chronic infectious myocarditis and pancreatitis. Th1 cells producing IFN-γ and TNF-α are important for CVB clearance, but they are also associated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory lesions, suggesting that the modulation of Th1 and Th2 balance is likely important in controlling CVB-induced pancreatitis. We investigated the role of IL-33, which is an important recently discovered cytokine for induction of Th2-associated responses, in experimental CVB5 infection. We found that mice deficient in IL-33R, T1/ST2, significantly developed more severe pancreatitis, had greater weight loss, and contained higher viral load compared with wild-type (WT) mice when infected with CVB5. Conversely, WT mice treated with rIL-33 developed significantly lower viral titers, and pancreatitis was attenuated. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that IL-33 enhances the degranulation and production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by CD8(+) T and NK cells, which is associated with viral clearance. Furthermore, IL-33 triggers the production of IL-4 from mast cells, which results in enhanced differentiation of M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells, leading to the attenuation of inflammatory pancreatitis. Adoptively transferred mast cells or M2 macrophages reversed the heightened pancreatitis in the T1/ST2(-/-) mice. In contrast, inhibition of regulatory T cells exacerbated the disease in WT mice. Together, our findings reveal an unrecognized IL-33/ST2 functional pathway and a key mechanism for CVB5-induced pancreatitis. These data further suggest a novel approach in treating virus-induced pancreatitis, which is a major medical condition with unmet clinical needs.

  16. Histopathological characterization of experimentally induced cutaneous loxoscelism in rabbits inoculated with Loxosceles similis venom

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    NB Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomation by Loxosceles bites is characterized by dermonecrotic and/or systemic features that lead to several clinical signs and symptoms called loxoscelism. Dermonecrotic lesions are preceded by thrombosis of the dermal plexus. Recent studies show that atheromatous plaque is prone to thrombosis due to endothelial cell apoptosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of microscopic dermal lesion and endothelial cell apoptosis induced by Loxosceles similis venom in the literature. Thus, the aim of the present study is to describe histological lesions induced by L. similis venom in rabbit skin and to elucidate whether apoptosis of endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of loxoscelism. Forty male rabbits were split into two groups: the control group (intradermally injected with 50 µL of PBS and the experimental group (intradermally injected with 0.5 µg of L. similis crude venom diluted in 50 µL of PBS. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours of injection, skin fragments were collected and processed for paraffin or methacrylate embedding. Sections of 5 µm thick were stained by HE, PAS or submitted to TUNEL reaction. Microscopically, severe edema, diffuse heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate, perivascular heterophilic infiltrate, thrombosis, fibrinoid necrosis of arteriolar wall and cutaneous muscle necrosis were observed. Two hours after venom injection, endothelial cells with apoptosis morphology were evidenced in the dermal plexus. Apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL reaction. It seems that endothelial cell apoptosis and its consequent desquamation is an important factor that induces thrombosis and culminates in dermonecrosis, which is characteristic of cutaneous loxoscelism.

  17. Multiple sites and actions of gabapentin-induced relief of ongoing experimental neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Qu, Chaoling; Navratilova, Edita; Oyarzo, Janice; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Dickenson, Anthony H; Porreca, Frank

    2017-08-21

    Gabapentin (GBP) is a first-line therapy for neuropathic pain, but its mechanisms and sites of action remain uncertain. We investigated GBP-induced modulation of neuropathic pain following spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. Intravenous or intrathecal GBP reversed evoked mechanical hypersensitivity and produced conditioned place preference (CPP) and dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) selectively in SNL rats. Spinal GBP also significantly inhibited dorsal horn wide-dynamic-range neuronal responses to a range of evoked stimuli in SNL rats. By contrast, GBP microinjected bilaterally into the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), produced CPP, and elicited NAc DA release selectively in SNL rats but did not reverse tactile allodynia and had marginal effects on wide-dynamic-range neuronal activity. Moreover, blockade of endogenous opioid signaling in the rACC prevented intravenous GBP-induced CPP and NAc DA release but failed to block its inhibition of tactile allodynia. Gabapentin, therefore, can potentially act to produce its pain relieving effects by (a) inhibition of injury-induced spinal neuronal excitability, evoked hypersensitivity, and ongoing pain and (b) selective supraspinal modulation of affective qualities of pain, without alteration of reflexive behaviors. Consistent with previous findings of pain relief from nonopioid analgesics, GBP requires engagement of rACC endogenous opioid circuits and downstream activation of mesolimbic reward circuits reflected in learned pain-motivated behaviors. These findings support the partial separation of sensory and affective dimensions of pain in this experimental model and suggest that modulation of affective-motivational qualities of pain may be the preferential mechanism of GBP's analgesic effects in patients.

  18. Experimental study on flow-induced vibration of propeller blades under non-uniform inflow

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    LI Jing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This article presents an experimental study of the flow-induced vibration of propeller blades under periodic inflow, and the dependence of the response on its modes.[Methods] Two seven-bladed highly skewed model propellers of identical proportions but different material are operated in four-cycle and six-cycle inflows to produce a blade vibratory strain response. Two kinds of wire mesh wake screens located 400 mm upstream of the propeller plane are used to generate the four-cycle and six-cycle inflows. A laser Doppler velocimetry system located 100 mm downstream of the wake screen plane is used to measure the axial velocity distributions produced by the wake screens. Strain gauges are attached to the propeller blades at different positions. The data from the strain gauges quantifies the excitation frequencies induced by the wake screens. It is shown that the response will reach peak axial propeller frequency, four times axial propeller frequency and six times axial propeller frequency under uniform inflow, four-cycle inflow and six-cycle inflow respectively.[Results] The effect of resonance on the vibratory strain response is revealed. When six times axial propeller frequency induced by six-cycle inflow coincides with the natural frequency of a flexible propeller, the response of the propeller is at its greatest.[Conclusions] This research reveals that when designing a propeller, it is not sufficient to only focus on its hydrodynamic properties; the effects of the modes of the propeller should also be considered.

  19. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on experimentally induced pain: a systematic literature review

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    Millan Mario

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is evidence that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT can reduce pain, the mechanisms involved are not well established. There is a need to review the scientific literature to establish the evidence-base for the reduction of pain following SMT. Objectives To determine if SMT can reduce experimentally induced pain, and if so, if the effect is i only at the level of the treated spinal segment, ii broader but in the same general region as SMT is performed, or iii systemic. Design A systematic critical literature review. Methods A systematic search was performed for experimental studies on healthy volunteers and people without chronic syndromes, in which the immediate effect of SMT was tested. Articles selected were reviewed blindly by two authors. A summary quality score was calculated to indicate level of manuscript quality. Outcome was considered positive if the pain-reducing effect was statistically significant. Separate evidence tables were constructed with information relevant to each research question. Results were interpreted taking into account their manuscript quality. Results Twenty-two articles were included, describing 43 experiments, primarily on pain produced by pressure (n = 27 or temperature (n = 9. Their quality was generally moderate. A hypoalgesic effect was shown in 19/27 experiments on pressure pain, produced by pressure in 3/9 on pain produced by temperature and in 6/7 tests on pain induced by other measures. Second pain provoked by temperature seems to respond to SMT but not first pain. Most studies revealed a local or regional hypoalgesic effect whereas a systematic effect was unclear. Manipulation of a “restricted motion segment” (“manipulable lesion” seemed not to be essential to analgesia. In relation to outcome, there was no discernible difference between studies with higher vs. lower quality scores. Conclusions These results indicate that SMT has a direct local

  20. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on experimentally induced pain: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) can reduce pain, the mechanisms involved are not well established. There is a need to review the scientific literature to establish the evidence-base for the reduction of pain following SMT. Objectives To determine if SMT can reduce experimentally induced pain, and if so, if the effect is i) only at the level of the treated spinal segment, ii) broader but in the same general region as SMT is performed, or iii) systemic. Design A systematic critical literature review. Methods A systematic search was performed for experimental studies on healthy volunteers and people without chronic syndromes, in which the immediate effect of SMT was tested. Articles selected were reviewed blindly by two authors. A summary quality score was calculated to indicate level of manuscript quality. Outcome was considered positive if the pain-reducing effect was statistically significant. Separate evidence tables were constructed with information relevant to each research question. Results were interpreted taking into account their manuscript quality. Results Twenty-two articles were included, describing 43 experiments, primarily on pain produced by pressure (n = 27) or temperature (n = 9). Their quality was generally moderate. A hypoalgesic effect was shown in 19/27 experiments on pressure pain, produced by pressure in 3/9 on pain produced by temperature and in 6/7 tests on pain induced by other measures. Second pain provoked by temperature seems to respond to SMT but not first pain. Most studies revealed a local or regional hypoalgesic effect whereas a systematic effect was unclear. Manipulation of a “restricted motion segment” (“manipulable lesion”) seemed not to be essential to analgesia. In relation to outcome, there was no discernible difference between studies with higher vs. lower quality scores. Conclusions These results indicate that SMT has a direct local/regional hypoalgesic effect on

  1. Validation of "Cancer Dyspnea Scale" in Patients With Advanced Cancer in a Palliative Care Setting in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damani, Anuja; Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Salins, Naveen; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, MaryAnn

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer is challenging. Cancer Dyspnea Scale (CDS) is a multidimensional scale developed for the measurement of dyspnea. It is available only in Japanese, English, and Swedish and has not been validated before in the Indian languages. The objective was to describe the process of validation and reliability testing of CDS in Indian advanced cancer patients. This is a prospective observational study conducted in the palliative care clinic of a tertiary cancer center in Mumbai. The English version of CDS was translated into Indian languages-Hindi (CDS-H) and Marathi (CDS-M). One hundred twenty newly registered eligible patients (60 for CDS-H and 60 for CDS-M) were enrolled into the study consecutively. They were asked to fill CDS (translated version) and Visual Analogue Scale for dyspnea. Only baseline measures were used. Validity was separately analyzed for CDS-H and CDS-M. The results showed good construct validity between CDS-H and CDS-M. Intersubscale correlation was done by calculating the Pearson's correlation coefficient (mean r = 0.64 and 0.764 for CDS-H and CDS-M, respectively). Convergent validity was calculated by computing the correlation of each factor with VAS-D scores and was found statistically significant (P scale was determined by its internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranging from 0.716 to 0.879). This study demonstrates that CDS-H and CDS-M are valid and reliable multidimensional scales, which can be used to assess dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of home-based inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea and pulmonary function in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarsad, Maryam Bakhshandeh; Shariati, Abdolali; Eidani, Esmaeil; Latifi, Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth cause of mortality worldwide. Patients with COPD experience periods of dyspnea, fatigue, and disability, which impact on their life. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea, and pulmonary lung function. A randomized, controlled trial was performed. Thirty patients (27 males, 3 females) with mild to very severe COPD were randomly assigned to a training group (group T) or to a control group (group C). Patients in group T received training for 8 weeks (15 min/day for 6 days/week) with flow-volumetric inspiratory exerciser named (Respivol). Each patient was assessed before and after 8 weeks of training for the following clinical parameters: exercise capacity by 6-min walking test (6MWT), exertional dyspnea by Borg scale, and pulmonary lung function by spirometry. Patients used training together with medical treatment. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results showed statistically significant increase in 6MWT at the end of the training from 445.6 ± 22.99 to 491.06 ± 17.67 meters? (P training group but not in the control group. The values for exercise capacity and dyspnea improved after 8 weeks in group T in comparison with group C (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0001, respectively). No changes were observed in any measure of pulmonary function in both groups. Short-term inspiratory muscle training has beneficial effects on exercise capacity and exertional dyspnea in COPD patients.

  3. Two Interventions for Patients with Major Depression and Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Impact on Dyspnea-Related Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, George S; Sirey, Jo Anne; Banerjee, Samprit; Jackson, Danielle S; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Pollari, Cristina; Novitch, Richard S; Artis, Amanda; Raue, Patrick J

    2017-10-10

    The Personalized Intervention for Depressed Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (PID-C) is an intervention aiming to help patients adhere to their rehabilitation and care. This study tested the hypothesis that the Problem-Solving Adherence (PSA) intervention, which integrates problem-solving into adherence enhancement procedures, reduces dyspnea-related disability more than PID-C. Exploratory analyses sought to identify patients with distinct dyspnea-related disability trajectories and to compare their clinical profiles. In this randomized controlled trial in an acute inpatient rehabilitation and community, 101 participants diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and major depression were included after screening 633 consecutive admissions for acute inpatient rehabilitation. Participants underwent 14 sessions of PID-C versus PSA over 26 weeks using the Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire. The study hypothesis was not supported. Exploratory latent class growth modeling identified two distinct disability trajectories. Dyspnea-related disability improved in 39% of patients and remained unchanged in the rest. Patients whose dyspnea-related disability improved had more severe disability and less sense of control over their condition at baseline. Improvement or no worsening of disability was noted in both treatment groups. This is a favorable course for depressed patients with a severe, deteriorating medical illness. PID-C is compatible with the expertise of clinicians working in community-based rehabilitation programs, and after further testing in the community, it can be integrated in the care of depressed COPD patients. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electroacupuncture-Induced Attenuation of Experimental Epilepsy: A Comparative Evaluation of Acupoints and Stimulation Parameters

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    Xuezhi Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA on epilepsy remains to be verified because of previous controversies that might be due to the complexity of the effects induced by different acupoints and stimulation approaches adopted. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EA on epilepsy to determine the specific acupoints and optimal stimulation parameters in this work. Experimental epilepsy was induced by injecting kainic acid to the lateral cerebral ventricle of adult male SD rats. EA with a low-frequency (10 Hz/1 mA or high-frequency (100 Hz/1 mA current was applied to the epileptic model for 30 minutes starting at 0.5 hour after the injection. Four pairs of acupoints were tested, that is, Shuigou (DU26 + Dazhui (DU14, Jinsuo (DU8 + Yaoqi (EXB9, Neiguan (PC6 + Quchi (LI11, and Fenglong (ST40 + Yongquan (KI1. We found that (1 low- or high-frequency EA at different acupoints reduced epileptic seizures (P<0.05 versus the control with an exception of low-frequency EA at Neiguan (PC6 and Quchi (LI11; (2 low-frequency EA induced a better effect at Fenglong (ST40 plus Yongquan (KI1 than that of the other acupoints (P<0.05; (3 there is no significant difference in the effects of high-frequency EA at these acupoints; and (4 the high-frequency EA elicited a greater effect than that of low-frequency EA in all groups (P<0.05, with an exception at Jinsuo (DU8 + Yaoqi (EXB9. The EA-induced attenuation appeared 1–1.5 hours after EA with no appreciable effect in the first hour after EA in either the EEG or the behavioral tests. We conclude that EA attenuation of epileptic seizures is dependent on the stimulation parameters and acupoints and that the delay in appearance of the EA effect could be a reflection of the time required by the EA signal to regulate neural function in the central nervous system.

  5. Relevance of induced and accidental hypothermia after trauma-haemorrhage-what do we know from experimental models in pigs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Frank; Radermacher, Peter; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Huber-Lang, Markus; Seekamp, Andreas; Flohé, Sascha; van Griensven, Martijn; Andruszkow, Hagen; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Recent experimental research has either focused on the role of accidental hypothermia as part of the lethal triad after trauma or tried to elucidate the effects of therapeutically induced hypothermia on the posttraumatic course. Induced hypothermia seems to reduce the mortality in experimental models of trauma-haemorrhage. As potential mechanisms, a decrease of cellular metabolism, beneficial effects on haemodynamic function and an attenuation of the inflammatory response have been described. However, negative side effects of hypothermia have to be considered, such as impairment of the coagulatory function and immunosuppressive effects. Furthermore, the optimal strategy for the induction of hypothermia (magnitude, duration, timing, cooling rate, etc.) and subsequent rewarming remains unclear. Nevertheless, this piece of information is essential before considering hypothermia as a treatment strategy for severely injured patients. This review aims to elaborate the differences between accidental and induced hypothermia and to summarize the current knowledge of the potential therapeutic use of induced hypothermia suggested in porcine models of trauma-haemorrhage.

  6. Experimental signature of the pair trajectories of rough spheres in the shear-induced microstructure in noncolloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Frédéric; Peters, François; Lemaire, Elisabeth

    2011-11-11

    The shear-induced microstructure in a semidilute noncolloidal suspension is studied. A high-resolution pair distribution function in the plane of shear is experimentally determined. It is shown to be anisotropic, with a depleted direction close to the velocity axis in the recession quadrant. The influence of roughness on the interaction between particles is quantitatively evidenced. The experimental results compare well with a model from particle pair trajectories.

  7. Experimental studies of keV energy neutron-induced reactions relevant to astrophysics and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, T.; Kii, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Okazaki, F.; Kobayashi, T.; Baba, T.; Nagai, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Igashira, M.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by keV energy neutrons provide a plenty of informations for studies of both astrophysics and nuclear physics. In this paper we will show our experimental studies of neutron- induced reactions of light nuclei in the keV energy region by means of a pulsed keV neutron beam and high-sensitivity detectors. Also we will discuss astrophysical and nuclear-physical consequences by using the obtained results. (author)

  8. Effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix components in experimentally induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Veeraraghavan, Vishnu Priya; Jainu, Mallika

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is an important component of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum, which progresses to the end stage liver disease, if not diagnosed and treated properly. The disproportionate production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines secreted from fat contributes to the pathogenesis of NASH. In this study, the comparative effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix (ECM) component levels were studied in experimentally induced NASH. The experimental protocol consists of using 48 male Wister rats, which were divided into 8 groups. The levels of hyaluronic acid, leptin and adiponectin were monitored in experimental NASH. The experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and significant increase in adiponectin levels when compared to experimentally induced NASH group, but did not show any effect on the levels of leptin. Contrary to these two drugs, viz. pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid, the group treated with quercetin showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and leptin and significant decrease in adiponectin levels compared with that of experimentally induced NASH NASH group, offering maximum protection against NASH. Considering our findings, it could be concluded that quercetin may offer maximum protection against NASH by significantly increasing the levels of adiponectin, when compared to pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid.

  9. Dyspnea on exertion in patients of heart failure as a consequence of obesity: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikampady, Savitri Vasudev

    2013-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the inability of the heart to fill with or pump out enough blood to meet the body's needs. It is not one single disease, but rather a group of signs and symptoms caused by many different disease processes that have weakened the heart over time and left it unable to pump blood efficiently. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders are few of such disease processes responsible for conditions in HF. Even though, the co-morbidities mentioned above are well-established in the present system of medicine, its association with respiratory risk on obese patients especially in HF, still needs to be explored. The aim of this study is to determine the presence of dyspnea on exertion (DOE) in patients of HF as a consequence of obesity. Strategies to prevent the risk of HF, which would complement the current approaches aimed at Ayurvedic perspective especially, the obesity, its related comorbidities and contributors in the form of information on life-style leading to obesity needs to be focused. An ethical clearance for the project from the same institute was obtained on 101 patients of HF. All patients with ejection fraction Analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, IBM version-17.0. The significant outcomes on lifestyles of HF related to co-morbidities were found.

  10. Evaluation of Unexplained Dyspnea in A Young Athletic Male with Pectus Excavatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardie, Gregory B.; Dorsey, David A.; Kaeferlein, Bernhard H.

    2005-01-01

    Pectus excavatum (PE) is a relatively common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall associated with reduced exercise capacity. Uncertainty exists over the nature of physiologic impairment in PE. Evidence suggests that myocardial compression exerted by the displaced sternum on the right heart chambers, disables the ability of the heart to augment stroke volume during exercise. This case study describes the evaluation of an athletic 20 year old Caucasian male, lifelong non-smoker, with severe pectus deformity and previous fixation procedure to repair a sternal fracture. The patient performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test to determine the etiology of his dyspnea with exertion. The patient demonstrated normal work output and normal aerobic capacity but displayed dynamic hyperinflation. Mechanical restriction of tidal volume expansion appeared to be the major contributors to exercise limitation. These results are compared and contrasted with similar cases reported in the literature. Key Points Pectus excavatum (PE) is a relatively common phenomenon affecting approximately 1 in 300 births, with a 9:1 ratio of male to female rate of incidence. The etiology or exercise limitation is most frequently due to cardiovascular limitation due to the compression of the sternum upon the myocardium, impairing the ability to augment stroke volume. The Pectus Severity Index (PSI) is a useful indicator of pectus severity. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides useful data to distinguish between cardiovascular limitation, ventilatory limitation, or deconditioning in the evaluation of PE. In this case study, ventilatory limitation was due to the mechanical restriction of the thoracic cavity. PMID:24453537

  11. VALIDITY OF CAT AND MMRC – DYSPNEA SCORE IN EVALUATION OF COPD SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Milačić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although predominantly denoted as a pulmonary disease, COPD also presents with various extra-pulmonary effects which influence different aspects of patients’ physical, emotional and mental well-being. Traditionally, evaluation of COPD severity is based on determination of pulmonary function and particularly on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1. However, numerous evidences show that FEV1 is not a parameter of sufficient strength when compared to the value of clinical symptoms, e.g. shortness of breath, cough, and COPD patients’ quality of life (QoL. Besides, many clinical manifestations of COPD (anxiety, depression and decreased physical ability are best expressed by patients themselves, and can be better determined by appropriate questionnaires. Some of currently recommended questionnaires used worldwide are CAT (COPD assessment test and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC dyspnea score, in combination with FEV1. Global initiative for COPD – GOLD with its current directives from 2013 includes CAT and mMRC parallel with a number of clinical exacerbations and FEV1 as the most valid parameters and based on that, introduces COPD classification into four groups – A,B,C and D, according to the severity of disease. Therefore, we consider that a full insight into the patient’s QoL and treatment efficacy are impossible without introduction of these self-evaluation questionnaires to the classical instrumental respiratory function evaluation in COPD patients.

  12. [Case of dyspnea due to toilet cleaner containing nitric acid for household use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Hirano, Yohei; Ri, Tetsunari; Aihara, Koichiro; Iba, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    A 40-year-old male tried to clean a urinal at his home storing 900 mL of a toilet cleaner containing 9.8% nitric acid to remove calcium deposit, and clean the toilet floor for twenty minutes. Immediately after using the cleaner, he experienced eye irritation. He washed out the toilet cleaner. However, he thereafter experienced dyspnea, a compressive sensation in his chest, and chest and back pain about 40 minutes after the cleaning the toilet. He monitored his symptoms overnight and found them to gradually improve. However, the symptoms still remained the next morning and therefore he came to our department on foot. He had no particular past or family history. On arrival, his physiological findings and chest computed tomography scan were negative for any abnormalities. His arterial blood gas analysis revealed a mild abnormality of oxygenation. Observation without any drugs revealed that a complete remission of his symptoms occurred after approximately 4 weeks. Based on the results of the experiments, contact with the mucosal membrane and nitric acid gas produced by any accidentally coexisting metals or contact with moisture, including nitric acid produced by a reaction between CaCO3 and cleaner, may have been the mechanism of occurrence for the symptoms observed in this case. This is the first reported case of nitric acid poisoning due to the use of a toilet cleanser intended for household use.

  13. [Case of pollinosis to grass pollens who presented with dyspnea successfully treated by rush immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Yasusuke; Takamasu, Tetsuya; Inuo, Chisato; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Kurihara, Kazuyuki

    2007-11-01

    We present a 15 years old boy who experienced unusual symptoms for pollen allergy, and successfully treated by rush immunotherapy. The patient started to complain erythema and edema on his face and serous rhinorrhea at 10 years old when going out. He entered baseball team at junior high school, and subsequently experienced choking sensation, dyspnea, face edema, and it was sometimes impossible to continue play. He was diagnosed as bronchial asthma at some hospital, and prescribed many anti-asthma medications including inhaled corticosteroid, which did not take effect. His symptoms deteriorated in summer and ameliorated in winter. When he was 15 years old, he was referred to us by a pediatrician for reassessment of his symptoms. Flow-volume curve was normal, and bronchial provocation test (acetylcholine and histamine), and exercise challenge were negative. IgE antibodies specific to grass pollens were highly positive. We made a diagnosis of pollinosis to grass pollens instead of bronchial asthma. Oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroid partially improved his symptoms. We started rush-immunotherapy of grass-pollens (oats and bromegrass), Japanese cedar, and ragweed. His symptoms improved dramatically on the next season of grass pollens.

  14. The Significance of BODE (BMI, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise Index in Patients with Mustard Lung

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    OmidShadkam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD secondary to sulfur mustard exposure, known as mustard lung, is an important late pulmonary complication. The BODE (Body mass index, Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index has been established as a valuable tool for determining the adverse consequences of COPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the BODE index in patients with mustard lung. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two consecutively stable patients with mustard lung with all levels of severity were entered this study. The following parameters were recorded in all patients: standard spirometry, pulse oximetry, health-related quality of life, the BODE index. Additionally, the severity of COPD was determined by GOLD (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease staging. The correlation of the BODE index with pulmonary parameters was determined. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47.30±7.08 SD years. The mean BODE index was 3.16±2.25 SD. There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between the BODE index and oxygen saturation (r=-0.30, p=0.007. Also a statistically significant correlation was found between the BODE index and quality of life (r=0.80, p=0.001. The BODE index was not correlated with age of the patients and duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the BODE index is correlated with important clinical parameters and can be used in clinical practice

  15. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  16. The effects of Ethanol Extract of Propolis (EEP on the experimentally induced Candida keratitis in rabbits

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    Ahangari AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Propolis (bee glue is a resinous substance obtained from bee hives living on various plant sources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP on the experimentally induced Candidial keratitis in rabbits."n"nMethods: The alcoholic extract of propolis was prepared by 80% ethyl alcohol. After suppressing the immune system of 24 male rabbits, experimental Candida albicans keratitis was induced in the animals under local anesthesia and sterile conditions. The animals were later divided into four groups including the control or glycerin group and a nystatin and two 500 and 1000µg/ml EEP groups. Treatment continued for 21 days and after sacrificing the animals by humane methods, histopathological samples of the rabbits' eyes were prepared."n"nResults: Keratitis was developed in the eyes of all rabbits a week after the yeast inoculation. In the control group in which animals received glycerin, keratitis persisted until day 21. Clinical signs of keratitis disappeared in the Nystatin and 1000µg/ml EEP groups after 14 and 21 days, respectively. The clinical signs of keratitis partially ameliorated in the animals receiving 500µg/ml EEP. Histopathological examination revealed no differences between groups receiving nystatin or 1000µg/ml EEP."n"nConclusion: It is concluded that, ethanol extract of propolis could completely treat Candida albicans keratitis in 1000µg/ml concentrations. This extract can be used as a safe antifungal agent

  17. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

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    Saatsi Johanna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary

  18. Development and characterization of an experimental model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rabbit.

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    Oscar Julián Arias-Mutis

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS has become one of the main concerns for public health because of its link to cardiovascular disease. Murine models have been used to study the effect of MetS on the cardiovascular system, but they have limitations for studying cardiac electrophysiology. In contrast, the rabbit cardiac electrophysiology is similar to human, but a detailed characterization of the different components of MetS in this animal is still needed. Our objective was to develop and characterize a diet-induced experimental model of MetS that allows the study of cardiovascular remodeling and arrhythmogenesis. Male NZW rabbits were assigned to control (n = 15 or MetS group (n = 16, fed during 28 weeks with high-fat, high-sucrose diet. We measured weight, morphological characteristics, blood pressure, glycaemia, standard plasma biochemistry and the metabolomic profile at weeks 14 and 28. Liver histological changes were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. A mixed model ANOVA or unpaired t-test were used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Weight, abdominal contour, body mass index, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure increased in the MetS group at weeks 14 and 28. Glucose, triglycerides, LDL, GOT-AST, GOT/GPT, bilirubin and bile acid increased, whereas HDL decreased in the MetS group at weeks 14 and 28. We found a 40% increase in hepatocyte area and lipid vacuoles infiltration in the liver from MetS rabbits. Metabolomic analysis revealed differences in metabolites related to fatty acids, energetic metabolism and microbiota, compounds linked with cardiovascular disease. Administration of high-fat and high-sucrose diet during 28 weeks induced obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and metabolic alterations, thus reproducing the main clinical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in humans. This experimental model should provide a valuable tool for studies into the mechanisms of cardiovascular

  19. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats: evidence of its antioxidant property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Suresh R; Thakare, Vishnu N; Patil, Snehal R

    2011-07-01

    The present study investigates the protective effects of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity using various animal models with biochemical parameters like serum marker enzymes and antioxidants in target tissues. In addition, liver and cardiac histoarchitecture changes were also studied. Curcumin treatment inhibited carrageenin and albumin induced edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation. The increased relative weight of liver and heart in CCl(4) induced liver injury and isoproterenol induced cardiac necrosis were also reduced by curcumin treatment. Elevated serum marker enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased lipid peroxidation, decreased gluthione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in edematous, granulomatus, liver and heart tissues during inflammation, liver injury and cardiac necrosis, respectively. Curcumin treatment reversed all these above mentioned biochemical changes significantly in all animal models studied. Even histoarchitecture alterations observed in liver injury and cardiac necrosis observed were partially reversed (improved) by curcumin treatments. In in vitro experiments too curcumin inhibited iron catalyzed lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates, scavenged nitric oxide spontaneously generated from nitroprusside and inhibited heat induced hemolysis of rat erythrocytes. The present in vitro and in vivo experimental findings suggest the protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity in rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Cartilage integrity and proteoglycan turnover are comparable in canine experimentally induced and human joint degeneration

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    Femke Intema

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The value of experimental models of osteoarthritis (OA largely depends on the ability to translate observations to human OA. Surprisingly, direct comparison of characteristics of human and experimental OA is scarce. In the present study, cartilage integrity and matrix turnover in a canine model of joint degeneration were compared to human clinical OA. In 23 Beagle dogs, joint degeneration was induced in one knee, the contra-lateral knee served as a control. For comparison, human osteoarthritic and healthy knee cartilage were obtained at arthroplasty (n=14 and post-mortem (n=13. Cartilage was analyzed by histology and biochemistry. Values for cartilage integrity and proteoglycan (PG synthesis showed species specific differences; GAG content of healthy cartilage was 2-fold higher in canine cartilage and PG synthesis even 8-fold. However, the relative decrease in PG content between healthy and OA cartilage was similar for humans and canines (-17% vs. -15%, respectively, as was the histological damage (+7.0 vs. +6.1, respectively and the increase of PG synthesis (+100% vs. +70%, respectively. Remarkably, the percentage release of total and of newly formed PGs in human and canine controls was similar, as was the increase due to degeneration (+65% vs. +81% and +91% vs. +52%, respectively. Despite differences in control conditions, the observed changes in characteristics of cartilage integrity and matrix turnover are similar in a canine model of joint degeneration and human clinical OA. The canine Groove model shows that its characteristics reflect those of human OA which makes the model appropriate for studying human OA.

  1. Experimental study of laser-induced plasma: Influence of laser fluence and pulse duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xueshi; Ma, Qianli; Perrier, Maxime; Motto-Ros, Vincent [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Sabourdy, David; Nguyen, Luc; Jalocha, Alain [CILAS Laser Company, Photonics Department, 45000 Orléans (France); Yu, Jin, E-mail: jin.yu@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2013-09-01

    Influence of laser fluence and pulse duration on the morphology and the internal structure of plasma induced by infrared nanosecond laser pulse on an aluminum target placed in an argon ambient gas of one atmosphere pressure was experimentally studied. Dual-wavelength differential spectroscopic imaging was used in the experiment, which allowed observing the detailed structure inside of the ablation plume with distributions of species evaporated from the target as well as contributed by the ambient gas. Different regimes of post-ablation interaction were investigated using different laser fluences and pulse durations. We demonstrate in particular that plasma shielding due to various species localized in different zones inside of the plume leads to different morphologies and internal structures of the plasma. At moderate fluence, the plasma shielding due to the ablation vapor localized in the central part of the plume leads to its nearly spherical expansion with a layered structure of the distribution of different species. At higher fluence, the plasma shielding becomes strongly contributed by ionized ambient gas localized in the propagation front of the plume. An elongated morphology of the plume is observed with a zone of mixing between different species evaporated from the target or contributed by the ambient gas. Finally with extremely strong plasma shielding by ionized ambient gas in the case of a long duration pulse at high fluence, a delayed evaporation from the target is observed due to the ejection of melted material by splashing. - Highlights: • Morphology and internal structure of a plasma were experimentally determined. • Laser fluence and pulse duration are critical parameters for plasma structure. • Plasma shielding due to various species leads to different plasma structures. • Different regimes of laser-support absorption wave are used for interpretation. • Splashing ejection is observed for strong plasma shielding with long pulse.

  2. Enhanced mucosal re-epithelialization induced by short chain fatty acids in experimental colitis

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    Aguilar-Nascimento J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The short chain fatty acids (SCFA are the best nutrients for the colonocytes. Glucose is poorly used as a fuel but may be transformed into SCFA by colonic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SCFA or glucose on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in 30 Wistar rats by colonic instillation of 4% acetic acid. Five days later they were randomized to receive twice a day colonic lavage containing saline (controls, N = 10, 10% hypertonic glucose (N = 10 or SCFA (N = 10 until day 8 when they were killed. At autopsy, the colon was removed and weighed and the mucosa was evaluated macro- and microscopically and stripped out for DNA assay. Data are reported as mean ± SD or median [range] as appropriate. All animals lost weight but there was no difference between groups. Colon weight was significantly lower in the SCFA group (3.8 ± 0.5 g than in the control (5.3 ± 2.1 g and glucose (5.2 ± 1.3 g groups (P<0.05. Macroscopically, the severity of inflammation was less in SCFA (grade 2 [1-5] than in control (grade 9 [4-10] and glucose-treated (grade 9 [2-10] animals (P<0.01. Microscopically, ulceration of the mucosa was more severe in the glucose and control groups than in the SCFA group. The DNA content of the mucosa of SCFA-treated animals (8.2 [5.0-20.2] mg/g of tissue was higher than in glucose-treated (5.1 [4.2-8.5] mg/g of tissue; P<0.01 and control (6.2 [4.5-8.9] mg/g of tissue; P<0.05 animals. We conclude that SCFA may enhance mucosal re-epithelialization in experimental colitis, whereas hypertonic glucose is of no benefit.

  3. Microdissection studies of the structural alterations induced in rat kidneys by experimental postischemic acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, G H; Studnicki, F M; Hashida, Y

    1987-01-01

    A unique opportunity presented itself for a morphologic study of experimental unilateral acute renal failure (ARF) in male rats. The ARF had been induced in the rats by temporary occlusion (1h) of the left renal artery. Twenty-nine rats were divided into subsets as follows: 2-3 h, 24 h, 1 week, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following release of occlusion. Microdissection showed a heterogeneous population of abnormally structured proximal tubules in which the regressive lesions of tubular necrosis were combined with the progressive reaction of repair. The lesions demonstrated are reminiscent of those which have been described in ARF in the human and in experimental animals. Many proximal tubules in the 2- to 3-hour subset presented 1-3 disruptive lesions (DLs) while greater numbers of proximal tubules from the 24-hour group presented 1-5 DLs. Many proximal tubules presented no DLs, but nearly all from the 24-hour subset (97-100%) displayed a squamate appearance which paralleled and was caused by acute tubular necrosis. At 1 week, a dilated pars recta was common, but by this time, the squamate pattern had disappeared. Many casts were present. At 2 weeks, many fewer casts were present in proximal tubules and none were seen at 4, 8 or 12 weeks. The nephrons, particularly the proximal tubules, presented a variety of structural alterations at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Changes of special interest include (1) the presence of swan-necks; (2) a distinctive squamate appearance of the proximal tubules in the animals killed at 24 h; (3) a spiral, curled appearance caused by differential hyperplasia in animals at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, and (4) a tendency for ischemic lesions to involve all layers of the renal cortex.

  4. Cellular Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes in Blast-Induced Neurotrauma: Comparing Experimental Setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Zachary S; Hubbard, W Brad; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) has increased in incidence over the past decades and can result in cognitive issues that have debilitating consequences. The exact primary and secondary mechanisms of injury have not been elucidated and appearance of cellular injury can vary based on many factors, such as blast overpressure magnitude and duration. Many methodologies to study blast neurotrauma have been employed, ranging from open-field explosives to experimental shock tubes for producing free-field blast waves. While there are benefits to the various methods, certain specifications need to be accounted for in order to properly examine BINT. Primary cell injury mechanisms, occurring as a direct result of the blast wave, have been identified in several studies and include cerebral vascular damage, blood-brain barrier disruption, axonal injury, and cytoskeletal damage. Secondary cell injury mechanisms, triggered subsequent to the initial insult, result in the activation of several molecular cascades and can include, but are not limited to, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. The collective result of these secondary injuries can lead to functional deficits. Behavioral measures examining motor function, anxiety traits, and cognition/memory problems have been utilized to determine the level of injury severity. While cellular injury mechanisms have been identified following blast exposure, the various experimental models present both concurrent and conflicting results. Furthermore, the temporal response and progression of pathology after blast exposure have yet to be detailed and remain unclear due to limited resemblance of methodologies. This chapter summarizes the current state of blast neuropathology and emphasizes the need for a standardized preclinical model of blast neurotrauma.

  5. Experimentally induced pyogenic arthritis of rabbit knees: comparative study of MR imaging and pathology

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    Hong, Sung Hwan; Koh, Sung Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Chong Jai; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    To compare the MR imaging findings of experimentally induced pyogenic arthritis of rabbit knees with the corresponding histopathologic findings. Infection was induced in 20 rabbit knees by direct intra-articular injection of staphylococcus aureus. The animals were divided into four groups of five rabbits each, and spin-echo sagittal T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks, respectively, after staphylococcal inoculation. MR-pathologic correlation was performed, with emphasis on intra-and extra-articular soft tissue lesion characteristics. Soft tissue lesion signal intensity (SI) was classified as low, iso, or high on the basis of that of muscle, and high SI was further subdivided into three categories. At T2-weighted imaging, all soft tissue lesion showed high SI. Pathologic examination revealed the presence of inflammatory cell infiltration (n=2), abscess (n=1), granulation tissue (n=3), fibrosis (n=11), edema (n=4), congestion (n=9), and joint fluid (n=11). Except for the abscess, these lesions were irregular in shape and had variable SI (grade 1-3) and at T2WI could not, therefore, be differentiated. In nine knees, extra-articular soft-tissue lesions were demonstrated at T2WI and correlated with infectious soft tissue lesions such as inflammatory cell infiltration, abscess, granulation tissues and fibrosis; and non-infectious reactive soft tissue changes such as edema and congestion. In pyogenic arthritis, the MR imaging features of soft tissue lesions varied and were nonspecific, depending on the histopathologic abnormalities observed. Our results indicate that in assessing the extent of pyogenic arthritis with MR imaging, caution is required.

  6. Effect of Camel Milk on Oxidative Stresses in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rabbits

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    Esraa Tantawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk has an importance in the treatment of diabetes. It has been shown that the patients who drink camel milk daily, their need to insulin decrease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of camel milk in comparison with insulin treatment in experimentally-induced diabetes. This study was carried out on forty male New Zealand rabbits, divided into four groups with ten rabbits in each. The first group G1 was considered as control non-diabetic group and received only normal saline solution. The other animals were injected intravenously with alloxan for induction of diabetes mellitus and then divided into three groups' ten rabbits each as the follows: G2 considered as control diabetic and left untreated, G3 was considered as diabetic and treated with insulin, and G4 was considered as diabetic and received camel milk. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks, blood (whole blood & serum and tissue samples (liver, kidney and pancreas were collected from all the animals for analysis of: enzymatic SOD and catalase, non-enzymatic GSH antioxidant enzyme activities. Serum malondialdeyde, glucose, insulin and lipid profile also were analyzed. The results showed that the camel milk was effective in the treatment of diabetes in comparison to insulin treatment alone. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, camel milk improved the diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The histopathological evaluations demonstrated that there was a regeneration in β cells and the islets of Langerhans among the pancreatic acini in rabbits receiving camel milk. Our findings suggested that the camel milk administration in case of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus might be recommended as an oral anti-diabetic remedy.

  7. Effects of allicin on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De-shan; Gao, Wei; Liang, Er-shun; Wang, Shu-li; Lin, Wei-wei; Zhang, Wei-dong; Jia, Qing; Guo, Rui-chen; Zhang, Ji-dong

    2013-08-15

    This study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of allicin on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction in rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control rats (NC), the high-methionine-diet rats (Met), the high-methionine-diet rats treated with folic acid, vitaminB₆ and vitaminB₁₂ (Met+F), or with low-dose allicin (Met+L), or with high-dose allicin (Met+H). After 6 weeks, we collected blood samples of all groups to determine plasma endothelin (ET), serum homocysteine (Hcy), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and detected the expression of basic fibroblast growth factors (bFGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the aorta. The Hcy and the expression of TGF-β in both the Met+L and Met+H groups were significantly lower than the Met and Met+F groups. The ET, ET/NO ratio and the MDA levels of the Met+L and Met+H groups were significantly lower than the Met group. The SOD and NO levels and the expression of bFGF, TNF-α and ICAM-1 of the Met+L and Met+H groups were significantly higher than the Met group. Our data indicate that allicin inhibits lipid peroxidation induced by hyperhomocysteinemia and regulates the excretion and equilibrium of ET and NO, and suggest that allicin might be useful in the prevention of endothelial dysfunction caused by hyperhomocysteinemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gastroprotective Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of Scoparone Derivatives on Experimentally Induced Gastric Lesions in Rodents

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    Dong Ju Son

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the gastroprotective efficacy of synthesized scoparone derivatives on experimentally induced gastritis and their toxicological safety. Six scoparone derivatives were synthesized and screened for gastroprotective activities against HCl/ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Among these compounds, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin were found to have gastroprotective activity greater than the standard drug rebamipide; 6-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxycoumarin, 6-methoxy-7,8-(1-methoxy-methylenedioxycoumarin, 6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin, and 6,7-(1-methoxy-methylenedioxycoumarin were found to be equipotent or less potent that of rebamipide. Pharmacological studies suggest that the presence of a methoxy group at position C-5 or C-8 of the scoparone’s phenyl ring significantly improves gastroprotective activity, whereas the presence of a dioxolane ring at C-6, C-7, or C-8 was found to have decreased activity. In order to assess toxicological safety, two of the potent gastroprotective scoparone derivatives—5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin—were examined for their acute toxicity in mice as well as their effect on cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme activity. These two compounds showed low acute oral toxicity in adult male and female mice, and caused minimal changes to CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 enzyme activity. These results indicate that compared to other scoparone derivatives, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin can improve gastroprotective effects, and they have low toxicity and minimal effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  9. Beneficial effect of Citrus limon peel aqueous methanol extract on experimentally induced urolithic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Badrinathan; Michael, Shiju T; Arya, Ramachandran; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj; Ganesh, Rajesh N; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2016-01-01

    Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (Rutaceace) is a commonly available fruit variety with high medicinal and industrial values. Lemon peel (LP) extract was studied as a potent preventive and curative agent for experimentally induced hyperoxaluric rats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and toxicity study were performed for aqueous methanol LP extract. Twenty-four Wistar rats were segregated into four groups. Group 1: Control; Group 2: Urolithic (ethylene glycol (EG) - 0.75%); Group 3: Preventive study (EG + LP extract administration from 0th to 7th week); Group 4: Curative study (EG + LP extract administration from 4th to 7th week). Animals received LP extract daily by oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) for 7 weeks. GC-MS analyses revealed that compound 6 was abundant in the LP extract (32%) followed by compound 1 (∼21%). The LD50 value of LP extract was found to be >5000 mg/kg of body weight. Urolithic rats showed significantly higher urinary calcium and oxalate (4.47 ± 0.44 and 18.86 ± 0.55 mg/24 h, respectively) excretion compared with control and experimental rats. Renal function parameters like urea (84 ± 8.5 and 96.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL), creatinine (1.92 ± 0.27 and 1.52 ± 0.22 mg/dL), and urinary protein (2.03 ± 0.02 and 2.13 ± 0.16 mg/24 h) were also reduced by LP extract (p < 0.001) and corroborated with tissue analyses (SOD, catalase, and MDA levels) and histological studies in normal and experimental animals. Immunohistochemical staining of THP and NF-κB in urolithic animals showed elevated expression than the control, while LP extract suppressed the expression of these proteins. In conclusion, lemon peel is effective in curing kidney stone disease and also can be used to prevent the disease and its recurrence.

  10. Experimental and statistical investigation of thermally induced failure in reactor fuel particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, J.L.; Imprescia, R.J.; Bowman, A.L.; Radosevich, C.E.

    1980-10-01

    An incomplete experimental study into the failure statistics of fuel particle for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is described. Fuel particles failure was induced by thermal ramping from room temperature to temperatures in the vicinity of 2273/sup 0/K to 2773/sup 0/K in 2 to 30 h and detected by the appearance of /sup 85/Kr in the helium carrier gas used to sweep the furnace. The concentration of krypton, a beta emitter, was detected by measuring the current that resulted when the helium sweep gas was passed through an ionization chamber. TRISO fuel particles gave a krypton concentration profile as a function of time that built up in several minutes and decayed in a fraction of an hour. This profile, which was temperature independent, was similar to the impulse response of the ionization chamber, suggesting that the TRISO particles failed instantaneously and completely. BISO fuel particles gave a krypton concentration profile as a function of time that built up in a fraction of an hour and decayed in a fraction of a day. This profile was strongly temperature dependent, suggesting that krypton release was diffusion controlled, i.e., that the krypton was diffusing through a sound coat, or that the BISO coating failed but that the krypton was unable to escape the kernel without diffusion, or that a combination of pre- and postfailure diffusion accompanied partial or complete failure.

  11. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica in experimentally induced amoebic liver abscess: comparison of three staining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Tan Zi; Kin, Wong Weng; Mustafa, Shaymoli; Ahmed, Arefuddin; Noordin, Rahmah; Cheong, Tan Gim; Alfonso, Olivos-Garcia; Huat, Lim Boon

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of three different tissue stains, namely haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for detection of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) trophozoites in abscessed liver tissues of hamster. Amoebic liver abscess was experimentally induced in a hamster by injecting 1 × 10(6) of axenically cultured virulent E. histolytica trophozoites (HM1-IMSS strain) into the portal vein. After a week post-inoculation, the hamster was sacrificed and the liver tissue sections were stained with H&E, PAS and IHC stains to detect the amoebic trophozoite. The three stains revealed tissue necrosis and amoebic trophozoites, but with varying clarity. H&E and PAS stained the trophozoites pink and magenta, respectively, however it was difficult to differentiate the stained trophozoites from the macrophages because of their similarity in size and morphology. On the other hand, IHC stain revealed distinct brown appearance of the trophozoites in the infected liver tissues. It can be concluded that out of the three stains, IHC is the best for identification of E. histolytica trophozoites in tissue sections.

  12. A Protective Role of Arecoline Hydrobromide in Experimentally Induced Male Diabetic Rats

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    Indraneel Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Arecoline, the most potent and abundant alkaloid of betel nut, causes elevation of serum testosterone and androgen receptor expression in rat prostate, in addition to increase in serum insulin levels in rats, leading to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes-like conditions. This study investigated the role of arecoline on the reproductive status of experimentally induced type 1 diabetic rats. Methods. Changes in the cellular architecture were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Blood glucose, serum insulin, testosterone, FSH, and LH were assayed. Fructose content of the coagulating gland and sialic acid content of the seminal vesicles were also analyzed. Results. Arecoline treatment for 10 days at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight markedly facilitated β-cell regeneration and reversed testicular and sex accessory dysfunctions by increasing the levels of serum insulin and gonadotropins in type 1 diabetic rats. Critical genes related to β-cell regeneration, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (pdx-1 and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2, were found to be activated by arecoline at the protein level. Conclusion. It can thus be suggested that arecoline is effective in ameliorating the detrimental effects caused by insulin deficiency on gonadal and male sex accessories in rats with type 1 diabetes.

  13. Automated segmentation and quantification of actin stress fibres undergoing experimentally induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, H; Artelt, N; Endlich, N; Endlich, K

    2017-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a main component of cells and it is crucially involved in many physiological processes, e.g. cell motility. Changes in the actin organization can be effected by diseases or vice versa. Due to the nonuniform pattern, it is difficult to quantify reasonable features of the actin cytoskeleton for a significantly high cell number. Here, we present an approach capable to fully segment and analyse the actin cytoskeleton of 2D fluorescence microscopic images with a special focus on stress fibres. The extracted feature data include length, width, orientation and intensity distributions of all traced stress fibres. Our approach combines morphological image processing techniques and a trace algorithm in an iterative manner, classifying the segmentation result with respect to the width of the stress fibres and in nonfibre-like actin. This approach enables us to capture experimentally induced processes like the condensation or the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton. We successfully applied the algorithm to F-actin images of cells that were treated with the actin polymerization inhibitor latrunculin A. Furthermore, we verified the robustness of our algorithm by a sensitivity analysis of the parameters, and we benchmarked our algorithm against established methods. In summary, we present a new approach to segment actin stress fibres over time to monitor condensation or collapse processes. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Experimentally induced aggressiveness in adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs): preliminary behavioral and neuroendocrine findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerra, G; Zaimovic, A; Sartori, R; Raggi, M A; Bocchi, C; Zambelli, U; Timpano, M; Zanichelli, V; Delsignore, R; Brambilla, F

    1999-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the nature of the reaction of nonalcoholic adult children of alcoholic (ACOA) fathers to the experimental induction of aggression. Of particular interest was the relationship between biochemical factors and personality traits during a stressful event experienced by persons at risk for alcoholism. Aggression was induced by a modified free-operant procedure in 14 ACOA and 14 non-ACOA subjects between 18 and 19 years of age with men and women represented in equal numbers. Neurotransmitter-hormonal assays from blood drawn immediately before, and 20 and 30 minutes after, starting the test included norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol (Cort). Personality traits were assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). During the aggression induction session, ACOAs gained (F = 4.6, 1/13 df, p aggressiveness among ACOAs. Higher baseline plasma levels of Cort (F = 9.8, 1/13 df, p aggression in ACOAs in association with monoaminergic and endocrine changes.

  15. Methyglyoxal administration induces modification of hemoglobin in experimental rats: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sauradipta

    2017-02-01

    Methylglyoxal, a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde, increases in diabetic condition and reacts with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) following Maillard-like reaction. In the present study, the effect of methylglyoxal on experimental rat hemoglobin in vivo has been investigated with respect to structural alterations and amino acid modifications, after external administration of the α-dicarbonyl compound in animals. Different techniques, mostly biophysical, were used to characterize and compare methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin with that of control, untreated rat hemoglobin. In comparison with methylglyoxal-untreated, control rat hemoglobin, hemoglobin of methylglyoxal-treated rats (32mg/kgbodywt.dose) exhibited slightly decreased absorbance around 280nm, reduced intrinsic fluorescence and lower surface hydrophobicity. The secondary structures of hemoglobin of control and methylglyoxal-treated rats were more or less identical with the latter exhibiting slightly increased α-helicity compared to the former. Compared to control rat hemoglobin, methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin showed higher stability. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis revealed modifications of Arg-31α, Arg-92α and Arg-104β of methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin to hydroimidazolone adducts. The modifications thus appear to be associated with the observed structural alterations of the heme protein. Considering the increased level of methylglyoxal in diabetes mellitus as well as its high reactivity, AGE-induced modifications may have physiological significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential RNA Expression Profile of Skeletal Muscle Induced by Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis in Rats

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    Henry Kaminski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential susceptibility of skeletal muscle by myasthenia gravis (MG is not well understood. We utilized RNA expression profiling of extraocular muscle (EOM, diaphragm (DIA, and extensor digitorum (EDL of rats with experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG to evaluate the hypothesis that muscles respond differentially to injury produced by EAMG. EAMG was induced in female Lewis rats by immunization with acetylcholine receptor purified from the electric organ of the Torpedo. Six weeks later after rats had developed weakness and serum antibodies directed against the AChR, animals underwent euthanasia and RNA profiling performed on DIA, EDL, and EOM. Profiling results were validated by qPCR. Across the three muscles between the experiment and control groups, three hundred and fifty-nine probes (1.16% with greater than 2 fold changes in expression in 7 of 9 series pairwise comparisons from 31,090 probes were identified with approximately two-thirds being increased. The three muscles shared 16 genes with increased expression and 6 reduced expression. Functional annotation demonstrated that these common expression changes fell predominantly into categories of metabolism, stress response, and signaling. Evaluation of specific gene function indicated that EAMG led to a change to oxidative metabolism. Genes related to muscle regeneration and suppression of immune response were activated. Evidence of a differential immune response among muscles was not evident. Each muscle had a distinct RNA profile but with commonality in gene categories expressed that are focused on muscle repair, moderation of inflammation, and oxidative metabolism.

  17. A Systematic Review of Experimental and Clinical Acupuncture in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

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    Giovanna Franconi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is a common side effect that can be very disabling and can limit or delay the dose of chemotherapy that can be administered. Acupuncture may be effective for treating peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the use of acupuncture for CIPN. The systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database, CINHAL, and ISI Proceedings. Hand searching was conducted, and consensus was reached on all extracted data. Only papers in the English language were included, irrespective of study design. From 3989 retrieved papers, 8 relevant papers were identified. One was an experimental study which showed that electroacupuncture suppressed CIPN pain in rats. In addition, there were 7 very heterogeneous clinical studies, 1 controlled randomised study using auricular acupuncture, 2 randomized controlled studies using somatic acupuncture, and 3 case series/case reports which suggested a positive effect of acupuncture in CIPN. Conclusions. Only one controlled randomised study demonstrated that acupuncture may be beneficial for CIPN. All the clinical studies reviewed had important methodological limitations. Further studies with robust methodology are needed to demonstrate the role of acupuncture for treating CIPN resulting from cancer treatment.

  18. Experimental Leishmania major infection suppresses HIV-1 DNA vaccine induced cellular immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tara M; Nelson, Robin; Artis, David; Scott, Phillip; Boyer, Jean D

    2004-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic in the developing world represents a major global crisis and an effective vaccine is imperative. However, many parasites are common in developing countries and can result in a state of chronic immune activation that is polarized towards a Th2 profile and which can potentially impair responses to vaccines or other infectious challenges. In this study we demonstrate that experimental Leishmania major infection of BALB/c mice inhibits responses to a DNA-based HIV-1 gag vaccine. L. major infection in BALB/c results in a polarized Th2 immune response. In this study naïve BALB/c mice immunized with the HIV-1 gag DNA vaccine mounted a cellular immune response against the vaccine antigen, HIV-1 gag. CD8+ T lymphocytes were able to respond in vitro to HIV-1 gag stimulation and secrete interferon (IFN)-gamma. However, L. major-infected, vaccinated BALB/c mice had a significantly reduced number of IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ T cells following in vitro stimulation with gag antigen. These data suggest that parasitic infection, which results in a Th2 profile, reduces the efficacy of DNA vaccines that are designed to induce antiviral CD8+ T cell responses. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Acid-base balance in sheep with experimentally induced acute ruminal lactic acidosis

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    A.F. Sabes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the changes in the acid-base balance of sheep with experimentally induced acute ruminal lactic acidosis (ARA. Ten ewes orally received 15 grams of sucrose per kilogram of body mass. Arterial blood samples for blood gas analysis were obtained at the following intervals: before the induction of ARA (control, and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours after sucrose administration. Urine samples for pH measurement were obtained at the following times: -15 days, -7 days, and immediately before sucrose administration, then at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours. Thereafter, both blood and urine samples were obtained on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th following weeks. From 4 hours after the induction, elevation of the pH, bicarbonate and base excess on the arterial blood was observed. After 12 hours, the animals showed a decrease of these parameters, as well as urine acidification, which are symptomatic of metabolic acidosis. Within 28 hours, all parameters were normalized except the base excess, which only returned to normal after 72 hours. Despite the occurrence of acidemia, there was no need for medication and no animals died.

  20. Comparison of Experimental Diabetic Periodontitis Induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in Mice

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    Qi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is one of the severe complications in diabetic patients and gingival epithelium plays an initial role on the onset and progression of this disease. However the potential mechanism is yet sufficiently understood. Meanwhile, the research on the correlational experimental animal models was also insufficient. Here, we established periodontitis with type 2 diabetes in db/db and Tallyho/JngJ (TH mice and periodontitis with type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin induced diabetes C57BL/6J (STZ-C57 mice by oral infection of periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis W50. We demonstrated that periodontal infected mice with high blood glucose levels showed dramatically more alveolar bone loss than their counterparts, in which infected db/db mice exhibited the most bone defects. No contrary impact could be observed between this periodontal infection and onset and severity of diabetes. The expressions of PTPN2 were inhibited whereas the expression of JAK1, STAT1, and STAT3 increased dramatically in gingival epithelia and the serum TNF-α also significantly increased in the mice with diabetic periodontitis. Our results indicated that the variations of inflammation-related protein expressions in gingival epithelia might lead to the phenotype differences in the mice with diabetic periodontitis.

  1. Numerical and experimental study of the thermal stress of silicon induced by a millisecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xi; Qin Yuan; Wang Bin; Zhang Liang; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian; Ni Xiaowu

    2011-07-20

    A spatial axisymmetric finite element model of single-crystal silicon irradiated by a 1064 nm millisecond laser is used to investigate the thermal stress damage induced by a millisecond laser. The transient temperature field and the thermal stress field for 2 ms laser irradiation with a laser fluence of 254 J/cm{sup 2} are obtained. The numerical simulation results indicate that the hoop stresses along the r axis on the front surface are compressive stress within the laser spot and convert to tensile stress outside the laser spot, while the radial stresses along the r axis on the front surface and on the z axis are compressive stress. The temperature of the irradiated center is the highest temperature obtained, yet the stress is not always highest during laser irradiation. At the end of the laser irradiation, the maximal hoop stress is located at r=0.5 mm and the maximal radial stress is located at r=0.76 mm. The temperature measurement experiments are performed by IR pyrometer. The numerical result of the temperature field is consistent with the experimental result. The damage morphologies of silicon under the action of a 254 J/cm{sup 2} laser are inspected by optical microscope. The cracks are observed initiating at r=0.5 mm and extending along the radial direction.

  2. Collision induced dissociation study of azobenzene and its derivatives: computational and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mohammadreza; Compton, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Experimental and computational investigation have been performed in order to study the bond dissociation energy of azobenzene and its derivatives using collision induced dissociation method as well as other energy and structural characteristics. The results have been verified by comparing with results obtained from computational quantum chemistry. We used different density functional methods as well as the Möller-Plesset perturbation theory and the coupled cluster methods to explore geometric, electronic and the spectral properties of the sample molecules. Geometries were calculated and optimized using the 6-311 + + G(2d,2p) basis set and the B3LYP level of theory and these optimized structures have been subjected to the frequency calculations to obtain thermochemical properties by means of different density functional, Möller-Plesset, and coupled cluster theories to obtain a high accuracy estimation of the bond dissociation energy value. The results from experiments and the results obtained from computational thermochemistry are in close agreement. Physics and Astronomy Department

  3. Mitigation of DMBA-induced mammary carcinoma in experimental rats by antiangiogenic property of Kalpaamruthaa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, Sivaprakasam; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2011-06-01

    Extra cellular matrix (ECM) and basement membrane (BM) are important layers that regulate cell structure, cell migration, and cellular proliferation. Degradation of both ECM and BM mediated by proteases favors the tumor invasion and promotes angiogenesis. Female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 ± 10 g were categorized into 6 groups. Group-1 animals served as vehicle control. Group-2 to Group-4 animals were administered with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (25 mg/rat dissolved in olive oil, orally) on day 1 of experimental period to induce mammary carcinoma. (After 90 days, mammary carcinoma was confirmed by histopathological examination). Group-3 and Group-4 rats were subsequently treated with Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (SA) and Kalpaamruthaa (KA), respectively. Group-5 and Group-6 animals served as drug control for SA and KA, respectively. Pro-angiogenic factors like proteases, cyclooxygenase-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor were elevated in tumor-bearing animals and decreased in SA- and KA-supplemented rats. Increased levels of these angiogenic factors in tumor-bearing rats indicate the progression of mammary tumor. The decreased levels of these angiogenic in SA- and KA-treated rats may be due to the ameliorative effect of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, and other compounds present in the drug.

  4. An Experimental Study of Roughness-Induced Instabilities in a Supersonic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Norris, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Progress on an experimental study of laminar-to-turbulent transition induced by an isolated roughness element in a supersonic laminar boundary layer is reported in this paper. Here, the primary focus is on the effects of roughness planform shape on the instability and transition characteristics. Four different roughness planform shapes were considered (a diamond, a circle, a right triangle, and a 45 degree fence) and the height and width of each one was held fixed so that a consistent frontal area was presented to the oncoming boundary layer. The nominal roughness Reynolds number was 462 and the ratio of the roughness height to the boundary layer thickness was 0.48. Detailed flow- field surveys in the wake of each geometry were performed via hot-wire anemometry. High- and low-speed streaks were observed in the wake of each roughness geometry, and the modified mean flow associated with these streak structures was found to support a single dominant convective instability mode. For the symmetric planform shapes - the diamond and circular planforms - the instability characteristics (mode shapes, growth rates, and frequencies) were found to be similar. For the asymmetric planform shapes - the right-triangle and 45 degree fence planforms - the mode shapes were asymmetrically distributed about the roughness-wake centerline. The instability growth rates for the asymmetric planforms were lower than those for the symmetric planforms and therefore, transition onset was delayed relative to the symmetric planforms.

  5. Experimental Comparison of Photothermal Conversion Efficiency of Gold Nanotriangle and Nanorod in Laser Induced Thermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-26

    An experimental comparison of the photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE) for gold nanotriangles (GNTs) and nanorods (GNRs) was carried out in the present work. The discrete dipole approximation method was applied to identify the spectral characteristic of GNTs and GNRs with different aspect ratios. On this basis, the PCE of GNTs and GNRs in photothermal therapy were compared theoretically. Afterwards, an in vitro experiment was adopted to investigate the thermal effect of porcine muscle induced by laser irradiation, with and without injected GNTs and GNRs. The influences of laser total power, nanoparticle concentration, and nanoparticle type were investigated. It was found that for the commonly-used wavelengths for photothermal therapy, the PCE of GNTs is higher than that of the GNRs. Furthermore, for GNRs loaded in tissue in vitro, high laser power and high concentration of nanoparticles leads to the degeneration and even carbonization of tissue. However, for the GNTs with the same situation (laser power, nanoparticle volume concentration, and heating time), it could lead to the tissue's evaporation instead of carbonization.

  6. Experimental studies of the deuteron-induced activation cross-sections on natAg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M S; Baba, M; Hagiwara, M; Tarkanyi, F; Ditroi, F; Takacs, S; Hermanne, A

    2006-09-01

    Excitation functions were measured for the (nat)Ag(d,x)(105,106m,110m)Ag, (nat)Ag(d,x)(107,109)Cd and (27)Al(d,x)(24)Na reactions by the stacked-foil activation technique and high-resolution gamma-spectroscopy over the energy range 0.44-40 MeV. The thick target integral yields were deduced using the measured cross-sections. No experimental data on the (nat)Ag+d process are available in the literature above 27 MeV. The nuclides (105)Ag, (106m)Ag and (109)Cd produced with deuteron induced activation of natural silver have suitable yields and decay characteristics important for thin layer activation (TLA) analysis. The cross-section for the production of (107)Cd and (109)Cd is significantly large. Therefore, the Ag+d process can be an efficient route for the production of isotope with a medium energy accelerator. The results of the model calculation using the TALYS code are not consistent with the present data. A large shift in the incident energy is found in TALYS calculations.

  7. Serum Neuroinflammatory Disease-Induced Central Nervous System Proteins Predict Clinical Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Raphael

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need in multiple sclerosis (MS patients to develop biomarkers and laboratory tests to improve early diagnosis, predict clinical relapses, and optimize treatment responses. In healthy individuals, the transport of proteins across the blood–brain barrier (BBB is tightly regulated, whereas, in MS, central nervous system (CNS inflammation results in damage to neuronal tissues, disruption of BBB integrity, and potential release of neuroinflammatory disease-induced CNS proteins (NDICPs into CSF and serum. Therefore, changes in serum NDICP abundance could serve as biomarkers of MS. Here, we sought to determine if changes in serum NDICPs are detectable prior to clinical onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and, therefore, enable prediction of disease onset. Importantly, we show in longitudinal serum specimens from individual mice with EAE that pre-onset expression waves of synapsin-2, glutamine synthetase, enolase-2, and synaptotagmin-1 enable the prediction of clinical disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, we observed differences in serum NDICPs between active and passive immunization in EAE, suggesting hitherto not appreciated differences for disease induction mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence for enabling the prediction of clinical disease using serum NDICPs. The results provide proof-of-concept for the development of high-confidence serum NDICP expression waves and protein biomarker candidates for MS.

  8. Induced Cannibalism in Experimental Populations of the Forensic Indicator Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botteon, V W; Fernandes, F S; Godoy, W A C

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the behavior of third-instars of Chrysomya putoria as potential cannibals in experimental populations. Cannibalism rates were evaluated in three settings observed for 3, 6, 9, and 24 h, placing injured and uninjured larvae of C. putoria together. Our data heavily support that C. putoria larvae behave as cannibals when induced by a wound in another larva, and also after starving for 24 h. The probability of cannibalism increased as a function of time, both in no-choice and in choice experiments evidencing that time is a determining factor for cannibalism induction in C. putoria. However, the treatment combining injured with uninjured larvae showed the highest probability of cannibalism. These results suggest that C. putoria larvae may cannibalize under scarcity of food over long time or the presence of injured larvae. This study is useful to understand the behavior of C. putoria feeding on ephemeral substrates such as carrion or corpses and brings relevant and significant contribution to population ecology of blowflies and also forensic entomology.

  9. Immunologic responses against hydrolyzed soy protein in dogs with experimentally induced soy hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigdemont, Anna; Brazís, Pilar; Serra, Montserrat; Fondati, Alessandra

    2006-03-01

    To assess whether dogs with experimentally induced type I hypersensitivity against soy protein would respond to soy hydrolysate and develop cutaneous or gastrointestinal tract reactions after intradermal and oral challenge exposure. 12 naïve Beagle pups (9 sensitized and 3 control dogs). 9 dogs were sensitized against soy protein by administration of allergens during a 90-day period. After the sensitization period, serum concentrations of soy-specific IgE were determined and an intradermal test was performed to confirm the dogs were sensitized against soy protein. An intradermal challenge test and an oral challenge test with native and hydrolyzed soy protein were conducted on 6 sensitized and 2 control dogs. High serum concentrations of soy-specific IgE and positive results for the intradermal test were observed for the 9 sensitized dogs after completion of the sesitization process. Sensitized dogs challenge exposed with hydrolyzed soy protein had a reduced inflammatory response after intradermal injection and no clinical response after an oral challenge exposure, compared with responses after intradermal and oral challenge exposure with native soy protein. Soy-sensitized dogs did not respond to oral administration of hydrolyzed soy protein. Thus, hydrolyzed soy protein may be useful in diets formulated for the management of dogs with adverse reactions to food.

  10. Role of Nigella sativa and Its Constituent Thymoquinone on Chemotherapy-Induced Nephrotoxicity: Evidences from Experimental Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cascella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most chemotherapeutic drugs are known to cause nephrotoxicity. Therefore, new strategies have been considered to prevent chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity. It is of note that Nigella sativa (NS, or its isolated compound Thymoquinone (TQ, has a potential role in combating chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity. AIM: To analyze and report the outcome of experimental animal studies on the protective effects of NS/TQ on chemotherapy-associated kidney complications. Design: Standard systematic review and narrative synthesis. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE databases were searched for relevant articles published up to March 2017. Additionally, a manual search was performed. Criteria for a study’s inclusion were: conducted in animals, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, containing data on nephroprotective effects of NS/TQ compared to a placebo or other substance. All strains and genders were included. Results: The database search yielded 71 studies, of which 12 (cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity 8; methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity 1; doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity 2; ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity 1 were included in this review. Conclusions: Experimental animal studies showed the protective effect of NS, or TQ, on chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity. These effects are caused by decreasing lipid peroxidation and increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes in renal tissue of chemotherapy-treated animals.

  11. Effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and back muscle activity during walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, C.J.C.; Daffertshofer, A.; Meijer, O.G.; Moseley, G.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Beek, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and erector spinae EMG activity during gait. DESIGN: In 12 healthy subjects, hypertonic saline (acute pain) and isotonic saline (fear of pain) were injected into erector spinae muscle, and

  12. Transcriptional profiling of the bovine hepatic response to experimentally induced E. coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Buitenhuis, Bart; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian liver works to keep the body in a state of homeostasis and plays an important role in systemic acute phase response to infections. In this study we investigated the bovine hepatic acute phase response at the gene transcription level in dairy cows with experimentally E. coli-induced ...

  13. Effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix components in experimentally induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapaneni Krishna Mohan

    2015-08-01

    Results:The experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and significant increase in adiponectin levels when compared to experimentally induced NASH group, but did not show any effect on the levels of leptin. Contrary to these two drugs, viz. pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid, the group treated with quercetin showedsignificant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and leptin and significant decrease in adiponectin levels compared with that of experimentally induced NASH NASH group, offering maximum protection against NASH. Conclusion: Considering our findings, it could be concluded that quercetin may offer maximum protection against NASH by significantly increasing the levels of adiponectin, when compared to pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid.

  14. Airflow limitation or static hyperinflation: which is more closely related to dyspnea with activities of daily living in patients with COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura Takashi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyspnea while performing the activities of daily living has been suggested to be a better measurement than peak dyspnea during exercise. Furthermore, the inspiratory capacity (IC has been shown to be more closely related to exercise tolerance and dyspnea than the FEV1, because dynamic hyperinflation is the main cause of shortness of breath in patients with COPD. However, breathlessness during exercise is measured in most studies to evaluate this relationship. Purpose To evaluate the correlation between breathlessness during daily activities and airflow limitation or static hyperinflation in COPD. Methods We examined 167 consecutive outpatients with stable COPD. The Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI was used to evaluate dyspnea with activities of daily living. The relationship between the BDI score and the clinical measurements of pulmonary function was then investigated. Results The Spearman rank correlation coefficients (Rs between the BDI score and the FEV1(L, FEV1(%pred and FEV1/FVC were 0.60, 0.56 and 0.56, respectively. On the other hand, the BDI score also correlated with the IC, IC/predicted total lung capacity (TLC and IC/TLC (Rs = 0.45, 0.46 and 0.47, respectively. Although all of the relationships studied were strongly correlated, the correlation coefficients were better between dyspnea and airflow limitation than between dyspnea and static hyperinflation. In stepwise multiple regression analyses, the BDI score was most significantly explained by the FEV1 (R2 = 26.2% and the diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (R2 = 14.4% (Cumulative R2 = 40.6%. Static hyperinflation was not a significant factor for clinical dyspnea on the stepwise multiple regression analysis. Conclusion Both static hyperinflation and airflow limitation contributed greatly to dyspnea in COPD patients.

  15. Dyspnea in a case of shoulder dislocation – to beware of this rare life-threatening symptom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Satyen Praful

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder dislocation is a common injury in orthopedic practice. In an acute presentation, closed reduction of the shoulder joint leads to an uneventful recovery. However, in the developing world neglected shoulder dislocation and treatments from quacks are not uncommon. Improper treatment and neglect can rarely become life threatening. We present one such case, emphasizing the need to investigate the symptom of dyspnea in a patient with history of shoulder dislocation.

  16. Comparison of acute transient dyspnea after intravenous administration of gadoxetate disodium and gadobenate dimeglumine: effect on arterial phase image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Matthew S; Viglianti, Benjamin L; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M; Caoili, Elaine M; Kaza, Ravi K; Liu, Peter S C; Maturen, Katherine E; Chenevert, Thomas L; Hussain, Hero K

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether acute transient dyspnea and/or arterial phase image degradation occurs more or less often after intravenous administration of gadoxetate disodium than with intravenous administration of gadobenate dimeglumine. Institutional review board approval and patient consent were obtained for this prospective observational study. One hundred ninety-eight gadolinium-based contrast media administrations (99 with gadoxetate disodium [10 mL, n = 97; 8 mL, n = 1; 16 mL, n = 1] and 99 with gadobenate dimeglumine [0.1 mmol per kilogram of body weight, maximum dose, 20 mL]) for hepatobiliary indications were assessed in 192 patients. Subjective patient complaints were assessed. Objective respiratory motion degradation on T1-weighted precontrast and dynamic postcontrast (arterial, venous, or late dynamic or extracellular) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging datasets were independently assessed in a randomized, blinded fashion by five readers using a five-point scale, with mean scores of 4 or greater indicating severe motion. Comparisons between agents were made by using χ(2) or Fisher exact test, where appropriate. Significantly more patient complaints of acute transient dyspnea occurred after gadoxetate disodium administration than gadobenate dimeglumine (14% [14 of 99] vs 5% [five of 99], P = .05). There were significantly more severely degraded arterial phase data sets for gadoxetate disodium than for gadobenate dimeglumine for both the general population (17% [17 of 99] vs 2% [two of 99], P = .0007) and the subpopulation with cirrhosis (19% [14 of 72] vs 3% [one of 37], P = .02). This effect did not extend to venous (1% [one of 99] vs 2% [two of 99], P > .99 [overall population]) or late dynamic or extracellular (2% [two of 99] vs 0% [zero of 99], P = .5 [overall population]) phases. No patient required treatment for self-limited dyspnea. Intravenous gadoxetate disodium can result in acute self-limiting dyspnea that can have a deleterious effect on arterial

  17. The Relationship Among Evidence-Based Practice and Client Dyspnea, Pain, Falls, and Pressure Ulcer Outcomes in the Community Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, Diane; Lefebre, Nancy; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Estabrook, Carole A; White, Peggy; Carryer, Jennifer; Sun, Winnie; Qian, Gan; Bai, Yu Qing; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Background There are gaps in knowledge about the extent to which home care nurses’ practice is based on best evidence and whether evidence-based practice impacts patient outcomes. Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between evidence-based practice and client pain, dyspnea, falls, and pressure ulcer outcomes in the home care setting. Evidence-based practice was defined as nursing interventions based on best practice guidelines. Methods The Nursing Role Effectivene...

  18. Efficacy of Methylene Blue in an Experimental Model of Calcium Channel Blocker Induced Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H.; Donovan, Sean; Nelson, Lewis S.; Bania, Theodore C.; Hoffman, Robert S.; Chu, Jason

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Calcium channel blocker poisonings account for a substantial number of reported deaths from cardiovascular drugs. While supportive care is the mainstay of treatment, experimental therapies such as high dose insulin-euglycemia and lipid emulsion have been studied in animal models and used in humans. In the most severe cases even aggressive care is inadequate and deaths occur. In both experimental models and clinical cases of vasodilatory shock, methylene blue improves hemodynamic measures. Methylene blue acts as both a nitric oxide scavenger and inhibits guanylate cyclase that is responsible for the production of cGMP. Excessive cGMP production is associated with refractory vasodilatory shock in sepsis and anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylene blue in an animal model of amlodipine-induced shock. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, ventilated and instrumented for continuous blood pressure and heart rate monitoring. The dose of amlodipine that produced death within 60 minutes was 17 mg/kg/hour (LD50). Rats were divided into 2 groups: amlodipine followed by methylene blue or amlodipine followed by normal saline (NS) with 15 rats in each group. Rats received methylene blue at 2 mg/kg over 5 mins or an equivalent amount of NS in three intervals from the start of the protocol: Minute 5, 30, and 60. The animals were observed for a total of 2 hours after the start of the protocol. Mortality risk and survival time were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test and Kaplan Meier survival analysis with the log rank test. RESULTS Overall, 1/15 (7%) rats in the saline-treated group survived to 120 minutes compared with 5/15 (33%) rats in the methylene blue-treated group (difference −26%, 95% CI –54%, 0.3%). The median survival time for the NS group was 42 min (95% CI, 28.1,55.9) and the methylene blue group was 109 min (95% CI, 93.9,124.1). Heart rate and MAP differences between groups were analyzed until 60 minutes

  19. CT and MRI of experimentally induced mesenteric ischemia in a porcine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H.M.; Seggewib, C.; Weghaus, P.; Kamp, M.; Guenther, R.W. [Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the value of CT and MRI for the detection of bowel wall changes in experimentally induced mesenteric ischemia. In 18 female pigs. a percutaneous embolization of the superior mesenteric artery was performed with buthyl-2-cyanoacrylate and Lipoidal (1:1) (experimental group). In six animals, only diagnostic imaging and histologic evaluation were performed (control group). CT was carried out 3, 6, and 12 h after occlusion. Incremental CT (1 s scan time, 5 mm slice thickness, 7 mm increment, 120 kV/290 mAs) and spiral CT (slice thickness 5 mm, pitch 1.5, 120 kV/165 mA) were performed pre and post contrast injection (Somatom Plus/ Siemens). Serial CT was carried out after intravenous contrast injection (I ml/kg, 2 ml/s). MRI (Magnetom 1.5 T: Siemens) was performed with T1 (pre and post 0.01 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA; Magnevist; Schering. Germany), T2, and proton density images in axial orientation. Slice thickness was 3 mm and slice gap 1 mm. Additionally, a T1-weighted GE sequence was obtained in dynamic technique (before and 30, 60, and 90 s after contrast agent injection) with a slice thickness of 5 mm. Biometrical monitoring included blood pressure, heart frequency, blood cell count, electrolyte status, blood gas analysis, and determination of serum lactate. Image evaluation included morphological analysis and determination of the enhancement pattern. Histological specimens were obtained and analyzed according to the Chiu classification. The histologic workup of the specimen 3, 6, and 12 h after vascular occlusion revealed an average Chiu state 3, 4, and 5. On CT, the bowel wall had a thickness of 4.7 mm on average in the ischemic segments. There was a significant difference from the control group. Free intraperitoneal fluid and intramural gas were seen after 12 h of ischemia in 80%. In ischemic bowel segments, no mural enhancement was seen. Normal segments and the bowel of the control animals showed an enhancement of 34 HU on average.

  20. CT and MRI of experimentally induced mesenteric ischemia in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H M; Klosterhalfen, B; Kinzel, S; Jansen, A; Seggewiss, C; Weghaus, P; Kamp, M; Töns, C; Günther, R W

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to assess the value of CT and MRI for the detection of bowel wall changes in experimentally induced mesenteric ischemia. in 18 female pigs, a percutaneous embolization of the superior mesenteric artery was performed with buthyl-2-cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol (1:1) (experimental group). In six animals, only diagnostic imaging and histologic evaluation were performed (control group). CT was carried out 3, 6, and 12 h after occlusion. Incremental CT (1 s scan time, 5 mm slice thickness, 7 mm increment, 120 kV/290 mAs) and spiral CT (slice thickness 5 mm, pitch 1.5, 120 kV/165 mA) were performed pre and post contrast injection (Somatom Plus/Siemens). Serial CT was carried out after intravenous contrast injection (1 ml/kg, 2 ml/s). MRI (Magnetom 1.5 T; Siemens) was performed with T1 (pre and post 0.01 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA; Magnevist; Schering, Germany), T2, and proton density images in axial orientation. Slice thickness was 3 mm and slice gap 1 mm. Additionally, a T1-weighted GE sequence (multislice FLASH 2D) was obtained in dynamic technique (before and 30, 60, and 90 s after contrast agent injection) with a slice thickness of 5 mm. Biometrical monitoring included blood pressure, heart frequency, blood cell count, electrolyte status, blood gas analysis, and determination of serum lactate. Image evaluation included morphological analysis and determination of the enhancement pattern. Histological specimens were obtained and analyzed according to the Chiu classification. The histologic workup of the specimen 3, 6, and 12 h after vascular occlusion revealed an average Chiu state 3, 4, and 5. On CT, the bowel wall had a thickness of 4.7 mm on average in the ischemic segments. There was a significant difference from the control group (average 3 mm). Free intraperitoneal fluid and intramural gas were seen after 12 h of ischemia in 80%. In ischemic bowel segments, no mural enhancement was seen. Normal segments and the bowel of the control animals showed an enhancement of

  1. Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin: an endoplasmic reticulum protein expressed by trophozoites into experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Enrique; de Leon, Maria del Carmen García; Meza, Isaura; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Gariglio, Patricio; Silva-Olivares, Angelica; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Shibayama, Mineko; Morán, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Limón, Angelica; Rojas, Liliana; Hernández, Eric G; Cerritos, René; Ximenez, Cecilia

    2011-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin (EhCRT) is remarkably immunogenic in humans (90-100% of invasive amoebiasis patients). Nevertheless, the study of calreticulin in this protozoan is still in its early stages. The exact location, biological functions, and its role in pathogenesis are yet to be fully understood. The aim of the present work is to determine the location of EhCRT in virulent trophozoites in vivo and the expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses (ALA) in hamsters. Antibodies against recombinant EhCRT were used for the immunolocalization of EhCRT in trophozoites through confocal microscopy; immunohistochemical assays were also performed on tissue sections of ALAs at different times after intrahepatic inoculation. The expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of ALA was estimated through both in situ RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confocal assays of virulent trophozoites showed a distribution of EhCRT in the cytoplasmic vesicles of different sizes. Apparently, EhCRT is not exported into the hepatic tissue. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated an over-expression of the Ehcrt gene at 30 min after trophozoite inoculation, reaching a peak at 1-2 h; thereafter, the expression fell sharply to its original levels. These results demonstrate for the first time in an in vivo model of ALA, the expression of Ehcrt gene in E. histolytica trophozoites and add evidence that support CRT as a resident protein of the ER in E. histolytica species. The in vivo experiments suggest that CRT may play an important role during the early stages of the host-parasite relationship, when the parasite is adapting to a new environment, although the protein seems to be constitutively synthesized. Moreover, trophozoites apparently do not export EhCRT into the hepatic tissue in ALA.

  2. Ameliorative effect of two Ayurvedic herbs on experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Suman; Maji, Chinmoy; Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar; Sarkar, Samar; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2017-02-02

    Chronic arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is a threat to society in West Bengal, India and in Bangladesh. The human being may also be affected by the exposed cattle from the affected area by consuming milk, egg, meat and others. In Ayurveda, several herbs like Haridra (turmeric), Shunthi (dried ginger root) and others are used for the management of arsenic poisoning. The study was conducted to find out the ameliorative effect of turmeric and ginger powder against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in calves. Twenty four calves were divided into four groups (group I, II, III and IV) having six animals in each group. Animals of group I, II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite at 1mg/kg body weight for 90 days and in addition group II and group III animals were treated orally with turmeric and ginger powder respectively at 10mg/kg body weight from 46th day onwards. Group IV animals were given food and water without drug and served as control. Arsenic content was estimated in faeces, hair, urine and plasma in every 15 days. Bio-chemical, haematological and anti-oxidant parameters were also assessed. Turmeric and ginger powder significantly (Parsenic levels through increased excretion via faeces and urine. Haemoglobin level, TEC and TLC were decreased in groups I, II and III, however these were improved significantly (Parsenic from the body but also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure, it may be concluded from the present study that turmeric and ginger can be helpful in the therapy of chronic arsenic toxicity in calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alterations of testosterone metabolism in microsomes from rats with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanjuan; Hu, Nan; Gao, Xuejiao; Yan, Zhixiang; Li, Sai; Jing, Wanghui; Yan, Ru

    2015-05-05

    Down-regulation of some hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) was observed in patients and animals with ulcerative colitis (UC). This study examined changes of CYP450s activities in microsomes of liver (RLMs), intestine (RIMs) and kidney (RRMs) from rats with experimental acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7days and those receiving DSS treatment followed by 7-d cessation through measuring 6α-(CYP1A1), 7α-(CYP2A1), 16α-(CYP2C11) and 2β-/6β-(CYP3A2) hydroxytestosterone (OHT) formed from testosterone. Both pro-(IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and anti-(IL-4, IL-10) inflammatory cytokines were elevated in acute colitis, while the production of the former was enhanced and that of the latter declined by DSS withdrawal. In RLMs, the CYP2A1 activity was significantly increased at DSS stimulation and partially returned to normal level when DSS treatment was terminated. Activity of other CYP450s were decreased by acute colitis and remained after DSS withdrawal. In RRMs, formations of 6α-, 16α- and 2β-OHT significantly declined in acute colitis and DSS termination further potentiated the down-regulation, while 7α-OHT formation was suppressed at DSS stimulation and remained after DSS withdrawal. The formation of 6β-OHT only showed significant decrease after DSS withdrawal. Two metabolites (6α- and 6β-OHT) formed in RIMs and 6β-OHT formation was significantly decreased by DSS stimulation and continued after DSS treatment halted. These findings indicate that the alterations of CYP450s activities vary with organ, CYP isoforms and colitis status, which arouse cautions on efficacy and toxicity of drug therapy during disease progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Epitope-Specific Tolerance Modes Differentially Specify Susceptibility to Proteolipid Protein-Induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with myelin components can elicit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. EAE susceptibility varies between mouse strains, depending on the antigen employed. BL/6 mice are largely resistant to EAE induction with proteolipid protein (PLP, probably a reflection of antigen-specific tolerance. However, the extent and mechanism(s of tolerance to PLP remain unclear. Here, we identified three PLP epitopes in PLP-deficient BL/6 mice. PLP-sufficient mice did not respond against two of these, whereas tolerance was “leaky” for an epitope with weak predicted MHCII binding, and only this epitope was encephalitogenic. In TCR transgenic mice, the “EAE-susceptibility-associated” epitope was “ignored” by specific CD4 T cells, whereas the “resistance-associated” epitope induced clonal deletion and Treg induction in the thymus. Central tolerance was autoimmune regulator dependent and required expression and presentation of PLP by thymic epithelial cells (TECs. TEC-specific ablation of PLP revealed that peripheral tolerance, mediated by dendritic cells through recessive tolerance mechanisms (deletion and anergy, could largely compensate for a lack of central tolerance. However, adoptive EAE was exacerbated in mice lacking PLP in TECs, pointing toward a non-redundant role of the thymus in dominant tolerance to PLP. Our findings reveal multiple layers of tolerance to a central nervous system autoantigen that vary among epitopes and thereby specify disease susceptibility. Understanding how different modalities of tolerance apply to distinct T cell epitopes of a target in autoimmunity has implications for antigen-specific strategies to therapeutically interfere with unwanted immune reactions against self.

  5. The antiulcer effect of Cibotium barometz leaves in rats with experimentally induced acute gastric ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Wajeeh NS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nahla Saeed Al-Wajeeh,1 Maryam Hajrezaie,1 Nawal Al-Henhena,1 Sareh Kamran,1 Elham Bagheri,1 Maryam Zahedifard,1 Kamelia Saremi,1 Suzita Mohd Noor,1 Hapipah Mohd Ali,2 Mahmood Ameen Abdulla11Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Cibotium barometz is a pharmaceutical plant customarily used in traditional medicine in Malaysia for the treatment of different diseases, such as gastric ulcer. The gastroprotective effect of C. barometz leaves against ethanol-induced gastric hemorrhagic abrasions in Sprague Dawley rats has been evaluated in terms of medicinal properties. Seven groups of rats (normal control and ulcerated control groups, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of C. barometz correspondingly were used in antiulcer experiment and pretreated with 10% Tween 20. After 1 hour, the normal group was orally administered 10% Tween 20, whereas absolute alcohol was fed orally to ulcerated control, omeprazole, and experimental groups. Gastric’s homogenate were assessed for endogenous enzymes activities. Stomachs were examined macroscopically and histologically. Grossly, the data demonstrated a significant decrease in the ulcer area of rats pretreated with plant extract in a dose-dependent manner with respect to the ulcerated group. Homogenates of the gastric tissue exhibited significantly increased endogenous enzymes activities in rats pretreated with C. barometz extract associated with the ulcerated control group. Histology of rats pretreated with C. barometz extract group using hematoxylin and eosin staining exhibited a moderate-to-mild disruption of the surface epithelium with reduction in submucosal edema and leucocyte infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it showed heat shock protein70 protein up-expression and BCL2-associated X protein downexpression. These outcomes might be attributed to the

  6. Test–retest reliability of multidimensional dyspnea profile recall ratings in the emergency department: a prospective, longitudinal study

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    Parshall Mark B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyspnea is among the most common reasons for emergency department (ED visits by patients with cardiopulmonary disease who are commonly asked to recall the symptoms that prompted them to come to the ED. The reliability of recalled dyspnea has not been systematically investigated in ED patients. Methods Patients with chronic or acute cardiopulmonary conditions who came to the ED with dyspnea (N = 154 completed the Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile (MDP several times during the visit and in a follow-up visit 4 to 6 weeks later (n = 68. The MDP has 12 items with numerical ratings of intensity, unpleasantness, sensory qualities, and emotions associated with how breathing felt when participants decided to come to the ED (recall MDP or at the time of administration (“now” MDP. The recall MDP was administered twice in the ED and once during the follow-up visit. Principal components analysis (PCA with varimax rotation was used to assess domain structure of the recall MDP. Internal consistency reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Test–retest reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs for absolute agreement for individual items and domains. Results PCA of the recall MDP was consistent with two domains (Immediate Perception, 7 items, Cronbach’s alpha = .89 to .94; Emotional Response, 5 items; Cronbach’s alpha = .81 to .85. Test–retest ICCs for the recall MDP during the ED visit ranged from .70 to .87 for individual items and were .93 and .94 for the Immediate Perception and Emotional Response domains. ICCs were much lower for the interval between the ED visit and follow-up, both for individual items (.28 to .66 and for the Immediate Perception and Emotional Response domains (.72 and .78, respectively. Conclusions During an ED visit, recall MDP ratings of dyspnea at the time participants decided to seek care in the ED are reliable and sufficiently stable, both for

  7. Short of breath and dying: state of the science on opioid agents for the palliation of refractory dyspnea in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowey, Susan E; Powers, Bethel Ann; Xue, Ying

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this narrative literature review was to describe the state of the science on the effectiveness of opioid medications to palliate dyspnea in older adults with advanced disease. A three-stage critical appraisal process was used to evaluate articles published between 2000-2011 that were retrieved from the CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases. Low-dose opioid medication use was associated with statistically significant reductions in dyspnea intensity scores in the majority of studies included in the analysis. Many recent articles on this topic shed light on the importance but underuse of opioid agents to palliate dyspnea, particularly in older adults with advanced chronic illnesses, such as heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ADRA (Assess, Document, Re-assess, Advocate) is a proposed framework that gerontological nurses can use to ensure patients receive adequate symptom management for refractory dyspnea. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Efficacy of methylene blue in an experimental model of calcium channel blocker-induced shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H; Donovan, Sean; Nelson, Lewis S; Bania, Theodore C; Hoffman, Robert S; Chu, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Calcium channel blocker poisonings account for a substantial number of reported deaths from cardiovascular drugs. Although supportive care is the mainstay of treatment, experimental therapies such as high-dose insulin-euglycemia and lipid emulsion have been studied in animal models and used in humans. In the most severe cases, even aggressive care is inadequate and deaths occur. In both experimental models and clinical cases of vasodilatory shock, methylene blue improves hemodynamic measures. It acts as a nitric oxide scavenger and inhibits guanylate cyclase that is responsible for the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Excessive cGMP production is associated with refractory vasodilatory shock in sepsis and anaphylaxis. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of methylene blue in an animal model of amlodipine-induced shock. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, ventilated, and instrumented for continuous blood pressure and pulse rate monitoring. The dose of amlodipine that produced death within 60 minutes was 17 mg/kg per hour (LD50). Rats were divided into 2 groups: amlodipine followed by methylene blue or amlodipine followed by normal saline solution, with 15 rats in each group. Rats received methylene blue at 2 mg/kg during 5 minutes or an equivalent amount of normal saline solution in 3 intervals from the start of the protocol: minutes 5, 30, and 60. The animals were observed for a total of 2 hours after the start of the protocol. Mortality risk and survival time were analyzed with Fisher's exact test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with the log rank test. Overall, 1 of 15 rats (7%) in the saline solution-treated group survived to 120 minutes compared with 5 of 15 (33%) in the methylene blue-treated group (difference -26%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -54% to 0.3%). The median survival time for the normal saline solution group was 42 minutes (95% CI 28.1 to 55.9 minutes); for the methylene blue group, 109 minutes (95% CI 93.9 to

  9. Response of tundra plants to environmental variation during seven years of experimentally-induced permafrost thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, V. G.; Schuur, E.

    2016-12-01

    Seven years of warming at the Carbon in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research Project (CiPEHR) has induced dramatic environmental changes at this tussock tundra site. By 2015, soil-warmed plots thawed 35 cm more than controls and had significantly higher surface soil moisture during the growing season. Air warming using open top chambers significantly increased growing season air temperatures by 0.35°C. We examined 7 years of species-level leaf chemistry and total aboveground biomass in order to characterize the response of tundra plant species to varying environmental conditions. For this analysis, we used a multivariate framework that spanned treatments, combining principle component analysis of environmental covariates with linear mixed effect models. Overall, warm deep soils were associated with increased total aboveground biomass as well as increased inputs of litter N to surface soils. Both of these patterns were primarily driven by the tussock-forming sedge Eriophorum vaginatum. This species exhibited increased aboveground biomass and reduced nutrient resorption efficiency with permafrost thaw. Warm air temperatures at CiPEHR also increased total aboveground biomass but did not increase vascular foliar N pools or deciduous litter N pools, indicating little effect on plant-available N. Warm air temperatures may have exacerbated competition between vascular plant species, however. Leaf %N of E. vaginatum increased while Carex bigeloweii, Rubus chamaemorus, and Vaccinium uliginosum all exhibited decreased leaf %N. Warm and dry surface soil conditions were associated with decreased total aboveground biomass, vascular foliar N pools, and deciduous litter N pools. This negative relationship suggests that moisture limitation of decomposition can reduce plant-available N at this site. We found support for the theory that permafrost thaw alleviates N limitation of tundra plants but we emphasize the important roles that soil moisture, air temperature, and species

  10. Experimental observation of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-induced iron sulphide formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltanahmadi, Siavash, E-mail: s.soltanahmadi@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Morina, Ardian [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Eijk, Marcel C.P. van; Nedelcu, Ileana [SKF Engineering and Research Centre, 3430 DT Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Neville, Anne [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-31

    Graphical abstract: Chemical analysis of ZDDP-induced tribofilm under severe boundary lubricated regime in nano and micro-meter scales.▪ - Highlights: • A ZDDP-derived locally formed iron-sulphide layer is detected on the steel surface. • The iron-sulphide is a 5–10 nm thin distinct layer at steel-phosphate interface. • Near the surface-crack site the elemental distribution of the tribofilm is altered. • Sulphur concentration is enhanced in the iron-sulphide layer near the cracked-site. • ZDDP elements are detected inside the crack with a greater contribution of sulphur. - Abstract: Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) as a well-known anti-wear additive enhances the performance of the lubricant beyond its wear-protection action, through its anti-oxidant and Extreme Pressure (EP) functionality. In spite of over thirty years of research attempting to reveal the mechanism of action of ZDDP, there are still some uncertainties around the exact mechanisms of its action. This is especially the case with the role of sulphide layer formed in the tribofilm and its impact on surface fatigue. Although iron sulphide on the substrate is hypothesised in literature to form as a separate layer, there has been no concrete experimental observation on the distribution of the iron sulphide as a dispersed precipitate, distinct layer at the steel substrate or both. It remains to be clarified whether the iron sulphide layer homogeneously covers the surface or locally forms at the surface. In the current study a cross section of the specimen after experiment was prepared and has been investigated with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental analysis. A 5–10 nm iron sulphide layer is visualised on the interface as a separate layer underneath the phosphate layer with an altered distribution of tribofilm elements near the crack site. The iron sulphide interface layer is more visible near the crack site where the concentration of the

  11. Arsenic-induced phosphate limitation under experimental Early Proterozoic oceanic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi Fru, Ernest; Hemmingsson, Christoffer; Holm, Mikaela; Chiu, Beverly; Iñiguez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of phosphorus concentrations associated with modern hydrothermal Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides and ancient Fe(III) oxide-rich iron formations, is used to estimate bioavailable Precambrian marine phosphorus (P) concentrations. This led to the proposition of a low dissolved P budget of ∼10-25% of present-day levels, before ∼1.9 billion years ago. Estimates incorporating ancient marine Si levels ≥ 0.67 mM instead suggested global dissolved P levels greater than today. Here we unite current experimental models that have considered NaCl solutions containing elevated dissolved Fe(II), Si, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in the incorporation of P in Precambrian marine Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides, in addition to arsenic as a hydrothermal proxy. We show that the coprecipitation of dissolved P and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides from arsenic-rich marine waters produces an average P distribution coefficient of ∼0.072 (± 0.01) μM-1. This is comparable to the ∼ 0.07 μM-1 predicted for Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides in modern arsenic-rich, submarine hydrothermal settings, from which the lower Early Proterozoic dissolved marine P concentrations were predicted. As/P molar ratios below modern seawater ratios removed the negative feedback effect high Si impose on P scavenging by Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. The binding of As(III) to Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides exhibits a lower competitive influence on P fixation. As(V) that likely became prominent in the surficially oxidized Early Proterozoic oceans induced dissolved P limitation because of preferential P sequestration at the expense of dissolved As(V) enrichment. The control of As on P scavenging by the precipitating Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides is strong regardless of common seawater cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+). The data suggest that the application of Si and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides as an ancient seawater P proxy should consider chemical variability between depositional basins, taking into account the rather strong role hydrothermal arsenic has on the distribution of P

  12. Stress-induced allodynia--evidence of increased pain sensitivity in healthy humans and patients with chronic pain after experimentally induced psychosocial stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Crettaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental stress has been shown to have analgesic as well as allodynic effect in animals. Despite the obvious negative influence of stress in clinical pain conditions, stress-induced alteration of pain sensitivity has not been tested in humans so far. Therefore, we tested changes of pain sensitivity using an experimental stressor in ten female healthy subjects and 13 female patients with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Multiple sensory aspects of pain were evaluated in all participants with the help of the quantitative sensory testing protocol before (60 min and after (10 and 90 min inducing psychological stress with a standardized psychosocial stress test ("Trier Social Stress Test". RESULTS: Both healthy subjects and patients with fibromyalgia showed stress-induced enhancement of pain sensitivity in response to thermal stimuli. However, only patients showed increased sensitivity in response to pressure pain. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for stress-induced allodynia/hyperalgesia in humans for the first time and suggest differential underlying mechanisms determining response to stressors in healthy subjects and patients suffering from chronic pain. Possible mechanisms of the interplay of stress and mediating factors (e.g. cytokines, cortisol on pain sensitivity are mentioned. Future studies should help understand better how stress impacts on chronic pain conditions.

  13. Thirty and ninety days mortality predictive value of admission and in-hospital procalcitonin and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin testing in patients with dyspnea. Results from the VERyfing DYspnea trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglino, Francesco; Russo, Veronica; De Berardinis, Benedetta; Numeroso, Filippo; Catania, Pamela; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Nigra, Stefano Geniere; Geraci, Francesco; Bressan, Maria Antonietta; Guerrini, Stefania; Cavazza, Mario; Folli, Christian; Monzani, Valter; Battista, Stefania; Mengozzi, Giulio; Noto, Paola; Carpinteri, Giuseppe; Semplicini, Andrea; Stella, Federica; Ingrassia, Stella; Moscatelli, Paolo; Giuntini, Patrizia; Salerno, Gerardo; Cardelli, Patrizia; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), procalcitonin (PCT), and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) demonstrated usefulness for management of emergency department patients with dyspnea. To evaluate in patients with dyspnea, the prognostic value for 30 and 90 days mortality and readmission of PCT, MR-proADM, and MR-proANP, a multicenter prospective study was performed evaluating biomarkers at admission, 24 and 72 hours after admission. Based on final diagnosis, patients were divided into acute heart failure (AHF), primary lung diseases, or both (AHF + NO AHF). Five hundred one patients were enrolled. Procalcitonin and MR-proADM values at admission and at 72 hours were significantly (P mortality: baseline PCT with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.70 and PCT at 72 hours with an AUC of 0.61; baseline MR-proADM with an AUC of 0.62 and MR-proADM at 72 hours with an AUC of 0.68. As for 90-day mortality, both PCT and MR-proADM baseline and 72 hours values showed a significant (P mortality at 90 days, whereas in AHF + NO AHF group, they predict mortality at 30 and 90 days. In patients admitted for dyspnea, assessment of PCT plus MR-proADM improves risk stratification and management. Combined use of biomarkers is able to predict in the total cohort both rehospitalization and death at 30 and 90 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Glucocorticoids on Ultrastructure of Myocardial Muscle in the Course of Experimentally Induced Acute Myocardial Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kuropka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for effective methods of myocardial cytoprotection against ischemia is the most significant issue in modern cardiology and cardiac surgery. Glucocorticoids are deemed very strong modulators of inflammatory response and thus can potentially protect heart muscle from postreperfusion injury and myocardial ischemia during cardiac surgery. Ultrastructural examination of the left ventricle heart samples revealed that the intravenous application of dexamethasone and hydrocortisone proved to exert cytoprotective effect on cardiomyocytes during experimentally induced acute ischemia in rats.

  15. Experimental investigation of effects of jet decay rate on jet-induced pressures on a flat plate: Tabulated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, J. M.; Ousterhout, D. S.; Warcup, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Tabular data are presented for an experimental study of the effects of jet decay rate on the jet-induced pressure distribution on a flat plate for a single jet issuing at right angle to the flat plate into a uniform crossflow. The data are presented in four sections: (1) presents the static nozzle calibration data; (2) lists the plate surface static pressure data and integrated loads; (3) lists the jet centerline trajectory data; and (4) lists the centerline dynamic pressure data.

  16. Combined experimental and numerical investigation of energy harness utilizing vortex induced vibration over half cylinder using piezoelectric beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md. Tusher; Hossain, Md. Tanver; Rahman, Md. Ashiqur

    2017-06-01

    Energy harvesting technology has the ability to create self-powered electronic systems that do not rely on battery power for their operation. Wind energy can be converted into electricity via a piezoelectric transducer during the air flow over a cylinder. The vortex-induced vibration over the cylinder causes the piezoelectric beam to vibrate. Thus useful electric energy at the range 0.2-0.3V is found which can be useful for self-powering small electronic devices. In the present study, prototypes of micro-energy harvester with a shape of 65 mm × 37 mm × 0.4 mm are developed and tested for airflow over D-shaped bluff body for diameters of 15, 20 and 28mm in an experimental setup consisting of a long wind tunnel of 57cm × 57cm with variable speeds of the motor for different flow velocities and the experimental setup is connected at the downstream where flow velocity is the maximum. Experimental results show that the velocity and induced voltage follows a regular linear pattern. A maximum electrical potential of 140 mV for velocity of 1.1 ms-1 at a bluff body diameter of 15 mm is observed in the energy harvester that can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices. The simulation of this energy harvesting phenomena is then simulated using COMSOLE multi-physics. Diameter of the bluff bodies as well as flow velocity and size of cantilever beam are varied and the experimental findings are found to be in good agreement with the simulated ones. The simulations along with the experimental data show the possibility of generating electricity from vortex induced vibration and can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices.

  17. Black tea extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling and attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Sung-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea has been shown to elicit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of black tea extract (BTE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM and determined the therapeutic efficacy of this extract on colon inflammation. Methods The effect of BTE on LPS-induced NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The in vivo efficacy of BTE was assessed in mice with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The severity of colitis was measured by weight loss, colon length and histologic scores. Results LPS-induced IL-12p40, IL-23p19, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions were inhibited by BTE. LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. BTE treatment blocked LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. BTE-fed, DSS-exposed mice showed the less weight loss, longer colon length and lower histologic score compared to control diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice. DSS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. An increase of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in DSS-exposed mice was blocked by BTE. Conclusions These results indicate that BTE attenuates colon inflammation through the blockage of NF-κB signaling and apoptosis in DSS-induced experimental colitis model.

  18. Reliability and validity of an arabic version of the dyspnea-12 questionnaire for Saudi nationals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, Mohammed M.; Jenkins, Sue C.; Lababidi, Hani; Hill, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyspnea is a distressing symptom experienced by people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The dyspnea-12 (D-12) questionnaire comprises of 12 items and assesses the quality of this symptom, its severity and the emotional response. The original (English) version of the D-12 is reliable and valid for the measurement of dyspnea in pulmonary diseases. AIM: To translate the D-12 into Arabic and determine whether this version is reliable and valid in Saudi nationals with COPD. METHODS: The D-12 was translated into Arabic version and reviewed by an expert panel before being back-translated into English. The Arabic version was administered to five patients with COPD to test whether it was easily understood after which a final Arabic version was produced. Thereafter, 40 patients with COPD (aged 63 ΁ 9 years; 33 [82.5%] males; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1) 47 ΁ 16% predicted) completed the D-12, the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ). Lung function and 6-minute walk distance were also measured. The D-12 was re-administered two weeks later. RESULTS: The Arabic version of the D-12 demonstrated good reliability over the two administration (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.94, P = 0.01). Strong associations were demonstrated between the (1) total score for the D-12 and the CAT, (2) quality sub-score of the D-12 and the CAT and (3) emotional response sub-score of the D-12 and emotional function domain of the CRDQ (r ≥ 0.6, all P Arabic version of the D-12 is a reliable and valid instrument in Saudi nationals with COPD. PMID:25829962

  19. Reliability and validity of an arabic version of the dyspnea-12 questionnaire for Saudi nationals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, Mohammed M; Jenkins, Sue C; Lababidi, Hani; Hill, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea is a distressing symptom experienced by people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The dyspnea-12 (D-12) questionnaire comprises of 12 items and assesses the quality of this symptom, its severity and the emotional response. The original (English) version of the D-12 is reliable and valid for the measurement of dyspnea in pulmonary diseases. To translate the D-12 into Arabic and determine whether this version is reliable and valid in Saudi nationals with COPD. The D-12 was translated into Arabic version and reviewed by an expert panel before being back-translated into English. The Arabic version was administered to five patients with COPD to test whether it was easily understood after which a final Arabic version was produced. Thereafter, 40 patients with COPD (aged 63 ΁ 9 years; 33 [82.5%] males; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1) 47 ΁ 16% predicted) completed the D-12, the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ). Lung function and 6-minute walk distance were also measured. The D-12 was re-administered two weeks later. The Arabic version of the D-12 demonstrated good reliability over the two administration (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.94, P = 0.01). Strong associations were demonstrated between the (1) total score for the D-12 and the CAT, (2) quality sub-score of the D-12 and the CAT and (3) emotional response sub-score of the D-12 and emotional function domain of the CRDQ (r ≥ 0.6, all P Arabic version of the D-12 is a reliable and valid instrument in Saudi nationals with COPD.

  20. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... the expected concentration of plasma proBNP based on age and gender was established for dyspneic subjects: an actual plasma proBNP concentration below half of the expected value ruled out left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 100% to 100%; specificity 15%, 95% CI 12...

  1. Diaphragmatic mobility: relationship with lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Flávia Roberta; Brüggemann, Ana Karla Vieira; Francisco, Davi de Souza; Medeiros, Caroline Semprebom de; Rosal, Danielle; Paulin, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate diaphragmatic mobility in relation to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life (PADL) in patients with COPD. We included 25 patients with COPD, classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria, and 25 healthy individuals. For all of the participants, the following were evaluated: anthropometric variables, spirometric parameters, respiratory muscle strength, diaphragmatic mobility (by X-ray), PADL, and the perception of dyspnea. In the COPD group, diaphragmatic mobility was found to correlate with lung function variables, inspiratory muscle strength, and the perception of dyspnea, whereas it did not correlate with expiratory muscle strength or PADL. In patients with COPD, diaphragmatic mobility seems to be associated with airway obstruction and lung hyperinflation, as well as with ventilatory capacity and the perception of dyspnea, although not with PADL. Avaliar a relação da mobilidade diafragmática com a função pulmonar, força muscular respiratória, dispneia e atividade física de vida diária (AFVD) em pacientes com DPOC. Foram avaliados 25 pacientes com diagnóstico de DPOC, classificados de acordo com critérios da Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, e 25 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos foram submetidos às seguintes avaliações: mensuração antropométrica, espirometria, força muscular respiratória, mobilidade diafragmática (por radiografia), AFVD e percepção de dispneia. No grupo DPOC, houve correlações da mobilidade diafragmática com variáveis de função pulmonar, força muscular inspiratória e percepção de dispneia. Não houve correlações da mobilidade diafragmática com força muscular expiratória e AFVD. A mobilidade diafragmática parece estar associada tanto com a obstrução das vias aéreas quanto com a hiperinsuflação pulmonar em pacientes com DPOC, assim como com a capacidade ventilatória e percep

  2. Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin in patients with acute dyspnea: Data from the Akershus Cardiac Examination (ACE) 2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Mohammad Osman; Lyngbakken, Magnus Nakrem; Myhre, Peder Langeland; Brynildsen, Jon; Langsjøen, Eva Camilla; Høiseth, Arne Didrik; Christensen, Geir; Omland, Torbjørn; Røsjø, Helge

    2017-05-01

    Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a surrogate marker for adrenomedullin; a hormone that attenuates myocardial remodeling. Accordingly, we hypothesized that MR-proADM could provide diagnostic and prognostic information in patients with acute dyspnea. We measured MR-proADM by a commercial ELISA on hospital admission in 311 patients with acute dyspnea and compared the utility of MR-proADM with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Blood samples were also available after 24h (n=232) and before discharge (n=94). The principal diagnosis of the index hospitalization was determined by an adjudication committee. MR-proADM concentrations on hospital admission were higher in patients with acute heart failure (HF; n=143) vs. patients hospitalized with non-HF-related dyspnea (n=168): 1.31 (Q1-3 0.97-1.89) vs. 0.85 (0.59-1.15) nmol/L; p<0.001. The receiver-operating characteristics area under the curve (ROC-AUC) for MR-proADM to diagnose HF was 0.77 (95% CI 0.72-0.82) and 0.86 (0.82-0.90) for NT-proBNP. During a median follow-up of 816days, 66/143 patients (46%) with acute HF and 35/84 patients (42%) with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) died; p=0.58 between groups. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, admission MR-proADM concentrations were associated with mortality in patients with acute HF (HR 5.90 [3.43-10.13], p<0.001), but not in patients with AECOPD. Admission MR-proADM concentrations also improved risk stratification in acute HF as assessed by the net reclassification index. MR-proADM concentrations decreased from admission to later time points. Admission MR-proADM concentrations provide strong prognostic information in patients with acute HF, but modest diagnostic information in patients with acute dyspnea. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Drug-induced Hypothermia by 5HT1A Agonists Provide Neuroprotection in Experimental Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Hasseldam, Henrik; Nybro Smith, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug-induced hypothermia reduces brain damage in animal stroke models and is an undiscovered potential in human stroke treatment. We studied hypothermia induced by the serotonergic agonists S14671 (1-[2-(2-thenoylamino)ethyl]-4[1-(7- methoxynaphtyl)]piperazine) and ipsapirone in a rat...... controls of the S14761 effect in MCAO were performed as previously mentioned (n = 10) but with rats kept normothermic by a heating lamp for 22 hours. Finally, a meta-analysis of ipsapirone-induced hypothermia in man was included. RESULTS: Infarct volumes were reduced by 50% in hypothermic rats versus...... therapeutic hypothermia....

  4. Radiation-induced heart disease: review of experimental data on dose response and pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz-Hector, S. (Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie, Neuherberg (Germany))

    1992-02-01

    Clinical and experimental heart irradiation can cause a variety of sequelae. A single dose of {>=} 15 Gy leads to a reversible exudative pericarditis, occurring in dogs, rabbits or rats at around 100 days. Its time-course is very similar in all species investigated, but there are considerable species and strain differences in severity and incidence. After longer, dose-dependent latency times chronic congestive myocardial failure develops. The paper reviews experimental data concerning dose response and pathogenesis. (author).

  5. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ZHANG, HAIYING; LI, NING; LI, KUN; LI, PENG

    2014-01-01

    .... In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride-induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats...

  6. Induced Voltage Self-Excitation for a Switched-Reluctance Generator. Experimental Verification of Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lipo, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    .... One means to excite the machine in a "self-starting" mode is to attach permanent magnets to the machine stator, so that rotor rotation will cause the magnet's field to induce electric current within...

  7. Protective effects of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatule, Rohit R; Gautam, Manish K; Goel, Shalini; Singh, Amit; Joshi, Vinod K; Goel, Raj K

    2014-01-01

    Aegle marmelos (AM) fruit has been advocated in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, fever, asthma, inflammations, febrile delirium, acute bronchitis, snakebite, epilepsy, leprosy, myalgia, smallpox, leucoderma, mental illnesses, sores, swelling, thirst, thyroid disorders, tumours and upper respiratory tract infections. The objective of this study was to study the curative effect of 50% ethanol extract of dried fruit pulp of AM (AME) against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days after TNBS-induced colitis. Rats were given intracolonic normal saline or TNBS alone or TNBS plus oral AME. AME was studied for its in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative intestinal bacteria and on TNBS-induced changes in colonic damage, weight and adhesions (macroscopic and microscopic), diarrhea, body weight and colonic levels of free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and pro-inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) in rats. AME showed antibacterial activity against intestinal pathogens and decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, colonic free radicals and MPO and enhanced body weight and colonic antioxidants level affected by TNBS. The effects of AME on the above parameters were comparable with sulfasalazine, a known colitis protective drug (100 mg/kg, oral). AME shows curative effects against TNBS-induced colitis by its antibacterial activity and promoting colonic antioxidants and reducing free radicals and MPO-induced colonic damage.

  8. Effect of the Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitor, MK-421, on Experimentally Induced Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregley, Melvin J.; Fater, Dennis C.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1982-01-01

    MK-421, the ethyl ester maleate salt of N-(S)-1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenyl-propyl- Ala-L-Pro, is an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor. An initial objective was to determine whether MK-421, administered at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg/kg, ip to 96 female rats 15 min prior to administration of the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (25 microgram/kg, ip), would inhibit the drinking induced by isoproterenol during 2 h after its administration. The water intake induced by isoproterenol was inhibited significantly by 2.5 mg MK-421/kg. When a similar experiment was performed using Angiotensin I (AI) (200 microgram/kg, ip) as the dipsogenic agent, MK-421 (5 mg/kg, ip), administered 15 min prior to AI, inhibited significantly both the dipsogenic and the diuretic effect of AI. However, administration of angiotensin II (AII, 200 microgram/kg, ip) 15 min after MK-421 (5mg/kg) was accompanied by a water intake that did not differ from AII alone. The drink induced by ip administration of 1.0 m NaCl solution (1% of body wt, ip) was not inhibited by administration of MK-421 (5 mg/kg) 15 min prior to allowing access to water while the drink induced by a 24 h dehydration was partially inhibited. Thus, the drinks induced by administraition of either isoproterenol or AI are dependent on formation of AII. That induced by dehydration is partially dependent, while that induced by hypertonic siilinc is independent of the formation of AII.

  9. Mechanisms of T-Lymphocyte Accumulation during Experimental Pleural Infection Induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Mariana C.; Penido, Carmen; Costa, Maria F. S.; Henriques, Maria Graças

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculous pleurisy is a frequent extrapulmonary manifestation characterized by accumulation of fluid and inflammatory cells in the pleural space. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of T-lymphocyte accumulation in the pleural space by using a murine model of pleurisy induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Intrathoracic (i.t.) injection of BCG (4.5 × 105 bacteria/cavity) induced accumulation of T lymphocytes in the pleural cavities of C57BL/6 mice. We observed the presence of CFU in pleural washes conducted 1, 2, 3, 7, and 15 days after pleurisy induction. Pretreatment with fucoidan inhibited T-lymphocyte accumulation at 1 day, but not at 15 days, after BCG-induced pleurisy. Accordingly, adoptive transfer of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled blood mononuclear cells to infected mice showed that T lymphocytes migrated into the pleural cavity 1 day (but not 15 days) after BCG injection. Cell-free pleural wash fluids recovered from mice 1 day after BCG i.t. stimulation (day 1 BCG-PW), but not day 7 or day 15 BCG-PW, induced in vitro T-cell transmigration, which was dependent on L-, P-, and E-selectins. In contrast, day 7 BCG-PW (but not day 1 BCG-PW) induced in vitro T-lymphocyte proliferation via interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Accordingly, in vivo IL-2 or IFN-γ neutralization abolished T-lymphocyte accumulation 7 days after pleurisy induction. Our results demonstrate that pleural infection induced by BCG leads to T-lymphocyte accumulation in two waves. The acute phase depends on selectin-mediated migration, while the second wave of T-lymphocyte accumulation seems to depend on a local proliferation induced by cytokines produced in situ. PMID:18809659

  10. Therapeutic effect of D-002 (abexol) on gastric ulcer induced experimentally in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Vivian; Carbajal, Daisy; Arruzazabala, Lourdes; Más, Rosa

    2005-01-01

    D-002 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols isolated from beeswax, wherein triacontanol is the most abundant alcohol, with antioxidant and anti-ulcer properties. Since compounds with cytoprotective and antioxidant effects can improve healing of gastroduodenal ulcer induced by noxious agents, this work investigated the healing effect of D- 002 on acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced with indomethacin and acetic acid, respectively, in rats. Acute gastric ulcer was induced with single oral doses of indomethacin (20 mg/kg). Treatments with D-002 at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg or vehicle were administered 3 hours after ulcer induction. Three hours later, rats were sacrificed, and the stomach was removed for quantifying the lesions. Chronic gastric ulcer was induced by 50 microL of 80% acetic acid application on the anterior serosal surface of the glandular stomach during 20 seconds. Twenty-four hours later D-002 at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg or vehicle was administered for 5 days. At the end of the treatment, animals were fasted for 24 hours and sacrificed, the stomachs were removed, and the lesions were quantified. D-002 orally administered at 100 and 200 mg/kg acutely significantly healed gastric ulcers induced with indomethacin by 39% and 56% compared with positive controls, respectively. Also, D-002 at 200 mg/kg, but not at 50 or 100 mg/kg, administered orally for 5 days after ulcer induction exerted a significant healing effect (65.8% inhibition) in gastric ulcers induced with acetic acid. In conclusion, this work demonstrated that D-002 administered after ulcer induction induced effective healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers provoked by, respectively, indomethacin and acetic acid.

  11. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of effective stress-induced sorption capacity change and its influence on coal permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwu; Dong, Lihui; Xu, Xiaomeng; Hu, Po; Tian, Jianwei; Zhang, Yihuai; Yang, Leilei

    2017-06-01

    The gas sorption effect is an important factor affecting the gas permeability of a coal seam, which has been proved in many previous experimental measurements and analytical permeability studies. However, the sorption capacity of coal is usually not static due to the complexity of external stress variation and internal gas media features. The stress-induced sorption capacity variation and its effect on the coal permeability change have not been fully identified yet. Thus, in this paper we present a preliminary evaluation of the stress-induced sorption capacity change by introducing the adsorption capacity modified term, and an experiment is carried out to verify the influence of the altered effective stress on coal permeability. Langmuir-like adsorption deformation constant parameters were combined into the modified coal permeability model and were given values to fully estimate the influence on permeability caused by the modification term. We found that different change modes of effective stress would yield different change effects on the permeability, that is, with the same effective stress change amount, the altered external stress-induced change had less influence than the altered-pore pressure-induced change; however, both modes demonstrated that the model taking sorption capacity change into consideration is more consistent with the experimental data. The effect of sorption capacity change on coal permeability variation was also found to be tightly connected with the physical and mechanical properties of the coal itself. It is proved that considering stress-induced sorption ability change has a critical role in characterizing the permeability variation of coal.

  12. Evaluation of vaccination with Neospora caninum protein for prevention of fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Tuo, Wenbin; Dubey, J P

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate the immunologic response of a killed tachyzoite vaccine against Neospora caninum and its effectiveness in preventing fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in sheep. 30 Dorset ewes. Ewes were randomly allocated to receive vaccination on days 1 and 60 of the study with a killed N caninum tachyzoite preparation in a commercially available adjuvant or a saline-adjuvant mixture. A ram was placed on pasture with the ewes from days 15 to 60. Blood was collected from ewes before primary and booster vaccinations and prior to experimental challenge with N caninum tachyzoite performed on day 90; sera were assessed via Neospora agglutination (NA) and immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) assays. Blood was collected from lambs before they suckled, and sera were tested for antibodies against N caninum. Of the 14 vaccinated ewes that became pregnant, 12 gave birth to live-born lambs; in contrast, 5 of 11 pregnant control ewes gave birth to live-born lambs. Whereas vaccination improved fetal survival in pregnant ewes challenged with N caninum tachyzoites, it did not appear to have any appreciable effect on transmission of N caninum to offspring, as indicated by results of NA and IFA assays. The N caninum tachyzoite vaccine used in this study appeared to provide protection against fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in a high proportion of pregnant ewes.

  13. Experimental Study and Numerical Modeling of Wave Induced Pore Pressure Attenuation Inside a Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troch, Peter; Rouck, Julien De; Burcharth, Hans Falk

    2003-01-01

    attenuation is studied using experimental data (in Section 2) and using a numerical wave flume (in Section 3). The experimental study includes the analysis of large scale data from a physical breakwater model and prototype data from the Zeebrugge breakwater. The large scale data are taken from literature...... and have been re-analysed in detail with respect to the attenuation characteristics. The analysis follows the method by Burcharth et al. (1999) and confirms the practical calculation method for the attenuation of the pore pressure in the core given in this reference. The attenuation of pore pressures...... in a breakwater core is also studied in the numerical wave flume VOFbreak. The numerical results are compared to the results from the experimental study....

  14. Visualization of Oxidative Stress Induced by Experimental Periodontitis in Keap1-Dependent Oxidative Stress Detector-Luciferase Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kota; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Uchida, Yoko; Fukuhara, Daiki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-11-16

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a Keap1-dependent oxidative stress detector-luciferase (OKD-LUC) mouse model would be useful for the visualization of oxidative stress induced by experimental periodontitis. A ligature was placed around the mandibular first molars for seven days to induce periodontitis. Luciferase activity was measured with an intraperitoneal injection of d-luciferin on days 0, 1, and 7. The luciferase activity in the periodontitis group was significantly greater than that in the control group at seven days. The expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and malondialdehyde in periodontal tissue were significantly higher in the periodontitis group than in the control group. Immunofluorescent analysis confirmed that the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) occurred more frequently in the periodontitis group than in the control group. This study found that under oxidative stress induced by experimental periodontitis, the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway was activated and could be visualized from the luciferase activity in the OKD-LUC model. Thus, the OKD-LUC mouse model may be useful for exploring the mechanism underlying the relationship between the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway and periodontitis by enabling the visualization of oxidative stress over time.

  15. [Static-dynamic MR urography. Comparison with excretory urography and scintigraphy in experimentally-induced urinary tract obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrschneider, W K; Hoffend, J; Becker, K; Darge, K; Wunsch, R; Clorius, J H; Kooijman, H; Tröger, J

    2001-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of combined static-dynamic MR urography (MRU) for the functional-morphological evaluation of experimentally induced urinary tract obstruction. Static-dynamic MRU--combination study with a respiratory-triggered 3D-IR-TSE sequence and a dynamic 2D-FFE sequence after Gd-DTPA and furosemide--was obtained in comparison with 99mTc-MAG3 diuretic renal scintigraphy (DRS), excretory urography (EU) and ultrasound (US) in 29 healthy piglets and in 20 piglets with surgically induced ureteric stenosis (total of 50 postoperative examination blocks). MRU allowed complete depiction of the urinary tract in all controls, in operated piglets the stenosis was always correctly identified. Quality of MRU was superior to EU in 36 of 43 comparative studies. Calculation of single kidney function from parenchymal renograms, and assessment of urinary excretion from whole-kidney renograms resulted in a highly significant agreement of MRU with DRS. Static-dynamic MR urography allows excellent depiction of experimentally induced urinary tract obstruction, and reliable assessment of individual renal function and urinary excretion. Two advantages of the method stand out, it does not require radiation and it permits a functional-morphological correlation.

  16. Experimentally induced acute uric acid nephropathy in rabbits: Findings of high resolution gray scale and doppler ultrasonographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Hong Dae; Ko, Eun Young; Won, Mi Sook; Noh, Jung Woo [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Hyang [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To evaluate changes of the high-resolution (HR) gray scale and doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of experimentally induced acute uric acid (UA) nephropathy in rabbits. Acute UA nephropathy was induced in ten rabbits using supersaturated lithium carbonate solution. The rabbits were divided in two groups. Group I consisted of five rabbits, and they were injected with a single dose of 150 ml of saturated UA over one hour. During tis period, serial US studies of the kidneys of these rabbits were performed every ten minutes. Group II consisted of the remaining five rabbits, and three injections of 50 ml of saturated UA solution were given on the first, fifth and eight day and follow-up was done upto twenty fifth day. Sequential HR and Doppler US, renal biopsy and blood sampling were performed on day 1, 5, 8, 21, and 25 in the group II rabbits. In group I, HR and Doppler US examination revealed the normal resistive index without significant abnormality. On the other hand, US studies of group II showed poor renal corticomedullary differentiation, decreased renal blood flow and elevated resistive index. There was statistically significant correlation among US findings, histologic characteristics and chemical index (BUN, creatinine) of renal function. In addition, sequentially increased size and volume of the kidney were noted in both groups. HR gray scale and doppler US characteristics of experimentally induced acute UA nephropathy in rabbits were similar to those of acute renal failure caused by other well-known causes.

  17. Experimental characterization of a space charge induced modulation in high-brightness electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shaftan

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the experimental investigation of a collective effect driving strong modulation in the longitudinal phase space of a high-brightness electron beam. The measured beam energy spectrum was analyzed in order to reveal the main parameters of modulation. The experimental results were compared with a model of space-charge oscillations in the beam longitudinal phase space. The measurements and analysis allowed us to determine the range of the parameters of the observed effect on the modulation dynamics and illustrate its potential impact on short-wavelength free-electron laser performance.

  18. Excess Ventilation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-Heart Failure Overlap. Implications for Dyspnea and Exercise Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Alcides; Arbex, Flavio F; Sperandio, Priscilla A; Souza, Aline; Biazzim, Ligia; Mancuso, Frederico; Berton, Danilo C; Hochhegger, Bruno; Alencar, Maria Clara N; Nery, Luiz E; O'Donnell, Denis E; Neder, J Alberto

    2017-11-15

    An increased ventilatory response to exertional metabolic demand (high [Formula: see text]e/[Formula: see text]co 2 relationship) is a common finding in patients with coexistent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. We aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying high [Formula: see text]e/[Formula: see text]co 2 and its impact on operating lung volumes, dyspnea, and exercise tolerance in these patients. Twenty-two ex-smokers with combined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction undertook, after careful treatment optimization, a progressive cycle exercise test with capillary (c) blood gas collection. Regardless of the chosen metric (increased [Formula: see text]e-[Formula: see text]co 2 slope, [Formula: see text]e/[Formula: see text]co 2 nadir, or end-exercise [Formula: see text]e/[Formula: see text]co 2 ), ventilatory inefficiency was closely related to Pc CO 2 (r values from -0.80 to -0.84; P chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-heart failure overlap. Excessive ventilation led to better arterial oxygenation but at the expense of earlier critical mechanical constraints and intolerable dyspnea.

  19. Defining the minimal important difference for the visual analogue scale assessing dyspnea in patients with malignant pleural effusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor K Mishra

    Full Text Available The minimal important difference (MID is essential for interpreting the results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Despite a number of RCTs in patients with malignant pleural effusions (MPEs which use the visual analogue scale for dyspnea (VASD as an outcome measure, the MID has not been established.Patients with suspected MPE undergoing a pleural procedure recorded their baseline VASD and their post-procedure VASD (24 hours after the pleural drainage, and in parallel assessed their breathlessness on a 7 point Likert scale.The mean decrease in VASD in patients with a MPE reporting a 'small but just worthwhile decrease' in their dyspnea (i.e. equivalent to the MID was 19mm (95% CI 14-24mm. The mean drainage volume required to produce a change in VASD of 19mm was 760ml.The mean MID for the VASD in patients with a MPE undergoing a pleural procedure is 19mm (95% CI 14-24mm. Thus choosing an improvement of 19mm in the VASD would be justifiable in the design and analysis of future MPE studies.

  20. Thalidomide ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting renal inflammation in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Khalili, Ali-Reza

    2015-04-01

    Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug. However, its chemotherapeutic use is restricted by serious side effects, especially nephrotoxicity. Inflammatory mechanisms have a significant role in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent and is used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential nephroprotective effect of thalidomide in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity was induced in mice by a single injection of cisplatin (15 mg/kg, i.p.) and treated with thalidomide (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 days, beginning 24 h prior to the cisplatin injection. Renal toxicity induced by cisplatin was demonstrated by increasing plasma levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Cisplatin increased the renal production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. In addition, kidney levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) were increased by cisplatin. Biochemical results showed that thalidomide reduced cisplatin-induced increase in plasma creatinine and BUN. Thalidomide treatment also significantly reduced tissue levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, MDA, MPO, and NO and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, histological examination indicated that thalidomide ameliorated renal damage caused by cisplatin. These data suggest that thalidomide attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity possibly by inhibition of inflammatory reactions. Taken together, our findings indicate that thalidomide might be a valuable candidate for the prevention of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving cisplatin.

  1. Targeting CYP450 modulation to decrease the risk of induced cataract in the experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the major causes of cataract. Some drugs prescribed for the treatment of diabetes are the modulators of CYP450, which may alter the risk of cataract. Objective: To study the effect of CYP450 modulation in galactosemic cataract. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley suckling rats were allotted to four groups (n = 6, as follows: Group 1: Normal control, Group 2: Galactose control, Group 3: CYP450 inhibitor pretreated and Group 4: CYP450 inducer pretreated. Cataract was induced in animals of all groups except group 1 by feeding them galactose (50%, 21 days after parturition. From the eighteenth day of life, CYP450 inhibitor (nifedipine; 8.1 mg/kg and CYP450 inducer (pioglitazone; 3.8 mg/kg were given orally to groups 3 and 4, respectively. The maturation pattern of the cataract was observed by an operating microscope, every third day. Biochemical changes in the lenses of all groups, for example, CYP450 activity expressed as ΅M NADPH oxidized / unit time, alterations in the levels of total proteins, soluble proteins, and reduced glutathione (GSH following the induction of cataract, were estimated. Results: The microscopic examination of the lenses indicated that CYP450 inhibitor pre-treatment delayed (fourteenth day the occurrence of cataract, while CYP450 inducer pretreatment demonstrated an early (ninth day cataract as compared to galactose control rats (twelfth day. A significant decrease and increase in CYP450 activity was observed with the CYP450 inhibitor and inducer pre-treatment, respectively. There was no alteration in the GSH level, but a significant increase in total and soluble protein was found in groups 3 and 4 as compared to group 2. Conclusion: CYP450 may have a role in the initiation of cataract without any effect on the maturation pattern, as revealed by the delayed occurrence of cataract with the CYP450 inhibitor and an early onset of cataract with the CYP450 inducer.

  2. Experimental pain in human temporal muscle induced by hypertonic saline, potassium and acidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Norup, M

    1992-01-01

    The study was aimed at developing a reference model for experimental pain and tenderness in the human temporal muscle by the local injection of hypertonic saline, potassium chloride and acidic phosphate buffer, using isotonic saline as control. The design was randomized and double-blind. Twenty...

  3. TLR3 Blockade in Rhinovirus-Induced Experimental Asthma Exacerbations: A Randomized Controlled Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silkoff, Philip E.; Flavin, Susan; Gordon, Robert; Loza, Mathew J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Lutter, Rene; Diamant, Zuzana; Turner, Ronald B.; Lipworth, Brian J.; Proud, David; Singh, Dave; Eich, Andreas; Backer, Vibeke; Gern, James E.; Herzmann, Christian; Halperin, Scott A.; Mensinga, Tjeert T.; del Vecchio, Alfred M.; Branigan, Patrick; San Mateo, Lani; Baribaud, Frédéric; Barnathan, Elliot S.; Johnston, Sebastian L.

    2017-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRV) commonly precipitate asthma exacerbations. TLR3, an innate pattern-recognition receptor, is triggered by HRV driving inflammation that may worsen asthma. To evaluate an inhibitory monoclonal antibody to TLR3, CNTO3157, on experimental HRV-16 inoculation in healthy and

  4. Experimental Issues in Testing a Semiactive Technique to Control Earthquake Induced Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Caterino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the issues to deal with when approaching experimental testing of structures equipped with semiactive control (SA systems. It starts from practical experience authors gained in a recent wide campaign on a large scale steel frame structure provided with a control system based on magnetorheological dampers. The latter are special devices able to achieve a wide range of physical behaviours using low-power electrical currents. Experimental activities involving the use of controllable devices require special attention in solving specific aspects that characterize each of the three phases of the SA control loop: acquisition, processing, and command. Most of them are uncommon to any other type of structural testing. This paper emphasizes the importance of the experimental assessment of SA systems and shows how many problematic issues likely to happen in real applications are also present when testing these systems experimentally. This paper highlights several problematic aspects and illustrates how they can be addressed in order to achieve a more realistic evaluation of the effectiveness of SA control solutions. Undesired and unavoidable effects like delays and control malfunction are also remarked. A discussion on the way to reduce their incidence is also offered.

  5. The relationship between plasma free fatty acids and experimentally induced hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. J.; Bosman, D. K.; Jörning, G. G.; de Haan, J. G.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in the rat have been investigated in order to study the postulated relationship between plasma free fatty acids concentration (C6 - C22:0) and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy. As a model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy, porta caval shunted

  6. The impact of dietary induced hyperparathyroidism on healthy and diseased periodontia: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütfioğlu, Müge; Sakallioğlu, Umur; Sakallioğlu, Elif Eser; Bariş, Sancar; Gürgör, Pınar

    2012-03-01

    Nutrition may be a potential modifying factor in periodontal conditions. The present study investigated this phenomenon for dietary induced hyperparathyroidism (dHPT) by revealing the histopathological and histomorphometrical profiles of healthy and diseased periodontia in dHPT. Dietary induced hyperparathyroidism was induced in 12 rats by dietary calcium/phosphorous imbalance and 12 rats were fed standard diet (SD). Periodontitis was induced on the right mandibular molar teeth (mmt) of these rats by injecting an endotoxin + saline solution whereas injecting pure saline to the left mmt. Thus, four study groups were created: dHPT + saline (group 1), dHPT + endotoxin (group 2), SD + endotoxin (group 3) and SD + saline (group 4). Histological sections were obtained from the second mmt and examined using light microscope. Group 1 demonstrated inflammatory and degenerative alterations in periodontium without pocket formation. Periodontitis was evident in groups 2 and 3. Group 2 revealed the highest amounts of gingival inflammatory cell and vessel counts (group 2 > group 3 > group 1 > group 4), attachment and bone losses (group 2 > group 3 > groups 1 > group 4) and osteoclast count (group 2 > group 3 > group 1 > group 4) (p < 0.05). These results propose that dHPT may impair the health status of periodontium and may worsen the pathobiology of periodontal diseases. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Experimentally studied laser fluorescence method for remote sensing of plant stress situation induced by improper plants watering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Fedotov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful situations of plants can be caused by a lack of nutrients; mechanical damages; diseases; low or high temperatures; lack of illumination; insufficient or excess humidity of the soil; soil salinization; soil pollution by oil products or heavy metals; the increased acidity of the soil; use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, etc.At early stages it is often difficult to detect seemingly that the plants are in stressful situations caused by adverse external factors. However, the fluorescent analysis potentially allows detection of the stressful situations of plants by deformation of laser-induced fluorescence spectra. The paper conducts experimental investigations to learn the capabilities of the laser fluorescent method to monitor plant situations at 532nm wavelength of fluorescence excitation in the stressful situations induced by improper watering (at excess of moisture in the soil and at a lack of moisture.Researches of fluorescence spectra have been conducted using a created laboratory installation. As a source to excite fluorescence radiation the second harmonica of YAG:Nd laser is used. The subsystem to record fluorescence radiation is designed using a polychromator and a highly sensitive matrix detector with the amplifier of brightness.Experimental investigations have been conducted for fast-growing and unpretentious species of plants, namely different sorts of salad.Experimental studies of laser-induced fluorescence spectra of plants for 532nm excitement wavelength show that the impact of stressful factors on a plant due to the improper watering, significantly distorts a fluorescence spectrum of plants. Influence of a stressful factor can be shown as a changing profile of a fluorescence spectrum (an identifying factor, here, is a relationship of fluorescence intensities at two wavelengths, namely 685 nm and 740 nm or (and as a changing level of fluorescence that can be the basis for the laser method for monitoring the plant

  8. Influence of sildenafil and donepezil administration on the serum redox balance in experimentally induced lower limb critical ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Mihaela Ioana; Constantinescu, Dan Petru; Andercou, Aurel; Mironiuc, Ion Aurel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lower limb ischemia (CLLI) leads to endothelial cell dysfunctions and endothelial lesions. The use of substances that release nitric oxide and activate endothelial nitric oxide synthase has proved to be useful in increasing angiogenesis and arteriogenesis under critical ischemia conditions. To investigate the therapeutic effect of Sildenafil and Donepezil with a vasodilating action in experimentally induced CLLI and on serum redox homeostasis. The research was performed in 3 groups of rats (n=10 animals/group) with experimentally induced CLLI: group I - control group; group II - animals treated postoperatively with a therapeutic dose of sildenafil, and group III - animals treated postoperatively with a therapeutic dose of donepezil. Oxidative stress (OS) indicators (malondialdehyde - MDA, protein carbonyls - PC), antioxidant (AO) defense indicators (reduced glutathione - GSH and oxidized glutathione - GSSH), and ceruloplasmin (CP) were determined on days 7, 14, 21 and 30. Statistical processing was performed using the Excel application (Microsoft Office 2007), with the StatsDirect v.2.7.2 software. Changes in OS were evidenced in all groups on account of a decrease in MDA and PC. The greatest OS decrease in all groups was on day 30. AO defence changes were represented by decreased levels of GSH and GSSG in all groups, at the studied moments. Intracellular AO defense in the cytosol, nucleus and mitochondria was similar in all groups, (decreased GSH, GSSG and GSH/GSSG ratio). We found increased extracellular levels of GSH, GSSG, and CP and increased extracellular GSH/GSSG ratio at level compared to values on day 7. 1) The administration of sildenafil (group II) and donepezil (group III) has favorable effects on reducing OS in experimentally induced CLLI. 2) Sildenafil and Donepezil administration stimulates extracellular AO defense on account of CP. 3) Sildenafil and Donepezil administration influences intracellular redox homeostasis on account of the GSH

  9. Experimental study and simulation of the residual activity induced by high-energy argon ions in copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strašík, I.; Mustafin, E.; Seidl, T.; Pavlovič, M.

    2010-03-01

    The paper presents new experimental results and FLUKA-simulations of residual activation induced by high-energy argon ions in copper. It follows the previous residual activation studies performed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt with uranium ions as a preparatory work for constructing the FAIR facility. Copper samples were irradiated by 1 GeV/u and 500 MeV/u 40Ar ions and investigated by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry. The isotopes with dominating contribution to the total residual activity were identified and their partial activities were quantified. Depth-profiling of the partial residual activities of all identified isotopes was performed by measurements of individual target foils. The experimental results were compared with simulations by the FLUKA-code. A satisfactory agreement between the experiment and the simulations was observed.

  10. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Hwang, Jung Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV{sub 1}/FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV{sub 1}/FVC and the dyspnea score.

  11. Yoga-based pulmonary rehabilitation for the management of dyspnea in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjita, Rajashree; Hankey, Alex; Nagendra, H R; Mohanty, Soubhagylaxmi

    Coal mine dust exposure causes chronic airflow limitation in coal miners resulting in dyspnea, fatigue, and eventually chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Yoga can alleviate dyspnea in COPD by improving ventilatory mechanics, reducing central neural drive, and partially restoring neuromechanical coupling of the respiratory system. To evaluate the effectiveness of Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy (IAYT) in the management of dyspnea and fatigue in coal miners with COPD. Randomized, waitlist controlled, single-blind clinical trial. Eighty-one coal miners (36-60 years) with stable Stages II and III COPD were recruited. The yoga group received an IAYT module for COPD that included asanas, loosening exercises, breathing practices, pranayama, cyclic meditation, yogic counseling and lectures 90 min/day, 6 days/week for 12 weeks. Measurements of dyspnea and fatigue on the Borg scale, exercise capacity by the 6 min walk test, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO 2 %), and pulse rate (PR) using pulse oximetry were made before and after the intervention. Statistically significant within group reductions in dyspnea (P yoga group; all except the last were significant compared to controls (P Yoga can now be included as an adjunct to conventional therapy for pulmonary rehabilitation programs for COPD patients. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Induced Lesions in Liver Tissue Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Samaneh; Ahmadian, Mohammad Taghi

    2017-11-30

    Recent advances in the field of acoustics and piezoelectric and ultrasound transducers have led to new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases. One method of treatment with ultrasonic waves is high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, which is a thermal therapeutic method used to treat malignant tumors. Although a variety of treatment-planning strategies using ultrasonic waves have been investigated, little clinical success has been achieved. Computational modeling is a powerful tool for predicting device performance. The heating induced by a concave transducer with operating powers of 85 and 135 W was studied, and the experimental results presented in this article verify its applicability. Numerical simulations of the nonlinear acoustic field were performed by using the Westervelt and Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equations. Heat transfer was measured for the 2 operational powers, and the results were compared with ex vivo experimental results. In addition, thermal dose contours for both the simulation and experimental results were calculated to investigate the ablated area. Good agreement was found between the experimental and numerical results. The results show that the average temperature deviations calculated at the focal point were 12.8% and 4.3% for transducer powers of 85 and 135 W, respectively. This study provides guidance to HIFU practitioners in determining lesion size and identifying nonlinear effects that should be considered in HIFU procedures. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Preliminary studies on the effect of rebamipide against the trypsin and egg-albumin induced experimental model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Priyanshee; Thakkar, Himani; Gohil, Unnati; Deshpande, Shrikalp

    2011-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of rebamipide in experimentally induced bronchial asthma in mice. Trypsin and egg-albumin induced chronic model of asthma was used and various parameters were measured on the 35th day. The asthmatic control group showed lower level of haemoglobin saturation with oxygen, tidal volume, airflow rate and higher respiratory rate, serum bicarbonate level, eosinophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histamine level compared to the normal control group. Dexamethasone and rebamipide treated groups showed the return of all the above parameters towards normal values. Histopathological examination of lungs showed more prominent alveolar and muscular layer destruction in the asthmatic control group than in dexamethasone and rebamipide treated groups. Rebamipide showed a beneficial effect and might be used for the treatment of bronchial asthma.

  14. Experimental and theoretical investigation of a self-absorbed spectral line emitted from laser-induced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ahmed, Jalloul; Cowpe, John

    2010-06-20

    Using well-known expressions describing radiative transfer, we have established an expression predicting the spectral profile of a self-absorbed Ca{sup ++}393.4 nm emission line as emitted by a transient laser-induced plasma. In this approach, the plasma was approximated as comprising five distinct layers, each of thickness 0.5 mm, and each characterized by a unique uniform electron density, electron temperature, and optical depth. The validity of the theoretical model was confirmed by successful comparison with experimental data. Inhomogeneous laser-induced plasmas were produced on the surface of an aqueous CaCl2 (0.01 mol/l) solution using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. Optical emission spectra were collected in such a way as to allow for temporal and spatial diagnostics of the plasma plumes.

  15. Experimental investigation of effect of jet decay rate on jet-induced pressures on a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, J. M.; Ousterhout, D. S.; Warcup, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study of the interaction between a lift jet and an aircraft wing for a jet VTOL aircraft was performed for the simplified model of an unheated, subsonic, circular jet exiting at right angles to a flat plate into a uniform subsonic crosswind. The effects of jet dynamic pressure decay rate upon the jet location and jet induced pressure distribution on the plate were studied over a range of jet to crossflow velocity ratios of 2.2 or = R or = 10. Jet decay rate was varied through use of cylindrical centerbodies with flat or hemispherical tips submerged in the jet nozzle at various depths below the jet exit plane. Quicker jet dynamic pressure decay, caused by the presence of a centerbody, resulted in reductions in the jet induced lift loss by as much as 45 percent relative to values for jets with no centerbody. These reductions in lift loss were observed at the larger values of crossflow velocity.

  16. Determination of micronutrients and oxidative stress status in the blood of STZ-induced experimental diabetic rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragbetli, Cennet; Dede, Semiha; Tanritanir, Pinar; Yoruk, Ibrahim Hakki; Ragbetli, Murat Cetin

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to research the effect of streptozotocin (STZ) at different doses on the serum micronutrients and oxidative stress status in diabetic rat models. Twenty male rats averaged 250 g and 3-4 months old were used as experimental models. They were put in four groups composed of five rats each. Diabetic was induced by administering STZ 55 and 65 mg/kg intraperitonally. The serum micronutrients including minerals and vitamins (Cu, Zn, Mg, Fe, vitamins D, E, and C) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, MDA) were determined. Cu, Zn, and Vitamin D3 levels were found to increase significantly in STZ groups (p micronutrients were affected significantly.

  17. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tangpu

    2014-06-01

    Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice, using four experimental models, i.e. measurement of faecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 enteropooling assay and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100 and ndash;3200 mg/kg. In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrhoeal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhoea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared to 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard anti-diarrhoeal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for the protection from diarrhoea. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 103-108

  18. Urolithin A Mitigates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity by Inhibiting Renal Inflammation and Apoptosis in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guada, Melissa; Ganugula, Raghu; Vadhanam, Manicka; Ravi Kumar, Majeti N V

    2017-10-01

    Cumulative kidney toxicity associated with cisplatin is severe and there is no clear consensus on the therapeutic management of the same. The pathogenesis involves activation of inflammatory and apoptotic pathways; therefore, regulating these pathways offers protection. Given the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of urolithin A, a gut microbial metabolite of ellagic acid, our aim was to explore the potential use of urolithin A in the prevention of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in an experimental rat model. For this purpose, animals received a single intraperitoneal dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight). Six hours prior to cisplatin administration, rats were orally treated with either ellagic acid or urolithin A (50 mg/kg body weight), followed by a daily dose of these compounds during the next 5 days. At the end, plasma and kidneys were collected for analysis. Cisplatin-induced kidney damage was revealed by a significant rise in the plasma creatinine levels accompanied by significant morphologic changes in tubules, T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing protein-1, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1, as well as a marked increase in the number of apoptotic cells localized in tubules. Cisplatin also reduced nitric oxide synthase 3 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells resulting in regulation of various inflammatory cytokines. Urolithin A effectively attenuated cisplatin-induced kidney damage and showed significantly greater effect than its precursor ellagic acid on preserving the normal kidney architecture by downregulating the proinflammatory cytokines. In summary, urolithin A mitigates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats by modulation of the inflammatory cascade and inhibition of the proapoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of the hepatic lesions experimentally induced by Entamoeba dispar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. X. Costa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The sequence of hepatic necrotic-inflammatory events produced by Entamoeba dispar are originally described in this work. For the first time were described in details the experimental lesions produced by E. dispar, as well as the distribution of the trophozoites detected by the immunohistochemistry. Animals experimentally infected with E. dispar presented necrosis, thrombosis and chronic granulomatous inflammation. Immunoreactive products derived from trofozoites were observed close or associated with trophozoites, epithelioid cells, leucocytes and hepatocytes. Few are the articles on the literature about virulence of E. dispar, which is approximately 9 times more frequent than to E. histolytica. Variation in the virulence is, therefore expected and signalizing the need of the continuity of studies with E. dispar strains from different places in the world. Taking into account that E. dispar is a closely related species to E. histolytica, these studies could determine new elements involved with E. histolytica pathogenesis, helping us to understand better the disease.

  20. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of the hepatic lesions experimentally induced by Entamoeba dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C A X; De Brito, K N O; Gomes, M A; Caliari, M V

    2010-08-26

    The sequence of hepatic necrotic-inflammatory events produced by Entamoeba dispar are originally described in this work. For the first time were described in details the experimental lesions produced by E. dispar, as well as the distribution of the trophozoites detected by the immunohistochemistry. Animals experimentally infected with E. dispar presented necrosis, thrombosis and chronic granulomatous inflammation. Immunoreactive products derived from trofozoites were observed close or associated with trophozoites, epithelioid cells, leucocytes and hepatocytes. Few are the articles on the literature about virulence of E. dispar, which is approximately 9 times more frequent than to E. histolytica. Variation in the virulence is, therefore expected and signalizing the need of the continuity of studies with E. dispar strains from different places in the world. Taking into account that E. dispar is a closely related species to E. histolytica, these studies could determine new elements involved with E. histolytica pathogenesis, helping us to understand better the disease.

  1. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2014-01-01

    tFor many years, bite marks have been used as an indicator for aggression in mink productionsystems. However, the validity of bite marks as indicator of aggression has recently beenquestioned. We therefore tested the following hypotheses: (1) experimentally applied pressure to, or penetration of......, the pelt during the growth phase of the winter coat will producemarks that can be recognized as bite marks at pelting, (2) bite marks applied experimentally by use of an artificial tooth or occurring due to social/aggressive interactions (bites)between mink are only visible if pressure/bite on the mink...... skin is applied during the activegrowth phase of the winter coat prior to time when matured, (3) bite marks will be easierto detect on dark mink than on mink with light coloured fur and (4) the number of bitemarks accumulates and increases with time mink are housed in groups. The experimentalmink were...

  2. Diet-induced expansion of pathobionts in experimental colitis: Implications for tailored therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Devkota, Suzanne; Chang, Eugene B.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence presented in our recent study and elsewhere suggests that the interplay of dietary macronutrients with the intestinal lumen alters the microbial environment, and thus host-microbe interactions, in ways that are not always in a favorable, mutualistic fashion. Specifically, in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), experimental and clinical observations have implicated a detrimental impact of environmental/microbial factors on the etiopathogenesis of IBD in individuals with a background of...

  3. Experimentally induced peri-implant mucositis. A clinical study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoriero, R; Tonelli, M P; Carnevale, G; Mombelli, A; Nyman, S R; Lang, N P

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and microbiological (microscopic) parameters during the development of experimental gingivitis and experimental peri-implant mucositis. Twenty partially edentulous patients were treated for moderate to advanced periodontal disease. Following active periodontal therapy consisting of motivation, instruction in oral hygiene practices, scaling and root planing and periodontal surgery where indicated, IMZ oral implants were incorporated in posterior edentulous areas. After 3 months of healing, the prosthetic abutments were connected, and the patients were closely supervised for another 2 months of healing. At this time, baseline data were obtained. Re-examinations were scheduled at 3 and 6 months. Following this, the patients were asked to refrain from oral hygiene practices for 3 weeks. At all examinations including the end of the period of no oral hygiene, the following clinical parameters were obtained: Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Sulcus Bleeding Index, all modified by Mombelli et al. (1987), probing pocket depths and recession in mm. Furthermore, submucosal/subgingival plaque samples were obtained and analyzed using phase contrast microscopy. At the end of the 3-week period of plaque accumulation, optimal oral hygiene was reinstituted. There were no statistically significant differences between the mean values of all parameters at implant compared to tooth sites at any observation periods. The period of no oral hygiene demonstrated a similar cause-effect relationship between the accumulation of bacterial plaque and the development of peri-implant mucositis as established for the gingival units by the experimental gingivitis model.

  4. Experimental investigation on dynamic characteristics and strengthening mechanism of laser-induced cavitation bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, X D; He, H; Tong, Y Q; Ren, Y P; Yuan, S Q; Liu, R; Zuo, C Y; Wu, K; Sui, S; Wang, D S

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic features of nanosecond laser-induced cavitation bubbles near the light alloy boundary were investigated with the high-speed photography. The shock-waves and the dynamic characteristics of the cavitation bubbles generated by the laser were detected using the hydrophone. The dynamic features and strengthening mechanism of cavitation bubbles were studied. The strengthening mechanisms of cavitation bubble were discussed when the relative distance parameter γ was within the range of 0.5-2.5. It showed that the strengthening mechanisms caused by liquid jet or shock-waves depended on γ much. The research results provided a new strengthening method based on laser-induced cavitation shotless peening (CSP). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antidiarrheal activity of Pterocarpus erinaceus methanol leaf extract in experimentally-induced diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeja, I Maxwell; Ezeigbo, Ihechiluru I; Madubuike, Kelechi G; Udeh, Nkiru E; Ukweni, Iheanacho A; Akomas, Stella C; Ifenkwe, Daniel C

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the antidiarrheal activity of the methanol leaf extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus in vivo. The methanol leaf extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus was evaluated using different doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) orally for antidiarrheal activity using castor oil-induced diarrhea, charcoal meal transit time and castor oil-induced enteropooling in different groups of albino Wistar mice. The activity of the extract at different doses were compared to diphenoxylate (5 mg/kg) and atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg) which were used as standard reference drugs and also to the distilled water administered negative control group of mice. The extract at the doses used caused a significant (PPterocarpus erinaceus extract produced significant antidiarrheal activity and the action may attribute to inhibition of gastrointestinal movement and fluid secretion. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical and Experimental Study on Negative Buoyance Induced Vortices in N-Butane Jet Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-07-26

    Near nozzle flow field in flickering n-butane diffusion jet flames was investigated with a special focus on transient flow patterns of negative buoyance induced vortices. The flow structures were obtained through Mie scattering imaging with seed particles in a fuel stream using continuous-wave (CW) Argon-ion laser. Velocity fields were also quantified with particle mage velocimetry (PIV) system having kHz repetition rate. The results showed that the dynamic motion of negative buoyance induced vortices near the nozzle exit was coupled strongly with a flame flickering instability. Typically during the flame flickering, the negative buoyant vortices oscillated at the flickering frequency. The vortices were distorted by the flickering motion and exhibited complicated transient vortical patterns, such as tilting and stretching. Numerical simulations were also implemented based on an open source C++ package, LaminarSMOKE, for further validations.

  7. A review of the evidence regarding associations between attachment theory and experimentally induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela Joy

    2013-04-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that adult attachment and pain-related variables are predictably and consistently linked, and that understanding these links may guide pain intervention and prevention efforts. In general, insecure attachment has been portrayed as a risk factor, and secure attachment as a protective factor, for people with chronic pain conditions. In an effort to better understand the relationships among attachment and pain variables, these links have been investigated in pain-free samples using induced-pain techniques. The present paper reviews the available research linking adult attachment and laboratory-induced pain. While the diverse nature of the studies precludes definitive conclusions, together these papers offer support for associations between insecure attachment and a more negative pain experience. The evidence presented in this review highlights areas for further empirical attention, as well as providing some guidance for clinicians who may wish to employ preventive approaches and other interventions informed by attachment theory.

  8. Fractal Dimension in Quantifying Experimental-Pulmonary-Hypertension-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Lopes Pacagnelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Right-sided heart failure has high morbidity and mortality, and may be caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension. Fractal dimension is a differentiated and innovative method used in histological evaluations that allows the characterization of irregular and complex structures and the quantification of structural tissue changes. Objective: To assess the use of fractal dimension in cardiomyocytes of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension, in addition to providing histological and functional analysis. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 8 and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (M; n = 8. Five weeks after pulmonary arterial hypertension induction with monocrotaline, echocardiography was performed and the animals were euthanized. The heart was dissected, the ventricles weighed to assess anatomical parameters, and histological slides were prepared and stained with hematoxylin/eosin for fractal dimension analysis, performed using box-counting method. Data normality was tested (Shapiro-Wilk test, and the groups were compared with non-paired Student t test or Mann Whitney test (p < 0.05. Results: Higher fractal dimension values were observed in group M as compared to group C (1.39 ± 0.05 vs. 1.37 ± 0.04; p < 0.05. Echocardiography showed lower pulmonary artery flow velocity, pulmonary acceleration time and ejection time values in group M, suggesting function worsening in those animals. Conclusion: The changes observed confirm pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-induced cardiac dysfunction, and point to fractal dimension as an effective method to evaluate cardiac morphological changes induced by ventricular dysfunction.

  9. α-adrenergic agonist brimonidine control of experimentally induced myopia in guinea pigs: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Yuexin; Lv, Huibin; Jiang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Mingzhou

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy of α-adrenergic agonist brimonidine either alone or combined with pirenzepine for inhibiting progressing myopia in guinea pig lens–myopia-induced models. Methods Thirty-six guinea pigs were randomly divided into six groups: Group A received 2% pirenzepine, Group B received 0.2% brimonidine, Group C received 0.1% brimonidine, Group D received 2% pirenzepine + 0.2% brimonidine, Group E received 2% pirenzepine + 0.1% brimonidine, and Group F received the medium. Myopia was induced in the right eyes of all guinea pigs using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lenses for 3 weeks. Eye drops were administered accordingly. Intraocular pressure was measured every day. Refractive error and axial length measurements were performed once a week. The enucleated eyeballs were removed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Van Gieson (VG) staining at the end of the study. Results The lens-induced myopia model was established after 3 weeks. Treatment with 0.1% brimonidine alone and 0.2% brimonidine alone was capable of inhibiting progressing myopia, as shown by the better refractive error (p=0.024; p=0.006) and shorter axial length (p=0.005; p=0.0017). Treatment with 0.1% brimonidine and 0.2% brimonidine combined with 2% pirenzepine was also effective in suppressing progressing refractive error (p=0.016; p=0.0006) and axial length (p=0.017; p=0.0004). The thickness of the sclera was kept stable in all groups except group F; the sclera was much thinner in the lens-induced myopia eyes compared to the control eyes. Conclusions Treatment with 0.1% brimonidine alone and 0.2% brimonidine alone, as well as combined with 2% pirenzepine, was effective in inhibiting progressing myopia. The result indicates that intraocular pressure elevation is possibly a promising mechanism and potential treatment for progressing myopia. PMID:29204068

  10. Experimental evidence of new tetragonal polymorphs of silicon formed through ultrafast laser-induced confined microexplosion

    OpenAIRE

    Rapp, L.; Haberl, B.; Pickard, C. J.; J.E. Bradby; Gamaly, E. G.; Williams, J.S.; Rode, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Ordinary materials can transform into novel phases at extraordinary high pressure and temperature. The recently developed method of ultrashort laser-induced confined microexplosions initiates a non-equilibrium disordered plasma state. Ultra-high quenching rates overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of new metastable phases, which are preserved in the surrounding pristine crystal for subsequent exploitation. Here we demonstrate that confined microexplosions in silicon produce several meta...

  11. Experimental investigation of lateral forces induced by flow through model labyrinth glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Y. M. M. S.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The lateral forces induced by flow through model labyrinth glands were investigated. Circumferential pressure distributions, lateral forces and stiffness coefficients data obtained are discussed. The force system is represented as a negative spring and a tangential force orthogonal to eccentricity. The magnitude of these forces are dependent on eccentricity, entry swirl, rotor peripheral velocity and seal size. A pressure equalization chamber at midgland tests should in significantly reduced forces and stiffness coefficients.

  12. Reversal of haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia by Murraya koenigii leaves in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rupali; Hiray, Yogesh; Shinde, Sandesh; Langade, Padmaja

    2012-06-01

    Orofacial dyskinesia (OD) is a late complication of prolonged neuroleptic treatment characterized by involuntary movements of the oral region. Chronic treatment with neuroleptics leads to development of vacuous chewing movements (VCMs). VCMs in rats are widely accepted as an animal model of OD. To study the effect of Murraya koenigii L. (Rutaceae) leaves on haloperidol-induced OD. Effect of alcohol extract of M. koenigii leaves (EEMK) and its alkaloid fraction (AMK) on body weight, locomotor activity, behavioral parameters, such as VCMs, tongue protrusions (TPs), orofacial bursts (OBs), and biochemical parameters such as antioxidant defense enzymes levels [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], glutathione (GSH) levels, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the forebrain region was studied in haloperidol-treated rats. Rats chronically treated with haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p., 21 days) significantly decreased locomotion and developed VCMs, OBs, and TPs. Biochemical analysis reveals that chronic haloperidol-treated rats also showed decreased levels of SOD and CAT. Chronic haloperidol treatment significantly induced LPO and decreased the forebrain GSH levels in the rats. Co-administration of EEMK (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and AMK (30 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) along with haloperidol significantly reversed the effect on locomotion. EEMK and AMK significantly reversed the haloperidol-induced decrease in forebrain SOD and CAT levels in rats and significantly reduced the LPO and restored the decreased GSH levels by chronic haloperidol treatment. The study concludes that M. koenigii could be screened as a potential drug for the prevention or treatment of neuroleptic-induced OD.

  13. Neural circuitry mediating inflammation-induced central pain amplification in human experimental endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sven; Rebernik, Laura; Wegner, Alexander; Kleine-Borgmann, Julian; Engler, Harald; Schlamann, Marc; Forsting, Michael; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the brain mechanisms underlying inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia in humans, in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we tested if intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) involves altered central processing of visceral pain stimuli. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled fMRI study, 26 healthy male subjects received either an intravenous injection of low-dose LPS (N=14, 0.4 ng/kg body weight) or placebo (N=12, control group). Plasma cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6), body temperature, plasma cortisol and mood were assessed at baseline and up to 6 h post-injection. At baseline and 2 h post-injection (test), rectal pain thresholds and painful rectal distension-induced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in brain regions-of-interest were assessed. To address specificity for visceral pain, BOLD responses to non-painful rectal distensions and painful somatic stimuli (i.e., punctuate mechanical stimulation) were also analyzed as control stimuli. Compared to the control group, LPS-treated subjects demonstrated significant and transient increases in TNF-α, IL-6, body temperature and cortisol, along with impaired mood. In response to LPS, rectal pain thresholds decreased in trend, along with enhanced up-regulation of rectal pain-induced BOLD responses within the posterior insula, dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), anterior midcingulate (aMCC) and somatosensory cortices (all FWE-corrected ppain-induced neural activation in DLPFC and aMCC. No significant LPS effects were observed on neural responses to non-painful rectal distensions or mechanical stimulation. These findings support that peripheral inflammatory processes affect visceral pain thresholds and the central processing of sensory-discriminative aspects of visceral pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipid therapy with two agents in ropivacaine-induced toxicity: experimental study in swine

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Rodrigues Bonfim; Marcos De Simone Melo; Elisabeth Dreyer; Luís Fernando Affini Borsoi; Thales Gê de Oliveira; Artur Udelsmann

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Compare hemodynamic changes after ropivacaine-induced toxicity followed by treatment with two lipid emulsions in swine. METHODS: Large White pigs were anesthetized with thiopental, followed by intubation, and kept on mechanical ventilation. Hemodynamic variables at rest were recorded with invasive pressure monitoring and pulmonary artery catheterization. After 30 minutes, 7 mg.kg-1 ropivacaine were injected intravenously and new hemodynamic measurements were performe...

  15. Fractal Dimension in Quantifying Experimental-Pulmonary-Hypertension-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes; Sabela, Ana Karênina Dias de Almeida; Mariano, Thaoan Bruno; Ozaki, Guilherme Akio Tamura; Castoldi, Robson Chacon; Carmo, Edna Maria do; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Tomasi, Loreta Casquel; Okoshi, Katashi; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2016-07-01

    Right-sided heart failure has high morbidity and mortality, and may be caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension. Fractal dimension is a differentiated and innovative method used in histological evaluations that allows the characterization of irregular and complex structures and the quantification of structural tissue changes. To assess the use of fractal dimension in cardiomyocytes of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension, in addition to providing histological and functional analysis. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 8) and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (M; n = 8). Five weeks after pulmonary arterial hypertension induction with monocrotaline, echocardiography was performed and the animals were euthanized. The heart was dissected, the ventricles weighed to assess anatomical parameters, and histological slides were prepared and stained with hematoxylin/eosin for fractal dimension analysis, performed using box-counting method. Data normality was tested (Shapiro-Wilk test), and the groups were compared with non-paired Student t test or Mann Whitney test (p cardiac dysfunction, and point to fractal dimension as an effective method to evaluate cardiac morphological changes induced by ventricular dysfunction.

  16. Geraniol attenuates oxidative stress by Nrf2 activation in diet-induced experimental atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Muthukumaran; Chandrasekaran, Balaji; Namasivayam, Nalini

    2015-07-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies suggest the use of antioxidants as an effective measure to reduce the progression of oxidative-stress-related disorders. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key component to cellular redox homeostasis in the attenuation of oxidative-stress-associated pathological processes. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of geraniol (GOH) in preserving the plasma lipid status, endothelial function, antioxidant status, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in hamsters fed an atherogenic diet (AD). Male Syrian hamsters were randomly grouped into four groups: group 1 was control animals; group 2 was animals fed GOH alone (100 mg/kg bw po); group 3 was animals fed AD (standard pellet diet+10% coconut oil+0.25% cholesterol+0.25% cholic acid); and group 4 was fed AD+GOH (100 mg/kg bw) for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding period, the animals were sacrificed and the liver, heart, and aorta from each group were analyzed for antioxidants, LPO markers, and histological changes. AD feeding induced a significant change in lipid profile, endothelial function marker, activities of the antioxidant enzymes, alterations in the LPO markers, Nrf2 expression, and equally significant changes in the organ histology. Supplementation with GOH appreciably prevented the alterations induced by the AD on all the above parameters. Thus, GOH offers marked protection against AD-induced abnormalities.

  17. Effect of Concentrated Apple Extract on Experimental Colitis Induced by Acetic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrelo, Maurício Mercaldi; Dias Ribeiro, Carla Caroline; Duarte, Joselmo Willamys; Bioago Gollücke, Andréa Pitelli; Artigiani-Neto, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Fujiyama Oshima, Celina Tizuko; Ribeiro Paiotti, Ana Paula

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) play a crucial role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exacerbating the chronic inflammatory process. Endogenous and diet antioxidants can neutralize these compounds. The apple is widely consumed, with several antioxidant activity compounds. The present study evaluated the effects of concentrated apple extract (CAE) in acetic acid induced colitis. 29 Wistar male rats were randomized into 5 groups. G1-Sham/saline solution, G2-CAE/control, G3-acetic acid/control, G4-curative- CAE treatment and G5-preventive-CAE treatment. Eight days later, the animals were euthanized and the colonic segment resected for macroscopic and histological analysis. Gene expression was evaluated for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), catalase and copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) by quantitative real time PCR, while protein expression was assessed for iNOS, COX-2 and 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) via immunohistochemistry. The groups G3, G4 and G5 had weight loss, while G5 had weight increase at the end of the experiment. The treatment with CAE reduced the macroscopic and microscopic injury, decreased iNOS mRNA expression and increased CuZnSOD mRNA expression in animals with induced acetic acid-colitis. The findings of the present study suggest that CAE treatment exerts an antioxidant role by downregulating iNOS and upregulating CuZnSOD.

  18. Therapeutic effect of coenzyme Q10 against experimentally-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of coenzyme Q10 was investigated in rats with hepatocellular carcinoma induced by trichloroacetic acid (0.5g/kg/day, p.o., for five days). Coenzyme Q10 treatment (0.4mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for four weeks following trichloroacetic acid administration. Coenzyme Q10 significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased the elevations of tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide in liver tissue of rats with hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, the histopathological dysplastic changes induced by trichloroacetic acid in liver tissue were ameliorated by coenzyme Q10. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that coenzyme Q10 significantly decreased the expression of hepPar-1, alpha-fetoprotein, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-κB in liver tissue of rats with hepatocellular carcinoma. It was concluded that coenzyme Q10 may represent a potential therapeutic option for liver carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of hepatoprotective potential of Erythrina indica leaves against antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Mohd; Hussain, Talib; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Hussain, Arshad

    Erythrina indica Lam. traditionally used in the treatment of laxative, diuretic, worm infestation, liver ailment and joints pain. To evaluate the antihepatotoxic potential of Erythrina indica against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver toxicity was induced by antitubercular drugs (INH+ RIF) at dose level of 50 mg/kg each, p.o for 28 days. 50% methanolic extract of Erythrina indica (100 and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally once daily for 28 days. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters SGOT, SGPT, ALP, bilirubin, total protein, albumin and LDH. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as SOD, CAT, GSH and, LPO were measured in liver homogenate also histological examinations were carried out to assess hepatoprotective activity. The values were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey multiple compare test. Results were considered statistically significant when P indica (E. indica) significantly prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, Erythrina indica significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation (P indica attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis, regeneration and repair of cells toward normal. The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of Erythrina indica against liver injury which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity, and there by scientifically support its traditional use. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Azadirachta indica Attenuates Colonic Mucosal Damage in Experimental Colitis Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, M K; Goel, Shalini; Ghatule, R R; Singh, A; Joshi, V K; Goel, R K

    2013-09-01

    Azadirachta indica leaves indicated the presence of active principles with proven antioxidants, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, free radical scavenging and healing properties. In the present study we evaluated the healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica