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Sample records for experimentally induced dyspnea

  1. Predicting Dyspnea Inducers by Molecular Topology

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    María Gálvez-Llompart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available QSAR based on molecular topology (MT is an excellent methodology used in predicting physicochemical and biological properties of compounds. This approach is applied here for the development of a mathematical model capable to recognize drugs showing dyspnea as a side effect. Using linear discriminant analysis, it was found a four-variable regression equations enabling a predictive rate of about 81% and 73% in the training and test sets of compounds, respectively. These results demonstrate that QSAR-MT is an efficient tool to predict the appearance of dyspnea associated with drug consumption.

  2. Use of post-exercise laryngoscopy to evaluate exercise induced dyspnea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2010-10-01

    We present the case of a child with asthma who continued to have marked exercise induced dyspnea despite appropriate treatment, and in the face of adequate control of all other asthma symptoms. Spirometry showed a marked truncation of inspiratory flow, and laryngoscopy performed immediately after exercise showed laryngomalacia with dynamic, partial inspiratory obstruction. Exercise induced laryngomalacia (EIL) is a rare cause of exercise induced dyspnea which is diagnosed by post exercise flexible laryngoscopy and may require supraglottoplasty.

  3. Exercise-induced dyspnea is a problem among the general adolescent population.

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    Johansson, H; Norlander, K; Hedenström, H; Janson, C; Nordang, L; Nordvall, L; Emtner, M

    2014-06-01

    Respiratory symptoms during exercise are common and might limit adolescents' ability to take part in physical activity. To estimate the prevalence, determinants and consequences of exercise-induced dyspnea (EID) on daily life in a general population of 12-13 year old adolescents. A letter was sent to the parents of all 12-13 year old adolescents in the city of Uppsala (n = 3838). Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire together with their child on EID, asthma and allergy, consequences for daily life (wheeze, day time- and nocturnal dyspnea) and physical activity. The response rate was 60% (n = 2309). Fourteen percent (n = 330) reported EID, i.e. had experienced an attack of shortness of breath that occurred after strenuous activity within the last 12 months. Female gender, ever-asthma and rhinitis were independently associated with an increased risk of EID. Ever-asthma was reported by 14.6% (n = 338), and 5.4% (n = 128) had both EID and ever-asthma. Sixty-one percent (n = 202) of the participants with EID did not have a diagnosis of asthma. In addition to rhinitis, participants with EID reported current wheeze and day-time as well as nocturnal dyspnea more often than the group without EID. No difference was found in the level of physical activity between participants with and without EID. Adolescents with undiagnosed exercise-induced dyspnea have respiratory symptoms and are affected in daily life but have the same level of physical activity as adolescents without exercise-induced respiratory symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychogenic dyspnea

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    Tushar R Sahasrabudhe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea is a very common presenting complaint of a patient. Though commonly due to an organic disease, dyspnea can be a manifestation of underlying anxiety disorder. Three typical patterns of psychogenic dyspnea, viz. panic attack, psychogenic hyperventilation, and compulsive sighing, have been reviewed in this article. The article also comments on the diagnostic features and treatment of these patterns. The overlap with organic causes of dyspnea such as bronchial asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD has also been discussed. For literature review, a Medline and Pubmed search was conducted using appropriate keywords. Articles were also identified from the authors′ own knowledge of the literature as well as reference lists in articles retrieved.

  5. Validation of the dyspnea index in adolescents with exercise-induced paradoxical vocal fold motion.

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    De Guzman, Vanessa; Ballif, Catherine L; Maurer, Rie; Hartnick, Christopher J; Raol, Nikhila

    2014-09-01

    Paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM) affects almost 1 million adolescents in the United States. However, to date, no disease-specific objective measure exists to assess symptom severity and response to treatment in adolescents with exercise-induced PVFM. To validate the Dyspnea Index (DI) quality-of-life instrument (previously validated for adults with breathing disorders) in children aged 12 to 18 years with exercise-induced PVFM and to determine the minimum significant DI change corresponding to patient-reported or caregiver-reported improvement or worsening of symptoms. A longitudinal study of 56 patients (age range, 12-18 years) diagnosed as having exercise-induced PVFM and their caregivers from February 1, 2013, to September 30, 2013, in an outpatient pediatric otolaryngology office practice. The DI was administered to patients and caregivers, with items modified to reflect the perspective of caregivers. Appropriate DI change was measured to reflect improvement or worsening of symptoms. Test-retest reliability was accomplished by having a subset of patients and caregivers complete the instrument twice within 2 weeks before therapy. Internal consistency was assessed by calculation of Cronbach α. Discriminant validity and convergent validity were determined by comparing DIs with assessment of global change in symptoms. The patient and caregiver mean (SD) DI changes were -12.9 (9.6) and -14.7 (9.3), respectively (P therapy.

  6. Comparing dynamic hyperinflation and associated dyspnea induced by metronome-paced tachypnea versus incremental exercise.

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    Calligaro, Gregory L; Raine, Richard I; Bateman, Mary E; Bateman, Eric D; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) during exercise is associated with both dyspnea and exercise limitation in COPD. Metronome-paced tachypnoea (MPT) is a simple alternative for studying DH. We compared MPT with exercise testing (XT) as methods of provoking DH, and assessed their relationship with dyspnea. We studied 24 patients with moderate COPD (FEV1 59 ± 9% predicted) after inhalation of ipratropium/salbutamol combination or placebo in a double-blind, crossover design. Inspiratory capacity (IC) was measured at baseline and after 30 seconds of MPT with breathing frequencies (fR) of 20, 30 and 40 breaths/min and metronome-defined I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:2, in random sequence, followed by incremental cycle ergometry with interval determinations of IC. DH was defined as a decline in IC from baseline (∆IC) for both methods. Dyspnea was assessed using a Borg CR-10 scale. ∆IC during MPT was greater with higher fR and I:E ratio of 1:1 versus 1:2, and less when patients were treated with bronchodilator rather than placebo (P = 0.032). DH occurred during 19 (40%) XTs, and during 35 (73%) tests using MPT. Eleven of 18 (61%) non-congruent XTs (where DH occurred on MPT but not XT) terminated before fR of 40 breaths/min was reached. Although greater during XT, the intensity of dyspnea bore no relationship to DH during either MPT and XT. MPT at 40 breaths/min and I:E of 1:1 elicits the greatest ∆IC, and is a more sensitive method for demonstrating DH. The relationship between DH and dyspnea is complex and not determined by DH alone.

  7. Brain Responses during the Anticipation of Dyspnea.

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    Stoeckel, M Cornelia; Esser, Roland W; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian; von Leupoldt, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Dyspnea is common in many cardiorespiratory diseases. Already the anticipation of this aversive symptom elicits fear in many patients resulting in unfavorable health behaviors such as activity avoidance and sedentary lifestyle. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying these anticipatory processes. We induced dyspnea using resistive-load breathing in healthy subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blocks of severe and mild dyspnea alternated, each preceded by anticipation periods. Severe dyspnea activated a network of sensorimotor, cerebellar, and limbic areas. The left insular, parietal opercular, and cerebellar cortices showed increased activation already during dyspnea anticipation. Left insular and parietal opercular cortex showed increased connectivity with right insular and anterior cingulate cortex when severe dyspnea was anticipated, while the cerebellum showed increased connectivity with the amygdala. Notably, insular activation during dyspnea perception was positively correlated with midbrain activation during anticipation. Moreover, anticipatory fear was positively correlated with anticipatory activation in right insular and anterior cingulate cortex. The results demonstrate that dyspnea anticipation activates brain areas involved in dyspnea perception. The involvement of emotion-related areas such as insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala during dyspnea anticipation most likely reflects anticipatory fear and might underlie the development of unfavorable health behaviors in patients suffering from dyspnea.

  8. Exercise induced dyspnea in the young. Larynx as the bottleneck of the airways.

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    Røksund, Ola Drange; Maat, Robert Christiaan; Heimdal, John Helge; Olofsson, Jan; Skadberg, Britt Torunn; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Exercise induced asthma may symptomatically be difficult to differentiate from exercise related obstruction in the upper airways, sometimes leading to diagnostic confusion and inappropriate treatment. Larynx accounts for a significant fraction of total airway resistance, but its role as a limiting factor for airflow during exercise has been hampered by lack of diagnostic tools. We aimed to study laryngeal function in exercising humans by transnasal laryngoscopy. Continuous video recording of the larynx was performed in parallel with continuous film recording of the upper part of the body and recording of breath sounds in subjects running to respiratory distress or exhaustion on a treadmill. A successful examination was obtained in 20 asymptomatic volunteers and 151 (91%) of 166 young patients with a history of inspiratory distress or stridor during exercise. At rest, six patients had abnormal laryngeal findings. During exercise, a moderate or severe adduction of laryngeal structures was observed in parallel with increasing inspiratory distress in 113 (75%) patients. In 109 of these, adduction started within supraglottic structures, followed by adduction of the vocal cords in 88. In four patients, laryngeal adduction started in the vocal cords, involving supraglottic structures secondarily in three. Larynx can safely be studied throughout a maximum intensity exercise treadmill test. A characteristic laryngeal response pattern to exercise was visualised in a large proportion of patients with suspected upper airway obstruction. Laryngoscopy during ongoing symptoms is recommended for proper assessment of these patients.

  9. Amygdala response to anticipation of dyspnea is modulated by 5-HTTLPR genotype.

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    Stoeckel, M Cornelia; Esser, Roland W; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael; Büchel, Christian; von Leupoldt, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Dyspnea anticipation and perception varies largely between individuals. To investigate whether genetic factors related to negative affect such as the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impact this variability, we investigated healthy, 5-HTTLPR stratified volunteers using resistive load induced dyspnea together with fMRI. Alternating blocks of severe and mild dyspnea ("perception") were differentially cued ("anticipation") and followed by intensity and unpleasantness ratings. In addition, volunteers indicated their anticipatory fear during the anticipation periods. There were no genotype-based group differences concerning dyspnea intensity and unpleasantness or brain activation during perception of severe vs. mild dyspnea. However, in risk allele carriers, higher anticipatory fear was paralleled by stronger amygdala activation during anticipation of severe vs. mild dyspnea. These results suggest a role of the 5-HTTLPR genotype in fearful dyspnea anticipation. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

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    Woisard, Virginie; Liu, Xuelai; Bes, Marie Christine Arné; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2017-02-01

    Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. This study is a retrospective study describing patients who underwent an injection of botulinum toxin for laryngeal dyspnea in the ENT Department from 2005 to 2015 years. The inclusion criteria were a dyspnea associated with a laryngeal dysfunction, confirmed by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Information concerning the causes of the dyspnea, the botulinum toxin BT-A injections procedure, post-injection follow-up, and respiratory outcome were collected for all patients included. In the group of 13 patients included, the main cause identified as principal factor linked with the short breath was: a bilateral VF paralysis (Patel et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:686-689, 7), laryngeal dystonia (Balkissoon and Kenn, Semin Respir Crit Care Med 33:595-605, 2), Anxiety syndrome associated with unilateral vocal fold paralysis or asthma (Marcinow et al., Laryngoscope 124:1425-1430, 3), and an isolated asthma (Zwirner et al., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 254:242-245, 1). Nine out of the thirteen patients were improved by the injections. A BT-A-induced stable benefit for four patients led them to stop the injections in the follow-up. Good outcome was observed in five other patients (main cause: bilateral VP paralysis), allowing a progressive lengthening of the delay between BT-A injections. Four patients did not report a positive risk/benefit ratio after BT-A injections; two of them (with bilateral VF paralysis), because of respiratory side effects and

  11. Dyspnea assessment and adverse events during sputum induction in COPD

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    Moschandreas Joanna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation of normal or hypertonic saline during sputum induction (SI may act as an indirect bronchoconstrictive stimulus leading to dyspnea and lung function deterioration. Our aim was to assess dyspnea and adverse events in COPD patients who undergo SI following a safety protocol. Methods Sputum was induced by normal and hypertonic (4.5% saline solution in 65 patients with COPD of varying severity. In order to minimize saline-induced bronchoconstriction a protocol based on the European Respiratory Society sputum induction Task group report was followed. Dyspnea change was scored using the Borg scale and lung function was assessed by spirometry and oximetry. Results Borg score changes [median(IQR 1.5(0–2] were observed during SI in 40 subjects; 16 patients required temporary discontinuation of the procedure due to dyspnea-general discomfort and 2 did not complete the session due to dyspnea-wheezing. The change in Borg dyspnea score was significantly correlated with oxygen saturation and heart rate changes and with discontinuation of the procedure due to undesired symptoms. 19 subjects presented an hyperresponsive reaction (decline>20% from baseline FEV1. No significant correlation between Borg changes and FEV1decline was found. Patients with advanced COPD presented significantly greater Borg and oxygen saturation changes than patients with less severe disease (p = 0.02 and p = 0.001, respectively. Baseline FEV1, oxygen saturation and 6MWT demonstrated significant diagnostic values in distinguishing subjects who develop an adverse physiologic reaction during the procedure. Conclusion COPD patients undergoing SI following a safety protocol do not experience major adverse events. Dyspnea and oxygen desaturation is more likely to occur in patients with disease in advanced stages, leading to short discontinuation or less frequently to termination of the procedure. Baseline FEV1, oxygen saturation and 6MWT may have a

  12. Relationship between anxiety and dyspnea on exertion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, J.N.; Sanderman, R.; Postema, K.; van Sonderen, E.; Wempe, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Dyspnea limits exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is known to induce anxiety. Little is known whether anxiety contributes to exercise-induced dyspnea, which in turn might influence the outcome of diagnostic tests. The aim of the present study was to examine

  13. [Dyspnea in the terminal stage].

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    Binsack, T

    2001-10-01

    From all symptoms in palliative medicine those concerning respiration are most excruciating and most difficult to treat. No other symptom is more dependent on psychosocial circumstances and on the atmosphere around the patient. Therefore the relief of respiratory problems is as important as the therapy of pain. A consequent therapy comprises besides drug therapy (adrenocortical steroids, brochodilators, opioids, sedatives and sometimes antibiotics) also physiotherapy and in special cases oncological treatment and radiotherapy. A team present twenty-four hours a day, the training of relatives and friends, the frank dealing with the patient's anxiety of suffocation are the basis of all therapeutic measures. Dyspnea often is the reason for a longer stay in a palliative care unit.

  14. Pseudo-asthma: when cough, wheezing, and dyspnea are not asthma.

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    Weinberger, Miles; Abu-Hasan, Mutasim

    2007-10-01

    Although asthma is the most common cause of cough, wheeze, and dyspnea in children and adults, asthma is often attributed inappropriately to symptoms from other causes. Cough that is misdiagnosed as asthma can occur with pertussis, cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, airway abnormalities such as tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia, chronic purulent or suppurative bronchitis in young children, and habit-cough syndrome. The respiratory sounds that occur with the upper airway obstruction caused by the various manifestations of the vocal cord dysfunction syndrome or the less common exercise-induced laryngomalacia are often mischaracterized as wheezing and attributed to asthma. The perception of dyspnea is a prominent symptom of hyperventilation attacks. This can occur in those with or without asthma, and patients with asthma may not readily distinguish the perceived dyspnea of a hyperventilation attack from the acute airway obstruction of asthma. Dyspnea on exertion, in the absence of other symptoms of asthma or an unequivocal response to albuterol, is most likely a result of other causes. Most common is the dyspnea associated with normal exercise limitation, but causes of dyspnea on exertion can include other physiologic abnormalities including exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction, exercise-induced laryngomalacia, exercise-induced hyperventilation, and exercise-induced supraventricular tachycardia. A careful history, attention to the nature of the respiratory sounds that are present, spirometry, exercise testing, and blood-gas measurement provide useful data to sort out the various causes and avoid inappropriate treatment of these pseudo-asthma clinical manifestations.

  15. Postprandial dyspnea and malnutrition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Gray-Donald, K; Carrey, Z; Martin, J G

    1998-06-01

    To compare ventilatory response, oxygen uptake and sense of dyspnea of underweight versus normal-weight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) after a standard meal, in order to investigate whether an increase in dyspnea due to diet-induced thermogenesis might lead to altered eating habits. Weight loss in patients with COPD leads to adverse health effects, but the reasons for this loss are not well understood. Prospective study. A total of 18 patients (14 men, 4 women) aged 46 to 83 with severe, stable COPD. Minute ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), frequency of breathing, oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2) and sense of dyspnea (using the Borg scale) were measured 15 minutes before a 2.5-MJ (600-kcal) balanced liquid meal and at four 15-minute intervals after the meal. Increases in VE, VT, VO2 and VCO2 were observed for all subjects. Corrected for body surface area, the maximum postprandial changes in these indicators did not differ between the underweight and the normal-weight subjects with COPD. Work of breathing (measured in 11 subjects) did not differ between the 2 groups, nor did the number of subjects reporting increased dyspnea. Since the increases in VE, VO2, VCO2 and perceived dyspnea did not differ between the normal-weight and underweight patients, this indicates that dyspnea at mealtimes is not likely to lead to decreased food intake.

  16. Progressive dyspnea due to pulmonary carcinoid tumorlets

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    Anastasios Kallianos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case description of a female patient, 77 years-old, who presented with progressive dyspnea and cough. She had a mild hypoxemia in the arterial blood gases (PaO2 72 mmHg and normal spirometry. The chest computer tomography revealed diffuse “ground glass” opacities, segmental alveolitis, bronchiectasis, fibrotic lesions and numerous micronodules. A thoracoscopy was performed and the obtained biopsy showed carcinoid tumorlets, with positive CK8/18, CD56, TTF-1 and synaptophysin immunohistochemical markers. Pulmonary carcinoid tumorlets are rare, benign lesions and individuals with tumorlets are typically asymptomatic. Our report presents a symptomatic clinical case of carcinoid tumorlet.

  17. Translation and Validation of the Multidimensional Dyspnea-12 Questionnaire.

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    Amado Diago, Carlos Antonio; Puente Maestu, Luis; Abascal Bolado, Beatriz; Agüero Calvo, Juan; Hernando Hernando, Mercedes; Puente Bats, Irene; Agüero Balbín, Ramón

    2018-02-01

    Dyspnea is a multidimensional symptom, but this multidimensionality is not considered in most dyspnea questionnaires. The Dyspnea-12 takes a multidimensional approach to the assessment of dyspnea, specifically the sensory and the affective response. The objective of this study was to translate into Spanish and validate the Dyspnea-12 questionnaire. The original English version of the Dyspnea-12 questionnaire was translated into Spanish and backtranslated to analyze its equivalence. Comprehension of the text was verified by analyzing the responses of 10 patients. Reliability and validation of the questionnaire were studied in an independent group of COPD patients attending the pulmonology clinics of Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, diagnosed and categorized according to GOLD guidelines. The mean age of the group (n=51) was 65 years and mean FEV1 was 50%. All patients understood all questions of the translated version of Dyspnea-12. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was α=0.937 and intraclass correlation coefficient was=.969; P<.001. Statistically significant correlations were found with HADS (anxiety r=.608 and depression r=.615), mMRC dyspnea (r=.592), 6MWT (r=-0.445), FEV1 (r=-0.312), all dimensions of CRQ-SAS (dyspnea r=-0.626; fatigue r=-0.718; emotional function r=-0.663; mastery r=-0.740), CAT (r=0.669), and baseline dyspnea index (r=-0.615). Dyspnea-12 scores were 10.32 points higher in symptomatic GOLD groups (B and D) (P<.001). The Spanish version of Dyspnea-12 is a valid and reliable instrument to study the multidimensional nature of dyspnea. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Dyspnea: when the preliminary imaging is unconvincing

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    Angelica Moretti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old man was admitted to the Emergency Room (ER for dyspnea and cough from several months. In ER were performed blood sampling, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and arterial blood gas. A thoracic ultrasound (US revealed in the left side an abundant pleural effusion and a lung consolidation area of about 5 cm without air bronchogram. A thoracentesis showed the presence of hemorrhagic effusion. Chest computed tomography (CT revealed micro-pulmonary embolism, abundant left pleural effusion with atelectasis of the lower ipsilateral lobe. Meanwhile the chest CT revised by the pulmonologist appeared suspicious for the presence of cancer, the cytological examination of pleural fluid revealed the presence of an adenocarcinoma. While the patient was waiting for the bronchoscopy he had a stroke and died in a few days. In conclusion, we believe that thoracic US has to be considered an extension of the physical examination, it is a bedside tool and it represents a valid diagnostic and therapeutic method. Therefore thoracic US, if closely linked to the physician’s activity, can directly affect the decision-making process and management of the patient with dyspnea.

  19. Intrathoracic Caecal Perforation Presenting as Dyspnea

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    Vincent Granier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bochdalek hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that is usually diagnosed in the neonatal period and incidentally in asymptomatic adults. Small bowel incarceration in a right-sided Bochdalek hernia is exceptional for an adult. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman was admitted for acute dyspnea, tachycardia, hypotension, and fever. Five days before, she had been experiencing an episode of diffuse abdominal pain. The admission chest X-ray was interpreted as right pleural effusion and pneumothorax with left mediastinal shift. Chest tube drainage was purulent. The thoracoabdominal CT examination suspected an intestinal incarceration through a right diaphragmatic defect. At laparotomy, a right-sided Bochdalek hernia was confirmed with a complete necrosis of the incarcerated caecum. Ileocaecal resection was performed, but the patient died from delayed septic complications. Conclusion. Intrathoracic perforation of the caecum is a rare occurrence; delayed diagnosis due to misleading initial symptoms may lead to severe complications and poor prognosis.

  20. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

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    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intravenous Fentanyl for Dyspnea at the End of Life: Lessons for Future Research in Dyspnea.

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    Pang, G S; Qu, L M; Tan, Y Y; Yee, A C P

    2016-04-01

    To determine the efficacy of intravenous (IV) Fentanyl in dyspnoeic patients with advanced cancer. Dyspnoeic patients with advanced cancer satisfying the selection criteria received (IV) Fentanyl and were evaluated for response 24 hours post-administration in a prospective observational study. Altogether 36 patients were enrolled into the study. However, data from only 16 patients could be analysed as 20 patients had died or were too sick to self-report scores. Seven out of 16 patients responded to IV Fentanyl although the result was not statistically significant (non-responders versus responders: 56.3% vs 43.8%, p = 0.33). The strongest correlations for variables predictive of responder status were the absence of anxiety and lung metastases. This exploratory study shows that IV Fentanyl can alleviate dyspnea in some patients but is an example of the difficulties conducting dyspnea research. Future studies would benefit from novel developments in the areas of measuring dyspnea in dying patients and statistical analysis of small sample sizes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The Interpretation of Dyspnea in the Patient with Asthma

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    Marc H. Lavietes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians have noted dyspnea in severely ill asthmatic patients to be associated with fright or panic; in more stable patients dyspnea may reflect characteristics including lung function, personality and behavioral traits. This study evaluates the symptom of dyspnea in 32 asthmatic patients twice: first when acutely ill and again after an initial response to therapy. Spirometry was performed, dyspnea quantified (Borg scale, and panic assessed with a specialized measure of acute panic (the acute panic inventory (API in the 32 patients before and again after treatment. After treatment, questionnaires to evaluate somatization and panic disorder were also administered. When acutely ill, both the API and all spirometric measures (PEFR; FEV1; IC correlated with dyspnea. Multiple linear regression showed that measures of the API, the peak expiratory flow rate, and female sex taken together accounted for 41% of dyspnea in acute asthma. After treatment, the API again predicted dyspnea while spirometric data did not. Those subjects who described themselves as having chronic panic disorder reported high grades of dyspnea after treatment also. We conclude that interpretations of the self-report of asthma differ between acutely ill and stable asthmatic patients.

  3. The role of voice therapy in the treatment of dyspnea and dysphonia in a patient with a vagal nerve stimulation device.

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    Gillespie, Amanda I; Helou, Leah B; Ingle, John W; Baldwin, Maria; Rosen, Clark A

    2014-01-01

    Vagal nerve stimulators (VNS) are implanted to treat medically refractory epilepsy and depression. The VNS stimulates the vagus nerve in the left neck. Laryngeal side effects are common and include dysphagia, dysphonia, and dyspnea. The current case study represents a patient with severe dyspnea and dysphonia, persisting even with VNS deactivation. The case demonstrates the use of voice and respiratory retraining therapy for the treatment of VNS-induced dysphonia and dyspnea. It also highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, including laryngology, neurology, and speech-language pathology, in the treatment of these challenging patients. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental investigation of cavitation induced air release

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    Kowalski Karoline

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in cross-sectional areas may lead to pressure drops below a critical value, such that cavitation and air release are provoked in hydraulic systems. Due to a relatively slow dissolution of gas bubbles, the performance of hydraulic systems will be affected on long time scales by the gas phase. Therefore predictions of air production rates are desirable to describe the system characteristics. Existing investigations on generic geometries such as micro-orifice flows show an outgassing process due to hydrodynamic cavitation which takes place on time scales far shorter than diffusion processes. The aim of the present investigation is to find a correlation between global, hydrodynamic flow characteristics and cavitation induced undissolved gas fractions generated behind generic flow constrictions such as an orifice or venturi tube. Experimental investigations are realised in a cavitation channel that enables an independent adjustment of the pressure level upstream and downstream of the orifice. Released air fractions are determined by means of shadowgraphy imaging. First results indicate that an increased cavitation activity leads to a rapid increase in undissolved gas volume only in the choking regime. The frequency distribution of generated gas bubble size seems to depend only indirectly on the cavitation intensity driven by an increase of downstream coalescence events due to a more densely populated bubbly flow.

  5. Experimental investigation of cavitation induced air release

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    Kowalski, Karoline; Pollak, Stefan; Hussong, Jeanette

    Variations in cross-sectional areas may lead to pressure drops below a critical value, such that cavitation and air release are provoked in hydraulic systems. Due to a relatively slow dissolution of gas bubbles, the performance of hydraulic systems will be affected on long time scales by the gas phase. Therefore predictions of air production rates are desirable to describe the system characteristics. Existing investigations on generic geometries such as micro-orifice flows show an outgassing process due to hydrodynamic cavitation which takes place on time scales far shorter than diffusion processes. The aim of the present investigation is to find a correlation between global, hydrodynamic flow characteristics and cavitation induced undissolved gas fractions generated behind generic flow constrictions such as an orifice or venturi tube. Experimental investigations are realised in a cavitation channel that enables an independent adjustment of the pressure level upstream and downstream of the orifice. Released air fractions are determined by means of shadowgraphy imaging. First results indicate that an increased cavitation activity leads to a rapid increase in undissolved gas volume only in the choking regime. The frequency distribution of generated gas bubble size seems to depend only indirectly on the cavitation intensity driven by an increase of downstream coalescence events due to a more densely populated bubbly flow.

  6. Unexplained dyspnea in a patient of chronic arsenicosis: A diagnostic challenge and learning curve for physicians

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    Amitabha Sengupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic exposure causes cutaneous effects like hyperkeratosis, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, non-cirrhotic portal hypertension, hepatomegaly, peripheral neuropathy, respiratory involvement, bad obstetrical outcome, hematological disturbances, and diabetes mellitus. Here we present a case of a 24-year-old lady, with chronic exposure to arsenic, presenting to us with progressive dyspnea. We found pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH as a cause of her dyspnea. PAH can occur in arsenicosis, secondary to arsenic-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, lung fibrosis, and portal hypertension, which we excluded by appropriate investigations in our case. We also excluded a familial or heritable form of PAH. Thus, with the exclusion of all these secondary causes of PAH, as well as a hereditary cause, we came to a conclusion that this PAH might be due to chronic arsenic exposure. To the best of our knowledge, no case of PAH in chronic arsenicosis has been reported to date.

  7. Hemodynamic determinants of dyspnea improvement in acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonica, Amir; Burger, Andrew J; Aronson, Doron

    2013-01-01

    Dyspnea relief constitutes a major treatment goal and a key measure of treatment efficacy in decompensated heart failure. However, there are no data with regard to the relationship between hemodynamic measurements during treatment and dyspnea improvement. We studied 233 patients assigned to right heart catheterization in the Vasodilation in the Management of Acute Congestive Heart Failure trial. Dyspnea (assessed using a 7-point Likert scale) and hemodynamic parameters were measured simultaneously at 15 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Dyspnea relief was defined as moderate or marked improvement. There was a time-dependent association between the reductions in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP; 25.4, 24.6, 24.0, 23.5, 23.4, 21.5, and 19.9 mm Hg) and the percentage of patients achieving dyspnea relief (17.7%, 24.6%, 32.2%, 36.2%, 37.8%, 47.4%, and 66.1%, in the respective time points). Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equations modeling demonstrated that reductions of both PCWP and mean pulmonary artery pressure were independently associated with dyspnea relief. Compared with the highest PCWP quartile, the adjusted odds ratios for dyspnea relief were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.29), 1.07 (95% CI, 0.75-1.55), and 1.80 (95% CI, 1.22-2.65) in the third, second, and first PCWP quartiles, respectively (P(trend)=0.003). Compared with the highest mean pulmonary artery pressure quartile, the adjusted odds ratios for dyspnea relief were 2.0 (95% CI, 1.41-2.82), 2.23 (95% CI, 1.52-3.27), and 2.98 (95% CI, 1.91-4.66) in the third, second, and first mean pulmonary artery pressure quartiles, respectively (P(trend)<0.0001). A clinically significant improvement in dyspnea is associated with a reduction in both PCWP and mean pulmonary artery pressure.

  8. Cardiopulmonary laboratory biomarkers in the evaluation of acute dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Natalie R; Dietz, Brett W; Liang, Jackson J

    2016-01-01

    Dyspnea is a common chief complaint in the emergency department, with over 4 million visits annually in the US. Establishing the correct diagnosis can be challenging, because the subjective sensation of dyspnea can result from a wide array of underlying pathology, including pulmonary, cardiac, neurologic, psychiatric, toxic, and metabolic disorders. Further, the presence of dyspnea is linked with increased mortality in a variety of conditions, and misdiagnosis of the cause of dyspnea leads to poor patient-level outcomes. In combination with the history and physical, efficient, and focused use of laboratory studies, the various cardiopulmonary biomarkers can be useful in establishing the correct diagnosis and guiding treatment decisions in a timely manner. Use and interpretation of such tests must be guided by the clinical context, as well as an understanding of the current evidence supporting their use. This review discusses current standards and research regarding the use of established and emerging cardiopulmonary laboratory markers in the evaluation of acute dyspnea, focusing on recent evidence assessing the diagnostic and prognostic utility of various tests. These markers include brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal prohormone (NT-proBNP), mid-regional peptides proatrial NP and proadrenomedullin, cardiac troponins, D-dimer, soluble ST2, and galectin 3, and included is a discussion on the use of arterial and venous blood gases.

  9. Experimental evaluation of earthquake induced relay chattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Shteyngart, S.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of relay performance under vibratory environments is discussed in this paper. Single frequency excitation was used for most tests. Limited tests were performed with random multifrequency inputs. The capacity of each relay was established based on a two-millisecond chatter criterion. The experimental techniques are described and the effects of parameters in controlling the relay capacity levels are illustrated with test data. A wide variation of the capacity levels was observed due to the influence of parameters related to the design of the relay and nature of the input motion. 3 refs., 15 figs

  10. Cardiopulmonary laboratory biomarkers in the evaluation of acute dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes NR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natalie R Stokes,1 Brett W Dietz,1 Jackson J Liang2 1Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Cardiovascular Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Dyspnea is a common chief complaint in the emergency department, with over 4 million visits annually in the US. Establishing the correct diagnosis can be challenging, because the subjective sensation of dyspnea can result from a wide array of underlying pathology, including pulmonary, cardiac, neurologic, psychiatric, toxic, and metabolic disorders. Further, the presence of dyspnea is linked with increased mortality in a variety of conditions, and misdiagnosis of the cause of dyspnea leads to poor patient-level outcomes. In combination with the history and physical, efficient, and focused use of laboratory studies, the various cardiopulmonary biomarkers can be useful in establishing the correct diagnosis and guiding treatment decisions in a timely manner. Use and interpretation of such tests must be guided by the clinical context, as well as an understanding of the current evidence supporting their use. This review discusses current standards and research regarding the use of established and emerging cardiopulmonary laboratory markers in the evaluation of acute dyspnea, focusing on recent evidence assessing the diagnostic and prognostic utility of various tests. These markers include brain natriuretic peptide (BNP and N-terminal prohormone (NT-proBNP, mid-regional peptides proatrial NP and proadrenomedullin, cardiac troponins, D-dimer, soluble ST2, and galectin 3, and included is a discussion on the use of arterial and venous blood gases.Keywords: cardiopulmonary, emergency, heart failure, troponin, BNP, galectin 3, MR-proANP, MR-proADM

  11. Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 23, 2014 An ... group of conditions that can result in irreversible blindness. This vision loss can be reduced if glaucoma ...

  12. Intra- and interpersonal consequences of experimentally induced concealment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Secrecy, concealment, and thought supression are assumed to be important aspects of psychopathology. However, most studies address these from an intrapersonal perspective. This study investigates both the intra- as well as the interpersonal consequences of experimentally induced concealment. Two

  13. Development and validation of the Dyspnea Index (DI): a severity index for upper airway-related dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie L; Shembel, Adrianna C; Zullo, Thomas G; Rosen, Clark A

    2014-11-01

    To (1) develop and validate the Dyspnea Index (DI); (2) quantify severity of symptoms in upper airway dyspnea; and (3) validate the DI as an outcome measure. Survey development and validation. Three hundred sixty-nine participants were recruited for different phases of the study. Two hundred participants with chief complaints of dyspnea were given a 41-item questionnaire addressing common symptoms of dyspnea related to the upper airway. The questions were then reduced based on principal component analysis (PCA) and internal consistency resulting in a 10-item questionnaire. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 15 participants. Test-retest reliability and discriminant validity were measured from 51 participants. The DI was further validated by administering the index to 57 healthy controls (HC). Validation of the DI as a treatment outcome tool occurred with 46 participants' pre- and post-treatment scores. PCA revealed that only a single factor was being measured in both the original 41- and 10-item questionnaires. Additional cognitive interviewing suggested that no modification was needed to the DI. Test-retest reliability was r = 0.83. Discriminant validity was r = 0.62. The Mann-Whitney test demonstrated significant differences between healthy/symptomatic participants. Scores from the HC cohort resulted in a mean of 3.12 (SEM = 0.484; SD = 3.65) for the normative values. The DI is an effective and efficient instrument to quantify patients' symptoms of upper airway dyspnea. It is a statistically robust index, with significant reliability and validity, and can be dependably used as a treatment outcome measure. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Status of experimental data for neutron induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    A short review is presented on the status of experimental data for neutron induced reactions above 20 MeV based on the EXFOR data base and journals. Experimental data which were obtained in a systematic manner and/or by plural authors are surveyed and tabulated for the nuclear data evaluation and the benchmark test of the evaluated data. (author). 61 refs.

  15. Pulmonary emphysema induced by methylphenidate: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapello, Gabriel Victor Guimarães; Antoniolli, Andréia; Pereira, Daniel Martins; Facco, Gilberto; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Pazetti, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate is the most widely used drug for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, it has important side effects, such as abdominal pain, insomnia, anorexia and loss of appetite, and also some cases of early severe emphysema after drug abuse have been reported. Our aim was to investigate the development of pulmonary emphysema in rats that were subjected to different doses of methylphenidate. Experimental study carried out at the laboratory of a public university. Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (0.9% saline solution); MP 0.8 (methylphenidate, 0.8 mg/kg); MP 1.2 (methylphenidate, 1.2 mg/kg). After 90 days of daily gavage, the animals were sacrificed and lung tissue samples were prepared for analysis on the mean alveolar diameter (Lm). The Lm was greater in MP 0.8 (47.91 ± 3.13; P pulmonary emphysema.

  16. Experimental induced avian E. coli salpingitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Several types of Escherichia coli have been associated with extra-intestinal infections in poultry, however, they may vary significantly in their virulence potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the virulence of five strains of E. coli obtained from different disease......) had a distinct ability to cause disease. Results of the study shows major differences in virulence of different strains of E. coli in ascending infections; however, there was no indication of tissue-specific adaptation, since strains obtained from lesions unrelated to the reproductive system were...... fully capable of causing experimental infection. In conclusion, the study provides evidence for the clinical outcome of infection with E. coli in poultry is largely influenced by the specific strain as well as individual host factors....

  17. Severe dyspnea due to a giant antrochoanal polyp

    OpenAIRE

    Coloma-Milano M; Gil-Carcedo-Sañudo E; Gil-Carcedo-García LM.; Martín-Batista S; Madrigal-Revuelta M; Vallejo-Valdezate LA

    2012-01-01

    SummaryIntroduction: The antrochoanal polyp is a prevalent pathology in teenagers and young adults. It usually presents with nasal obstruction.Patient and method: Case report: An 80-year-old male with alcoholic encephalopathy, chronic bronchial disease of unknown etiology and polypoid chronic rhinosinusitis came to the emergency service with severe dyspnea without laryngeal features.Anterior rhinoscopy showed a polypoid mass in left nostril that prevented the visualization with nasal endoscop...

  18. Experimental carcinogenesis induced by incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghiso, Yoichi

    1999-01-01

    The carcinogenic effects of an alpha-emitter, 239 Pu, were investigated by animal experiments as focused on both pulmonary tumors after inhalation exposures to insoluble oxide aerosols and tumor spectra induced by injection of soluble citrate. The life-span study using Wistar strain rats exposed to Pu dioxide aerosols has shown differential dose-related responses of malignancies and histopathological phenotypes of lung tumors, suggesting a threshold dose around 1.0 Gy of the lung dose. As abnormality of tumor-related genes could be supposed for the background of pulmonary carcinogenesis, the mutations of p53 tumor suppressor gene were examined by PCR-SSCP analysis using DNA fragments extracted from lung tumors. While mutations were detected in 23 cases (about 28%) among 82 lung tumors, their relations to either malignancies, histological phenotypes, dose, or oncogenesis are not yet to be elucidated. The life-span study using C3H strain mice injected with Pu citrate has shown contrast dose responses between osteosarcomas and lymphoid tumors around 10 Gy of the skeletal dose, and further indicated specific tumor spectra differed from low LET radiation exposures as shown by much more frequency of B cell type leukemic lymphomas and none of myeloid leukemias. (author)

  19. Vaccination with IL-6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL-6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Jensen, Lene; Andersson, Christina

    2007-01-01

    ; yet they appear healthy and do not exhibit overt clinical or laboratory abnormalities. We induced comparable levels of aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb-IL-6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental...

  20. Analysis of Depression and Anxiety Levels in Patients with Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kayhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of anxiety and depression in a sample of elderly patients with chronic respiratory failure and the relationships between these comorbidities and the severity of dyspnea. Material and Method: Sixty-four consecutive inpatients with asthma and chronic obstructive disease were evaluated in a chest disease hospital. A questionnaire including sociodemographic features was applied to patients and healthy control group. Anxiety was assessed by Spielberg state and trait anxiety scale, and depression by Beck depression inventory. Spirometric tests, respiratory symptoms and severity of dyspnea were evaluated in the study group. Results: The mean age of study group was 67.28±9.13 (range between 50-88 years. Of those 22 (34.4% were females and 42 (65.6% were males. The mean Beck depression inventory scores of the group was 18.42±10.00 (range between 5-47, the mean Spielberg’s state anxiety score was 40.20±8.13 and the mean Spielberg’s trait score was 44.70±7.94 these results were close to control group. Depression with Beck depression inventory scores was diagnosed in 24 (37.5%, absent or mild depression in 40 (62.5%, moderate depression in 13 (20.3% and severe depression in 11 (17.2% patients. There was a relation between age and depression scores (p=0.022. Depression scores, Spielberg’s state and trait inventory scores were found statistically related with each other. Discussion: The results of the present study support that anxiety and depressive disorders are found with a high incidence in patients with respiratory impairments but the severity of dyspnea measures does not affect the scores of depression and anxiety.

  1. [A case of laryngeal papilloma with sudden dyspnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabiszczak, Maciej; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Borucki, Lukasz; Iwanik, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    Laryngeal papilloma is one of the most common non-malignant tumors of the larynx. In adult they are included to pre-cancerous diseases. In morphological examination, it is a solid tumor. Often it is possible to cure them during one surgical procedure. The disease is mostly localized on the anterior commissurae region, vocal fold, ventricules, and on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. If the malignant transformation is suspected, a large excision with margin has to be performed, completed by a histological evaluation. A case of a huge laryngeal papilloma with dyspnea is presented.

  2. Cholescintigraphy in experimentally induced obstructive and parenchymatous jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, M.; Biersack, H.J.; Hofmann, S.; Winkler, C.

    1979-01-01

    Animal studies have been performed in 30 dogs in order to obtain information concerning typical patterns of cholescintigraphy in acute obstructive jaundice. In 14 the choledochus was ligated and in 16 galactosamine-hepatitis was induced as an experimental model for parenchymatous jaundice. The results suggest a number of diagnostic criteria in obstructive disease. (Auth.)

  3. Surfactant induced flows in thin liquid films : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinz, D.K.N.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of the experimental work summarized in my thesis is the flow in thin liquid films induced by non-uniformly distributed surfactants. The flow dynamics as a consequence of the deposition of a droplet of an insoluble surfactant onto a thin liquid film covering a solid substrate where

  4. Experimentally Induced Learned Helplessness: How Far Does it Generalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffin, Keith; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed whether experimentally induced learned helplessness on a cognitive training task generalized to a situationally dissimilar social interaction test task. No significant differences were observed between groups on the subsequent test task, showing that helplessness failed to generalize. (Author/ABB)

  5. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0A degrees......Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven...... muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper...

  6. Acute laryngeal dyspnea as first presentation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajor, Anna Maria; Kwiatkowska, Sylwia; Kroczyńska-Bednarek, Jadwiga; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a multi-organ disease which mostly affects lungs, kidney, and head and neck region. We report a rare case of acute laryngeal dyspnea and rapidly progressive pulmonary changes as first manifestations of disease. A 53 year-old woman presented with symptoms of two-week dyspnea, which aggravated rapidly in the preceding hours. Laryngological examination revealed subglottic infiltrations and vocal fold oedema which required urgent tracheotomy. During few days she developed gingival ulcerations and pulmonary infiltration with negative serum c-ANCA titers. The histopathological examination of subglottic and gingival biopsies and the clinical picture established the diagnosis of GPA. She was treated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide with recovery; however, during over 3 years of follow-up, pulmonary symptoms relapsed and subglottic stenosis persisted. The difficulties in diagnosis and treatment in this unusual presentation of GPA are outlined with conclusion that in patients with subglottic infiltration, which develops rapidly, even when this is a sole presentation of the disease, and when c-ANCA are negative, GPA should always be considered.

  7. Prolonged drug-induced hypothermia in experimental stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig; Reith, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    In experimental and human stroke, hypothermia is strongly related to a favorable outcome. Previous attempts to manipulate the core temperature in focal cerebral ischemia have been based on mechanical cooling. The purpose of the study is to establish a model for long-term drug-induced hypothermia...... in focal ischemia by pharmacological alteration of the central thermoregulatory set-point. We tested the hypothesis that the dopaminergic agonist Talipexole, which induces hypothermia, reduces infarct size. Body temperature was monitored by a radio-pill-implant. Rats had reversible occlusion of the middle...... that the core body temperature was reduced by 1.7 degrees C for 24 hours after MCAO in rats treated with Talipexole. This treatment induced a significant reduction of infarct volume at 7 days after focal ischemia by 47%. We suggest that the reduction in infarct volume is related to drug-induced hypothermia...

  8. Neuroendocrine mechanisms of development of experimental hyperandrogen-induced anovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, A G; Sinitsyn, P V; Tarasenko, L V; Polyakova, L I

    2003-10-01

    An experimental model of hyperandrogen-induced anovulatory infertility (s.c. implantation of Silastic capsules containing testosterone into adult female rats) was used to study morphological, hormonal, and biochemical measures characterizing the state of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-ovarian system. Impairments in functional androgen metabolism in the hypothalamus were seen, with decreases in the Luliberin sensitivity of the hypophysis, changes in the structure of estral cycles, and morphological changes in the ovaries; these findings are evidence for neuroendocrine disturbances in the control of ovulation. Flutamide, an experimental antiandrogen, led to partial normalization of the hormonal, biochemical, and morphological characteristics, as well as to recovery of fertility in females with anovulatory infertility.

  9. A Large Intra-Abdominal Hiatal Hernia as a Rare Cause of Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant hiatal hernias, generally seen at advanced ages, can rarely cause cardiac symptoms such as dyspnea and chest pain. Here, we aimed to present a case with a large hiatal hernia that largely protruded to intrathoracic cavity and caused dyspnea, particularly at postprandial period, by compressing the left atrium and right pulmonary vein. We considered presenting this case as large hiatal hernia is a rare, intra-abdominal cause of dyspnea.

  10. Observational study to analyze patterns of treatment of breakthrough dyspnea in cancer patients in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Delgado-Mingorance, Ignacio; Nabal-Vicuña, María; Jiménez-López, Antonio Javier; Cabezón-Álvarez, Ana; Soler-López, Begoña

    2018-06-12

    Although breakthrough dyspnea is very frequent in cancer patients, there are no precise recommendations for treating it. The main objective of this study was to analyze what treatments are used in clinical practice for the management of breakthrough dyspnea in cancer patients in Spain and the secondary objectives were to describe the characteristics of cancer patients with breakthrough dyspnea and the attributes of the disorder. Cancer patients over 18 years of age, with breakthrough dyspnea and a Karnofsky performance score of ≥30, who were treated at departments of oncology in institutes across Spain were included in this cross-sectional observational study. The characteristics of breakthrough dyspnea, history of treatment, anthropometric variables, Mahler dyspnea index, Borg scale, Edmonton Symptoms Assessment Scale, and patient satisfaction with current breakthrough dyspnea treatment were assessed. The mean age of the 149 included patients was 66 years (95% confidence interval: 64.3 to 67.9), and 53 were females (35.6%). The mean breakthrough dyspnea intensity was 5.85 (95% confidence interval 5.48 to 6.22, Borg scale). A total of 55.1% of the first-choice treatments consisted of opioids, followed by oxygen (17.3%). A total of 119 patients (79.9%) received monotherapy for breakthrough dyspnea. Patients presenting with basal dyspnea received oxygen in a greater proportion of cases (21.1% vs 7.4%; p = 0.07). Patients with predictable dyspnea received a greater proportion of opioids (70.9% vs 44.4%; p = 0.01). Opioids constitute first-line therapy for breakthrough dyspnea in routine clinical practice, though the scientific evidence supporting their use is scarce. Further information derived from controlled clinical trials is needed regarding the comparative efficacy of the different treatments in order to justify their use.

  11. Experimental identification of pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes 4.5-48 mm). The experimental campaign involved seventy-one male and female human adults and covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed between 4954 individual tests. When walking on a laterally moving surface, motion-induced forces develop also......This paper presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of lateral forces generated by single pedestrians during continuous walking on a treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying...... and inter-subject variability. It is shown that the motion induced portion of the pedestrian load (on average) inputs energy into the structure in the frequency range (normalised by the average walking frequency) between approximately 0.6 and 1.2. Furthermore, it is shown that the load component in phase...

  12. Transformation induced plasticity in maraging steel: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, K.; Kitajima, Y.; Kigami, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2000-01-01

    The deformation behavior of a maraging TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) steel (MAVAL X12) is studied experimentally under a constant load. The existence of the back stress in the axial direction is directly proved by investigating the dilatation curves. Martensite-start lines are given under tensile, compressive and shear stresses. The evolution of TRIP strain and the maximum TRIP strain are determined. The alloy response during isothermal tensile test is explained in terms of influences both by the composite and transformation. (orig.)

  13. Severe dyspnea in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Poble

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is a genetic disease in which pulmonary complications are rare, but severe, especially pulmonary hypertension (PH. The mechanisms underlying the onset of PH in patients with NF1 are unclear and might be multifactorial. In particular, the frequent presence of pulmonary parenchymal lesions makes etiological diagnosis of PH difficult. We describe here the case of a patient with NF1 admitted to our clinic with dyspnea and right heart failure revealing severe pre-capillary PH. Parenchymal lesions were mild and PH was attributed to pulmonary vascular involvement. Clinical and hemodynamic conditions of the patient improved under pulmonary arterial hypertension-specific combination therapy. This case suggests that treatment of PH due to pulmonary vascular involvement in NF1 may be aligned with recommendations for PAH treatment.

  14. Acromegaly presented as a cause of laryngeal dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saussez, S; Mahillon, V; Chantrain, G; Thill, M P; Lequeux, T

    2007-12-01

    Acromegalic patients can develop obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or upper airflow obstruction. The development of dyspnea is unusual and the fixation of both vocal cords is exceptional. We report the case of a patient with bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy and computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed a supra-glottic stenosis due to a swelling of the soft tissue. A tracheostomy was first performed. Thereafter, micro-laryngoscopy using laser vaporisation of the supra-glottic soft tissue was attempted but failed to remove the tracheostomy canula. Finally, blood tests and cerebral MRI revealed an acromegaly. The patient underwent a trans-sphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma. Fifteen months later, fiberoptic laryngoscopy showed bilateral restoration of vocal cord mobility and the tracheostomy canula was successfully removed after 18 months. Vocal cord fixation is probably due to hypopharyngeal and laryngeal soft tissue swelling and can be reversible after successful treatment of the adenoma.

  15. Dyspnea and dysphagia associated to hypopharyngeal fibrolipoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Mendez Saenz, MD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomas are benign lesions conformed by fat and connective tissue, classified as histologic variants of lipomas. They are rarely located in the head and neck and represent less than 0.6% of the benign tumors of the larynx and hypopharynx. Their clinical presentation depends on its location and size. We present the case of a 51-year-old male patient who reported progressive dyspnea, dysphagia and obstructive sleep symptoms with a duration of 3 months, without apparent cause. A pharyngolaryngeal fiberoptic endoscopy showed a smooth, rounded mass in the posterior wall of the hypopharynx, partially obstructing the laryngeal vestibule, creating a valve effect. Complete trans-cervical resection of the lesion was performed after the airway was secured by means of a tracheotomy. The final histopathology report was fibrolipoma. He is currently asymptomatic and without evidence of relapse one year after the procedure.

  16. Creatine kinase activity in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Zapryanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute inflammation on total creatine kinase (CK activity in dogs. In these animals, CK is an enzyme found predominantly in skeletal muscle and significantly elevated serum activity is largely associated with muscle damage. Plasma increases in dogs are associated with cell membrane leakage and will therefore be seen in any condition associated with muscular inflammation. The study was induced in 15 mongrel male dogs (n=9 in experimental group and n=6 in control group at the age of two years and body weight 12-15 kg. The inflammation was reproduced by inoculation of 2 ml turpentine oil subcutaneously in lumbar region. The plasma activity of creatine kinase was evaluated at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 hours after inoculation and on days 7, 14 and 21 by a kit from Hospitex Diagnostics. In the experimental group, the plasma concentrations of the CK-activity were increased at the 48th hour (97.48±6.92 U/L and remained significantly higher (p<0.05 at the 72 hour (97.43±2.93 U/L compared to the control group (77.08±5.27 U/L. The results of this study suggest that the evaluation of creatine kinase in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation has a limited diagnostic value. It was observed that the creatine kinase activity is slightly affected by the experimentally induced acute inflammation in dogs.

  17. Microcirculation alterations in experimentally induced gingivitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Masato; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Shun-Suke; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Maeda, Shingo; Iimura, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to morphologically examine the gingival microvascular network using a microvascular resin cast (MRC) technique, and to investigate how inflammatory disease functionally affects gingival microcirculation using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). We used four beagle dogs with healthy periodontal tissue as experimental animals. To cause periodontal inflammation, dental floss was placed around the cervical neck portions of the right premolars. The unmanipulated left premolars served as controls, and received plaque control every 7 days. After 90 days, gingivitis was induced in the experimental side, while the control side maintained healthy gingiva. To perform morphological examinations, we used an MRC method involving the injection of low-viscosity synthetic resin into the blood vessels, leading to peripheral soft-tissue dissolution and permitting observation of the bone, teeth, and vascular cast. Gingival blood flow was estimated using an LDF meter. The control gingival vasculature showed hairpin-loop-like networks along the tooth surface. The blood vessels had diameters of 20-40 μm and were regularly arranged around the cervical portion. On the other hand, the vasculature in the experimental group was twisted and gathered into spiral forms, with blood vessels that had uneven surfaces and smaller diameters of 8-10 μm. LDF revealed reduced gingival blood flow in the group with experimentally induced gingivitis compared to controls. The actual measurements of gingival blood flow by LDF were in agreement with the alterations that would be expected based on the gingivitis-induced morphological alterations observed with the MRC technique.

  18. Experimental study of ion-induced nucleation by radon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, F.; Hopke, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    In the environment, the presence of ions from natural radioactivity may increase the rate of new particle formation through ion-induced nucleation. A thermal diffusion cloud chamber (TDCC) has been built to experimentally study ion-induced nucleation where the ions are produced by gaseous radioactive sources. The critical supersaturation values and nucleation rates for methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol vapors on ions produced within the volume of the chamber by alpha decay of 222 Rn have been measured quantitatively at various radioactivity concentrations and supersaturations. The presence of ion tracks and the effect of an external electric field were also investigated. The alpha tracks and ion-induced nucleation formed by 222 Rn decay become visible at the critical supersaturation that is below the value needed for homogeneous nucleation. At this supersaturation, the nucleation rates increase substantially with increasing 222 Rn at low activity concentrations, but attain limiting values at higher concentrations. The experimental results indicate that the ionization by radon decay will promote ion-cluster formation and lower the free energy barriers. The formation of visible droplets is strongly dependent on the supersaturation. This study also confirms that the external electric field has a significant effect on the observed rates of nucleation

  19. Machine Induced Experimental Background Conditions in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Levinsen, Yngve Inntjore; Stapnes, Steinar

    2012-09-19

    The Large Hadron Collider set a new energy record for particle accelerators in late 2009, breaking the previous record held by Tevatron of 2 TeV collision energy. The LHC today operates at a collision energy of 7 TeV. With higher beam energy and intensity, measures have to be taken to ensure optimal experimental conditions and safety of the machine and detectors. Machine induced experimental background can severely reduce the quality of experimental triggers and track reconstruction. In a worst case, the radiation levels can be damaging for some of the subdetectors. The LHC is a particular challenge in this regard due to the vastly different operating conditions of the different experiments. The nominal luminosity varies by four orders of magnitude. The unprecedented stored beam energy and the amount of superconducting elements can make it challenging to protect the accelerator itself as well. In this work we have simulated and measured the machine induced background originating from various sources: the beam...

  20. Corticostriatal Plastic Changes in Experimental L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Ghiglieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Parkinson’s disease (PD, alteration of dopamine- (DA- dependent striatal functions and pulsatile stimulation of DA receptors caused by the discontinuous administration of levodopa (L-DOPA lead to a complex cascade of events affecting the postsynaptic striatal neurons that might account for the appearance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID. Experimental models of LID have been widely used and extensively characterized in rodents and electrophysiological studies provided remarkable insights into the inner mechanisms underlying L-DOPA-induced corticostriatal plastic changes. Here we provide an overview of recent findings that represent a further step into the comprehension of mechanisms underlying maladaptive changes of basal ganglia functions in response to L-DOPA and associated to development of LID.

  1. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  2. Oxidative stress in immature brain following experimentally-induced seizures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, Suppl.1 (2013), S39-S48 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/08/0292; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0999; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : immature rats * experimentally-induced seizures * oxidative stress * mitochondrial dysfunction * antioxidant defense Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  3. Patterns of experimentally induced pain in pericranial muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Hansen, Peter Thede; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2006-01-01

    into the masseter muscle (anova: P pain areas (anova: P cervically innervated muscles had significantly different patterns of spread and referral of pain according to trigeminally vs....... cervically innervated dermatomes (P pain patterns and pain sensitivity in different craniofacial muscles in healthy volunteers, which may be of importance for further research on different craniofacial pain conditions.......Nociceptive mechanisms in the craniofacial muscle tissue are poorly understood. The pain pattern in individual pericranial muscles has not been described before. Experimental muscle pain was induced by standardized infusions of 0.2 ml 1 m hypertonic saline into six craniofacial muscles (masseter...

  4. Local and Systemic Inflammatory Responses to Experimentally Induced Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Shaneen J.; Seymour, Gregory J.; Ford, Pauline J.

    2013-01-01

    This study profiled the local and systemic inflammatory responses to experimentally induced gingivitis. Eight females participated in a 21-day experimental gingivitis model followed by a 14-day resolution phase. Bleeding on probing and plaque index scores were assessed before, during, and after resolution of gingival inflammation, and samples of saliva, GCF, and plasma were collected. Samples were assessed for biomarkers of inflammation using the BioPlex platform and ELISA. There were no significant changes in GCF levels of cytokines during the experimental phase; however, individual variability in cytokine profiles was noted. During resolution, mean GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased and were significantly lower than baseline levels (P = 0.003, P = 0.025, and P = 0.007, resp.). Furthermore, changes in GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α during resolution correlated with changes in plaque index scores (r = 0.88, P = 0.004; r = 0.72, P = 0.042; r = 0.79, P = 0.019, resp.). Plasma levels of sICAM-1 increased significantly during the experimental phase (P = 0.002) and remained elevated and significantly higher than baseline levels during resolution (P gingivitis adds to the systemic inflammatory burden of an individual. PMID:24227893

  5. An experimental model of hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saruc M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that acute pancreatitis is a complication of massive hemolysis with a prevalence of about 20%. We describe an experimental model of hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis. Hemolytic anemia was induced in rats by a single ip injection of 60 mg/kg of 20 mg/ml acetylphenylhydrazine (APH in 20% (v/v ethanol on the first experimental day (day 0. One hundred and fifty Wistar albino rats weighing 180-200 g were divided into three groups of 50 animals each: groups 1, 2 and 3 were injected ip with APH, 20% ethanol, and physiological saline, respectively. Ten rats from each group were sacrificed on study days 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Serum amylase, lipase levels and pancreatic tissue tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF contents were determined and a histological examination of the pancreas was performed. No hemolysis or pancreatitis was observed in any of the rats in groups 2 and 3. In group 1, massive hemolysis was observed in 35 (70% of 50 rats, moderate hemolysis in seven (14%, and no hemolysis in eight (16%. Thirty-three of 35 (94.2% rats with massive hemolysis had hyperamylasemia, and 29 of these rats (82.8% had histologically proven pancreatitis. The most severe pancreatitis occurred on day 3, as demonstrated by histology. Tissue TNF-alpha and PAF levels were statistically higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Acute massive hemolysis induced acute pancreatitis, as indicated by histology, in almost 80% of cases. Hemolysis may induce acute pancreatitis by triggering the release of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines.

  6. Relationship between Dyspnea Descriptors and Underlying Causes of the Symptom; a Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Seyyed Mohammad Ali; Majidi, Alireza; Abdollahimajd, Fahimeh; Jalali, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    History taking and physical examination help clinicians identify the patient's problem and effectively treat it. This study aimed to evaluate the descriptors of dyspnea in patients presenting to emergency department (ED) with asthma, congestive heart failure (CHF), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This cross-sectional study was conducted on all patients presenting to ED with chief complaint of dyspnea, during 2 years. The patients were asked to describe their dyspnea by choosing three items from the valid and reliable questionnaire or articulating their sensation. The relationship between dyspnea descriptors and underlying cause of symptom was evaluated using SPSS version 16. 312 patients with the mean age of 60.96±17.01 years were evaluated (53.2% male). Most of the patients were > 65 years old (48.7%) and had basic level of education (76.9%). "My breath doesn't go out all the way" with 83.1%, "My chest feels tight " with 45.8%, and "I feel that my airway is obstructed" with 40.7%, were the most frequent dyspnea descriptors in asthma patients. "My breathing requires work" with 46.3%, "I feel that I am suffocating" with 31.5%, and "My breath doesn't go out all the way" with 29.6%, were the most frequent dyspnea descriptors in COPD patients. "My breathing is heavy" with 74.4%, "A hunger for more air" with 24.4%, and "I cannot get enough air" with 23.2%, were the most frequent dyspnea descriptors in CHF patients. Except for "My breath does not go in all the way", there was significant correlation between studied dyspnea descriptors and underlying disease (p = 0.001 for all analyses). It seems that dyspnea descriptors along with other findings from history and physical examination could be helpful in differentiating the causes of the symptom in patients presenting to ED suffering from dyspnea.

  7. Dyspnea in a nonagenarian: The usual suspects, an unexpected culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Sérgio; Raposo, Luís; David, Raquel; Marques, Alexandre; Andrade Gomes, José; Cardim, Nuno; Anjos, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is an uncommon syndrome characterized by dyspnea and hypoxemia triggered by orthostatism and relieved by recumbency. It is often associated with an interatrial shunt through a patent foramen ovale (PFO). We report the case of a 92-year-old woman initially admitted in the setting of a traumatic femoral neck fracture (successfully treated with hip replacement surgery) in whom a reversible decline in transcutaneous oxygen saturation from 98% (in the supine position) to 84% (in the upright position) was noted early post-operatively. Thoracic multislice computed tomography excluded pulmonary embolism and severe parenchymal lung disease. The diagnosis of POS was confirmed by tilt-table contrast transesophageal echocardiography, which demonstrated a dynamic and position-dependent right-to-left shunt (torrential when semi-upright and minimal in the supine position) through a PFO. The patient underwent percutaneous closure of the PFO with an Amplatzer device, which led to prompt symptom relief and full functional recovery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimentally induced cam impingement in the sheep hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenrock, Klaus A; Fiechter, Ruth; Tannast, Moritz; Mamisch, Tallal C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    Sheep hips have a natural non-spherical femoral head similar to a cam-type deformity in human beings. By performing an intertrochanteric varus osteotomy, cam-type femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) during flexion can be created. We tested the hypotheses that macroscopic lesions of the articular cartilage and an increased Mankin score (MS) can be reproduced by an experimentally induced cam-type FAI in this ovine in vivo model. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the MS increases with longer ambulatory periods. Sixteen sheep underwent unilateral intertrochanteric varus osteotomy of the hip with the non-operated hip as a control. Four sheep were sacrificed after 14, 22, 30, and 38-weeks postoperatively. We evaluated macroscopic chondrolabral alterations, and recorded the MS, based on histochemical staining, for each ambulatory period. A significantly higher prevalence of macroscopic chondrolabral lesions was found in the impingement zone of the operated hips. The MS was significantly higher in the acetabular/femoral cartilage of the operated hips. Furthermore, these scores increased as the length of the ambulatory period increased. Cam-type FAI can be induced in an ovine in vivo model. Localized chondrolabral degeneration of the hip, similar to that seen in humans (Tannast et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 2008; 466: 273-280; Beck et al., J Bone Joint Surg Br 2005; 87: 1012-1018), can be reproduced. This experimental sheep model can be used to study cam-type FAI. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  9. Increased respiratory neural drive and work of breathing in exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Faisal, Azmy; Jolley, Caroline J

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly...

  10. Experimental arthritis induced by a clinical Mycoplasma fermentans isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giono Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, it was detected in the joints and blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but it is not clear yet how the bacteria enter the body and reach the joints. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of M. fermentans to induce experimental arthritis in rabbits following inoculation of the bacteria in the trachea and knee joints. Methods P-140 and PG-18 strains were each injected in the knee joints of 14 rabbits in order to evaluate and compare their arthritogenicity. P-140 was also injected in the trachea of 14 rabbits in order to test the ability of the bacteria to reach the joints and induce arthritis. Results M. fermentans produced an acute arthritis in rabbits. Joint swelling appeared first in rabbits injected with P-140, which caused a more severe arthritis than PG-18. Both strains were able to migrate to the uninoculated knee joints and they were detected viable in the joints all along the duration of the experiment. Changes in the synovial tissue were more severe by the end of the experiment and characterized by the infiltration of neutrophils and substitution of adipose tissue by connective tissue. Rabbits intracheally injected with P-140 showed induced arthritis and the bacteria could be isolated from lungs, blood, heart, kidney, spleen, brain and joints. Conclusion M. fermentans induced arthritis regardless of the inoculation route. These findings may help explain why mycoplasmas are commonly isolated from the joints of rheumatic patients.

  11. An official American Thoracic Society workshop report: assessment and palliative management of dyspnea crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularski, Richard A; Reinke, Lynn F; Carrieri-Kohlman, Virginia; Fischer, Mark D; Campbell, Margaret L; Rocker, Graeme; Schneidman, Ann; Jacobs, Susan S; Arnold, Robert; Benditt, Joshua O; Booth, Sara; Byock, Ira; Chan, Garrett K; Curtis, J Randall; Donesky, Doranne; Hansen-Flaschen, John; Heffner, John; Klein, Russell; Limberg, Trina M; Manning, Harold L; Morrison, R Sean; Ries, Andrew L; Schmidt, Gregory A; Selecky, Paul A; Truog, Robert D; Wang, Angela C C; White, Douglas B

    2013-10-01

    In 2009, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) funded an assembly project, Palliative Management of Dyspnea Crisis, to focus on identification, management, and optimal resource utilization for effective palliation of acute episodes of dyspnea. We conducted a comprehensive search of the medical literature and evaluated available evidence from systematic evidence-based reviews (SEBRs) using a modified AMSTAR approach and then summarized the palliative management knowledge base for participants to use in discourse at a 2009 ATS workshop. We used an informal consensus process to develop a working definition of this novel entity and established an Ad Hoc Committee on Palliative Management of Dyspnea Crisis to further develop an official ATS document on the topic. The Ad Hoc Committee members defined dyspnea crisis as "sustained and severe resting breathing discomfort that occurs in patients with advanced, often life-limiting illness and overwhelms the patient and caregivers' ability to achieve symptom relief." Dyspnea crisis can occur suddenly and is characteristically without a reversible etiology. The workshop participants focused on dyspnea crisis management for patients in whom the goals of care are focused on palliation and for whom endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are not consistent with articulated preferences. However, approaches to dyspnea crisis may also be appropriate for patients electing life-sustaining treatment. The Ad Hoc Committee developed a Workshop Report concerning assessment of dyspnea crisis; ethical and professional considerations; efficient utilization, communication, and care coordination; clinical management of dyspnea crisis; development of patient education and provider aid products; and enhancing implementation with audit and quality improvement.

  12. [Exercise laryngoscopy: a new method for the differential diagnosis of dyspnea on exertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna; Iljukov, Sergei; Niskanen, Minna-Liisa; Vilkman, Erkki; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija

    2011-01-01

    Exertional dyspnea originating from the laryngeal level can be established with certainty only if the paradoxical vocal cord adduction is observed during dyspnea. We have developed a novel diagnostic method, exercise laryngoscopy, which involves observation of the larynx with a flexible endoscope applied via the nose during a bicycle ergometry test. It has been our aim to improve the differential diagnosis of dyspnea on exertion and thus also reduce unnecessary antiasthmatic medication. Exercise laryngoscopy allows examination in the out-patient clinics because the method is well tolerated.

  13. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper......-105A degrees) at a speed of approximately 120A degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder...... trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows...

  14. Foraminiferal survival after long term experimentally induced anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlet, D.; Geslin, E.; Baal, C.; Metzger, E.; Lejzerowicz, F.; Riedel, B.; Zuschin, M.; Pawlowski, J.; Stachowitsch, M.; Jorissen, F. J.

    2013-06-01

    Anoxia has been successfully induced in four benthic chambers installed on the Northern Adriatic seafloor from 1 week to 10 months. To accurately determine whether benthic foraminifera can survive experimentally induced prolonged anoxia, the CellTrackerGreen method has been applied. Numerous individuals have been found living at all sampling times and at all sampling depths, showing that benthic foraminifera can survive up to 10 months of anoxia with co-occurring hydrogen sulphides. However, foraminiferal standing stocks decrease with sampling time in an irregular way. A large difference in standing stock between two cores samples in initial conditions indicates the presence of a large spatial heterogeneity of the foraminiferal faunas. An unexpected increase in standing stocks after 1 month is tentatively interpreted as a reaction to increased food availability due to the massive mortality of infaunal macrofaunal organisms. After this, standing stocks decrease again in a core sampled after 2 months of anoxia, to attain a minimum in the cores sampled after 10 months. We speculate that the trend of overall decrease of standing stocks is not due to the adverse effects of anoxia and hydrogen sulphides, but rather due to a continuous diminution of labile organic matter.

  15. Ionizing radiation-induced cancers. Experimental and clinical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joveniaux, Alain.

    1978-03-01

    This work attempts to give an idea of radiocarcinogenesis, both experimental and clinical. Experimentally the possibility of radio-induced cancer formation has considerable doctrinal importance since it proves without question the carcinogenetic effect of radiations, and also yields basis information on the essential constants implicated in its occurrence: need for a latency time varying with the animal species and technique used, but quite long in relation to the specific lifetime of each species; importance of a massive irradiation, more conducive to cancerisation as long as it produces no necroses liable to stop the formation of any subsequent neoplasia; finally, rarity of is occurrence. Clinically although the cause and effect relationship between treatment and cancer is sometimes difficult to establish categorically, the fact is that hundreds of particularly disturbing observations remain and from their number often emerges under well-defined circumstances, an undeniable clinical certainty. Most importantly these observation fix the criteria necessary for the possibility of a radioinduced cancer to arise, i.e: the notion of a prior irradiation; the appearance of a cancer in the irradiation area; serious tissue damage in relation with an excessive radiation dose; a long latency period between irradition and appearance of the cancer [fr

  16. Ultraviolet radiation-induced carcinogenesis: mechanisms and experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Balupillai, Agilan; Govindhasamy, Kanimozhi; Gunaseelan, Srithar; Muthusamy, Ganesan; Robert, Beualah Mary; Nagarajan, Rajendra Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a very prominent environmental toxic agent. UVR has been implicated in the initiation and progression of photocarcinogenesis. UVR exposure elicits numerous cellular and molecular events which include the generation of inflammatory mediators, DNA damage, epigenetic modifications, and oxidative damages mediated activation of signaling pathways. UVR-initiated signal transduction pathways are believed to be responsible for tumor promotion effects. UVR-induced carcinogenic mechanism has been well studied using various animal and cellular models. Human skin-derived dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and melanocytes served as excellent cellular model systems for the understanding of UVR-mediated carcinogenic events. Apart from this, scientists developed reconstituted three-dimensional normal human skin equivalent models for the study of UVR signaling pathways. Moreover, hairless mice such as SKH-1, devoid of Hr gene, served as a valuable model for experimental carcinogenesis. Scientists have also used transgenic mice and dorsal portion shaved Swiss albino mice for UVR carcinogenesis studies. In this review, we have discussed the current progress in the study on ultraviolet B (UVB)-mediated carcinogenesis and outlined appropriate experimental models for both ultraviolet A- and UVB-mediated carcinogenesis. (author)

  17. Inflammation-induced preterm lung maturation: lessons from animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy J M; Westover, Alana J

    2017-06-01

    Intrauterine inflammation, or chorioamnionitis, is a major contributor to preterm birth. Prematurity per se is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality resulting from lung immaturity but exposure to chorioamnionitis reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Animal experiments have identified that an increase in pulmonary surfactant production by the preterm lungs likely underlies this decreased risk of RDS in infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. Further animal experimentation has shown that infectious or inflammatory agents in amniotic fluid exert their effects on lung development by direct effects within the developing respiratory tract, and probably not by systemic pathways. Differences in the effects of intrauterine inflammation and glucocorticoids demonstrate that canonical glucocorticoid-mediated lung maturation is not responsible for inflammation-induced changes in lung development. Animal experimentation is identifying alternative lung maturational pathways, and transgenic animals and cell culture techniques will allow identification of novel mechanisms of lung maturation that may lead to new treatments for the prevention of RDS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. [Effects of an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program on dyspnea, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life for patients with chronic lung disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Kwan

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program on dyspnea, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in inpatients with chronic lung disease. This quasi experimental study was designed with a nonequivalent control group pre-post test time series. Twenty three patients were assigned to the experimental group and nineteen to the control group. The inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program was composed of upper and lower extremity exercise, breathing retraining, inspiratory muscle training, education, relaxation and telephone contacts. This program consisted of 4 sessions with inpatients and 4 weeks at home after discharge. The control group was given a home based pulmonary rehabilitation program at the time of discharge. The outcomes were measured by the Borg score, 6MWD and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire(CRQ). There was a statistically significant difference in dyspnea between the experimental group and control group, but not among time sequence, or interaction between groups and time sequence. Also significant improvements in exercise capacity and health related quality of life were found only in the experimental group. An Inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program may be a useful intervention to reduce dyspnea, and increase exercise capacity and health related quality of life for chronic lung disease patients.

  19. Aggravation of dyspnea in stage I non-small cell lung cancer patients following stereotactic body radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan, Merete; Traberg Hansen, Anders; Petersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    the association of dose-volume histogram parameters with changes in dyspnea. The study concerns 28 medically inoperable stage I NSCLC patients that received SBRT at our department between 2000 and 2003. A central dose of 45 Gy/3 fractions was delivered in 5-8 days. WHO toxicity scoring of dyspnea...... consistent temporal variations of dyspnea after SBRT. We identified COPD as the factor showing the closest association with aggravation of dyspnea. The observed aggravation of dyspnea following SBRT reflects habitual exacerbations of COPD rather than treatment-related toxicity. Concern about pulmonary...

  20. Evidence for cognitive–behavioral strategies improving dyspnea and related distress in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norweg A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anna Norweg,1 Eileen G Collins2,3 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Rehabilitation Research and Development (RR&D, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, IL, USA Background: Dyspnea is a complex, prevalent, and distressing symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD associated with decreased quality of life, significant disability, and increased mortality. It is a major reason for referral to pulmonary rehabilitation. Methods: We reviewed 23 COPD studies to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive–behavioral strategies for relieving dyspnea in COPD. Results: Preliminary evidence from randomized controlled trials exists to support cognitive–behavioral strategies, used with or without exercise, for relieving sensory and affective components of dyspnea in COPD. Small to moderate treatment effects for relieving dyspnea were noted for psychotherapy (effect size [ES] = 0.08–0.25 for intensity; 0.26–0.65 for mastery and distractive auditory stimuli (ES = 0.08–0.33 for intensity; 0.09 to -0.61 for functional burden. Small to large dyspnea improvements resulted from yoga (ES = 0.2–1.21 for intensity; 0.67 for distress; 0.07 for mastery; and −8.37 for functional burden; dyspnea self-management education with exercise (ES = −0.14 to −1.15 for intensity; −0.62 to −0.69 for distress; 1.04 for mastery; 0.14–0.35 for self-efficacy; and slow-breathing exercises (ES = 4390.34 to −0.83 for intensity; -0.61 to -0.80 for distress; and 0.62 for self-efficacy. Cognitive–behavioral interventions may relieve dyspnea in COPD by (1 decreasing sympathetic nerve activity, dynamic hyperinflation, and comorbid anxiety, and (2 promoting arterial oxygen saturation, myelinated vagus nerve activity, a greater

  1. Observational Study on Safety of Prehospital BLS CPAP in Dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Novneet; Matthews, Patrick; Groner, Kathryn; Papas, Mia A; Megargel, Ross

    2017-12-01

    with appropriate training. Sahu N , Matthews P , Groner K , Papas MA , Megargel R . Observational study on safety of prehospital BLS CPAP in dyspnea. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):610-614.

  2. An Elderly Female with Dyspnea and Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Van Heukelom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of Present Illness: A 55-year-old female presented via transfer from a referring hospital with 48 hours of abdominal pain, vomiting and dyspnea. She was found to be in severe distress. Her temperature was 37.5° C (99.5° F, heart rate 130 beats per minute, respiratory rate 47 breaths per minute, blood pressure 80/48, and oxygen saturation of 95% on a non-rebreather mask. She had distended neck veins, diminished breath sounds on the left hemi-thorax, and a distended abdomen. A chest x-ray that had been obtained at the referring hospital was immediately reviewed. The decision was made to intubate the patient. Following intubation, a nasogastric tube was placed with marked improvement in her hemodynamics. An abdomen-pelvis CT was obtained which showed a para-esophageal hernia with the majority of the stomach located in the left hemi-thorax and evidence of a bowel obstruction. Significant findings: Radiography shows a dilated, gas-filled structure that fills nearly the entire left hemi-thorax. Lung markings are visible in the uppermost portion of the left hemi-thorax. There is mediastinal shift to the right. In the visualized portion of the abdomen, dilated loops of bowel are also visualized. This constellation of findings is consistent with a tension gastrothorax. Discussion: Tension gastrothorax is a rare complication of blunt trauma, diaphragmatic hernias, and certain surgical procedures.1,2 Clinically, a tension gastrothorax may mimic that of a tension pneumothorax, making it difficult to diagnose.3,4 Stabilizing treatment includes decompressing the stomach by means of a nasogastric (NG tube.2 Placement may be difficult due the intra-thoracic position of the stomach leading to kinking of the tube. The attempt to place an NG tube can lead to hyperventilation and air swallowing, which can aggravate gastric distention.4 Failure to decompress the stomach, however, may lead to patient decompensation and cardiac arrest.5 Definitive treatment

  3. Perception of dyspnea in childhood asthma crisis by the patients and those in charge of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Ana Alice Amaral Ibiapina; March, Maria Fátima Pombo; Evangelista, Lucia Araujo; Cunha, Antonio Ledo

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between perception of dyspnea during a mild to moderate asthma attack using the Modified Borg Scale (MBS) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). This was a cross-sectional study conducted with children and adolescents who sought a pediatric emergency service due to an asthma attack. Data were collected from July 2005 to June 2006. Demographic data were recorded. Patients and those in charge of them were requested to grade, individually, the patient's dyspnea using the MBS; afterwards, the peak expiratory flow rate was measured. 181 asthmatic patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 7.2 (± 2.4) years (range, 4-12). The mother sought medical aid in 83.4% of the cases (151/181). Patient symptoms included coughing in 68.5% (124/181), dyspnea in 47.0% (85/181), and wheezing in 12.7% (23/181). Thirty-six percent (65/181) had a mild attack, and 64.1% (116/181) a moderate one. A significant negative correlation was found between the patients' and accompanying adults' perceptions of patient's dyspnea and the PEFR (% predicted; rs = -0.240 and rs = -0.385, respectively). Both the patients and those looking after them had a poor perception of the severity of the patient's dyspnea. This emphasizes the need to monitor objective measures such as the PEFR and to develop better ways of evaluating dyspnea.

  4. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of compound oxycodone for the relief of dyspnea in patients with terminally ill cancer: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Masahiro; Kaneishi, Keisuke

    2013-05-01

    Pain and dyspnea are the most prevalent and distressing symptoms in patients with terminally ill cancer. Evidences have accumulated for the effects of morphine on dyspnea, whereas little is known about the effects of oxycodone on dyspnea. We investigated the effectiveness of oxycodone for dyspnea in patients with terminally ill cancer. The injectable form of compound oxycodone (iOC) containing hydrocotarnine was administered continuously via subcutaneous route. We administered iOC to 136 patients. The effect on dyspnea was less conspicuous than pain, yet iOC was effective for dyspnea with varying degrees. None of the adverse effects observed were serious. These results suggest that continuous subcutaneous administration of oxycodone could be one of the reasonable alternatives in the management of dyspnea in patients with terminally ill cancer.

  5. Experimental chaotic quantification in bistable vortex induced vibration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.

    2017-02-01

    The study of energy harvesting by means of vortex induced vibration systems has been initiated a few years ago and it is considered to be potential as a low water current energy source. The energy harvester is realized by exposing an elastically supported blunt structure under water flow. However, it is realized that the system will only perform at a limited operating range (water flow) that is attributed to the resonance phenomenon that occurs only at a frequency that corresponds to the fluid flow. An introduction of nonlinear elements seems to be a prominent solution to overcome the problem. Among many nonlinear elements, a bistable spring is known to be able to improve the harvested power by a vortex induced vibrations (VIV) based energy converter at the low velocity water flows. However, it is also observed that chaotic vibrations will occur at different operating ranges that will erratically diminish the harvested power and cause a difficulty in controlling the system that is due to the unpredictability in motions of the VIV structure. In order to design a bistable VIV energy converter with improved harvested power and minimum negative effect of chaotic vibrations, the bifurcation map of the system for varying governing parameters is highly on demand. In this study, chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter enhanced by a bistable stiffness element are quantified in a wide range of the governing parameters, i.e. damping and bistable gap. Chaotic vibrations of the bistable VIV energy converter are simulated by utilization of a wake oscillator model and quantified based on the calculation of the Lyapunov exponent. Ultimately, a series of experiments of the system in a water tunnel, facilitated by a computer-based force-feedback testing platform, is carried out to validate the existence of chaotic responses. The main challenge in dealing with experimental data is in distinguishing chaotic response from noise-contaminated periodic responses as noise will smear

  6. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis induces microglial activation in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Larry; Done, Joseph D; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is unknown and factors including the host's immune response and the nervous system have been attributed to the development of CP/CPPS. We previously demonstrated that mast cells and chemokines such as CCL2 and CCL3 play an important role in mediating prostatitis. Here, we examined the role of neuroinflammation and microglia in the CNS in the development of chronic pelvic pain. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was induced using a subcutaneous injection of rat prostate antigen. Sacral spinal cord tissue (segments S14-S5) was isolated and utilized for immunofluorescence or QRT-PCR analysis. Tactile allodynia was measured at baseline and at various points during EAP using Von Frey fibers as a function for pelvic pain. EAP mice were treated with minocycline after 30 days of prostatitis to test the efficacy of microglial inhibition on pelvic pain. Prostatitis induced the expansion and activation of microglia and the development of inflammation in the spinal cord as determined by increased expression levels of CCL3, IL-1β, Iba1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Microglial activation in mice with prostatitis resulted in increased expression of P2X4R and elevated levels of BDNF, two molecular markers associated with chronic pain. Pharmacological inhibition of microglia alleviated pain in mice with prostatitis and resulted in decreased expression of IL-1β, P2X4R, and BDNF. Our data show that prostatitis leads to inflammation in the spinal cord and the activation and expansion of microglia, mechanisms that may contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pelvic pain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema: insights from experimental models

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    Mariana A. Antunes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several distinct stimuli can be used to reproduce histological and functional features of human emphysema, a leading cause of disability and death. Since cigarette smoke is the main cause of emphysema in humans, experimental researches have attempted to reproduce this situation. However, this is an expensive and cumbersome method of emphysema induction, and simpler, more efficacious alternatives have been sought. Among these approaches, elastolytic enzymes have been widely used to reproduce some characteristics of human cigarette smoke-induced disease, such as: augmentation of airspaces, inflammatory cell influx into the lungs, and systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, the use of elastase-induced emphysema models is still controversial, since the disease pathways involved in elastase induction may differ from those occurring in smoke-induced emphysema. This indicates that the choice of an emphysema model may impact the results of new therapies or drugs being tested. The aim of this review is to compare the mechanisms of disease induction in smoke and elastase emphysema models, to describe the differences among various elastase models, and to establish the advantages and disadvantages of elastase-induced emphysema models. More studies are required to shed light on the mechanisms of elastase-induced emphysema.Diversos estímulos podem ser utilizados para reproduzir características histológicas e funcionais do enfisema humano, uma das principais causas de incapacidade e morte. Uma vez que a fumaça de cigarro é a principal causa de enfisema em humanos, estudos experimentais têm tentado reproduzir esta situação. No entanto, esse é um método dispendioso e complicado para a indução do enfisema e, alternativas mais simples e eficazes, têm sido pesquisadas. Entre essas abordagens, enzimas elastolíticas vêm sendo amplamente utilizadas para reproduzir algumas das características do enfisema humano, tais como: aumento dos espaços a

  8. Confabulation versus experimentally induced false memories in Korsakoff patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Géry

    2010-09-01

    The present study focuses on both the clinical symptom of confabulation and experimentally induced false memories in patients suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome. Despite the vast amount of case studies of confabulating patients and studies investigating false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, the nature of Korsakoff patients' confabulatory behaviour and its association with DRM false memories have been rarely examined. Hence, the first aim of the present study was to evaluate confabulatory responses in a large sample of chronic Korsakoff patients and matched controls by means of the Dalla Barba Confabulation Battery. Second, the association between (provoked) confabulation and the patients' DRM false recognition performance was investigated. Korsakoff patients mainly confabulated in response to questions about episodic memory and questions to which the answer was unknown. A positive association was obtained between confabulation and the tendency to accept unstudied distractor words as being old in the DRM paradigm. On the other hand, there was a negative association between confabulation and false recognition of critical lures. The latter could be attributed to the importance of strategic retrieval at delayed memory testing.

  9. SHORT TERM EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE-TENS ON LUNG FUNCTIONS AND DYSPNEA FOR SUBJECTS WITH MODERATE COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Babu. K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture TENS is used to improve pain instead of invasive acupuncture. Acupuncture shown to improve dyspnoea and lung functions in COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients. The purpose of the study is to determine Short term effectiveness of Acupuncture-TENS in reducing dyspnea and improving lung functions for subjects with moderate COPD. Method: An experimental study design, selected 30 geriatric subjects with COPD randomized 15 subjects into each Study and Control group. Study group received Acu-TENS for 45 minutes for total 5 sessions, while control group received placebo TENS. Outcome measurements such as breathlessness using Modified Borg Scale (MBS, Lung functions using Pulmonary Function Test (PFT was measured before and after intervention. Results: Analysis from pre-intervention to post-intervention within study group found that there is statistically significant change in means of MBS, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and within control group there is a statistically significant change in means of MBS, but there is no statistically significant change in means of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. When post-intervention means were compared between the groups there is no statistically significant difference in means of MBS and FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion: It is concluded that one week of Acu-TENS on EXL1 point found no significant effect on improving dyspnea and lung functions in subjects with moderate COPD in geriatric populations.

  10. Bedside Ultrasonography versus Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Detecting Cardiogenic Causes of Acute Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keihan Golshani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute dyspnea is a common cause of hospitalization in emergency departments (ED.Distinguishing the cardiac causes of acute dyspnea from pulmonary ones is a major challenge for responsible physicians in EDs. This study compares the characteristics of bedside ultrasonography with serum level of blood natriuretic peptide (BNP in this regard. Methods: This diagnostic accuracy study compares bedside ultrasonography with serum BNP levels in differentiating cardiogenic causes of acute respiratory distress. Echocardiography was considered as the reference test. A checklist including demographic data (age and sex, vital signs, medical history, underlying diseases, serum level of BNP, as well as findings of chest radiography, chest ultrasonography, and echocardiography was filled for all patients with acute onset of dyspnea. Screening characteristics of the two studied methods were calculated and compared using SPSS software, version 20. Results: 48 patients with acute respiratory distress were evaluated (50% female. The mean age of participants was 66.94 ± 16.33 (28-94 years. Based on the results of echocardiography and final diagnosis, the cause of dyspnea was cardiogenic in 20 (41.6% cases. Bedside ultrasonography revealed the cardiogenic cause of acute dyspnea in 18 cases (0 false positive and BNP in 44 cases (24 false positives. The area under the ROC curve for bedside ultrasonography and BNP for differentiating the cardiogenic cause of dyspnea were 86.4 (95% CI: 74.6-98.3 and 66.3 (95% CI: 49.8-89.2, respectively (p = 0.0021. Conclusion: It seems that bedside ultrasonography could be considered as a helpful and accurate method in differentiating cardiogenic causes of acute dyspnea in emergency settings. Nevertheless, more study is needed to make a runaway algorithm to evaluate patients with respiratory distress using bedside ultrasonography, which leads to rapid therapeutic decisions in a short time.

  11. Assessment of dyspnea in terminally III cancer patients. Role of the thoracic surgeon as a palliative care physician

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kazuo; Nishiumi, Noboru; Masuda, Ryota; Iwazaki, Masayuki; Saito, Yuki; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Many cancer patients suffer from rapidly-progressing dyspnea that is difficult to relieve. The subjects were 26 patients who had dyspnea that was difficult to relieve. The Numeric Rating Scale was used to evaluate their dyspnea. For all patients, the cause of the dyspnea was investigated by CT and x-rays. The principal causes of the dyspnea were pleural effusion that increased daily, complications from pneumonia, massive ascites, multiple metastatic lung tumors and atelectasis, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis and narrowing secondary airway compression. Dyspnea was caused by a variety of conditions that overlapped over time, intensifying patients' discomfort. Among 14 patients for whom we recommended treatment with sedation, only 8 of them consented. Among the patients who were treated with sedation, the median interval between the exacerbation of dyspnea and death was 16 days; among non-sedated patients it was 18 days. Palliative care physicians who specialize in the respiratory system can, to some extent, predict the occurrence of rapidly progressive dyspnea in cancer patients. It is important to explain the methods of relieving dyspnea to the patient, the patient's family, and the oncologist early, so that decisions on how to manage dyspnea can be made in advance. (author)

  12. Drug induced acute kidney injury: an experimental animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.W.A.; Khan, B.T.; Qazi, R.A.; Ashraf, M.; Waqar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent of drug induced nephrotoxicity in laboratory animals for determining the role and extent of iatrogenic kidney damage in patients exposed to nephrotoxic drugs in various clinical setups. Study Design: Randomized control trail. Place and Duration of study: Pharmacology department and animal house of Army Medical College from Jan 2011 to Aug 2011. Material and Methods: Thirty six mixed breed rabbits were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into six groups consisting of six rabbits in each. Groups were named A, B, C, D, E and F. Group A was control group. Group B was given 0.9% normal saline. Group C rabbits were given acute nephrotoxic single dose of amphotericin B deoxycholate. Group D received 0.9% normal saline 10ml/kg followed by amphotericin B infusion. Group E was injected acute nephrotoxic regimen of cyclosporine and amphotericin B infusion. Group F received saline loading along with acute nephrotoxic regimen of cyclosporine and amphotericin B infusion. Results: Biochemical and histopathological analysis showed significant kidney injury in rabbits exposed to acute nephrotoxic doses of amphotericin B and cyclosporine. Toxicity was additive when the two drugs were administered simultaneously. Group of rabbits with saline loading had significantly lesser kidney damage. Conclusion: Iatrogenic acute kidney damage is a major cause of morbidity in experimental animals exposed to such nephrotoxic drugs like amphotericin B and cyclosporine, used either alone or in combination. Clinical studies are recommended to assess the extent of iatrogenic renal damage in patients and its economic burden. Efficient and cost effective protective measure may be adopted in clinical setups against such adverse effects. (author)

  13. Evaluation of three scales of dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabra, S K; Gupta, A K; Khuma, M Z

    2009-01-01

    The Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) scale, baseline dyspnea index (BDI) and the oxygen cost diagram (OCD) are widely used tools for evaluation of limitation of activities due to dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is, however, limited information on how these relate with each other and with multiple parameters of physiological impairment. To study the interrelationships between MMRC, BDI and OCD scales of dyspnea and their correlation with multiple measures of physiological impairment. A retrospective analysis of pooled data of 88 male patients with COPD (GOLD stages 2, 3 and 4) was carried out. Dyspnea was evaluated using the MMRC, BDI and OCD scales. Physiological impairment was assessed by spirometry (FVC % predicted and FEV 1 % predicted), arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis and measurement of the 6-min walk distance (6MWD). The interrelationships between MMRC, BDI and OCD scales were moderately strong. The BDI and OCD scores had strong correlations with ABG abnormalities, weak correlations with spirometric parameters but none with 6MWD. MMRC grades were significantly associated with BDI and OCD scores but did not show clear associations with spirometric parameters, ABG abnormalities and 6MWD. The MMRC grades of dyspnea and the BDI and OCD scales are moderately interrelated. While the BDI and OCD scales have significant associations with parameters of physiological impairment, the MMRC scale does not. (author)

  14. Cervical Hyperostosis Leading to Dyspnea, Aspiration and Dysphagia: Strategies to Improve Patient Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Psychogios

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH is a rare but well known cause of dysphagia. In very few cases aspiration and dyspnea are described as a clinical manifestation. An 82-year-old man presented himself in our clinic with severe dyspnea, aspiration, and pneumonia. After performing a microlaryngoscopy an emergency tracheotomy became necessary.In laryngoscopy a severe bulging of the posterior oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal wall was detected. The glottis area was not observable and immobilisation of the right vocal cord could be detected. The CT showed anterior osteophytes and ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament from C2–C7. We performed a panendoscopy in order to explore the upper aerodigestive area. Postoperatively an emergency tracheotomy was needed due to the development of laryngeal edema. The osteophytes were removed in cooperation with the department of orthopaedics. Three months postoperative the patient had no dyspnea or dysphagia, so the tracheotomy could be closed.Cervical hyperostosis is commonly described in elderly patients and usually presenting without symptoms, therefore a surgical treatment is usually not necessary. Nevertheless it can lead to severe morbidity and dyspnea with airway obstruction. Therefore it is essential that cervical hyperostosis is recognized early enough and appropriate treatment is initiated. Flexible endoscopy should be preferred over direct panendoscopy because it could lead to life-threatening edema and a prophylactic tracheostomy should be strongly considered in patients that present with severe dyspnea,

  15. Molecular analysis of radiation-induced experimental tumors in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, O.; Muto, M.; Suzuki, F.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular analysis was made on mouse tumors induced by radiation and chemicals. Expression of oncogenes was studied in 12 types of 178 mouse tumors. Southern blotting was done on tumors in which overexpression of oncogenes was noted. Amplification of the myc oncogene was found in chemically induced sarcomas, but not those induced by radiations. Radiogenic thymomas were studied in detail. These thymomas were induced in two different ways. The first was thymomas induced by direct irradiation of F1 mice between C57BL/6NxC3H/He. Southern analysis of DNA revealed deletion of specific minisatellite bands in these tumors. DNA from directly induced thymomas induced focus formation when transfected into normal Golden hamster cells. The mouse K-ras oncogene was detected in these transformants. The second type of thymomas was induced by X-irradiation of thymectomized B10.thy1.2 mice in which normal thymus from congenic B10,thy1.1. mice was grafted. Thymomas of the donor origin was analysed by transfection and the transformants by DNA from those indirectly induced thymomas did not contain activated ras oncogenes. (author)

  16. A case of vogt-koyanagi-harada syndrome with persistent dyspnea secondary to laryngeal edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantopoulos, Dimosthenis; deSilva, Brad W; Cebulla, Colleen M

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of laryngeal edema associated with the Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome. A 32-year-old African-American female presented with a 12-day prodrome, including headache, tinnitus and shortness of breath, which preceded sudden photophobia and bilateral visual loss. Examination and clinical testing were most consistent with VKH, and the patient improved with intravenous methylprednisolone therapy. The patient had persistent dyspnea, which was out of proportion to chest CT findings and which was exacerbated during a recurrence of VKH. Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy with stroboscopy revealed diffuse laryngeal edema. Symptoms were alleviated with breathing exercises. Several autoimmune diseases may cause diffuse laryngeal edema. In this case, VKH was associated with the patient's glottic edema and dyspnea. We recommend that laryngeal edema be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with dyspnea and VKH.

  17. A Case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome with Persistent Dyspnea Secondary to Laryngeal Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimosthenis Mantopoulos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of laryngeal edema associated with the Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH syndrome. Patient and Methods: A 32-year-old African-American female presented with a 12-day prodrome, including headache, tinnitus and shortness of breath, which preceded sudden photophobia and bilateral visual loss. Examination and clinical testing were most consistent with VKH, and the patient improved with intravenous methylprednisolone therapy. Results: The patient had persistent dyspnea, which was out of proportion to chest CT findings and which was exacerbated during a recurrence of VKH. Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy with stroboscopy revealed diffuse laryngeal edema. Symptoms were alleviated with breathing exercises. Conclusions: Several autoimmune diseases may cause diffuse laryngeal edema. In this case, VKH was associated with the patient's glottic edema and dyspnea. We recommend that laryngeal edema be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with dyspnea and VKH.

  18. McArdle's Disease Presenting as Unexplained Dyspnea in a Young Woman

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    Nha Voduc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available McArdle's disease is a rare, inherited deficiency of myophosphorylase, an enzyme required for the utilization of glycogen. Patients with myophosphorylase deficiency classically present with exercise intolerance, leg pain and muscle fatigue. The case of a young woman with exertional dyspnea and leg cramps is described. Exercise testing confirmed the presence of exercise intolerance and demonstrated an accelerated heart rate response, despite the absence of an anaerobic threshold and a respiratory exchange ratio of less than 1.0. Subsequent ischemic forearm testing and muscle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of myophosphorylase deficiency. Evaluation of lung mechanics with esophageal pressure measurements demonstrated the presence of respiratory muscle weakness and early fatiguability, suggesting that the patient's dyspnea might have been attributable to an increased respiratory effort. Dyspnea is not a classic symptom associated with myophosphorylase deficiency, although subclinical respiratory muscle impairment may be present. No previous studies have evaluated respiratory muscle function during exercise in patients with myophosphorylase deficiency.

  19. Correlation of chest computed tomography findings with dyspnea and lung functions in post-tubercular sequelae

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    Ananya Panda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the correlation between dyspnea, radiological findings, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs in patients with sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. Materials and Methods: Clinical history, chest computed tomography (CT, and PFT of patients with post-TB sequelae were recorded. Dyspnea was graded according to the Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC scale. CT scans were analyzed for fibrosis, cavitation, bronchiectasis, consolidation, nodules, and aspergilloma. Semi-quantitative analysis was done for these abnormalities. Scores were added to obtain a total morphological score (TMS. The lungs were also divided into three zones and scores added to obtain the total lung score (TLS. Spirometry was done for forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, and FEV1/FVC. Results: Dyspnea was present in 58/101 patients. A total of 22/58 patients had mMRC Grade 1, and 17/58 patients had Grades 2 and 3 dyspnea each. There was a significant difference in median fibrosis, bronchiectasis, nodules (P < 0.01 scores, TMS, and TLS (P < 0.0001 between dyspnea and nondyspnea groups. Significant correlations were obtained between grades of dyspnea and fibrosis (r = 0.34, P = 0.006, bronchiectasis (r = 0.35, P = 0.004, nodule (r = 0.24, P = 0.016 scores, TMS (r = 0.398, P = 0.000, and TLS (r = 0.35, P = 0.0003. PFTs were impaired in 78/101 (77.2% patients. Restrictive defect was most common in 39.6% followed by mixed in 34.7%. There was a negative but statistically insignificant trend between PFT and fibrosis, bronchiectasis, nodule scores, TMS, and TLS. However, there were significant differences in median fibrosis, cavitation, and bronchiectasis scores in patients with normal, mild to moderate, and severe respiratory defects. No difference was seen in TMS and TLS according to the severity of the respiratory defect. Conclusion: Both fibrosis and bronchiectasis correlated with dyspnea and with PFT. However, this correlation was not

  20. Experimental and theoretical studies of bombardment induced surface morphology changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Williams, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In this review results of experimental and theoretical studies of solid surface morphology changes due to ion bombardment are discussed. An attempt is undertaken to classify the observed specific features of a structure, generated by ion bombardment [ru

  1. Experimental and analytical studies on pedestrian induced footbridge vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Valur; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Einarsson, Baldvin

    2007-01-01

    characteristics and to measure the response of the bridges to human induced excitation such as walking, running and jumping. Two of the bridges were a part of a design competition related to the realignment of an existing highway in the city centre of Reykjavik in 2005. The bridges have similar cross sections...... modes corresponding to the measured values. The models were subsequently used to calculate the predicted acceleration according to the preliminary version of the Eurocode (ENV 1992-2: Concrete bridges) using time-history analysis with a moving load as representative for a single pedestrian. The load...... models describing human-induced vibrations on structures in current literature and standards are explained, both for a single person walking or running and crowd loading. The measured vertical acceleration induced by single pedestrians was compared against the predictions and it was found that all...

  2. Right sided arcus aorta as a cause of dyspnea and chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkaya Sevket

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Right sided arcus aorta (RSAA is a rare condition that is usually asymptomatic. Patients may present with exertional dyspnea and chronic cough. A recent article suggested that RSAA should be included in the differential diagnosis of asthma, especially in patients with intractable exertional dyspnea. We aimed to present the clinical, radiologic and spirometric features of thirteen patients with RSAA observed in four years at the Rize Education and Research Hospital and Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital. Methods The characteristics of patients with RSAA, including age, gender, symptoms, radiologic and spirometric findings, were retrospectively evaluated. Results A total of thirteen patients were diagnosed with RSAA. Their ages ranged from 17 to 86 years and the male to female ratio was 11:2. Seven of the patients (54% were symptomatic. The most common symptoms were exertional dyspnea, dysphagia and chronic cough. Five patients had received treatment for asthma with bronchodilators. Spirometry showed intrathoracic tracheal obstruction in five patients. Conclusions The RSAA anomaly occurs more frequently than might be estimated from the number of patients who are detected. Patients with intractable exertional dyspnea and chronic cough should be evaluated for the RSAA anomaly by thoracic CT.

  3. Prevalence of diastolic dysfunction as a possible cause of dyspnea in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frants; Raymond, Ilan; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Symptoms in patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction may be caused by isolated diastolic dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction as a potential cause of dyspnea in a sample of elderly subjects, as well as of ...

  4. Repair of experimental plaque-induced periodontal disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoukry, M; Ben Ali, L; Abdel Naby, M; Soliman, A

    2007-09-01

    Forty mongrel dogs were used in this study for induction of periodontal disease by placing subgingival silk ligatures affecting maxillary and mandibular premolar teeth during a 12-month period. Experimental premolar teeth received monthly clinical, radiographic, and histometric/pathologic assessments. The results demonstrated significant increases in scores and values of periodontal disease parameters associated with variable degrees of alveolar bone loss. The experimental maxillary premolar teeth exhibited more severe and rapid rates of periodontal disease compared with mandibular premolar teeth. Histometric analysis showed significant reduction in free and attached gingiva of the experimental teeth. Histopathological examination of buccolingual sections from experimental premolar teeth showed the presence of rete pegs within the sulcular epithelium with acanthosis and erosive changes, widening of the periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone resorption. Various methods for periodontal repair were studied in 194 experimental premolar teeth exhibiting different degrees of periodontal disease. The treatment plan comprised non-surgical (teeth scaling, root planing, and oral hygiene) and surgical methods (closed gingival curettage, modified Widman flap, and reconstructive surgery using autogenous bone marrow graft and canine amniotic membrane). The initial non-surgical treatment resulted in a periodontal recovery rate of 37.6% and was found effective for treatment of early periodontal disease based on resolution of gingivitis and reduction of periodontal probing depths. Surgical treatment by closed gingival curettage to eliminate the diseased pocket lining resulted in a recovery rate of 48.8% and proved effective in substantially reducing deep periodontal pockets. Open root planing following flap elevation resulted in a recovery rate of 85.4% and was effective for deep and refractory periodontal pockets. Autogenous bone graft implantation combined with canine amniotic

  5. Dyspnea descriptors developed in Brazil: application in obese patients and in patients with cardiorespiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Christiane Aires; Rodrigues Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Straccia, Luciana Cristina; Vianna, Elcio Dos Santos Oliveira; Silva, Geruza Alves da; Martinez, José Antônio Baddini

    2011-01-01

    To develop a set of descriptive terms applied to the sensation of dyspnea (dyspnea descriptors) for use in Brazil and to investigate the usefulness of these descriptors in four distinct clinical conditions that can be accompanied by dyspnea. We collected 111 dyspnea descriptors from 67 patients and 10 health professionals. These descriptors were analyzed and reduced to 15 based on their frequency of use, similarity of meaning, and potential pathophysiological value. Those 15 descriptors were applied in 50 asthma patients, 50 COPD patients, 30 patients with heart failure, and 50 patients with class II or III obesity. The three best descriptors, as selected by the patients, were studied by cluster analysis. Potential associations between the identified clusters and the four clinical conditions were also investigated. The use of this set of descriptors led to a solution with seven clusters, designated sufoco (suffocating), aperto (tight), rápido (rapid), fadiga (fatigue), abafado (stuffy), trabalho/inspiração (work/inhalation), and falta de ar (shortness of breath). Overlapping of descriptors was quite common among the patients, regardless of their clinical condition. Asthma was significantly associated with the sufoco and trabalho/inspiração clusters, whereas COPD and heart failure were associated with the sufoco, trabalho/inspiração, and falta de ar clusters. Obesity was associated only with the falta de ar cluster. In Brazil, patients who are accustomed to perceiving dyspnea employ various descriptors in order to describe the symptom, and these descriptors can be grouped into similar clusters. In our study sample, such clusters showed no usefulness in differentiating among the four clinical conditions evaluated.

  6. Physiological mechanisms of dyspnea during exercise with external thoracic restriction: Role of increased neural respiratory drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Cassandra T.; Schaeffer, Michele R.; Riley, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neuromechanical uncoupling of the respiratory system forms the mechanistic basis of dyspnea during exercise in the setting of “abnormal” restrictive constraints on ventilation (VE). To this end, we examined the effect of chest wall strapping (CWS) sufficient to mimic a “mild” restrictive lung deficit on the interrelationships between VE, breathing pattern, dynamic operating lung volumes, esophageal electrode-balloon catheter-derived measures of the diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi) and the transdiaphragmatic pressure time product (PTPdi), and sensory intensity and unpleasantness ratings of dyspnea during exercise. Twenty healthy men aged 25.7 ± 1.1 years (means ± SE) completed symptom-limited incremental cycle exercise tests under two randomized conditions: unrestricted control and CWS to reduce vital capacity (VC) by 21.6 ± 0.5%. Compared with control, exercise with CWS was associated with 1) an exaggerated EMGdi and PTPdi response; 2) no change in the relationship between EMGdi and each of tidal volume (expressed as a percentage of VC), inspiratory reserve volume, and PTPdi, thus indicating relative preservation of neuromechanical coupling; 3) increased sensory intensity and unpleasantness ratings of dyspnea; and 4) no change in the relationship between increasing EMGdi and each of the intensity and unpleasantness of dyspnea. In conclusion, the increased intensity and unpleasantness of dyspnea during exercise with CWS could not be readily explained by increased neuromechanical uncoupling but likely reflected the awareness of increased neural respiratory drive (EMGdi) needed to achieve any given VE during exercise in the setting of “abnormal” restrictive constraints on tidal volume expansion. PMID:24356524

  7. Point-of-Care Ultrasonography for Evaluation of Acute Dyspnea in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Maurizio; Scorpiniti, Margherita; Gigli, Chiara; Nazerian, Peiman; Vanni, Simone; Innocenti, Francesca; Stefanone, Valerio T; Savinelli, Caterina; Coppa, Alessandro; Bigiarini, Sofia; Caldi, Francesca; Tassinari, Irene; Conti, Alberto; Grifoni, Stefano; Pini, Riccardo

    2017-06-01

    Acute dyspnea is a common symptom in the ED. The standard approach to dyspnea often relies on radiologic and laboratory results, causing excessive delay before adequate therapy is started. Use of an integrated point-of-care ultrasonography (PoCUS) approach can shorten the time needed to formulate a diagnosis, while maintaining an acceptable safety profile. Consecutive adult patients presenting with dyspnea and admitted after ED evaluation were prospectively enrolled. The gold standard was the final diagnosis assessed by two expert reviewers. Two physicians independently evaluated the patient; a sonographer performed an ultrasound evaluation of the lung, heart, and inferior vena cava, while the treating physician requested traditional tests as needed. Time needed to formulate the ultrasound and the ED diagnoses was recorded and compared. Accuracy and concordance of the ultrasound and the ED diagnoses were calculated. A total of 2,683 patients were enrolled. The average time needed to formulate the ultrasound diagnosis was significantly lower than that required for ED diagnosis (24 ± 10 min vs 186 ± 72 min; P = .025). The ultrasound and the ED diagnoses showed good overall concordance (κ = 0.71). There were no statistically significant differences in the accuracy of PoCUS and the standard ED evaluation for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, pneumonia, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, pneumothorax, and dyspnea from other causes. PoCUS was significantly more sensitive for the diagnosis of heart failure, whereas a standard ED evaluation performed better in the diagnosis of COPD/asthma and pulmonary embolism. PoCUS represents a feasible and reliable diagnostic approach to the patient with dyspnea, allowing a reduction in time to diagnosis. This protocol could help to stratify patients who should undergo a more detailed evaluation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiographic evaluation of experimentally induced nephrosis in goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Pandey, N. N.; Singh, G. R.; Setia, H. C. [Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar (India)

    1995-06-15

    Intravenous pyelography (IVP) with pneumoperitoneum (PP) was undertaken in normal and induced nephrotic goats. In normal goats, the technique provided visualization of both the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder at 10 min post-administration of sodium iothalamate (70%). In mercuric chloride- and oxytetracycline-induced nephrosis in goats, the urinary tract could not be visualized even 60 min post-administration of dye indicating sever failure of renal excretory function. However, in gentamicin-abused goats, renal excretory function was not significantly altered owing to a very mild renal damage. It was concluded that IVP with PP could be a dependable diagnostic test for varied degree of renal insufficiency in ruminants.

  9. Radiographic evaluation of experimentally induced nephrosis in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Pandey, N.N.; Singh, G.R.; Setia, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous pyelography (IVP) with pneumoperitoneum (PP) was undertaken in normal and induced nephrotic goats. In normal goats, the technique provided visualization of both the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder at 10 min post-administration of sodium iothalamate (70%). In mercuric chloride- and oxytetracycline-induced nephrosis in goats, the urinary tract could not be visualized even 60 min post-administration of dye indicating sever failure of renal excretory function. However, in gentamicin-abused goats, renal excretory function was not significantly altered owing to a very mild renal damage. It was concluded that IVP with PP could be a dependable diagnostic test for varied degree of renal insufficiency in ruminants

  10. An experimental facility for microwave induced plasma processing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, D.S.; Ramachandran, K.; Bhide, A.L.; Venkatramani, N.

    1997-01-01

    Microwave induced plasma processing offers many advantages over conventional processes. However this technology is in the development stage. This report gives a detailed information about a microwave plasma processing facility (2.45 GHz, 700 W) set up in the Laser and Plasma Technology Division. The equipment details and the results obtained on deposition of diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films and surface modification of polymer PET (polyethylene terephthalate) using this facility are given in this report. (author)

  11. Experimental study of microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ryan T.

    Microwave-Induced Thermoacoustic Imaging (TAI) is a noninvasive hybrid modality which improves contrast by using thermoelastic wave generation induced by microwave absorption. Ultrasonography is widely used in medical practice as a low-cost alternative and supplement to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although ultrasonography has relatively high image resolution (depending on the ultrasonic wavelength at diagnostic frequencies), it suffers from low image contrast of soft tissues. In this work samples are irradiated with sub-microsecond electromagnetic pulses inducing acoustic waves in the sample that are then detected with an unfocused transducer. The advantage of this hybrid modality is the ability to take advantage of the microwave absorption coefficients which provide high contrast in tissue samples. This in combination with the superior spatial resolution of ultrasound waves is important to providing a low-cost alternative to MRI and early breast cancer detection methods. This work describes the implementation of a thermoacoustic experiment using a 5 kW peak power microwave source.

  12. Host response in bovine mastitis experimentally induced with Staphylococcus chromogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simojoki, H; Orro, T; Taponen, S; Pyörälä, S

    2009-02-16

    An experimental infection model was developed to study host response to intramammary infection in cows caused by Staphylococcus chromogenes. CNS intramammary infections have become very common in modern dairy herds, and they can remain persistent in the mammary gland. More information would be needed about the pathophysiology of CNS mastitis, and an experimental mastitis model is a means for this research. Six primiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were challenged with S. chromogenes 4 weeks after calving. One udder quarter of each cow was inoculated with 2.1 x 10(6)cfu of S. chromogenes. All cows became infected and clinical signs were mild. Milk production of the challenged quarter decreased on average by 16.3% during 7 days post-challenge. Cows eliminated bacteria in a few days, except for one cow which developed persistent mastitis. Milk indicators of inflammation, SCC and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) returned to normal within a week. Milk NAGase activity increased moderately, which reflects minor tissue damage in the udder. Concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) and milk amyloid A (MAA) were both elevated at 12h PC. MAA was affected by the milking times, and was at its highest before the morning milking. In our experimental model, systemic acute phase protein response with SAA occurred as an on-off type reaction. In conclusion, this experimental model could be used to study host response in CNS mastitis caused by the main CNS species and also for comparison of the host response in a mild intramammary infection and in more severe mastitis models.

  13. Impact of Blunted Perception of Dyspnea on Medical Care Use and Expenditure, and Mortality in Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eEbihara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea is an alarming symptom responsible for millions of patient visits each year. Poor perception of dyspnea might be reasonably attributed to an inappropriately low level of fear and inadequate earlier medical treatment for both patients and physicians, resulting in subsequent intensive care. This study was conducted to evaluate medical care use and cost, and mortality according to the perception of dyspnea in community-dwelling elderly people. We analyzed baseline data from a community-based Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA in 2002. The perception of dyspnea in 479 Japanese community-dwelling elderly people with normal lung function was measured in August 2002. The sensation of dyspnea during breathing with a linear inspiratory resistance of 10, 20 and 30 cmH2O/L/s was rated using the Borg scale. According to the perception of dyspnea, we divided the elderly into tertiles and compared all hospitalizations, out-patient visits, costs and death through computerized linkage with National Health Insurance (NHI beneficiaries claims history files between August 2002 and March 2008. In-patient hospitalization days and medical care costs significantly increased with the blunted perception of dyspnea, resulting in an increase in total medical-costs with blunted perception of dyspnea. With low perception group as reference, the hazard ratios of all cause mortality were 0.65 (95%CI 0.23-1.89 for intermediate perception group and 0.31(0.10-0.97 for high perception group, indicating the mortality rate also significantly increased with the blunted perception of dyspnea after multivariates adjustment (p=0.04. The blunted perception of dyspnea is related to hospitalization, large medical costs and all-cause mortality in community-dwelling elderly people. These findings provide a rational for preventing serious illness with careful monitoring of objective conditions in the elderly.

  14. Experimental tests of induced spatial incoherence using short laser wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenschain, S.P.; Grun, J.; Herbst, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a laser beam smoothing technique called induced spatial incoherence (ISI), which can produce the highly uniform focal profiles required for direct-drive laser fusion. Uniform well-controlled focal profiles are required to obtain the highly symmetric pellet implosions needed for high-energy gain. In recent experiments, the authors' tested the effects of ISI on high-power laser-target interaction. With short laser wavelength, the coupling physics dramatically improved over that obtained with an ordinary laser beam

  15. Shock induced response of structural systems analytical and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangenberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution refers to the behaviour of reinforced concrete structures impacted by deformable missiles. The difference with hard missile impact problems, about which generally more knowledge exists, are point out. Structural response effects beyond the immediate contact face vicinity, beyond the local load introduction zone - i.e. effects of punching shear, of bending, of vibration transmission etc. - are emphasized. Two- and three-dimensional analytical approaches verified by experimental evaluations are discussed, and typical phenomena of the behaviour of reinforced concrete structures subjected to impact loads are demonstrated. (Author) [pt

  16. Cardioprotective effect of mumie (shilajit) on experimentally induced myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Najafipour, Hamid; Dabiri, Shahriar; Sheibani, Mohammad; Sharokhi, Nader

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed the effects of mumie (shilajit) pre-treatment, a traditional drug which is well known in the ancient medicine of both east and west, on cardiac performance of rats subjected to myocardial injury. Animals were divided into control, M250, and M500 (received mumie at dosages of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, orally for 7 days, respectively) main groups each consisting of two subgroups-with and without heart injury. On the 6th and 7th days, isoproterenol (ISO) (85 mg/kg i.p.) was injected (s.c.) to half of the animal subgroups to induce myocardial damage. On the 8th day, after hemodynamic parameter recordings, hearts were removed for further evaluation. Mumie pre-treatment had no significant effects on hemodynamic and cardiac indices of normal animals. When the cardiac injury was induced, mumie maintained the ±dp/dt maximum, attenuated the serum cardiac troponin I, and reduced the severity of cardiac lesions. Despite the mild positive effects of mumie on total antioxidant capacity and lipid proxidation index, no significant difference was observed among animal groups. The findings suggest the prominent cardioprotective effect of mumie against destructive effects of ISO. It seems that other mechanisms than reinforcements of antioxidant system are involved in this beneficial effect.

  17. An experimental investigation of proton-induced phenomena in krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, J.J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis proton-induced phenomena in krypton gas are described. The considered reactions of protons on krypton are both nuclear and atomic. The nuclear conversion processes mainly result in the production of several Rb radioisotopes, such as 81 Rb that is used in 81 Rb-sup(81m)Kr generator systems for medical diagnostics. The irradiation of krypton gas (natural composition) with protons of about 26 MeV can be used for the routine production of 81 Rb from the direct production reaction 82 Kr(p,2n) 81 Rb and from the indirect reaction 82 Kr(p,2n)sup(81m)Rb → 81 Rb. To determine the scattering of protons in krypton gas targets a quantitative autoradiographic technique was developed. Proton profiles have been determined from the proton-induced activity distribution on a copper foil. For the on-line detection of produced Rb radioisotopes several optical detection techniques were investigated. (Auth.)

  18. Tobacco experimental model to induce urinary bladder neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Colli Neto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to develop an experimental model of exposure to tobacco burning (cigarette products to assess the effects of its chronic use in relation to cancers of the bladder. METHODS: the animals were chronically exposed to the burning tobacco products in a semi-open chamber to simulate smoking. Thirty young Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one with 20 animals simulating smoking for six months, and ten not exposed control animals for the same period. After exposure by inhalation of cigarette smoke, animals were euthanized and subjected to histopathological study of the bladder wall. RESULTS: no tumor was found but mild and non significant alterations. The studies of hemo-oximetry (carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin and the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 confirm that the animals were exposed to high concentrations of tobacco smoke and its derivatives. CONCLUSION: no bladder mucosal neoplasia was found in the pathological study of animals. The developed experimental models were highly efficient, practical and easy to use and can be used in other similar studies to determine the harmful effects caused by smoking.

  19. Numerical-experimental assessment of roughness-induced metal-polymer interface failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeck, van J.; Schreurs, P.J.G.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical–experimental method is presented to study the initiation and growth of interface damage in polymer–steel interfaces subjected to deformation-induced steel surface roughening. The experimentally determined displacement field of an evolving steel surface is applied to a numerical model

  20. Alleviating effects of morin against experimentally-induced diabetic osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuohashish Hatem M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant flavonoids are emerging as potent therapeutic drugs effective against a wide range of aging diseases particularly bone metabolic disorders. Morin (3,5,7,20,40-pentahydroxyflavone, a member of flavonols, is an important bioactive compound by interacting with nucleic acids, enzymes and protein. The present study was designed to investigate the putative beneficial effect of morin on diabetic osteopenia in rats. Methods Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic model was used by considering 300 mg/dl fasting glucose level as diabetic. Morin (15 and 30 mg/kg was treated for five consecutive weeks to diabetic rats. Serum levels of glucose, insulin, deoxypyridinoline cross links (DPD, osteocalcin (OC, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP, telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated. Femoral bones were taken for micro CT scan to measure trabecular bone mineral density (BMD and other morphometric parameters. Results Significant bone loss was documented as the level of bone turnover parameters including DPD, OC, BALP and CTX were increased in serum of diabetic rats. Morin treatment significantly attenuated these elevated levels. Bone micro-CT scan of diabetic rats showed a significant impairment in trabecular bone microarchitecture, density and other morphometric parameters. These impairments were significantly ameliorated by morin administration. Serum levels of glucose, TBARS, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated, while the level of insulin and GSH was decreased in diabetic rats. These serum changes in diabetic rats were bring back to normal values after 5 weeks morin treatment. Conclusion These findings revealed the protective effect of morin against diabetic induced osteopenia. We believed that this effect is through its both the anti

  1. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dyspnea in the ambulance - etiology, mortality, and point-of-care diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtker, Morten Thingemann

    2016-01-01

    dyspnea in the ambulance requires identification of high-risk groups and early correct treatment. Bringing forward simplified versions of advanced diagnostic modalities known from the hospital as point-of-care diagnostics already in the ambulance may aid the discrimination of underlying conditions causing......, we included all patients dialing the emergency number (1-1-2) due to a medical emergency in three of five Danish regions. For identification of highrisk patients and evaluation of electrocardiogram-based triage, we compared short-term mortality between patients included in the first study based...... that are highly prioritized in emergency medical services – including chest pain and trauma. Whether this increased mortality can be ascribed to an older age and comorbidity among patients suffering dyspnea, or if modifiable risk factors are also present, is unsettled. Improving outcome for patients suffering...

  3. Anterior cervical osteophytes causing dysphagia and dyspnea: an uncommon entity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Roland; Dulguerov, Pavel; Payer, Michael

    2006-10-01

    Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). We present the case of an 83-year-old patient with progressive dysphagia and acute dyspnea, necessitating emergency tracheotomy. Voluminous anterior cervical osteophytes extending from C3 to C7 and narrowing the pharyngoesophageal segment by external compression and bilateral vocal fold immobility were diagnosed radiologically and by fiberoptic laryngoscopy. Surgical removal of all osteophytes led to the resolution of symptoms. Dyspnea with or without dysphagia caused by hypertrophic anterior cervical osteophytes is an uncommon entity. The exhaustive diagnostic workup proposed in the literature could be simplified by using fiberoptic laryngoscopy and dynamic videofluoroscopy. The causes, treatment, and outcome are discussed.

  4. Flagella-induced immunity against experimental cholera in adult rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, R J; Willis, D L; Berry, L J

    1979-07-01

    The adult rabbit ligated ileal loop model was used to evaluate the prophylactic potential of a crude flagellar (CF) vaccine produced from the classical. Inaba strain CA401. A greater than 1,000-fold increase in the challenge inoculum was required to induce an intestinal fluid response in actively immunized adult rabbits equivalent to that produced in unimmunized animals. Similar protection was afforded against challenge with classical and El Tor biotypes of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. Highly virulent 35S-labeled vibrios were inhibited in their ability to associated with the intestinal mucosa of CF-immunized rabbits. The protection conferred by CF immunization was found to be superior to that of a commercial bivalent vaccine and also to that of glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid. The critical immunogenic component of CF appears to be a flagella-derived protein. The immunogenicity of CF was destroyed by heat treatment, and absorption of CF-immune serum with aflagellated mutant vibrios did not diminish its ability to confer a high level of passive protection. The intestinal protection of CF-immunized rabbits was completely reversed by the introduction of both goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins A and G, but by neither alone.

  5. Experimental photoimmunology: immunologic ramifications of UV-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daynes, R.A.; Bernhard, E.J.; Gurish, M.F.; Lynch, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of animal model systems to investigate the sequence of events which lead to the induction and progression of skin tumors following chronic ultraviolet light (UVL) exposure has clearly shown that the direct mutagenic effects of UVL is only one of the components involved in this process. In spite of the fact that overt carcinogenesis is only one of the many effects produced by UV light, most hypotheses as to the mechanism by which UVL can cause the mutations necessary to achieve the transformed phenotype have focused on the direct effects of UVL on DNA and the generation of carcinogenic compounds. Investigations during the last 5 yr, however, have clearly demonstrated that immunologic factors are also critically important in the pathogenesis of UV-induced skin cancers. A complete understanding of UV-carcinogenesis must therefore consider the mechanisms which allow the transformed cell to evade immunologic rejection by the host in addition to those aspects which deal with conversion of a normal cell to a cancer cell. It is the object of this review to provide both a historical account of the work which established the immunologic consequences of chronic UVL exposure and the results of recent experiments designed to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms by which UVL affects the immunologic apparatus. In addition, a hypothetical model is presented to explain the sequence of events which ultimately lead to the emergence of the suppressor T-cells which regulate antitumor immune responses

  6. Electrical stimulation induces propagated colonic contractions in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aellen, S; Wiesel, P H; Gardaz, J-P; Schlageter, V; Bertschi, M; Virag, N; Givel, J-C

    2009-02-01

    Direct colonic electrical stimulation may prove to be a treatment option for specific motility disorders such as chronic constipation. The aim of this study was to provoke colonic contractions using electrical stimulation delivered from a battery-operated device. Electrodes were inserted into the caecal seromuscular layer of eight anaesthetized pigs. Contractions were induced by a neurostimulator (Medtronic 3625). Caecal motility was measured simultaneously by video image analysis, manometry and a technique assessing colonic transit. Caecal contractions were generated using 8-10 V amplitude, 1000 micros pulse width, 120 Hz frequency for 10-30 s, with an intensity of 7-15 mA. The maximal contraction strength was observed after 20-25 s. Electrical stimulation was followed by a relaxation phase of 1.5-2 min during which contractions propagated orally and aborally over at least 10 cm. Spontaneous and stimulated caecal motility values were significantly different for both intraluminal pressure (mean(s.d.) 332(124) and 463(187) mmHg respectively; P < 0.001, 42 experiments) and movement of contents (1.6(0.9) and 3.9(2.8) mm; P < 0.001, 40 experiments). Electrical stimulation modulated caecal motility, and provoked localized and propagated colonic contractions.

  7. Photodynamic therapy induced vascular damage: an overview of experimental PDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W; Moriyama, L T; Bagnato, V S

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed as one of the most important therapeutic options in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. By resorting to the photosensitizer and light, which convert oxygen into cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), PDT will induce vascular damage and direct tumor cell killing. Another consequence of PDT is the microvascular stasis, which results in hypoxia and further produces tumor regression. To improve the treatment with PDT, three promising strategies are currently attracting much interest: (1) the combination of PDT and anti-angiogenesis agents, which more effectively prevent the proliferation of endothelial cells and the formation of new blood vessels; (2) the nanoparticle-assisted delivery of photosensitizer, which makes the photosensitizer more localized in tumor sites and thus renders minimal damage to the normal tissues; (3) the application of intravascular PDT, which can avoid the loss of energy during the transmission and expose the target area directly. Here we aim to review the important findings on vascular damage by PDT on mice. The combination of PDT with other approaches as well as its effect on cancer photomedicine are also reviewed. (review)

  8. TOLERANCE TIME OF EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL PAIN (COLD INDUCED) IN VOLUNTEERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, V N; Wilkhoo, N S; Jain, A K

    1998-10-01

    Perception of thermal pain (cold induced) was studied in 106 volunteers from troops and civilians deployed in J & K. Thermal stimulus devised was "holding ice". Tolerance time of holding ice was taken to be a measure of thermal sensitivity, volunteers were classified based on their native areas, addiction habits and socio-economic status, out of 106 volunteers, 81 could & 25 could not hold ice over 10 min. Sixteen out of 40 from coastline States and 9 out of 66 from non-coast line States failed to hold ice over 10 min. In "below average" "average" and "high average" socio-economic groups, three out of 27, 19 out of 73 and 03 out of 6 failed to hold ice over 10 min respectively. Fifteen out of 64 from "addiction habit group" and 10 out of 42 from "no addiction habit group" failed to hold ice over 10 min. Statistically no classification used in the study revealed significant difference in "tolerance times" of volunteers except the one based on coastline and non-coastline States.

  9. Experimentally induced metamorphosis in axolotls reduces regenerative rate and fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Adrian C.; Michonneau, François; Smith, Matthew D.; Pasch, Bret; Maden, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Abstract While most tetrapods are unable to regenerate severed body parts, amphibians display a remarkable ability to regenerate an array of structures. Frogs can regenerate appendages as larva, but they lose this ability around metamorphosis. In contrast, salamanders regenerate appendages as larva, juveniles, and adults. However, the extent to which fundamental traits (e.g., metamorphosis, body size, aging, etc.) restrict regenerative ability remains contentious. Here we utilize the ability of normally paedomorphic adult axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) to undergo induced metamorphosis by thyroxine exposure to test how metamorphosis and body size affects regeneration in age‐matched paedomorphic and metamorphic individuals. We show that body size does not affect regeneration in adult axolotls, but metamorphosis causes a twofold reduction in regeneration rate, and lead to carpal and digit malformations. Furthermore, we find evidence that metamorphic blastemal cells may take longer to traverse the cell cycle and display a lower proliferative rate. This study identifies the axolotl as a powerful system to study how metamorphosis restricts regeneration independently of developmental stage, body size, and age; and more broadly how metamorphosis affects tissue‐specific changes. PMID:27499857

  10. Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Bone Loss in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rhys D; Shultz, Sandy R; Sun, Mujun; Romano, Tania; van der Poel, Chris; Wright, David K; Wark, John D; O'Brien, Terence J; Grills, Brian L; McDonald, Stuart J

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on bone homeostasis; however, pathophysiological mechanisms involved in TBI have potential to be detrimental to bone. The current study assessed the effect of experimental TBI in rats on the quantity and quality of two different weight-bearing bones, the femur and humerus. Rats were randomly assigned into either sham or lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) groups. Open-field testing to assess locomotion was conducted at 1, 4, and 12 weeks post-injury, with the rats killed at 1 and 12 weeks post-injury. Bones were analyzed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), histomorphometric analysis, and three-point bending. pQCT analysis revealed that at 1 and 12 weeks post-injury, the distal metaphyseal region of femora from FPI rats had reduced cortical content (10% decrease at 1 week, 8% decrease at 12 weeks; p in trabecular bone volume ratio at 1 week post-injury and a 27% reduction at 12 weeks post-injury in FPI rats compared to sham (p in bone quantity and mechanical properties of the femoral midshaft between sham and TBI animals. There were no differences in locomotor outcomes, which suggested that post-TBI changes in bone were not attributed to immobility. Taken together, these findings indicate that this rat model of TBI was detrimental to bone and suggests a link between TBI and altered bone remodeling.

  11. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Cho, Duk-Yeon; Yun, Yo-Sep; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-09-01

    Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  12. Perception of urge-to-cough and dyspnea in healthy smokers with decreased cough reflex sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kanezaki, Masashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Nikkuni, Etsuhiro; Gui, Peijun; Suda, Chihiro; Ebihara, Takae; Yamasaki, Miyako; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Background Although cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms, the perceptional aspects of two symptoms in smokers have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we simultaneously evaluated the cough reflex sensitivity, the cognition of urge-to-cough and perception of dyspnea in both healthy smokers and non-smokers. Methods Fourteen male healthy never-smokers and 14 age-matched male healthy current-smokers were recruited via publ...

  13. Relationship Among Pulmonary Hypertension, Autoimmunity, Thyroid Hormones and Dyspnea in Patients With Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhur, Sayid Shafi; Baykiz, Derya; Kara, Sonat Pinar; Sahin, Ertan; Kuzu, Idris; Elbuken, Gulsah

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have reported conflicting results regarding the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) in patients with hyperthyroidism. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the association between PHT and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody, thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody, TSH, fT3, fT4 and dyspnea during daily activities in a large population of patients with hyperthyroidism. A total of 129 consecutive patients with hyperthyroidism, 37 with hypothyroidism and 38 euthyroid controls were enrolled in this study. The modified medical research council scale was used for the assessment of dyspnea in daily activities. All the patients and euthyroid controls underwent transthoracic echocardiography for the assessment of PHT. Mild PHT was present in 35%, 36%, 13.5% and 5% of the patients with Graves׳ disease, toxic multinodular goiter, hypothyroidism and euthyroid controls, respectively. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was higher in hyperthyroid patients with PHT than in those without PHT. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between modified medical research council scale and pulmonary artery systolic pressure as well as PVR in patients with hyperthyroidism. No association was found between PHT and serum TSH receptor antibody, thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroglobulin antibody, TSH, fT3 and fT4 levels. Mild PHT is present in a significant proportion of patients with hyperthyroidism, regardless of etiology. PVR appears to be the main cause of PHT in patients with hyperthyroidism, and neither autoimmunity nor thyroid hormones are associated with PHT in these patients. Mild dyspnea during daily activities in patients with hyperthyroidism may be related to PHT; however, severe dyspnea requires further evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anterior Cervical Osteophytes Causing Dysphagia and Dyspnea: An Uncommon Entity Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Giger, Roland; Dulguerov, Pavel; Payer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). We present the case of an 83-year-old patient with progressive dysphagia and acute dyspnea, necessitating emergency tracheotomy. Voluminous anterior cervical osteophytes extending from C3 to C7 and narrowing the pharyngoesophageal segment by external compression and bilateral vocal fold immobility were diagnosed radiologically and by fiberoptic laryngoscop...

  15. Laryngeal schwannoma in an 8-year-old boy with inspiratory dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognone, Elisa; Rossi, Andrea; Conte, Massimo; Nozza, Paolo; Tarantino, Vincenzo; Fibbi, Antonio; Saetti, Roberto; Cutrone, Cesare; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2007-10-01

    Schwannomas of the larynx are rare lesions in the pediatric age group. In this article, we report on the neuroimaging features of a schwannoma arising from the left aryepiglottic fold in an 8-year-old boy with a 6-month history of inspiratory dyspnea. Neuroimaging showed a well-defined, avoid mass originating from the left aryepiglottic fold. The lesion was removed endoscopically. Complete removal of laryngeal schwannomas is curative, and adjuvant treatment is not required.

  16. A Case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome with Persistent Dyspnea Secondary to Laryngeal Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Dimosthenis Mantopoulos; Brad W. deSilva; Colleen M. Cebulla

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We report a case of laryngeal edema associated with the Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome. Patient and Methods: A 32-year-old African-American female presented with a 12-day prodrome, including headache, tinnitus and shortness of breath, which preceded sudden photophobia and bilateral visual loss. Examination and clinical testing were most consistent with VKH, and the patient improved with intravenous methylprednisolone therapy. Results: The patient had persistent dyspnea, which wa...

  17. A 68-Year-Old Man With Dyspnea on Exertion and Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sikachi, Rutuja R; Koenig, Seth; Khanijo, Sameer

    2018-06-01

    A 68-year-old man with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia well controlled on ibrutinib, hypertension, obesity, and a remote history of smoking (10 pack-years) presented with increasing dyspnea on exertion and cough. He had previously finished two courses of oral antibiotics for his symptoms without significant improvement. On presentation, he had no fevers or sputum production. Copyright © 2018 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental particle acceleration by water evaporation induced by shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, T.; Alatorre Ibarguengoitia, M.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Cimarelli, C.

    2010-12-01

    Shock waves are commonly generated during volcanic eruptions. They induce sudden changes in pressure and temperature causing phase changes. Nevertheless, their effects on flowfield properties are not well understood. Here we investigate the role of gas expansion generated by shock wave propagation in the acceleration of ash particles. We used a shock tube facility consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave (450 mm long, 28 mm in internal diameter), pressurized with Ar gas, and a low-pressure tank at atmospheric conditions (LP). A copper diaphragm separated the HP autoclave from a 180 mm tube (PVC or acrylic glass) at ambient P, with the same internal diameter of the HP reservoir. Around the tube, a 30 cm-high acrylic glass cylinder, with the same section of the LP tank (40 cm), allowed the observation of the processes occurring downstream from the nozzle throat, and was large enough to act as an unconfined volume in which the initial diffracting shock and gas jet expand. All experiments were performed at Pres/Pamb ratios of 150:1. Two ambient conditions were used: dry air and air saturated with steam. Carbon fibers and glass spheres in a size range between 150 and 210 μm, were placed on a metal wire at the exit of the PVC tube. The sudden decompression of the Ar gas, due to the failure of the diaphragm, generated an initial air shock wave. A high-speed camera recorded the processes between the first 100 μsec and several ms after the diaphragm failure at frame rates ranging between 30,000 and 50,000 fps. In the experiments with ambient air saturated with steam, the high-speed camera allowed to visualize the condensation front associated with the initial air shock; a maximum velocity of 788 m/s was recorded, which decreases to 524 m/s at distance of 0.5 ±0.2 cm, 1.1 ms after the diaphragm rupture. The condensation front preceded the Ar jet front exhausting from the reservoir, by 0.2-0.5 ms. In all experiments particles velocities following the initial

  19. The potential role of amlodipine on experimentally induced bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Tatar

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antibiotics are frequently used for the treatment of rhinosinusitis. Concerns have been raised regarding the adverse effects of antibiotics and growing resistance. The lack of development of new antibiotic compounds has increased the necessity for exploration of non-antibiotic compounds that have antibacterial activity. Amlodipine is a non-antibiotic compound with anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: In this study we aimed to investigate the potential role of amlodipine in the treatment of rhinosinusitis by evaluating its effects on tissue oxidative status, mucosal histology and inflammation. Methods: Fifteen adult albino guinea pigs were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and treated with saline, cefazolin sodium, or amlodipine for 7 days. The control group was composed by five healthy guinea pigs. Animals were sacrificed after the treatment. Histopathological changes were identified using Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Inflammation was assessed by Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte infiltration density. Tissue levels of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione and an oxidative product (malondialdehyde were determined. Results: In rhinosinusitis induced animals, amlodipine reduced loss of cilia, lamina propria edema and collagen deposition compared to placebo (saline and although not superior to cefazolin, amlodipine decreased polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration. The superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were reduced, whereas the malondialdehyde levels were increased significantly in all three-treatment groups compared to the control group. Amlodipine treated group showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels and decreased malondialdehyde levels compared to all treatment groups. Conclusion: The non-antibiotic compound amlodipine may have a role in acute rhinosinusitis treatment through tissue protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  20. Environmental enrichment restores cognitive deficits induced by experimental childhood meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Barichello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of environmental enrichment (EE on memory, cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the brain of adult rats subjected to experimental pneumococcal meningitis during infancy. Methods: On postnatal day 11, the animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension intracisternally at 1 × 106 CFU/mL and remained with their mothers until age 21 days. Animals were divided into the following groups: control, control + EE, meningitis, and meningitis + EE. EE began at 21 days and continued until 60 days of age (adulthood. EE consisted of a large cage with three floors, ramps, running wheels, and objects of different shapes and textures. At 60 days, animals were randomized and subjected to habituation to the open-field task and the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. After the tasks, the hippocampus and CSF were isolated for analysis. Results: The meningitis group showed no difference in performance between training and test sessions of the open-field task, suggesting habituation memory impairment; in the meningitis + EE group, performance was significantly different, showing preservation of habituation memory. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, there were no differences in behavior between training and test sessions in the meningitis group, showing aversive memory impairment; conversely, differences were observed in the meningitis + EE group, demonstrating aversive memory preservation. In the two meningitis groups, IL-4, IL-10, and BDNF levels were increased in the hippocampus, and BDNF levels in the CSF. Conclusions: The data presented suggest that EE, a non-invasive therapy, enables recovery from memory deficits caused by neonatal meningitis.

  1. Immune Cells and Molecular Networks in Experimentally Induced Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, E; Gaudin, A; Bienvenu, G; Amiaud, J; Farges, J C; Cuturi, M C; Moreau, A; Alliot-Licht, B

    2016-02-01

    Dental pulp is a dynamic tissue able to resist external irritation during tooth decay by using immunocompetent cells involved in innate and adaptive responses. To better understand the immune response of pulp toward gram-negative bacteria, we analyzed biological mediators and immunocompetent cells in rat incisor pulp experimentally inflamed by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]). Untreated teeth were used as control. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokine ligands, growth factors, and enzymes were evaluated at the transcript level, and the recruitment of the different leukocytes in pulp was measured by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis after 3 h, 9 h, and 3 d post-PBS or post-LPS treatment. After 3 d, injured rat incisors showed pulp wound healing and production of reparative dentin in both LPS and PBS conditions, testifying to the reversible pulpitis status of this model. IL6, IL1-β, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, MMP9, and iNOS gene expression were significantly upregulated after 3 h of LPS stimulation as compared with PBS. The immunoregulatory cytokine IL10 was also upregulated after 3 h, suggesting that LPS stimulates not only inflammation but also immunoregulation. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis revealed a significant, rapid, and transient increase in leukocyte levels 9 h after PBS and LPS stimulation. The quantity of dendritic cells was significantly upregulated with LPS versus PBS. Interestingly, we identified a myeloid-derived suppressor cell-enriched cell population in noninjured rodent incisor dental pulp. The percentage of this population, known to regulate immune response, was higher 9 h after inflammation triggered with PBS and LPS as compared with the control. Taken together, these data offer a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of dental pulp immunity that may be elicited by gram-negative bacteria. © International & American

  2. Acupuncture Treatment for Dyspnea due to Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto-Miyazaki, Jun; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Nishiwaki, Ayuko; Endo, Junki; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Ohno, Yasushi; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2015-12-01

    Combined idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with pulmonary emphysema (CPFE) is a syndrome with a characteristic presentation of upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a major symptom of CPFE. We report a patient with DOE due to CPFE who was successfully treated with acupuncture. Case report. A 72-year-old Japanese man with a 4-year history of DOE was diagnosed with CPFE 2 years previously in another hospital. He received standard Western medicine treatment, which included bronchodilators. However, his DOE did not improve. Consequently, he visited our hospital for acupuncture treatment and received acupuncture treatment once a week for 1 year. After 10 weeks of acupuncture treatment, the results of the 6-minute walk test (6-minute walking distance, 379 m; lowest oxygen saturation, 86%; modified Borg dyspnea scale score: 2 units) were better than those at baseline (352 m, 84%, 4 units, respectively). These values were sustained at both 30 weeks (470 m, 88%, 1 unit) and 60 weeks (473 m, 85%, 2 units). Serum interstitial biomarkers, Krebs von den Lungen and surfactant protein-D, decreased after commencement of acupuncture therapy. A patient with CPFE showed improvements in dyspnea scores, exercise tolerance, and serum biomarkers during a 1-year course of acupuncture treatment. Use of acupuncture might be an effective adjunct therapy in relieving DOE due to CPFE. A large, well-designed cohort study that includes patients with CPFE treated with acupuncture should be conducted.

  3. [Unexpected treatable dyspnea caused by intratracheal granuloma in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient with mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Shimon; Kimura, Fumiharu; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Satoh, Toshihiko; Furutama, Daisuke; Sugino, Masakazu

    2007-09-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a problem that develops in nearly all people diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A 46-year-old man with ALS, who had been in a bedridden state with tracheal ventilation support, complained of faintness and dyspnea. The airway pressure of the ventilator had increased, and bleeding from the trachea had occurred several times. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed granulation located on the anterior wall of the trachea and severe airway obstruction of the tracheostomy tube. Although a long tracheostomy tube had been intubated for the initial management of the tracheal granulation, a tumor on the posterior tracheal wall had relapsed and occluded the tracheal lumen. A self-expandable metallic airway stent was placed into the tracheal stenosis. After stenting, his symptoms of dyspnea and syncope imploved, and the increased airway pressure of the ventilator was normalized. We speculated that the tracheal granuloma had occurred due to a tracheal mucosal injury related to endotracheal suctioning. We should pay attention to complaints of dyspnea in ALS patients with tracheostomy and make a careful consideration to airway care including suction management.

  4. An adult cystic fibrosis patient presenting with persistent dyspnea: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinet Catherine L

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent dyspnea is a common finding in the cystic fibrosis patient that typically leads to further work up of an alternative pulmonary etiology. Adult cystic fibrosis patients; however, are growing in numbers and they are living into the ages in which coronary artery disease becomes prevalent. Coronary disease should be included in the consideration of diagnostic possibilities. Case presentation A 52-year-old white male with cystic fibrosis was evaluated for exertional dyspnea associated with vague chest discomfort. Diagnostic testing revealed normal white blood cell, hemoglobin and platelet count, basic metabolic panel, fasting lipid profile, HbA1c, with chest radiograph confirming chronic cystic findings unchanged from prior radiographs and an electrocardiogram that revealed sinus rhythm with left anterior fascicular block. Stress thallium testing demonstrated a reversible anteroseptal perfusion defect with a 55% left ventricular ejection fraction. Heart catheterization found a 99% occlusion of the left anterior descending artery extending into the two diagonal branches, with 100% obstruction of the left anterior descending artery at the trifurcation and 70% lesion affecting the first posterior lateral branch of the circumflex artery. Conclusion This case report represents the first description in the medical literature of a cystic fibrosis patient diagnosed with symptomatic coronary artery disease. Applying a standard clinical practice guide proved useful toward evaluating a differential diagnosis for a cystic fibrosis patient presenting with dyspnea and chest discomfort.

  5. Experimental model to induce obesity in rats Modelo experimental para induzir obesidade em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Von Diemen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of obesity is multifactorial and is becoming a problem of public health, due to its increased prevalence and the consequent repercussion of its comorbidities on the health of the population. The great similarity and homology between the genomes of rodents and humans make these animal models a major tool to study conditions affecting humans, which can be simulated in rats. Obesity can be induced in animals by neuroendocrine, dietary or genetic changes. The most widely used models to induce obesity in rats are a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH by administering monosodium glutamate or a direct electrical lesion, ovariectomy, feeding on hypercaloric diets and genetic manipulation for obesity.A obesidade tem etiologia multifatorial e está se tornando um problema de saúde pública devido ao aumento da sua prevalência e a conseqüente repercusão das suas comorbidades na saúde da população. A grande similaridade e homologia entre os genomas dos roedores e dos humanos tornam esses modelos animais uma importante ferramenta para o estudo de condições que afetam os humanos e que podem ser simuladas em ratos. A obesidade pode ser induzida em animais com alterações neuroendócrinas, dietéticas ou genéticas. Os modelos mais utilizados para indução de obesidade em ratos são lesão do núcleo hipotalâmico venteromedial (VMH através da administração de glutamato monossódico ou lesão elétrica direta, ooforectomia, alimentação com dietas hipercalóricas e manipulação genética para obesidade.

  6. Benefits of short inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, dyspnea, and inspiratory fraction in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Shahin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Barakat Shahin1, Michele Germain2, Alzahouri Kazem3, Guy Annat41Department of Physiology, University of Claude Bernard Lyon I, Lyon, France; 2Chef of the Service of EFR, Hospital of the Croix-Rousse at Lyon, France; 3Department of Medical Informatics, Hospital of St. Julien, Nancy, France; 4Department of Physiology, UFR Médecine Lyon Grange-Blanche Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, INSERM ESPRI ERI 22, Lyon, FranceAbstract: Static lung hyperinflation has important clinical consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Given that most of these patients have respiratory and peripheral muscle weakness, dyspnea and functional exercise capacity may improve as a result of inspiratory muscle training (IMT. The present study is designed to investigate the benefits of a short outpatient program of IMT on inspiratory muscle performance, exercise capacity, perception of dyspnea, and the inspiratory fraction (IF. Thirty patients (24 males, 6 females with significant COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] = 46.21% ± 6.7% predicted, FEV1 = 33.6% ± 8.04% predicted were recruited for this study and had 3 months of IMT (30 minutes/day for 6 days/week in an outpatient clinic. Following IMT, there was a statistically significant increase in inspiratory muscle performance (an increase of the maximal inspiratory pressure from 59% ± 19.1% to 79% ± 21.85% predicted; p = 0.0342, a decrease in dyspnea (from 5.8 ± 0.78 to 1.9 ± 0.57; p = 0.0001, an increase in the distance walked during the 6 minute walk test, from 245 ± 52.37 m to 302 ± 41.30 m, and finally an increase in the IF (the new prognostic factor in COPD from 27.6 ± 9.7% to 31.4% ± 9.8%. The present study concludes that in patients with significant COPD, IMT results in improvement in performance, exercise capacity, sensation of dyspnea, and moreover an improvement in the IF prognostic factor.Keywords: inspiratory muscle training, dyspnea, inspiratory

  7. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borel B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Borel,1,2 Courtney A Wilkinson-Maitland,3 Alan Hamilton,4 Jean Bourbeau,5 Hélène Perrault,6 Dennis Jensen,3,5,7 François Maltais2 1Laboratoire HAVAE, Université de Limoges, Limoges, France; 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, 3Clinical Exercise and Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montréal, QC, 4Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada Limited, Burlington, ON, 5Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 7Translational Research in Respiratory Diseases Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods: A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7, % predicted performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg/salbutamol (2.5 mg and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results: A total of 37 (92.5%, 36 (90%, 34 (85% and 27 (67.5% patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01 and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale

  8. [When the cause of dyspnea is on larynx. Asthma of difficult control, resistant to treatment? Vocal cords dysfunction? or Both?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacre Hazouri, José Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Dyspnea is a symptom whose diagnosis requires the exclusion of other diseases with which it can be confused, such as asthma and a variety of pulmonary and heart diseases. Dyspnea originated in the larynx may occur due to obstruction by a tumor or other affections in situ, interfering the airway, such as: edema by infections or inflammatory processes, a traumatism, an abnormal movement of the larynx structures, such as the inappropriate or absent of the vocal cords or the laryngospasm. Severity of larynx dyspnea may be to mild to acute, risking the life. This paper reviews the normal laryngeal function and the anatomic, obstructive, and functional disorders that can lead to dyspnea. Some suggestions are also made to determine the cause and treat these diseases.

  9. Impact of exercise capacity on dyspnea and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Frølich, Anne; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  10. Cardioprotective effect of amlodipine in oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats

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    Sudhira Begum

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the administration of amlodipine ameliorates oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats. Adrenaline was administered and myocardial damage was evaluated biochemically [significantly increased serum aspertate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels of myocardial tissue] and histologically (morphological changes of myocardium. Amlodipine was administered as pretreatment for 14 days in adrenaline treated rats. Statistically significant amelioration in all the biochemical parameters supported by significantly improved myocardial morphology was observed in amlodipine pretreatment. It was concluded that amlodipine afforded cardioprotection by reducing oxidative stress induced in experimental myocardial infarction of catecholamine assault.

  11. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaleem, Shereen Abdelhakim; Hassan, Osama A.; Ahmed, Rasha F.; Zenhom, Nagwa M.; Rifaai, Rehab A.; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F.

    2017-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this ...

  12. Comparative experimental study of cancer induced by ionizing radiations or by chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Animal experiments have contributed to specify a number of parameters used in setting human safety limits for ionizing radiation. In the same way, comparisons have been made between cancers induced in man and in animals in well-defined conditions. In order to use the same experimental data for chemical carcinogens, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis should be the same, i.e. additivity of responses instead of synergy of effects, which requires the development of a new experimental method [fr

  13. Nutrient Induced Type 2 and Chemical Induced Type 1 Experimental Diabetes Differently Modulate Gastric GLP-1 Receptor Expression

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    Olga Bloch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available T2DM patients demonstrate reduced GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R expression in their gastric glands. Whether induced T2DM and T1DM differently affect the gastric GLP-1R expression is not known. This study assessed extrapancreatic GLP-1R system in glandular stomach of rodents with different types of experimental diabetes. T2DM and T1DM were induced in Psammomys obesus (PO by high-energy (HE diet and by streptozotocin (STZ in Sprague Dawly (SD rats, respectively. GLP-1R expression was determined in glandular stomach by RT PCR and immunohistomorphological analysis. The mRNA expression and cellular association of the GLP-1R in principal glands were similar in control PO and SD rats. However, nutrient and chemical induced diabetes resulted in opposite alterations of glandular GLP-1R expression. Diabetic PO demonstrated increased GLP-1R mRNA expression, intensity of cellular GLP-1R immunostaining, and frequency of GLP-1R positive cells in the neck area of principal glands compared with controls. In contrast, SD diabetic rats demonstrated decreased GLP-1 mRNA, cellular GLP-1R immunoreactivity, and frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells in the neck area compared with controls. In conclusion, nutrient and chemical induced experimental diabetes result in distinct opposite alterations of GLP-1R expression in glandular stomach. These results suggest that induced T1DM and T2DM may differently modulate GLP-1R system in enteropancreatic axis.

  14. The origin of dyspnea and its role in the reduction of exercise endurance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vasil'evich Sheyanov

    2010-01-01

    Results. Dyspnea during exercise was reported by 54 (52% patients with RA and 9 (9% control patients (p < 0.001. Dyspnea was more frequently detected and more significant in RA patients with other symptoms of respiratory organ lesions (cough, sputum discharge, chest pain on breathing and coughing, anemia, and emotional disorders of the anxious-depressive type. The degree of dyspnea correlated with DAS 28 scores (r = 0.33; p < 0.01. No correlation was found between lung function parameters and blood gas composition. Pulmonary MSCT in RA patients with dyspnea more frequently revealed signs of bronchiolitis and lesion of the lung as its interstitial fibrotic type. Conclusion. Dyspnea is a common symptom and an important factor in reducing EE and QL in patients with RA. Dyspnea in these patients has a multifactorial origin. Of importance in its occurrence are the involvement of the lung and bronchi in the pathological process irrespective of the lung function, as well as RA-associated factors (including anemia, and nosogenic emotional disorders (anxiety and/or depression.

  15. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac d......% to 17%). CONCLUSIONS: In the general population with dyspnea, plasma proBNP concentrations are increased in left ventricular dilatation, hypertrophy, systolic dysfunction, or diastolic dysfunction, but are unaffected by pulmonary dysfunction.......OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... dyspnea in the emergency department, but their diagnostic significance in evaluating chronic dyspnea in the general population is unknown. METHODS: Within the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a large, community-based population study, dyspnea was evaluated by spirometry, oxygen saturation, echocardiography...

  16. Psycho-Physiological Associates of Dyspnea in Hospitalized Patients with Interstitial Lung Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan Hua; Mak, Yim Wah

    2017-10-24

    Dyspnea has been found to be an independent predictor of mortality among patients with respiratory diseases and is often regarded as a difficult symptom to control in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Previous studies have found an association of psychological and physiological factors with dyspnea among patients with chronic obstructive airway diseases. However, symptom management of hospitalized patients with ILDs has been hampered by difficulty in priority, since they are often admitted with multiple psycho-physiological needs. This study examined the prevalence of dyspnea and the psycho-physiological factors associated with it among hospitalized Chinese patients with ILDs. We studied 165 hospitalized patients with ILDs recruited consecutively over three months in a public hospital in Guangzhou, China. Dyspnea and common psycho-physiological factors, including cough symptoms, activity capacity, lung function, physical and mental health status, and anxiety and depression symptoms, were measured. By ordered logistic regression, level of dyspnea statistically significantly affected performance in a six-minute walk test and physical functioning in work or other regular daily activities in hospitalized patients with ILDs. Respiratory rehabilitation with an appropriate intensity of exercise training or other strategies for enhancing the physical functioning of this population with moderate and severe levels of dyspnea should be prioritized.

  17. Cowhage-induced itch as an experimental model for pruritus. A comparative study with histamine-induced itch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru D P Papoiu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Histamine is the prototypical pruritogen used in experimental itch induction. However, in most chronic pruritic diseases, itch is not predominantly mediated by histamine. Cowhage-induced itch, on the other hand, seems more characteristic of itch occurring in chronic pruritic diseases.We tested the validity of cowhage as an itch-inducing agent by contrasting it with the classical itch inducer, histamine, in healthy subjects and atopic dermatitis (AD patients. We also investigated whether there was a cumulative effect when both agents were combined.Fifteen healthy individuals and fifteen AD patients were recruited. Experimental itch induction was performed in eczema-free areas on the volar aspects of the forearm, using different itch inducers: histamine, cowhage and their combination thereof. Itch intensity was assessed continuously for 5.5 minutes after stimulus application using a computer-assisted visual analogue scale (COVAS.In both healthy and AD subjects, the mean and peak intensity of itch were higher after the application of cowhage compared to histamine, and were higher after the combined application of cowhage and histamine, compared to histamine alone (p<0.0001 in all cases. Itch intensity ratings were not significantly different between healthy and AD subjects for the same itch inducer used; however AD subjects exhibited a prolonged itch response in comparison to healthy subjects (p<0.001.Cowhage induced a more intense itch sensation compared to histamine. Cowhage was the dominant factor in itch perception when both pathways were stimulated in the same time. Cowhage-induced itch is a suitable model for the study of itch in AD and other chronic pruritic diseases, and it can serve as a new model for testing antipruritic drugs in humans.

  18. Experimental Study on Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Vortex-Induced Vibrations and Wake-Induced Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigid circular cylinder with two piezoelectric beams attached on has been tested through vortex-induced vibrations (VIV and wake-induced vibrations (WIV by installing a big cylinder fixed upstream, in order to study the influence of the different flow-induced vibrations (FIV types. The VIV test shows that the output voltage increases with the increases of load resistance; an optimal load resistance exists for the maximum output power. The WIV test shows that the vibration of the small cylinder is controlled by the vortex frequency of the large one. There is an optimal gap of the cylinders that can obtain the maximum output voltage and power. For a same energy harvesting device, WIV has higher power generation capacity; then the piezoelectric output characteristics can be effectively improved.

  19. Nasal flaring as a clinical sign of respiratory acidosis in patients with dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-Riveiro, José Gregorio; Arnau-Bartés, Anna; Rafat-Sellarés, Ramón; García-Pérez, Dolors; Mas-Serra, Arantxa; Fernández-Fernández, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether the presence of nasal flaring is a clinical sign of respiratory acidosis in patients attending emergency departments for acute dyspnea. Single-center, prospective, observational study of patients aged over 15 requiring urgent attention for dyspnea, classified as level II or III according to the Andorran Triage Program and who underwent arterial blood gas test on arrival at the emergency department. The presence of nasal flaring was evaluated by two observers. Demographic and clinical variables, signs of respiratory difficulty, vital signs, arterial blood gases and clinical outcome (hospitalization and mortality) were recorded. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. The sample comprised 212 patients, mean age 78years (SD=12.8), of whom 49.5% were women. Acidosis was recorded in 21.2%. Factors significantly associated with the presence of acidosis in the bivariate analysis were the need for pre-hospital medical care, triage level II, signs of respiratory distress, presence of nasal flaring, poor oxygenation, hypercapnia, low bicarbonates and greater need for noninvasive ventilation. Nasal flaring had a positive likelihood ratio for acidosis of 4.6 (95% CI 2.9-7.4). In the multivariate analysis, triage level II (aOR 5.16; 95% CI: 1.91 to 13.98), the need for oxygen therapy (aOR 2.60; 95% CI: 1.13-5.96) and presence of nasal flaring (aOR 6.32; 95% CI: 2.78-14.41) were maintained as factors independently associated with acidosis. Nasal flaring is a clinical sign of severity in patients requiring urgent care for acute dyspnea, which has a strong association with acidosis and hypercapnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dyspnea, pulmonary function and exercise capacity in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alameri, Hatem F.; Alem, A.; Al-Momen, A.; Kardas, W.; Owais, M.; Jehangir, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to examine pulmonary function, dyspnea, and exercise capacity in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. The patients were recruited from the hematology clinic at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh from January to December 2005. The study involved 39 patients with stable SCD 20 women and 19 men, with a mean age of 22.7+/- 7.1 years, hemoglobin level of 95.5+/-14.6g/L and hemoglobin F level of 13.7+/08.6. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests PFT forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide [DLco] data are presented as a percentage of the normal prediction, a 6- minute walk test 6MWT and echocardiography. Dyspnea was assessed using the Borg score. The 6MWT data were compared to body mass index matched healthy controls. Forty-one percent of SCD patients had mild dyspnea at rest and this increased to 61% at the end of the 6MWT. Pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 51%, 36% of patients had a restrictive pattern, 10% had isolated decrease in DLco and 5% had a mixed restrictive-obstrutive pattern. The 6MWD was shorter in SCD patients compared to the controls 368+/-67 versus 407+/-47m, p=0.005. No hematological variables correlated with outcome variables. Chronic pulmonary complications in adult Saudi SCD patients are relatively mild but common. Pulmonary function in these patients differs from that published for African-origin SCD patients. The difference may reflect a different natural history of SCD in the 2 populations. (author)

  1. [Nasal flaring as a predictor of mortality in patients with severe dyspnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla Riveiro, José Gregorio; Arnau Bartés, Anna; García Pérez, Dolors; Rafat Sellarés, Ramón; Mas Serra, Arantxa; Fernández Fernández, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether the presence of nasal flaring is a clinical sign of severity and a predictor of hospital mortality in emergency patients with dyspnea. Prospective, observational, single-center study. We enrolled patients older than 15 years of age who required attention for dyspnea categorized as level II or III emergencies according to the Andorran Medical Triage system. Two observers evaluated the presence of nasal flaring. We recorded demographic and clinical variables, including respiratory effort, vital signs, arterial blood gases, and clinical course (hospital admission and mortality). Bivariable analysis was performed and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed. We enrolled 246 patients with a mean (SD) age of 77 (13) years; 52% were female. Nasal flaring was present in 19.5%. Patients with nasal flaring had triage levels indicating greater severity and they had more severe tachypnea, worse oxygenation, and greater acidosis and hypercapnia. Bivariable analysis detected that the following variables were associated with mortality: age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10), prehospital care from the emergency medical service (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.39-11.39), triage level II (OR, 4.19; 95% CI, 1.63-10.78), signs of respiratory effort such as nasal flaring (OR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.65-8.69), presence of acidosis (OR, 7.09; 95% CI, 2.97-16.94), and hypercapnia (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1,11-6,45). The factors that remained independent predictors of mortality in the multivariable analysis were age, severity (triage level), and nasal flaring. In patients requiring emergency care for dyspnea, nasal flaring is a clinical sign of severity and a predictor of mortality.

  2. Status of experimental data of proton-induced reactions for intermediate-energy nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Yamano, Naoki; Fukahori, Tokio

    1998-11-01

    The present status of experimental data of proton-induced reactions is reviewed, with particular attention to total reaction cross section, elastic and inelastic scattering cross section, double-differential particle production cross section, isotope production cross section, and activation cross section. (author)

  3. Gender and perception of dyspnea: The role of the variation in the forced expiratory volume in one second

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Nigro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During bronchoconstriction women perceive more breathlessness than men. The aims of study were 1 to evaluate if quality of dyspnea in bronchoconstriction was different in women and men 2 to assess if gender difference in the perception of dyspnea could be related to the level of bronchoconstriction. 457 subjects (257 women inhaled methacholine to a 20% decrease in FEV1, or 32 mg/ml. Dyspnea was evaluated using the modified Borg scale and a list of expressions of dyspnea. Borg scores were recorded immediately before the challenge test baseline and at the maximum FEV1 decrease. The prevalence of descriptors of dyspnea reported by women and men was similar. Dyspnea was related to the level of FEV1 (ΔFEV1: OR 1.05, 95%CI 1.01-1.09, p 0.0095, females (OR 2.90, 95%CI 1.33-6.33, p 0.0072, younger subjects (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.89- 0.97, p 0.0013 and body mass index (BMI (OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.23, p 0.023. As the FEV1 fell less than 20% from baseline, only the ΔFEV1 was significantly associated with dyspnea (ΔFEV1:OR 1.15, 95%CI 1.07- 1.24, p 0.0002. Instead, if the FEV1 fell higher ≥ 20%, the presence of dyspnea was related to the degree of bronchoconstriction (ΔFEV1: OR 1.04, 95%CI 1.01-1.09, p 0.0187, females (OR 3.02, 95%CI 1.36-6.72, p 0.0067, younger subjects (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.88-0.96, p 0.0007 and BMI (OR 1.12, 95%CI 1.01-1.23, p 0.023. The quality of dyspnea during the bronchoconstriction was similar in women and men; women showed a higher perception of dyspnea than men only when the FEV1 fell more than 20% from baseline.

  4. Dyspnea, Tachycardia, and New Onset Seizure as a Presentation of Wilms Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor is found in 1 in 10,000 children and most commonly presents in asymptomatic toddlers whose care givers notice a nontender abdominal mass in the right upper quadrant. This case of Wilms tumor presented as a critically ill eleven-year old with significant tachypnea, dyspnea, vague abdominal pain, intermittent emesis, new onset seizure, metabolic acidosis, and hypoxemia. This is the first case in the literature of Wilms Tumor with cavoatrial involvement and seizure and pulmonary embolism resulting in aggressive resuscitation and treatment. Treatment included anticoagulation, chemotherapy, nephrectomy, and surgical resection of thrombi, followed by adjunctive chemotherapy with pulmonary radiation.

  5. Dyspnea with anemia turned out to be a case of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabha Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder of the vascular system. It can be asymptomatic but when symptomatic most common presentation being epistaxis. It can involve any organs of the body like lungs, skin, liver brain, GI mucosa etc. We are reporting a case of HHT presented to us with dyspnea and severe anemia. He had arteriovenous malformations of different visceral organs and telangiectasia of skin along with presence of similar history in first-degree relatives.

  6. A 26-year-old man with dyspnea and chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mittal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old smoker male presented with a history of sudden onset dyspnea and right-sided chest pain. Chest radiograph revealed large right-sided pneumothorax which was managed with tube thoracostomy. High-resolution computed tomography thorax revealed multiple lung cysts, and for a definite diagnosis, a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery-guided lung biopsy was performed followed by pleurodesis. This clinicopathologic conference discusses the clinical and radiological differential diagnoses, utility of lung biopsy, and management options for patients with such a clinical presentation.

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Shock-Induced Reactions in Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Jeffrey J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kohl, Ian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knepper, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farrow, Darcie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tappan, Alexander S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In this work, shock-induced reactions in high explosives and their chemical mechanisms were investigated using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Experimentally, ultrafast shock interrogation (USI, an ultrafast interferometry technique) and ultrafast absorption spectroscopy were used to interrogate shock compression and initiation of reaction on the picosecond timescale. The experiments yielded important new data that appear to indicate reaction of high explosives on the timescale of tens of picoseconds in response to shock compression, potentially setting new upper limits on the timescale of reaction. Theoretically, chemical mechanisms of shock-induced reactions were investigated using density functional theory. The calculations generated important insights regarding the ability of several hypothesized mechanisms to account for shock-induced reactions in explosive materials. The results of this work constitute significant advances in our understanding of the fundamental chemical reaction mechanisms that control explosive sensitivity and initiation of detonation.

  8. Differential effects of experimental and cold-induced hyperthyroidism on factors inducing rat liver oxidative damage

    OpenAIRE

    Venditti, Paola; Pamplona Gras, Reinald; Ayala, Victoria; Rosa, R. de; Caldarone, G.; Di Meo, S.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid hormone-induced increase in metabolic rates is often associated with increased oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of iodothyronines to liver oxidative stress in the functional hyperthyroidism elicited by cold, using as models cold-exposed and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T-3)- or thyroxine (T-4)-treated rats. The hyperthyroid state was always associated with increases in both oxidative capacity and oxidative damage of the tissue. The most ex...

  9. Protective effects of ebselen on sodium-selenite-induced experimental cataract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Orhan; Güler, Mete; Kaya, Mehmet Kaan; Deniz, Nurettin; Üstündağ, Bilal

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether ebselen has a protective effect or antioxidative potential in a sodium-selenite-induced experimental cataract model. Fırat University, Elazığ, Turkey. Experimental study. Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly divided into a control group, a sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group, and an ebselen-treated group; each group contained 7 rat pups. Rats in the control group received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally only and rats in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group received 30 nmol/g body weight sodium selenite subcutaneously and DMSO intraperitoneally 10 days postpartum. Rats in the ebselen group received 30 nmol/g body weight sodium selenite subcutaneously 10 days postpartum and were treated with 5 mg/kg body weight ebselen once a day for 4 consecutive days. Cataract development was assessed weekly for 3 weeks by slitlamp examination and graded using a scale. Reduced glutathione (GSH), total nitrite, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in lens supernatants were measured at the end of 3 weeks. In the control group, all lenses were clear. In the ebselen-treated group, the mean cataract stage was significantly lower than in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group (P = .022). The GSH levels were significantly lower in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group than in the control and ebselen groups (P ebselen group than in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group (P ebselen group (P = .001). Ebselen had a protective effect on cataract development in a sodium-selenite-induced experimental model. The protective effect of ebselen appears to be due to inhibition of oxidative stress. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of preferred music genre selection versus preferred song selection on experimentally induced anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy DeLoach

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of experimentally induced anxiety levels reached by subjects listening to no music (n = 30), subjects listening to music selected by the experimenter from the subject's preferred genre or artist listed as relaxing (n = 30), and subjects listening to a specific song they listed as relaxing (n = 30). Subjects consisted of 90 individuals, male and female, randomly assigned to one of the three groups mentioned above. Subjects in either music group filled out a questionnaire prior to participating in the study indicating their preference of music used for relaxation purposes. Subjects in Experimental Group 1 marked their preferred genres and/or artists, and Experimental Group 2 marked specific songs used for relaxation purposes. While the experimenter hypothesized subjects in Experimental Group 2 would show less anxiety than both the control group and Experimental Group 1, there were no significant differences found between the 2 music groups in anxiety levels reached. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the no music control group and both music groups in the anxiety level reached by subjects. Subjects listening to music, both songs chosen by the experimenter and subject selected songs, showed significantly less anxiety than subjects not listening to music.

  11. Analyse of the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism in the patients with dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yanxia; Su Jian; Wang Bingsheng; Wu Songhong; Dai Ruiting; Cao Caixia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with dyspnea and to explore the predisposing causes and its early clinical manifestations. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done in 461 patients with dyspnea performed 99 Tc m -macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion imaging and 99 Tc m -DTPA ventilation imaging or 99 Tc m -MAA perfusion imaging and chest X-ray examination. Among them, 48 cases without apparent disease were considered as control group, whereas the remaining patients with other underlying illnesses as patients group. PEMS statistics software package was used for estimation of prevalence rate, χ 2 test and PE risk factor analysis. Results: There were 251 PE patients among 461 patients, the prevalence rate [ (π)=95% confidence interval (CI) ] was: lower extremity thrombosis and varicosity (80.79-95.47 ), post cesarean section (55.64-87.12), lower extremity bone surgery or fracture (52.76-87.27 ), cancer operation (52.19-78.19), atrial fibrillation or heart failure (53.30-74.88), obesity (23.14-50.20), post abdominal surgery (20.23-59.43), diabetes (19.12-63.95), chronic bronchitis (1.80-23.06), normal control group (3.47-22.66). Except chronic bronchitis, PE prevalence rate between patients group and control group had significant difference (P 99 Tc m -MAA and DTPA lung imaging should be done as early as possible. (authors)

  12. A Case of Frequent Arousal Following Nocturnal Dyspnea Caused by Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Wui Yoon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a common disorder that is associated with many esophageal syndromes and complications. Most cases of reflux event occur during the day, but reflux during sleep can cause not only esophageal problems, but also sleep problems, such as arousal and poor sleep quality. We report the case of a 17-year-old man who had been referred to us with frequent arousal following sudden dyspnea. On polysomnography, no respiratory disturbances and periodic limb movements were found during the sleep study, but frequent events of arousal were reported (arousal index: 12.3/h. On a 24-hr esophageal pH monitoring test, his DeMeester score was 176.43 and the total reflux time was 1120.9 min (76.9%, indicating the presence of significant acid reflux. After treatment with a proton-pump inhibitor, the arousals following nocturnal dyspnea and fatigue in the morning disappeared in the patient. GERD should be considered as a cause of spontaneous arousal or awakening not accompanying respiratory disturbances.

  13. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and dyspnea in air pollution-related respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naomi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Yano, Yudai; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Kotaki, Kenji; Kitagawa, Chika; Rikitomi, Naoto; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in Japan caused respiratory disease, such as chronic bronchitis and asthma, in many individuals in the 1960s. Although air pollution has decreased, many victims of air pollution-related respiratory disease are limited in their activities of daily living because of respiratory symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in victims of air pollution-related chronic bronchitis or asthma. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week (2-week inpatient followed by 10-week outpatient) pulmonary rehabilitation program. The program comprised conditioning, strength training, endurance training, and patient education. We assessed the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea grade, pulmonary function, peripheral muscle force, incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD), and physical activity at baseline and immediately after the program. Twenty-nine subjects (mean age 74.2 ± 10.1 years, 11 males) completed the program, including 11 subjects with COPD and 18 subjects with asthma. Following rehabilitation, the participants (n = 29) showed significant improvements in MMRC dyspnea grade, vital capacity % predicted, quadriceps force and ISWD (all P pollution-related asthma. In conclusion, we recommend that patients with chronic bronchitis or asthma, resulting from exposure to air pollution, are referred for pulmonary rehabilitation.

  14. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  15. Evaluation of Dyspnea Outcomes After Endoscopic Airway Surgery for Laryngotracheal Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Idris; Akst, Lee; Karatayli-Özgürsoy, Selmin; Teets, Kristine; Simpson, Marissa; Sharma, Ashwyn; Best, Simon R A; Hillel, Alexander T

    2016-11-01

    Endoscopic airway surgery is a frequently used procedure in the management of laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS); however, no established outcome measures are available to assess treatment response. To assess acoustics and aerodynamic measures and voice- and dyspnea-related quality of life (QOL) in adult patients with LTS who undergo endoscopic airway surgery. This case series compared preoperative measures and postoperative outcomes among adult patients who underwent endoscopic airway surgery for LTS from September 1, 2013, to September 30, 2015, at the tertiary care Johns Hopkins Voice Center. Patients were excluded if they did not undergo balloon dilation or if they had multilevel or glottic stenosis. The Phonatory Aerodynamic System was used to quantify laryngotracheal aerodynamic changes after surgery. Final follow-up was completed 2 to 6 weeks after surgery. The voice-related QOL instrument (V-RQOL), Dyspnea Index, and Clinical Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Questionnaire were completed before and after endoscopic surgery. Consensus auditory perceptual evaluation of voice, acoustic measurements, and aerodynamic outcomes were also assessed. Fourteen patients (1 man and 13 women; mean [SD] age, 45.4 [4.3] years) were enrolled. The mean postoperative V-RQOL scores (n = 14) increased from 74.3 to 85.5 (mean of difference, 11.3; 95% CI, 2.2 to 20.3). The mean postoperative Dyspnea Index (n = 14) decreased from 26.9 to 6.6 (mean of difference, -20.3; 95% CI, -27.9 to -12.7); the mean postoperative Clinical Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Questionnaire scores (n = 9) decreased from 3.2 to 1.0 (mean of difference, -2.2; 95% CI, -3.4 to -0.9). Postoperative mean vital capacity (n = 14) increased from 2.5 to 3.1 L (mean of difference, 0.6 L; 95% CI, 0.3-1.0 L), whereas mean laryngeal resistance (n = 14) decreased from 73.9 to 46.4 cm H2O/L/s (mean of difference, -27.5 cm H2O/L/s; 95% CI, -44.8 to -10.3 cm H2O/L/s) postoperatively. Patients

  16. Microbiological profile and calprotectin expression in naturally occurring and experimentally induced gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Roberto; Guarnelli, Maria Elena; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the microbiological profile and the calprotectin expression in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in spontaneous and experimentally induced gingival inflammation. Thirty-seven periodontally healthy subjects were evaluated in real life conditions (N-O gingivitis) as well as after 21 days of experimental gingivitis trial (E-I gingivitis). During the experimental gingivitis trial, in one maxillary quadrant (test quadrant), gingival inflammation was induced by oral hygiene abstention, while in the contralateral (control) quadrant, oral hygiene was routinely continued. The results of the study showed that (1) the microbiological profile of quadrants where gingival inflammation was experimentally induced (i.e., E-I test quadrants) differed significantly from that of either quadrants where gingival inflammation was controlled by proper plaque control (i.e., E-I control quadrants) or quadrants with N-O gingivitis, and (2) GCF calprotectin was significantly higher at E-I test quadrants compared to either E-I control quadrants or quadrants with N-O gingivitis. A positive intrasubject correlation was found between GCF concentration of calprotectin at sites presenting N-O and E-I gingivitis. N-O and E-I gingivitis showed a different microbiological profile of the subgingival environment. GCF calprotectin is a reliable marker of gingival inflammation, and its concentration in N-O gingivitis is correlated with its expression in E-I gingivitis. The modality of plaque accumulation seems to affect the subgingival microbiological profile associated with a gingivitis condition. Calprotectin levels in GCF may be regarded as a promising marker of the individual susceptibility to develop gingival inflammation in response to experimentally induced plaque accumulation.

  17. [Development of an activity of daily living scale for patients with COPD: the Activity of Daily Living Dyspnea scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoza, Yoshiyasu; Ariyoshi, Koya; Honda, Sumihisa; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2009-10-01

    Patients with COPD often experience restriction in their activities of daily living (ADL) due to dyspnea. This type of restriction is unique to patients with COPD and cannot be adequately evaluated by the generic ADL scales. This study developed an ADL scale (the Activity of Daily Living Dyspnea scale [ADL-D scale]) for patients with COPD and investigated its validity and internal consistency. Patients with stable COPD were recruited and completed a pilot 26-item questionnaire. Patients also performed the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test (ISWT), and completed the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea grade. There were 83 male participants who completed the pilot questionnaire. Following the pilot, 8 items that were not undertaken by the majority of subjects, and 3 items judged to be of low clinical importance by physical therapists were removed from the pilot questionnaire. The final ADL-D scale contained 15 items. Scores obtained with the ADL-D scale were significantly correlated with the MRC dyspnea grades, distance walked on the ISWT and SGRQ scores. The ADL-D scores were significantly different across the five grades of the MRC dyspnea grade. The ADL-D scale showed high consistency (Chronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.96). The ADL-D scale is a useful scale for assessing impairments in ADL in Japanese male patients with COPD.

  18. Activity and milk compositional changes following experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, H J; Sorter, D E; Hogan, J S

    2015-02-01

    Milk constituents and physical activity of cows experimentally infected with Streptococcus uberis mastitis were compared with those of uninfected cows. Twelve late-lactation Holsteins cows were paired based on milk production and parity. One cow in each pair was experimentally infected in the right front mammary gland with Strep. uberis. The remaining cow in each pair served as an uninfected control. Real-time analyses of milk constituents provided fat, protein, and lactose percentages at each milking. Pedometers were placed on the left front leg of all cows and activity was measured. Intramammary infections with Strep. uberis reduced milk yield in experimental cows by approximately 1.6kg/d in the first week after challenge compared with control cows. Lactose percentage in milk was reduced on d 3, 4, 5, and 6 after challenge in treatment cows compared with controls. Percentages of fat and protein in milk did not differ between infected and uninfected cows the week after infections were induced. Total steps per day were reduced and minutes resting per day were increased the week after experimental challenge in infected cows compared with control cows. The number of resting bouts did not differ between infected and uninfected cows. Changes in percentage of lactose in milk and animal activity caused by experimentally induced Strep. uberis mastitis were detected by the automated milk analyzer and pedometer systems. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Induces Upstream Pericyte Loss and Vascular Destabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Dominguez

    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO leads to extensive vascular remodeling and is important cause of visual impairment. Although the vascular morphological changes following experimental vein occlusion have been described in a variety of models using angiography, the underlying cellular events are ill defined.We here show that laser-induced experimental BRVO in mice leads to a wave of TUNEL-positive endothelial cell (EC apoptosis in the upstream vascular network associated with a transient edema and hemorrhages. Subsequently, we observe an induction of EC proliferation within the dilated vein and capillaries, detected by EdU incorporation, and the edema resolves. However, the pericytes of the upstream capillaries are severely reduced, which was associated with continuing EC apoptosis and proliferation. The vascular remodeling was associated with increased expression of TGFβ, TSP-1, but also FGF2 expression. Exposure of the experimental animals to hypoxia, when pericyte (PC dropout had occurred, led to a dramatic increase in endothelial cell proliferation, confirming the vascular instability induced by the experimental BRVO.Experimental BRVO leads to acute endothelial cells apoptosis and increased permeability. Subsequently the upstream vascular network remains destabilized, characterized by pericyte dropout, un-physiologically high endothelial cells turnover and sensitivity to hypoxia. These early changes might pave the way for capillary loss and subsequent chronic ischemia and edema that characterize the late stage disease.

  20. Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy of experimentally induced arthritis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatter, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the hind paws of rats was performed at 1.5 Tesla before and during the course of an experimentally-induced inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of 6-sulfanilamidoindazole, an antibacterial sulfa known to produce an acute, self-limited arthritis and periarthritis in the hind paws of rats. Phosphorus-31 spectra obtained after the development of clinical arthritis showed a significant (p 31 P MRS may permit evaluation of the severity of an inflammatory arthritis with greater accuracy than the bony changes definable by plain roentgenograms. (orig.)

  1. Anti-glaucoma potential of Heliotropium indicum Linn in experimentally-induced glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Owusu-Afriyie, Osei

    2015-01-01

    Background Heliotropium indicum is used as a traditional remedy for hypertension in Ghana. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-glaucoma potential of an aqueous whole plant extract of H. indicum to manage experimentally-induced glaucoma. Methods The percentage change in intraocular pressure (IOP), after inducing acute glaucoma (15 mLkg?1 of 5?% dextrose, i.v.), in New Zealand White rabbits pretreated with Heliotropium indicum aqueous extract (HIE) (30?300 mgkg?1), acetazolamide (5 mg...

  2. Functional magnetic resonances imaging of psychological functions with experimentally induced emotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodd, W.; Schneider, F.; Klose, U.; Naegele, T.

    1995-01-01

    In this study a T 2 * FLASH sequence (TR 240 ms, TE 60 ms, slice thickness 4 mm, α=40 , matrix 64x128) was used to investigate changes in signal intensity within the temporal lobe and the amygdala during experimentally induced emotions. Visual stimuli of happy [sad] facial portraits were presented to volunteers to induce changes in the subjects' mood while lying in the tomograph. In agreement with a previous PET study, a significant increase in signal intensity in the left amygdala was found during induction of a sad mood, while no comparable effect was visible during induction of a happy mood. (orig.) [de

  3. Trust and Cheating in Sri Lanka: The Role of Experimentally-Induced Emotions about Tsunam

    OpenAIRE

    Pierluigi Conzo

    2014-01-01

    Through a field experiment in Sri Lanka I analyze the role of experimentally-induced memories of 2004 tsunami on behavior in a trust game in which personal notions of cheating are elicited. Microfinance borrowers were randomly assigned to a treatment (control) group consisting in watching a video about the calamity before (after) playing. Trust game participants were asked how much to receive (return) in order not to (make the counterpart) feel cheated; in a survey they selected whether the v...

  4. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Esherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte B.; Fogsgaard, Katrine; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2011-01-01

    Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS......) in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables....

  5. Experimentally induced spermatophore production and immune responses reveal a trade-off in crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Angela M. Kerr; Susan N. Gershman; Scott K. Sakaluk

    2010-01-01

    The energetic demands of the immune system and reproduction are often high and can lead to trade-offs between these 2 life-history traits. In decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, much of a male's reproductive effort is devoted to calling, and to the synthesis of a spermatophylax, a large, gelatinous, non--sperm-containing mass forming part of the spermatophore and consumed by the female after mating. We employed a reciprocal design in which we experimentally induced an immune response in...

  6. Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianfan; Sandhu, Sunil; Povinelli, Michelle L; Shakya, Jagat; Fan, Shanhui; Lipson, Michal

    2006-03-31

    We provide the first experimental observation of structure tuning of the electromagnetically induced transparency-like spectrum in integrated on-chip optical resonator systems. The system consists of coupled silicon ring resonators with 10 microm diameter on silicon, where the coherent interference between the two coupled resonators is tuned. We measured a transparency-resonance mode with a quality factor of 11,800.

  7. Differential effects of experimental and cold-induced hyperthyroidism on factors inducing rat liver oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, P; Pamplona, R; Ayala, V; De Rosa, R; Caldarone, G; Di Meo, S

    2006-03-01

    Thyroid hormone-induced increase in metabolic rates is often associated with increased oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of iodothyronines to liver oxidative stress in the functional hyperthyroidism elicited by cold, using as models cold-exposed and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)- or thyroxine (T4)-treated rats. The hyperthyroid state was always associated with increases in both oxidative capacity and oxidative damage of the tissue. The most extensive damage to lipids and proteins was found in T3-treated and cold-exposed rats, respectively. Increase in oxygen reactive species released by mitochondria and microsomes was found to contribute to tissue oxidative damage, whereas the determination of single antioxidants did not provide information about the possible contribution of a reduced effectiveness of the antioxidant defence system. Indeed, liver oxidative damage in hyperthyroid rats was scarcely related to levels of the liposoluble antioxidants and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Conversely, other biochemical changes, such as the degree of fatty acid unsaturation and hemoprotein content, appeared to predispose hepatic tissue to oxidative damage associated with oxidative challenge elicited by hyperthyroid state. As a whole, our results confirm the idea that T3 plays a key role in metabolic changes and oxidative damage found in cold liver. However, only data concerning changes in glutathione peroxidase activity and mitochondrial protein content favour the idea that dissimilarities in effects of cold exposure and T3 treatment could depend on differences in serum levels of T4.

  8. Acute pulmonary injury induced by experimental muscle trauma Lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por trauma muscular experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Andréa da Silva Carvalho Sombra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an easily reproducible model of acute lung injury due to experimental muscle trauma in healthy rats. METHODS: Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomized in 3 groups (n=6: G-1- control, G-2 - saline+trauma and G-3 - dexamethasone+trauma. Groups G-1 and G-2 were treated with saline 2,0ml i.p; G-3 rats were treated with dexamethasone (DE (2 mg/kg body weight i.p.. Saline and DE were applied 2h before trauma and 12h later. Trauma was induced in G-2 and G-3 anesthetized (tribromoethanol 97% 100 ml/kg i.p. rats by sharp section of anterior thigh muscles just above the knee, preserving major vessels and nerves. Tissue samples (lung were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO assay and histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after muscle injury there was a significant increase in lung neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity and edema, all reversed by dexamethasone in G-3. CONCLUSION: Trauma by severance of thigh muscles in healthy rats is a simple and efficient model to induce distant lung lesions.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo facilmente reprodutível de lesão pulmonar aguda decorrente de trauma muscular experimental em ratos sadios. MÉTODOS: Dezoito ratos Wistar adultos foram randomizados em 3 grupos (n=6: G-1-controle, G-2 - trauma+salina e G-3 - trauma+dexametasona. Grupos G-1 e G-2 foram tratados com salina 2,0 ml ip, G-3 ratos foram tratados com dexametasona (DE (2 mg/kg peso corporal ip. Salina e DE foram aplicadas 2h antes e 12h depois do trauma. Trauma foi induzido em ratos G-2 e G-3 anestesiados (tribromoetanol 97% de 100 ml/kg, i.p. por secção da musculatura anterior da coxa logo acima da articulação do joelho, preservando os grandes vasos e nervos. Amostras de tecido (pulmão foram coletadas para avaliação da mieloperoxidase (MPO, e exames histopatológicos. RESULTADOS: Vinte e quatro horas após a indução da lesão muscular houve um aumento significativo na infiltração de neutr

  9. Evaluation of the Appropriate Washout Period Following Fan Therapy for Dyspnea in Patients With Advanced Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Jun; Morita, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Sekimoto, Asuko; Kobayashi, Masamitsu; Kinoshita, Hiroya; Ogawa, Asao; Zenda, Sadamoto; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Inoguchi, Hironobu; Matsushima, Eisuke

    2018-02-01

    To clarify the duration required for dyspnea to return to baseline severity after fan therapy, to evaluate whether fan-to-legs therapy or no fan therapy would be a suitable control therapy, and to investigate changes in patients' face surface temperature after fan therapy. In this pilot study, all participants received 3 interventions in the following order: no fan, fan to legs, and fan to face. Participants used a fan for 5 minutes, and they scored their dyspnea at 10-minute intervals for 60 minutes or until the score had returned to its baseline value, whichever occurred first. Nine patients with advanced cancer admitted to a palliative care unit were included; they had dyspnea at rest and rated its severity as at least 3 points on a 0- to 10-point numerical rating scale. Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to analyze the data. All patients completed the study. Of the 9 participants, 6 experienced a clinical benefit from using a fan to their faces. Of these patients, only 2 participants' (2 of 6) dyspnea scores returned to baseline by the end of the 60-minute assessment period after exposure to fan-to-face therapy. In fan-to-legs and no fan settings, there was no change in the dyspnea scores. There were significant differences between the baseline face surface temperature and that after fan-to-face and fan-to-legs settings. When using a crossover design to investigate the effect of fan therapy on dyspnea, 1 hour is an insufficient washout period.

  10. Effect of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard against experimentally-induced gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta B; Goswami, S S; Santani, D D

    2004-10-01

    Effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of the stem bark of Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard, have been studied on ethanol, ethanol-indomethacin and pylorus ligated gastric ulcers in experimental animals. Oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract (extract A3) inhibited the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol in a dose dependent manner. The protective effect of extract A3 against ethanol induced gastric lesions was not abolished by pretreatment with indomethacin (10 mg kg(-1)). Further, extract A3 inhibited increase in vascular permeability due to ethanol administration. Extent of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in animals treated with extract. Extract A3 also inhibited the formation of gastric ulcers induced by pylorus ligation, when administered both orally and intraperitoneally. Moreover, pretreatment with extract A3 increased mucus production and glycoprotein content, which was evident from the rise in mucin activity and TC: PR ratio. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The relevance of cytokines in the radiation-induced lung reaction. Experimental basis and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Ruebe, C.; Rodemann, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    Methods: published data on radiation-induced cytokine expression from experimental and clinical studies are reviewed. Results and conclusion: the major pro-inflammatory cytokines in the radiation response of the lung include tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) appears to be of particular importance in the development of lung fibrosis. First approaches with radioprotective agents and gene therapy to modify radiation-induced cytokine expression have been investigated for prevention of late effects of irradiation lung damage in animal experiments. Preliminary data of clinical studies suggest that elevated plasma TGF-β-levels during radiotherapy may predict the development of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. The biological impacts of endogenous radiation-induced cytokine production by tumor cells in respect of tumor behavior, potential damage to normal tissue, and clinical status of the host still need to be determined more precisely. (orig.)

  12. Spectroscopic evaluation of painted layer structural changes induced by gamma radiation in experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, Mihaela M.; Moise, Ioan V.; Virgolici, Marian; Negut, Constantin D.; Barbu, Olimpia-Hinamatsuri; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Fugaru, Viorel; Stanculescu, Ioana R.; Ponta, Corneliu C.

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of cultural heritage objects by insects and microorganisms is an important issue for conservators, art specialists and humankind in general. Gamma irradiation is an efficient method of polychrome wooden artifacts disinfestation. Color changes and other modifications in the physical chemical properties of materials induced by gamma irradiation are feared by cultural heritage responsible committees and they have to be evaluated objectively and precisely. In this paper FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy methods were used to investigate the structural changes in some experimental models of tempera paint layers on wood following 11 kGy gamma irradiation at two dose rates. Radiation chemistry depends on the particular pigment, matrix formed by protein, resin (in case of varnished samples) and water presence. For the majority of painted layer in experimental models very small spectral variations were observed. Small changes in the FTIR spectra were observed for the raw sienna experimental model: for the higher dose rate the egg yolk protein oxidation peaks and the CH stretching bands due to lipids degradation products increased. - Highlights: ► Experimental models of tempera paint layers on wood were γ-irradiated at two dose rates. ► Changes induced by γ-irradiation were evaluated by vibrational spectroscopy. ► Minor spectral variations of painted layer were observed. ► Raw sienna FTIR spectra showed little changes of egg yolk and lipids at higher dose rate. ► Gamma irradiation is recommended for disinfection of painted wooden artifacts.

  13. Greater dyspnea is associated with lower health-related quality of life among European patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruenberger JB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Bernard Gruenberger,1 Jeffrey Vietri,2 Dorothy L Keininger,1 Donald A Mahler3 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Basel-Stadt, Switzerland; 2Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, Horsham, PA, 3Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA Objective: Dyspnea is a defining symptom in the classification and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the degree of variation in burden among symptomatic COPD patients and the possible correlates of burden remain unclear. This study was conducted to characterize patients in Europe currently being treated for COPD according to the level of dyspnea in terms of sociodemographics, health-related quality of life, work productivity impairment, and health care resource use assessed by patient reports.Methods: Data were derived from the 5-EU 2013 National Health and Wellness Survey (N=62,000. Respondents aged ≥40 years who reported currently using a prescription for COPD were grouped according to their level of dyspnea as per the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines and compared on health status (revised Short Form 36 [SF-36]v2, work impairment (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, and number of health care visits in the past 6 months using generalized linear models with appropriate distributions and link functions.Results: Of the 768 respondents who met the inclusion criteria, 245 (32% were considered to have higher dyspnea (equivalent to modified Medical Research Council score ≥2. Higher dyspnea was associated with decrements ranging from 3.9 to 8.2 points in all eight domains of the SF-36 health profile after adjustment for sociodemographics, general health characteristics, and length of COPD diagnosis; mental component summary scores and Short Form-6D health utility scores were lower by 3.5 and 0.06 points, respectively. Adjusted mean activity impairment (55% vs 37%, P<0.001 and

  14. A 29-Year-Old Man With Nonproductive Cough, Exertional Dyspnea, and Chest Discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh; Suh, James; Garofano, Suzette; Alpert, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    A 29-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of worsening dry cough, exertional dyspnea, chest tightness, and palpitations. He had been treated by his primary care physician with trials of guaifenesin/codeine, azithromycin, albuterol, and omeprazole without improvement. He denied wheezing, fever, sweats, anorexia, joint pain, swelling, or rash. He had no past medical history. He denied a history of tobacco smoking or IV drug use. He kept no pets, worked as a manager in an office environment, and had no history of occupational inhalational exposure. He reported using aerosolized insect spray to eradicate bed bugs in his house shortly before the cough began but did not report any acute symptoms when using the spray.

  15. An uncommon case of dyspnea with unilateral laryngeal paralysis in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerat, Justine; Lacoste, Marie; Prechoux, Jean-Marc; Aubry, Karine; Nadalon, Sylvie; Ly, Kim Heang; Bessede, Jean-Pierre

    2016-02-01

    A 61-year-old man with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and normal BMI complained of dyspnea. Nasofibroscopy revealed a global and major oedema of the glottis and supraglottis and also a paralysis of the left vocal fold. CT-scan pointed out a spontaneous hyperdensity of the left arytenoid cartilage. A tracheostomy was performed. Clinical examination revealed large hands and macroglossy with high IGF1 rate. MRI confirmed a supracentimetric pituitary adenoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a case of acute respiratory distress due to unilateral larynx paralysis leading to acromegaly diagnosis. This is due to submucosal hypertrophy and vocal cord immobility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nontraumatic head and neck emergencies: a clinical approach. Part 1: cervicofacial swelling, dysphagia, and dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea Álvarez, B; Tuñón Gómez, M; Esteban García, L; García Hidalgo, C Y; Ruiz Peralbo, R M

    2016-01-01

    Nontraumatic emergencies of the head and neck represent a challenge in the field of neuroradiology for two reasons: first, they affect an area where the thorax joins the cranial cavity and can thus compromise both structures; second, they are uncommon, so they are not well known. Various publications focus on nontraumatic emergencies of the head and neck from the viewpoints of anatomic location or of particular diseases. However, these are not the most helpful viewpoints for dealing with patients in the emergency department, who present with particular signs and symptoms. We propose an analysis starting from the four most common clinical presentations of patients who come to the emergency department for nontraumatic head and neck emergencies: cervical swelling, dysphagia, dyspnea, and loss of vision. Starting from these entities, we develop an approach to the radiologic management and diagnosis of these patients. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis modulate soy bean derived isoflavone biotransformation in diary cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk-Zieba, I; Woclawek-Potocka, I; Piskula, M K; Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Boruszewska, D; Bah, M M; Siemieniuch, M J; Skarzynski, D J

    2011-12-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis after feeding with soy bean. Sixteen cows were divided into four groups: control for mastitis group, cows with induced mastitis group, control for metritis group, and cows with induced metritis group. All cows were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on HPLC system. β-Glucuronidase activity in the blood plasma of cows was measured by fluorometric method. In the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis, we found considerably higher concentrations and time-dependent increase in isoflavone metabolites (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) with reference to cyclic cows (P < 0.05). Moreover, we noticed significant decrease of genistein in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In addition, in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis, we found an increase in β-glucuronidase activity compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In conclusion, health status of the females influenced the concentrations of isoflavone metabolites in the blood plasma of the cows. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis increased isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism. Therefore, we suggest that cows with induced mastitis and metritis are more exposed to active isoflavone metabolite actions than healthy cows. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. [Is BNP assay useful for the diagnosis of acute dyspnea in emergencies departments?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdhar, Rim; Hamouda, Chokri; Ben Ammar, Lotfi; Majed, Kamel; Moncef, Fekih; Kaabachi, Naziha; Drissa, Habiba; Borsali Falfoul, Nebiha

    2013-01-01

    It would be interesting to the emergency doctor to have at his disposal a helpful diagnostic tool like brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Such assay is simple, available and reliable. To report our experience on the role of BNP in the etiological diagnosis of acute dyspnea (AD) in emergency room (ER) and to assess the cost-effectiveness ratio of such diagnosis strategy. A prospective study conducted in the ER of Rabta university teaching hospital of Tunis, from March 1st to June 20th 2010, involving 30 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency for AD. All patients underwent echocardiography in their acute phase and benefited from the dosage of BNP during the first 4 hours. The echocardiography parameters were collected by a single operator who was unaware of the results of the BNP dosage. The mean age of patients was 72.8years with a sex ratio of 1.5. AD was of orthopnea type in 9 cases and stage III NYHA dyspnea in the other patients. Clinical and radiological signs of left heart failure were noted in 30% of cases. Ultrasound data have objectified systolic dysfunction in 4 cases, diastolic in 3 cases and systolic plus diastolic in 10 cases. The BNP levels were below 100 pg/ml in 10 cases with pulmonary origin of the AD. A BNP level between 100 and 400 pg/ml was noted in 3 cases. In our study, the clinical probability of AHF prior to performing the test was estimated at 53% and estimated at 100% after the BNP assay. The BNP assay has reduced the length of stay in the emergency department 4 to 5 days and saved nearly 50% of the cost of care per patient. The BNP assay, has allowed us to confirm the AHF all cases. Given the prognostic value and economic benefit of this test we recommend its use in ER of our country.

  19. The role of periodontal ASIC3 in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiya; Long, Hu; Ma, Wenqiang; Liao, Lina; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yang; Shan, Di; Huang, Renhuan; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the roles of Acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) in orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the experimental group (40g, n = 30) and the sham group (0g, n = 30). Closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary incisor and molars to achieve experimental tooth movement. Rat grimace scale (RGS) scores were assessed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the placement of the springs. ASIC3 immunostaining was performed and the expression levels of ASIC3 were measured through integrated optical density/area in Image-Pro Plus 6.0. Moreover, 18 rats were divided into APETx2 group (n = 6), amiloride group (n = 6), and vehicle group (n = 6), and RGS scores were obtained compared among them to verify the roles of ASIC3 in orofacial pain following tooth movement. ASIC3 expression levels became significantly higher in the experimental group than in sham group on 1, 3, and 5 days and became similar on 7 and 14 days. Pain levels (RGS scores) increased in both groups and were significantly higher in the experimental group on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days and were similar on 14 days. Periodontal ASIC3 expression levels were correlated with orofacial pain levels following experimental tooth movement. Periodontal administrations of ASIC3 antagonists (APETx2 and amiloride) could alleviate pain. This study needs to be better evidenced by RNA interference of ASIC3 in periodontal tissues in rats following experimental tooth movement. Moreover, we hope further studies would concentrate on the pain perception of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3 -/- ) mice. Our results suggest that periodontal ASIC3 plays an important role in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Experimental diabetes induces structural, inflammatory and vascular changes of Achilles tendons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo R de Oliveira

    Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate how the state of chronic hyperglycemia from experimental Diabetes Mellitus can influence the homeostatic imbalance of tendons and, consequently, lead to the characteristics of tendinopathy. Twenty animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups: control group, consisting of healthy rats and diabetic group constituted by rats induced to Diabetes Mellitus I. After twenty-four days of the induction of Diabetes type I, the Achilles tendon were removed for morphological evaluation, cellularity, number and cross-sectional area of blood vessel, immunohistochemistry for Collagen type I, VEGF and NF-κB nuclear localization sequence (NLS and nitrate and nitrite level. The Achilles tendon thickness (µm/100g of diabetic animals was significantly increased and, similarly, an increase was observed in the density of fibrocytes and mast cells in the tendons of the diabetic group. The average number of blood vessels per field, in peritendinous tissue, was statistically higher in the diabetic group 3.39 (2.98 vessels/field when compared to the control group 0.89 (1.68 vessels/field p = 0.001 and in the intratendinous region, it was observed that blood vessels were extremely rare in the control group 0.035 (0.18 vessels/field and were often present in the tendons of the diabetic group 0.89 (0.99 vessels/field. The immunohistochemistry analysis identified higher density of type 1 collagen and increased expression of VEGF as well as increased immunostaining for NFκB p50 NLS in the nucleus in Achilles tendon of the diabetic group when compared to the control group. Higher levels of nitrite/nitrate were observed in the experimental group induced to diabetes. We conclude that experimental DM induces notable structural, inflammatory and vascular changes in the Achilles tendon which are compatible with the process of chronic tendinopathy.

  1. Electron microscopic study of spontaneous and experimentally induced leukemia in IRC mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, S.; Ranadive, K.J.; Dmochowski, L.

    1974-01-01

    Spontaneous, serially transplanted, and experimentally induced leukemias of ICRC mice were studied by electron microscopy in an attempt to detect the presence of virus particles, if any, and to observe the influence of chemical and hormonal treatment on the presence of these virus particles. The first series of experiments included spontaneous, serially transplanted, and radiation-induced leukemia. The paucity of type C virus particles was quite conspicuous in spontaneous leukemia. Serially transplanted and radiation-accelerated leukemic lesions showed the presence of some type C and intracisternal type A particles. Found in two of these leukemic lesions (thymus and lymphosarcoma), in addition to type C virus particles, were budding and some mature type B virus particles, and numerous intracytoplasmic type A particles. ''Viropexis'' of type B virus particles has been observed in the lymphosarcoma and in a leukemic thymus gland. The second series of experiments included leukemia induced in ovariectomized ICRC mice with 20-methylcholanthrene (MCA), pituitary transplants, and ovarian hormones (estradiol and estradiol-progesterone). In ovariectomized ICRC mice, leukemic lesions induced by MCA or pituitary transplants, or by MCA and pituitary transplants, showed type C virus particles and, in most cases, intracisternal type A particles. In leukemia induced in ovariectomized ICRC mice by MCA and estradiol, numerous intracytoplasmic type A particles were observed but no type C virus particles

  2. Effects of fisetin on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth Kumar, Boyina; Arun Reddy, Ravula; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Dinesh Kumar, B; Diwan, Prakash V

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of fisetin (FST) on hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction (ED) and vascular dementia (VaD) in rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: control, vehicle control, l-methionine, FST (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, p.o.), FST-per se (25 mg/kg, p.o.), and donepezil (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.). l-Methionine administration (1.7 g/kg, p.o.) for 32 days induced HHcy. ED and VaD induced by HHcy were determined by vascular reactivity measurements, behavioral analysis using Morris water maze and Y-maze, along with a biochemical and histological evaluation of thoracic aorta and brain tissues. Administration of l-methionine developed behavioral deficits; triggered brain lipid peroxidation (LPO); compromised brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE); and reduced the levels of brain superoxide dismutase (SOD), brain catalase (CAT), brain reduced glutathione (GSH), and serum nitrite; and increased serum homocysteine and cholesterol levels. These effects were accompanied by decreased vascular NO bioavailability, marked intimal thickening of the aorta, and multiple necrotic foci in brain cortex. HHcy-induced alterations in the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH, AChE, LPO, behavioral deficits, ED, and histological aberrations were significantly attenuated by treatment with fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that fisetin exerts endothelial and neuroprotective effects against HHcy-induced ED and VaD.

  3. Recombinant human acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit induces chronic experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, V A; Lambert, E H; Leiby, K R; Okarma, T B; Talib, S

    1991-04-01

    A synthetic gene encoding the 210 N-terminal residues of the alpha-subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of human skeletal muscle was cloned into an inducible expression plasmid to produce a fusion protein in high yield in Escherichia coli. Like native human AChR, the recombinant human alpha 1-210 protein induced AChR-binding, AChR-modulating, and AChR-blocking autoantibodies in rats when injected once intradermally as an emulsion in CFA, with Bordetella pertussis vaccine as supplementary adjuvant. The minimum dose of recombinant protein required to induce biochemical signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) with 100% incidence was 2.2 micrograms. With 6.6 to 22 micrograms, serum levels of autoantibodies were persistent, and clinically apparent EAMG lasted more than a month. Clinical, electrophysiological, and biochemical indices of EAMG induced by doses of 66 micrograms or more were more uniformly severe and persistent, with 33% fatality. Rats receiving a control extract of E. coli containing plasmid without the alpha 1-210 codon insert, with adjuvants, did not develop autoantibodies or signs of EAMG. This highly reproducible new model of EAMG induced by a recombinant human autoantigen should be valuable for testing Ag-specific immunotherapeutic strategies that might be applicable to treating acquired myasthenia gravis in humans.

  4. Pattern differences in experimental fevers induced by endotoxin, endogenous pyrogen, and prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, A; Nakamori, T; Watanabe, T; Ono, T; Murakami, N

    1988-04-01

    To distinguish pattern differences in experimentally induced fevers, we investigated febrile responses induced by intravenous (IV), intracerebroventricular (ICV), and intra-preoptic/anterior hypothalamic (POA) administration of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), endogenous pyrogen (EP), human recombinant interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1), and prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha (PGE2 and PGF2 alpha). Intravenous LPS, EP, or IL-1 in high concentrations caused biphasic fever. In low concentrations, they induced only the first phase of fever. Latency to onset and time to first peak of fever induced by IV injection of LPS or EP were almost the same as those after ICV or POA injection of PGE2. Fever induced by ICV or POA administration of LPS, EP, IL-1, or PGF2 alpha had a long latency to onset and a prolonged time course. There were significant differences among the latencies to fever onset exhibited by groups that received ICV or POA injections of LPS, EP, or PGF2 alpha and by groups given IV injections of LPS or EP and ICV or POA injections of PGE2. Present observations indicate different patterns of fever produced by several kinds of pyrogens when given by various routes. These results permit us to consider the possibility that there are several mediators or multiprocesses underlying the pathogenesis of fever.

  5. Effects of experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism on crucial offspring rat brain enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromilas, Christos; Liapi, Charis; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Skandali, Nikolina; Al-Humadi, Hussam; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2014-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is known to exert significant structural and functional changes to the developing central nervous system, and can lead to the establishment of serious mental retardation and neurological problems. The aim of the present study was to shed more light on the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil-induced experimental hypothyroidism on crucial brain enzyme activities of Wistar rat offspring, at two time-points of their lives: at birth (day-1) and at 21 days of age (end of lactation). Under all studied experimental conditions, offspring brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was found to be significantly decreased due to maternal hypothyroidism, in contrast to the two studied adenosinetriphosphatase (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) activities that were only found to be significantly altered right after birth (increased and decreased, respectively, following an exposure to gestational maternal hypothyroidism) and were restored to control levels by the end of lactation. As our findings regarding the pattern of effects that maternal hypothyroidism has on the above-mentioned crucial offspring brain enzyme activities are compared to those reported in the literature, several differences are revealed that could be attributed to both the mode of the experimental simulation approach followed as well as to the time-frames examined. These findings could provide the basis for a debate on the need of a more consistent experimental approach to hypothyroidism during neurodevelopment as well as for a further evaluation of the herein presented and discussed neurochemical (and, ultimately, neurodevelopmental) effects of experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism, in a brain region-specific manner. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid induces antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cuevas, J; Navarro-Partida, J; Marquez-Aguirre, A L; Bueno-Topete, M R; Beas-Zarate, C; Armendáriz-Borunda, J

    2011-01-01

    Experimental liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is associated with oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. This work was focused on elucidating the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in this model of hepatotoxicity. Wistar male rats were treated with CCl(4) and EDTA (60, 120, or 240 mg/kg). Morphometric analyses were carried out in Masson's stained liver sections to determine fibrosis index. Coagulation tests prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were also determined. Gene expression for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1), alpha1(I) procollagen gene (alpha1 Col I), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was monitored by real-time PCR. Antioxidant effect of EDTA was measured by its effects on lipid peroxidation; biological activity of ceruloplasmin (Cp), SOD, and catalase (Cat) were analyzed by zymography assays. Animals with CCl(4)-hepatic injury that received EDTA showed a decrement in fibrosis (20%) and lipid peroxidation (22%). The mRNA expression for TNF-alpha (55%), TGF-beta1 (50%), IL-6 (52%), and alpha1 Col I (60%) was also decreased. This group of animals showed increased Cp (62%) and SOD (25%) biological activities. Coagulation blood tests, Cat activity, and gene expression for SOD were not modified by EDTA treatment. This study demonstrates that EDTA treatment induces the activity of antioxidant enzymes, decreases lipid peroxidation, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis in experimental liver fibrosis induced by CCl(4).

  7. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Deficiency Attenuates Experimental Colitis-Induced Adipose Tissue Lipolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Nutrient deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating energy balance. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is an important endocrine metabolic regulator with emerging beneficial roles in lipid homeostasis. We investigated the impact of FGF21 in experimental colitis-induced epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT lipolysis. Methods. Mice were given 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS ad libitum for 7 days to induce colitis. The role of FGF21 was investigated using antibody neutralization or knockout (KO mice. Lipolysis index and adipose lipolytic enzymes were determined. In addition, 3T3-L1 cells were pretreated with IL-6, followed by recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21 treatment; lipolysis was assessed. Results. DSS markedly decreased eWAT/body weight ratio and increased serum concentrations of free fatty acid (FFA and glycerol, indicating increased adipose tissue lipolysis. eWAT intracellular lipolytic enzyme expression/activation was significantly increased. These alterations were significantly attenuated in FGF21 KO mice and by circulating FGF21 neutralization. Moreover, DSS treatment markedly increased serum IL-6 and FGF21 levels. IL-6 pretreatment was necessary for the stimulatory effect of FGF21 on adipose lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that experimental colitis induces eWAT lipolysis via an IL-6/FGF21-mediated signaling pathway.

  8. Possible antidepressant effects of vanillin against experimentally induced chronic mild stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Abo-youssef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is a flavoring agent widely used in food and beverages such as chocolates and dairy products and it is also used to mask unpleasant tastes in medicine. It has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of vanillin against experimentally induced stress in rats. Briefly rats were subdivided into four groups. Three groups were subjected to chronic mild stress and the fourth group served as normal control group. One week before induction of stress drugs or saline was administered daily and continued for another nine weeks. At the end of the experimental period behavioral tests including sucrose preference test, forced swim test and elevated plus maze test were assessed. In addition, brain biochemical parameters including MDA, GSH, NO and serotonin were determined. Vanillin succeeded to restore the behavioral and biochemical changes associated with stress. It significantly increased sucrose consumption in sucrose preference test and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze test as compared to stress control group. It also reduced immobility time in forced swim test and time spent in closed arm in elevated plus maze test. Additionally, it significantly decreased brain MDA and NO levels and significantly increased brain GSH and Serotonin levels compared to stress control group. It could be concluded that vanillin showed beneficial protective effects against experimentally induced stress in rats.

  9. Experimental and numerical analysis for magnetically induced vibrations of conducting structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Miura, H.; Isono, A.

    1993-01-01

    The coupling effect between the electromagnetic field and mechanical response of a conducting structure is of importance in magnetic fusion devices as tokamak machine. The electromagnetically induced motion of the structure due to the Lorentz force induces additional eddy currents and further modifies the dynamic characteristics of the system. This paper is concerned with numerical modeling of the dynamic field-structure interaction and its verification by experimental tests. Here, a finite element numerical model for mechanical deformation and a wiregrid numerical model for eddy currents are employed for non-ferrous and elastic conductors. A computer code has been developed for 3-D thin shell structure. Experimental tests for the code verification were carried out by using a rectangular thin copper plate. Three kinds of the plate supporting systems, i.e., a cantilever system, a fixed both ends system and a simply supported ends system were investigated. A good agreement between the numerical and experimental results was obtained. Therefore, the computer code developed here is available for analyzing the electromagnetomechanical behavior of the plasma facing components of the tokamak device. (author)

  10. Numerical and experimental evaluation of residual strains induced by pulsed laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touvrey, C.; Bruyere, V.; Namy, P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the residual strains induced by different welding processes during the assembly of two Ti6Al4V thin sheets. Several welding configurations and two means (pulsed laser and continuous one) are tested. The first part of the study intends to experimentally quantify strains induced by laser-matter interaction when one of the plates can freely bend. In this configuration the residual stresses are minimum, and consequently the strains measurement constitute a good indicator of the mechanical evolution. The displacements are in-situ reported thanks to a mechanical sensor. The second part of the study is dedicated to the numerical modeling of the processes. Unfortunately, the model is not completely predictive and appears to be oversimplified to describe the measured distortion. As it appears difficult to model the laser-matter interaction (especially in the case of many impacts recovering), we have adopted an equivalent approach to simulate the thermal evolution within the work pieces. An optimization procedure has been developed to determine an equivalent thermal flux, which leads to a melted zone shape in good agreement with experimental evaluations. The thermo-mechanical problem is computed by means of the finite elements software COMSOL Multiphysics. The results are compared to experimental data (displacement measurements) throughout the complete simulation. We plan to apply the complete model for more complex geometries, involving the generation of residual stresses. (authors)

  11. Diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of pleural and lung ultrasound in discriminating cardiogenic causes of acute dyspnea in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibinel, Gian Alfonso; Casoli, Giovanna; Elia, Fabrizio; Padoan, Monica; Pivetta, Emanuele; Lupia, Enrico; Goffi, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Dyspnea is a common symptom in patients admitted to the Emergency Department (ED), and discriminating between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic dyspnea is often a clinical dilemma. The initial diagnostic work-up may be inaccurate in defining the etiology and the underlying pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of pleural and lung ultrasound (PLUS), performed by emergency physicians at the time of a patient's initial evaluation in the ED, in identifying cardiac causes of acute dyspnea. Between February and July 2007, 56 patients presenting to the ED with acute dyspnea were prospectively enrolled in this study. In all patients, PLUS was performed by emergency physicians with the purpose of identifying the presence of diffuse alveolar-interstitial syndrome (AIS) or pleural effusion. All scans were later reviewed by two other emergency physicians, expert in PLUS and blinded to clinical parameters, who were the ultimate judges of positivity for diffuse AIS and pleural effusion. A random set of 80 recorded scannings were also reviewed by two inexperienced observers to assess inter-observer variability. The entire medical record was independently reviewed by two expert physicians (an emergency medicine physician and a cardiologist) blinded to the ultrasound (US) results, in order to determine whether, for each patient, dyspnea was due to heart failure, or not. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values were obtained; likelihood ratio (LR) test was used. Cohen's kappa was used to assess inter-observer agreement. The presence of diffuse AIS was highly predictive for cardiogenic dyspnea (sensitivity 93.6%, specificity 84%, positive predictive value 87.9%, negative predictive value 91.3%). On the contrary, US detection of pleural effusion was not helpful in the differential diagnosis (sensitivity 83.9%, specificity 52%, positive predictive value 68.4%, negative predictive value 72.2%). Finally

  12. Numerical and experimental investigation of the self-inducing turbine aeration capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achouri, Ryma; Dhaouadi, Hatem; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical and experimental study of k L a coefficient of a self-inducing turbine. • Validation of experimental results. • Numerical study of k L a variation with the variation of impeller submersion and blade inclination. • Numerical study of the flow field and hydrodynamic parameters. - Abstract: Self-inducing turbines are a model of mixers that ensure the aeration of a fluid field without using a sparger and a surface aerator. Nevertheless, this type of turbines remain quite complicated in terms of behavior of the fluid within the tank, and its actual aeration capacity varies depending on the type of turbine used. The studied turbine is self-inducing and made of three blades and each blade contains five holes. In this work, we evaluated experimentally – using the technique of dynamic oxygenation and deoxygenating – the aeration capacity of our impeller by calculating the volumetric mass transfer coefficient k L a for various submergences and various inclination angles of the blade. This work was then validated by a numerical modeling using the commercial code Fluent, and the flow within the tank as well as the evolution of the hydrodynamic parameters was also studied. The simulation is steady state with a VOF multiphase model and the realizable k–ε turbulence model. We finally concluded that k L a decreases with the increase of the inclination angle and with the increase of the submergence of our turbine. We could also study the hydrodynamic parameters of the flow such as the power number, the aeration number and the shear rate

  13. True Triaxial Experimental Study of Rockbursts Induced By Ramp and Cyclic Dynamic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guoshao; Hu, Lihua; Feng, Xiating; Yan, Liubin; Zhang, Gangliang; Yan, Sizhou; Zhao, Bin; Yan, Zhaofu

    2018-04-01

    A modified rockburst testing system was utilized to reproduce rockbursts induced by ramp and cyclic dynamic disturbances with a low-intermediate strain rate of 2 × 10-3-5 × 10-3 s-1 in the laboratory. The experimental results show that both the ramp and cyclic dynamic disturbances play a significant role in inducing rockbursts. In the tests of rockbursts induced by a ramp dynamic disturbance, as the static stress before the dynamic disturbance increases, both the strength of specimens and the kinetic energy of the ejected fragments first increase and then decrease. In the tests of rockbursts induced by a cyclic dynamic disturbance, there exists a rockburst threshold of the static stress and the dynamic disturbance amplitude, and the kinetic energy of the ejected fragments first increases and then decreases as the cyclic dynamic disturbance frequency increases. The main differences between rockbursts induced by ramp dynamic disturbances and those induced by cyclic dynamic disturbances are as follows: the rockburst development process of the former is characterized by an impact failure feature, while that of the latter is characterized by a fatigue failure feature; the damage evolution curve of the specimen of the former has a leap-developing form with a significant catastrophic feature, while that of the latter has an inverted S-shape with a remarkable fatigue damage characteristic; the energy mechanism of the former involves the ramp dynamic disturbance giving extra elastic strain energy to rocks, while that of the latter involves the cyclic dynamic disturbance decreasing the ultimate energy storage capacity of rocks.

  14. Experimental study of stress-induced localized transformation plastic zones in tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Q.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, W.; Qing, X.; Xu, X.; Dai, F.

    1994-01-01

    Stress-induced martensitic transformation plastic zones in ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramics (Ce-TZP), under loading conditions of uniaxial tension, compression, and three-point bending, are studied by experiments. The transformed monoclinic phase volume fraction distribution and the corresponding plastic strain distribution and the surface morphology (surface uplift) are measured by means of moire interferometry, Raman microprobe spectroscopy, and the surface measurement system. The experimental results from the above three kinds of specimens and methods consistently show that the stress-induced transformation at room temperature of the above specimen is not uniform within the transformation zone and that the plastic deformation is concentrated in some narrow band; i.e., macroscopic plastic flow localization proceeds during the initial stage of plastic deformation. Flow localization phenomena are all observed in uniaxial tension, compression, and three-point bending specimens. Some implications of the flow localization to the constitutive modeling and toughening of transforming thermoelastic polycrystalline ceramics are explored

  15. Modeling Chemotherapy-Induced Hair Loss: From Experimental Propositions toward Clinical Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Sharov, Andrey A

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced hair loss is one of the most devastating side effects of cancer treatment. To study the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the hair follicle, a number of experimental models have been proposed. Yoon et al. report that transplantation of human scalp hair follicles onto chemotherapy-treated immunodeficient mice serves as an excellent in vivo model for chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Yoon et al. demonstrate that (i) the response of human hair follicles grafted onto immunodeficient mice to cyclophosphamide resembles the key features of the chemotherapy-induced hair loss seen in patients with cancer and (ii) this human in vivo model for chemotherapy-induced hair loss is closer to clinical reality than to any earlier models. Undoubtedly, this model will serve as a valuable tool for analyses of the mechanisms that underlie this devastating side effect of anti-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study

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    Shereen Abdelhakim Abdelaleem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups. Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7–15 days rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  17. Tramadol Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Histological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Biochemical Genetic Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaleem, Shereen Abdelhakim; Hassan, Osama A; Ahmed, Rasha F; Zenhom, Nagwa M; Rifaai, Rehab A; El-Tahawy, Nashwa F

    2017-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic. It is the most consumed narcotic drug that is prescribed in the world. Tramadol abuse has dramatically increased in Egypt. Long term use of tramadol can induce endocrinopathy. So, the aim of this study was to analyze the adrenal insufficiency induced by long term use of tramadol in experimental animals and also to assess its withdrawal effects through histopathological and biochemical genetic study. Forty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control group, tramadol-treated group, and withdrawal groups). Tramadol was given to albino rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 months and after withdrawal periods (7-15 days) rats were sacrificed. Long term use of tramadol induced severe histopathological changes in adrenal glands. Tramadol decreased the levels of serum cortisol and DHEAS hormones. In addition, it increased the level of adrenal MDA and decreased the genetic expression of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in adrenal gland tissues. All these changes started to return to normal after withdrawal of tramadol. Thus, it was confirmed that long term use of tramadol can induce severe adrenal insufficiency.

  18. Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses. I. Experimental. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.C.; Herman, S.; Perry, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    The authors report extensive laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics at 1053 and 526 mm for pulse durations, τ, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated τ 1/2 scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for τ≤10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for τ>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in good agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results

  19. Experimental Research of Reliability of Plant Stress State Detection by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Fedotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental laboratory investigations of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of watercress and lawn grass were conducted. The fluorescence spectra were excited by YAG:Nd laser emitting at 532 nm. It was established that the influence of stress caused by mechanical damage, overwatering, and soil pollution is manifested in changes of the spectra shapes. The mean values and confidence intervals for the ratio of two fluorescence maxima near 685 and 740 nm were estimated. It is presented that the fluorescence ratio could be considered a reliable characteristic of plant stress state.

  20. Paradoxical effects of rapamycin on experimental house dust mite-induced asthma.

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    Karin Fredriksson

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR modulates immune responses and cellular proliferation. The objective of this study was to assess whether inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin modifies disease severity in two experimental murine models of house dust mite (HDM-induced asthma. In an induction model, rapamycin was administered to BALB/c mice coincident with nasal HDM challenges for 3 weeks. In a treatment model, nasal HDM challenges were performed for 6 weeks and rapamycin treatment was administered during weeks 4 through 6. In the induction model, rapamycin significantly attenuated airway inflammation, airway hyperreactivity (AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia. In contrast, treatment of established HDM-induced asthma with rapamycin exacerbated AHR and airway inflammation, whereas goblet cell hyperplasia was not modified. Phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein, which is downstream of mTORC1, was increased after 3 weeks, but not 6 weeks of HDM-challenge. Rapamycin reduced S6 phosphorylation in HDM-challenged mice in both the induction and treatment models. Thus, the paradoxical effects of rapamycin on asthma severity paralleled the activation of mTOR signaling. Lastly, mediastinal lymph node re-stimulation experiments showed that treatment of rapamycin-naive T cells with ex vivo rapamycin decreased antigen-specific Th2 cytokine production, whereas prior exposure to in vivo rapamycin rendered T cells refractory to the suppressive effects of ex vivo rapamycin. We conclude that rapamycin had paradoxical effects on the pathogenesis of experimental HDM-induced asthma. Thus, consistent with the context-dependent effects of rapamycin on inflammation, the timing of mTOR inhibition may be an important determinant of efficacy and toxicity in HDM-induced asthma.

  1. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Neutron-induced interactions: index of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, M.H.; Cullen, D.E.; Howerton, R.J.; Perkins, S.T.

    1976-01-01

    Indexes to the neutron-induced interaction data in the Experimental Cross Section Information Library (ECSIL) as of July 4, 1976 are tabulated. The tabulation has two arrangements: isotope (ZA) order and reaction-number order

  2. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Neutron-induced interactions: index of experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, M.H.; Cullen, D.E.; Howerton, R.J.; Perkins, S.T.

    1976-07-04

    Indexes to the neutron-induced interaction data in the Experimental Cross Section Information Library (ECSIL) as of July 4, 1976 are tabulated. The tabulation has two arrangements: isotope (ZA) order and reaction-number order.

  3. Lipid metabolism in streptozotocin induced experimental diabetes and it’s correction with niacin-oxyethylidendiphosphonatogermanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kresyun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of approaches for effective control of diabetes-induced deterioration of lipid metabolism and plasma glucose level could be implemented by the applying of germanium-contained biologically active substances. Among others such compound as niacin – oxyethylidendiphosphonatogermanate (MIGU-4 should be mentioned, which is able to correct effectively the lipid layers of liver mitochondrial membranes on models of streptozotocin – induced diabetes. Aim. To investigate the dynamic changes of the total cholesterol, total phospholipids level along with their molar ratio; fractions of phospholipids of both erythrocyte membranes and liver mitochondria membranes in experimental diabetes mellitus and to investigate the mentioned indices under conditions of complex correction by MIGU-4 and insulin. Materials and Methods. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats with streptozotocin injection (50.0 mg/kg., i. p.. ED50 of MIGU-4 (25.0 mg/kg, i. p. was used. Cellular membranes were obtained from erythrocytes, and mitochondrial membranes were obtained through differential centrifugation of liver tissue. Lipid extracts were isolated from 1 g of erythrocyte mass and from 200 mg of liver tissue; phospholipids fractionation was carried out by method of ascending one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Content of certain phospholipids was estimated by method of spots “burning out” using the 72 % chloride acid at 200 0С up to their complete bleaching with the consequent determination of lipids phosphate. The level of total phospholipids was calculated by summing up all fractions content. Results. The total cholesterol level substantially elevated along with the decreasing of phospholipids content in both erythrocyte and mitochondrial membranes obtained from liver tissue in two weeks after experimental streptozotocin diabetes induction in rats. It resulted in an increase of the cholesterol/ phospholipids ratio. These changes

  4. The effects of experimental pain and induced optimism on working memory task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselie, Jantine J L M; Vancleef, Linda M G; Peters, Madelon L

    2016-07-01

    Pain can interrupt and deteriorate executive task performance. We have previously shown that experimentally induced optimism can diminish the deteriorating effect of cold pressor pain on a subsequent working memory task (i.e., operation span task). In two successive experiments we sought further evidence for the protective role of optimism on pain-induced working memory impairments. We used another working memory task (i.e., 2-back task) that was performed either after or during pain induction. Study 1 employed a 2 (optimism vs. no-optimism)×2 (pain vs. no-pain)×2 (pre-score vs. post-score) mixed factorial design. In half of the participants optimism was induced by the Best Possible Self (BPS) manipulation, which required them to write and visualize about a life in the future where everything turned out for the best. In the control condition, participants wrote and visualized a typical day in their life (TD). Next, participants completed either the cold pressor task (CPT) or a warm water control task (WWCT). Before (baseline) and after the CPT or WWCT participants working memory performance was measured with the 2-back task. The 2-back task measures the ability to monitor and update working memory representation by asking participants to indicate whether the current stimulus corresponds to the stimulus that was presented 2 stimuli ago. Study 2 had a 2 (optimism vs. no-optimism)×2 (pain vs. no-pain) mixed factorial design. After receiving the BPS or control manipulation, participants completed the 2-back task twice: once with painful heat stimulation, and once without any stimulation (counter-balanced order). Continuous heat stimulation was used with temperatures oscillating around 1°C above and 1°C below the individual pain threshold. In study 1, the results did not show an effect of cold pressor pain on subsequent 2-back task performance. Results of study 2 indicated that heat pain impaired concurrent 2-back task performance. However, no evidence was found

  5. RAE-1 expression is induced during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and is correlated with microglia cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelloul, Mehdi; Popa, Natalia; Pelletier, Florence; Raguénez, Gilda; Boucraut, José

    2016-11-01

    Retinoic acid early induced transcript-1 (RAE-1) glycoproteins are ligands of the activating immune receptor NKG2D. They are known as stress molecules induced in pathological conditions. We previously reported that progenitor cells express RAE-1 in physiological conditions and we described a correlation between RAE-1 expression and cell proliferation. In addition, we showed that Raet1 transcripts are induced in the spinal cord of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. EAE is a model for multiple sclerosis which is accompanied by microglia proliferation and activation, recruitment of immune cells and neurogenesis. We herein studied the time course expression of the two members of the Raet1 gene family present in C57BL/6 mice, namely Raet1d and Raet1e, in the spinal cord during EAE. We report that Raet1d and Raet1e genes are induced early upon EAE onset and reach a maximal expression at the peak of the pathology. We show that myeloid cells, i.e. macrophages as well as microglia, are cellular sources of Raet1 transcripts. We also demonstrate that only Raet1d expression is induced in microglia, whereas macrophages expressed both Raet1d and Raet1e. Furthermore, we investigated the dynamics of RAE-1 expression in microglia cultures. RAE-1 induction correlated with cell proliferation but not with M1/M2 phenotypic orientation. We finally demonstrate that macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a major factor controlling RAE-1 expression in microglia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The defensive effect of benfotiamine in sodium arsenite-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjali; Reddy, Krishna; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2010-10-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Sodium arsenite (1.5 mg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1) i.p., 2 weeks) was administered in rats to produce VED. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating the serum and aortic concentrations of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium in thoracic aorta was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of sodium arsenite markedly produced VED by attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, decreasing serum and aortic concentrations of nitrite/nitrate, and impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium. Further, sodium arsenite produced oxidative stress by increasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. The treatment with benfotiamine (25, 50, and 100 mg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) prevented sodium arsenite-induced VED and oxidative stress. However, the beneficial effects of benfotiamine in preventing the sodium arsenite-induced VED were attenuated by co-administration with N-omega-nitro-L: -arginine methyl ester (L: -NAME) (25 mg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1), i.p.), an inhibitor of NOS. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces oxidative stress and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase to enhance the generation and bioavailability of NO and subsequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium to prevent sodium arsenite-induced experimental VED.

  7. Experimental investigation of flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, S., E-mail: surabhijaiswal73@gmail.com; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2016-08-15

    We report on experimental observations of flow induced large amplitude dust-acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma. The experiments have been carried out in a Π shaped direct current glow discharge experimental device using kaolin particles as the dust component in a background of Argon plasma. A strong supersonic flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change in the gas flow rate is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks whose dynamics are captured by fast video pictures of the evolving structures. The physical characteristics of these shocks are delineated through a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of flow speeds and potential hill heights. The observed evolution of the shock waves and their propagation characteristics are found to compare well with model numerical results based on a modified Korteweg-de-Vries-Burgers type equation.

  8. Human experimental anxiety: actual public speaking induces more intense physiological responses than simulated public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Gorayeb, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    a) To perform a systematic and meta-analytic review to verify whether the Simulated Public Speaking Task (SPST) leads to a greater increase in self-rated anxiety than in physiological correlates of anxiety; and b) to compare the results obtained with the SPST with an actual public speaking task involving healthy volunteers. a) The PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched for studies involving the SPST prior to 2012. Eleven publications were eligible and provided data from 143 healthy volunteers for meta-analysis; b) 48 university students without somatic or psychiatric disorders were divided into three experimental groups of 16 subjects to undergo one of the following: SPST, real-world public speaking task (real-world), and control situation (control). The meta-analysis showed that the SPST induced a significant increase in the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) anxiety factor, but no significant increases in systolic blood pressure or heart rate. The empirical study showed that the real-world public speaking task increased heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure significantly more than the control and SPST conditions. These results suggest that real public speaking might be better than SPST in inducing experimental anxiety.

  9. Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gretchen A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Klauer, Julia M; Medlin, Scott E; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. ANIMALS-15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis). PROCEDURES-Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood. RESULTS-Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.

  10. Morphological and functional determinants of fluoxetine (Prozac)-induced pulmonary disease in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelozzi, Marco A; Leick-Maldonado, Edna A; Parra, Edwin R; Martins, Mílton A; Tibério, Iolanda F L C; Capelozzi, Vera L

    2007-05-14

    Fluoxetine treatment effects were determined by evaluating respiratory mechanics (elastance/resistance) and exhaled nitric oxide, as well as mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell recruitment into the lungs, in an experimental guinea pig model. Guinea pigs were divided into four groups: Fl (fluoxetine only, n=7); Fl+Sw (fluoxetine and forced swimming, n=7); Ns+Sw (normal saline and forced swimming, n=8); and Ns (normal saline only, n=8). Treated animals received oral fluoxetine (10 mg/(kg day)) for 30 consecutive days. On day 31, all animals were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated so that respiratory system elastance and resistance, as well exhaled nitric oxide, could be determined. The lungs were then excised en bloc for histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Forced swimming induced bronchodilation in untreated animals and bronchoconstriction in fluoxetine-treated animals. Fluoxetine treatment was also associated with mononuclear infiltration (predominantly into alveolar walls) and neutrophil recruitment. In addition, levels of exhaled nitric oxide, an inflammatory marker, were higher in fluoxetine-treated animals. Swimming-induced stress also amplified mononuclear cell recruitment to the lungs. These results show that, in this experimental model, fluoxetine treatment reproduces the pathology of chronic interstitial pneumonia in humans.

  11. An experimental study on choroidal neovascularization induced by Krypton laser in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jingkai; Yan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the efficacy and safety of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) formation induced by Krypton laser in Brown Norway (BN) rats, and observe the trend of the change of CNV after laser photocoagulation. Twenty-five male BN rats were involved in this study. Two eyes of one rat without any laser photocoagulation were randomly selected as the control group, and the other 48 eyes of 24 rats were selected as the experimental group. Eight eyes of four rats were randomly selected to receive the examinations of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), histopathology, and transmission electron microscopy 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days after laser photocoagulation. After laser photocoagulation, the leakage appeared in burns on day 7 (59%), reached the peak on day 21 (84%), (p0.05). The thickness of CNV increased from day 7 to day 21 (p0.05). The experimental model of CNV can be successfully induced by Krypton laser in rats with a stable, long-lasting, and high success rate. After laser photocoagulation, the leakages appear on day 7, reach the peak on day 21, and remain stable after day 21.

  12. Obesogenic diet-induced gut barrier dysfunction and pathobiont expansion aggravate experimental colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June-Chul Lee

    Full Text Available Consumption of a typical Western diet is a risk factor for several disorders. Metabolic syndrome is the most common disease associated with intake of excess fat. However, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is also greater in subjects consuming a Western diet, although the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We examined the morphological and functional changes of the intestine, the first site contacting dietary fat, in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD inducing obesity. Paneth cell area and production of antimicrobial peptides by Paneth cells were decreased in HFD-fed mice. Goblet cell number and secretion of mucin by goblet cells were also decreased, while intestinal permeability was increased in HFD-fed mice. HFD-fed mice were more susceptible to experimental colitis, and exhibited severe colonic inflammation, accompanied by the expansion of selected pathobionts such as Atopobium sp. and Proteobacteria. Fecal microbiota transplantation transferred the susceptibility to DSS-colitis, and antibiotic treatment abrogated colitis progression. These data suggest that an experimental HFD-induced Paneth cell dysfunction and subsequent intestinal dysbiosis characterized by pathobiont expansion can be predisposing factors to the development of inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Transcriptional profiling of the bovine hepatic response to experimentally induced E. coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Buitenhuis, Bart; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian liver works to keep the body in a state of homeostasis and plays an important role in systemic acute phase response to infections. In this study we investigated the bovine hepatic acute phase response at the gene transcription level in dairy cows with experimentally E. coli-induced ......The mammalian liver works to keep the body in a state of homeostasis and plays an important role in systemic acute phase response to infections. In this study we investigated the bovine hepatic acute phase response at the gene transcription level in dairy cows with experimentally E. coli......-induced mastitis. At time = 0, each of 16 periparturient dairy cows received 20-40 CFU of live E. coli in one front quarter of the udder. A time series of liver biopsies was collected at -144, 12, 24 and 192 hours relative to time of inoculation. Changes in transcription levels in response to E. coli inoculation...... were analyzed using the Bovine Genome Array and tested significant for 408 transcripts over the time series (adjusted p0.05; abs(fold-change)>2). After 2-D clustering, transcripts represented three distinct transcription profiles: 1) regulation of gene transcription and apoptosis, 2) responses...

  14. Effects of a Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonist on Experimentally Induced Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized, and controlled study examined the effects of tumor necrosis factor soluble receptor type I (sTNFRI, a TNF-α antagonist on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats. The experimental groups received an instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS plus an intramuscular injection of amoxicillin/clavulanate (antibiotic group, an instillation of sTNFRI (sTNFRI group, an instillation of sTNFRI and an injection of amoxicillin/clavulanate (sTNFRI/antibiotic group, or no additional treatment (LPS group. Histopathological changes were determined using hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining. Leakage of exudate was determined using fluorescence microscopy. Vascular permeability was measured using the Evans blue dye technique. Expression of MUC5AC was measured using reverse transcriptase PCR. The sTNFRI, antibiotic, and sTNFRI/antibiotic groups had significantly less capillary permeability, mucosal edema, PAS staining, and expression of MUC5AC than the LPS group. There were no differences in capillary permeability, mucosal edema, PAS staining, and MUC5AC expression between the sTNFRI and sTNFRI/antibiotic groups. The antibiotic group had PAS staining similar to that of the sTNFRI and sTNFRI/antibiotic groups but had a greater increase in capillary permeability, mucosal edema, and MUC5AC expression. This study shows that sTNFRI reduces inflammatory activity and mucus hypersecretion in LPS-induced rhinosinusitis in rats.

  15. Belching, regurgitation, chest tightness and dyspnea: not gastroesophageal reflux disease but asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Xi; Zhan, Xian-Bao; Bai, Chong; Li, Qiang

    2015-02-07

    Belching is a common symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease. If the symptoms are not relieved after anti-reflux treatment, another etiology should be considered. Here, we report a case of a 43-year-old man who presented with belching, regurgitation, chest tightness and dyspnea for 18 mo, which became gradually more severe. Gastroscopic examination suggested superficial gastritis. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring showed that the Demeester score was 11.4, in the normal range. High-resolution manometry showed that integrated relaxation pressure and intrabolus pressure were higher than normal (20 mmHg and 22.4 mmHg, respectively), indicating gastroesophageal junction outflow tract obstruction. Pulmonary function test showed severe obstructive ventilation dysfunction [forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity 32%, FEV1 was 1.21 L, occupying 35% predicted value after salbuterol inhalation], and positive bronchial dilation test (∆FEV1 260 mL, ∆FEV1% 27%). Skin prick test showed Dermatophagoides farinae (++), house dust mite (++++), and shrimp protein (++). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement was 76 ppb. All the symptoms were alleviated completely and pulmonary function increased after combination therapy with corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonist. Bronchial asthma was eventually diagnosed by laboratory tests and the effect of anti-asthmatic treatment, therefore, physicians, especially the Gastrointestinal physicians, should pay attention to the belching symptoms of asthma.

  16. Stethoscope versus point-of-care ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Behzat; Ünlüer, Erden E; Akyol, Pinar Y; Karagöz, Arif; Bayata, Mehmet S; Akoğlu, Haldun; Oyar, Orhan; Dalli, Ayşe; Topal, Fatih E

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to determine the accuracies of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) and stethoscopes as part of the physical examinations of patients with dyspnea. Three emergency medicine specialists in each of two groups of ultrasound and stethoscope performers underwent didactic and hands-on training on PoCUS and stethoscope usage. All the patients enrolled were randomized to one of two predetermined PoCUS or stethoscope groups. The diagnostic performance of ultrasonography was higher than that of the stethoscope in the diagnoses of heart failure (90 vs. 86%, 1.00 vs. 0.89, and 5.00 vs. 4.92, respectively) and pneumonia (90 vs. 86.7%, 0.75 vs. 0.73, and 16.50 vs. 13.82, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the utility parameters of these modalities in these diagnoses. Although some authors argue that it is time to abandon the 'archaic tools' of past centuries, we believe that it is too early to discontinue the use of the stethoscope.

  17. An unusual cause of severe dyspnea: A laryngeal live leech: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anajar, Said; Ansari, Rachid; Hassnaoui, Jawad; Abada, Reda; Roubal, Mohammed; Mahtar, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the upper airways are one of the most challenging otolaryngology emergencies, leeches present a very rare cause of airway foreign bodies around the world. A 6-year-old girl was referred to our otolaryngology department at a tertiary university hospital with a severe dyspnea and hemoptysis. Nasofibroscopy revealed a dark living leech in the supraglottic area which extends to the glottis. The patient was urgently admitted to the operating room, the leech was grasped and removed with a foreign body forceps with a full length of more than 6cm. All symptoms were relieved post operatively and she was discharged one day later. Leeches should be suspected as an airway foreign body in patients with a recent history of drinking from stream water. Prevention remains the best treatment for such cases based simply on hygiene measures like not drinking stream water directly and filtering drinking water before it is used. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  19. Influence of intramuscular granisetron on experimentally induced muscle pain by acidic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, S; Ernberg, M; Christidis, N

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intramuscular administration of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron reduces experimental muscle pain induced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline into the masseter muscles. Twenty-eight healthy and pain-free volunteers, fourteen women and fourteen men participated in this randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. After a screening examination and registration of the baseline pressure-pain threshold (PPT), the first simultaneous bilateral injections of 0·5 mL acidic saline (9 mg mL(-1) , pH 3·3) into the masseter muscles were performed. Two days later, PPT and pain (VAS) were re-assessed. The masseter muscle was then pre-treated with 0·5 mL granisetron (Kytril(®) 1 mg mL(-1) pH 5·3) on one side and control substance (isotonic saline, 9 mg mL(-1) pH 6) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter a bilateral simultaneous injection of 0·5 mL acidic saline followed. The evoked pain intensity, pain duration, pain area and PPT were assessed. The volunteers returned 1 week later to re-assess VAS and PPT. On the side pre-treated with granisetron, the induced pain had significantly lower intensity and shorter duration (P granisetron on pain duration was significant only in women (P granisetron has a pain-reducing effect on experimentally induced muscle pain by repeated acidic saline injection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hypolipidemic Effect of Fenugreek Seeds and its Comparison with Atorvastatin on Experimentally Induced Hyperlipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, M. S. [R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur (India). Dept. of Physiology; Choudhary, P. R. [C.U. Shah Medical College, Surendranagr (India). Dept. of Physiology

    2014-08-15

    Objective: To determine the hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek (Methi) seeds and its comparison with atorvastatin on experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits. Study Design: Experimental interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, from April 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: Twenty, 1 - 2 years old albino rabbits of European Strains were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rabbits each. All were fed pure cholesterol (0.5 g/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Group-I comprised of 10 hyperlipidemic rabbits which were fed normal (regular) diet supplemented with 2 ml aqueous emulsified fenugreek seeds powder (500 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. Group-II comprised of 10 hyperlipidemic rabbits, which were fed normal (regular) diet supplemented with 2 ml aqueous emulsion of atorvastatin (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected two times during experimental period at weeks (4 and 8) and analyzed for serum total cholesterol and triglycerides, using semi-automated chemistry analyzer. HDL-C was determined by precipitation method and LDL-C and VLDL-C were estimated by Friedewalds formula. LDL/HDL ratio and TG/HDL ratios were also calculated. The significance of difference in mean values of both groups (lipid profile) was assessed by independent student's t-test. Results: Atorvastatin showed a more potent hypolipidemic activity. It reduced serum total cholesterol, TG, LDL and VLDLcholesterol, and the atherogenic index (LDL-C/HDL-C; p < 0.001) highly significantly as compared to fenugreek. There was a significant increase of HDL-C (p < 0.01) in group-I as compared to group-II. Conclusion: Fenugreek and atorvastatin both have hypolipidemic activity in rabbits but atorvastatin is more potent than fenugreek seeds powder. (author)

  1. Hypolipidemic Effect of Fenugreek Seeds and its Comparison with Atorvastatin on Experimentally Induced Hyperlipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M. S.; Choudhary, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek (Methi) seeds and its comparison with atorvastatin on experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits. Study Design: Experimental interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, from April 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: Twenty, 1 - 2 years old albino rabbits of European Strains were randomly divided into two groups of 10 rabbits each. All were fed pure cholesterol (0.5 g/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Group-I comprised of 10 hyperlipidemic rabbits which were fed normal (regular) diet supplemented with 2 ml aqueous emulsified fenugreek seeds powder (500 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. Group-II comprised of 10 hyperlipidemic rabbits, which were fed normal (regular) diet supplemented with 2 ml aqueous emulsion of atorvastatin (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected two times during experimental period at weeks (4 and 8) and analyzed for serum total cholesterol and triglycerides, using semi-automated chemistry analyzer. HDL-C was determined by precipitation method and LDL-C and VLDL-C were estimated by Friedewalds formula. LDL/HDL ratio and TG/HDL ratios were also calculated. The significance of difference in mean values of both groups (lipid profile) was assessed by independent student's t-test. Results: Atorvastatin showed a more potent hypolipidemic activity. It reduced serum total cholesterol, TG, LDL and VLDLcholesterol, and the atherogenic index (LDL-C/HDL-C; p < 0.001) highly significantly as compared to fenugreek. There was a significant increase of HDL-C (p < 0.01) in group-I as compared to group-II. Conclusion: Fenugreek and atorvastatin both have hypolipidemic activity in rabbits but atorvastatin is more potent than fenugreek seeds powder. (author)

  2. Effects of experimentally induced intestinal obstruction on the electrolyte profile in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, E.M.; Khan, M.A.; Mehmood, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively asses the changes in serum electrolyte profile after experimentally induced upper and lower intestinal obstruction in dogs. Ten dogs of either sex ranging in weight from 20-25 Kg were selected. After thorough physical examination, de-worming and vaccination they were randomly divided into 3 groups. Groups A and B comprised of four animals each while group C had two animals. After preparing the operation site, upper intestinal obstruction was induced in animals of group A and lower intestinal obstruction was induced in all animals of group B through mid line laparotomy under general anesthesia. Animals of group C were kept as control without induction of any obstruction. Proper post-operative care was given to the operated animals. Blood samples were collected from all animals at an interval of 24 hours and evaluated to observe changes in serum sodium, potassium and chloride levels. The results of this study showed marked decline in electrolyte levels in animals of both groups A and B, however this decline was more severe and rapid in group A than group B, while group c acted normally. It can be concluded that upper intestinal obstruction is more fatal in its consequences than lower intestinal obstruction, which is relatively less dangerous in producing its ill effects. (author)

  3. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  4. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba extract on experimental Bothrops venom-induced acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Silva Martines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV-induced AKI. METHODOLOGY: Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C, SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance, renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler, blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer, renal vascular resistance (RVR, urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method, hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit, fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. CONCLUSION: SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR.

  5. Experimental Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Induces Blunted Vasoconstriction and Functional Changes in the Rat Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tufiño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic conditions increase vascular reactivity to angiotensin II in several studies but there are scarce reports on cardiovascular effects of hypercaloric diet (HD induced gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, so the objective of this work was to determine the effects of HD induced GDM on vascular responses. Angiotensin II as well as phenylephrine induced vascular contraction was tested in isolated aorta rings with and without endothelium from rats fed for 7 weeks (4 before and 3 weeks during pregnancy with standard (SD or hypercaloric (HD diet. Also, protein expression of AT1R, AT2R, COX-1, COX-2, NOS-1, and NOS-3 and plasma glucose, insulin, and angiotensin II levels were measured. GDM impaired vasoconstrictor response (P<0.05 versus SD in intact (e+ but not in endothelium-free (e− vessels. Losartan reduced GDM but not SD e− vasoconstriction (P<0.01 versus SD. AT1R, AT2R, and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression were significantly increased in GDM vessels (P<0.05 versus SD. Results suggest an increased participation of endothelium vasodilator mediators, probably prostaglandins, as well as of AT2 vasodilator receptors as a compensatory mechanism for vasoconstrictor changes generated by experimental GDM. Considering the short term of rat pregnancy findings can reflect early stage GDM adaptations.

  6. Interleukin 1-induced augmentation of experimental metastases from a human melanoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giavazzi, R.; Garofalo, A.; Bani, M.R.; Abbate, M.; Ghezzi, P.; Boraschi, D.; Mantovani, A.; Dejana, E.

    1990-01-01

    This study has examined the effect of the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) on metastasis formation by the human melanoma A375M in nude mice. We have found that human recombinant IL-1 beta (a single injection greater than 0.01 micrograms per mouse i.v. given before tumor cells) induced an augmentation of experimental lung metastases from the A375M tumor cells in nude mice. This effect was rapidly induced and reversible within 24 h after IL-1 injection. A similar effect was induced by human recombinant IL-1 alpha and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor, but not by human recombinant interleukin 6. 5-[125I]odo-2'-deoxyuridine-radiolabeled A375M tumor cells injected i.v. remained at a higher level in the lungs of nude mice receiving IL-1 than in control mice. In addition, IL-1 injected 1 h, but not 24 h, after tumor cells enhanced lung colonization as well, thus suggesting an effect of IL-1 on the vascular transit of tumor cells. These findings may explain the observation of enhanced secondary localization of tumor cells at inflammatory sites and suggest that modulation of secondary spread should be carefully considered when assessing the ability of this cytokine to complement cytoreductive therapies

  7. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rochelle Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM, affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  8. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S Rochelle; Ellison, Siobhan P; Dascanio, John J; Lindsay, David S; Gogal, Robert M; Werre, Stephen R; Surendran, Naveen; Breen, Meghan E; Heid, Bettina M; Andrews, Frank M; Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia A; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5-1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  9. Animal model of atherosclerosis using rabbit experimentally induced by combination of X-ray and hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Tomotoshi; Sawai, Takashi; Okuma, Tsuneo; Mori, Shozo

    1995-01-01

    An attempt was made to prepare an animal model of atherosclerosis similar to human lesions. The experimental animals were male Japanese white rabbits weighting about 2 kg. Hypercholesterolemia was experimentally induced by giving a 1% cholesterol diet. Four weeks later, a single dose of 45 Gy was delivered to the femur to produce vascular changes. Soon after irradiation, immunohistochemical examination revealed the adhesion and invasion of macrophages to endothelial cells, followed by accumulation of foam cells and thickness of the intimal plaques. Three months after irradiation, these thickened plaques became fibrotic, calcified, and necrotic. The tunica media was thinned and the internal elastic lamella was destroyed. Irradiated arteries exhibited not only severe narrowing of the lumen but also aneurysmal dilation and the lesions of the irradiated arteries resembled human atherosclerosis. In conclusion, the atherosclerotic model produced by combining experimental hypercholesterolemia and X-ray irradiaiton may serve as a useful model for studies on atherosclerosis because it can be prepared with no need of complicated or time-consuming procedures. (N.K.)

  10. Endovascular treatment of experimentally induced aneurysms in rabbits using stents: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, F.J.; Thiex, R.; Gilsbach, J.M.; Krings, T.; Moeller-Hartmann, W.; Dreeskamp, H.; Stein, K.P.; Meetz, A.; Thron, A.; Pfeffer, J.; Scherer, K.; Brunn, A.

    2003-01-01

    Although Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) systems have been generally accepted for treatment of intracranial aneurysms, primary stenting of aneurysms using porous stents or implantation of coils after stent placement remains experimental. Testing of these new methods requires an animal model which imitates human aneurysms in size, configuration and neck morphology. We assessed in detail the technical requirements of and steps for transfemoral stent treatment of experimentally induced aneurysms at the top of the brachiocephalic trunk in rabbits. We created aneurysms in ten rabbits by distal ligation and intraluminal digestion of the right common carotid artery with elastase. We treated five animals with porous stents alone, and five with stents plus coiling via the meshes of the stent, which permitted dense packing of coils. No complications related to the procedures occurred. In all animals, even in those treated solely with porous stents, total occlusion of the aneurysm was achieved. Our animal model can be suitable for testing the biocompatibility and occlusion rate of new methods and devices for the treatment of experimental aneurysms. (orig.)

  11. Lymphocytes contribute to biliary injury and fibrosis in experimental xenobiotic-induced cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Nikita; Kopec, Anna K.; Cline-Fedewa, Holly; Luyendyk, James P.

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of chronic bile duct injury and fibrosis in patients with autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases is complex, and likely involves immune cells such as lymphocytes. However, most models of biliary fibrosis are not autoimmune in nature. Biliary fibrosis can be induced experimentally by prolonged exposure of mice to the bile duct toxicant alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). We determined whether lymphocytes contributed to ANIT-mediated biliary hyperplasia and fibrosis in mice. Hepatic accumulation of T-lymphocytes and increased serum levels of anti-nuclear-autoantibodies were evident in wild-type mice exposed to ANIT (0.05% ANIT in chow). This occurred alongside bile duct hyperplasia and biliary fibrosis. To assess the role of lymphocytes in ANIT-induced biliary fibrosis, we utilized RAG1 −/− mice, which lack T- and B-lymphocytes. ANIT-induced bile duct injury, indicated by increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity, was reduced in ANIT-exposed RAG1 −/− mice compared to ANIT-exposed wild-type mice. Despite this reduction in biliary injury, ANIT-induced bile duct hyperplasia was similar in wild-type and RAG1 −/− mice. However, hepatic induction of profibrogenic genes including COL1A1, ITGβ6 and TGFβ2 was markedly attenuated in ANIT-exposed RAG1 −/− mice compared to ANIT-exposed wild-type mice. Peribiliary collagen deposition was also reduced in ANIT-exposed RAG1 −/− mice. The results indicate that lymphocytes exacerbate bile duct injury and fibrosis in ANIT-exposed mice without impacting bile duct hyperplasia.

  12. Complexity of MRI induced heating on metallic leads: Experimental measurements of 374 configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza Gonzalo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MRI induced heating on PM leads is a very complex issue. The widely varying results described in literature suggest that there are many factors that influence the degree of heating and that not always are adequately addressed by existing testing methods. Methods We present a wide database of experimental measurements of the heating of metallic wires and PM leads in a 1.5 T RF coil. The aim of these measurements is to systematically quantify the contribution of some potential factors involved in the MRI induced heating: the length and the geometric structure of the lead; the implant location within the body and the lead path; the shape of the phantom used to simulate the human trunk and its relative position inside the RF coil. Results We found that the several factors are the primary influence on heating at the tip. Closer locations of the leads to the edge of the phantom and to the edge of the coil produce maximum heating. The lead length is the other crucial factor, whereas the implant area does not seem to have a major role in the induced temperature increase. Also the lead structure and the geometry of the phantom revealed to be elements that can significantly modify the amount of heating. Conclusion Our findings highlight the factors that have significant effects on MRI induced heating of implanted wires and leads. These factors must be taken into account by those who plan to study or model MRI heating of implants. Also our data should help those who wish to develop guidelines for defining safe medical implants for MRI patients. In addition, our database of the entire set of measurements can help those who wish to validate their numerical models of implants that may be exposed to MRI systems.

  13. Gender effect on the use of modified borg and visual analog scales in the evaluation of dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgin, D.; Ozalevli, S.; Karaali, H.K.; Cimrin, A.H.; Ucan, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the gender effect on the use of Modified Borg Scale (MBS) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for the effort dyspnea evaluation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients. Fifty-two patients with severe COPD were included in this study. Pulmonary function (spirometry), quality of life (Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire-CRDQ), exercise capacity (6-minute walking test), and dyspnea severity (Modified Borg and Visual Analog Scales) were evaluated. The dyspnea severity scores were higher and walking distance was shorter in women (p<0.05). The scores of the both scales were correlated with each other in both genders (p<0.05). In men, the dyspnea scores obtained by MBS and VAS scales were significantly correlated with 6-minute walking distance (p=0.001) and total score of CRDQ (p=0.001). On the other hand, the dyspnea severity score of the women obtained by MBS was correlated with only the total score of CRDQ (p<0.05). The results of our study show that gender has an effect on dyspnea perception obtained by MBS and VAS. We suggest that MBS and VAS should be used for men whereas MBS may be more convenient for women in the evaluation of dyspnea in severe COPD. (author)

  14. 224Ra and 226Ra experimentally induced dental changes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichart, P.A.; Althoff, J.; Eckhardt, W.; Rippel, W.

    1979-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats received intragastrically a single dose of 226 Ra or 224 Ra once weekly for 21 weeks. During this period the animals of both groups were thus exposed to comparable doses. After 12 weeks, a shortening of the maxillary incisors was observed, and this progressed during the course of the 55-week experiment. Radiologically, a loss of pulpal transparency and an apical irregular opacity in the maxillary incisors were demonstrable. Histologically, dysplastic changes of the maxillary incisors and multiple resorptions at the cemento-enamel junction of the molars were seen. The observed alterations were more pronounced in the 226 Ra group than in the 224 Ra treated group. The experimentally induced resorptions were comparable to those observed in patients who had incorporated 224 Ra or 226 Ra. Clinical, radiological, histological, γspecrometrical, and autoradiographical findings, as well as dose-estimations, are described. (author)

  15. High-intensity laser therapy during chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Gazzotti, Valeria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    The aims of this study was the safety and the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) on chronic degenerative tenosynovitis. We have effectuated the histological evaluation and seroassay (C reactive protein) on 18 chickens affect by chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced. We have been employed a Nd:YAG laser pulsed wave; all irradiated subjects received the same total energy (270 Joule) with a fluence of 7,7 J/cm2 and intensity of 10,7 W/cm2. The histological findings revealed a distinct reduction of the mineralization of the choral matrix, the anti-inflammatory effect of the laser, the hyperplasia of the synoviocytes and ectasia of the lymphatic vessels.

  16. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations of {sup 3}He-induced nuclear reactions on zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abyad, M.; Mohamed, Gehan Y. [Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Physics Department (Cyclotron Facility), Cairo (Egypt); Ditroi, F.; Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-05-15

    Excitation functions of {sup 3}He-induced nuclear reactions on natural zinc were measured using the standard stacked-foil technique and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. From their threshold energies up to 27 MeV, the cross-sections for {sup nat}Zn ({sup 3}He,xn) {sup 69}Ge, {sup nat}Zn({sup 3}He,xnp) {sup 66,67,68}Ga, and {sup nat}Zn({sup 3}He,x){sup 62,65}Zn reactions were measured. The nuclear model codes TALYS-1.6, EMPIRE-3.2 and ALICE-IPPE were used to describe the formation of these products. The present data were compared with the theoretical results and with the available experimental data. Integral yields for some important radioisotopes were determined. (orig.)

  17. Experimental setup and first measurement of DNA damage induced along and around an antiproton beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavanagh, J. N.; Currell, F. J.; Timson, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    a further enhancement due to their annihilation at the end of the path. The work presented here aimed to establish and validate an experimental procedure for the quantification of plasmid and genomic DNA damage resulting from antiproton exposure. Immunocytochemistry was used to assess DNA damage in directly......Radiotherapy employs ionizing radiation to induce lethal DNA lesions in cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissues. Due to their pattern of energy deposition, better therapeutic outcomes can, in theory, be achieved with ions compared to photons. Antiprotons have been proposed to offer...... and indirectly exposed human fibroblasts irradiated in both plateau and Bragg peak regions of a 126 MeV antiproton beam at CERN. Cells were stained post irradiation with an anti-γ-H2AX antibody. Quantification of the γ-H2AX foci-dose relationship is consistent with a linear increase in the Bragg peak region...

  18. Dyspnea in a case of shoulder dislocation – to beware of this rare life-threatening symptom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Satyen Praful

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder dislocation is a common injury in orthopedic practice. In an acute presentation, closed reduction of the shoulder joint leads to an uneventful recovery. However, in the developing world neglected shoulder dislocation and treatments from quacks are not uncommon. Improper treatment and neglect can rarely become life threatening. We present one such case, emphasizing the need to investigate the symptom of dyspnea in a patient with history of shoulder dislocation.

  19. An Experimental Study on the Wind-Induced Response of Variable Message Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Meyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Variable message sign (VMS systems are widely used in motorways to provide traffic information to motorists. Such systems are subjected to wind-induced structural vibration that can lead to damage due to fatigue. The limited information that is available on the safe wind design of VMS motivated a large scale testing that was conducted at the wall of wind (WOW Experimental Facility at Florida International University (FIU. One of the objectives of the present study was to experimentally assess the wind-induced force coefficients on VMS of different geometries and utilize these results to provide improved design guidelines. A comprehensive range of VMS geometries was tested, and mean normal and lateral force coefficients, in addition to the twisting moment coefficient and eccentricity ratio, were determined using the measured data for each model, for wind directions of 0° and 45°. The results confirmed that the mean drag coefficient on a prismatic VMS is smaller than the value of 1.7 suggested by American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO. An alternative to this value is presented in the form of a design matrix with coefficients ranging from 0.98 to 1.28, depending on the aspect and depth ratio of the VMS. Furthermore, results indicated that the corner modification on a VMS with chamfered edges demonstrated a reduction in the drag coefficient compared to sharper edges. Finally, the dynamic loading effects were considered by evaluating the gust effect factor, using the ASCE 7 formulations, for various VMS weights and geometries. The findings revealed a wide range of possible gust effect factors, both above and below the current AASHTO specification of 1.14. Future research may include different geometries of VMS and a wider range of wind directions.

  20. Integral analyses of fission product retention at mitigated thermally-induced SGTR using ARTIST experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rýdl, Adolf; Lind, Terttaliisa; Birchley, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Source term analyses in a PWR of mitigated thermally-induced SGTR scenario performed. • Experimental ARTIST program results on aerosol scrubbing efficiency used in analyses. • Results demonstrate enhanced aerosol retention in a flooded steam generator. • High aerosol retention cannot be predicted by current theoretical scrubbing models. - Abstract: Integral source-term analyses are performed using MELCOR for a PWR Station Blackout (SBO) sequence leading to induced steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). In the absence of any mitigation measures, such a sequence can result in a containment bypass where the radioactive materials can be released directly to the environment. In some SGTR scenarios flooding of the faulted SG secondary side with water can mitigate the accident escalation and also the release of aerosol-borne and volatile radioactive materials. Data on the efficiency of aerosol scrubbing in an SG tube bundle were obtained in the international ARTIST project. In this paper ARTIST data are used directly with parametric MELCOR analyses of a mitigated SGTR sequence to provide more realistic estimates of the releases to environment in such a type of scenario or similar. Comparison is made with predictions using the default scrubbing model in MELCOR, as a representative of the aerosol scrubbing models in current integral codes. Specifically, simulations are performed for an unmitigated sequence and 2 cases where the SG secondary was refilled at different times after the tube rupture. The results, reflecting the experimental observations from ARTIST, demonstrate enhanced aerosol retention in the highly turbulent two-phase flow conditions caused by the complex geometry of the SG secondary side. This effect is not captured by any of the models currently available. The underlying physics remains only partly understood, indicating need for further studies to support a more mechanistic treatment of the retention process.

  1. Experimental Neuromyelitis Optica Induces a Type I Interferon Signature in the Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Nathalie; Zeka, Bleranda; Schanda, Kathrin; Fujihara, Kazuo; Illes, Zsolt; Dahle, Charlotte; Reindl, Markus; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acute inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which predominantly affects spinal cord and optic nerves. Most patients harbor pathogenic autoantibodies, the so-called NMO-IgGs, which are directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) on astrocytes. When these antibodies gain access to the CNS, they mediate astrocyte destruction by complement-dependent and by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In contrast to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who benefit from therapies involving type I interferons (I-IFN), NMO patients typically do not profit from such treatments. How is I-IFN involved in NMO pathogenesis? To address this question, we made gene expression profiles of spinal cords from Lewis rat models of experimental neuromyelitis optica (ENMO) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found an upregulation of I-IFN signature genes in EAE spinal cords, and a further upregulation of these genes in ENMO. To learn whether the local I-IFN signature is harmful or beneficial, we induced ENMO by transfer of CNS antigen-specific T cells and NMO-IgG, and treated the animals with I-IFN at the very onset of clinical symptoms, when the blood-brain barrier was open. With this treatment regimen, we could amplify possible effects of the I-IFN induced genes on the transmigration of infiltrating cells through the blood brain barrier, and on lesion formation and expansion, but could avoid effects of I-IFN on the differentiation of pathogenic T and B cells in the lymph nodes. We observed that I-IFN treated ENMO rats had spinal cord lesions with fewer T cells, macrophages/activated microglia and activated neutrophils, and less astrocyte damage than their vehicle treated counterparts, suggesting beneficial effects of I-IFN. PMID:26990978

  2. Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neul, Annkatrin; Schrödl, Wieland; Marschang, Rachel E; Bjick, Tina; Truyen, Uwe; von Buttlar, Heiner; Pees, Michael

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses. ANIMALS 42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes. PROCEDURES Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group were euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49, and 3 snakes from the control group were euthanized on day 49. Blood samples were collected from live snakes on days -6 (baseline), 4, 16, 28, and 49. Hematologic tests were performed and humoral responses assessed via hemagglutination-inhibition assays and ELISAs. Following euthanasia, gross pathological and histologic evaluations and virus detection were performed. RESULTS Severity of clinical signs of and immunologic responses to ferlavirus infection differed among snake groups. Hematologic values, particularly WBC and monocyte counts, increased between days 4 and 16 after infection. A humoral response was identified between days 16 and 28. Serum IgM concentrations increased from baseline earlier than IgY concentrations, but the IgY relative increase was higher at the end of the study. The hemagglutination-inhibition assay revealed that the strongest reactions in all infected groups were against the strain with which they had been infected. Snakes infected with genogroup A ferlavirus had the strongest immune response, whereas those infected with genogroup B had the weakest responses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this experimental study suggested that the ferlavirus strain with the highest virulence induced the weakest immune response in snakes.

  3. Effects of sevoflurane on ventilator induced lung injury in a healthy lung experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Moreno, A; García, J; Sánchez, C; Santos, M; García, J

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) causes a systemic inflammatory response in tissues, with an increase in IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in blood and tissues. Cytoprotective effects of sevoflurane in different experimental models are well known, and this protective effect can also be observed in VILI. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of sevoflurane in VILI. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed. Twenty female rats were studied. The animals were mechanically ventilated, without sevoflurane in the control group and sevoflurane 3% in the treated group (SEV group). VILI was induced applying a maximal inspiratory pressure of 35 cmH2O for 20 min without any positive end-expiratory pressure for 20 min (INJURY time). The animals were then ventilated 30 min with a maximal inspiratory pressure of 12 cmH2O and 3 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (time 30 min POST-INJURY), at which time the animals were euthanized and pathological and biomarkers studies were performed. Heart rate, invasive blood pressure, pH, PaO2, and PaCO2 were recorded. The lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was used as an index of lung edema. No differences were found in the blood gas analysis parameters or heart rate between the 2 groups. Blood pressure was statistically higher in the control group, but still within the normal clinical range. The percentage of pulmonary edema and concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in lung tissue in the SEV group were lower than in the control group. Sevoflurane attenuates VILI in a previous healthy lung in an experimental subclinical model in rats. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Pumped storage system model and experimental investigations on S-induced issues during transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Yang, Jiandong; Hu, Jinhong

    2017-06-01

    Because of the important role of pumped storage stations in the peak regulation and frequency control of a power grid, pump turbines must rapidly switch between different operating modes, such as fast startup and load rejection. However, pump turbines go through the unstable S region in these transition processes, threatening the security and stability of the pumped storage station. This issue has mainly been investigated through numerical simulations, while field experiments generally involve high risks and are difficult to perform. Therefore, in this work, the model test method was employed to study S-induced security and stability issues for a pumped storage station in transition processes. First, a pumped storage system model was set up, including the piping system, model units, electrical control systems and measurement system. In this model, two pump turbines with different S-shaped characteristics were installed to determine the influence of S-shaped characteristics on transition processes. The model platform can be applied to simulate any hydraulic transition process that occurs in real power stations, such as load rejection, startup, and grid connection. On the experimental platform, the S-shaped characteristic curves were measured to be the basis of other experiments. Runaway experiments were performed to verify the impact of the S-shaped characteristics on the pump turbine runaway stability. Full load rejection tests were performed to validate the effect of the S-shaped characteristics on the water-hammer pressure. The condition of one pump turbine rejecting its load after another defined as one-after-another (OAA) load rejection was performed to validate the possibility of S-induced extreme draft tube pressure. Load rejection experiments with different guide vane closing schemes were performed to determine a suitable scheme to adapt the S-shaped characteristics. Through these experiments, the threats existing in the station were verified, the

  5. Concentrations of cysteinyl leukotrienes in urine and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of cats with experimentally induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Berghaus, Londa J; Berghaus, Roy D; Walby, William F; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate changes in cysteinyl leukotriene (LT) concentrations in urine and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in cats with experimentally induced asthma. 19 cats with experimentally induced asthma and 5 control cats. Cats were sensitized to Bermuda grass or house dust mite allergen, and phenotypic features of asthma were confirmed with intradermal skin testing, evaluation of BALF eosinophil percentages, and pulmonary function testing. A competitive ELISA kit for LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 was used for quantitative analysis of LTs. Urinary creatinine concentrations and BALF total protein (TP) concentrations were measured, and urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios and BALF LT-to-TP ratios were calculated. Mean urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios did not differ significantly between control cats and allergen-sensitized cats before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or allergen, respectively. In BALF the mean LT-to-TP ratio of control cats did not differ significantly before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline. Asthmatic cats had BALF LT-to-TP ratios that were significantly lower than control cats at all time points, whereas ratios for asthmatic cats did not differ significantly among the various time points. Although LTs were readily detectable in urine, no significant increases in urinary LT concentrations were detected after challenge in allergen-sensitized cats. Spot testing of urinary LT concentrations appears to have no clinical benefit for use in monitoring the inflammatory asthmatic state in cats. The possibility that cysteinyl LTs bind effectively to their target receptors in BALF and, thus, decrease free LT concentrations deserves further study.

  6. Dyspnea and choking as presenting symptoms in primary medulla oblongata germinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Chi-Man; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Chen, Jun-Yih; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chia-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem. It contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers and deals with autonomic functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Primary medulla oblongata germinoma is very rare and less than 20 cases have been reported in the English literature. A 22-year-old female without any particular past medical history presented to us in October 2012 with the chief complaint of dyspnea and frequent choking for 1 month. Neurological examination revealed lower cranial nerve palsies and nystagmus. Her brain computed tomography (CT) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a mass lesion at the dorsal surface of medulla oblongata with extension into the inferior fourth ventricle and foramen magnum. She underwent bilateral suboccipital craniotomy and C1 laminoplasty with the grossly total resection of the tumor. The histological examination of the tumor proved germinoma. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy was arranged. The latest brain MRI and whole spine MRI done 1 year after surgery showed neither residual nor recurrent tumor in the whole axis. She is regularly followed-up at our outpatient department and is doing well except having left vocal cord palsy, which occurred before surgery. Medulloblastoma, ependymoma, glioma, hemangioblastoma, and cavernous angioma are common intraaxial tumors in the medulla oblongata and fourth ventricle. Intracranial germ cell tumors originate from extragonadal seminal cells and have been found in 0.4-3.4% of patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Western countries, while the incidence is reported to be 5-8 times greater in Japan and the Far East. Although germinoma of medulla oblongata is rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of medulla masses with fourth ventricle extension, especially in Asian population.

  7. Laryngeal dyspnea in relation to an interaction between acenocoumarol and topical econazole lotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Pierre-François; Petitjeans, Fabrice; Lions, Christophe; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Escarment, Jacques

    2008-08-01

    Bleeding is the most serious complication of oral anticoagulant therapy used for the prevention of thromboembolic complications. Drug-drug interactions are an important concern, as they may increase drug toxicity and, in the case of anticoagulant therapies, increase the risk of hemorrhage. An 84-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a bilateral cervical hematoma and symptoms of upper-airway obstruction that had been increasing for 72 hours, with dyspnea and difficulty speaking developing in the previous 24 hours. Transnasal fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed a significant laryngeal hematoma, as well as a hematoma on the floor of the mouth and in the tonsil area. Laboratory abnormalities included a prothrombin time 120 seconds. The patient had been receiving acenocoumarol 4 mg/d for 10 years for episodes of atrial fibrillation and recurrent deep venous thrombosis. Seventeen days earlier, she had received a prescription for topical econazole lotion 1% to be applied 3 times daily for 1 month to treat a dermatitis affecting 12% of the body surface. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for treatment of respiratory failure, where oxygen was delivered by face mask. The coagulation disorders were treated with prothrombin complex concentrate 30 IU/kg IV and vitamin K1 10 mg IV, and values normalized within 36 hours. Surgical evacuation of the laryngeal hematoma was not necessary. After 48 hours, improvement in the patient's respiratory symptoms allowed transfer to the ear, nose, and throat unit, where daily endoscopic examination was performed. Aspirin was substituted for acenocoumarol, and the patient returned home after 10 days without sequelae. Based on a Naranjo score of 7, this episode was probably related to an interaction between acenocoumarol and econazole. This report describes a case of a probable interaction between topical econazole lotion 1% and acenocoumarol that resulted in overanticoagulation and a life-threatening laryngeal

  8. Diagnostic performance of multi-organ ultrasound with pocket-sized device in the management of acute dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Alfonso; Mancusi, Costantino; Carlino, Maria Viviana; Buonauro, Agostino; Barozzi, Marco; Romano, Giuseppe; Serra, Sossio; de Simone, Giovanni

    2017-06-19

    The availability of ultra-miniaturized pocket ultrasound devices (PUD) adds diagnostic power to the clinical examination. Information on accuracy of ultrasound with handheld units in immediate differential diagnosis in emergency department (ED) is poor. The aim of this study is to test the usefulness and accuracy of lung ultrasound (LUS) alone or combined with ultrasound of the heart and inferior vena cava (IVC) using a PUD for the differential diagnosis of acute dyspnea (AD). We included 68 patients presenting to the ED of "Maurizio Bufalini" Hospital in Cesena (Italy) for AD. All patients underwent integrated ultrasound examination (IUE) of lung-heart-IVC, using PUD. The series was divided into patients with dyspnea of cardiac or non-cardiac origin. We used 2 × 2 contingency tables to analyze sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the three ultrasonic methods and their various combinations for the diagnosis of cardiogenic dyspnea (CD), comparing with the final diagnosis made by an independent emergency physician. LUS alone exhibited a good sensitivity (92.6%) and specificity (80.5%). The highest accuracy (90%) for the diagnosis of CD was obtained with the combination of LUS and one of the other two methods (heart or IVC). The IUE with PUD is a useful extension of the clinical examination, can be readily available at the bedside or in ambulance, requires few minutes and has a reliable diagnostic discriminant ability in the setting of AD.

  9. The Effect of Experimental Parkinson on Formalin-Induced Pain in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Pain is one of the preceding claims of Parkinson's disease (PD, that its mechanisms have not been fully identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical pain responses induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin in male parkinsonized rats.   Method : In this experimental study, 40 Wistar male rats were used and PD was established by stereotaxic injection of 6-OHDA toxin into the striatum. Parkinson's disease severity determined by apomorphine-induced rotation test and then the pain response of 4 groups, the control, sham and 2 weak or full Parkinson groups, were evaluated using formalin test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test.   Results : In both acute and chronic phases of the formalin test, the symptoms of pain in different groups were same, but at the interphase stage, pain intensity increased more in Parkinson 's rats, especially in full PD group compared to control (p<0.01.   Conclusion: These results suggest that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway have important modulating role on chronic pain.

  10. Experimental Protoporphyria: Effect of Bile Acids on Liver Damage Induced by Griseofulvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA, dehydrocholic (DHA, chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO. The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed, superoxide dismutase (SOD, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH, and cytochrome P450 (CYP levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris.

  11. Immunologic and hematologic responses in ponies with experimentally induced Strongylus vulgaris infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M; Martin, S C; Lloyd, S

    1989-08-01

    Immunologic and hematologic responses were examined in 4 ponies with experimentally induced Strongylus vulgaris infection and in 5 helminth-free ponies. Two ponies were inoculated with 200 larvae and 2 were inoculated with 700 larvae of S vulgaris and then were reinoculated with the same numbers of larvae 34 weeks later. Initial response of the ponies inoculated with S vulgaris was S vulgaris antigen-induced lymphocyte response that developed 1.5 to 3 weeks after inoculation and did not persist. Development of antigen-reactive lymphocytes was followed sequentially by a biphasic complement-fixing antibody response, then biphasic eosinophilia. Antibody titer to S vulgaris antigen was higher in ponies inoculated with 700 larvae, compared with that in ponies given 200 larvae of S vulgaris. Also, the second peak in antibody titer and in absolute number of eosinophils was observed earlier in ponies inoculated with 700 larvae, compared with ponies inoculated with 200 S vulgaris larvae, and subsided before or from about 24 weeks after inoculation. The prepatent period for S vulgaris infection was 24 to 25 weeks. After reinoculation with S vulgaris, a degree of increased lymphocyte responsiveness was apparent but, by 17 weeks after reinoculation, only the primary peak in the absolute number of eosinophils indicated an anamnestic response. Essentially, antibody was not detectable after reinoculation.

  12. Experimentally induced masseter-pain changes masseter but not sternocleidomastoid muscle-related activity during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinato, Fernanda; Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C; Zeredo, Jorge Luis Lopes; Macedo, Sergio Bruzadelli; Corrêa, Eliane C R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of induced masseter-muscle pain on the amplitude of muscle activation, symmetry and coactivation of jaw- and neck-muscles during mastication. Twenty-eight male volunteers, mean age±SD 20.6±2.0years, participated in this study. Surface electromyography of the masseter and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles was performed bilaterally during mastication of a gummy candy before and after injections of monosodium glutamate solution and isotonic saline solution. As a result, we observed a decrease in the amplitude of activation of the masseter muscle on the working side (p=0.009; d=0.34) and a reduction in the asymmetry between the working and the balancing side during mastication (p=0.007; d=0.38). No changes were observed either on the craniocervical electromyographic variables. In conclusion, experimentally induced pain reduced the masseter muscle activation on the working side, thereby reducing the physiological masseters' recruitment asymmetry between the two sides during mastication. No effects on SCM activity were detected. These results may partly explain the initial maladaptative changes underlying TMD conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The ultrastructural alterations in rat corneas with experimentally-induced diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Take, G.; Karabay, G.; Erdogan, D.; Duyar, I.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the ultrastructural changes of rat corneas in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus and the and the follow-up insulin treatment. Sprague-Dawley type rats were used for experimental procedures during the period from January to April 2003 at Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey. Rats were studied in four groups: group 1: controls, group 2 sham controls (single dose IV sodium citrate); group 3 STZ-induced diabetes mellitus (Single dose 45mg/kg STZ intravenously), group 4: diabetes mellitus + insulin treatment (8U/day). We observed degenerative changes in the epithelial layer, stromal keratocytes and endothelial cells in diabetic group. In contrast, the corneal layers have revealed positive alterations in the insulin-treated group. The statistical analysis, showed significant narrowing in the epithelial layer in the diabetic group (p0.02), whereas thickening was observed in the epithelial basement membrane and Descemet's membrane (p=0.002). It was determined that that diabetes mellitus causes degenerative changes in cornea, which are positively influenced by short-term insulin treatment. (author)

  14. Foraminiferal survival after long-term in situ experimentally induced anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlet, D.; Geslin, E.; Baal, C.; Metzger, E.; Lejzerowicz, F.; Riedel, B.; Zuschin, M.; Pawlowski, J.; Stachowitsch, M.; Jorissen, F. J.

    2013-11-01

    Anoxia was successfully induced in four benthic chambers installed at 24 m depth on the northern Adriatic seafloor from 9 days to 10 months. To accurately determine whether benthic foraminifera can survive experimentally induced prolonged anoxia, the CellTrackerTM Green method was applied and calcareous and agglutinated foraminifera were analyzed. Numerous individuals were found living at all sampling times and at all sampling depths (to 5 cm), supported by a ribosomal RNA analysis that revealed that certain benthic foraminifera were active after 10 months of anoxia. The results show that benthic foraminifera can survive up to 10 months of anoxia with co-occurring hydrogen sulfides. However, foraminiferal standing stocks decrease with sampling time in an irregular manner. A large difference in standing stock between two cores sampled under initial conditions indicates the presence of a large spatial heterogeneity of the foraminiferal faunas. An unexpected increase in standing stocks after one month is tentatively interpreted as a reaction to increased food availability due to the massive mortality of infaunal macrofaunal organisms. After this, standing stocks decrease again in cores sampled after 2 months of anoxia to then attain a minimum in the cores sampled after 10 months. We speculate that the trend of overall decrease of standing stocks is not due to the adverse effects of anoxia and hydrogen sulfides but rather due to a continuous diminution of labile organic matter.

  15. Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum extract as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayir, Yasin; Halici, Zekai; Keles, Mevlut Sait; Colak, Suat; Cakir, Ahmet; Kaya, Yusuf; Akçay, Fatih

    2011-11-18

    Since ancient times, various herbal preparations have been used in treatment of urolithiasis, which is basically formation of calcium oxalate stones in kidney. The aim of our study is to assess the effects of Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum (HP) as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model in rats. The efficacy of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg HP extract was studied in 1% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride-induced urolithiasis for 21 days in rats. The weight difference and the levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid in both serum and 24h-urine were measured. The calcium oxalate (CaOx) and pH were defined in urine. Histo-pathological analyses in kidneys were also performed. The rats' weights were higher in HP groups than urolithiasis group. Urolithiasis caused a significant increase in both serum and urine biochemical parameters compared to healthy rats. HP extract decreased levels of these parameters. Urine CaOx level was high in urolithiasis rats, whereas it was decreased by HP extract. Histopathological examinations revealed extensive intratubular crystal depositions and degenerative tubular structures in urolithiasis group, but not in HP treatment groups. More studies will be necessary to elucidate the antiurolithiatic activity of HP. Nonetheless, having a beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition into kidneys, HP extract may be a potential drug for urolithiasis treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb in experimentally induced inflammation and nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh A Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gmelina arborea Roxb (Verbenaceae, also known as "Gambhari", is an important medicinal plant in the Ayurveda. There are no meticulous scientific reports on effect of the plant on inflammation and pain. Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of aqueous extracts (AE and methanol extracts (ME of G. arborea. Materials and Methods: The AE and ME of stembark of G. arborea was prepared by cold maceration and Soxhlet extraction technique respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in Wistar albino rats in a model of acute plantar inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated by using hot plate test and writhing test in Swiss albino mice. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: AE and ME at dose of 500 mg/kg showed maximum inhibition in carrageenan induced inflammation up to 30.15 and 31.21% respectively. In hot plate test, the AE and ME showed the maximum response of 8.8 ± 0.97 (P < 0.01 and 8.2 ± 1.24 (P < 0.01 respectively at dose of 500 mg/kg when compared with control. AE showed maximum inhibition of writhing response (84.3% as compared to ME (77.9% in writhing test at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Conclusion: The findings suggested that G. arborea possess significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.

  17. Antiinflammatory effects of Cordia myxa fruit on experimentally induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadi, F M; Srikumar, T S; Anim, J T; Khan, I

    2001-05-01

    Products of certain species of Cordia are reported to have antiinflammatory properties. In the present study we examined the effects of Cordia myxa fruit on experimentally induced colitis in rats. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid. Colitic, normal, and corresponding control animals were included. Body weight was recorded daily. All the animals were sacrificed 4 days after the fruit treatment. Colitis was monitored histologically and by activity of myeloperoxidase. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, as well as total antioxidant status and concentrations of zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and iron were assayed in plasma, liver, and colon using standard methods. Histology of the colon of colitic rats showed acute colitis that was confirmed by a significant increase in the myeloperoxidase activity. Colitis was associated with significant decreases in the tissue activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and lower concentrations of trace elements. Histologic examination and myeloperoxidase activity showed that the fruit treatment reversed the above findings in the inflamed colon, and in liver and plasma of colitic rats. The present results suggest that the observed antiinflammatory effect of the Cordia myxa may be attributed partly to its antioxidant property and to restoration of the levels of trace elements in the inflamed colon, liver, and plasma.

  18. Experimental study of acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors in a combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Soon; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2007-01-01

    In a liquid rocket engine, acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors is studied experimentally for combustion stability by adopting linear acoustic test. In the previous work, it has been found that gas-liquid scheme injector can play a significant role in acoustic damping or absorption when it is tuned finely. Based on this finding, acoustic-damping characteristics of multi-injectors are intensively investigated. From the experimental data, it is found that acoustic oscillations are almost damped out by multi-injectors when they have the tuning length proposed in the previous study. The length corresponds to a half wavelength of the first longitudinal overtone mode traveling inside the injector with the acoustic frequency intended for damping in the chamber. But, new injector-coupled acoustic modes show up in the chamber with the injectors of the tuning length although the target mode is nearly damped out. And, appreciable frequency shift is always observed except for the case of the worst tuned injector. Accordingly, it is proposed that the tuning length is adjusted to have the shorter length than a half wavelength when these phenomena are considered

  19. Scintigraphic diagnosis of experimentally induced pericarditis in dogs using 99sup(m)Tc-labelled pyrophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duska, F.; Novak, J.; Vizda, J.; Kubizek, J.; Simon, J.; Veverkova, O.; Karlova Universita, Hradec Kralove

    1981-01-01

    In the present paper the possibilities of scintigraphic diagnosis of experimental pericarditis are discussed. Pericarditis was induced by either talc or formaldehyde intrapericardially. In all animals the administration of talc as well as formaldehyde produced inflammatory changes which were more serious after formaldehyde. The scan of the talc pericarditis was carried out on the 7th day after operation and of the formaldehyde pericarditis on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day. No positive scintigraphic finding was made in any of the experimental animals, apart from a massive incorporation in the operation scars. The counting of radioactive impulses after the exstirpation of the tissue samples confirmed the scintigraphic findings. Statistical evaluation did not reveal any essential difference between the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical into the pericarditis as well as into the pericardial bag in comparison with the control animals. Although our model does not exactly reflect the situation of patients suffering from pericarditis it may be assumed that pyrophosphate scintigraphy is not suitable for the diagnosis of acute pericarditis in clinical practice. (orig.) [de

  20. The bystander effect in experimental systems and compatibility with radon-induced lung cancer in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Wakeford, R.

    2002-01-01

    Bystander effects following exposure to α-particles have been observed in C3H 10T 1/2 cells and in other experimental systems, and imply that linearly extrapolating low-dose risks from high-dose data might materially underestimate risk. The ratio of lung cancer risk among persons exposed to low and high doses of radon daughters is 2.4-4.0, with an upper 95% confidence limit (CL) of about 14. Assuming that the bystander effect observed in the C3H 10T 1/2 data applies to human lung cells in vivo, the epidemiological data imply that the number of neighbouring cells that can contribute to the bystander effect is between 0 and 1, with an upper 95% CL of about 7. As a consequence, the bystander effect observed in the C3H 10T 1/2 system probably does not play a large part in the process of radon-induced lung carcinogenesis in humans. Other experimental data relating to the bystander effect after α-particle exposure are surveyed; some of these data are more compatible with the epidemiological data. (author)

  1. Application of metabonomics on an experimental model of fibrosis and cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, Maria A.; Theocharis, Stamatios E.; Mikros, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Metabonomics has already been used to discriminate different pathological states in biological fields. The metabolic profiles of chronic experimental fibrosis and cirrhosis induction in rats were investigated using 1 H NMR spectroscopy of liver extracts and serum combined with pattern recognition techniques. Rats were continuously administered with thioacetamide (TAA) in the drinking water (300 mg TAA/L), and sacrificed on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd month of treatment. 1 H NMR spectra of aqueous and lipid liver extracts, together with serum were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Liver portions were also subjected to histopathological examination and biochemical determination of malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were progressively induced in TAA-treated rats, verified by the histopathological examination and the alterations of MDA levels. TAA administration revealed a number of changes in the 1 H NMR spectra compared to control samples. The performance of PCA in liver extracts and serum, discriminated the control samples from the fibrotic and cirrhotic ones. Metabolic alterations revealed in NMR spectra during experimental liver fibrosis and cirrhosis induction, characterize the stage of fibrosis and could be illustrated by subsequent PCA of the spectra. Additionally, the PCA plots of the serum samples presented marked clustering during fibrosis progression and could be extended in clinical diagnosis for the management of cirrhotic patients

  2. Experimental and theoretical study of steam condensation induced water hammer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, Imre Ferenc; Baranyai, Gabor; Ezsoel, Gyoergy

    2009-01-01

    We investigate steam condensation induced water hammer (waha) phenomena and present experimental and theoretical results. Some of the experiments were performed in the PMK-2 facility, which is a full-pressure thermohydraulic model of the nuclear power plant of VVER-440/312 type and located in the Atomic Energy Research Institute Budapest, Hungary. Other experiments were done in the ROSA facility in Japan. On the theoretical side waha is studied and analyzed with the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. The applied two-fluid model shows some similarities to Relap5 which is widely used in the nuclear industry to simulate nuclear power plant accidents. Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated waha pressure peaks are in qualitative agreement. (author)

  3. Radiation damage to the normal monkey brain. Experimental study induced by interstitial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Nobuya; Tamiya, Takashi; Matsumoto, Kengo; Furuta, Tomohisa; Ohmoto, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Radiation damage to normal brain tissue induced by interstitial irradiation with iridium-192 seeds was sequentially evaluated by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histological examination. This study was carried out in 14 mature Japanese monkeys. The experimental area received more than 200-260 Gy of irradiation developed coagulative necrosis. Infiltration of macrophages to the periphery of the necrotic area was seen. In addition, neovascularization, hyalinization of vascular walls, and gliosis were found in the periphery of the area invaded by the macrophages. All sites at which the vascular walls were found to have acute stage fibrinoid necrosis eventually developed coagulative necrosis. The focus of necrosis was detected by MRI starting 1 week after the end of radiation treatment, and the size of the necrotic area did not change for 6 months. The peripheral areas showed clear ring enhancement with contrast material. Edema surrounding the lesions was the most significant 1 week after radiation and was reduced to a minimum level 1 month later. However, the edema then expanded once again and was sustained for as long as 6 months. CT did not provide as clear of a presentation as MRI, but it did reveal similar findings for the most part, and depicted calcification in the necrotic area. This experimental model is considered useful for conducting basic research on brachytherapy, as well as for achieving a better understanding of delayed radiation necrosis. (author)

  4. Experimental study of boundary layer transition on an airfoil induced by periodically passing wake (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, T.C. [Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Jeon, W.P.; Kang, S.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes the phenomena of wake-induced transition of the boundary layers on a NACA0012 airfoil using measured phase-averaged data. Especially, the phase-averaged wall shear stresses are reasonably evaluated using the principle of Computational Preston Tube Method. Due to the passing wake, the turbulent patch is generated in the laminar boundary layer on the airfoil and the boundary layer becomes temporarily transitional. The patches propagate downstream with less speed than free-stream velocity and merge with each other at further downstream station, and the boundary layer becomes more transitional. The generation of turbulent patch at the leading edge of the airfoil mainly depends on velocity defects and turbulent intensity profiles of passing wakes. However, the growth and merging of turbulent patches depend on local streamwise pressure gradients as well as characteristics of turbulent patches. In this transition process, the present experimental data show very similar features to the previous numerical and experimental studies. It is confirmed that the two phase-averaged mean velocity dips appear in the outer region of transitional boundary layer for each passing cycle. Relatively high values of the phase-averaged turbulent fluctuations in the outer region indicate the possibility that breakdown occurs in the outer layer not near the wall. (author). 21 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Experimental evaluation of the pressure and temperature dependence of ion-induced nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Muhammad Miftahul; Suhendi, Asep; Ogi, Takashi; Iskandar, Ferry; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2010-09-28

    An experimental system for the study of ion-induced nucleation in a SO(2)/H(2)O/N(2) gas mixture was developed, employing a soft x-ray at different pressure and temperature levels. The difficulties associated with these experiments included the changes in physical properties of the gas mixture when temperature and pressure were varied. Changes in the relative humidity (RH) as a function of pressure and temperature also had a significant effect on the different behaviors of the mobility distributions of particles. In order to accomplish reliable measurement and minimize uncertainties, an integrated on-line control system was utilized. As the pressure decreased in a range of 500-980 hPa, the peak concentration of both ions and nanometer-sized particles decreased, which suggests that higher pressure tended to enhance the growth of particles nucleated by ion-induced nucleation. Moreover, the modal diameters of the measured particle size distributions showed a systematic shift to larger sizes with increasing pressure. However, in the temperature range of 5-20 °C, temperature increases had no significant effects on the mobility distribution of particles. The effects of residence time, RH (7%-70%), and SO(2) concentration (0.08-6.7 ppm) on ion-induced nucleation were also systematically investigated. The results show that the nucleation and growth were significantly dependent on the residence time, RH, and SO(2) concentration, which is in agreement with both a previous model and previous observations. This research will be inevitable for a better understanding of the role of ions in an atmospheric nucleation mechanism.

  6. Anti-glaucoma potential of Heliotropium indicum Linn in experimentally-induced glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Owusu-Afriyie, Osei

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium indicum is used as a traditional remedy for hypertension in Ghana. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-glaucoma potential of an aqueous whole plant extract of H. indicum to manage experimentally-induced glaucoma. The percentage change in intraocular pressure (IOP), after inducing acute glaucoma (15 mLkg(-1) of 5 % dextrose, i.v.), in New Zealand White rabbits pretreated with Heliotropium indicum aqueous extract (HIE) (30-300 mgkg(-1)), acetazolamide (5 mgkg(-1)), and normal saline (10 mLkg(-1)) per os were measured. IOPs were also monitored in chronic glaucoma in rabbits (induced by 1 % prednisolone acetate drops, 12 hourly for 21 days) after treatments with the same doses of HIE, acetazolamide, and normal saline for 2 weeks. The anti-oxidant property of the extract was assessed by assaying for glutathione levels in the aqueous humour. Glutamate concentration in the vitreous humour was also determined using ELISA technique. Histopathological assessment of the ciliary bodies was made. The extract significantly reduced intraocular pressure (p ≤ 0.05-0.001) in acute and chronic glaucoma, preserved glutathione levels and glutamate concentration (p ≤ 0.01-0.001). Histological assessment of the ciliary body showed a decrease in inflammatory infiltration in the extract and acetazolamide-treated group compared with the normal saline-treated group. The aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum has ocular hypotensive, anti-oxidant and possible neuro-protective effects, which therefore underscore its plausible utility as an anti-glaucoma drug with further investigation.

  7. Multiple sites and actions of gabapentin-induced relief of ongoing experimental neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Qu, Chaoling; Navratilova, Edita; Oyarzo, Janice; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Dickenson, Anthony H; Porreca, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Gabapentin (GBP) is a first-line therapy for neuropathic pain, but its mechanisms and sites of action remain uncertain. We investigated GBP-induced modulation of neuropathic pain following spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. Intravenous or intrathecal GBP reversed evoked mechanical hypersensitivity and produced conditioned place preference (CPP) and dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) selectively in SNL rats. Spinal GBP also significantly inhibited dorsal horn wide-dynamic-range neuronal responses to a range of evoked stimuli in SNL rats. By contrast, GBP microinjected bilaterally into the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), produced CPP, and elicited NAc DA release selectively in SNL rats but did not reverse tactile allodynia and had marginal effects on wide-dynamic-range neuronal activity. Moreover, blockade of endogenous opioid signaling in the rACC prevented intravenous GBP-induced CPP and NAc DA release but failed to block its inhibition of tactile allodynia. Gabapentin, therefore, can potentially act to produce its pain relieving effects by (a) inhibition of injury-induced spinal neuronal excitability, evoked hypersensitivity, and ongoing pain and (b) selective supraspinal modulation of affective qualities of pain, without alteration of reflexive behaviors. Consistent with previous findings of pain relief from nonopioid analgesics, GBP requires engagement of rACC endogenous opioid circuits and downstream activation of mesolimbic reward circuits reflected in learned pain-motivated behaviors. These findings support the partial separation of sensory and affective dimensions of pain in this experimental model and suggest that modulation of affective-motivational qualities of pain may be the preferential mechanism of GBP's analgesic effects in patients.

  8. Placebo effect of an inert gel on experimentally induced leg muscle pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Hopker

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available James G Hopker1, Abigail J Foad2, Christopher J Beedie2, Damian A Coleman2, Geoffrey Leach11Centre for Sports Studies, University of Kent, Chatham, Kent, UK; 2Department of Sports Science, Tourism and Leisure, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, UKPurpose: This study examined the therapeutic effects of an inert placebo gel on experimentally induced muscle pain in a sports therapy setting. It aimed to investigate the degree to which conditioned analgesia, coupled with an expectation of intervention, was a factor in subsequent analgesia.Methods: Participants were sixteen male and eight female sports therapy students at a UK University. With institutional ethics board approval and following informed consent procedures, each was exposed to pain stimulus in the lower leg in five conditions, ie, conditioning, prebaseline, experimental (two placebo gel applications, and postbaseline. In conditioning trials, participants identified a level of pain stimulus equivalent to a perceived pain rating of 6/10. An inert placebo gel was then applied to the site with the explicit instruction that it was an analgesic. Participants were re-exposed to the pain stimulus, the level of which, without their knowledge, had been decreased, creating the impression of an analgesic effect resulting from the gel. In experimental conditions, the placebo gel was applied and the level of pain stimulus required to elicit a pain rating of 6/10 recorded.Results: Following application of the placebo gel, the level of pain stimulus required to elicit a pain rating of 6/10 increased by 8.2%. Application of the placebo gel significantly decreased participant’s perceptions of muscle pain (P = 0.001.Conclusion: Subjects’ experience and expectation of pain reduction may be major factors in the therapeutic process. These factors should be considered in the sports therapeutic environment.Keywords: conditioning, expectation, perception, positive belief, sports therapy

  9. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaas Ilka C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables. Methods Seven Danish Holstein-Friesian cows were kept in tie-stalls, where the E. coli associated mastitis was induced and laser stimulations were conducted. Measurements of rectal temperature, somatic cell counts, white blood cell counts and E. coli counts were conducted. Furthermore, scores were given for anorexia, local udder inflammation and milk appearance to quantify the local and systemic disease response. In order to quantify the nociceptive threshold, behavioral responses toward cutaneous NLS applied to six skin areas at the tarsus/metatarsus and udder hind quarters were registered at evening milking on day 0 (control and days 1, 2, 3, 6 and 10 after experimental induction of mastitis. Results All clinical and paraclinical variables were affected by the induced mastitis. All cows were clinically ill on days 1 and 2. The cows responded behaviorally toward the NLS. For hind leg stimulation, the proportion of cows responding by stepping was higher on day 0 than days 3 and 6, and the frequency of leg movements after laser stimulation tended to decrease on day 1 compared to the other days. After udder stimulation, the proportion of cows responding by stepping was higher on day 1 than on all other days of testing. Significant correlations between the clinical and paraclinical variables of disease and the behavioral responses toward nociceptive stimulation were found. Conclusions Changes in behavioral responses coincide with peaks in local and systemic signs of E

  10. Mechanisms controlling the oxygen consumption in experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Carole; Clerbaux, Thierry; Amory, Hélène; Detry, Bruno; Florquin, Sandra; Marville, Vincent; Frans, Albert; Gustin, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    . It may be concluded that, despite reduced oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption is maintained during experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in healthy 10-30 day old calves.

  11. Experimental evaluation of neural probe’s insertion induced injury based on digital image correlation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenguang, E-mail: zhwg@sjtu.edu.cn; Ma, Yakun; Li, Zhengwei [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The application of neural probes in clinic has been challenged by probes’ short lifetime when implanted into brain tissue. The primary goal is to develop an evaluation system for testing brain tissue injury induced by neural probe’s insertion using microscope based digital image correlation method. Methods: A brain tissue phantom made of silicone rubber with speckle pattern on its surface was fabricated. To obtain the optimal speckle pattern, mean intensity gradient parameter was used for quality assessment. The designed testing system consists of three modules: (a) load module for simulating neural electrode implantation process; (b) data acquisition module to capture micrographs of speckle pattern and to obtain reactive forces during the insertion of the probe; (c) postprocessing module for extracting tissue deformation information from the captured speckle patterns. On the basis of the evaluation system, the effects of probe wedge angle, insertion speed, and probe streamline on insertion induced tissue injury were investigated. Results: The optimal quality speckle pattern can be attained by the following fabrication parameters: spin coating rate—1000 r/min, silicone rubber component A: silicone rubber component B: softener: graphite = 5 ml: 5 ml: 2 ml: 0.6 g. The probe wedge angle has a significant effect on tissue injury. Compared to wedge angle 40° and 20°, maximum principal strain of 60° wedge angle was increased by 40.3% and 87.5%, respectively; compared with a relatively higher speed (500 μm/s), the maximum principle strain within the tissue induced by slow insertion speed (100 μm/s) was increased by 14.3%; insertion force required by probe with convex streamline was smaller than the force of traditional probe. Based on the experimental results, a novel neural probe that has a rounded tip covered by a biodegradable silk protein coating with convex streamline was proposed, which has both lower insertion and micromotion induced tissue

  12. Experimental studies of the propagation of electrostatic ion perturbations by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachet, G.; Skiff, F.; Doveil, F.; Stern, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Effects induced by the propagation of several kinds of electrostatic perturbation in a low-density collisionless argon plasma are observed with space, time, and velocity-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The propagation of strong self-organized ion structures is observed and the associated electric field is determined. Snap shots of the ion phase space with a time resolution of 2 μs can be reconstructed from the experimental data. All the terms of the kinetic equation can also be determined from the data. A one-dimensional (1D) numerical simulation reproduces qualitatively the experimentally observed ion phase space behavior

  13. Experimental studies of keV energy neutron-induced reactions relevant to astrophysics and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, T.; Kii, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Okazaki, F.; Kobayashi, T.; Baba, T.; Nagai, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Igashira, M.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by keV energy neutrons provide a plenty of informations for studies of both astrophysics and nuclear physics. In this paper we will show our experimental studies of neutron- induced reactions of light nuclei in the keV energy region by means of a pulsed keV neutron beam and high-sensitivity detectors. Also we will discuss astrophysical and nuclear-physical consequences by using the obtained results. (author)

  14. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn, against N Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced Hepatotoxicity in experimental Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Langeswaran K; Jagadeesan A. J; Vijayaprakash S; Balasubramanian M. P

    2012-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn, belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae and have speculated Medicinal properties. In this present investigation, the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extracts of Scoparia dulcis was evaluated against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced liver cirrhosis in experimental rats. In group III hepatotoxicity induced animals, an oral dose of 500 mg/kg, of the aqueous extracts of Scoparia dulcis exhibited a significant (P

  15. Resveratrol protects from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the uterus and prevents experimental preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Leishman, Emma; Domínguez Rubio, Ana Paula; Arias, Andreína; Stern, Aníbal; Bradshaw, Heather B; Franchi, Ana María

    2017-08-01

    pregnant BALB/c mice with resveratrol prevented the LPS-induced preterm birth in 64% of the cases, whereas only 15% of mice with LPS alone escaped preterm birth. Treatment with resveratrol resulted in a reduced NOS activity (P resveratrol reduced the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory agents such as iNOS (P resveratrol administration resulted in changes in the uterine endocannabinoid profiling altered by LPS. N/A. Since our experimental design involves the use of mice, the extrapolation of the results presented here to humans is limited. Our findings provide evidence for the tocolytic effects of resveratrol. Dr Ana María Franchi was funded by Agencia Nacional para la Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2013/0097) and by Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (PIP 2012/0061). Dr Heather B. Bradshaw was funded by NIH (DA006668). The authors have no competing interests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 ?g collagen. ...

  17. Development and characterization of an experimental model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Julián Arias-Mutis

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS has become one of the main concerns for public health because of its link to cardiovascular disease. Murine models have been used to study the effect of MetS on the cardiovascular system, but they have limitations for studying cardiac electrophysiology. In contrast, the rabbit cardiac electrophysiology is similar to human, but a detailed characterization of the different components of MetS in this animal is still needed. Our objective was to develop and characterize a diet-induced experimental model of MetS that allows the study of cardiovascular remodeling and arrhythmogenesis. Male NZW rabbits were assigned to control (n = 15 or MetS group (n = 16, fed during 28 weeks with high-fat, high-sucrose diet. We measured weight, morphological characteristics, blood pressure, glycaemia, standard plasma biochemistry and the metabolomic profile at weeks 14 and 28. Liver histological changes were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. A mixed model ANOVA or unpaired t-test were used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Weight, abdominal contour, body mass index, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure increased in the MetS group at weeks 14 and 28. Glucose, triglycerides, LDL, GOT-AST, GOT/GPT, bilirubin and bile acid increased, whereas HDL decreased in the MetS group at weeks 14 and 28. We found a 40% increase in hepatocyte area and lipid vacuoles infiltration in the liver from MetS rabbits. Metabolomic analysis revealed differences in metabolites related to fatty acids, energetic metabolism and microbiota, compounds linked with cardiovascular disease. Administration of high-fat and high-sucrose diet during 28 weeks induced obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and metabolic alterations, thus reproducing the main clinical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in humans. This experimental model should provide a valuable tool for studies into the mechanisms of cardiovascular

  18. Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cell Therapy in Papain-Induced Experimental Pulmonary Emphysema

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    Mariana N. Machado

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Murine papain-induced emphysema is a model that reproduces many of the features found in patients. Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMC have already been used to repair the alveolar epithelium in respiratory diseases, but not in the papain model. Thus, we hypothesized that BMMC could prevent the pathophysiological processes in papain-induced experimental emphysema. Female BALB/c mice received intratracheal instillation of 50 μL of saline (S groups or papain (P groups, 10 IU/50 μl of saline on days 1 and 7 of the experimental protocol. On the 14th day, 2 × 106 BMMC of male BALB/c mice (SC21 and PC21 or saline (SS21 and PS21 were injected by the jugular vein. Analyses were done on days 14 (S14 and P14 and 21 (SS21, PS21, SC21, and PC21 of the protocol. qPCR evaluated the presence of the Y chromosome in the lungs of BMMC recipient animals. Functional residual capacity (FRC, alveolar diameter, cellularity, elastic fiber content, concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MIP-2, KC, IFN-γ, apoptosis, mRNA expression of the dual oxidase (DUOX1 and DUOX2, production of H2O2 and DUOX activity were evaluated in lung tissue. We did not detect the Y chromosome in recipients' lungs. FRC, alveolar diameter, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN and levels of KC, MIP-2, and IFN-γ increased in P14 and PS21 groups; the changes in the latter were reverted by BMMC. TNF-α, IL-1β e IL-6 were similar in all groups. The amount of elastic fibers was smaller in P14 and PS21 than in other groups, and BMMC did not increase it in PC21 mice. PS21 animals showed increased DUOX activity and mRNA expression for DUOX1 and 2. Cell therapy reverted the activity of DUOX and mRNA expression of DUOX1. BMMC reduced mRNA expression of DUOX2. Apoptosis index was elevated in PS21 mice, which was reduced by cell therapy in PC21. Static compliance, viscoelastic component of elastance and pressure to overcome viscoelasticity were increased in P14 and PS21 groups. These changes and the

  19. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatsi Johanna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary

  20. Experimental study of flow induced vibration of the planar fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua; Bo Hanliang; Jiang Shengyao; Jia Haijun; Zheng Wenxiang; Min Gang; Qu Xinxing

    2005-01-01

    The paper studied the flow-induced vibration of the planar fuel assembly under scour of coolant through experiments, the study includes: the characteristics of the inherent vibration, the response to the flow-induced vibration in rating condition and the confirmation of the critical flow velocity's scope of the flow flexible instability. The velocity distributions in different flow channels formed by fuel plates in the assembly were measured, and the velocity distribution in the same flow channel was also measured. The experimental conclusions includes: the inherent vibration frequency of the planar fuel assembly is different for a little in each direction. The damp ratio corresponding to the assembly each rank's inherent frequency is small, and the damp ratio decreased with the increase of the corresponding inherent frequency. The velocity in different flow channels decreased from outside to inside, and the velocity in the middle channel was the least; the velocity in the same channel decreased from inside to outside, and the velocity in the middle position was the most. The vibration swing of the fuel assembly was small at rating condition, and the vibration swing of the fuel plates was larger than side plates. The vibration of the fuel assembly increased with the increase of the velocity, the vibration of the middle fuel plate were larger than the border fuel plate, and the vibration of the border fuel plate was larger than the side plate. The large scale vibration of the flow flexible instability didn't occur in the velocity scope of 0-18.8 m/s in the experiment, so the critical flow velocity of the flow flexible instability was not in the flow velocity scope of the experiment. (authors)

  1. Effect of Camel Milk on Oxidative Stresses in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rabbits

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    Esraa Tantawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk has an importance in the treatment of diabetes. It has been shown that the patients who drink camel milk daily, their need to insulin decrease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of camel milk in comparison with insulin treatment in experimentally-induced diabetes. This study was carried out on forty male New Zealand rabbits, divided into four groups with ten rabbits in each. The first group G1 was considered as control non-diabetic group and received only normal saline solution. The other animals were injected intravenously with alloxan for induction of diabetes mellitus and then divided into three groups' ten rabbits each as the follows: G2 considered as control diabetic and left untreated, G3 was considered as diabetic and treated with insulin, and G4 was considered as diabetic and received camel milk. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks, blood (whole blood & serum and tissue samples (liver, kidney and pancreas were collected from all the animals for analysis of: enzymatic SOD and catalase, non-enzymatic GSH antioxidant enzyme activities. Serum malondialdeyde, glucose, insulin and lipid profile also were analyzed. The results showed that the camel milk was effective in the treatment of diabetes in comparison to insulin treatment alone. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, camel milk improved the diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The histopathological evaluations demonstrated that there was a regeneration in β cells and the islets of Langerhans among the pancreatic acini in rabbits receiving camel milk. Our findings suggested that the camel milk administration in case of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus might be recommended as an oral anti-diabetic remedy.

  2. Experimentally induced gestational androgen excess disrupts glucoregulation in rhesus monkey dams and their female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, David H; Bruns, Cristin R; Barnett, Deborah K; Dunaif, Andrea; Goodfriend, Theodore L; Dumesic, Daniel A; Tarantal, Alice F

    2010-11-01

    Discrete fetal androgen excess during early gestation in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) promotes endocrine antecedents of adult polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like traits in female offspring. Because developmental changes promoting such PCOS-like metabolic dysfunction remain unclear, the present study examined time-mated, gravid rhesus monkeys with female fetuses, of which nine gravid females received 15 mg of testosterone propionate (TP) subcutaneously daily from 40 to 80 days (first to second trimesters) of gestation [term, mean (range): 165 (155-175) days], whereas an additional six such females received oil vehicle injections over the same time interval. During gestation, ultrasonography quantified fetal growth measures and was used as an adjunct for fetal blood collections. At term, all fetuses were delivered by cesarean section for postnatal studies. Blood samples were collected from dams and infants for glucose, insulin, and total free fatty acid (FFA) determinations. TP injections transiently accelerated maternal weight gain in dams, very modestly increased head diameter of prenatally androgenized (PA) fetuses, and modestly increased weight gain in infancy compared with concurrent controls. Mild to moderate glucose intolerance, with increased area-under-the-curve circulating insulin values, occurred in TP-injected dams during an intravenous glucose tolerance test in the early second trimester. Moreover, reduced circulating FFA levels occurred in PA fetuses during a third trimester intravenous glucagon-tolbutamide challenge (140 days gestation), whereas excessive insulin sensitivity and increased insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity occurred in PA infants during an intravenous glucose-tolbutamide test at ∼1.5 mo postnatal age. Data from these studies suggest that experimentally induced fetal androgen excess may result in transient hyperglycemic episodes in the intrauterine environment that are sufficient to induce relative increases in

  3. Cynodon dactylon extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmani, F; Sadki, C; Aziz, M; Mimouni, M; Hacht, B

    2009-04-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae family) decoction was used in the treatment of kidney stones. However, no scientific study was undertaken so far to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the plant. Thus, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of Cynodon aqueous extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Ethylene glycol (EG) was used in the experiment to induce calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition into kidneys. In preventive protocol, Cynodon decoction was administered in the same day with EG to evaluate the ability of the extract to prevent crystal deposition. However, in curative protocol, rats were first rendered nephrolithiasic and then the extract was administered to assess the ability of the plant to eliminate the pre-existing crystal deposition. In both protocols, urinary biochemical and other variables were measured during the course of the study. Crystalluria and renal histology were examined as well. The results showed that, in both protocols, all measured variables were similar for both the rat groups. Nevertheless, urinary biochemical analysis was apparently unaffected by the extract except oxalate in preventive protocol, and calcium, sodium, and potassium in curative protocol which were significantly highly excreted in treated rats compared to untreated animals. Crystalluria was characterized mostly by the presence of large quantities of CaOx monohydrate and CaOx dihydrate particles in untreated rats. However, crystalluria was mainly dominated by the presence of CaOx dihydrate particles with reduced size. The most apparent beneficial effect of Cynodon extract was seen in kidney tissues where reduced levels of CaOx deposition have been noticed especially in medullary and papillary sections from treated rats. We concluded that C. dactylon extract has beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition into kidneys. Such findings provide a scientific explanation for its use in the

  4. Enhanced mucosal re-epithelialization induced by short chain fatty acids in experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Nascimento J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The short chain fatty acids (SCFA are the best nutrients for the colonocytes. Glucose is poorly used as a fuel but may be transformed into SCFA by colonic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SCFA or glucose on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in 30 Wistar rats by colonic instillation of 4% acetic acid. Five days later they were randomized to receive twice a day colonic lavage containing saline (controls, N = 10, 10% hypertonic glucose (N = 10 or SCFA (N = 10 until day 8 when they were killed. At autopsy, the colon was removed and weighed and the mucosa was evaluated macro- and microscopically and stripped out for DNA assay. Data are reported as mean ± SD or median [range] as appropriate. All animals lost weight but there was no difference between groups. Colon weight was significantly lower in the SCFA group (3.8 ± 0.5 g than in the control (5.3 ± 2.1 g and glucose (5.2 ± 1.3 g groups (P<0.05. Macroscopically, the severity of inflammation was less in SCFA (grade 2 [1-5] than in control (grade 9 [4-10] and glucose-treated (grade 9 [2-10] animals (P<0.01. Microscopically, ulceration of the mucosa was more severe in the glucose and control groups than in the SCFA group. The DNA content of the mucosa of SCFA-treated animals (8.2 [5.0-20.2] mg/g of tissue was higher than in glucose-treated (5.1 [4.2-8.5] mg/g of tissue; P<0.01 and control (6.2 [4.5-8.9] mg/g of tissue; P<0.05 animals. We conclude that SCFA may enhance mucosal re-epithelialization in experimental colitis, whereas hypertonic glucose is of no benefit.

  5. Wild Vervet Monkeys Trade Tolerance and Specific Coalitionary Support for Grooming in Experimentally Induced Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgeaud, Christèle; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-11-16

    Grooming is a key social behavior in many primate species. Research has focused on three important aspects: the short- and long-term trading patterns of grooming for itself and/or for other commodities like tolerance or coalitionary support, the issue of whether exchanges are a convincing example for reciprocity, and what decision rules underlie trading. These issues remain largely unresolved due to the correlative nature of observational studies and the rarity of experimental studies. Here, we present a new experimental paradigm to address these questions in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). Adult females were first trained to approach a personal box, identifiable by unique color patterns, to access high-quality food. During the experiments, two boxes were placed next to each other to induce conflict through forced proximity. We found that while dominants were generally more tolerant toward bonded individuals, recent grooming increased tolerance independently of relationship quality. The latter result shows that vervet monkeys traded grooming for short-term tolerance, where dominants used a direct-reciprocity decision rule. In contrast, females invariably supported the higher-ranking opponent in a conflict, independently of who was the recent grooming partner. Nevertheless, recent grooming increased the probability that a female supported the partner during conflicts with a low-ranking third party. Thus, females' decisions about coalitionary support seem to integrate information about the current social hierarchy with recent grooming events. In conclusion, decision rules underlying trading of grooming for other commodities involve a variety of timescales and factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Perspectives of patients, family caregivers and physicians about the use of opioids for refractory dyspnea in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocker, Graeme; Young, Joanne; Donahue, Margaret; Farquhar, Morag; Simpson, Catherine

    2012-06-12

    A recent national practice guideline recommends the use of opioids for the treatment of refractory dyspnea in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted two qualitative studies to explore the experiences of patients and family caregivers with opioids for refractory COPD-related dyspnea and the perspectives and attitudes of physicians toward opioids in this context. Patients (n = 8; 5 men, 3 women), their caregivers (n = 12; 5 men, 7 women) and physicians (n = 28, 17 men, 11 women) in Nova Scotia participated in the studies. Semistructured interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded conceptually and analyzed for emergent themes using interpretive description methodology. Patients reported that opioids provided a sense of calm and relief from severe dyspnea. Family caregivers felt that opioids helped patients to breathe more "normally," observed improvements in patients' symptoms of anxiety and depression, and experienced reductions in their own stress. Patients reported substantial improvements in their quality of life. All patients and family caregivers wanted opioid therapy to continue. Most physicians were reluctant to prescribe opioids for refractory dyspnea, describing a lack of related knowledge and experience, and fears related to the potential adverse effects and legal censure. Discrepancies between the positive experiences of patients and family caregivers with opioids and the reluctance of physicians to prescribe opioids for refractory dyspnea constitute an important gap in care. Bridging this gap will require initiatives to improve the uptake of practice guidelines and to increase confidence in prescribing opioids for dyspnea refractory to conventional treatment.

  7. Experimental investigation of ultraviolet laser induced plasma density and temperature evolution in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Scharer, John

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements and analysis of laser induced plasma neutral densities and temperatures in dry air by focusing 200 mJ, 10 MW high power, 193 nm ultraviolet ArF (argon fluoride) laser radiation to a 30 μm radius spot size. We examine these properties that result from multiphoton and collisional cascade processes for pressures ranging from 40 Torr to 5 atm. A laser shadowgraphy diagnostic technique is used to obtain the plasma electron temperature just after the shock front and this is compared with optical emission spectroscopic measurements of nitrogen rotational and vibrational temperatures. Two-color laser interferometry is employed to measure time resolved spatial electron and neutral density decay in initial local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions. The radiating species and thermodynamic characteristics of the plasma are analyzed by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) supported by SPECAIR, a special OES program for air constituent plasmas. Core plasma rotational and vibrational temperatures are obtained from the emission spectra from the N 2 C-B(2+) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the SPECAIR simulation results and the results are compared with the electron temperature just behind the shock wave. The plasma density decay measurements are compared with a simplified electron density decay model that illustrates the dominant three-and two-body recombination terms with good correlation

  8. Experimental study on flow-induced acoustic resonance in square closed side branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Gu Hanyang; Liu Xiaojing; Zhang Kai; Xie Yongcheng; Zu Hongbiao

    2014-01-01

    Flow-induced acoustic resonance is a phenomenon caused by the interaction of flow and acoustic fields in special structure. Acoustic resonance characteristic experiments were carried out on square closed side branch. The influences of the velocity in main pipe and the length of the side branch on acoustic resonance were studied. The range of occurrence and characteristics of pressure pulsation were analyzed. Three lengths of side branches (L/d=5.6 and 7) were experimentally studied and the Reynolds number in the experiment was 2.74 X 10 4 -2.429 X 10 5 while the Mach number was 0.025-0.218. The results show that the resonance frequency shows a lock-in phenomenon with the increase of velocity. As the length of the side branch increasing, the amplitude of the acoustic pressure and the resonance frequency decrease. In the considered structure, the acoustic resonance occurs when Strouhal number is 0.3-0.6 and 0.7-1.0. (authors)

  9. Hepatocellular hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression and angiogenesis in experimental biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmorduc, O; Wendum, D; Corpechot, C; Galy, B; Sebbagh, N; Raleigh, J; Housset, C; Poupon, R

    1999-10-01

    We tested the potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in the angiogenesis associated with experimental liver fibrogenesis induced by common bile duct ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats. In normal rats, VEGF and FGF-2 immunoreactivities were restricted to less than 3% of hepatocytes. One week after bile duct ligation, hypoxia was demonstrated by the immunodetection of pimonidazole adducts unevenly distributed throughout the lobule. After 2 weeks, hypoxia and VEGF expression were detected in >95% of hepatocytes and coexisted with an increase in periportal vascular endothelial cell proliferation, as ascertained by Ki67 immunolabeling. Subsequently, at 3 weeks the density of von Willebrand-labeled vascular section in fibrotic areas significantly increased. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that VEGF(120) and VEGF(164) transcripts, that correspond to secreted isoforms, increased within 2 weeks, while VEGF(188) transcripts remained unchanged. FGF-2 mainly consisting of a 22-kd isoform, according to Western blot, was identified by immunohistochemistry in 49% and 100% of hepatocytes at 3 and 7 weeks, respectively. Our data provide evidence that in biliary-type liver fibrogenesis, angiogenesis is stimulated primarily by VEGF in response to hepatocellular hypoxia while FGF-2 likely contributes to the maintenance of angiogenesis at later stages.

  10. Experimental spinal cord trauma: a review of mechanically induced spinal cord injury in rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Dauda; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; Mohamad, Masro; Aziz, Izzuddin; Sanusi, Junedah

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that animal spinal cord compression (using methods such as clips, balloons, spinal cord strapping, or calibrated forceps) mimics the persistent spinal canal occlusion that is common in human spinal cord injury (SCI). These methods can be used to investigate the effects of compression or to know the optimal timing of decompression (as duration of compression can affect the outcome of pathology) in acute SCI. Compression models involve prolonged cord compression and are distinct from contusion models, which apply only transient force to inflict an acute injury to the spinal cord. While the use of forceps to compress the spinal cord is a common choice due to it being inexpensive, it has not been critically assessed against the other methods to determine whether it is the best method to use. To date, there is no available review specifically focused on the current compression methods of inducing SCI in rats; thus, we performed a systematic and comprehensive publication search to identify studies on experimental spinalization in rat models, and this review discusses the advantages and limitations of each method.

  11. Blockade of Extracellular ATP Effect by Oxidized ATP Effectively Mitigated Induced Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronglan Zhao

    Full Text Available Various pathological conditions are accompanied by ATP release from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. Extracellular ATP (eATP functions as a signaling molecule by activating purinergic P2 purine receptors. The key P2 receptor involved in inflammation was identified as P2X7R. Recent studies have shown that P2X7R signaling is required to trigger the Th1/Th17 immune response, and oxidized ATP (oxATP effectively blocks P2X7R activation. In this study we investigated the effect of oxATP on mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU. Our results demonstrated that induced EAU in B6 mice was almost completely abolished by the administration of small doses of oxATP, and the Th17 response, but not the Th1 response, was significantly weakened in the treated mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the therapeutic effects involve the functional change of a number of immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs, T cells, and regulatory T cells. OxATP not only directly inhibits the T cell response; it also suppresses T cell activation by altering the function of DCs and Foxp3+ T cell. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of P2X7R activation effectively exempts excessive autoimmune inflammation, which may indicate a possible therapeutic use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  12. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Ameliorated FCA-Induced Experimental Arthritis: A Comparative Study among Different Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroos, Maliha; Sattar, Shumaila; Umer, Nigarish; Sharif, Ahsan

    2017-01-01

    Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (NAT) is commonly used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatism and inflammatory diseases. Current study evaluates the antiarthritic potential of NAT using Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model. Treatments with methanolic, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts were continued for consecutive 20 days. Macroscopic arthritic scoring and water displacement plethysmometry were used to evaluate arthritic development. Hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated and ankle joints were processed for histopathological evaluation. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and GC-MS analysis were conducted for identification of constituents. NAT extracts suppressed arthritic scoring, paw edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells, pannus formation, and bone erosion. The plant extracts ameliorated total leukocytes and platelet counts and nearly normalized red blood cells (RBC) counts and hemoglobin (Hb) content. The extracts were found safe in terms of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity as determined by aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and urea levels. Comparative analysis showed that ethyl acetate extract produced the highest inhibition of paw edema. The major constituents found in ethyl acetate extract can be classified into three major classes, that is, terpenes, terpenoids, fatty acids, and iridoid glycosides. Current study showed that Nyctanthes arbor-tristis ameliorated experimental rheumatoid arthritis and ethyl acetate extract possessed the highest inhibitory activity. PMID:28676830

  13. Experimental characterization of fire-induced response of rigid polyurethane foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.Y.; Gill, W.; Moore, J.W.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Reported is the result of an experimental investigation of fire-induced response of a 96 kg/m{sup 3} closed cell rigid polyurethane foam. The specimen is 0.37 m in diameter, and 152 mm thick, placed in a cylindrical test vessel. The fire condition is simulated by heating the bottom of the test vessel to 1283 K using a radiant heat source. Real-time x-ray shows that the degradation process involves the progression of a charring front into the virgin material. The charred region has a regular and graded structure consisting of a packed bubble outer layer and successive layers of thin shells. The layer-to-layer permeability appears to be poor. There are indications that gas vents laterally. The shell-like structure might be the result of lateral venting. Although the foam degradation process is quite complicated, the in-depth temperature responses in the uncharted foam appear to be consistent with steady state ablation. The measured temperature responses are well represented by the exponential distribution for steady state ablation. An estimate of the thermal diffusivity of the foam is obtained from the ablation model. The experiment is part of a more comprehensive program to develop material response models of foams and encapsulants.

  14. Experimental setup and first measurement of DNA damage induced along and around an antiproton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, J.N.; Currell, F.J.; Prise, K.M.; Schettino, G.; Currell, F.J.; Timson, D.J.; Holzscheiter, M.H.; Bassler, N.; Herrmann, R.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy employs ionizing radiation to induce lethal DNA lesions in cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissues. Due to their pattern of energy deposition, better therapeutic outcomes can, in theory, be achieved with ions compared to photons. Antiprotons have been proposed to offer a further enhancement due to their annihilation at the end of the path. The work presented here aimed to establish and validate an experimental procedure for the quantification of plasmid and genomic DNA damage resulting from antiproton exposure. Immunocytochemistry was used to assess DNA damage in directly and indirectly exposed human fibroblasts irradiated in both plateau and Bragg peak regions of a 126 MeV antiproton beam at CERN. Cells were stained post irradiation with an anti-γ-H2AX antibody. Quantification of the γ-H2AX foci-dose relationship is consistent with a linear increase in the Bragg peak region. A qualitative analysis of the foci detected in the Bragg peak and plateau region indicates significant differences highlighting the different severity of DNA lesions produced along the particle path. Irradiation of desalted plasmid DNA with 5 Gy antiprotons at the Bragg peak resulted in a significant portion of linear plasmid in the resultant solution. (authors)

  15. Illusions and delusions: relating experimentally-induced false memories to anomalous experiences and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R Corlett

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The salience hypothesis of psychosis rests on a simple but profound observation that subtle alterations in the way that we perceive and experience stimuli have important consequences for how important these stimuli become for us, how much they draw our attention, how they embed themselves in our memory and, ultimately, how they shape our beliefs. We put forward the idea that a classical memory illusion – the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM effect – offers a useful way of exploring processes related to such aberrant belief formation. The illusion occurs when, as a consequence of its relationship to previous stimuli, a stimulus is asserted to be remembered even when has not been previously presented. Such illusory familiarity is thought to be generated by the surprising fluency with which the stimulus is processed. In this respect, the illusion relates directly to the salience hypothesis and may share common cognitive underpinnings with aberrations of perception and attribution that are found in psychosis. In this paper, we explore the theoretical importance of this experimentally-induced illusion in relation to the salience model of psychosis. We present data showing that, in healthy volunteers, the illusion relates directly to self reported anomalies of experience and magical thinking. We discuss this finding in terms of the salience hypothesis and of a broader Bayesian framework of perception and cognition which emphasizes the salience both of predictable and unpredictable experiences..

  16. An Experimental Study of Roughness-Induced Instabilities in a Supersonic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Norris, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Progress on an experimental study of laminar-to-turbulent transition induced by an isolated roughness element in a supersonic laminar boundary layer is reported in this paper. Here, the primary focus is on the effects of roughness planform shape on the instability and transition characteristics. Four different roughness planform shapes were considered (a diamond, a circle, a right triangle, and a 45 degree fence) and the height and width of each one was held fixed so that a consistent frontal area was presented to the oncoming boundary layer. The nominal roughness Reynolds number was 462 and the ratio of the roughness height to the boundary layer thickness was 0.48. Detailed flow- field surveys in the wake of each geometry were performed via hot-wire anemometry. High- and low-speed streaks were observed in the wake of each roughness geometry, and the modified mean flow associated with these streak structures was found to support a single dominant convective instability mode. For the symmetric planform shapes - the diamond and circular planforms - the instability characteristics (mode shapes, growth rates, and frequencies) were found to be similar. For the asymmetric planform shapes - the right-triangle and 45 degree fence planforms - the mode shapes were asymmetrically distributed about the roughness-wake centerline. The instability growth rates for the asymmetric planforms were lower than those for the symmetric planforms and therefore, transition onset was delayed relative to the symmetric planforms.

  17. Anti-atherosclerotic effect of Cynodon dactylon extract on experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaie, Belal; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Malekinejad, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) is a perennial plant traditionally used as an herbal medicine in many countries. In the present study, anti-atherosclerotic property of ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was investigated in the experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. In this study, 36 male Wistar rats were selected and allocated into six groups (n = 6). The control group received a normal diet, sham group received a high cholesterol diet (HCD; 1.50% cholesterol and 24.00% fat) and other groups received a HCD and ethanolic extract of C. dactylon at low (100 mg kg -1 ), moderate (200 mg kg -1 ) and maximum (400 mg kg -1 ) doses via gavages. The last group received atorvastatin (10 mg kg -1 ) through gavage with a HCD. The study period for all groups was six months. At the end of this period, parameters including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were assessed in the blood samples. Additionally, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations on coronary and aorta arteries sections were performed. The results showed an increase in vessels wall thickness and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the HCD group, while these pathological changes were not seen in C. dactylon -treated groups. Treatment of HCD animals with C. dactylon positively changed lipid profile by lowering of TC, TG and LDL-C. The results indicate that C. dactylon prevents from early atherosclerotic changes in the vessels wall.

  18. A Systematic Review of Experimental and Clinical Acupuncture in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Franconi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is a common side effect that can be very disabling and can limit or delay the dose of chemotherapy that can be administered. Acupuncture may be effective for treating peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the use of acupuncture for CIPN. The systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database, CINHAL, and ISI Proceedings. Hand searching was conducted, and consensus was reached on all extracted data. Only papers in the English language were included, irrespective of study design. From 3989 retrieved papers, 8 relevant papers were identified. One was an experimental study which showed that electroacupuncture suppressed CIPN pain in rats. In addition, there were 7 very heterogeneous clinical studies, 1 controlled randomised study using auricular acupuncture, 2 randomized controlled studies using somatic acupuncture, and 3 case series/case reports which suggested a positive effect of acupuncture in CIPN. Conclusions. Only one controlled randomised study demonstrated that acupuncture may be beneficial for CIPN. All the clinical studies reviewed had important methodological limitations. Further studies with robust methodology are needed to demonstrate the role of acupuncture for treating CIPN resulting from cancer treatment.

  19. Regulation of adenosine deaminase (ADA) on induced mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dongchun; Zuo, Aijun; Zhao, Ronglan; Shao, Hui; Kaplan, Henry J.; Sun, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine is an important regulator of the immune response and adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibits this regulatory effect by converting adenosine into functionally inactive molecules. Studies have shown that adenosine receptor (AR) agonists can be either anti- or pro-inflammatory. Clarification of the mechanisms that cause these opposing effects should provide a better guide for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we investigated the effect of ADA on the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) induced by immunizing EAU-prone mice with a known uveitogenic peptide, IRBP1–20. Our results showed that the effective time to administer a single dose of ADA to suppress induction of EAU was 8–14 days post-immunization, shortly before EAU expression, but ADA treatment at other time points exacerbated disease. ADA preferentially inhibited Th17 responses and this effect was γδ T cell-dependent. Our results demonstrated that the existing immune status strongly influences the anti- or proinflammatory effects of ADA. Our observations should help improve the design of ADA- and AR-targeted therapies. PMID:26856700

  20. Theoretical and experimental studies of single event effect induced by atmospheric muons on nano-metric technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Cavoli, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the domain of the microelectronics. It consists in the study of the impact of the 3D morphology of the energy deposit on the Single Event Effect (SEE) modeling, induced by atmospheric muons. Over a first phase, the approach has consisted in the modeling of the energy deposit induced by protons in nano-metric volumes. For that purpose the use of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4 has allowed us to simulate and stock in a database the tracks characteristics of the energy deposit induced by protons. Once the approach validated for the protons, simulations of the energy deposit induced by muons have been realized. A CCD camera has been used in order to measure the radiative atmospheric environment and to constrain the modeling of the energy deposit induced by muons. This study highlights and quantify the contribution of the radial distribution of the energy deposit induced by protons in nano-metric volumes for the SEE prediction. On the other hand, the study shows that the contribution of the radial distribution of the energy deposit induced by muons in nano-metric volumes has a negligible impact on the SEE modeling. It will be interesting to realize measurements of the energy deposit induced by muons in nano-metric technologies under particle accelerator. This will allow to bring experimental data still nonexistent necessary to the development of new physical models more accurate on the modeling of the energy deposit induced by muons. (author)

  1. Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in the general population with dyspnea by plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, R; Goetze, JP; Schnohr, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether measurement of plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) could be used in discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea in the general population. BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides are useful markers in ruling out acute cardiac...... the expected concentration of plasma proBNP based on age and gender was established for dyspneic subjects: an actual plasma proBNP concentration below half of the expected value ruled out left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 100% to 100%; specificity 15%, 95% CI 12...

  2. Diaphragmatic mobility: relationship with lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Flávia Roberta; Brüggemann, Ana Karla Vieira; Francisco, Davi de Souza; Medeiros, Caroline Semprebom de; Rosal, Danielle; Paulin, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate diaphragmatic mobility in relation to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life (PADL) in patients with COPD. We included 25 patients with COPD, classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria, and 25 healthy individuals. For all of the participants, the following were evaluated: anthropometric variables, spirometric parameters, respiratory muscle strength, diaphragmatic mobility (by X-ray), PADL, and the perception of dyspnea. In the COPD group, diaphragmatic mobility was found to correlate with lung function variables, inspiratory muscle strength, and the perception of dyspnea, whereas it did not correlate with expiratory muscle strength or PADL. In patients with COPD, diaphragmatic mobility seems to be associated with airway obstruction and lung hyperinflation, as well as with ventilatory capacity and the perception of dyspnea, although not with PADL. Avaliar a relação da mobilidade diafragmática com a função pulmonar, força muscular respiratória, dispneia e atividade física de vida diária (AFVD) em pacientes com DPOC. Foram avaliados 25 pacientes com diagnóstico de DPOC, classificados de acordo com critérios da Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, e 25 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos foram submetidos às seguintes avaliações: mensuração antropométrica, espirometria, força muscular respiratória, mobilidade diafragmática (por radiografia), AFVD e percepção de dispneia. No grupo DPOC, houve correlações da mobilidade diafragmática com variáveis de função pulmonar, força muscular inspiratória e percepção de dispneia. Não houve correlações da mobilidade diafragmática com força muscular expiratória e AFVD. A mobilidade diafragmática parece estar associada tanto com a obstrução das vias aéreas quanto com a hiperinsuflação pulmonar em pacientes com DPOC, assim como com a capacidade ventilatória e percep

  3. Long-term treadmill exercise-induced neuroplasticity and associated memory recovery of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: an experimenter blind, randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Joshua Sung H; Kim, Chung-Ju; Kim, Mee Young; Byun, Yong Gwon; Ha, So Young; Han, Bong Suk; Yoon, Bum Chul

    2009-01-01

    We investigated a long-term exercise-induced neuroplasticity and spatial memory recovery in 15 rats in a treadmill as follows: normal control rats (NC), streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic control rats (DC), and STZ-induced diabetic rats exercising in a treadmill (DE). As per the DE group, the running exercise in a treadmill was administered for 30 minutes a day for 6 weeks. Neuronal immediate-early gene (IEG) expression (c-Fos) in the hippocampus and radial arm maze (RAM) tests were measured and revealed that the c-Fos levels in DE were significantly higher than those in NC and DC (p memory performance scores, obtained from the RAM test, were significantly different among the three groups (p memory scores of NC and DE were higher than those of DC (p memory. This is the first experimental evidence in literature that supports the efficacy of exercise-induced neuroplasticity and spatial motor memory in diabetes care.

  4. The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Gandolfi, Barbara; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-11-15

    Naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is usually fatal, giving the impression that immunity to the FIP virus (FIPV) is extremely poor. This impression may be incorrect, because not all cats experimentally exposed to FIPV develop FIP. There is also a belief that the incidence of FIP may be affected by a number of host, virus, and environmental cofactors. However, the contribution of these cofactors to immunity and disease incidence has not been determined. The present study followed 111 random-bred specific pathogen free (SPF) cats that were obtained from a single research breeding colony and experimentally infected with FIPV. The cats were from several studies conducted over the past 5 years, and as a result, some of them had prior exposure to feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) or avirulent FIPVs. The cats were housed under optimized conditions of nutrition, husbandry, and quarantine to eliminate most of the cofactors implicated in FIPV infection outcome and were uniformly challenge exposed to the same field strain of serotype 1 FIPV. Forty of the 111 (36%) cats survived their initial challenge exposure to a Type I cat-passaged field strains of FIPV. Six of these 40 survivors succumbed to FIP to a second or third challenge exposure, suggesting that immunity was not always sustained. Exposure to non-FIP-inducing feline coronaviruses prior to challenge with virulent FIPV did not significantly affect FIP incidence but did accelerate the disease course in some cats. There were no significant differences in FIP incidence between males and females, but resistance increased significantly between 6 months and 1 or more years of age. Genetic testing was done on 107 of the 111 infected cats. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) segregated the 107 cats into three distinct families based primarily on a common sire(s), and resistant and susceptible cats were equally distributed within each family. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 73 cats that died of FIP

  5. Contractile profile of esophageal and gastric fundus strips in experimental doxorubicin-induced esophageal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Capeto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal atresia (EA is characterized by esophageal and gastric motility changes secondary to developmental and postsurgical damage. This study evaluated the in vitro contractile profile of the distal esophagus and gastric fundus in an experimental model of EA induced by doxorubicin (DOXO. Wistar pregnant rats received DOXO 2.2 mg/kg on the 8th and 9th gestational days. On day 21.5, fetuses were collected, sacrificed, and divided into groups: control, DOXO without EA (DOXO-EA, and DOXO with EA (DOXO+EA. Strips from the distal esophagus and gastric fundus were mounted on a wire myograph and isolated organ-bath system, respectively, and subjected to increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol, CCh. The isolated esophagus was also stimulated with increasing concentrations of KCl. In esophagus, the concentration-effect curves were reduced in response to CCh in the DOXO+EA and DOXO-EA groups compared to the control group (P0.05. In response to KCl, the distal esophagus samples in the three groups were not statistically different with regard to Emax or EC50 values (P>0.05. No significant difference was noted for EC50 or Emax values in fundic strips stimulated with CCh (P>0.05. In conclusion, exposure of dams to DOXO during gestation inhibited the contractile behavior of esophageal strips from offspring in response to CCh but not KCl, regardless of EA induction. The gastric fundus of DOXO-exposed offspring did not have altered contractile responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation.

  6. Experimental and numerical investigations of a hydrogen-assisted laser-induced materials transfer procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toet, D.; Smith, P. M.; Sigmon, T. W.; Thompson, M. O.

    2000-01-01

    We present investigations of the mechanisms of a laser-induced transfer technique, which can be used for the spatially selective deposition of materials such as Si. This transfer is effected by irradiating the backside of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon film, deposited on a transparent substrate with an excimer laser pulse. The resulting release and accumulation of hydrogen at the film/substrate interface propels the silicon onto an adjacent receptor wafer. Time-resolved infrared transmission measurements indicate that the amorphous film is melted by the laser pulse and breaks into droplets during ejection. These droplets travel towards the receptor substrate and coalesce upon arrival. The transfer velocity increases as a function of fluence, the rate of increase dropping noticeably around the full melt threshold of the film. At this fluence, the transfer velocity reaches values of around 1000 m/s for typical films. Atomic force microscopy reveals that films transferred below the full melt threshold only partially cover the receptor substrate, while uniform, well-adhering films, which can be smoothed by subsequent laser irradiation, are obtained above it. Transfer of hydrogen-free Si films, on the other hand, does not occur until much higher fluences. The dynamics of the process have been simulated using a semiquantitative numerical model. In this model, hydrogen released from the melt front is instantaneously accumulated at the interface with an initial kinetic energy given by the melting temperature of Si and the enthalpy of solution. The resulting pressure accelerates the Si film, the dynamics of which are modeled using Newtonian mechanics, and the gas cools adiabatically as its kinetic energy is converted to the film's momentum. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  7. Epitope-Specific Tolerance Modes Differentially Specify Susceptibility to Proteolipid Protein-Induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with myelin components can elicit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. EAE susceptibility varies between mouse strains, depending on the antigen employed. BL/6 mice are largely resistant to EAE induction with proteolipid protein (PLP, probably a reflection of antigen-specific tolerance. However, the extent and mechanism(s of tolerance to PLP remain unclear. Here, we identified three PLP epitopes in PLP-deficient BL/6 mice. PLP-sufficient mice did not respond against two of these, whereas tolerance was “leaky” for an epitope with weak predicted MHCII binding, and only this epitope was encephalitogenic. In TCR transgenic mice, the “EAE-susceptibility-associated” epitope was “ignored” by specific CD4 T cells, whereas the “resistance-associated” epitope induced clonal deletion and Treg induction in the thymus. Central tolerance was autoimmune regulator dependent and required expression and presentation of PLP by thymic epithelial cells (TECs. TEC-specific ablation of PLP revealed that peripheral tolerance, mediated by dendritic cells through recessive tolerance mechanisms (deletion and anergy, could largely compensate for a lack of central tolerance. However, adoptive EAE was exacerbated in mice lacking PLP in TECs, pointing toward a non-redundant role of the thymus in dominant tolerance to PLP. Our findings reveal multiple layers of tolerance to a central nervous system autoantigen that vary among epitopes and thereby specify disease susceptibility. Understanding how different modalities of tolerance apply to distinct T cell epitopes of a target in autoimmunity has implications for antigen-specific strategies to therapeutically interfere with unwanted immune reactions against self.

  8. Experimental study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability induced by a Mach 3 shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BP Puranik; JG Oakley; MH Anderson; R Bonaazza

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 An experimental investigation of a shock-induced interfacial instability (Richtmyer-Meshkov instability) is undertaken in an effort to study temporal evolution of interfacial perturbations in the late stages of development. The experiments are performed in a vertical shock tube with a square cross-section. A membraneless interface is prepared by retracting a sinusoidally shaped metal plate initially separating carbon dioxide from air, with both gases initially at atmospheric pressure. With carbon dioxide above the plate, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability commences as the plate is retracted and the amplitude of the initial sinusoidal perturbation imposed on the interface begins to grow. The interface is accelerated by a strong shock wave (M=3.08) while its shape is still sinusoidal and before the Kelvin-Helmhotz instability distorts it into the well known mushroom-like structures; its initial amplitude to wavelength ratio is large enough that the interface evolution enters its nonlinear stage very shortly after shock acceleration. The pre-shock evolution of the interface due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the post-shock evolution of the interface due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability are visualized using planar Mie scattering. The pre-shock evolution of the interface is carried out in an independent set of experiments. The initial conditions for the Richtmyer-Meshkov experiment are determined from the pre-shock Rayleigh-Taylor growth. One image of the post-shock interface is obtained per experiment and image sequences, showing the post-shock evolution of the interface, are constructed from several experiments. The growth rate of the perturbation amplitude is measured and compared with two recent analytical models of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

  9. Analysis of left ventricular function of the mouse heart during experimentally induced hyperthyroidism and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Neele Saskia; Merkle, Annette; Jung, Bernd; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Harsan, Laura-Adela

    2015-01-01

    Many of the clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism are due to the ability of thyroid hormones to alter myocardial contractility and cardiovascular hemodynamics, leading to cardiovascular impairment. In contrast, recent studies highlight also the potential beneficial effects of thyroid hormone administration for clinical or preclinical treatment of different diseases such as atherosclerosis, obesity and diabetes or as a new therapeutic approach in demyelinating disorders. In these contexts and in the view of developing thyroid hormone-based therapeutic strategies, it is, however, important to analyze undesirable secondary effects on the heart. Animal models of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism therefore represent important tools for investigating and monitoring changes of cardiac function. In our present study we use high-field cardiac MRI to monitor and follow-up longitudinally the effects of prolonged thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) administration focusing on murine left ventricular function. Using a 9.4 T small horizontal bore animal scanner, cinematographic MRI was used to analyze changes in ejection fraction, wall thickening, systolic index and fractional shortening. Cardiac MRI investigations were performed after sustained cycles of triiodothyronine administration and treatment arrest in adolescent (8 week old) and adult (24 week old) female C57Bl/6 N mice. Triiodothyronine supplementation of 3 weeks led to an impairment of cardiac performance with a decline in ejection fraction, wall thickening, systolic index and fractional shortening in both age groups but with a higher extent in the group of adolescent mice. However, after a hormonal treatment cessation of 3 weeks, only young mice are able to partly restore cardiac performance in contrast to adult mice lacking this recovery potential and therefore indicating a presence of chronically developed heart pathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Micro-scale experimental study of Microbial-Induced Carbonate Precipitation (MICP) by using microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Soga, K.; DeJong, J. T.; Kabla, A.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP), one of the bio-mineralization processes, is an innovative subsurface improvement technique for enhancing the strength and stiffness of soils, and controlling their hydraulic conductivity. These macro-scale engineering properties of MICP treated soils controlled by micro-scale factors of the precipitated carbonate, such as its content, amount and distribution in the soil matrix. The precipitation process itself is affected by bacteria amount, reaction kinetics, porous medium geometry and flow distribution in the soils. Accordingly, to better understand the MICP process at the pore scale a new experimental technique that can observe the entire process of MICP at the pore-scale was developed. In this study, a 2-D transparent microfluidic chip made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) representing the soil matrix was designed and fabricated. A staged-injection MICP treatment procedure was simulated inside the microfluidic chip while continuously monitored using microscopic techniques. The staged-injection MICP treatment procedure started with the injection of bacteria suspension, followed with the bacteria setting for attachment, and then ended with the multiple injections of cementation liquid. The main MICP processes visualized during this procedure included the bacteria transport and attachment during the bacteria injection, the bacteria attachment and growth during the bacteria settling, the bacteria detachment during the cementation liquid injection, the cementation development during the cementation liquid injection, and the cementation development after the completion of cementation liquid injection. It is suggested that the visualization of the main MICP processes using the microfluidic technique can improve understating of the fundamental mechanisms of MICP and consequently help improve the treatment technique for in situ implementation of MICP.

  11. The antiulcer effect of Cibotium barometz leaves in rats with experimentally induced acute gastric ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Wajeeh NS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nahla Saeed Al-Wajeeh,1 Maryam Hajrezaie,1 Nawal Al-Henhena,1 Sareh Kamran,1 Elham Bagheri,1 Maryam Zahedifard,1 Kamelia Saremi,1 Suzita Mohd Noor,1 Hapipah Mohd Ali,2 Mahmood Ameen Abdulla11Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Cibotium barometz is a pharmaceutical plant customarily used in traditional medicine in Malaysia for the treatment of different diseases, such as gastric ulcer. The gastroprotective effect of C. barometz leaves against ethanol-induced gastric hemorrhagic abrasions in Sprague Dawley rats has been evaluated in terms of medicinal properties. Seven groups of rats (normal control and ulcerated control groups, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of C. barometz correspondingly were used in antiulcer experiment and pretreated with 10% Tween 20. After 1 hour, the normal group was orally administered 10% Tween 20, whereas absolute alcohol was fed orally to ulcerated control, omeprazole, and experimental groups. Gastric’s homogenate were assessed for endogenous enzymes activities. Stomachs were examined macroscopically and histologically. Grossly, the data demonstrated a significant decrease in the ulcer area of rats pretreated with plant extract in a dose-dependent manner with respect to the ulcerated group. Homogenates of the gastric tissue exhibited significantly increased endogenous enzymes activities in rats pretreated with C. barometz extract associated with the ulcerated control group. Histology of rats pretreated with C. barometz extract group using hematoxylin and eosin staining exhibited a moderate-to-mild disruption of the surface epithelium with reduction in submucosal edema and leucocyte infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it showed heat shock protein70 protein up-expression and BCL2-associated X protein downexpression. These outcomes might be attributed to the

  12. Chemopreventive effect of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. extract against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert-Baskar, Arul; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2010-07-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the chemopreventive property of Cynodon dactylon. The antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic potentials of the plant were investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NO(-)) and MTT assay on four cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM, MCH-7, AGS, A549) and a normal cell line (VERO). In vivo chemopreventive property of the plant extract was studied in DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon was found to be antiproliferative and antioxidative at lower concentrations and induced apoptotic cell death in COLO 320 DM cells. Treatment with methanolic extract of C. dactylon increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the number of dysplastic crypts in DMH-induced colon of albino rats. The present investigation revealed the anticancer potential of methanolic extract of C. dactylon in COLO 320 DM cells and experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

  13. Experimental studies on lung carcinogenesis and their relationship to future research on radiation-induced lung cancer in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1991-03-01

    The usefulness of experimental systems for studying human lung carcinogenesis lies in the ease of studying components of a total problem. As an example, the main thrust of attack on possible synergistic interactions between radiation, cigarette smoke, and other irritants must be by means of research on animals. Because animals can be serially sacrificed, a systematic search can be made for progressive lung changes, thereby improving our understanding of carcinogenesis. The mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis have not yet been delineated, but modern concepts of molecular and cellular biology and of radiation dosimetry are being increasingly applied to both in vivo and in vitro exposure to determine the mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, to elucidate human data, and to aid in extrapolating experimental animal data to human exposures. In addition, biologically based mathematical models of carcinogenesis are being developed to describe the nature of the events leading to malignancy; they are also an essential part of a rational approach to quantitative cancer risk assessment. This paper summarizes recent experimental and modeling data on radon-induced lung cancer and includes the confounding effects of cigarette-smoke exposures. The applicability of these data to understanding human exposures is emphasized, and areas of future research on human radiation-induced carcinogenesis are discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Defining the minimal important difference for the visual analogue scale assessing dyspnea in patients with malignant pleural effusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor K Mishra

    Full Text Available The minimal important difference (MID is essential for interpreting the results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Despite a number of RCTs in patients with malignant pleural effusions (MPEs which use the visual analogue scale for dyspnea (VASD as an outcome measure, the MID has not been established.Patients with suspected MPE undergoing a pleural procedure recorded their baseline VASD and their post-procedure VASD (24 hours after the pleural drainage, and in parallel assessed their breathlessness on a 7 point Likert scale.The mean decrease in VASD in patients with a MPE reporting a 'small but just worthwhile decrease' in their dyspnea (i.e. equivalent to the MID was 19mm (95% CI 14-24mm. The mean drainage volume required to produce a change in VASD of 19mm was 760ml.The mean MID for the VASD in patients with a MPE undergoing a pleural procedure is 19mm (95% CI 14-24mm. Thus choosing an improvement of 19mm in the VASD would be justifiable in the design and analysis of future MPE studies.

  15. Intensive symptom control of opioid-refractory dyspnea in congestive heart failure: Role of milrinone in the palliative care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Julio; Montoya, Maria; Bruera, Eduardo; Elsayem, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    We describe an exemplary case of congestive heart failure (CHF) symptoms controlled with milrinone. We also analyze the benefits and risks of milrinone administration in an unmonitored setting. We describe the case of a patient with refractory leukemia and end-stage CHF who developed severe dyspnea after discontinuation of milrinone. At that point, despite starting opioids, she had been severely dyspneic and anxious, requiring admission to the palliative care unit (PCU) for symptom control. After negotiation with hospital administrators, milrinone was administered in an unmonitored setting such as the PCU. A multidisciplinary team approach was also provided. Milrinone produced a dramatic improvement in the patient's symptom scores and performance status. The patient was eventually discharged to home hospice on a milrinone infusion with excellent symptom control. This case suggests that milrinone may be of benefit for short-term inpatient administration for dyspnea management, even in unmonitored settings and consequently during hospice in do-not-resuscitate (DNR) patients. This strategy may reduce costs and readmissions to the hospital related to end-stage CHF.

  16. Minocycline attenuates experimental colitis in mice by blocking expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.-Y.; Chu, H.-C.; Lin, Y.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Hsieh, T.-Y.; Chang, W.-K.; Chao, Y.-C.; Liao, C.-L.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to its antimicrobial activity, minocycline exerts anti-inflammatory effects in several disease models. However, whether minocycline affects the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease has not been determined. We investigated the effects of minocycline on experimental colitis and its underlying mechanisms. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in mice by treatment with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and the effect of minocycline on colonic injury was assessed clinically and histologically. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of mice with minocycline significantly diminished mortality rate and attenuated the severity of DSS-induced acute colitis. Mechanistically, minocycline administration suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitrotyrosine production, inhibited proinflammatory cytokine expression, repressed the elevated mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 3, 9, and 13, diminished the apoptotic index in colonic tissues, and inhibited nitric oxide production in the serum of mice with DSS-induced acute colitis. In DSS-induced chronic colitis, minocycline treatment also reduced body weight loss, improved colonic histology, and blocked expression of iNOS, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs from colonic tissues. Similarly, minocycline could ameliorate the severity of TNBS-induced acute colitis in mice by decreasing mortality rate and inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine expression in colonic tissues. These results demonstrate that minocycline protects mice against DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis, probably via inhibition of iNOS and MMP expression in intestinal tissues. Therefore, minocycline is a potential remedy for human inflammatory bowel diseases.

  17. Saturation of the laser-induced narrowband coherent synchrotron radiation process: Experimental observation at a storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Takashima, Y.; Szwaj, C.; Le Parquier, M.; Evain, C.; Bielawski, S.; Adachi, M.; Zen, H.; Tanikawa, T.; Kimura, S.; Katoh, M.; Shimada, M.; Takahashi, T.

    2013-02-01

    We study the efficiency limitation affecting laser-induced coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at high laser power. Experiments are made on the UVSOR-II storage ring in conditions of narrowband terahertz CSR emission. While, at moderate power, CSR power increases quadratically with laser power, a noticeable decrease in efficiency and eventually a decrease in CSR power is observed experimentally at high power. Details of the underlying process are analyzed numerically. As the saturation effect depends almost instantaneously on the laser intensity, the saturation occurs locally in longitudinal space. This has important consequences on the modulation pattern induced on the electron bunch.

  18. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Hwang, Jung Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV{sub 1}/FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV{sub 1}/FVC and the dyspnea score.

  19. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Hwang, Jung Hwa

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV 1 /FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV 1 /FVC and the dyspnea score.

  20. Experimental Study on the Measurement of Water Bottom Vibration Induced by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbin, Gu; Jianghai, Chen; Zhenxiong, Wang; Zhihua, Wang; Jianqing, Liu; Ming, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of proper instrumentations and the difficulties in underwater measurements, the studies about water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting are seldom reported. In order to investigate the propagation and attenuation laws of blasting induced water bottom vibration, a water bottom vibration monitor was developed with consideration of the difficulties in underwater measurements. By means of this equipment, the actual water bottom vibration induced by underwater ...

  1. Effects of subanesthetic doses of ketamine in cats with induced experimental endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Hertzing Farias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Farias F.H., Gehrcke M.I., Padilha V.S., Volpato J., Tochetto R., Comassetto F. & Oleskovicz N. [Effects of subanesthetic doses of ketamine in cats with induced experimental endotoxemia.] Efeitos da cetamina em doses subanestésicas em gatos submetidos à endotoxemia experimental. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:297-302, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Avenida Luís de Camões, 2090, Bairro Conta Dinheiro, Lages, SC 88520-000, Brasil. E-mail: noleskovicz@yahoo.com.br The clinical endotoxemia is difficult to diagnosis and treatment because of the involvement of multiple organs. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of subanesthetic doses of ketamine, before or after the induction of endotoxemia in cats. Were used nine healthy cats, with 4.3±0.59 kg, autocontroles, placed into three groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS, n=9 received a bolus of NaCl 0,9 % followed by a continuous infusion (CI of LPS for two hours and; bolus of NaCl 0,9 % followed by CI of LPS for two hours; ketamine/LPS (C/ LPS, n=9 received a bolus of ketamine followed by ketamine CI and LPS for two hours and, after, bolus of saline followed by CI of LPS for another two hours; LPS/ketamine (LPS/C, n=9 received bolus of saline followed by a CI LPS for two hours and then after bolus of ketamine followed by the same CI associated with LPS for two hours. The heart rate was higher for 5 to 120 minutes after initiation of the CI LPS in C/LPS and less than 150 to 240 minutes and from 600 to 720 minutes in LPS compared to the other groups. Five minutes after CI LPS initiation in C/LPS, 60 minutes in LPS/C and 90 minutes to 720 minutes in LPS, FC was higher than at baseline. The PAS was lower in all groups from 360 to 720 minutes compared to baseline. All treatments showed increased TR from 60 to 600 minutes compared to baseline. The levels of glucose

  2. Experimental observation of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-induced iron sulphide formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltanahmadi, Siavash, E-mail: s.soltanahmadi@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Morina, Ardian [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Eijk, Marcel C.P. van; Nedelcu, Ileana [SKF Engineering and Research Centre, 3430 DT Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Neville, Anne [Institute of Functional Surfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-31

    Graphical abstract: Chemical analysis of ZDDP-induced tribofilm under severe boundary lubricated regime in nano and micro-meter scales.▪ - Highlights: • A ZDDP-derived locally formed iron-sulphide layer is detected on the steel surface. • The iron-sulphide is a 5–10 nm thin distinct layer at steel-phosphate interface. • Near the surface-crack site the elemental distribution of the tribofilm is altered. • Sulphur concentration is enhanced in the iron-sulphide layer near the cracked-site. • ZDDP elements are detected inside the crack with a greater contribution of sulphur. - Abstract: Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) as a well-known anti-wear additive enhances the performance of the lubricant beyond its wear-protection action, through its anti-oxidant and Extreme Pressure (EP) functionality. In spite of over thirty years of research attempting to reveal the mechanism of action of ZDDP, there are still some uncertainties around the exact mechanisms of its action. This is especially the case with the role of sulphide layer formed in the tribofilm and its impact on surface fatigue. Although iron sulphide on the substrate is hypothesised in literature to form as a separate layer, there has been no concrete experimental observation on the distribution of the iron sulphide as a dispersed precipitate, distinct layer at the steel substrate or both. It remains to be clarified whether the iron sulphide layer homogeneously covers the surface or locally forms at the surface. In the current study a cross section of the specimen after experiment was prepared and has been investigated with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental analysis. A 5–10 nm iron sulphide layer is visualised on the interface as a separate layer underneath the phosphate layer with an altered distribution of tribofilm elements near the crack site. The iron sulphide interface layer is more visible near the crack site where the concentration of the

  3. Experimental observation of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-induced iron sulphide formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltanahmadi, Siavash; Morina, Ardian; Eijk, Marcel C.P. van; Nedelcu, Ileana; Neville, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Chemical analysis of ZDDP-induced tribofilm under severe boundary lubricated regime in nano and micro-meter scales.▪ - Highlights: • A ZDDP-derived locally formed iron-sulphide layer is detected on the steel surface. • The iron-sulphide is a 5–10 nm thin distinct layer at steel-phosphate interface. • Near the surface-crack site the elemental distribution of the tribofilm is altered. • Sulphur concentration is enhanced in the iron-sulphide layer near the cracked-site. • ZDDP elements are detected inside the crack with a greater contribution of sulphur. - Abstract: Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) as a well-known anti-wear additive enhances the performance of the lubricant beyond its wear-protection action, through its anti-oxidant and Extreme Pressure (EP) functionality. In spite of over thirty years of research attempting to reveal the mechanism of action of ZDDP, there are still some uncertainties around the exact mechanisms of its action. This is especially the case with the role of sulphide layer formed in the tribofilm and its impact on surface fatigue. Although iron sulphide on the substrate is hypothesised in literature to form as a separate layer, there has been no concrete experimental observation on the distribution of the iron sulphide as a dispersed precipitate, distinct layer at the steel substrate or both. It remains to be clarified whether the iron sulphide layer homogeneously covers the surface or locally forms at the surface. In the current study a cross section of the specimen after experiment was prepared and has been investigated with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental analysis. A 5–10 nm iron sulphide layer is visualised on the interface as a separate layer underneath the phosphate layer with an altered distribution of tribofilm elements near the crack site. The iron sulphide interface layer is more visible near the crack site where the concentration of the

  4. Role of the Use of Omental Flap in Prognosis of Cases with Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Experimental Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hassan; Nader Shaaban; Ashraf M Abu-Seida; Mostafa Khodeir; Reem Jan; Hisham Elsharkawy; Engie Hefnawy

    2016-01-01

    Aim Acute pancreatitis frequently involves peripancreatic tissues and remote organ systems resulting in severe complications and high risk of mortality. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the effect of omental flap as a new treatment of acute pancreatitis. Methods Ten mongrel dogs with experimentally induced acute pancreatitis were randomly divided into two equal groups; treated and control groups. The pancreas was wrapped with omental flap in the treated group and the pan...

  5. Interleukin-12 promotes activation of effector cells that induce a severe destructive granulomatous form of murine experimental autoimmune thyroiditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Braley-Mullen, H.; Sharp, G. C.; Tang, H.; Chen, K.; Kyriakos, M.; Bickel, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    Granulomatous inflammatory lesions are a major histopathological feature of a wide spectrum of human infectious and autoimmune diseases. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) with granulomatous histopathological features can be induced by mouse thyroglobulin (MTg)-sensitized spleen cells activated in vitro with MTg and anti-interleukin-2 receptor (anti-IL-2R), anti-IL-2, or anti-interferon-gamma (anti-IFN-gamma) monoclonal antibody (MAb). These studies suggested that IFN-gamma-producing T...

  6. HYPOLIPEDEMIC EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON ON HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY AND DNA FRAGMENTATION ANALYSIS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERCHOLESTEREMIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Selva Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of Ayurvedic herbal formulation Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) on histopathological study and DNA fragmentation analysis in experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats. Four groups of rats were employed namely control, hypercholesterolemia rats (4% Cholesterol+1% cholic acid), Cynodon dactylon treatment in hypercholesteremic rats and Cynodon dactylon alone treated rats. Re...

  7. Friction-induced Vibrations in an Experimental Drill-string System for Various Friction Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, N.; Wouw, van de N.; Hendriks, M.P.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2005-01-01

    Friction-induced limit cycling deteriorates system performance in a wide variety of mechanical systems. In this paper, we study the way in which essential friction characteristics affect the occurrence and nature of friction-induced limit cycling in flexible rotor systems. This study is performed on

  8. Experimental pain in human temporal muscle induced by hypertonic saline, potassium and acidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Norup, M

    1992-01-01

    chloride (n = 12) induced significantly more pain than isotonic saline (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001). Compared to control injections, hypertonic saline and potassium chloride induced a significant reduction in pressure-pain threshold (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001 and p less than 0.05). Forty-eight percent...

  9. Experimental study of induced staggered magnetic fields in dysprosium gallium garnet (DGG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Corliss, L.M.; Hastings, J.M.; Blume, M.; Giordano, N.; Wolf, W.P.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron diffraction techniques have been used to study induced staggered magnetic field effects in DGG. The application of a uniform magnetic field at temperatures much greater than the Neel temperature induces a significant amount of antiferromagnetic order. The temperature and field dependences of this effect are in good agreement with recent theoretical predicions

  10. Drug-induced Hypothermia by 5HT1A Agonists Provide Neuroprotection in Experimental Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Hasseldam, Henrik; Nybro Smith, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug-induced hypothermia reduces brain damage in animal stroke models and is an undiscovered potential in human stroke treatment. We studied hypothermia induced by the serotonergic agonists S14671 (1-[2-(2-thenoylamino)ethyl]-4[1-(7- methoxynaphtyl)]piperazine) and ipsapirone in a rat...... therapeutic hypothermia....

  11. Combined experimental and numerical investigation of energy harness utilizing vortex induced vibration over half cylinder using piezoelectric beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md. Tusher; Hossain, Md. Tanver; Rahman, Md. Ashiqur

    2017-06-01

    Energy harvesting technology has the ability to create self-powered electronic systems that do not rely on battery power for their operation. Wind energy can be converted into electricity via a piezoelectric transducer during the air flow over a cylinder. The vortex-induced vibration over the cylinder causes the piezoelectric beam to vibrate. Thus useful electric energy at the range 0.2-0.3V is found which can be useful for self-powering small electronic devices. In the present study, prototypes of micro-energy harvester with a shape of 65 mm × 37 mm × 0.4 mm are developed and tested for airflow over D-shaped bluff body for diameters of 15, 20 and 28mm in an experimental setup consisting of a long wind tunnel of 57cm × 57cm with variable speeds of the motor for different flow velocities and the experimental setup is connected at the downstream where flow velocity is the maximum. Experimental results show that the velocity and induced voltage follows a regular linear pattern. A maximum electrical potential of 140 mV for velocity of 1.1 ms-1 at a bluff body diameter of 15 mm is observed in the energy harvester that can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices. The simulation of this energy harvesting phenomena is then simulated using COMSOLE multi-physics. Diameter of the bluff bodies as well as flow velocity and size of cantilever beam are varied and the experimental findings are found to be in good agreement with the simulated ones. The simulations along with the experimental data show the possibility of generating electricity from vortex induced vibration and can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices.

  12. Pain and executive functions: A unique relationship between Stroop task and experimentally induced pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjekic, J.; Zivanovic, M.; Puric, D.; Oosterman, J.M.; Filipovic, S.R.

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that a higher level of cognitive inhibition is associated with lower experimental pain sensitivity. However, a systematic examination of the association between executive functions, which include not only inhibition but also updating and shifting, and experimental

  13. Experimental and theoretical studies on X-ray induced secondary electron yields in Ti and TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyasu, Takeshi; Tamura, Keiji; Shimizu, Ryuichi; Vlaicu, Mihai Aurel; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    Generation of X-ray induced secondary electrons in Ti and TiO 2 was studied from both experimental and theoretical approaches, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) attached to a synchrotron radiation facility and Monte Carlo simulation, respectively. The experiment revealed that the yields of secondary electrons induced by X-rays (electrons/photon) at photon energies to 4950 and 5000eV for Ti and TiO 2 are δ Ti (4950eV)=0.002 and δ Ti (5000eV)=0.014 while those for TiO 2 are δ TiO 2 (4950eV)=0.003 and δ TiO 2 (5000eV)=0.018. A novel approach to obtain the escape depth of secondary electrons has been proposed and applied to Ti and TiO 2 . The approach agreed very well with the experimental data reported so far. The Monte Carlo simulation predicted; δ Ti * (4950eV)=0.002 and δ Ti * (5000eV)=0.011 while δ TiO 2 * (4950eV)=0.003 and δ TiO 2 * (5000eV)=0.015. An experimental examination on the contribution of X-ray induced secondary electrons to photocatalysis in TiO 2 has also been proposed

  14. Experimentally induced chocolate craving leads to an attentional bias in increased distraction but not in speeded detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Elke; Roefs, Anne; Jansen, Anita

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, the causal influence of chocolate craving on attentional bias for chocolate-related information was examined by experimentally inducing chocolate craving in a sample of high trait chocolate cravers vs. low trait chocolate cravers. A sample of 35 high trait chocoholics and 33 low trait chocolate cravers were randomly assigned to either the exposure condition in which craving was manipulated or the non-exposure condition. To measure attentional bias, a pictorial version of the visual search paradigm [Smeets, E., Roefs, A., van Furth, E., & Jansen, A. (2008). Attentional bias for body and food in eating disorders: increased distraction, speeded detection, or both? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 229-238] was used, assessing two components: distraction and detection. It was found that experimentally induced chocolate craving led to increased distraction by chocolate pictures in the high trait chocolate cravers, in comparison to the low trait chocolate cravers. Moreover, this measure of distraction correlated strongly with self-reported craving, but only in the chocoholics and in the exposure condition. In the non-exposure condition, high trait chocolate cravers showed speeded detection of chocolate pictures relative to non-chocoholics, but this component did not correlate with self-reported craving. It is concluded that experimentally induced craving for chocolate causes a bias in, specifically the increased distraction component of attention in high trait chocolate cravers.

  15. Role of the route of leukotrienes in an experimental model of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Viviane Carvalho da; Leitão, Renata Ferreira de Carvalho; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Martins, Conceição da Silva; Freire, Gildenio Estevam; Aragão, Karoline Saboia; Wanderley, Carlos Wagner de Souza; Freitas, Marcos Rabelo de

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the participation of cysteinyl leukotrienes in the pathophysiology of oral mucositis. Oral mucositis was induced in hamsters using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 60 and 40 mg/kg; i.p., on days 1 and 2, respectively, and with excoriations in jugal mucosa on day 4). Montelukast (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg/d; gavage), MK886 (3 mg/kg/d, i.p.), or saline or celecoxib (7.5 mg/kg/d; i.p.) was administered 1 h prior to 5-FU and daily, until the fourth (MK886) or tenth day, when the animals were euthanized and their jugal mucosa was collected for macroscopic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical evaluation. Neither montelukast nor MK-886 prevented the oral mucositis induced by 5-FU, as observed by histopathological evaluation. In addition, we did not find significant differences in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase-2, cyclooxygenase-2, or interleukin (IL)-1β between the experimental and control groups. However, we did observe a significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression for all doses of montelukast; we also observed a significant decrease in IL-10 with 40 mg/kg/d and MK 886. Cysteinyl leukotrienes do not play an important role in experimental oral mucositis induced by 5-FU. There is a modulating action specifically on TNF-α.

  16. [Effect of Capsicum annum L (pucunucho, ají mono) in gastric ulcer experimentally induced in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Montero, Rocío; Flores Cortez, Daisy; Villalobos Pacheco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effects of the Capsicum annum L lyophilized fruit extract in experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats. We used the model of indomethacin gastric ulcer-induced and the gastric ulcer model induced by pylorus ligation in rats. The rats were divided in five treatment groups as follow: G1: Distilled water 1 ml/Kg; G2: Ranitidine 50 mg/kg, G3: Capsicum 10mg/kg, G4: Capsicum 100 mg/kg, G5: Capsicum 1000 mg/kg. The results of the first model showed an ulcer inhibition of 60,4% and 66,7% using the doses of Capsicum at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The results of the second model showed that neither the pH nor the volume of the gastric content were modified by the administered extract (p >0.05); however, by using the doses of Capsicum at 100 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, there was clearly an ulcer inhibition of 75.59% and 81.63% respectively, which were even greater than the inhibition obtained by ranitidine (75.51%). Therefore, in this experiment we demonstrated that the Capsicum annum L lyophilized fruit extract has a gastroprotective effect in experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

  17. Kaempferol-human serum albumin interaction: Characterization of the induced chirality upon binding by experimental circular dichroism and TDDFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Iulia; Ionescu, Sorana; Hillebrand, Mihaela

    2012-10-01

    The experimental induced circular dichroism (ICD) and absorption spectra of the achiral flavonoid kaempferol upon binding to human serum albumin (HSA) were correlated to electronic CD and UV-vis spectra theoretically predicted by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The neutral and four anionic species of kaempferol in various conformations were considered in the calculations. The appearance of the experimental ICD signal was rationalized in terms of kaempferol binding to HSA in a distorted, chiral, rigid conformation. The comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra allowed for the identification of the kaempferol species that binds to HSA, namely the anion generated by deprotonation of the hydroxyl group in position 7. This approach constitutes a convenient method for evidencing the binding species and for determining its conformation in the binding pocket of the protein. Its main advantage over the UV-vis absorption method lays in the fact that only the bound ligand species gives an ICD signal.

  18. Evaluation of a combination of low-dose ketamine and low-dose midazolam in terminal dyspnea-attenuation of "double-effect"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Kanti Dam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Of all symptoms in palliative medicine those concerning respiration are most excruciating and difficult to treat. Reticence about the use of morphine for palliation of dyspnea is common, especially in nonmalignant diseases, as there is a fear of causing respiratory depression, particularly where Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD exists. This factor is also compounded by the lack of availability of morphine in parts of developing countries. Ketamine has excellent anesthetic and analgesic effects in addition to being easily available. It produces bronchodilatation and does not produce respiratory or cardiovascular depression. The author seeks to evaluate the role of low-dose (0.2 mg/kg ketamine and midazolam (0.02 mg/kg in the attenuation of terminal dyspnea. Methods: Sixteen patients with terminal dyspnea, admitted to the Critical Care Unit (CCU with cancer and other noncancer diagnoses were recruited. The subjective component of dyspnea was assessed using the Graphic Rating Scale (GRS, which has values from 0 - 10, 10 being maximum dyspnea. Each patient received a low-dose of ketamine and midazolam for relief of dyspnea. All the patients received low-flow (2 L/min. oxygen therapy via nasal cannula. Immediately after admission, all the patients were reassured and nursed in a decubitus position of their choice. The GRS was recorded at the point of admission, 10 minutes after starting oxygen therapy, and ten minutes after administration of low-dose ketamine and midazolam. Hemodynamic parameters were also recorded at these three points. Result: All the patients who enrolled in our study had significant dyspnea at admission, as was evident from the GRS scores of 8.250 (SD 0.91, respiratory rate of 28.56 (SD 5.0, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP of 102.7 (SD 14.63, pulse rate of 115.62 (SD 23.3, and SpO2 of 92.43 (SD 2.38. All the patients benefited from the combination of ketamine and midazolam, as evidenced by the statistically

  19. Induced Voltage Self-Excitation for a Switched-Reluctance Generator. Experimental Verification of Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lipo, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    .... One means to excite the machine in a "self-starting" mode is to attach permanent magnets to the machine stator, so that rotor rotation will cause the magnet's field to induce electric current within...

  20. Variations of helicon wave induced radial plasma transport in different experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1993-08-01

    Variations of the helicon wave induced radial plasma transport are presented in dependence on values of the plasma radius, magnetostatic field, plasma density, frequency of the helicon wave and on the ion charge. 22 refs., 14 figs

  1. Ameliorative potential of gemfibrozil and silymarin on experimentally induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kabel

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The combination of gemfibrozil and silymarin has protective effects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats better than each of these drugs alone due to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of the used drugs.

  2. Numerical and Experimental Study on Negative Buoyance Induced Vortices in N-Butane Jet Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan; Cha, Min; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Near nozzle flow field in flickering n-butane diffusion jet flames was investigated with a special focus on transient flow patterns of negative buoyance induced vortices. The flow structures were obtained through Mie scattering imaging with seed

  3. The Effect of Irradiation on the Structure of Vasculature Experimentally Induced Rat Salivary Gland Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyo Shick [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the microvascular alterations in salivary gland carcinoma after irradiations. Salivary gland carcinoma was induced in rats by inoculation of several amount of 7,12-dimethylbenzan thracene powder 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg and 7.5 mg respectively into rat submandibular gland. Microangiography was performed by taking soft x-ray with barium infusions, and by indian ink perfusion technique. The tumors were given a single dose of 20 Gy (to obtain comparatively low grade irradiation dose for isoeffect of dry desquamation of skin to enable the observation of the vascular changes of the tumor 39) using LINAC 4 MeV Mitsubishi unit with field size of 3 X 3 cm at 80 SSD. The dose rate was 2.5 Gy per minute. The microangiography was performed prior to irradiation and at one, two, and weeks after irradiation. The results are as follows: 1. The carcinoma was produced in all rats (100%) between 7 to 11 weeks, the amount of carcinogen was not always in proportion to the development of carcinogenesis, and the most appropriate group for the experiment was 5.0 mg inoculated one. 2. The course of the experimental carcinogensis was initiated by ductal proliferation and squamous metaplasia of ductal epithelium which was later transformed into keratocyst, and finally turned into squamous cell carcinoma. 3. Before irradiation, the basic vasculature consisted of peripheral vascular pattern with central penetrating vessels. The peripheral vascular pattern was always richer than that of the center. Irregular and tortuous vessels stretched from the periphery into the center of the tumor mass. 4. In an early stage following irradiation, an increase in the number of smaller, tortuous vessels and decreased intervascular distances were observed in the central portions of tumor nest mass. 5. Later changes of microvasculature after irradiation are increase in tortuousity, irregularity, narrowing, abrupt tapering, fragmentation, and extravasation. These findings progressed

  4. The Effect of Irradiation on the Structure of Vasculature Experimentally Induced Rat Salivary Gland Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyo Shick

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the microvascular alterations in salivary gland carcinoma after irradiations. Salivary gland carcinoma was induced in rats by inoculation of several amount of 7,12-dimethylbenzan thracene powder 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg and 7.5 mg respectively into rat submandibular gland. Microangiography was performed by taking soft x-ray with barium infusions, and by indian ink perfusion technique. The tumors were given a single dose of 20 Gy (to obtain comparatively low grade irradiation dose for isoeffect of dry desquamation of skin to enable the observation of the vascular changes of the tumor 39) using LINAC 4 MeV Mitsubishi unit with field size of 3 X 3 cm at 80 SSD. The dose rate was 2.5 Gy per minute. The microangiography was performed prior to irradiation and at one, two, and weeks after irradiation. The results are as follows: 1. The carcinoma was produced in all rats (100%) between 7 to 11 weeks, the amount of carcinogen was not always in proportion to the development of carcinogenesis, and the most appropriate group for the experiment was 5.0 mg inoculated one. 2. The course of the experimental carcinogensis was initiated by ductal proliferation and squamous metaplasia of ductal epithelium which was later transformed into keratocyst, and finally turned into squamous cell carcinoma. 3. Before irradiation, the basic vasculature consisted of peripheral vascular pattern with central penetrating vessels. The peripheral vascular pattern was always richer than that of the center. Irregular and tortuous vessels stretched from the periphery into the center of the tumor mass. 4. In an early stage following irradiation, an increase in the number of smaller, tortuous vessels and decreased intervascular distances were observed in the central portions of tumor nest mass. 5. Later changes of microvasculature after irradiation are increase in tortuousity, irregularity, narrowing, abrupt tapering, fragmentation, and extravasation. These findings progressed

  5. Low dose radiation induced protein and its experimental and ophthalmic clinical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wei; Su Liaoyuan; Liu Fenju; Ding Jie; Li Longbiao; Pan Chengsi

    2001-01-01

    The protective effects of low dose radiation (LDR) induced protein on cellular impairments caused by some harmful chemical and physical factors were studied. Male Kunming mice were irradiated with LDR, then the spleen cells of the mice were broken with ultrasonic energy and then ultracentrifugalized. The supernatant solution contained with LDR induced protein. The newly emerging protein was detected by gel filtration and its molecular weight was determined by gel electrophoresis. The content of newly emerging protein (LDR induced protein) was determined by Lowry's method. The method of isotope incorporation was used to observe the biological activity and its influence factors, the protective effects of LDR induced protein on the cells impaired by irradiating with ultraviolet (UV), high doses of 60 Co γ-rays and exposed to heat respectively, and the stimulative effects of LDR induced protein on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Newly emerging protein has been observed in the experiment. The molecular weight of the protein is in the region 76.9 KD+- - 110.0 KD+-, the yield of the protein was 613.33 +- 213.42 μg per 3 x 10 7 spleen cells. DPM values (isotope were incorporated) of normal and injured mice spleen cells increased significantly after stimulating with the solution contained LDR induced protein. It is concluded that LDR induced protein could be obtained from mice spleen cells exposed to 5 - 15 cGy radiation for 2 - 16 h. The protein had biological activity and was able to stimulate the transformation of the spleen cells in vitro. It had obvious protective effects on some impaired cells caused by high dose radiation, UV radiation, heat and so on. It also had stimulative effects on the transformation of peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes of healthy individual and patients with eye diseases. It indicates that LDR induced protein increased immune function of human

  6. Experimental investigation of fundamental processes in mining induced fracturing and rock instability.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The main themes of the project GAP601b have been experimental investigations of creep effects, further underground observations of time-dependent behaviour, investigation of scale effects and rock mass stability and studies of the interaction...

  7. Mechanisms of cell death induced by infusion sets leachables in in vitro experimental settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaya, Luba; Stepensky, David

    2015-01-30

    Leachable materials that are released from infusion sets during their use can induce local and systemic toxic effects. We studied the mechanisms and kinetics of cell death induced by infusion sets leachates in vitro using L-929 and bEnd. 3 cells. Changes in cell morphology and metabolic activity were determined using light microscopy and the MTT test, respectively. Detailed analysis of the mechanisms of cell death was performed using membrane integrity and caspases 3 and 7 activity tests, annexin V-FITC/7-AAD analysis by FACS, and DAPI nuclear staining followed by confocal microscopy. Infusion sets released toxic leachables and induced toxic effects. Latex flashball was the most toxic part of the studied infusion sets, and it potently induced cell oncosis via increased permeability of the cell membrane. Latex-induced decrease in cells metabolic activity and cell death were not accompanied by activation of caspases 3 and 7, changes in nuclear morphology, or substantial annexin V-FITC cell staining. Leachables from the tube part of the infusion sets were less toxic, and induced some biochemical changes without altering the cells morphology. Further studies are needed to reveal the in vivo toxicity of infusion sets and its correlation with the results of in vitro toxicity studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental Study on the Measurement of Water Bottom Vibration Induced by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of proper instrumentations and the difficulties in underwater measurements, the studies about water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting are seldom reported. In order to investigate the propagation and attenuation laws of blasting induced water bottom vibration, a water bottom vibration monitor was developed with consideration of the difficulties in underwater measurements. By means of this equipment, the actual water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting was measured in a field experiment. It shows that the water bottom vibration monitor could collect vibration signals quite effectively in underwater environments. The followed signal analysis shows that the characteristics of water bottom vibration and land ground vibration induced by the same underwater drilling blasting are quite different due to the different geological environments. The amplitude and frequency band of water bottom vibration both exceed those of land ground vibration. Water bottom vibration is mainly in low-frequency band that induced by blasting impact directly acts on rock. Besides the low-frequency component, land vibration contains another higher frequency band component that induced by followed water hammer wave acts on bank slope.

  9. Atorvastatin attenuates experimental contrast-induced acute kidney injury: a role for TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Rongzheng; Zuo, Chuan; Zeng, Jing; Su, Baihai; Tao, Ye; Huang, Songmin; Zeng, Rui

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the protective effect of different atorvastatin doses on contrast-induced acute kidney injury and the related mechanism. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, experimental control group and different-dose atorvastatin groups. A rat model of contrast-induced acute kidney injury was established. We detected changes in serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) before and after model establishment, observed and scored renal tubular injury, analyzed rat renal cell apoptosis, and measure the expression of signal pathway proteins and downstream inflammatory factors. After contrast agent injection, the Scr and BUN levels of the experimental control group were significantly increased, the different doses applied in the atorvastatin group significantly reduced the Scr and BUN levels (p atorvastatin doses have protective effects on contrast-induced acute renal tubular injury in rats, possibly by targeting TLR4, suppressing TLR4 expression, regulating the TLR4/Myd88 signaling pathway, and inhibiting the expression of downstream inflammatory factors.

  10. Experimentally induced acute uric acid nephropathy in rabbits: Findings of high resolution gray scale and doppler ultrasonographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Hong Dae; Ko, Eun Young; Won, Mi Sook; Noh, Jung Woo [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Hyang [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To evaluate changes of the high-resolution (HR) gray scale and doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of experimentally induced acute uric acid (UA) nephropathy in rabbits. Acute UA nephropathy was induced in ten rabbits using supersaturated lithium carbonate solution. The rabbits were divided in two groups. Group I consisted of five rabbits, and they were injected with a single dose of 150 ml of saturated UA over one hour. During tis period, serial US studies of the kidneys of these rabbits were performed every ten minutes. Group II consisted of the remaining five rabbits, and three injections of 50 ml of saturated UA solution were given on the first, fifth and eight day and follow-up was done upto twenty fifth day. Sequential HR and Doppler US, renal biopsy and blood sampling were performed on day 1, 5, 8, 21, and 25 in the group II rabbits. In group I, HR and Doppler US examination revealed the normal resistive index without significant abnormality. On the other hand, US studies of group II showed poor renal corticomedullary differentiation, decreased renal blood flow and elevated resistive index. There was statistically significant correlation among US findings, histologic characteristics and chemical index (BUN, creatinine) of renal function. In addition, sequentially increased size and volume of the kidney were noted in both groups. HR gray scale and doppler US characteristics of experimentally induced acute UA nephropathy in rabbits were similar to those of acute renal failure caused by other well-known causes.

  11. Experimentally induced acute uric acid nephropathy in rabbits: Findings of high resolution gray scale and doppler ultrasonographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Hong Dae; Ko, Eun Young; Won, Mi Sook; Noh, Jung Woo; Park, Moon Hyang

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate changes of the high-resolution (HR) gray scale and doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of experimentally induced acute uric acid (UA) nephropathy in rabbits. Acute UA nephropathy was induced in ten rabbits using supersaturated lithium carbonate solution. The rabbits were divided in two groups. Group I consisted of five rabbits, and they were injected with a single dose of 150 ml of saturated UA over one hour. During tis period, serial US studies of the kidneys of these rabbits were performed every ten minutes. Group II consisted of the remaining five rabbits, and three injections of 50 ml of saturated UA solution were given on the first, fifth and eight day and follow-up was done upto twenty fifth day. Sequential HR and Doppler US, renal biopsy and blood sampling were performed on day 1, 5, 8, 21, and 25 in the group II rabbits. In group I, HR and Doppler US examination revealed the normal resistive index without significant abnormality. On the other hand, US studies of group II showed poor renal corticomedullary differentiation, decreased renal blood flow and elevated resistive index. There was statistically significant correlation among US findings, histologic characteristics and chemical index (BUN, creatinine) of renal function. In addition, sequentially increased size and volume of the kidney were noted in both groups. HR gray scale and doppler US characteristics of experimentally induced acute UA nephropathy in rabbits were similar to those of acute renal failure caused by other well-known causes.

  12. Effects of normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Won

    2013-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, and controlled study examined the effects of normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats. The study comprised two control groups (untreated and saline-treated) and three experimental groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental groups received an instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) only, LPS+normal saline (LPS/saline), or LPS+selenium-enriched hot spring water (LPS/selenium). Histopathological changes were identified using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Leakage of exudate was identified using fluorescence microscopy. Microvascular permeability was measured using the Evans blue dye technique. Expression of the Muc5ac gene was measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mucosal edema and expression of the Muc5ac gene were significantly lower in the LPS/saline group than in the LPS group. Microvascular permeability, mucosal edema, and expression of the Muc5ac gene were significantly lower in the LPS/selenium group than in the LPS group. Mucosal edema was similar in the LPS/selenium group and LPS/saline group, but capillary permeability and Muc5ac expression were lower in the LPS/selenium group. This study shows that normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water reduce inflammatory activity and mucus hypersecretion in LPS-induced rhinosinusitis in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dihydrotanshinone I, a natural product, ameliorates DSS-induced experimental ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanling; Wu, Xiaxia; Wu, Qin; Lu, Yuanfu; Shi, Jingshan; Chen, Xiuping

    2018-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the colon and rectum with increasing morbidity in recent years. 15,16-dihydrotanshinone Ӏ (DHT) is a natural product with multiple bioactivities. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect and potential mechanisms of DHT on UC. Dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) was administrated in drinking water for 7 days to induce UC in mice. DHT (10 and 25 mg/kg) significantly alleviated DSS-induced body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) scores, and improved histological alterations of colon tissues. DHT inhibited the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in colon tissues and decreased serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). Furthermore, increased expression of kinases receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), RIP3, mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) and decreased expression of caspase-8 in colon tissues were partially restored by DHT. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, DHT significantly inhibited generation of nitric oxide, IL-6, TNF-α and protein expression of iNOS, COX-2. In addition, increased expression of iNOS, COX-2, and phosphorylated RIP1, RIP3, MLKL in response to LPS plus Z-VAD (LZ) were also suppressed by DHT. DHT had no effect on TNF-α + BV6 + Z-VAD (TBZ) induced phosphorylation of RIPs and MLKL in HT29 cells. Especially, DHT showed no effect on LZ and TBZ-induced necroptosis in RAW264.7 and HT29 cells, respectively. In summary, DHT alleviated DSS-induced UC in mice by suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators and regulating RIPs-MLKL-caspase-8 axis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined computational and experimental study of Ar beam induced defect formation in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregler, Sharon K.; Hayakawa, Tetsuichiro; Yasumatsu, Hisato; Kondow, Tamotsu; Sinnott, Susan B.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation of graphite, commonly used in nuclear power plants, is known to produce structural damage. Here, experimental and computational methods are used to study defect formation in graphite during Ar irradiation at incident energies of 50 eV. The experimental samples are analyzed with scanning tunneling microscopy to quantify the size distribution of the defects that form. The computational approach is classical molecular dynamic simulations that illustrate the mechanisms by which the defects are produced. The results indicate that defects in graphite grow in concentrated areas and are nucleated by the presence of existing defects

  15. The inhibiting effects of components of stinging nettle roots on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Renneberg, H; Blaschek, W; Aumüller, G; Muth, C

    1999-10-01

    Direct implanting of fetal urogenital sinus (UGS) tissue into the ventral prostate gland of adult mice led to a 4-fold weight increase of the manipulated prostatic lobe. The induced growth could be reduced by the polysaccharide fraction (POLY-M) of the 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots by 33.8%.

  16. The protective effect of vildagliptin in chronic experimental cyclosporine A-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbeeny, Nagla A; Nader, Manar A

    2016-03-01

    The study examined the effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, vildagliptin, in cyclosporine (CsA)-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 4 groups treated for 28 days: control (vehicle), vildagliptin (10 mg/kg, orally), CsA (20 mg/kg, s.c.), and CsA-vildagliptin group. Liver function was assessed by measuring serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (γGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and albumin, and histopathological changes of liver were examined. Oxidative stress markers were evaluated. Assessment of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity in hepatic nuclear extract, serum DPP-4, and expression of Bax and Bcl2 were also done. CsA-induced hepatotoxicity was evidenced by increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, and γGT; a decrease in serum albumin; and a significant alteration in hepatic architecture. Also, significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) levels, increased expression Bax proteins with deceased expression of Bcl2, and increased hepatic activity of NF-κB and serum DPP-4 level were observed upon CsA treatment. Vildagliptin significantly improved all altered parameters induced by CsA administration. Vildagliptin has the potential to protect the liver against CsA-induced hepatotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress, DPP-4 activity, apoptosis, and inflammation.

  17. Carvacrol attenuates N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver injury in experimental Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Rajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carvacrol is a main constituent in the essential oils of countless aromatic plants including Origanum Vulgare and Thymus vulgari, which has been assessed for substantial pharmacological properties. In recent years, notable research has been embarked on to establish the biological actions of Carvacrol for its promising use in clinical applications. The present study is an attempt to reveal the protective role of Carvacrol against N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN induced hepatic injury in male Wistar albino rats. DEN is an egregious toxin, present in numerous environmental factors, which enhances chemical driven liver damage by inducing oxidative stress and cellular injury. Administration of DEN (200 mg/kg bodyweight, I.P to rats results in elevated marker enzymes (in both serum and tissue. Carvacrol (15 mg/kg body weight suppressed the elevation of marker enzymes (in both serum and tissue and augmented the antioxidants levels. The hoisted activities of Phase I enzymes and inferior activities of Phase II enzymes were observed in DEN-administered animals, whereas Carvacrol treated animals showed improved near normal activity. Histological observations also support the protective role of Carvacrol against DEN induced liver damage. Final outcome from our findings intimate that Carvacrol might be beneficial in attenuating toxin induced liver damage.

  18. Experimental Neuromyelitis Optica Induces a Type I Interferon Signature in the Spinal Cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oji, Satoru; Nicolussi, Eva-Maria; Kaufmann, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    -IFN signature genes in EAE spinal cords, and a further upregulation of these genes in ENMO. To learn whether the local I-IFN signature is harmful or beneficial, we induced ENMO by transfer of CNS antigen-specific T cells and NMO-IgG, and treated the animals with I-IFN at the very onset of clinical symptoms...

  19. Effect of amiloride on experimental acid-induced heartburn in non-erosive reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulsiewicz, William J; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Hansen, Mark B; Pruitt, Amy; Orlando, Roy C

    2013-07-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are esophageal nociceptors that are candidates to mediate heartburn in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Amiloride, a diuretic, is known to inhibit ASICs. For this reason, we sought a role for ASICs in mediating heartburn by determining whether amiloride could block heartburn in NERD induced by esophageal acid perfusion. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, we perfused the esophagus with amiloride or (saline) placebo prior to eliciting acid-induced heartburn in patients with a history of proton pump inhibitor-responsive NERD. Those with NERD and positive modified Bernstein test were randomized to perfusion with amiloride, 1 mmol/l, or placebo for 5 min, followed by repeat acid-perfusion. Heartburn severity and time to onset was measured and the process repeated following crossover to the alternative agent. 14 subjects completed the study. Amiloride did not reduce the frequency (100 vs. 100 %) or severity of acid-induced heartburn (Mean 2.50 ± SEM 0.33 vs. 2.64 ± 0.45), respectively. There was a trend towards longer time to onset of heartburn for amiloride versus placebo (Mean 2.93 ± SEM 0.3 vs. 2.36 ± 0.29 min, respectively), though these differences did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Amiloride had no significant effect on acid-induced heartburn frequency or severity in NERD, although there was a trend towards prolonged time to onset of symptoms.

  20. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation to induced blood pressure changes in human experimental and clinical sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Bailey, Damian M

    2016-01-01

    (-1) ; P = 0·91 versus baseline; P = 0·14 versus LPS]. While our findings support the concept that dynamic cerebral autoregulation is enhanced during the very early stages of sepsis, they remain inconclusive with regard to more advanced stages of disease, because thigh-cuff deflation failed to induce...... (Ps...

  1. Experimental Issues in Testing a Semiactive Technique to Control Earthquake Induced Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Caterino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the issues to deal with when approaching experimental testing of structures equipped with semiactive control (SA systems. It starts from practical experience authors gained in a recent wide campaign on a large scale steel frame structure provided with a control system based on magnetorheological dampers. The latter are special devices able to achieve a wide range of physical behaviours using low-power electrical currents. Experimental activities involving the use of controllable devices require special attention in solving specific aspects that characterize each of the three phases of the SA control loop: acquisition, processing, and command. Most of them are uncommon to any other type of structural testing. This paper emphasizes the importance of the experimental assessment of SA systems and shows how many problematic issues likely to happen in real applications are also present when testing these systems experimentally. This paper highlights several problematic aspects and illustrates how they can be addressed in order to achieve a more realistic evaluation of the effectiveness of SA control solutions. Undesired and unavoidable effects like delays and control malfunction are also remarked. A discussion on the way to reduce their incidence is also offered.

  2. The relationship between plasma free fatty acids and experimentally induced hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. J.; Bosman, D. K.; Jörning, G. G.; de Haan, J. G.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in the rat have been investigated in order to study the postulated relationship between plasma free fatty acids concentration (C6 - C22:0) and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy. As a model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy, porta caval shunted

  3. Analysis of friction-induced limit cycling in an experimental drill-string system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, N.; Veggel, van A.A.; Wouw, van de N.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we aim for an improved understanding of the causes for torsional vibrations that appear in rotary drilling systems used for the exploration of oil and gas. For this purpose, an experimental drill-string setup is considered. In that system, torsional vibrations with and without

  4. Effect of body mass index on diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with acute dyspnea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; van Kimmenade, Roland R. J.; Lainchbury, John G.; Richards, A. Mark; Ordoñez-Llanos, Jordi; Santaló, Miquel; Pinto, Yigal M.; Januzzi, James L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amino (N)-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) testing is useful for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation in patients with dyspnea. An inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI); (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and NT-proBNP

  5. Yoga-based pulmonary rehabilitation for the management of dyspnea in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Ranjita

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Findings indicate that IAYT benefits coal miners with COPD, reducing dyspnea; fatigue and PR, and improving functional performance and peripheral capillary SpO2%. Yoga can now be included as an adjunct to conventional therapy for pulmonary rehabilitation programs for COPD patients.

  6. Experimental and numerical investigations on flashing-induced instabilities in a single channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcel, Christian P.; Rohde, M.; Van Der Hagen, T.H.J.J. [Department of Physics of Nuclear Reactors, Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), Delft, 2629 JB (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    During the start-up phase, natural circulation BWRs (NC-BWRs) need to be operated at low pressure conditions. Such conditions favor flashing-induced instabilities due to the large hydrostatic pressure drop induced by the tall chimney. Moreover, in novel NC-BWR designs the steam separation is performed in the steam separators which create large pressure drops at the chimney outlet, which effect on stability has not been investigated yet. In this work, flashing-induced oscillations occurring in a tall, bottom heated channel are numerically investigated by using a simple linear model with three regions and an accurate implementation for estimating the water properties. The model is used to investigate flashing-induced instabilities in a channel for different values of the core inlet friction value. The results are compared with experiments obtained by using the CIRCUS facility at the same conditions, showing a good agreement. In addition, the experiments on flashing-induced instabilities are presented in a novel manner allowing visualizing new details of the phenomenon numerical stability investigations on the effect of the friction distribution are also done. It is found that by increasing the total restriction in the channel the system is destabilized. In addition, the chimney outlet restriction has a stronger destabilizing effect than the core inlet restriction. A stable two-phase region is observed prior to the instabilities in the experiments and the numerical simulations which may help to pressurize the vessel of NC-BWRs and thus reducing the effects of flashing instabilities during start-up. (author)

  7. In vitro and in vivo experimental studies on trabecular meshwork degeneration induced by benzalkonium chloride (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Christophe; Denoyer, Alexandre; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Grise, Alice

    2012-12-01

    Long-term antiglaucomatous drug administration may cause irritation, dry eye, allergy, subconjunctival fibrosis, or increased risk of glaucoma surgery failure, potentially due to the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK), whose toxic, proinflammatory, and detergent effects have extensively been shown experimentally. We hypothesize that BAK also influences trabecular meshwork (TM) degeneration. Trabecular specimens were examined using immunohistology and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A trabecular cell line was stimulated by BAK and examined for apoptosis, oxidative stress, fractalkine and SDF-1 expression, and modulation of their receptors. An experimental model was developed with BAK subconjunctival injections to induce TM degeneration. Mass spectrometry (MS) imaging assessed BAK penetration after repeated instillations in rabbit eyes. Trabecular specimens showed extremely low densities of trabecular cells and presence of cells expressing fractalkine and fractalkine receptor and their respective mRNAs. Benzalkonium in vitro induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, and fractalkine expression and inhibited the protective chemokine SDF-1 and Bcl2, also inducing a sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) increase, with dramatic apoptosis of trabecular cells and reduction of aqueous outflow. MS imaging showed that BAK could access the TM at measurable levels after repeated instillations. BAK enhances all characteristics of TM degeneration typical of glaucoma-trabecular apoptosis, oxidative stress, induction of inflammatory chemokines-and causes degeneration in acute experimental conditions, potentially mimicking long-term accumulation. BAK was also shown to access the TM after repeated instillations. These findings support the hypothesis that antiglaucoma medications, through toxicity of their preservative, may cause further long-term trabecular degeneration and therefore enhance outflow resistance, reducing the impact of IOP-lowering agents.

  8. Experimentally studied laser fluorescence method for remote sensing of plant stress situation induced by improper plants watering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Fedotov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful situations of plants can be caused by a lack of nutrients; mechanical damages; diseases; low or high temperatures; lack of illumination; insufficient or excess humidity of the soil; soil salinization; soil pollution by oil products or heavy metals; the increased acidity of the soil; use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, etc.At early stages it is often difficult to detect seemingly that the plants are in stressful situations caused by adverse external factors. However, the fluorescent analysis potentially allows detection of the stressful situations of plants by deformation of laser-induced fluorescence spectra. The paper conducts experimental investigations to learn the capabilities of the laser fluorescent method to monitor plant situations at 532nm wavelength of fluorescence excitation in the stressful situations induced by improper watering (at excess of moisture in the soil and at a lack of moisture.Researches of fluorescence spectra have been conducted using a created laboratory installation. As a source to excite fluorescence radiation the second harmonica of YAG:Nd laser is used. The subsystem to record fluorescence radiation is designed using a polychromator and a highly sensitive matrix detector with the amplifier of brightness.Experimental investigations have been conducted for fast-growing and unpretentious species of plants, namely different sorts of salad.Experimental studies of laser-induced fluorescence spectra of plants for 532nm excitement wavelength show that the impact of stressful factors on a plant due to the improper watering, significantly distorts a fluorescence spectrum of plants. Influence of a stressful factor can be shown as a changing profile of a fluorescence spectrum (an identifying factor, here, is a relationship of fluorescence intensities at two wavelengths, namely 685 nm and 740 nm or (and as a changing level of fluorescence that can be the basis for the laser method for monitoring the plant

  9. Effects of drug treatment on inflammation and hyperreactivity of airways and on immune variables in cats with experimentally induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinero, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Byerly, Jenni R; Berghaus, Roy D; Walby, William E; Berghaus, Londa J; Hyde, Dallas M; Schelegle, Edward S; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2005-07-01

    To compare the effects of an orally administered corticosteroid (prednisone), an inhaled corticosteroid (flunisolide), a leukotriene-receptor antagonist (zafirlukast), an antiserotonergic drug (cyproheptadine), and a control substance on the asthmatic phenotype in cats with experimentally induced asthma. 6 cats with asthma experimentally induced by the use of Bermuda grass allergen (BGA). A randomized, crossover design was used to assess changes in the percentage of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); airway hyperresponsiveness; blood lymphocyte phenotype determined by use of flow cytometry; and serum and BALF content of BGA-specific IgE, IgG, and IgA determined by use of ELISAs. Mean +/- SE eosinophil percentages in BALF when cats were administered prednisone (5.0 +/- 2.3%) and flunisolide (2.5 +/- 1.7%) were significantly lower than for the control treatment (33.7 +/- 11.1%). We did not detect significant differences in airway hyperresponsiveness or lymphocyte surface markers among treatments. Content of BGA-specific IgE in serum was significantly lower when cats were treated with prednisone (25.5 +/- 5.4%), compared with values for the control treatment (63.6 +/- 12.9%); no other significant differences were observed in content of BGA-specific immunoglobulins among treatments. Orally administered and inhaled corticosteroids decreased eosinophilic inflammation in airways of cats with experimentally induced asthma. Only oral administration of prednisone decreased the content of BGA-specific IgE in serum; no other significant local or systemic immunologic effects were detected among treatments. Inhaled corticosteroids can be considered as an alternate method for decreasing airway inflammation in cats with asthma.

  10. Protective effects of total glucosides of paeony and the underlying mechanisms in carbon tetrachloride-induced experimental liver injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Tian, Ya-ping

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We explored the protective effects of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) and the underlying mechanisms in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced experimental liver injury in mice. Material and methods Chronic liver damage was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (0.5 µl/g) three times per week for 8 weeks. Mice also received 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg TGP. Liver sections were stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Serum amino transferases, lipid peroxidation and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were determined using commercial assays. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the changes in hepatic TNF-α, COX-2, iNOS and HO-1 expression. Protein levels of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, haem oxygenase-1 and cytochrome P450 2E1 were determined by western blotting. Results Histological results showed that TGP improved the CCl4-induced changes in liver structure and alleviated lobular necrosis. The increases in serum protein and hepatic mRNA expression of TNF-α induced by CCl4 treatment were suppressed by TGP. Total glucosides of paeony also attenuated the increase the expression in iNOS and CYP2E1 but augmented the increase in HO-1.The mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible HO-1 increased significantly after CCl4 treatment. Conclusions Total glucosides of paeony protects hepatocytes from oxidative damage induced by CCl4. Total glucosides of paeony may achieve these effects by enhancing HO-1 expression and inhibiting the expression of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:22291795

  11. Vibration-induced particle formation during yogurt fermentation - Industrial vibration measurements and development of an experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körzendörfer, Adrian; Temme, Philipp; Nöbel, Stefan; Schlücker, Eberhard; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of vibrations during yogurt fermentation. Machinery such as pumps and switching valves generate vibrations that may disturb the gelation by inducing large particles. Oscillation measurements on an industrial yogurt production line showed that oscillations are transferred from pumps right up to the fermentation tanks. An experimental setup (20L) was developed to study the effect of vibrations systematically. The fermenters were decoupled with air springs to enable reference fermentations under idle conditions. A vibration exciter was used to stimulate the fermenters. Frequency sweeps (25-1005Hz, periodic time 10s) for 20min from pH5.4 induced large particles. The number of visible particles was significantly increased from 35±4 (reference) to 89±9 particles per 100g yogurt. Rheological parameters of the stirred yogurt samples were not influenced by vibrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical and experimental investigation of laser induced plasma spectrum of aluminum in the presence of a noble gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Laser-induced plasma emission of an aluminum target in helium gas at 1 atm pressure is numerically and experimentally investigated. A laser pulse at wavelength of 266 nm and pulse duration of 10 ns has been considered. Laser ablation is calculated by a one dimensional model based on thermal evaporation mechanism. Spatial and temporal parameters of plasma expansion are determined by using hydrodynamic equations. Three kinds of plasma emission, including Bremsstrahlung, recombination and spectral emissions are considered for modeling the spectrum. Strong lines of aluminum and helium in wavelength interval of 200 to 450 nm are selected. Aluminum spectrum in UV range is depicted and compared with other spectral ranges. Temporal and spatial evolution of plasma emission up to 200 ns after the laser irradiation is studied. The effect of laser energy on the plasma spectrum is studied. An experimental set-up is arranged to compare numerical calculations with experimental results. Experimental and numerical results illustrate that helium line widths and peak intensities become narrower and weaker with time, respectively. Spatial distribution of spectrum shows that for closer distance to the sample surface, an intense continuous emission is observed, while at the farther distance, continuous emission decreases and spectral lines become sharper. A good coincidence is observed between experimental and numerical results. - Highlights: ► Aluminum plasma emission in helium is numerically and experimentally studied. ► Spectral, Bremsstrahlung and recombination emissions in spectrum are calculated. ► All strong lines of aluminum and helium are chosen for spectrum simulation. ► Line widths and peak intensities at later times become narrower and weaker. ► At specific optimum position, the maximum of signal peaks is acquired.

  13. Numerical and experimental investigation of laser induced plasma spectrum of aluminum in the presence of a noble gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh, E-mail: f_rezaei@sbu.ac.ir; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Laser-induced plasma emission of an aluminum target in helium gas at 1 atm pressure is numerically and experimentally investigated. A laser pulse at wavelength of 266 nm and pulse duration of 10 ns has been considered. Laser ablation is calculated by a one dimensional model based on thermal evaporation mechanism. Spatial and temporal parameters of plasma expansion are determined by using hydrodynamic equations. Three kinds of plasma emission, including Bremsstrahlung, recombination and spectral emissions are considered for modeling the spectrum. Strong lines of aluminum and helium in wavelength interval of 200 to 450 nm are selected. Aluminum spectrum in UV range is depicted and compared with other spectral ranges. Temporal and spatial evolution of plasma emission up to 200 ns after the laser irradiation is studied. The effect of laser energy on the plasma spectrum is studied. An experimental set-up is arranged to compare numerical calculations with experimental results. Experimental and numerical results illustrate that helium line widths and peak intensities become narrower and weaker with time, respectively. Spatial distribution of spectrum shows that for closer distance to the sample surface, an intense continuous emission is observed, while at the farther distance, continuous emission decreases and spectral lines become sharper. A good coincidence is observed between experimental and numerical results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminum plasma emission in helium is numerically and experimentally studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectral, Bremsstrahlung and recombination emissions in spectrum are calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All strong lines of aluminum and helium are chosen for spectrum simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Line widths and peak intensities at later times become narrower and weaker. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At specific optimum position, the maximum of signal peaks is acquired.

  14. Toll-like receptors-2 and 4 are overexpressed in an experimental model of particle-induced osteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Roberto D; Nich, Christophe; Zwingenberger, Stefan; Li, Chenguang; Swank, Katherine R; Gibon, Emmanuel; Rao, Allison J; Yao, Zhenyu; Goodman, Stuart B

    2014-09-01

    Aseptic loosening secondary to particle-associated periprosthetic osteolysis remains a major cause of failure of total joint replacements (TJR) in the mid- and long term. As sentinels of the innate immune system, macrophages are central to the recognition and initiation of the inflammatory cascade, which results in the activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and danger-associated molecular patterns. Experimentally, polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene (PE) particles have been shown to activate macrophages via the TLR pathway. The specific TLRs involved in PE particle-induced osteolysis remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that TLR-2, -4, and -9 mediated responses play a critical role in the development of PE wear particle-induced osteolysis in the murine calvarium model. To test this hypothesis, we first demonstrated that PE particles caused observable osteolysis, visible by microCT and bone histomorphometry when the particles were applied to the calvarium of C57BL/6 mice. The number of TRAP positive osteoclasts was significantly greater in the PE-treated group when compared to the control group without particles. Finally, using immunohistochemistry, TLR-2 and TLR-4 were highly expressed in PE particle-induced osteolytic lesions, whereas TLR-9 was downregulated. TLR-2 and -4 may represent novel therapeutic targets for prevention of wear particle-induced osteolysis and accompanying TJR failure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Deeply inelastic transfer reactions induced by heavy ions in rare earth targets. II. Interpretation of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivet, M.F.; Bimbot, R.; Ngo, C.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental angular distributions and cross sections for a series of deeply inelastic transfer reactions induced by various projectiles in rare earth targets have been interpreted using a model which includes a dynamical coupling between relative motion and mass asymmetry and treats statistical fluctuations. As the transfer reactions considered correspond to an increase of the potential energy of the composite system their observation is mainly due to fluctuations. The calculation reproduces correctly the angular distributions, but the cross sections are underestimated. Several effects are discussed which may increase these cross sections and are neglected in the calculation

  16. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tangpu

    2014-06-01

    Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice, using four experimental models, i.e. measurement of faecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 enteropooling assay and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100 and ndash;3200 mg/kg. In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrhoeal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhoea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared to 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard anti-diarrhoeal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for the protection from diarrhoea. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 103-108

  17. Experimental pleurodesis induced by antibiotics (macrolides or quinolones Pleurodese experimental induzida por antibióticos (macrolídeos e quinolonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete R. Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Chemical pleurodesis is a therapeutic tool for the treatment of recurrent pleural effusions, mainly those of neoplastic etiology. In the past, tetracycline was the sclerosant agent of choice in clinical practice, but presently, there is no consensus about an ideal agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of macrolides (azithromycin and clarithromycin or quinolones (levofloxacin and gatifloxacin in inducing experimental pleurodesis in rabbits. METHOD: Forty New Zealand rabbits randomized into groups of 10 received (at a total volume of 2 mL for each animal 1 of the 4 drugs by intrapleural injection. After 28 days, the animals were euthanized and the pleural cavity was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. RESULTS: The intensity of the macroscopic adhesions was mild in all groups. On microscopic analysis, minimal pleural fibrosis and inflammation were observed in all animals. CONCLUSION: The macrolides (azithromycin or clarithromycin and the quinolones (levofloxacin or gatifloxacin when injected into the normal pleural space of rabbits are not effective in promoting pleurodesis. Additional research is required to identify sclerosing agents capable of inducing pleurodesis.OBJETIVO: A pleurodese química representa uma ferramenta terapêutica utilizada no tratamento dos processos pleurais recidivantes, principalmente nos derrames neoplásicos. A escolha do melhor esclerosante pleural é ainda motivo de controvérsia, não havendo consenso com relação ao agente considerado ideal. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a efetividade dos macrolídeos (azitromicina e claritromicina e das quinolonas (levofloxacina e gatifloxacina na indução de pleurodese experimental em coelhos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta animais randomizados em grupos de 10, receberam, em volume total de 2 mL, estas drogas através de injeção intrapleural. RESULTADOS: Após 28 dias, os animais foram sacrificados sendo avaliada a cavidade pleural. A

  18. Experimental Study of the Lead Tungstate Scintillator Proton-Induced Damage and Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette; Singovski , A

    2011-01-01

    Lead tungstate (PbWO4, or PWO) scintillating crystals are used by two of the four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): 75848 in CMS and 17920 in ALICE. For the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter, one of the most important crystal properties is its radiation hardness. With the increase of luminosity, the radiation level will increase drastically, particularly in the high pseudorapidity regions of the calorimeter. Beside the effects of color-centre formation caused by gamma-radiation, additional measurable effect originated by hadron irradiation could appear, which will further deteriorate the optical transmission of the crystals and therefore their efficiency. In this paper, we will present results of the proton-induced damage in PWO and a study of optical transmission recovery at different temperatures and under different light-induced "bleaching" conditions for proton-irradiated crystals.

  19. A review of the evidence regarding associations between attachment theory and experimentally induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela Joy

    2013-04-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that adult attachment and pain-related variables are predictably and consistently linked, and that understanding these links may guide pain intervention and prevention efforts. In general, insecure attachment has been portrayed as a risk factor, and secure attachment as a protective factor, for people with chronic pain conditions. In an effort to better understand the relationships among attachment and pain variables, these links have been investigated in pain-free samples using induced-pain techniques. The present paper reviews the available research linking adult attachment and laboratory-induced pain. While the diverse nature of the studies precludes definitive conclusions, together these papers offer support for associations between insecure attachment and a more negative pain experience. The evidence presented in this review highlights areas for further empirical attention, as well as providing some guidance for clinicians who may wish to employ preventive approaches and other interventions informed by attachment theory.

  20. Numerical and Experimental Study on Negative Buoyance Induced Vortices in N-Butane Jet Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-07-26

    Near nozzle flow field in flickering n-butane diffusion jet flames was investigated with a special focus on transient flow patterns of negative buoyance induced vortices. The flow structures were obtained through Mie scattering imaging with seed particles in a fuel stream using continuous-wave (CW) Argon-ion laser. Velocity fields were also quantified with particle mage velocimetry (PIV) system having kHz repetition rate. The results showed that the dynamic motion of negative buoyance induced vortices near the nozzle exit was coupled strongly with a flame flickering instability. Typically during the flame flickering, the negative buoyant vortices oscillated at the flickering frequency. The vortices were distorted by the flickering motion and exhibited complicated transient vortical patterns, such as tilting and stretching. Numerical simulations were also implemented based on an open source C++ package, LaminarSMOKE, for further validations.

  1. Glutamate decarboxylase activity in rat brain during experimental epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netopilova, M; Drsata, J [Department of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, 50005 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Haugvicova, R; Kubova, H; Mares, P [Institute of Physiology, Czech Academy of Sciences, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic)

    1998-07-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity was studied rat brain parts in a pilocarpine model of epileptic seizures. An increased enzyme activity was found in hippocampus a cerebellum during the acute phase of seizures, while the cortex and cerebellum showed increased GAD activity in the chronic phase of the process. Systematic administration of pilocarpine to rats induces status epilepticus. The aim of this research was to find out if seizures induced by pilocarpine are connected changes in glutamate decarboxylase activity, the enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. GAD was assayed by means of radiometric method using {sup 14}C-carboxyl-labelled glutamate and measurement of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} radioactivity. Obtained results suggest that pilocarpine seizures are connected with changes of GAD activity in individual parts of rat brain. (authors)

  2. Glutamate decarboxylase activity in rat brain during experimental epileptic seizures induced by pilocarpine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netopilova, M.; Drsata, J.; Haugvicova, R.; Kubova, H.; Mares, P.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity was studied rat brain parts in a pilocarpine model of epileptic seizures. An increased enzyme activity was found in hippocampus a cerebellum during the acute phase of seizures, while the cortex and cerebellum showed increased GAD activity in the chronic phase of the process. Systematic administration of pilocarpine to rats induces status epilepticus. The aim of this research was to find out if seizures induced by pilocarpine are connected changes in glutamate decarboxylase activity, the enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. GAD was assayed by means of radiometric method using 14 C-carboxyl-labelled glutamate and measurement of 14 CO 2 radioactivity. Obtained results suggest that pilocarpine seizures are connected with changes of GAD activity in individual parts of rat brain. (authors)

  3. Daily functioning of dyspnea, self-esteem and physical self in patients with moderate COPD before, during and after a first inpatient rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninot, Gregory; Moullec, Gregory; Desplan, Jacques; Prefaut, Christian; Varray, Alain

    2007-11-30

    Inpatient rehabilitation improves dyspnea and increases self-esteem between admission and discharge in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Some researchers nevertheless argue that the changes may be due to nursing effects and thus that scores will decrease quickly at home after discharge. This study assessed the change in dyspnea, self-esteem and physical self mean scores and stability in patients with moderate COPD during three consecutive four-week periods: at home, during an inpatient rehabilitation program, and again at home post-discharge. Twenty-three consecutive patients [63.9 years (SD 6.6)] with moderate COPD [FEV1 = 55.8% (SD 13.2)] were included. The participants responded to the Physical Self Inventory and rated dyspnea using a visual analogue scale twice a day. Exercise tolerance was assessed with the six-minute walk test (6MWT) at admission and discharge. 6MWT performance improved between admission and discharge [452.3 m. (SD 74.0) vs. 503.3 m. (SD 80.4), p self-esteem and physical self scores between the two home periods (p self-worth at home post-discharge compared to pre-admission (p self-esteem, the perceptions of physical condition and attractive body were all significant. After rehabilitation, the coefficients between dyspnea, and perceived physical condition, physical strength and sport competence were significant (p self scores in patients with moderate COPD and decreases their instability; the program also improves dyspnea. However, the impact of rehabilitation was greater on specific perceptions of physical abilities than on the global self-esteem. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these changes, which were probably due to rehabilitation program.

  4. The inhibiting effects of Urtica dioica root extracts on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Muth, C

    1997-08-01

    Extracts of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We established a BPH-model by directly implanting an urogenital sinus (UGS) into the ventral prostate gland of an adult mouse. Five differently prepared stinging nettle root extracts were tested in this model. The 20% methanolic extract was the most effective with a 51.4% inhibition of induced growth.

  5. Experimental study of hydrodynamically induced vibrational processes in VVER-440 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, V.I.; Perevezentsev, V.V.; Rekshnya, N.F.; Krapivtsev, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    Investigations are described of hydrodynamically induced vibrations in a single fuel assembly of a VVER-440 reactor, performed on a full-scale model installed in a closed loop filled with distilled water; the model fuel elements contained simulators of fuel pellets. Data on hydrodynamic loads were obtained by measuring pressure oscillations along the height of the fuel assembly case. Results of the measurements are presented in graphs and are discussed in some detail. (A.K.)

  6. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Michele Devido; Gagliardi,Rubens José; Mac-Kay,Ana Paula Machado Goyano; Boggio,Paulo Sergio; Lianza,Roberta; Fregni,Felipe

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with ...

  7. Experimental cross-sections for proton-induced nuclear reactions on Mo-nat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenák, Jaroslav; Lebeda, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 380, AUG (2016), s. 32-49 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cross-sections * excitation functions * proton-induced nuclear reactions * natural molybdenum * Mo-99 * Tc-99m * Tc96m+g * Tc-95m * thick target yields * U-120M cyclotron Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  8. Solute induced relaxation in glassy polymers: Experimental measurements and nonequilibrium thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minelli, Matteo; Doghieri, Ferruccio

    2014-01-01

    Data for kinetics of mass uptake from vapor sorption experiments in thin glassy polymer samples are here interpreted in terms of relaxation times for volume dilation. To this result, both models from non-equilibrium thermodynamics and from mechanics of volume relaxation contribute. Different kind of sorption experiments have been considered in order to facilitate the direct comparison between kinetics of solute induced volume dilation and corresponding data from process driven by pressure or temperature jumps

  9. Experimentally induced tumors used for angiographic estimation of embolisation and cytostatic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, E P; Kraus, W; Fiebig, H H; Kauffmann, G; Hauenstein, K H

    1982-02-01

    In 12 rats tumors have been induced chemically by intraperitoneal application of dimethylnitrosamine. This method is simple and reliable and the effect of tumor embolization can be followed easily. Thymus aplastic nude mice with transplanted human tumors deserve strict care. Tumor microangiograms of 48 animals demonstrate a close similarity with angiograms of corresponding human tumors. The vascular pattern does not alterate after several transplantations, after cytostatic therapy a slight hypervascularisation developes.

  10. Experimental characterisation and modelling of deformation- induced microstructure in an A6061 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyca, J F; Falahati, A; Kozeschnik, E

    2016-01-01

    For industry, the mechanical properties of a material in form of flow curves are essential input data for finite element simulations. Current practice is to obtain flow curves experimentally and to apply fitting procedures to obtain constitutive equations that describe the material response to external loading as a function of temperature and strain rate. Unfortunately, the experimental procedure for characterizing flow curves is complex and expensive, which is why the prediction of flow-curves by computer modelling becomes increasingly important. In the present work, we introduce a state parameter based model that is capable of predicting the flow curves of an A6061 aluminium alloy in different heat-treatment conditions. The model is implemented in the thermo-kinetic software package MatCalc and takes into account precipitation kinetics, subgrain formation, dynamic recovery by spontaneous annihilation and dislocation climb. To validate the simulation results, a series of compression tests is performed on the thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble 1500. (paper)

  11. Experimental characterisation and modelling of deformation- induced microstructure in an A6061 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyca, J. F.; Falahati, A.; Kozeschnik, E.

    2016-03-01

    For industry, the mechanical properties of a material in form of flow curves are essential input data for finite element simulations. Current practice is to obtain flow curves experimentally and to apply fitting procedures to obtain constitutive equations that describe the material response to external loading as a function of temperature and strain rate. Unfortunately, the experimental procedure for characterizing flow curves is complex and expensive, which is why the prediction of flow-curves by computer modelling becomes increasingly important. In the present work, we introduce a state parameter based model that is capable of predicting the flow curves of an A6061 aluminium alloy in different heat-treatment conditions. The model is implemented in the thermo-kinetic software package MatCalc and takes into account precipitation kinetics, subgrain formation, dynamic recovery by spontaneous annihilation and dislocation climb. To validate the simulation results, a series of compression tests is performed on the thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble 1500.

  12. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2014-01-01

    of the brown colour type (N = 140) and the white colour type (N = 60). Twentybrown and 20 white mink (housed in pairs since weaning) were housed individually at theage of 16 weeks. Every second week (at the age of 20, 22, 24, 25 and 28 weeks), four brownand four white mink were subjected to pressure......: (1) experimentally applied pressure on the skin can be recog-nized as bite marks in brown mink at pelting, (2) bite marks are easier to detect on brownmink than on white coloured mink (P ...tFor many years, bite marks have been used as an indicator for aggression in mink productionsystems. However, the validity of bite marks as indicator of aggression has recently beenquestioned. We therefore tested the following hypotheses: (1) experimentally applied pressure to, or penetration of...

  13. Experimental procedures to mitigate electron beam induced artifacts during in situ fluid imaging of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woehl, Taylor J.; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Evans, James E.; Arslan, Ilke; Ristenpart, William D.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-01-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy of various fluid and hydrated nanomaterial samples has revealed multiple imaging artifacts and electron beam–fluid interactions. These phenomena include growth of crystals on the fluid stage windows, repulsion of particles from the irradiated area, bubble formation, and the loss of atomic information during prolonged imaging of individual nanoparticles. Here we provide a comprehensive review of these fluid stage artifacts, and we present new experimental evidence that sheds light on their origins in terms of experimental apparatus issues and indirect electron beam sample interactions with the fluid layer. A key finding is that many artifacts are a result of indirect electron beam interactions, such as production of reactive radicals in the water by radiolysis, and the associated crystal growth. The results presented here will provide a methodology for minimizing fluid stage imaging artifacts and acquiring quantitative in situ observations of nanomaterial behavior in a liquid environment

  14. Experimental procedures to mitigate electron beam induced artifacts during in situ fluid imaging of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehl, Taylor J., E-mail: tjwoehl@ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Jungjohann, Katherine L. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Evans, James E. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Arslan, Ilke [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Ristenpart, William D. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Browning, Nigel D. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy of various fluid and hydrated nanomaterial samples has revealed multiple imaging artifacts and electron beam–fluid interactions. These phenomena include growth of crystals on the fluid stage windows, repulsion of particles from the irradiated area, bubble formation, and the loss of atomic information during prolonged imaging of individual nanoparticles. Here we provide a comprehensive review of these fluid stage artifacts, and we present new experimental evidence that sheds light on their origins in terms of experimental apparatus issues and indirect electron beam sample interactions with the fluid layer. A key finding is that many artifacts are a result of indirect electron beam interactions, such as production of reactive radicals in the water by radiolysis, and the associated crystal growth. The results presented here will provide a methodology for minimizing fluid stage imaging artifacts and acquiring quantitative in situ observations of nanomaterial behavior in a liquid environment.

  15. SPATIAL MEMORY IMPAIRMENT AND HIPPOCAMPAL CELL LOSS INDUCED BY OKADAIC ACID (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chighladze, M; Dashniani, M; Beselia, G; Kruashvili, L; Naneishvili, T

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated and compared effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intrahippocampal bilateral microinjection of okadaic acid (OA) on spatial memory function assessed in one day water maze paradigm and hippocampal structure in rats. Rats were divided in following groups: Control(icv) - rats injected with ICV and aCSF; Control(hipp) - rats injected intrahippocampally with aCSF; OAicv - rats injected with ICV and OA; OAhipp - rats injected intrahippocampally with OA. Nissl staining of hippocampal sections showed that the pyramidal cell loss in OAhipp group is significantly higher than that in the OAicv. The results of behavioral experiments showed that ICV or intrahippocampal bilateral microinjection of OA did not affect learning process and short-term spatial memory but induced impairment in spatial long-term memory assessed in probe test performance 24 h after training. OA-induced spatial memory impairment may be attributed to the hippocampal cell death. Based on these results OA induced memory deficit and hippocampal cell loss in rat may be considered as a potential animal model for preclinical evaluation of antidementic drug activity.

  16. Toxicity to sensory neurons and Schwann cells in experimental linezolid-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Ilja; Maru, Helina; Joshi, Abhijeet R; Lehmann, Helmar C

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect of prolonged treatment with linezolid. This study aimed to explore injurious effects of linezolid on cells of the peripheral nervous system and to establish in vivo and in vitro models of linezolid-induced peripheral neuropathy. C57BL/6 mice were treated with linezolid or vehicle over a total period of 4 weeks. Animals were monitored by weight, nerve conduction studies and behavioural tests. Neuropathic changes were assessed by morphometry on sciatic nerves and epidermal nerve fibre density in skin sections. Rodent sensory neuron and Schwann cell cultures were exposed to linezolid in vitro and assessed for mitochondrial dysfunction. Prolonged treatment with linezolid induced a mild, predominantly small sensory fibre neuropathy in vivo. Exposure of Schwann cells and sensory neurons to linezolid in vitro caused mitochondrial dysfunction primarily in neurons (and less prominently in Schwann cells). Sensory axonopathy could be partially prevented by co-administration of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger blocker KB-R7943. Clinical and pathological features of linezolid-induced peripheral neuropathy can be replicated in in vivo and in vitro models. Mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to the axonal damage to sensory neurons that occurs after linezolid exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Secondary current properties generated by wind-induced water waves in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Sanjou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary currents such as the Langmuir circulation are of high interest in natural rivers and the ocean because they have striking impacts on scour, sedimentation, and mass transport. Basic characteristics have been well-studied in straight open-channel flows. However, little is known regarding secondary circulation induced by wind waves. The presented study describes the generation properties of wind waves observed in the laboratory tank. Wind-induced water waves are known to produce large scale circulations. The phenomenon is observed together with high-speed and low-speed streaks, convergence and divergence zones, respectively. Therefore, it is important to determine the hydrodynamic properties of secondary currents for wind-induced water waves within rivers and lakes. In this study, using two high-speed CMOS cameras, stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements were conducted in order to reveal the distribution of all three components of velocity vectors. The experiments allowed us to investigate the three-dimensional turbulent structure under water waves and the generation mechanism of large-scale circulations. Additionally, a third CMOS camera was used to measure the spanwise profile of thefree-surface elevation. The time-series of velocity components and the free-surface were obtained simultaneously. From our experiments, free-surface variations were found to influence the instantaneous velocity distributions of the cross-sectional plane. We also considered thegeneration process by the phase analysis related to gravity waves and compared the contribution of the apparent stress.

  18. Regulation of adenosine deaminase (ADA) on induced mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) ?

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Dongchun; Zuo, Aijun; Zhao, Ronglan; Shao, Hui; Kaplan, Henry J.; Sun, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine is an important regulator of the immune response and adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibits this regulatory effect by converting adenosine into functionally inactive molecules. Studies have shown that adenosine receptor (AR) agonists can be either anti- or pro-inflammatory. Clarification of the mechanisms that cause these opposing effects should provide a better guide for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we investigated the effect of ADA on the development of experimental autoim...

  19. Experimental and theoretical study of the electron cascade induced in a gas by laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis-Jacquet, Michel.

    1978-10-01

    In a laser gas interaction experiment, first electrons created by multiphoton ionization of atoms gain sufficient energy in the laser E.M. wave to promote collisional ionization of other atoms. An experimental and theoretical study of the electron-neutral atom inverse bremsstrahlung process and the consecutive electron cascade is presented. The main basic idea is to create an initial electron population and to study its evolution versus the photon density. A Boltzman equation including several collision terms can describe such a plasma. The resolution by a general eigen values method shows that the electron density growth rate is inversely proportionnal to both neutral atom density and laser light illumination. Experimental conditions were defined in order to insure negligible secondary mechanisms (multiphoton ionization, diffusion, recombination, ...). Using a macroscopic description of the interaction, the growth rate can be deduced from the experimental results. Values are in a rather good agreement with the theoretical ones. Moreover evidence is given of influence of the excited atoms on the multiplication process [fr

  20. Relationships between respiratory and airway resistances and activity-related dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plantier L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bruno Mahut1,2, Aurore Caumont-Prim3,4, Laurent Plantier1,5, Karine Gillet-Juvin1,6, Etienne Callens1, Olivier Sanchez5,6, Brigitte Chevalier-Bidaud3, Plamen Bokov1, Christophe Delclaux1,5,71Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Physiologie – Clinique de la Dyspnée, F-75015 Paris, France; 2Cabinet La Berma, 4 avenue de la Providence; F-92160 Antony, France; 3AP-HP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Unité d'Épidémiologie et de Recherche Clinique, F-75015 Paris, France; 4INSERM, Centre d'Investigation Épidémiologique 4, F-75015 Paris, France; 5Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine, F-75015 Paris, France; 6AP-HP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Pneumologie; F-75015 Paris, France; 7CIC 9201 Plurithématique, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, F-75015 Paris, FranceBackground: The aims of the study were: (1 to compare numerical parameters of specific airway resistance (total, sRawtot, effective, sRaweff and at 0.5 L • s-1, sRaw0.5 and indices obtained from the forced oscillation technique (FOT: resistance extrapolated at 0 Hz [Rrs0 Hz], mean resistance [Rrsmean], and resistance/frequency slope [Rrsslope] and (2 to assess their relationships with dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: A specific statistical approach, principal component analysis that also allows graphic representation of all correlations between functional parameters was used. A total of 108 patients (mean ± SD age: 65 ± 9 years, 31 women; GOLD stages: I, 14; II, 47; III, 39 and IV, 8 underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, FOT, and Medical Research Council (MRC scale assessments.Results: Principal component analysis determined that the functional parameters were described by three independent dimensions (airway caliber, lung volumes and their combination, specific resistance and that resistance parameters of the two techniques

  1. Hepatoprotective effect of engineered silver nanoparticles coated bioactive compounds against diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis in experimental mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticle based drug delivery can rapidly improves the therapeutic potential of anti-cancer agents. The present study focused to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using aqueous extracts of Andrographis paniculata leaves (ApAgNPs) and Semecarpus anacardium nuts (SaAgNPs) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in mice model. The physico-chemical properties of synthesized AgNPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum, Zeta potential and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectrum revealed a strong peak at 420nm for both SaAgNPs and ApAgNPs. FTIR results exhibited the presence of possible functional groups in the synthesized AgNPs. TEM analysis determined the hexagonal, and spherical shape of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The XRD and SAED pattern confirmed the crystalline nature and crystalline size of the AgNPs. EDX result clearly showed strong silver signals in the range between 2 and 4keV. Zeta potential measurements indicated a sharp peak at -3.93 and -13.8mV for ApAgNPs and SaAgNPs, respectively. DLS measurement expressed the particle size distribution was 70 and 60nm for ApAgNPs and SaAgNPs, respectively. DEN (20mg/kg b.wt.) was subjected to induce liver cancer in mice for 8weeks and treated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. Interestingly, ApAgNPs and SaAgNPs treated DEN induced animal groups show a decreased level of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activity and elevated level of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity over untreated DEN control

  2. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of vitamin D3 protection in experimental prednisolone-induced osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Shymanskyi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is the most common side effect of glucocorticoid (GC therapy. Vitamin D is known to play a crucial role in bone remodeling, but the precise molecular mechanisms of its action on GC-induced impairments of cytokine systems, in particular RANK (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B/RANKL (RANK ligand/OPG (osteoprotegerin, are still controversial. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate GC-induced changes in the RANK/RANKL/OPG system and osteocalcin synthesis in rat bone depending on vitamin D bioavailability and vitamin D receptor (VDR expression. Materials and methods. Female Wistar rats received prednisolone (5 mg/kg b.w. with or without 100 IU of vitamin D3 (for 30 days. The levels of VDR, osteocalcin, RANK, RANKL and OPG in bone tissue were determined by western blotting. Blood serum 25OHD was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of Ca2+, Pi, activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP and its bone isoenzyme were determined using spectrophotometry. Results. Prednisolone significantly lowered 25OHD content in the blood serum and VDR level in bone tissue that has been accompanied by an elevation of the AP bone isoenzyme activity in the blood serum, hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia. A significant decrease in the expression of osteocalcin, a well-known marker of bone formation, was also observed. GC-induced disturbances in vitamin D status led to a reduction of the RANK and OPG level, while RANKL level was unaffected. Vitamin D3 administration restored 25OHD and VDR levels that resulted in amelioration of GC-induced changes in bone tissue and normalization of mineral metabolism through elevation of RANK, OPG and osteocalcin levels. Conclusions. Prednisolone-induced imbalance in the RANK/RANKL/OPG and osteocalcin systems is related to the reduction of vitamin D bioavailability and impairments in VDR signaling. Thus, normalization of vitamin D bioavailability might be perspective in reducing the

  3. Role of TRPV1 and ASIC3 channels in experimental occlusal interference-induced hyperalgesia in rat masseter muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X X; Cao, Y; Ding, T T; Fu, K Y; Li, Y; Xie, Q F

    2016-04-01

    Masticatory muscle pain may occur following immediate occlusal alteration by dental treatment. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channel-3 (ASIC3) mediate muscle hyperalgesia under various pathologic conditions. We have developed a rat model of experimental occlusal interference (EOI) that consistently induces mechanical hyperalgesia in jaw muscles. Whether TRPV1 and ASIC3 mediate this EOI-induced hyperalgesia is unknown. Rat model of EOI-induced masseter hyperalgesia was established. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and retrograde labelling combined with immunofluorescence were performed to evaluate the modulation of TRPV1 and ASIC3 expression in trigeminal ganglia (TGs) and masseter afferents of rats after EOI. The effects of intramuscular administration of TRPV1 and ASIC3 antagonists on the EOI-induced hyperalgesia in masseter muscle were examined. After EOI, gene expressions and protein levels of TRPV1 and ASIC3 in bilateral TGs were up-regulated. The percentage of ASIC3- (but not TRPV1-) positive neurons in masseter afferents increased after EOI. More small-sized and small to medium-sized masseter afferents expressed TRPV1 and ASIC3 separately following EOI. These changes peaked at day 7 and then returned to original status within 10 days after EOI. Intramuscular administration of the TRPV1 antagonist AMG-9810 partially reversed this mechanical hyperalgesia in masseter muscle. No improvement was exhibited after administration of the ASIC3 antagonist APETx2. Co-injection of AMG-9810 and APETx2 enhanced the effect of AMG-9810 administration alone. Peripheral TRPV1 and ASIC3 contribute to the development of the EOI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in masseter muscle. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  4. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Nouzilly (France))

    1990-10-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process.

  5. Determination of ultra-short laser induced damage threshold of KH2PO4 crystal: Numerical calculation and experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth and ultra-precision machining of large-size KDP (KH2PO4 crystals with high laser damage resistance are tough challenges in the development of large laser systems. It is of high interest and practical significance to have theoretical models for scientists and manufacturers to determine the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT of actually prepared KDP optics. Here, we numerically and experimentally investigate the laser-induced damage on KDP crystals in ultra-short pulse laser regime. On basis of the rate equation for free electron generation, a model dedicated to predicting the LIDT is developed by considering the synergistic effect of photoionization, impact ionization and decay of electrons. Laser damage tests are performed to measure the single-pulse LIDT with several testing protocols. The testing results combined with previously reported experimental data agree well with those calculated by the model. By taking the light intensification into consideration, the model is successfully applied to quantitatively evaluate the effect of surface flaws inevitably introduced in the preparation processes on the laser damage resistance of KDP crystals. This work can not only contribute to further understanding of the laser damage mechanisms of optical materials, but also provide available models for evaluating the laser damage resistance of exquisitely prepared optical components used in high power laser systems.

  6. Assessment of efficacy of polaprezinc suppositories against radiation-induced rectal disorders using an experimental rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose/objective of this study was to establish an experimental rat model and examine the efficacy of polaprezinc suppositories against radiation-induced rectal disorders. Female Wister rats (6 weeks old) were used in the present study. The rats were divided into three groups. Group A was irradiated and medicated with polaprezinc suppositories. Group B was irradiated without any medication. Group C had no irradiation or medication. The rat was taped by the tail in the vertical position under anesthesia. Lead shielding was used to cover the rats except the area of the lower pelvis. They were irradiated at 22 Gy by a single fraction. Polaprezinc suppositories were inserted daily into the rat anus for 7 days after irradiation. All rats were evaluated by colonoscopy on the 7th day after irradiation, sacrificed on the 10th day, and evaluated for mucosal damage. In the clinical findings, the endoscopic findings, and the histological findings, the rats not administered polaprezinc suppositories tended to show more severe mucosal damage but there were no significant differences. Our study showed that this model was a useful experimental rat model for radiation-induced rectal disorders and polaprezinc suppositories demonstrated good efficacy against radiation proctitis. (author)

  7. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A.

    1990-01-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract against CCl4 induced acute liver toxicity in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ramesh K; Hussain, Talib; Panigrahi, G; Das, Avik; Singh, Gireesh Narayan; Sweety, K; Faiyazuddin, Md; Rao, Chandana Venkateswara

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) (S. xanthocarpum) in experimental rats to validate its traditional claim. 50% ethanolic fruit extract of S. xanthocarpum (SXE, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight) was administered daily for 14 days in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl(4) administration (1 mL/kg i. p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Serum alkaline phosphatise (SALP) and total bilirubin. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were screened along with histopathological studies. Obtained results demonstrated that the treatment with SXE significantly (P<0.05-<0.001) and dose-dependently prevented chemically induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, SXE significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and catalase towards normal levels. Histopathology of the liver tissue showed that SXE attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis and led to reduction of inflammatory cells inflltration. The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of SXE against acute liver injury which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity, and there by scientifically support its traditional use. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimentally induced thyrotoxicosis leads to increased connectivity in temporal lobe structures: a resting state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttlich, Martin; Heldmann, Marcus; Göbel, Anna; Dirk, Anna-Luise; Brabant, Georg; Münte, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    Adult onset hyperthyroidism may impact on different cognitive domains, including attention and concentration, memory, perceptual function, language and executive function. Previous PET studies implicated changed functionality of limbic regions, the temporal and frontal lobes in hyperthyroidism, whereas it is unknown whether cognitive effects of hyperthyroidism may be due to changed brain connectivity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of experimentally induced short-term hyperthyroidism thyrotoxicosis on resting-state functional connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-nine healthy male right-handed subjects were examined twice, once prior and once after 8 weeks of oral administration of 250 μg levothyroxine per day. Resting-state fMRI was subjected to graph-theory based analysis methods to investigate whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity. Despite a lack of subjective changes noticed by the subjects significant thyrotoxicosis was confirmed in all subjects. This induced a significant increase in resting-state functional connectivity specifically in the rostral temporal lobes (0.05 FDR corrected at the cluster level), which is caused by an increased connectivity to the cognitive control network. The increased connectivity between temporal poles and the cognitive control network shown here under experimental conditions supports an important function of thyroid hormones in the regulation of paralimbic structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Oxysterol-Induced Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Experimental Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Sonia; Alejandre, M. José; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Torres, Carolina; Iglesias, Jose; Linares, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) undergo changes related to proliferation and apoptosis in the physiological remodeling of vessels and in diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Recent studies also have demonstrated the vascular cell proliferation and programmed cell death contribute to changes in vascular architecture in normal development and in disease. The present study was designed to investigate the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol in SMCs cultures, using an in vivo/in vitro cell model in which SMCs were isolated and culture from chicken exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet (SMC-Ch) and/or an antiatherogenic fish oil-rich diet (SMC-Ch-FO). Cells were exposed in vitro to 25-hydroxycholesterol to study levels of apoptosis and apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bax and the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL, genes. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and the Immunoblotting western blot analysis showed that 25-hydroxycholesterol produces apoptosis in SMCs, mediated by a high increase in Bax protein and Bax gene expression. These changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-Ch-FO, indicating that dietary cholesterol produces changes in SMCs that make them more susceptible to 25-hydroxycholesterol-mediated apoptosis. Our results suggest that the replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of cholesterol-induced changes in the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol in SMCs cultures, making SMCs more resistant to apoptosis. PMID:19727411

  11. Effect of Oxysterol-Induced Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Experimental Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Perales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle cells (SMCs undergo changes related to proliferation and apoptosis in the physiological remodeling of vessels and in diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Recent studies also have demonstrated the vascular cell proliferation and programmed cell death contribute to changes in vascular architecture in normal development and in disease. The present study was designed to investigate the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol in SMCs cultures, using an in vivo/in vitro cell model in which SMCs were isolated and culture from chicken exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet (SMC-Ch and/or an antiatherogenic fish oil-rich diet (SMC-Ch-FO. Cells were exposed in vitro to 25-hydroxycholesterol to study levels of apoptosis and apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bax and the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL, genes. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and the Immunoblotting western blot analysis showed that 25-hydroxycholesterol produces apoptosis in SMCs, mediated by a high increase in Bax protein and Bax gene expression. These changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-Ch-FO, indicating that dietary cholesterol produces changes in SMCs that make them more susceptible to 25-hydroxycholesterol-mediated apoptosis. Our results suggest that the replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of cholesterol-induced changes in the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol in SMCs cultures, making SMCs more resistant to apoptosis.

  12. Preventive activity of banana peel polyphenols on CCl4-induced experimental hepatic injury in Kunming mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Xin; Suo, Huayi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of banana peel polyphenols (BPPs) against hepatic injury. Mice were divide into normal, control, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg banana peel polyphenol and silymarin groups. All the mice except normal mice were induced with hepatic damage using CCl 4 . The serum and tissue levels of mice were determined by a kit and the tissues were further examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. BPPs reduced the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in a CCl 4 -induced mouse model of hepatic injury. Furthermore, BPPs reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and triglyceride, while increasing glutathione levels in the serum and liver tissues of mice. In addition, the effects of 200 mg/kg treatment were more evident, and these effects were comparable to those of the drug silymarin. Serum levels of the cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon-γ, were reduced in the mice treated with BPPs compared with injury control group mice, and these levels were comparable to those of the normal and silymarin-treated groups. Histopathological examination indicated that BPPs were able to reduce the extent of CCl 4 -induced liver tissue injury and protect the liver cells. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of the inflammation-associated factors cyclooxygenase-2, nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α and IL-1β were reduced in mice treated with BPPs compared with the control group mice. Mice that received 200 mg/kg BPP exhibited reduced expression levels of these factors compared with mice that received 100 mg/kg BPP. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that BPPs exert a good preventive effect against hepatic injury.

  13. An experimental study of the neurophysical mechanisms of photophobia induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Nazan; Kotan, Dilcan; Keles, Sadullah; Ondas, Osman; Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Baykal, Orhan; Gundogdu, Betul

    2016-09-06

    Photophobia is defined as a painful psychosomatic discomfort triggered by intense light flow through the pupils to the brain, but the exact mechanism through which photophobia is induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether there was any relationship between the mydriasis induced by the degeneration of the ciliary ganglion (CG) and photophobia in instances of SAH. Five of a total of 25 rabbits were used as the intact control group; five were used in the sham-operated control group; and the remaining 15 were used as the SAH group, which was created by injecting autologous blood into their cisterna magna. All animals were examined daily for 20days to evaluate their level of photophobia, after which their brains, CGs and superior cervical ganglia (SCGs) were extracted bilaterally. The densities of normal and degenerated neurons in these ganglia were examined by stereological methods. In SAH animals with a high photophobia score, the mean pupil diameter and density of degenerated neurons density in the CG were greater than in cases with a low photophobia score (p<0.05). Further analysis revealed that the increase in the density of degenerated neurons in the CG following SAH resulted in the paralysis of the parasympathetic pathway of the pupillary muscles and mydriasis, which facilitates the excessive transfer of light to the brain and photophobia. Our findings indicate that SAH results in a high density of degenerated neurons in the CG, which induces mydriasis and is an important factor in the onset of photophobia. This phenomenon is likely due to more light energy being transferred through mydriatic pupils to the brain, resulting in vasospasm of the supplying arteries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Roles of inflammation and apoptosis in experimental brain death-induced right ventricular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Asmae; Dewachter, Laurence; Rorive, Sandrine; Remmelink, Myriam; Weynand, Birgit; Melot, Christian; Galanti, Laurence; Hupkens, Emeline; Sprockeels, Thomas; Dewachter, Céline; Creteur, Jacques; McEntee, Kathleen; Naeije, Robert; Rondelet, Benoît

    2016-12-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction remains the leading cause of early death after cardiac transplantation. Methylprednisolone is used to improve graft quality; however, evidence for that remains empirical. We sought to determine whether methylprednisolone, acting on inflammation and apoptosis, might prevent brain death-induced RV dysfunction. After randomization to placebo (n = 11) or to methylprednisolone (n = 8; 15 mg/kg), 19 pigs were assigned to a brain-death procedure. The animals underwent hemodynamic evaluation at 1 and 5 hours after Cushing reflex (i.e., hypertension and bradycardia). The animals euthanized, and myocardial tissue was sampled. This was repeated in a control group (n = 8). At 5 hours after the Cushing reflex, brain death resulted in increased pulmonary artery pressure (27 ± 2 vs 18 ± 1 mm Hg) and in a 30% decreased ratio of end-systolic to pulmonary arterial elastances (Ees/Ea). Cardiac output and right atrial pressure did not change. This was prevented by methylprednisolone. Brain death-induced RV dysfunction was associated with increased RV expression of heme oxygenase-1, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1 receptor-like (ST)-2, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, intercellular adhesion molecules-1 and -2, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and neutrophil infiltration, whereas IL-33 expression decreased. RV apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxy uridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining. Methylprednisolone pre-treatment prevented RV-arterial uncoupling and decreased RV expression of TNF-α, IL-1 receptor-like-2, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and neutrophil infiltration. RV Ees/Ea was inversely correlated to RV TNF-α and IL-6 expression. Brain death-induced RV dysfunction is associated with RV activation of inflammation and apoptosis and is partly limited by methylprednisolone. Copyright © 2016

  15. Preventive effects of lignan extract from flax hulls on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Simons, Rudy; Verbruggen, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of diet rich in lignans may decrease the risk of some chronic hormonal conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated whether a lignan-rich extract from flaxseed hulls, LinumLife EXTRA (LLE), could prevent BPH using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 rats each: a negative control group fed with control diet and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of corn oil without TP, and three groups fed with control diet (positive control), diet containing 0.5% LLE (LLE 0.5) or 1.0% LLE (LLE 1.0) and receiving daily subcutaneous injections of TP in corn oil. Treatments with diets started 2 weeks before the induction of BPH and were carried out for 5 consecutive weeks. The influence of TP and LLE on body weight (BW), food and water consumptions, and enterolactone (ENL) levels in serum and urine of rats was examined at the end of the 5-week treatment period. TP significantly diminished the mean body weight gain (MBWG) of positive control rats and their food and water consumptions while LLE reduced significantly this MBWG reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The lignan-rich extract significantly inhibited TP-induced prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat BW) increase in comparison with positive controls (P<.001). This effect was dose dependent. Higher serum and urine levels of ENL correlated well with the dose of extract provided to rats. It was concluded that the lignan-rich flaxseed hull extract prevented the TP-induced BPH indicating it might be beneficial in the prevention of BPH.

  16. Dynamic Ocular Surface and Lacrimal Gland Changes Induced in Experimental Murine Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bing; Wang, Yu; Reinach, Peter S.; Ren, Yueping; Li, Jinyang; Hua, Shanshan; Lu, Huihui; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease can be a consequence of lacrimal gland insufficiency in Sjögren’s Syndrome or increased tear film evaporation despite normal lacrimal gland function. To determine if there is a correlation between severity effects in these models and underlying pathophysiological responses, we compared the time dependent changes in each of these parameters that occur during a 6 week period. Dry eye was induced in 6-week-old female C57BL/6 mice by exposing them to an Intelligently Controlled Environmental System (ICES). Sixty mice were housed in ICES for 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Twelve were raised in normal environment and received subcutaneous injections of scopolamine hydrobromide (SCOP) 3 times daily for 5 days. Another sixty mice were housed in a normal environment and received no treatment. Corneal fluorescein staining along with corneal MMP-9 and caspase-3 level measurements were performed in parallel with the TUNEL assay. Interleukin-17(IL-17), IL-23, IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β2 levels were estimated by real-time PCR measurements of conjunctival and lacrimal gland samples (LGs). Immunohistochemistry of excised LGs along with flow cytometry in cervical lymph nodes evaluated immune cell infiltration. Light and transmission electron microscopy studies evaluated LGs cytoarchitectural changes. ICES induced corneal epithelial destruction and apoptosis peaked at 2 weeks and kept stable in the following 4 weeks. In the ICES group, lacrimal gland proinflammatory cytokine level increases were much lower than those in the SCOP group. In accord with the lower proinflammatory cytokine levels, in the ICES group, lacrimal gland cytosolic vesicular density and size exceeded that in the SCOP group. ICES and SCOP induced murine dry eye effects became progressively more severe over a two week period. Subsequently, the disease process stabilized for the next four weeks. ICES induced local effects in the ocular surface, but failed to elicit lacrimal gland

  17. Dynamic ocular surface and lacrimal gland changes induced in experimental murine dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bing; Wang, Yu; Reinach, Peter S; Ren, Yueping; Li, Jinyang; Hua, Shanshan; Lu, Huihui; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease can be a consequence of lacrimal gland insufficiency in Sjögren's Syndrome or increased tear film evaporation despite normal lacrimal gland function. To determine if there is a correlation between severity effects in these models and underlying pathophysiological responses, we compared the time dependent changes in each of these parameters that occur during a 6 week period. Dry eye was induced in 6-week-old female C57BL/6 mice by exposing them to an Intelligently Controlled Environmental System (ICES). Sixty mice were housed in ICES for 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Twelve were raised in normal environment and received subcutaneous injections of scopolamine hydrobromide (SCOP) 3 times daily for 5 days. Another sixty mice were housed in a normal environment and received no treatment. Corneal fluorescein staining along with corneal MMP-9 and caspase-3 level measurements were performed in parallel with the TUNEL assay. Interleukin-17(IL-17), IL-23, IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β2 levels were estimated by real-time PCR measurements of conjunctival and lacrimal gland samples (LGs). Immunohistochemistry of excised LGs along with flow cytometry in cervical lymph nodes evaluated immune cell infiltration. Light and transmission electron microscopy studies evaluated LGs cytoarchitectural changes. ICES induced corneal epithelial destruction and apoptosis peaked at 2 weeks and kept stable in the following 4 weeks. In the ICES group, lacrimal gland proinflammatory cytokine level increases were much lower than those in the SCOP group. In accord with the lower proinflammatory cytokine levels, in the ICES group, lacrimal gland cytosolic vesicular density and size exceeded that in the SCOP group. ICES and SCOP induced murine dry eye effects became progressively more severe over a two week period. Subsequently, the disease process stabilized for the next four weeks. ICES induced local effects in the ocular surface, but failed to elicit lacrimal gland

  18. Experimental study on the kinetically induced electronic excitation in atomic collisional cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.

    2006-01-01

    the present thesis deals with the ion-collision-induced electronic excitation of metallic solids. For this for the first time metal-insulator-metal layer systems are used for the detection of this electronic excitation. The here applied aluminium/aluminium oxide/silver layer sytems have barrier heights of 2.4 eV on the aluminium respectively 3.3 eV on the silver side. With the results it could uniquely be shown that the electronic excitation is generated by kinetic processes, this excitation dependenc on the kinetic energy of the colliding particles, and the excitation dependes on the charge state of the projectile

  19. Nature of the Refractive Errors in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Experimentally Induced Ametropias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao-Grider, Ying; Hung, Li-Fang; Kee, Chea-su; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Smith, Earl L.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the contribution of individual ocular components to vision-induced ametropias in 210 rhesus monkeys. The primary contribution to refractive-error development came from vitreous chamber depth; a minor contribution from corneal power was also detected. However, there was no systematic relationship between refractive error and anterior chamber depth or between refractive error and any crystalline lens parameter. Our results are in good agreement with previous studies in humans, suggesting that the refractive errors commonly observed in humans are created by vision-dependent mechanisms that are similar to those operating in monkeys. This concordance emphasizes the applicability of rhesus monkeys in refractive-error studies. PMID:20600237

  20. Experimental study of icariin on vascular dementia in rats induced by 2-VO method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-xiaXU; QinWU; Jing-shanSHI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of icariin (ICA) on the learning and memory of ischemic vascular dementia (VD) model of rats,and explore the protective mechanisms. METHODS: ICA was administered to the VD model rats induced by a permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotids arteries(2-VO method) and by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I10-R 10-110 method). Morris water maze was used to examine the abilities of spatial learning and memory of VD model rats. The activity of SOD, level of

  1. An experimental investigation on the properties of laser-induced plasma emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoshuan; Li Chunyan; Ji Xuehan; Feng Eryin; Cui Zhifeng

    2004-01-01

    The authors have measured the time-resolved emission spectra produced by Nd: YAG laser induced Al plasma with different kinds of buffer gas (He, Ar, N 2 and Air). The dependence of emission spectra line intensity and Stark broadening on the time delay, kinds and pressure of buffer gas are studied. The results show that the atomic emission line intensity reaches maximum at 3 μs time delay, the Stark broadening increases with increasing the pressure of buffer gas, and decreases with increasing time delay. The Stark broadening in Ar buffer gas is largest among the four different kinds of buffer gas. (author)

  2. Experimental and numerical characterization of wind-induced pressure coefficients on nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.ricciardi@irsn.fr; Gélain, Thomas; Soares, Sandrine

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Experiments on scale models of nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts were performed. • Pressure coefficient fields on buildings are shown for various wind directions. • Evolution of pressure coefficient vs U/W ratio is given for various chimney exhausts. • RANS simulations using SST k–ω turbulence model were performed on most studied cases. • A good agreement is overall observed, with Root Mean Square Deviation lower than 0.15. - Abstract: Wind creates pressure effects on different surfaces of buildings according to their exposure to the wind, in particular at external communications. In nuclear facilities, these effects can change contamination transfers inside the building and can even lead to contamination release into the environment, especially in damaged (ventilation stopped) or accidental situations. The diversity of geometries of facilities requires the use of a validated code for predicting pressure coefficients, which characterize the wind effect on the building walls and the interaction between the wind and chimney exhaust. The first aim of a research program launched by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), was therefore to acquire experimental data of the mean pressure coefficients for different geometries of buildings and chimneys through wind tunnel tests and then to validate a CFD code (ANSYS CFX) from these experimental results. The simulations were performed using a steady RANS approach and a two-equation SST k–ω turbulence model. After a mesh sensitivity study for one configuration of building and chimney, a comparison was carried out between the numerical and experimental values for other studied configurations. This comparison was generally satisfactory, averaged over all measurement points, with values of Root Mean Square Deviations lower than 0.15 for most cases.

  3. Experimental study of the deuteron induced deuteron break-up at low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocu, F.; Ambrosino, G.; Guerreau, D.; Lachkar, J.

    1974-07-01

    The quasi-free scattering process has been studied from the d + D -> n + p + D reaction at 6 deuteron energies between 6.77 MeV to 11.7 MeV in steps of 1 MeV. Coincident events between neutron and charged-particle pulses (emitted protons or deuterons) have been recorded at angles of {theta}{sub p} = {theta}{sub d} = 19 deg 5 and {theta}{sub n} = 330 deg. Some calculations using the plane wave approximation account for the shape of the experimental cross sections but not for their magnitude. Two kinds of nucleon-nucleon forces are used and discussed.

  4. Experimental and clinical studies with radiofrequency-induced thermal endometrial ablation for functional menorrhagia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, J.H.; Lewis, B.V.; Prior, M.V.; Roberts, T. (Watford General Hospital, Herts (England))

    1990-11-01

    A method of ablating the endometrium has been introduced into clinical practice that uses radiofrequency electromagnetic energy to heat the endometrium, using a probe inserted through the cervix. Preliminary studies suggest that over 80% of patients treated will develop either amenorrhea or a significant reduction in flow. The advantages of radiofrequency endometrial ablation over laser ablation or resection are the avoidance of intravascular fluid absorption, simplicity (no special operative hysteroscopic skills are required), speed of operation, and reduced cost compared with the Nd:YAG laser. In this paper, we describe the experimental studies performed during development of this new technique.

  5. Experimental Evidence for Quantum Interference and Vibrationally Induced Decoherence in Single-Molecule Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, Stefan; Härtle, Rainer; Coto, Pedro B.; Elbing, Mark; Mayor, Marcel; Bryce, Martin R.; Thoss, Michael; Weber, Heiko B.

    2012-08-01

    We analyze quantum interference and decoherence effects in single-molecule junctions both experimentally and theoretically by means of the mechanically controlled break junction technique and density-functional theory. We consider the case where interference is provided by overlapping quasidegenerate states. Decoherence mechanisms arising from electronic-vibrational coupling strongly affect the electrical current flowing through a single-molecule contact and can be controlled by temperature variation. Our findings underline the universal relevance of vibrations for understanding charge transport through molecular junctions.

  6. Experimental study of the protective effects of Zhongfei decoction on radiation-induced pneumonia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuezhen; Ma Shenglin; Zhang Aiqin; Feng Jianguo; Fang Xianhua; Sun Xiaojiang; Bao Yejiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect and its possible mechanism of ZhongFei Decoction on radiation-induced pneumonia in rats. Methods: Single irradiation was given at two thorax of female Wistar rats with 30 Gy of 6 MV X irradiation. Sixty rats were randomly divided into the control group, radiation group, radiation plus DXM and ZhongFei Decoction plus radiation group. On days 14 and 28 after treatment, 5 rats of each group were sacrificed, and their lungs were harvested for measurement of the lung index, the difference of the histopathology change, the concentration of hydroxyproline (hyp), and expression of transforming growth factor-β1 in lungs were analyzed by HE stain, biochemical method and immunohistochemical method, respectively. Results: The pathological study showed marked lung injury in the radiation group while only slight hyperemia hemorrhage, exudation and thickness of alveolar walls in the lungs of ZhongFei Decoction plus radiation group, the concentration of hydroxyproline and expression of TGF-β1 in the radiation lungs increased compared with that in the control group and reduced in the ZhongFei Decoction plus radiation group compared with that in the radiation group. Conclusions: ZhongFei Decoction could have protective effects on the radiation-induced pneumonia and the mechanism of its may be related with down-regulating the expression of TGF-β1 in the irritated lung tissue. (authors)

  7. Experimental study on early detection of alloxan-induced pulmonary injury by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awai, Kazuo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Susumu; Fujikawa, Koichi; Utsumi, Toshio; Kajima, Toshio; Azuma, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Katsuhide.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the early detection of alloxan-induced pulmonary injury by magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Permeability edema was induced in ten rats by intravenous injection of alloxan at 100 mg/Kg. T1-and T2-weighted images were acquired in five rats every 30 min for 120 min after alloxan injection. Five rats served as controls. The rats were sacrificed immediately after imaging and examined microscopically. CT images were also acquired in five rats every 30 min for 120 min after alloxan injection. Five rats served as controls. The rats were sacrificed immediately after imaging, and the wet-to-dry ratio of the lung was measured. In T1-weighted images, relative signal intensity from the lung with permeability edema rose from 30 min to 120 min, and was greater than that from normal lung every time. In T2-weighted images, there was no statistically significant difference in relative signal intensity of the lung between permeability edema and the control during 120 min. In CT images, there was also no statistically significant difference in lung density between permeability edema and the control during 120 min. There was no statistically significant difference in the wet-to-dry lung ratio between edematous lung and normal lung. In histological study, mild congestion and interstitial edema were observed in edematous lung. These results suggest the potential capability of MR imaging in detecting the early phase of permeability pulmonary edema. (author)

  8. Gastrointestinal protective effect of dietary spices during ethanol-induced oxidant stress in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Usha N S; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2010-04-01

    Spices are traditionally known to have digestive stimulant action and to cure digestive disorders. In this study, the protective effect of dietary spices with respect to activities of antioxidant enzymes in gastric and intestinal mucosa was examined. Groups of Wistar rats were fed for 8 weeks with diets containing black pepper (0.5%), piperine (0.02%), red pepper (3.0%), capsaicin (0.01%), and ginger (0.05%). All these spices significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase--in both gastric and intestinal mucosa, suggesting a gastrointestinal protective role for these spices. In a separate study, these dietary spices were found to alleviate the diminished activities of antioxidant enzymes in gastric and intestinal mucosa under conditions of ethanol-induced oxidative stress. The gastroprotective effect of the spices was also reflected in their positive effect on mucosal glycoproteins, thereby lowering mucosal injury. The amelioration of the ethanol-induced decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in gastric and intestinal mucosa by dietary spices suggests their beneficial gastrointestinal protective role. This is the first report on the gastrointestinal protective potential of dietary spices.

  9. Effects of Rhizophora mangle on Experimental Colitis Induced by TNBS in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Meira de Faria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Male Unib-WH rats were pretreated for two weeks with butanolic (BuOH and ethyl acetate (EtOAc fractions. Colitis was induced by rectal administration of TNBS, the treatment continued, and animals were sacrificed on day 7 after the TNBS administration. Phytochemical studies were performed in order to provide the characterization of the tannins present in the bark of R. mangle. Results showed that EtOAc fraction increased the levels of IL-10 (**P<0.01 and diminished the levels of TNF-α (***P<0.001 and IL-6 (**P<0.01. BuOH fraction reduced the MPO activity (**P<0.01 and levels of TBARS (***P<0.001; it also increased COX-1 expression, diminished the levels of TNF-α (***P<0.001, and increased the levels of IL-12 (***P<0.001. Besides, both treatments augmented the levels of GSH (*P<0.05, the activity of GSH-Px (**P<0.01 for BuOH fraction and ***P<0.001 for EtOAc fraction, and CAT (**P<0.01. In conclusion, both treatments ameliorated the injury induced by TNBS through different mechanisms, probably by their chemical composition which directed its activity into an antioxidant or anti-inflammatory response, leading to an immune modulation.

  10. Acoustic radiation force induced resonance elastography of coagulating blood: theoretical viscoelasticity modeling and ex vivo experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Manish; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Destrempes, François; Chayer, Boris; Kazemirad, Siavash; Cloutier, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Deep vein thrombosis is a common vascular disease that can lead to pulmonary embolism and death. The early diagnosis and clot age staging are important parameters for reliable therapy planning. This article presents an acoustic radiation force induced resonance elastography method for the viscoelastic characterization of clotting blood. The physical concept of this method relies on the mechanical resonance of the blood clot occurring at specific frequencies. Resonances are induced by focusing ultrasound beams inside the sample under investigation. Coupled to an analytical model of wave scattering, the ability of the proposed method to characterize the viscoelasticity of a mimicked venous thrombosis in the acute phase is demonstrated. Experiments with a gelatin-agar inclusion sample of known viscoelasticity are performed for validation and establishment of the proof of concept. In addition, an inversion method is applied in vitro for the kinetic monitoring of the blood coagulation process of six human blood samples obtained from two volunteers. The computed elasticity and viscosity values of blood samples at the end of the 90 min kinetics were estimated at 411  ±  71 Pa and 0.25  ±  0.03 Pa · s for volunteer #1, and 387  ±  35 Pa and 0.23  ±  0.02 Pa · s for volunteer #2, respectively. The proposed method allowed reproducible time-varying thrombus viscoelastic measurements from samples having physiological dimensions.

  11. An experimental investigation of pneumatic swirl flow induced by a three lobed helical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokeer, S.; Lowndes, I.; Kingman, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the results and conclusions drawn from a series of experiments conducted to investigate the swirl flow that are generated by a three lobed helical pipe mounted within a laboratory scale pneumatic conveying rig. The experiments employed Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) to quantify the strength of the induced vortex formations and the decay rates of the observed downstream swirl flows over a range of Reynolds number in the turbulent regime. Instantaneous point velocity measurements were resolved in three directions across regular measurement grids transcribed across parallel planes located at four distances downstream of the swirl inducing pipe section. The equivalent axial, radial and tangential velocities were subsequently computed at these grids points. The degree of swirl measured across each measurement plane was expressed in terms of a defined swirl number. It was concluded that the three lobed helical pipe gave rise to a wall jet type of swirl whose rate of observed downstream decay is related to the Reynolds number of the upstream flow and the distance downstream of the swirl pipe. The decay rates for the swirl flows were found to be inversely proportional to the Reynolds number of the upstream flow. The swirl pipe was observed to create a redistribution of the downstream velocity field from axial to tangential, accompanied by a transfer of axial to angular momentum. The findings of this paper are believed to improve understanding to assist the selective use of swirl flow within lean phase particles pneumatic transport systems.

  12. An experimental investigation of pneumatic swirl flow induced by a three lobed helical pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokeer, S. [Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, University of Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: S.Fokeer@lboro.ac.uk; Lowndes, I.; Kingman, S. [Division of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents a discussion of the results and conclusions drawn from a series of experiments conducted to investigate the swirl flow that are generated by a three lobed helical pipe mounted within a laboratory scale pneumatic conveying rig. The experiments employed Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) to quantify the strength of the induced vortex formations and the decay rates of the observed downstream swirl flows over a range of Reynolds number in the turbulent regime. Instantaneous point velocity measurements were resolved in three directions across regular measurement grids transcribed across parallel planes located at four distances downstream of the swirl inducing pipe section. The equivalent axial, radial and tangential velocities were subsequently computed at these grids points. The degree of swirl measured across each measurement plane was expressed in terms of a defined swirl number. It was concluded that the three lobed helical pipe gave rise to a wall jet type of swirl whose rate of observed downstream decay is related to the Reynolds number of the upstream flow and the distance downstream of the swirl pipe. The decay rates for the swirl flows were found to be inversely proportional to the Reynolds number of the upstream flow. The swirl pipe was observed to create a redistribution of the downstream velocity field from axial to tangential, accompanied by a transfer of axial to angular momentum. The findings of this paper are believed to improve understanding to assist the selective use of swirl flow within lean phase particles pneumatic transport systems.

  13. Hepatoprotective effects of parsley, basil, and chicory aqueous extracts against dexamethasone-induced in experimental rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hanan A.; El-Desouky, Mohamed A.; Hozayen, Walaa G.; Ahmed, Rasha R.; Khaliefa, Amal K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along with three different plant extracts of parsley, basil, and chicory (2 g/kg b. wt.), (400 mg/kg b. wt.), and (100 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively. Results: All these groups were treated given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Dex-induced alterations in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular indices and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, liver thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) levels increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and liver glutathione (GSH) levels decreased. On the other hand, plant extracts succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from Dex as indicated by the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, TBARS, and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Conclusions: It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley, basil, and chicory extracts have hepatoprotective effects in Dex-induced in rats. PMID:27069727

  14. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: an experimental model in the old rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Chen, QI Ming; Boisserie, Gilbert; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Poisson, Michel; Baillet, Francois; Le Poncin, Monique; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Results: Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p {<=} 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p {<=} 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p {<=} 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Conclusion: Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes.

  15. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: an experimental model in the old rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Chen, QI Ming; Boisserie, Gilbert; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Poisson, Michel; Baillet, Francois; Le Poncin, Monique; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Results: Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p ≤ 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p ≤ 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p ≤ 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Conclusion: Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes

  16. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: An experimental model in the old rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, I.; Chen, Q.M.; Poisson, M.

    1995-01-01

    To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p ≤ 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p ≤ 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p ≤ 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Protective Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Nancy Sayuri; Silva-Filho, Saulo Euclides; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Wiirzler, Luiz Alexandre Marques; Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; Cavalcante, Heitor Augusto Otaviano; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Becker, Tânia Cristina Alexandrino; Silva, Expedito Leite; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus or lemongrass essential oil (LGO), it was used in an animal model of acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Swiss mice were pretreated with LGO (125, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and SLM (standard drug, 200[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for a duration of seven days, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity of APAP (single dose, 250[Formula: see text]mg/kg). The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of the LGO. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide (NO) production and histological analysis. The effect of LGO on leukocyte migration was evaluated in vitro. Anti-oxidant activity was performed by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro. LGO pretreatment decreased significantly the levels of ALT, AST and ALP compared with APAP group. MPO activity and NO production were decreased. The histopathological analysis showed an improved of hepatic lesions in mice after LGO pretreatment. LGO inhibited neutrophil migration and exhibited anti-oxidant activity. Our results suggest that LGO has protective activity against liver toxicity induced by paracetamol.

  18. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  19. Hematological Changes Induced by Mercury Ions and Ionizing Radiation in Experimental Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Yun-Jong; Choi, Dae-Seong; Kim, Ji-Hyang; Cebulska-Wasilewska, Antonina

    2006-01-01

    Toxic metals such as lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are widely found in our environment. Humans are exposed to these metals from numerous sources, including contaminated air, water, soil and food. Mercury, one of the most diffused and hazardous organ specific environmental contaminants, exists in a wide variety of physical and chemical states, each of which has unique characteristics for a target organ specificity. Although reports indicate that mercury induces deleterious damage, little is known about its effects on living organisms. Ionizing radiation, an extensively used therapeutic modality in oncology, not only eradicates neoplastic cells but also generates inevitable side effects for normal tissues. Such biological effects are made through the production of reactive oxygen species which include a superoxide anion, a hydroxyl radical and a hydrogen peroxide. These reactive species may contribute to the radiation-induced cytotoxicity (e.g., chromosome aberrations, protein oxidation, and muscle injury) and to the metabolic and morphologic changes (e.g., increased muscle proteolysis and changes in the central nervous system) in animals and humans. In the present study, radioimmunoassay of the cortisol in the serum and the analysis of the hematological components and enzymes related to a tissue injury were carried out to evaluate the effects of mercury chloride in comparison with those of ionizing radiation

  20. Effects of Three Different Fibrates on Intrahepatic Cholestasis Experimentally Induced in Rats

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    Alaa El-Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Activation of PPARα modulates cholesterol metabolism and suppresses bile acid synthesis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of PPARα agonists, fenofibrate, bezafibrate, and gemfibrozil, on acute cholestasis induced by ethinylestradiol (EE plus chlorpromazine (CPZ in rats. Method. 100 male albino rats (150–200 gm were divided randomly into 10 equal groups. Control group received 1% methylcellulose vehicle; disease group received CPZ plus EE for 5 consecutive days; four groups received either ursodeoxycholic acid, fenofibrate, bezafibrate, or gemfibrozil for 7 days; 2 days before EE + CPZ, three other groups received one of the three fibrates after GW6471, a selective PPARα antagonist in addition to EE + CPZ. The final group received GW6471 alone. Results. The three fibrates showed marked reduction ( in serum levels of ALP, GGT, ALT, AST, total bile acids, bilirubin, TNFα, and IL-1β and in hepatic malondialdehyde level as well as a significant increase in bile flow rate ( in addition to improvements in histopathological parameters compared to diseased group. In groups which received GW6471, these effects were completely abolished with fenofibrate and partially blocked with bezafibrate and gemfibrozil. Conclusion. Short-term administration of fibrates to EE/CPZ-induced intrahepatic cholestatic rats exerted beneficial effects on hepatocellular damage and apoptosis. Fenofibrate anticholestatic effect was solely PPARα dependent while other mechanisms played part in bezafibrate and gemfibrozil actions.

  1. An experimental study on renal damage induced by ionic contrast media in relation to iodine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Yang, Moon Ho

    1990-01-01

    Renal injury caused by iodinated contrast media has been widely known, but there has been few papers regarding the pathological change. A series of kidneys after injection of iodinated contrast media was examined to document pathological change. A total of 80 rats was divided into two groups; those given Urografin-60% by 5ml/kg; those given Urografin-76% by 5ml/kg. The kidneys were removed out 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days after injection of contrast media and microscopically examined. The resulted were as follows: 1. Pathological changes induced by ionic contrast media were deposition of proteinaceous materials in the proximal convoluted tubules, congestion of interstitial vessels, and vasa rectae, and epithelial degeneration of collecting ducts. There was no detectable pathological changes in the glomerulus, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubules. 2. All pathological changes were severe, as the concentration of contrast media increased. 3. These pathologic changes appeared 1 day after injection of contrast media and persisted at least 3 weeks without improvement. Author concludes that the renal damage induced by ionic contrast media becomes severe with increase in concentration, and pathologic changes are not influence with time interval

  2. Hematological Changes Induced by Mercury Ions and Ionizing Radiation in Experimental Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Yun-Jong; Choi, Dae-Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji-Hyang [Biotechnology Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cebulska-Wasilewska, Antonina [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    Toxic metals such as lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are widely found in our environment. Humans are exposed to these metals from numerous sources, including contaminated air, water, soil and food. Mercury, one of the most diffused and hazardous organ specific environmental contaminants, exists in a wide variety of physical and chemical states, each of which has unique characteristics for a target organ specificity. Although reports indicate that mercury induces deleterious damage, little is known about its effects on living organisms. Ionizing radiation, an extensively used therapeutic modality in oncology, not only eradicates neoplastic cells but also generates inevitable side effects for normal tissues. Such biological effects are made through the production of reactive oxygen species which include a superoxide anion, a hydroxyl radical and a hydrogen peroxide. These reactive species may contribute to the radiation-induced cytotoxicity (e.g., chromosome aberrations, protein oxidation, and muscle injury) and to the metabolic and morphologic changes (e.g., increased muscle proteolysis and changes in the central nervous system) in animals and humans. In the present study, radioimmunoassay of the cortisol in the serum and the analysis of the hematological components and enzymes related to a tissue injury were carried out to evaluate the effects of mercury chloride in comparison with those of ionizing radiation.

  3. Characterization of vascular complications in experimental model of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassossy, Hany M; Dsokey, Nora; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Vascular dysfunction is an important complication associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). Here we fully characterized vascular complications in a rat model of fructose-induced MS. MS was induced by adding fructose (10%) to drinking water to male Wistar rats of 6 weeks age. Blood pressure (BP) and isolated aorta responses phenylephrine (PE), KCl, acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were recorded after 6, 9, and 12 weeks of fructose administration. In addition, serum levels of glucose, insulin, uric acid, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), lipids, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and arginase activity were determined. Furthermore, aortic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, hemeoxygenase-1 expression, and collagen deposition were examined. Fructose administration resulted in a significant hyperinslinemia after 6 weeks which continued for 12 weeks. It was also associated with a significant increase in BP after 6 weeks which was stable for 12 weeks. Aorta isolated from MS animals showed exaggerated contractility to PE and KCl and impaired relaxation to ACh compared with control after 6 weeks which were clearer at 12 weeks of fructose administration. In addition, MS animals showed significant increases in serum levels of lipids, uric acid, AGEs, TNFα, and arginase enzyme activity after 12 weeks of fructose administration. Furthermore, aortae isolated from MS animals were characterized by increased ROS generation and collagen deposition. In conclusion, adding fructose (10%) to drinking water produces a model of MS with vascular complications after 12 weeks that are characterized by insulin resistance, hypertension, disturbed vascular reactivity and structure, hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia, and low-grade inflammation.

  4. Experimental occlusal interference induces long-term masticatory muscle hyperalgesia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ye; Xie, Qiu-Fei; Li, Kai; Light, Alan R; Fu, Kai-Yuan

    2009-08-01

    Temporomandibular joint or related masticatory muscle pain represents the most common chronic orofacial pain condition. Patients frequently report this kind of pain after dental alterations in occlusion. However, lack of understanding of the mechanisms of occlusion-related temporomandibular joint and muscle pain prevents treating this problem successfully. To explore the relationship between improper occlusion (occlusal interference) and masticatory muscle pain, we created an occlusal interference animal model by directly bonding a crown to a maxillary molar to raise the masticating surface of the tooth in rats. We raised the occlusal surface to three different heights (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6mm), and for one month we quantitatively measured mechanical nociceptive thresholds of the temporal and masseter muscles on both sides. Results showed a stimulus-response relationship between the height of occlusal interference and muscle hyperalgesia. Removal of the crown 6 days after occlusal interference showed that the removal at this time could not terminate the 1 month duration of mechanical hyperalgesia in the masticatory muscles. Lastly, we systemically administered NMDA antagonist MK801 (0.2, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/kg) to the treated rats and found that MK801 dose dependently attenuated the occlusal interference-induced hyperalgesia. These findings suggest that occlusal interference is directly related to masticatory muscle pain, and that central sensitization mechanisms are involved in the maintenance of the occlusal interference-induced mechanical hyperalgesia.

  5. Hypoxia Inducible Factor Signaling and Experimental Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn: A Therapeutic Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eWedgwood

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB activity are increased in a lamb model of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN. These events can trigger hypoxia inducible factor (HIF signaling in response to hypoxia, which has been shown to contribute to pulmonary vascular remodeling in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension. However the role of HIF signaling in chronic intrauterine pulmonary hypertension is not well understood.AIM: To determine if HIF signaling is increased in the lamb model of PPHN, and to identify the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: PPHN was induced in lambs by antenatal ligation of the ductus arteriosus at 128 days gestation. After 9 days, lungs and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC were isolated from control and PPHN lambs. HIF-1α expression was increased in PPHN lungs and HIF activity was increased in PPHN PASMC relative to controls. Hypoxia increased HIF activity to a greater degree in PPHN vs. control PASMC. Control PASMC were exposed to cyclic stretch at 1Hz and 15% elongation for 24h, as an in vitro model of vascular stress. Stretch increased HIF activity, which was attenuated by inhibition of mitochondrial complex III and NFκB.CONCLUSION: Increased HIF signaling in PPHN is triggered by stretch, via mechanisms involving mitochondrial ROS and NFκB. Hypoxia substantially amplifies HIF activity in PPHN vascular cells. Targeting these signaling molecules may attenuate and reverse pulmonary vascular remodeling associated with PPHN.

  6. Wound-healing activity of a proteolytic fraction from Carica candamarcensis on experimentally induced burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Flávia S L; Spínola, Cássia de V; Ribeiro, Henrique A; Lopes, Miriam T P; Cassali, Geovanni D; Salas, Carlos E

    2010-03-01

    Carica candamarcensis is a species from the Caricaceae family whose immature fruit contains latex with large amounts of cysteine proteinases. In prior studies, we isolated two of these enzymes displaying mitogenic activity when incubated with L929 fibroblastic cells. One of the fractions containing these enzymes (P1G10) was shown to enhance wound healing of skin and to accelerate healing of chemically induced gastric ulcer. In this study we evaluate the effect of P1G10 on heat-induced, third-degree burn using a rodent model. The results show that 0.1% P1G10 accelerates epithelisation while the effect of 1% or 0.01% P1G10 is not significantly different to 1% silver sulphadiazine, 2% papain or the hydrosoluble vehicle used as control. In a double-blind randomised experiment comparing the healing response of 0.1%, 1% and the vehicle alone, we confirmed the enhanced healing property of P1G10. Histological analysis of burn-tissue sections following treatment with P1G10 support these observations. These results extend the healing properties of these groups of enzymes to a different type of trauma and open the way to future clinical applications. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Three Bone Substitute Materials in the Treatment of Experimentally Induced Defects in Rabbit Calvaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paknejad

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the quality, density and thickness of newly formed bone in experimental defects treated with Combi-Pack®, Bio-Oss® and Biostite®.Materials and Methods: Eight New Zealand white rabbits were included in this randomized,blinded study. Four equal 3×6 mm bone defects were created on the frontal and parietal bones of each animal and three were immediately grafted with Bio-Oss®, Combi-Pack® and Biostite® while one was left untreated, serving as negative control. Histologic and histomorphometric analysis was performed four weeks after surgery.Results: Histomorphometric bone area and trabecular maturity was significantly higher in the Bio-Oss® and Combi-Pack® samples as compared to the Biostite® and control cases.The amount of remaining biomaterial was almost equal in the three experimental groups at the end of the study period. Neither foreign body reaction nor severe inflammation was seen in any of the specimens except for the Biostite® samples.Conclusion: It may be suggested that implantation of Bio-Oss® particles and Combi-Pack® blocks can promote bone regeneration more effectively than Biostite®.

  8. Emission spectra of photoionized plasmas induced by intense EUV pulses: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Ismail; Bartnik, Andrzej; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Wachulak, Przemysław; Jarocki, Roman; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2017-03-01

    Experimental measurements and numerical modeling of emission spectra in photoionized plasma in the ultraviolet and visible light (UV/Vis) range for noble gases have been investigated. The photoionized plasmas were created using laser-produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The source was based on a gas puff target; irradiated with 10ns/10J/10Hz Nd:YAG laser. The EUV radiation pulses were collected and focused using grazing incidence multifoil EUV collector. The laser pulses were focused on a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Irradiation of gases resulted in a formation of low temperature photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the UV/Vis spectral range. Atomic photoionized plasmas produced this way consisted of atomic and ionic with various ionization states. The most dominated observed spectral lines originated from radiative transitions in singly charged ions. To assist in a theoretical interpretation of the measured spectra, an atomic code based on Cowan's programs and a collisional-radiative PrismSPECT code have been used to calculate the theoretical spectra. A comparison of the calculated spectral lines with experimentally obtained results is presented. Electron temperature in plasma is estimated using the Boltzmann plot method, by an assumption that a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition in the plasma is validated in the first few ionization states. A brief discussion for the measured and computed spectra is given.

  9. Pathological and MRI study on experimental heroin-induced brain damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Yu; Kong Xiangquan; Xu Haibo; Liu Dingxi; Yuan Ren; Yu Qun; Xiong Yin; Deng Xianbo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological characteristics of the heroin-induced brain damage in rats, and to assess the diagnostic value of MRI. Methods: A total of 40 adult Wistar rats were studied, 32 rats were used for injecting heroin as heroin group and 8 were used for injecting saline as control group. The heroin dependent rat model was established by administering heroin (ip) in the ascending dosage schedule (0.5 mg/kg), three times a day (at 8:00, 12:00, and 18:00). The control group was established by the same way by injection with saline. The withdrawal scores were evaluated with imp roved criterion in order to estimate the degree of addiction after administering naloxone. Based on the rat model of heroin dependence, the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established by the same way with increasing heroin dosage everyday. Two groups were examined by using MRI, light microscope, and electron microscope, respectively in different heroin accumulated dosage (918, 1580, 2686, 3064, 4336, and 4336 mg/kg withdrawal after 2 weeks). Results: There was statistically significant difference (t=9.737, P<0.01) of the withdrawal scores between the heroin dependent group and the saline group (23.0 ± 4.4 and 1.4 ± 0.5, respectively). It suggested that the heroin dependent rat model be established successfully. In different accumulated dosage ( from 1580 mg/kg to 4336 mg/kg), there were degeneration and death of nerve cells in cerebrum and cerebellum of heroin intoxicated rats, and it suggested that the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established successfully. The light microscope and electron microscope features of heroin-induced brain damage in rats included: (1) The nerve cells of cerebral cortex degenerated and died. According to the heroin accumulated dosage, there were statistically significant difference of the nerve cell deaths between 4336 mg/kg group and 1580 mg/kg group or control group (P=0.024 and P=0.032, respectively); (2) The main

  10. Pairing experimentation and computational modelling to understand the role of tissue inducer cells in the development of lymphoid organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran eAlden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of genetic tools, imaging technologies and ex vivo culture systems has provided significant insights into the role of tissue inducer cells and associated signalling pathways in the formation and function of lymphoid organs. Despite advances in experimental technologies, the molecular and cellular process orchestrating the formation of a complex 3-dimensional tissue is difficult to dissect using current approaches. Therefore, a robust set of simulation tools have been developed to model the processes involved in lymphoid tissue development. Specifically the role of different tissue inducer cell populations in the dynamic formation of Peyer's Patches has been examined. Utilising approaches from critical systems engineering an unbiased model of lymphoid tissue inducer cell function has been developed, that permits the development of emerging behaviours that are statistically not different from that observed in vivo. These results provide the confidence to utilise statistical methods to explore how the simulator predicts cellular behaviour and outcomes under different physiological conditions. Such methods, known as sensitivity analysis techniques, can provide insight into when a component part of the system (such as a particular cell type, adhesion molecule, or chemokine begins to have an influence on observed behaviour, and quantifies the effect a component part has on the end result: the formation of lymphoid tissue. Through use of such a principled approach in the design, calibration, and analysis of a computer simulation, a robust in silico tool can be developed which can both further the understanding of a biological system being explored, and act as a tool for the generation of hypotheses which can be tested utilising experimental approaches.

  11. Experimental Study on the Effect of Calcitonin in Osteoporosis Induced by the Immobilization and Long-Term Glucocorticoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Jin; Lee, Sang Rae

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that the glucocorticoid induces osteoporosis by suppression of the osteoblast, but its effect on the osteoclast has some controversy whether it activates or suppresses the osteoclast. If the calcitonin, which is known to suppress the osteoclast, prevents the osteoporosis by glucocorticoid, then the suppression of the osteoclast by the glucocorticoid is not so significant. And if the calcitonin increases the osteoblastic activity, Tc-99m MDP uptake will be increased in spite of the glucocorticoid effect on the osteoblast. The immobilization operation was performed to the right leg of male Wistar rats weighing about 200 gm each. For 16 weeks after operation, rats were injected glucocorticoid alone or glucocorticoid and calcitonin. The bone density was measured by means of photodensitometry under reference aluminum step wedge and Tc-99m MDP uptake was available to the index of the osteoblastic activity. 1. The bone density of femoral head was markedly reduced than that of femoral shaft following ratio of cancellous and cortical components in both site. 2. glucocorticoid caused decrease in bone density of spine and femur, and there is significantly increase of it when medication of glucocorticoid and calcitonin injection simultaneously than that of glucocorticoid. 3. Tc-99m MDP uptake was revealed significant reduction in medication of glucocorticoid but increase in glucocorticoid and calcitonin injection simultaneously in later experimental period. 4. There was a slight reduction in plasma osteocalcin in medication of glucocorticoid through experimental periods and an increase in its value in case of giving glucocorticoid and calcitonin simultaneously in later experimental period. From these results, we suggest that osteoporosis by immobilization is more pronounced by glucocorticoid hormone and osteoporosis induced by immobilization and glucocorticoid use is prevented by calcitonin administration with increasing osteoblastic activity.

  12. Experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism alters crucial enzyme activities in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the offspring rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromilas, Christos; Tsakiris, Stylianos; Kalafatakis, Konstantinos; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Kimpizi, Despoina; Bimpis, Alexios; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Liapi, Charis

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid hormone insufficiency during neurodevelopment can result into significant structural and functional changes within the developing central nervous system (CNS), and is associated with the establishment of serious cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptomatology. The aim of the present study was to shed more light on the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism as a multilevel experimental approach to the study of hypothyroidism-induced changes on crucial brain enzyme activities of 21-day-old Wistar rat offspring in a brain region-specific manner. This experimental approach has been recently developed and characterized by the authors based on neurochemical analyses performed on newborn and 21-day-old rat offspring whole brain homogenates; as a continuum to this effort, the current study focused on two CNS regions of major significance for cognitive development: the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. Maternal exposure to PTU in the drinking water during gestation and/or lactation resulted into changes in the activities of acetylcholinesterase and two important adenosinetriphosphatases (Na(+),K(+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPase), that seemed to take place in a CNS-region-specific manner and that were dependent upon the PTU-exposure timeframe followed. As these findings are analyzed and compared to the available literature, they: (i) highlight the variability involved in the changes of the aforementioned enzymatic parameters in the studied CNS regions (attributed to both the different neuroanatomical composition and the thyroid-hormone-dependent neurodevelopmental growth/differentiation patterns of the latter), (ii) reveal important information with regards to the neurochemical mechanisms that could be involved in the way clinical hypothyroidism could affect optimal neurodevelopment and, ultimately, cognitive function, as well as (iii) underline the need for the adoption of more consistent

  13. Protective effect of gallic acid in experimental model of ketamine-induced psychosis: possible behaviour, biochemical, neurochemical and cellular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monu; Jindal, Deepak Kumar; Dhingra, Mamta Sachdeva; Kumar, Anil; Parle, Milind; Dhingra, Sameer

    2018-04-01

    Gallic acid has been reported to possess a number of psychopharmacological activities. These activities are attributed to the antioxidant potential due to the presence of phenolic moeity. The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of gallic acid in an experimental model of ketamine-induced psychosis in mice. Ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce stereotyped psychotic behavioural symptoms in mice. Behavioural studies (locomotor activity, stereotype behaviour, immobility duration and memory retention) were carried out to investigate the protective of gallic acid on ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms, followed by biochemical and neurochemical changes and cellular alterations in the brain. Chronic treatment with gallic acid for 15 consecutive days significantly attenuated stereotyped behavioural symptoms in mice. Biochemical estimations revealed that gallic acid reduced the lipid peroxidation and restored the total brain proteins. Furthermore, gallic acid remarkably reduced the dopamine levels, AChE activity and inflammatory surge (serum TNF-α), and increased the levels of GABA and increased glutathione in mice. The study revealed that gallic acid could ameliorate psychotic symptoms and biochemical changes in mice, indicating protective effects in psychosis.

  14. L-glutamine supplementation prevents the development of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin L Badole

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of L-glutamine on cardiac myopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted Sprague Dawely rats by using intraperitonial injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg. Nicotinamide (100 mg/kg, i.p. was administered 20 min before administration of streptozotocin. Experimental rats were divided into Group I: non-diabetic control (distilled water; 10 ml/kg, p.o., II: diabetic control (distilled water, 10 ml/kg, p.o., III: L-glutamine (500 mg/kg, p.o. and IV: L-glutamine (1000 mg/kg, p.o.. All groups were diabetic except group I. The plasma glucose level, body weight, electrocardiographic abnormalities, hemodynamic changes and left ventricular contractile function, biological markers of cardiotoxicity, antioxidant markers were determined after 4 months after STZ with nicotinamide injection. Histopathological changes of heart tissue were carried out by using H and E stain. L-glutamine treatment improved the electrocardiographic, hemodynamic changes; LV contractile function; biological markers; oxidative stress parameters and histological changes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Results from the present investigation demonstrated that L-glutamine has seemed a cardioprotective activity.

  15. Successful treatment of radiation-induced fibrosis using Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaix, J L; Delanian, S; Leplat, J J; Tricaud, Y; Martin, M; Nimrod, A; Baillet, F; Daburon, F

    1996-05-01

    To establish how far liposomal copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), respectively, reduce radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), using a well-characterized pig model of RIF permitting the design of a controlled laboratory experiment. In this model of acute localized gamma irradiation simulating accidental overexposure in humans, three groups of five large white pigs were irradiated using a collimated 192Ir source to deliver a single dose of 160 Gy onto the skin surface (100%) of the outer side of the thigh. A well-defined block of subcutaneous fibrosis involving skin and skeletal muscle developed 6 months after irradiation. One experimental group of five pigs was then injected i.m. with 10 mg/10 kg b.wt. of Cu/Zn-SOD, twice a week for 3 weeks, and another experimental group of five was injected with 10 mg/10 kg b.wt. of Mn-SOD, three times a week for 3 weeks. Five irradiated control pigs were injected with physiological serum. Animals were assessed for changes in the density of the palpated fibrotic block and in the dimensions of the projected cutaneous surface. Block depth was determined by ultrasound. Physical and sonographic findings were confirmed by autopsy 12-14 weeks after completing SOD injections. The density, length, width, and depth of the fibrotic block, and the areas and volume of its projected cutaneous surface were compared before treatment, 1, 3, and 6 weeks thereafter, and at autopsy, 12-14 weeks after treatment ended. The experimental animals exhibited no change in behavior and no abnormal clinical or anatomic signs. Whether they were given Cu/Zn- or Mn-SOD, significant and roughly equivalent softening and shrinking of the fibrotic block were noted in all treated animals between the first week after treatment ended and autopsy, when mean regression was 45% for length and width, 30% for depth, and 70% for area and volume. Histologic examination showed completely normal muscle and subcutaneous tissue

  16. Impact of field-induced quantum confinement on the onset of tunneling field-effect transistors: Experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smets, Quentin, E-mail: quentin.smets@imec.be; Verreck, Devin; Heyns, Marc M. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); KULeuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S.; Martens, Koen; Lin, Han Chung; Kazzi, Salim El; Simoen, Eddy; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Raskin, Jean-Pierre [ICTEAM, Université catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2014-11-17

    The Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor (TFET) is a promising device for future low-power logic. Its performance is often predicted using semiclassical simulations, but there is usually a large discrepancy with experimental results. An important reason is that Field-Induced Quantum Confinement (FIQC) is neglected. Quantum mechanical simulations show FIQC delays the onset of Band-To-Band Tunneling (BTBT) with hundreds of millivolts in the promising line-TFET configuration. In this letter, we provide experimental verification of this delayed onset. We accomplish this by developing a method where line-TFET are modeled using highly doped MOS capacitors (MOS-CAP). Using capacitance-voltage measurements, we demonstrate AC inversion by BTBT, which was so far unobserved in MOS-CAP. Good agreement is shown between the experimentally obtained BTBT onset and quantum mechanical predictions, proving the need to include FIQC in all TFET simulations. Finally, we show that highly doped MOS-CAP is promising for characterization of traps deep into the conduction band.

  17. Impact of field-induced quantum confinement on the onset of tunneling field-effect transistors: Experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, Quentin; Verreck, Devin; Heyns, Marc M.; Verhulst, Anne S.; Martens, Koen; Lin, Han Chung; Kazzi, Salim El; Simoen, Eddy; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor (TFET) is a promising device for future low-power logic. Its performance is often predicted using semiclassical simulations, but there is usually a large discrepancy with experimental results. An important reason is that Field-Induced Quantum Confinement (FIQC) is neglected. Quantum mechanical simulations show FIQC delays the onset of Band-To-Band Tunneling (BTBT) with hundreds of millivolts in the promising line-TFET configuration. In this letter, we provide experimental verification of this delayed onset. We accomplish this by developing a method where line-TFET are modeled using highly doped MOS capacitors (MOS-CAP). Using capacitance-voltage measurements, we demonstrate AC inversion by BTBT, which was so far unobserved in MOS-CAP. Good agreement is shown between the experimentally obtained BTBT onset and quantum mechanical predictions, proving the need to include FIQC in all TFET simulations. Finally, we show that highly doped MOS-CAP is promising for characterization of traps deep into the conduction band

  18. Polymer-coated compliant receivers for intact laser-induced forward transfer of thin films: experimental results and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinaeugle, Matthias; Horak, Peter; Sones, Collin L.; Lippert, Thomas; Eason, Rob W.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigate both experimentally and numerically laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of thin films to determine the role of a thin polymer layer coating the receiver with the aim of modifying the rate of deceleration and reduction of material stress preventing intact material transfer. A numerical model of the impact phase during LIFT shows that such a layer reduces the modelled stress. The evolution of stress within the transferred deposit and the substrate as a function of the thickness of the polymer layer, the transfer velocity and the elastic properties of the polymer are evaluated. The functionality of the polymer layer is verified experimentally by LIFT printing intact 1- m-thick bismuth telluride films and polymeric light-emitting diode pads onto a layer of 12-m-thick polydimethylsiloxane and 50-nm-thick poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) blended with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated experimentally that the introduction of such a compliant layer improves adhesion between the deposit and its substrate.

  19. Urinothorax—An Underdiagnosed Cause of Acute Dyspnea: Report of a Bilateral and of an Ipsilateral Urinothorax Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Laskaridis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinothorax (UT is a rare and often undiagnosed condition, defined as the presence of urine in the pleural cavity due to the retroperitoneal leakage of urine accumulation, known as urinoma, into the pleural space. UT usually is a transudative pleural effusion that presents in patients with obstructive uropathy and it may occur following surgical procedures in the ureter or kidney such as ESWL, PCNL, and URS. Its diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion since the respiratory symptoms tend to be absent or mild and the urological signs tend to dominate. However, UT may rarely present with severe and acute dyspnea as well. The objectives of this study are to describe two new cases of this rare entity, a bilateral case and an ipsilateral case focusing on the side that occurs according to the affected renal insult, and to alert the physicians to include UT in their differential diagnosis of pleural effusions especially in patients with recent urinary tract disorders.

  20. Experimental study of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode (TAE) stability at high q(0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batha, S.H.; Levinton, F.M.; Spong, D.A.

    1995-07-01

    Experiments to destabilize the Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) by energetic alpha particles were performed on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor using deuterium and tritium fuel. To decrease the alpha particle pressure instability threshold, discharges with an elevated value of q(0) > 1.5 were used. By raising q(0), the radial location of the low toroidal-mode-number TAE gaps moves toward the magnetic axis and into alignment with the region of maximum alpha pressure gradient, thereby (in theory) lowering the value of β α (0) required for instability. No TAE activity was observed when the central alpha particle β α reached 0.08% in a discharge with fusion power of 2.4 MW. Calculations show that the fusion power is within a factor of 1.5 to 3 of the instability threshold

  1. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of Piptadeniastrum Africanum on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateufack, Gilbert; Domgnim Mokam, Elisabeth Carol; Mbiantcha, Marius; Dongmo Feudjio, Rostand Breuil; David, Nana; Kamanyi, Albert

    2015-07-08

    Gastric peptic ulcer is one of the common disorders of gastrointestinal tract, which occur due to an imbalance between the offensive and defensive factors. It is an illness that affects a considerable number of people worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcerogenic and antiulcer effects and recognize the basic mechanism of action of Piptadeniastrum africanum stem bark extracts. The aqueous and methanol extracts of Piptadeniastrum africanum were administered at the doses 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg to evaluate their effects on gastric ulcer induced by the HCl/ethanol mixture, indometha