WorldWideScience

Sample records for experimentally based design

  1. Chemical-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    of databases with data of AIs used in different products (such as insect repellents), solvents classified in terms of special characteristics (such as solubility in water), and additives classified in terms of their application (such as aroma agents, wetting agents and preservatives). In addition, the software......This paper presents a software, the virtual Product-Process Design laboratory (virtual PPD-lab) and the virtual experimental scenarios for design/verification of consumer oriented liquid formulated products where the software can be used. For example, the software can be employed for the design......; the addition of the missing chemicals to an incomplete formulation and the verification of the final product. The software is based on a framework that allows quick implementation of different design/verification work-flows and their associated models, methods, tools and data. The software contains a suite...

  2. Chemicals-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure for virtual experimentations related to the design of liquid formulated products. All the experiments that need to be performed when designing a liquid formulated product (lotion), such as ingredients selection and testing, solubility tests, property mea...... on the design of an insect repellent lotion will show that the software is an essential instrument in decision making, and that it reduces time and resources since experimental efforts can be focused on one or few product alternatives.......This paper presents a systematic procedure for virtual experimentations related to the design of liquid formulated products. All the experiments that need to be performed when designing a liquid formulated product (lotion), such as ingredients selection and testing, solubility tests, property...... measurements, can now be performed through the virtual Product-Process Design laboratory [[1], [2] and [3

  3. Autonomous entropy-based intelligent experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Nabin Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the application of probability and information theory in experimental design, and to do so in a way that combines what we know about inference and inquiry in a comprehensive and consistent manner. Present day scientific frontiers involve data collection at an ever-increasing rate. This requires that we find a way to collect the most relevant data in an automated fashion. By following the logic of the scientific method, we couple an inference engine with an inquiry engine to automate the iterative process of scientific learning. The inference engine involves Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate model parameters based upon both prior information and previously collected data, while the inquiry engine implements data-driven exploration. By choosing an experiment whose distribution of expected results has the maximum entropy, the inquiry engine selects the experiment that maximizes the expected information gain. The coupled inference and inquiry engines constitute an autonomous learning method for scientific exploration. We apply it to a robotic arm to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Optimizing inquiry involves searching for an experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, the search involves a high-dimensional entropy space. In such cases, a brute force search method will be slow and computationally expensive. We develop an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment. This helps to reduce the number of computations necessary to find the optimal experiment. We also extended the method of maximizing entropy, and developed a method of maximizing joint entropy so that it could be used as a principle of collaboration between two robots. This is a major achievement of this thesis, as it allows the information-based collaboration between two robotic units towards a same

  4. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in

    2016-07-15

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  5. Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

  6. Web Based Learning Support for Experimental Design in Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsen, Tinri; Bisseling, Ton; Hartog, Rob

    An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is a certain proficiency level in experimental design. Currently students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, in lectures and in the laboratory. However, most students do not reach a satisfactory level of competence in the design of experimental approaches. This…

  7. Single-subject experimental design for evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J

    2012-11-01

    Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. The authors discuss the requirements of each design, followed by advantages and disadvantages. The logic and methods for evaluating effects in SSED are reviewed as well as contemporary issues regarding data analysis with SSED data sets. Examples of challenges in executing SSEDs are included. Specific exemplars of how SSEDs have been used in speech-language pathology research are provided throughout. SSED studies provide a flexible alternative to traditional group designs in the development and identification of evidence-based practice in the field of communication sciences and disorders.

  8. Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2013-01-01

    The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical framework and an algorithmic approach for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models; in particular, we focus on finding sets of experiments that provide the most information about targeted sets of parameters.Our framework employs a Bayesian statistical setting, which provides a foundation for inference from noisy, indirect, and incomplete data, and a natural mechanism for incorporating heterogeneous sources of information. An objective function is constructed from information theoretic measures, reflecting expected information gain from proposed combinations of experiments. Polynomial chaos approximations and a two-stage Monte Carlo sampling method are used to evaluate the expected information gain. Stochastic approximation algorithms are then used to make optimization feasible in computationally intensive and high-dimensional settings. These algorithms are demonstrated on model problems and on nonlinear parameter inference problems arising in detailed combustion kinetics. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Model-Based Optimal Experimental Design for Complex Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    optimality aspect of sOED, another major difficulty remains: to numer - ically represent non-Gaussian, continuous random variable posteriors (i.e...construct, as they involve solving a convex optimization problem that can be easily separated into independent sub-problems for each dimension, and requires...OM Knio. “Bayesian Guided Optimal Experimental Design for Reactive Multilayers.” In preparation, 2015. 6. X Huan, “ Numerical Approaches for Sequential

  10. Quasi-experimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Schillinger, Dean; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials are often a gold standard for determining intervention effects, in the area of practice-based research (PBR), there are many situations in which individual randomization is not possible. Alternative approaches to evaluating interventions have received increased attention, particularly those that can retain elements of randomization such that they can be considered "controlled" trials. Methodological design elements and practical implementation considerations for two quasi-experimental design approaches that have considerable promise in PBR settings--the stepped-wedge design, and a variant of this design, a wait-list cross-over design, are presented along with a case study from a recent PBR intervention for patients with diabetes. PBR-relevant design features include: creation of a cohort over time that collects control data but allows all participants (clusters or patients) to receive the intervention; staggered introduction of clusters; multiple data collection points; and one-way cross-over into the intervention arm. Practical considerations include: randomization versus stratification, training run in phases; and extended time period for overall study completion. Several design features of practice based research studies can be adapted to local circumstances yet retain elements to improve methodological rigor. Studies that utilize these methods, such as the stepped-wedge design and the wait-list cross-over design, can increase the evidence base for controlled studies conducted within the complex environment of PBR.

  11. Application of Iterative Robust Model-based Optimal Experimental Design for the Calibration of Biocatalytic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Daele, Timothy; Gernaey, Krist V.; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of model calibration is to estimate unique parameter values from available experimental data, here applied to a biocatalytic process. The traditional approach of first gathering data followed by performing a model calibration is inefficient, since the information gathered during...... experimentation is not actively used to optimise the experimental design. By applying an iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design, the limited amount of data collected is used to design additional informative experiments. The algorithm is used here to calibrate the initial reaction rate of an ω......-transaminase catalysed reaction in a more accurate way. The parameter confidence region estimated from the Fisher Information Matrix is compared with the likelihood confidence region, which is a more accurate, but also a computationally more expensive method. As a result, an important deviation between both approaches...

  12. Intuitive web-based experimental design for high-throughput biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Andreas; Kenar, Erhan; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Nahnsen, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Big data bioinformatics aims at drawing biological conclusions from huge and complex biological datasets. Added value from the analysis of big data, however, is only possible if the data is accompanied by accurate metadata annotation. Particularly in high-throughput experiments intelligent approaches are needed to keep track of the experimental design, including the conditions that are studied as well as information that might be interesting for failure analysis or further experiments in the future. In addition to the management of this information, means for an integrated design and interfaces for structured data annotation are urgently needed by researchers. Here, we propose a factor-based experimental design approach that enables scientists to easily create large-scale experiments with the help of a web-based system. We present a novel implementation of a web-based interface allowing the collection of arbitrary metadata. To exchange and edit information we provide a spreadsheet-based, humanly readable format. Subsequently, sample sheets with identifiers and metainformation for data generation facilities can be created. Data files created after measurement of the samples can be uploaded to a datastore, where they are automatically linked to the previously created experimental design model.

  13. Intuitive Web-Based Experimental Design for High-Throughput Biomedical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Big data bioinformatics aims at drawing biological conclusions from huge and complex biological datasets. Added value from the analysis of big data, however, is only possible if the data is accompanied by accurate metadata annotation. Particularly in high-throughput experiments intelligent approaches are needed to keep track of the experimental design, including the conditions that are studied as well as information that might be interesting for failure analysis or further experiments in the future. In addition to the management of this information, means for an integrated design and interfaces for structured data annotation are urgently needed by researchers. Here, we propose a factor-based experimental design approach that enables scientists to easily create large-scale experiments with the help of a web-based system. We present a novel implementation of a web-based interface allowing the collection of arbitrary metadata. To exchange and edit information we provide a spreadsheet-based, humanly readable format. Subsequently, sample sheets with identifiers and metainformation for data generation facilities can be created. Data files created after measurement of the samples can be uploaded to a datastore, where they are automatically linked to the previously created experimental design model.

  14. Sensitivity-based approach to optimal experimental design in a receptor trafficking and down regulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Fergal; Waterfall, Joshua; Gutenkunst, Ryan; Brown, Kevin; Myers, Christopher; Sethna, James

    2006-03-01

    We apply the ideas of optimal experimental design to systems biology models: minimizing a design criterion based on the average variance of predictions, we suggest new experiments that need to be performed to optimally test a given biological hypothesis. The estimated variance in predictions is derived from the sensitivities of protein and chemical species in the model to changes in reaction rates. The sensitivities also allow us to determine which interactions in the biological network dominate the system behavior. To test the design principles, we have developed a differential equation model incorporating the processes of endocytosis, recycling and degradation of activated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in a mammalian cell line. Recent experimental work has discovered mutant proteins that cause receptor accumulation and a prolonged growth signal. Our model is optimized to fit this mutant experimental data and wild type data for a variety of experimental conditions. Of biological interest is the effect on surface and internalized receptor levels after the overexpression or inactivation of regulator proteins in the network: the optimal design method allows us to fine tune the conditions to best predict the behavior of these unknown components of the system.

  15. Application of iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design for the calibration of biocatalytic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Timothy; Gernaey, Krist V; Ringborg, Rolf H; Börner, Tim; Heintz, Søren; Van Hauwermeiren, Daan; Grey, Carl; Krühne, Ulrich; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-09-01

    The aim of model calibration is to estimate unique parameter values from available experimental data, here applied to a biocatalytic process. The traditional approach of first gathering data followed by performing a model calibration is inefficient, since the information gathered during experimentation is not actively used to optimize the experimental design. By applying an iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design, the limited amount of data collected is used to design additional informative experiments. The algorithm is used here to calibrate the initial reaction rate of an ω-transaminase catalyzed reaction in a more accurate way. The parameter confidence region estimated from the Fisher Information Matrix is compared with the likelihood confidence region, which is not only more accurate but also a computationally more expensive method. As a result, an important deviation between both approaches is found, confirming that linearization methods should be applied with care for nonlinear models. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1278-1293, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Multi-objective experimental design for (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvin, Jeroen; Cajot, Simon; D'Huys, Pieter-Jan; Ampofo-Asiama, Jerry; Anné, Jozef; Van Impe, Jan; Geeraerd, Annemie; Bernaerts, Kristel

    2015-10-01

    (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis is an excellent technique to resolve fluxes in the central carbon metabolism but costs can be significant when using specialized tracers. This work presents a framework for cost-effective design of (13)C-tracer experiments, illustrated on two different networks. Linear and non-linear optimal input mixtures are computed for networks for Streptomyces lividans and a carcinoma cell line. If only glucose tracers are considered as labeled substrate for a carcinoma cell line or S. lividans, the best parameter estimation accuracy is obtained by mixtures containing high amounts of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose combined with uniformly labeled glucose. Experimental designs are evaluated based on a linear (D-criterion) and non-linear approach (S-criterion). Both approaches generate almost the same input mixture, however, the linear approach is favored due to its low computational effort. The high amount of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose in the optimal designs coincides with a high experimental cost, which is further enhanced when labeling is introduced in glutamine and aspartate tracers. Multi-objective optimization gives the possibility to assess experimental quality and cost at the same time and can reveal excellent compromise experiments. For example, the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% position one labeled glutamine and the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% uniformly labeled glutamine perform equally well for the carcinoma cell line, but the first mixture offers a decrease in cost of $ 120 per ml-scale cell culture experiment. We demonstrated the validity of a multi-objective linear approach to perform optimal experimental designs for the non-linear problem of (13)C-metabolic flux analysis. Tools and a workflow are provided to perform multi-objective design. The effortless calculation of the D-criterion can be exploited to perform high-throughput screening of possible (13)C-tracers, while the illustrated benefit of multi

  17. Web-Based Learning Support for Experimental Design in Molecular Biology: A Top-Down Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton

    2003-01-01

    An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is the attainment of a certain competence level in experimental design. Currently, undergraduate students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, lectures and laboratory courses. However, most students do not reach a satisfactory level of competence in the designing of…

  18. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations...... of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  19. Fast Bayesian experimental design: Laplace-based importance sampling for the expected information gain

    KAUST Repository

    Beck, Joakim

    2017-10-10

    In calculating expected information gain in optimal Bayesian experimental design, the computation of the inner loop in the classical double-loop Monte Carlo requires a large number of samples and suffers from underflow if the number of samples is small. These drawbacks can be avoided by using an importance sampling approach. We present a computationally efficient method for optimal Bayesian experimental design that introduces importance sampling based on the Laplace method to the inner loop. We derive the optimal values for the method parameters in which the average computational cost is minimized according to the desired error tolerance. We use three numerical examples to demonstrate the computational efficiency of our method compared with the classical double-loop Monte Carlo, and a more recent single-loop Monte Carlo method that uses the Laplace method as an approximation of the return value of the inner loop. The first example is a scalar problem that is linear in the uncertain parameter. The second example is a nonlinear scalar problem. The third example deals with the optimal sensor placement for an electrical impedance tomography experiment to recover the fiber orientation in laminate composites.

  20. Web based learning support for experimental design in molecular biology: a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.; Hartog, R.; Bisseling, T.

    2003-01-01

    An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is the attainment of a certain competence level in experimental design. Currently, undergraduate students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, lectures and laboratory courses. However, most students do not reach a

  1. Mechatronics design and experimental verification of an electric-vehicle-based hybrid thermal management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an electric-vehicle-based thermal management system was designed for dual energy sources. An experimental platform developed in a previous study was modified. Regarding the mechanical components, a heat exchanger with a radiator, proportional valve, coolant pipes, and coolant pump was appropriately integrated. Regarding the electric components, two heaters emulating waste heat were controlled using two programmable power supply machines. A rapid-prototyping controller with two temperature inputs and three outputs was designed. Rule-based control strategies were coded to maintain optimal temperatures for the emulated proton exchange membrane fuel cells and lithium batteries. To evaluate the heat power of dual energy sources, driving cycles, energy management control, and efficiency maps of energy sources were considered for deriving time-variant values. The main results are as follows: (a an advanced mechatronics platform was constructed; (b a driving cycle simulation was successfully conducted; and (c coolant temperatures reached their optimal operating ranges when the proportional valve, radiator, and coolant pump were sequentially controlled. The benefits of this novel electric-vehicle-based thermal management system are (a high-efficiency operation of energy sources, (b low occupied volume integrated with energy sources, and (c higher electric vehicle traveling mileage. This system will be integrated with real energy sources and a real electric vehicle in the future.

  2. Piezoelectric Actuated Phase Shifter Based on External Laser Interferometer: Design, Control and Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Zhi; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Sui, Yong-Xin; Zhang, De-Fu; Wang, Dong-Fang; Dong, Li-Jian; Ni, Ming-Yang

    2017-04-11

    To improve the phase-shifting accuracy, this paper presents a novel integrated framework for design, control and experimental validation of the piezoelectric actuated phase shifter with a trade-off between accuracy and cost. The piezoelectric actuators with built-in sensors are adopted to drive the double parallel four-bar linkage flexure hinge-based mechanisms. Three mechanisms form the tripod structure of the assembled phase shifter. Then, a semi-closed loop controller with inner feedback and outer feedforward loops via the external laser interferometer is developed for accurate positioning of the phase shifter. Finally, experiments related with travel range, step response, linearity and repeatability are carried out. The linearity error is 0.21% and the repeatability error of 10 μ m displacement is 3 nm. The results clearly demonstrate the good performance of the developed phase shifter and the feasibility of the proposed integrated framework.

  3. Fuzzy Supervisor Approach Design Based-Switching Controller for Pumping Station: Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Chakchouk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a discrete-time switching controller strategy for a hydraulic process pumping station. The proposed solution leads to improving control system performances with two tests: combination of Fuzzy-PD and PI controllers and Fuzzy-PID and PI controllers. The proposed design methodology is based on accurate model for pumping station (PS, which is developed in previous works using Fuzzy-C Means (FCM algorithm. The control law design is based on switching control; a fuzzy supervisor manages the switching from one to another and regulates the rate of participation of each order, in order to satisfy various objectives of a stable pumping station like the asymptotic stability of the tracking error. To validate the proposed solution, experimental tests are made and analyzed. Compared to the conventional PI and fuzzy logic (FL approaches, the results show that the switching controller allows exhibiting excellent transient response over a wide range of operating conditions and especially is easier to be implemented in practice.

  4. An efficient approach to bioconversion kinetic model generation based on automated microscale experimentation integrated with model driven experimental design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B. H.; Micheletti, M.; Baganz, F.

    2009-01-01

    design. It incorporates a model driven approach to the experimental design that minimises the number of experiments to be performed, while still generating accurate values of kinetic parameters. The approach has been illustrated with the transketolase mediated asymmetric synthesis of L......Reliable models of enzyme kinetics are required for the effective design of bioconversion processes. Kinetic expressions of the enzyme-catalysed reaction rate however, are frequently complex and establishing accurate values of kinetic parameters normally requires a large number of experiments....... These can be both time consuming and expensive when working with the types of non-natural chiral intermediates important in pharmaceutical syntheses. This paper presents ail automated microscale approach to the rapid and cost effective generation of reliable kinetic models useful for bioconversion process...

  5. Formulation and optimization of microemulsion-based organogels containing propranolol hydrochloride using experimental design methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hadidi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study:Lecithin organogels are formed spontaneously by adding a given amount of water to lecithin/organic solvent mixture. The aim of this research was to develop and optimize a semisolid preparation with appropriate release profile. "nMethods: Lecithin organogels containing Propranolol hydrochloride (PR were formulated, based on phase diagram studies, using soybean lecithin (Epikuron 200, isopropyl myristate (IPM and propranolol hydrochloride (PR solutions ( 10, 20, 30, 50 % w/w or water at various lecithin/ IPM weight ratios. The flux and the viscosity of the prepared formulations were determined and further chosen as two responses for optimization, using experimental design and optimization methods (i.e. Modified Simplex and Central Composite Designs, respectively. Results of modified simplex runs (i.e. lecithin: 30-50%, PR: 20-40% and water: 3-4% were also used as constraints for constructing central composite design space. The numerical and graphical optimizations were then run and the "sweet spot" corresponding to the most desirable formulation region compromising both responses were achieved. "nResults: Phase diagrams showed a narrow area of existence of non-birefringent, transparent, viscoelastic region, which was extended as %PR incorporated into the system was increased. It was observed that as the lecithin concentration increased from 30 to 60 % w/w, drug incorporation capacity and viscosity increased while the flux of PR from organogels decreased remarkably. Also it was found through optimization that among the organogels investigated, those formulations containing 31.5-37.5 % w/w lecithin, 30.5-34.5 % w/w PR solutions and 3-3.35 % w/w water possessed the highest flux. "nMajor conclusion: Data confirmed that the choice of lecithin/IPM weight ratio and the amount of drug incorporated may be crucial in determining the performance of an organogel.

  6. Experimental Engineering: Articulating and Valuing Design Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Grönvall, Erik; Fritsch, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose Experimental Engineering as a way to articulate open- ended technological experiments as a legitimate design research practice. Experimental Engineering introduces a move away from an outcome or result driven design process towards an interest in existing technologies...

  7. Design, Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Solar System Based on PV Panels and PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Buonomano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical and experimental analyses aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collectors. An experimental setup was purposely designed and constructed in order to compare the electrical performance of a PVT solar field with the one achieved by an identical solar field consisting of conventional photovoltaic (PV panels. The experimental analysis also aims at evaluating the potential advantages of PVT vs. PV in terms of enhancement of electrical efficiency and thermal energy production. The installed experimental set-up includes four flat polycrystalline silicon PV panels and four flat unglazed polycrystalline silicon PVT collectors. The total electrical power and area of the solar field are 2 kWe and 13 m2, respectively. The experimental set-up is currently installed at the company AV Project Ltd., located in Avellino (Italy. This study also analyzes the system from a numerical point of view, including a thermo-economic dynamic simulation model for the design and the assessment of energy performance and economic profitability of the solar systems consisting of glazed PVT and PV collectors. The experimental setup was modelled and partly simulated in TRNSYS environment. The simulation model was useful to analyze efficiencies and temperatures reached by such solar technologies, by taking into account the reference technology of PVTs (consisting of glazed collectors as well as to compare the numerical data obtained by dynamic simulations with the gathered experimental results for the PV technology. The numerical analysis shows that the PVT global efficiency is about 26%. Conversely, from the experimental point of view, the average thermal efficiency of PVT collectors is around 13% and the electrical efficiencies of both technologies are almost coincident and equal to 15%.

  8. Entropy-Based Experimental Design for Optimal Model Discrimination in the Geosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Nowak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Choosing between competing models lies at the heart of scientific work, and is a frequent motivation for experimentation. Optimal experimental design (OD methods maximize the benefit of experiments towards a specified goal. We advance and demonstrate an OD approach to maximize the information gained towards model selection. We make use of so-called model choice indicators, which are random variables with an expected value equal to Bayesian model weights. Their uncertainty can be measured with Shannon entropy. Since the experimental data are still random variables in the planning phase of an experiment, we use mutual information (the expected reduction in Shannon entropy to quantify the information gained from a proposed experimental design. For implementation, we use the Preposterior Data Impact Assessor framework (PreDIA, because it is free of the lower-order approximations of mutual information often found in the geosciences. In comparison to other studies in statistics, our framework is not restricted to sequential design or to discrete-valued data, and it can handle measurement errors. As an application example, we optimize an experiment about the transport of contaminants in clay, featuring the problem of choosing between competing isotherms to describe sorption. We compare the results of optimizing towards maximum model discrimination with an alternative OD approach that minimizes the overall predictive uncertainty under model choice uncertainty.

  9. Experimental Design for Evaluation of Co-extruded Refractory Metal/Nickel Base Superalloy Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ME Petrichek

    2005-12-16

    a critical thickness (0.0005 in.). A diffusion barrier that exceeded this thickness would likely fail. The joint fabrication method must therefore mechanically bond the two materials causing little or no interdiffusion upon formation. Co-extrusion fits this description since it forms a mechanical joint between two materials by using heat and pressure. The two materials to be extruded are first assembled and sealed within a co-extrusion billet which is subsequently heated and then extruded through a die. For a production application, once the joint is formed, it is dejacketed to remove the outer canister. The remaining piece consists of two materials bonded together with a thin diffusion barrier. Therefore, the long-term stability of the joint is determined primarily by the kinetics of interdiffusion reaction between the two materials. An experimental design for co-extrusion of refractory metals and nickel-based superalloys was developed to evaluate this joining process and determine the long-term stability of the joints.

  10. Structural Robust Optimal Design based on Orthogonal Experimental and Parametric Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xindang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on orthogonal experiment, piccolo tube dynamic optimization was performed to achieve the purposes of reducing the time of sample, identifying the key parameters and optimizing design. Firstly, parameterized finite element model of the piccolo tube was built. After that, the orthogonal experiment under four design variables covering three levels was performed. After 10 times dynamics simulation analysis (9 times simulation for orthogonal experiment and 1 time simulation for optimal design verification experiment, the optimal design of the piccolo tube was quickly determined. The first order natural frequency of the piccolo tube was improved to 1771HZ from initial design 1496.3HZ. The trend and sensitivity between the design variables and structural performance were obtained. The analyze process shows that the proposed method is simple and efficient. It can provide technical reference for piccolo tube optimization design and other complex structures.

  11. Similarity Based Kriging: A dimension-free approach for prediction and adaptive experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsbourger, D.; Komara, R.

    2014-12-01

    Kriging has recently been revived as a powerful tool for predicting the outcome of costly numerical experiments and for guiding simulator evaluations, be it for optimization, inversion, or uncertainty quantification purposes. One key requirement for a successful application of Kriging is to formulate a suitable covariance (or variogram) model reflecting the (dis)similarity between locations or "inputs", in the sense that two inputs with a high covariance (or a low variogram) value are expected to correspond to close outcomes. Here we present an approach where the inputs can be very high-dimensional, like curves and maps, or even not identifiable as vectors, like shapes or geological scenarios. We extend the Kriging methodology to a very general set-up where a collection of inputs is given together with some measure of similarity between them, the response of interest is known only for a subset of the inputs, and predictions of the response are needed for the remaining inputs. The proposed Similarity Based Kriging (SBK) method relies on the combination of Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) together with some well-chosen class of positive definite kernels. Possible degrees of freedom that govern the similarity measure and the MDS algorithms employed as well as the selected kernel make it a very versatile approach. Provided a relevant (dis)similarity measure between inputs is available, SBK appears as a simple and powerful method for predicting the outcome of complex experiments in a dimension-free set-up. After a global introduction to SBK, we will present results that concern the optimal tuning of MDS and kernel parameters. The potential of SBK for prediction and adaptive experimental design in geosciences will finally be illustrated using data sets from aquifer modelling and beyond.

  12. Design Considerations and Experimental Verification of a Rail Brake Armature Based on Linear Induction Motor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    This paper describes the design considerations and experimental verification of an LIM rail brake armature. In order to generate power and maximize the braking force density despite the limited area between the armature and the rail and the limited space available for installation, we studied a design method that is suitable for designing an LIM rail brake armature; we considered adoption of a ring winding structure. To examine the validity of the proposed design method, we developed a prototype ring winding armature for the rail brakes and examined its electromagnetic characteristics in a dynamic test system with roller rigs. By repeating various tests, we confirmed that unnecessary magnetic field components, which were expected to be present under high speed running condition or when a ring winding armature was used, were not present. Further, the necessary magnetic field component and braking force attained the desired values. These studies have helped us to develop a basic design method that is suitable for designing the LIM rail brake armatures.

  13. Tribological behaviour and statistical experimental design of sintered iron-copper based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Ileana Nicoleta; Ghiţă, Constantin; Bratu, Vasile; Palacios Navarro, Guillermo

    2013-11-01

    The sintered iron-copper based composites for automotive brake pads have a complex composite composition and should have good physical, mechanical and tribological characteristics. In this paper, we obtained frictional composites by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) technique and we have characterized them by microstructural and tribological point of view. The morphology of raw powders was determined by SEM and the surfaces of obtained sintered friction materials were analyzed by ESEM, EDS elemental and compo-images analyses. One lot of samples were tested on a "pin-on-disc" type wear machine under dry sliding conditions, at applied load between 3.5 and 11.5 × 10-1 MPa and 12.5 and 16.9 m/s relative speed in braking point at constant temperature. The other lot of samples were tested on an inertial test stand according to a methodology simulating the real conditions of dry friction, at a contact pressure of 2.5-3 MPa, at 300-1200 rpm. The most important characteristics required for sintered friction materials are high and stable friction coefficient during breaking and also, for high durability in service, must have: low wear, high corrosion resistance, high thermal conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability at elevated temperature. Because of the tribological characteristics importance (wear rate and friction coefficient) of sintered iron-copper based composites, we predicted the tribological behaviour through statistical analysis. For the first lot of samples, the response variables Yi (represented by the wear rate and friction coefficient) have been correlated with x1 and x2 (the code value of applied load and relative speed in braking points, respectively) using a linear factorial design approach. We obtained brake friction materials with improved wear resistance characteristics and high and stable friction coefficients. It has been shown, through experimental data and obtained linear regression equations, that the sintered composites wear rate increases

  14. Experimental research of the synthetic jet generator designs based on actuation of diaphragm with piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimasauskiene, R.; Matejka, M.; Ostachowicz, W.; Kurowski, M.; Malinowski, P.; Wandowski, T.; Rimasauskas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental analyses of four own developed synthetic jet generator designs were presented in this paper. The main task of this work was to find the most appropriate design of the synthetic jet generator. Dynamic characteristics of the synthetic jet generator's diaphragm with piezoelectric material were measured using non-contact measuring equipment laser vibrometer Polytec®PSV 400. Temperatures of the piezoelectric diaphragms working in resonance frequency were measured with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor. Experimental analysis of the synthetic jet generator amplitude-frequency characteristics were performed using CTA (hot wire anemometer) measuring techniques. Piezoelectric diaphragm in diameter of 27 mm was excited by sinusoidal voltage signal and it was fixed tightly inside the chamber of the synthetic jet generator. The number of the synthetic jet generator orifices (1 or 3) and volume of cavity (height of cavity vary from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm) were changed. The highest value of the synthetic jet velocity 25 m/s was obtained with synthetic jet generator which has cavity 0.5 mm and 1 orifice (resonance frequency of the piezoelectric diaphragm 2.8 kHz). It can be concluded that this type of the design is preferred in order to get the peak velocity of the synthetic jet.

  15. Educational Game Design. Bridging the gab between computer based learning and experimental learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    Considering the rapidly growing amount of digital educational materials only few of them bridge the gab between experimental learning environments and computer based learning environments (Gardner, 1991). Observations from two cases in primary school and lower secondary school in the subject...... of home economics shows that problems in computer based learning occurs when the basis of the learning process changes from being hands-on experimental with the subject to being experienced through or with a computer. Some of the central problems in home economics are to force abstraction from...... with a prototype of a MOO storyline. The aim of the MOO storyline is to challenge the potential of dialogue, user involvement, and learning responsibility and to use the children?s natural curiosity and motivation for game playing, especially when digital games involves other children. The paper proposes a model...

  16. The Experimental Research on E-Learning Instructional Design Model Based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Zhongmei

    The paper reports an educational experiment on the e-Learning instructional design model based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory, the experiment were made to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in promoting the learning quality in ill-structured domain. The study performed the experiment on two groups of students: one group learned through the system designed by the model and the other learned by the traditional method. The results of the experiment indicate that the e-Learning designed through the model is helpful to promote the intrinsic motivation, learning quality in ill-structured domains, ability to resolve ill-structured problem and creative thinking ability of the students.

  17. Model-based experimental design for assessing effects of mixtures of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baas, Jan, E-mail: jan.baas@falw.vu.n [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stefanowicz, Anna M., E-mail: anna.stefanowicz@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Klimek, Beata, E-mail: beata.klimek@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Laskowski, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard.laskowski@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M., E-mail: bas@bio.vu.n [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    We exposed flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) to a mixture of four poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The experimental setup was chosen such that the emphasis was on assessing partial effects. We interpreted the effects of the mixture by a process-based model, with a threshold concentration for effects on survival. The behavior of the threshold concentration was one of the key features of this research. We showed that the threshold concentration is shared by toxicants with the same mode of action, which gives a mechanistic explanation for the observation that toxic effects in mixtures may occur in concentration ranges where the individual components do not show effects. Our approach gives reliable predictions of partial effects on survival and allows for a reduction of experimental effort in assessing effects of mixtures, extrapolations to other mixtures, other points in time, or in a wider perspective to other organisms. - We show a mechanistic approach to assess effects of mixtures in low concentrations.

  18. Design and Field Experimentation of a Cooperative ITS Architecture Based on Distributed RSUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Moreno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new cooperative Intelligent Transportation System architecture that aims to enable collaborative sensing services. The main goal of this architecture is to improve transportation efficiency and performance. The system, which has been proven within the participation in the ICSI (Intelligent Cooperative Sensing for Improved traffic efficiency European project, encompasses the entire process of capture and management of available road data. For this purpose, it applies a combination of cooperative services and methods for data sensing, acquisition, processing and communication amongst road users, vehicles, infrastructures and related stakeholders. Additionally, the advantages of using the proposed system are exposed. The most important of these advantages is the use of a distributed architecture, moving the system intelligence from the control centre to the peripheral devices. The global architecture of the system is presented, as well as the software design and the interaction between its main components. Finally, functional and operational results observed through the experimentation are described. This experimentation has been carried out in two real scenarios, in Lisbon (Portugal and Pisa (Italy.

  19. Design and Field Experimentation of a Cooperative ITS Architecture Based on Distributed RSUs †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Asier; Osaba, Eneko; Onieva, Enrique; Perallos, Asier; Iovino, Giovanni; Fernández, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new cooperative Intelligent Transportation System architecture that aims to enable collaborative sensing services. The main goal of this architecture is to improve transportation efficiency and performance. The system, which has been proven within the participation in the ICSI (Intelligent Cooperative Sensing for Improved traffic efficiency) European project, encompasses the entire process of capture and management of available road data. For this purpose, it applies a combination of cooperative services and methods for data sensing, acquisition, processing and communication amongst road users, vehicles, infrastructures and related stakeholders. Additionally, the advantages of using the proposed system are exposed. The most important of these advantages is the use of a distributed architecture, moving the system intelligence from the control centre to the peripheral devices. The global architecture of the system is presented, as well as the software design and the interaction between its main components. Finally, functional and operational results observed through the experimentation are described. This experimentation has been carried out in two real scenarios, in Lisbon (Portugal) and Pisa (Italy). PMID:27455277

  20. Experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive engine design data-base project. Volume 1. Executive summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

    1983-05-01

    A preliminary hydrogen-fueled automotive piston engine design data-base now exists as a result of a research project at the University of Miami. The effort, which is overviewed here, encompassed the testing of 19 different configurations of an appropriately-modified, 1.6-liter displacement, light-duty automotive piston engine. The design data base includes engine performance and exhaust emissions over the entire load range, generally at a fixed speed (1800 rpm) and best efficiency spark timing. This range was sometimes limited by intake manifold backfiring and lean-limit restrictions; however, effective measures were demonstrated for obviating these problems. High efficiency, competitive specific power, and low emissions were conclusively demonstrated.

  1. Design and experimental validation of a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.i [INFN - LNF (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati), Via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Ferrari, P.; Gualdrini, G. [ENEA Radiation Protection Institute, via dei Colli n. 16, 40136, Bologna (Italy); Esposito, A. [INFN - LNF (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati), Via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    The increasing demand of rapid and reliable experimental techniques for the dosimetric characterization of high-intensity neutron fields, as those produced by radiotherapy and radioisotope installations, is the main reason for this study. In the past years INFN implemented a Bonner Sphere System, equipped with TLDs or gold activation foils, which was successfully employed for neutron spectra measurements around medical LINACs. The INFN-ENEA collaboration extended this methodology to Dysprosium activation foils. Taking advantage of the high activation cross section (2700 barn at 0.025 eV), the photon insensitivity and the reasonably short half live (2.334 h), the Dy-based BSS (Dy-BSS) is highly suited for operational measurements, where short irradiations and short measurement times are desirable. This work presents the response matrix of the Dy-BSS, calculated with MCNPX, and the results of its experimental validation, performed with reference neutron fields at the ENEA-Bologna labs. In addition, the newly developed Dy-BSS and the traditional gold foil-based BSS are compared, underlying the advantages of the new system.

  2. Optimization of natural lipstick formulation based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil using D-optimal mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamairudin, Norsuhaili; Gani, Siti Salwa Abd; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Hashim, Puziah

    2014-10-16

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components-pitaya seed oil (10%-25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%-45% w/w), beeswax (5%-25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%-5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%-5% w/w)-were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point) could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (37% w/w), beeswax (17% w/w), candelilla wax (2% w/w) and carnauba wax (2% w/w). With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point) with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  3. An experimental strategy validated to design cost-effective culture media based on response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Bolaños, J L; Téllez-Martínez, M G; Miranda-López, R; Jiménez-Islas, H

    2017-07-03

    For any fermentation process, the production cost depends on several factors, such as the genetics of the microorganism, the process condition, and the culture medium composition. In this work, a guideline for the design of cost-efficient culture media using a sequential approach based on response surface methodology is described. The procedure was applied to analyze and optimize a culture medium of registered trademark and a base culture medium obtained as a result of the screening analysis from different culture media used to grow the same strain according to the literature. During the experiments, the procedure quantitatively identified an appropriate array of micronutrients to obtain a significant yield and find a minimum number of culture medium ingredients without limiting the process efficiency. The resultant culture medium showed an efficiency that compares favorably with the registered trademark medium at a 95% lower cost as well as reduced the number of ingredients in the base culture medium by 60% without limiting the process efficiency. These results demonstrated that, aside from satisfying the qualitative requirements, an optimum quantity of each constituent is needed to obtain a cost-effective culture medium. Study process variables for optimized culture medium and scaling-up production for the optimal values are desirable.

  4. Fast estimation of expected information gains for Bayesian experimental designs based on Laplace approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2013-06-01

    Shannon-type expected information gain can be used to evaluate the relevance of a proposed experiment subjected to uncertainty. The estimation of such gain, however, relies on a double-loop integration. Moreover, its numerical integration in multi-dimensional cases, e.g., when using Monte Carlo sampling methods, is therefore computationally too expensive for realistic physical models, especially for those involving the solution of partial differential equations. In this work, we present a new methodology, based on the Laplace approximation for the integration of the posterior probability density function (pdf), to accelerate the estimation of the expected information gains in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. We obtain a closed-form approximation of the inner integral and the corresponding dominant error term in the cases where parameters are determined by the experiment, such that only a single-loop integration is needed to carry out the estimation of the expected information gain. To deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use a sparse quadrature for the integration over the prior pdf. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method via several nonlinear numerical examples, including the designs of the scalar parameter in a one-dimensional cubic polynomial function, the design of the same scalar in a modified function with two indistinguishable parameters, the resolution width and measurement time for a blurred single peak spectrum, and the boundary source locations for impedance tomography in a square domain. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Fast Estimation of Expected Information Gain for Bayesian Experimental Design Based on Laplace Approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2014-01-06

    Shannon-type expected information gain is an important utility in evaluating the usefulness of a proposed experiment that involves uncertainty. Its estimation, however, cannot rely solely on Monte Carlo sampling methods, that are generally too computationally expensive for realistic physical models, especially for those involving the solution of stochastic partial differential equations. In this work we present a new methodology, based on the Laplace approximation of the posterior probability density function, to accelerate the estimation of expected information gain in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. Furthermore, in order to deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use sparse quadratures for the integration over the prior. We show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method via several nonlinear numerical examples, including a single parameter design of one dimensional cubic polynomial function and the current pattern for impedance tomography.

  6. Experimental development based on mapping rule between requirements analysis model and web framework specific design model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Hirotaka; Ogata, Shinpei; Matsuura, Saeko

    2013-12-01

    Model Driven Development is a promising approach to develop high quality software systems. We have proposed a method of model-driven requirements analysis using Unified Modeling Language (UML). The main feature of our method is to automatically generate a Web user interface prototype from UML requirements analysis model so that we can confirm validity of input/output data for each page and page transition on the system by directly operating the prototype. We proposes a mapping rule in which design information independent of each web application framework implementation is defined based on the requirements analysis model, so as to improve the traceability to the final product from the valid requirements analysis model. This paper discusses the result of applying our method to the development of a Group Work Support System that is currently running in our department.

  7. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  8. Exploring Experimental Design: An Excel-Based Simulation Using Steller Sea Lion Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Wendy L.; St. Iago-McRae, Ezry

    2016-01-01

    Experimentation is the foundation of science and an important process for students to understand and experience. However, it can be difficult to teach some aspects of experimentation within the time and resource constraints of an academic semester. Interactive models can be a useful tool in bridging this gap. This freely accessible simulation…

  9. Computational and Experimental Design of Fe-Based Superalloys for Elevated-Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, Peter K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fine, Morris E. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ghosh, Gautam [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Asta, Mark D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Chain T. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Sun, Zhiqian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Huang, Shenyan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Teng, Zhenke [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wang, Gongyao [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2012-04-13

    Analogous to nickel-based superalloys, Fe-based superalloys, which are strengthened by coherent B2- type precipitates are proposed for elevated-temperature applications. During the period of this project, a series of ferritic superalloys have been designed and fabricated by methods of vacuum-arc melting and vacuum-induction melting. Nano-scale precipitates were characterized by atom-probe tomography, ultrasmall- angle X-ray scattering, and transmission-electron microscopy. A duplex distribution of precipitates was found. It seems that ferritic superalloys are susceptible to brittle fracture. Systematic endeavors have been devoted to understanding and resolving the problem. Factors, such as hot rolling, precipitate volume fractions, alloy compositions, precipitate sizes and inter-particle spacings, and hyperfine cooling precipitates, have been investigated. In order to understand the underlying relationship between the microstructure and creep behavior of ferric alloys at elevated temperatures, in-situ neutron studies have been carried out. Based on the current result, it seems that the major role of β' with a 16%-volume fraction in strengthening ferritic alloys is not load sharing but interactions with dislocations. The oxidation behavior of one ferritic alloy, FBB8 (Fe-6.5Al-10Ni-10Cr-3.4Mo-0.25Zr-0.005B, weight percent), was studied in dry air. It is found that it possesses superior oxidation resistance at 1,023 and 1,123 K, compared with other creep-resistant ferritic steels [T91 (modified 9Cr-1Mo, weight percent) and P92 (9Cr-1.8W-0.5Mo, weight percent)]. At the same time, the calculation of the interfacial energies between the -iron and B2-type intermetallics (CoAl, FeAl, and NiAl) has been conducted.

  10. [Research and Design of an Experimental Apparatus Based on the "Open Fireplace" in Xuanwei District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiapeng; Huang, Yunchao; Zi, Wenhua; Bai, Yunbao; Li, Guangjian; Ye, Lianhua; Zhou, Yongchun; Zhao, Guangqiang; Lei, Yujie; Chen, Xiaobo; Chen, Ying; Zhang Yanjun

    2016-02-01

    Xuanwei district in Yunnan Province of China has pretty high incidence of lung cancer in China, even a- round the world. Studies have shown that there exists a close relationship between lung cancer and local indoor air pollution caused by Bituminous coal. Considering that the indoor air pollution in Xuanwei District is caused by "open fireplace", an indoor air pollution simulation system was designed, and an F344 rats lung damage model was estab- lished for this indoor air pollution fireplace. The model is based on indoor air pollution simulation system with signal multiplexer control and multi-channel acquisition, and mining PID algorithm was used for polynomial fitting to each test point, and a relatively constant PM2. 5 air pollution status was simulated. The results showed that the system could simulate a variety of states of air pollution, provide a new test method for evaluation of human injury caused by indoor air pollution and a new idea for the study of the incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei district and other places.

  11. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norsuhaili Kamairudin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w, beeswax (5%–25% w/w, candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (37% w/w, beeswax (17% w/w, candelilla wax (2% w/w and carnauba wax (2% w/w. With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  12. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, SN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as ``...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the p

  13. Experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive engine design data-base project. Volume 2. Main technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

    1983-05-01

    Operational performance and emissions characteristics of hydrogen-fueled engines are reviewed. The project activities are reviewed including descriptions of the test engine and its components, the test apparatus, experimental techniques, experiments performed and the results obtained. Analyses of other hydrogen engine project data are also presented and compared with the results of the present effort.

  14. Synergistic Integration of Experimental and Simulation Approaches for the de Novo Design of Silk-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenwen; Ebrahimi, Davoud; Dinjaski, Nina; Tarakanova, Anna; Buehler, Markus J; Wong, Joyce Y; Kaplan, David L

    2017-04-18

    Tailored biomaterials with tunable functional properties are crucial for a variety of task-specific applications ranging from healthcare to sustainable, novel bio-nanodevices. To generate polymeric materials with predictive functional outcomes, exploiting designs from nature while morphing them toward non-natural systems offers an important strategy. Silks are Nature's building blocks and are produced by arthropods for a variety of uses that are essential for their survival. Due to the genetic control of encoded protein sequence, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, silk proteins have been selected as prototype models to emulate for the tunable designs of biomaterial systems. The bottom up strategy of material design opens important opportunities to create predictive functional outcomes, following the exquisite polymeric templates inspired by silks. Recombinant DNA technology provides a systematic approach to recapitulate, vary, and evaluate the core structure peptide motifs in silks and then biosynthesize silk-based polymers by design. Post-biosynthesis processing allows for another dimension of material design by controlled or assisted assembly. Multiscale modeling, from the theoretical prospective, provides strategies to explore interactions at different length scales, leading to selective material properties. Synergy among experimental and modeling approaches can provide new and more rapid insights into the most appropriate structure-function relationships to pursue while also furthering our understanding in terms of the range of silk-based systems that can be generated. This approach utilizes nature as a blueprint for initial polymer designs with useful functions (e.g., silk fibers) but also employs modeling-guided experiments to expand the initial polymer designs into new domains of functional materials that do not exist in nature. The overall path to these new functional outcomes is greatly accelerated via the integration of

  15. Physics-based Modeling Techniques for Analysis and Design of Advanced Suspension Systems with Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Farjoud, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    This research undertakes the problem of vibration control of vehicular and structural systems using intelligent materials and controllable devices. Advanced modeling tools validated with experimental test data are developed to help with understanding the fundamentals as well as advanced and novel applications of smart and conventional suspension systems. The project can be divided into two major parts. The first part is focused on development of novel smart suspensions using Magneto-Rheolo...

  16. Design approaches to experimental mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlott, Angela G; MacKinnon, David P

    2016-09-01

    Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i.e., the relationship between the mediating and dependent variables is correlational. Although researchers likely know that correlational studies pose a risk of confounding, this problem seems forgotten when thinking about experimental designs randomly assigning participants to levels of the independent variable and measuring the mediator (i.e., "measurement-of-mediation" designs). Experimentally manipulating the mediator provides an approach to solving these problems, yet these methods contain their own set of challenges (e.g., Bullock, Green, & Ha, 2010). We describe types of experimental manipulations targeting the mediator (manipulations demonstrating a causal effect of the mediator on the dependent variable and manipulations targeting the strength of the causal effect of the mediator) and types of experimental designs (double randomization, concurrent double randomization, and parallel), provide published examples of the designs, and discuss the strengths and challenges of each design. Therefore, the goals of this paper include providing a practical guide to manipulation-of-mediator designs in light of their challenges and encouraging researchers to use more rigorous approaches to mediation because manipulation-of-mediator designs strengthen the ability to infer causality of the mediating variable on the dependent variable.

  17. Optimization Design Method and Experimental Validation of a Solar PVT Cogeneration System Based on Building Energy Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT technology refers to the integration of a photovoltaic (PV and a conventional solar thermal collector, representing the deep exploitation and utilization of solar energy. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a solar PVT cogeneration system based on specific building energy demand using theoretical modeling and experimental study. Through calculation and simulation, the dynamic heating load and electricity load is obtained as the basis of the system design. An analytical expression for the connection of PVT collector array is derived by using basic energy balance equations and thermal models. Based on analytical results, an optimized design method was carried out for the system. In addition, the fuzzy control method of frequency conversion circulating water pumps and pipeline switching by electromagnetic valves is introduced in this paper to maintain the system at an optimal working point. Meanwhile, an experimental setup is established, which includes 36 PVT collectors with every 6 PVT collectors connected in series. The thermal energy generation, thermal efficiency, power generation and photovoltaic efficiency have been given in this paper. The results demonstrate that the demonstration solar PVT cogeneration system can meet the building energy demand in the daytime in the heating season.

  18. Design, Manufacturing and Experimental Validation of Optical Fiber Sensors Based Devices for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela CORICCIATI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of optical fiber sensors is a promising and rising technique used for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM, because permit to monitor continuously the strain and the temperature of the structure where they are applied. In the present paper three different types of smart devices, that are composite materials with an optical fiber sensor embedded inside them during the manufacturing process, are described: Smart Patch, Smart Rebar and Smart Textile, which are respectively a plate for local exterior intervention, a rod for shear and flexural interior reinforcement and a textile for an external whole application. In addition to the monitoring aim, the possible additional function of these devices could be the reinforcement of the structures where they are applied. In the present work, after technology manufacturing description, the experimental laboratory characterization of each device is discussed. At last, smart devices application on medium scale masonry walls and their validation by mechanical tests is described.

  19. Experimental design-based isotope-dilution SPME-GC/MS method development for the analysis of smoke flavouring products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Anupam; Zelinkova, Zuzana; Wenzl, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    For the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 2065/2003 related to smoke flavourings used or intended for use in or on foods a method based on solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) GC/MS was developed for the characterisation of liquid smoke products. A statistically based experimental design (DoE) was used for method optimisation. The best general conditions to quantitatively analyse the liquid smoke compounds were obtained with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre, 60°C extraction temperature, 30 min extraction time, 250°C desorption temperature, 180 s desorption time, 15 s agitation time, and 250 rpm agitation speed. Under the optimised conditions, 119 wood pyrolysis products including furan/pyran derivatives, phenols, guaiacol, syringol, benzenediol, and their derivatives, cyclic ketones, and several other heterocyclic compounds were identified. The proposed method was repeatable (RSD% smoke flavourings.

  20. Model-based design and experimental verification of a monitoring concept for an active-active electromechanical aileron actuation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, David; Thielecke, Frank

    2017-09-01

    Electromechanical actuators have become a key technology for the onset of power-by-wire flight control systems in the next generation of commercial aircraft. The design of robust control and monitoring functions for these devices capable to mitigate the effects of safety-critical faults is essential in order to achieve the required level of fault tolerance. A primary flight control system comprising two electromechanical actuators nominally operating in active-active mode is considered. A set of five signal-based monitoring functions are designed using a detailed model of the system under consideration which includes non-linear parasitic effects, measurement and data acquisition effects, and actuator faults. Robust detection thresholds are determined based on the analysis of parametric and input uncertainties. The designed monitoring functions are verified experimentally and by simulation through the injection of faults in the validated model and in a test-rig suited to the actuation system under consideration, respectively. They guarantee a robust and efficient fault detection and isolation with a low risk of false alarms, additionally enabling the correct reconfiguration of the system for an enhanced operational availability. In 98% of the performed experiments and simulations, the correct faults were detected and confirmed within the time objectives set.

  1. Sudoku Squares as Experimental Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sudoku Squares as Experimental Designs. Jyotirmoy Sarkar Bikas K Sinha. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Jyotirmoy Sarkar1 Bikas K Sinha2. Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, USA; Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata ...

  2. A quasi-experimental design based on regional variations: discussion of a method for evaluating outcomes of medical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, A; Andersen, T F; Madsen, Mette

    1989-01-01

    A large proportion of common medical practices are subject to substantial regional variation resulting in numerous natural experiments. Opportunities are thereby provided for outcome evaluation through quasi-experimental design. If patients treated in different regions were comparable a natural...... experiment involving alternative treatments could be regarded as 'pseudo randomised', but empirical investigations are needed to verify this prerequisite. This paper discusses the role of quasi-experimental designs in assessment of medical care with evaluation of outcomes after hysterectomy in Denmark...

  3. A Comparative Experimental Design and Performance Analysis of Snort-Based Intrusion Detection System in Practical Computer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imdadul Karim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most reliable technologies, network intrusion detection system (NIDS allows the monitoring of incoming and outgoing traffic to identify unauthorised usage and mishandling of attackers in computer network systems. To this extent, this paper investigates the experimental performance of Snort-based NIDS (S-NIDS in a practical network with the latest technology in various network scenarios including high data speed and/or heavy traffic and/or large packet size. An effective testbed is designed based on Snort using different muti-core processors, e.g., i5 and i7, with different operating systems, e.g., Windows 7, Windows Server and Linux. Furthermore, considering an enterprise network consisting of multiple virtual local area networks (VLANs, a centralised parallel S-NIDS (CPS-NIDS is proposed with the support of a centralised database server to deal with high data speed and heavy traffic. Experimental evaluation is carried out for each network configuration to evaluate the performance of the S-NIDS in different network scenarios as well as validating the effectiveness of the proposed CPS-NIDS. In particular, by analysing packet analysis efficiency, an improved performance of up to 10% is shown to be achieved with Linux over other operating systems, while up to 8% of improved performance can be achieved with i7 over i5 processors.

  4. Potential Pitfalls of Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Watkins

    2017-01-01

    Good experimental design begins with the end in mind. An early conversation with a statistician will both increase the chances of an experimental study contributing to the literature and minimize the risks to participating human subjects.  Sir R.A. Fisher felt that “to consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination: he can perhaps say what the experiment died of.” To this end, some questions from a statistician are pres...

  5. An innovative multi-gap clutch based on magneto-rheological fluids and electrodynamic effects: magnetic design and experimental characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an innovative multi-gap magnetorheological clutch is described. It is inspired by a device previously developed by the author’s research group and contains a novel solution based on electrodynamic effects, capable to considerably improve the transmissible torque during the engagement phase. Since this (transient) phase is characterized by a non-zero angular speed between the two clutch shafts, the rotation of a permanent magnets system, used to excite the fluid, induces eddy currents on some conductive material strategically positioned in the device. As a consequence, an electromagnetic torque is produced which is added to the torque transmitted by the magnetorheological fluid only. Once the clutch is completely engaged and the relative speed between the two shafts is zero, the electrodynamic effects vanish and the device operates like a conventional magnetorheological clutch. The system is investigated and designed by means a 3D FEM model and the performance of the device is experimentally validated on a prototype.

  6. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivia, D.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.

  7. Design, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of an SU-8 microgripper based on the cascaded V-shaped electrothermal actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Rodica-Cristina

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the numerical simulation results and the experimental investigations of a polymeric microgripper designed using the cascaded V-shaped electrothermal actuators. The microgripper was simulated using electro-thermo-mechanical finite element method (FEM) based on Coventorware 2014 software in order to check the performance of the gripper. As structural material of the microgripper, the SU-8 biocompatible polymer was used during the fabrication process. The metallic micro-heaters were encapsulated in the polymeric actuation structures of the microgrippers to reduce the undesirable out-of-plane displacement of the gripper tips, to reduce the mechanical stress and to improve the thermal efficiency. Experimental testing has been performed to determine the openings of the microgripper tips as function of electrical current. A displacement of the tips of more than 50 pm can be obtained at an electrical current of around 25-26 mA. Over 27-28 mA the heaters are still working but a softening and a damaging status in the polymer were observed.

  8. Learning Design of Problem Based Learning Model Based on Recommendations of Sintax Study and Contents Issues on Physics Impulse Materials with Experimental Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristia Agustina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design learning Problem Based Learning Model based on syntax study recommendations and content issues on Physics Impulse materials through experiments. This research is a development research with Kemp model. The reference for making the learning design is the result of the syntax study and the content of existing PBL implementation problems from Agustina research. This instructional design is applied to the physics material about Impulse done through experimental activity. Limited trials were conducted on the SWCU Physics Education Study Program students group Salatiga, while the validity test was conducted by high school teachers and physics education lecturers. The results of the trial evaluation are limited and the validity test is used to improve the designs that have been made. The conclusion of this research is the design of learning by using PBL model on Impuls material by referring the result of syntax study and the problem content of existing PBL implementation can be produced by learning activity designed in laboratory experiment activity. The actual problem for Impuls material can be used car crash test video at factory. The results of validation tests and limited trials conducted by researchers assessed that the design of learning made by researchers can be used with small revisions. Suggestions from this research are in making learning design by using PBL model to get actual problem can by collecting news that come from newspaper, YouTube, internet, and television.

  9. Potential Pitfalls of Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Watkins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good experimental design begins with the end in mind. An early conversation with a statistician will both increase the chances of an experimental study contributing to the literature and minimize the risks to participating human subjects.  Sir R.A. Fisher felt that “to consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination: he can perhaps say what the experiment died of.” To this end, some questions from a statistician are presented along with the associated experimental study pitfalls to avoid during the study planning phase. Several concrete examples are provided to give some practical knowledge on how to improve an experimental study at the onset.  Hypothesis formulation, sample size determination, randomization, and double-blinding are all explained from the viewpoint of a statistician’s final analysis. Confounders, sampling, and missing data are also briefly covered through this hypothetical question and answer session.

  10. A Field Experimental Design of a Strengths-Based Training to Overcome Academic Procrastination: Short- and Long-Term Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Visser

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the effect of a newly developed 4-week strengths-based training approach to overcome academic procrastination, given to first-year elementary teacher education students (N = 54. The training was based on a strengths-based approach, in which elements of the cognitive behavioral approach were also used. The purpose of the training was to promote awareness of the personal strengths of students who experience academic procrastination regularly and to teach them how to use their personal strengths in situations in which they usually tend to procrastinate. With a pretest-posttest control group design (two experimental groups: n = 31, control group: n = 23, the effect of the training on academic procrastination was studied after 1, 11, and 24 weeks. Results of a one-way analysis of covariance revealed a significant short-term effect of the training. In the long term (after 11 and 24 weeks, the scores for academic procrastination for the intervention groups remained stable, whereas the scores for academic procrastination for the control group decreased to the same level as those of the intervention groups. The findings of this study suggest that a strengths-based approach can be helpful to students at an early stage of their academic studies to initiate their individual process of dealing with academic procrastination. The findings for the long term show the importance of measuring the outcomes of an intervention not only shortly after the intervention but also in the long term. Further research is needed to find out how the short-term effect can be maintained in the long-term.

  11. A Field Experimental Design of a Strengths-Based Training to Overcome Academic Procrastination: Short- and Long-Term Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Lennart; Schoonenboom, Judith; Korthagen, Fred A J

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of a newly developed 4-week strengths-based training approach to overcome academic procrastination, given to first-year elementary teacher education students ( N = 54). The training was based on a strengths-based approach, in which elements of the cognitive behavioral approach were also used. The purpose of the training was to promote awareness of the personal strengths of students who experience academic procrastination regularly and to teach them how to use their personal strengths in situations in which they usually tend to procrastinate. With a pretest-posttest control group design (two experimental groups: n = 31, control group: n = 23), the effect of the training on academic procrastination was studied after 1, 11, and 24 weeks. Results of a one-way analysis of covariance revealed a significant short-term effect of the training. In the long term (after 11 and 24 weeks), the scores for academic procrastination for the intervention groups remained stable, whereas the scores for academic procrastination for the control group decreased to the same level as those of the intervention groups. The findings of this study suggest that a strengths-based approach can be helpful to students at an early stage of their academic studies to initiate their individual process of dealing with academic procrastination. The findings for the long term show the importance of measuring the outcomes of an intervention not only shortly after the intervention but also in the long term. Further research is needed to find out how the short-term effect can be maintained in the long-term.

  12. Role of Fe(III)-carboxylates in AMZ photodegradation: A response surface study based on a Doehlert experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Cátia A L; Correia de Velosa, Adriana; Teixeira, Antonio Carlos S C

    2017-10-01

    Photochemical redox reactions of Fe(III) complexes in surface waters are important sources of radical species, therefore contributing to the sunlight-driven elimination of waterborne recalcitrant contaminants. In this study, the effects of three Fe(III)-carboxylates (i.e., oxalate, citrate, and tartrate) on the UVA photoinduced oxidation of the herbicide amicarbazone (AMZ) were investigated. A Doehlert experimental design was applied to find the Fe(III):ligand ratios and pH that achieved the fastest AMZ degradation rate. The results indicated optimal ratios of 1:10 (Fe(III):oxalate), 1:4 (Fe(III):citrate), and 1:1 (Fe(III):tartrate), with the [Fe(III)]0 set at 0.1 mmol L-1 and the best pH found to be 3.5 for all the complexes. In addition, a statistical model that predicts the observed degradation rate constant (kobs) as a function of pH and Fe(III):carboxylate ratio was obtained for each complex, enabling AMZ-photodegradation predictions based on these two variables. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such models are proposed. Not only the pH-dependent speciation of Fe(III) in solution but also the time profiles of photogenerated OH, Fe(II), and H2O2 gave appropriate support to the experimental results. Additional experiments using a sampled sewage treatment plant effluent suggest that the addition of aqua and/or Fe(III)-oxalate complexes to the matrix may also be effective for AMZ removal from natural waters in case their natural occurrence is not high enough to promote pollutant degradation. Therefore, the inclusion of Fe(III)-complexes in investigations dealing with the environmental fate of emerging pollutants in natural waterbodies is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimal Bayesian Experimental Design for Combustion Kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2011-01-04

    Experimental diagnostics play an essential role in the development and refinement of chemical kinetic models, whether for the combustion of common complex hydrocarbons or of emerging alternative fuels. Questions of experimental design—e.g., which variables or species to interrogate, at what resolution and under what conditions—are extremely important in this context, particularly when experimental resources are limited. This paper attempts to answer such questions in a rigorous and systematic way. We propose a Bayesian framework for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models. While the framework is broadly applicable, we use it to infer rate parameters in a combustion system with detailed kinetics. The framework introduces a utility function that reflects the expected information gain from a particular experiment. Straightforward evaluation (and maximization) of this utility function requires Monte Carlo sampling, which is infeasible with computationally intensive models. Instead, we construct a polynomial surrogate for the dependence of experimental observables on model parameters and design conditions, with the help of dimension-adaptive sparse quadrature. Results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the surrogate, as well as the considerable effectiveness of the experimental design framework in choosing informative experimental conditions.

  14. Hydraulic design of embankment stepped chutes: a methodology based on an experimental study; Diseno hidraulico de vertedores escalonados con pendientes modernas: metodologia basada en un estudio experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Carlos A; Chanson, Hubert [Universidad de Queensland (Australia)

    2007-04-15

    Stepped chutes have been used as hydraulic structures since antiquity. They can be found acting as spillways and fish ladders in dams and weirs, as energy dissipators in artificial channels, gutters and rivers, and as aeration enhancers in water treatment plants and polluted streams. In recent years, new construction techniques and materials (Roller Compacted Concrete RCC, rip-rap gabions, etc.) together with the development of the above-mentioned new applications have allowed cheaper construction methods, increasing the interest in stepped chute design. During the last three decades, research in stepped spillways has been very active. However, studies prior to 1993 neglected the effect of free-surface aeration. A number of studies have focused since then on steep stepped chutes ({theta} {approx} 45 degrees), but the hydraulic performance of moderate-slope stepped channels is not yet totally understood. This study details an experimental investigation of physical air-water flow properties down moderate-slope stepped spillways conducted in two laboratory models: the first model was a 3.15-m-long stepped chute with a 15.9 degrees slope comprising two interchangeable step heights (h = 0.1 m and h = 0.05 m); the second model was a 3.3 m long, stepped channel with a 21.8 degrees slope (h = 0.1 m). A broad range of discharges within transition and skimming flow regimes was investigated. Measurements were conducted using a double tip conductivity probe. The study provides new, original insights into air-water stepped chute flows not foreseen in prior studies and presents a new design criterion for chutes with moderate slopes based on the experimental results. [Spanish] Durante las ultimas tres decadas, el interes y diversidad en el uso de canales escalonados han aumentado debido al desarrollo de nuevas tecnicas y materiales que permiten su construccion de manera rapida y economica (concreto compactado con rodillo CCR, gaviones, etcetera). Actualmente, los canales

  15. Optimization of polymeric triiodide membrane electrode based on clozapine-triiodide ion-pair using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Khalil; Bahram, Morteza; Shokatynia, Donya; Salehiyan, Floria

    2008-07-15

    Central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were developed as experimental strategies for modeling and optimization of the influence of some variables on the performance of a new PVC membrane triiodide ion-selective electrode. This triiodide sensor is based on triiodide-clozapine ion-pair complexation. PVC, plasticizers, ion-pair amounts and pH were investigated as four variables to build a model to achieve the best Nernstian slope (59.9 mV) as response. The electrode is prepared by incorporating the ion-exchanger in PVC matrix plasticized with 2-nitrophenyl octal ether, which is directly coated on the surface of a graphite electrode. The influence of foreign ions on the electrode performance was also investigated. The optimized membranes demonstrate Nernstian response for triiodide ions over a wide linear range from 5.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-2)mol L(-1) with a limit of detection 2.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) at 25 degrees C. The electrodes could be used over a wide pH range 4-8, and have the advantages of easy to prepare, good selectivity and fast response time, long lifetime (over 3 months) and small interferences from hydrogen ion. The proposed electrode was successfully used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of triiodide ions and ascorbic acid.

  16. Experimentally based, longitudinally designed, teacher-focused intervention to help physical education teachers be more autonomy supportive toward their students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sung Hyeon; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Moon, Ik Soo

    2012-06-01

    Using the field's state-of-the-art knowledge, we designed, implemented, and assessed the effectiveness of an intervention to help physical education (PE) teachers be more autonomy supportive during instruction. Nineteen secondary-school PE teachers in Seoul were randomly assigned into either an experimental or a delayed-treatment control group, and their 1,158 students self-reported their course-related psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, amotivation, classroom engagement, skill development, future intentions, and academic achievement at the beginning, middle, and end of the semester. Observers' ratings and students' self-reports confirmed that the intervention was successful. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs showed that the students of teachers in the experimental group showed midsemester and end-of-semester improvements in all dependent measures. A multilevel structural equation model mediation analysis showed why the teacher-training program produced improvements in all six student outcomes - namely, teachers in the experimental group vitalized their students' psychological need satisfaction during PE class in ways that teachers in the control group were unable to do, and it was this enhanced need satisfaction that explained the observed improvements in all six outcomes.

  17. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  18. Fully Bayesian Experimental Design for Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Utility functions in Bayesian experimental design are usually based on the posterior distribution. When the posterior is found by simulation, it must be sampled from for each future dataset drawn from the prior predictive distribution. Many thousands of posterior distributions are often required. A popular technique in the Bayesian experimental design literature, which rapidly obtains samples from the posterior, is importance sampling, using the prior as the importance distribution. However, importance sampling from the prior will tend to break down if there is a reasonable number of experimental observations. In this paper, we explore the use of Laplace approximations in the design setting to overcome this drawback. Furthermore, we consider using the Laplace approximation to form the importance distribution to obtain a more efficient importance distribution than the prior. The methodology is motivated by a pharmacokinetic study, which investigates the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in sheep. The design problem is to find 10 near optimal plasma sampling times that produce precise estimates of pharmacokinetic model parameters/measures of interest. We consider several different utility functions of interest in these studies, which involve the posterior distribution of parameter functions.

  19. Design and experimental demonstration of a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser based on erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Romita; Pidishety, Shankar; Bhattacharya, Shanti; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2017-08-01

    We describe a systematic approach to design, optimize, and characterize a Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) laser with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) as the optical gain medium. A highly stable temporal intensity profile is obtained by minimizing chromatic dispersion and polarization fluctuations. The obtained bandwidth of 21 nm, tuning speed of 50 kHz, and output power of 5 mW are the highest reported so far with an EDFA-based FDML laser.

  20. Application of experimental design for quantification and voltammetric studies of sulfapyridine based on a nanostructure electrochemical sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mehdi Ghoreishi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV coupled with experimental design, as a new method, was developed for determination of sulfapyridine (SP. These measurements were carried out in a 0.2 M Britton–Robinson (B–R buffer solution at the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified carbon paste electrode (MWCNT/CPE. Operating conditions were improved with central composite rotatable design (CCRD, involving several chemical and instrumental parameters such as pH, MWCNT amount, scan rate, step potential and modulation amplitude. DPV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV were applied for characterizing of the modified electrode. The modified electrode showed enhanced effect on the oxidation peak current of SP. The electron transfer coefficient (α = 0.77, exchanging current density (j0 = 1.82 × 10−11 A cm−2 and diffusion coefficient (D = 2.03 × 10−5 cm2 s−1 of SP were calculated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV and chronoamperometry methods, respectively. Some analytical parameters such as repeatability, linear dynamic range (5.96–161.07 M and detection limit (DL (49.55 nM for SP were also obtained. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for determination of SP in plasma samples.

  1. Sudoku Squares as Experimental Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Sudoku is a popular combinatorial puzzle. We give a brief overview of some mathematical fea- tures of a Sudoku square. Then we focus on in- terpreting Sudoku squares as experimental de- signs in order to meet a practical need. 1. Sudoku Squares and Sudoku Puzzles. The (standard) Sudoku square of order 9 entails a ...

  2. An adaptive Gaussian process-based method for efficient Bayesian experimental design in groundwater contaminant source identification problems: ADAPTIVE GAUSSIAN PROCESS-BASED INVERSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiangjiang [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zeng, Lingzao [College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA

    2016-08-01

    Surrogate models are commonly used in Bayesian approaches such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to avoid repetitive CPU-demanding model evaluations. However, the approximation error of a surrogate may lead to biased estimations of the posterior distribution. This bias can be corrected by constructing a very accurate surrogate or implementing MCMC in a two-stage manner. Since the two-stage MCMC requires extra original model evaluations, the computational cost is still high. If the information of measurement is incorporated, a locally accurate approximation of the original model can be adaptively constructed with low computational cost. Based on this idea, we propose a Gaussian process (GP) surrogate-based Bayesian experimental design and parameter estimation approach for groundwater contaminant source identification problems. A major advantage of the GP surrogate is that it provides a convenient estimation of the approximation error, which can be incorporated in the Bayesian formula to avoid over-confident estimation of the posterior distribution. The proposed approach is tested with a numerical case study. Without sacrificing the estimation accuracy, the new approach achieves about 200 times of speed-up compared to our previous work using two-stage MCMC.

  3. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. A single-case experimental design across 13 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Katja; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Edebol-Carlman, Hanna; Schrooten, Martien; Linton, Steven J; Brummer, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent disorder with a significant impact on quality of life. The presence of psychological symptoms in IBS patients such as catastrophic worry and behavioral avoidance suggests the possible efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be a promising approach but has only been investigated in a few studies and mainly via the Internet. Therefore, the aims of this study were to extend and replicate previous findings and to evaluate whether an individual, face-to-face, exposure-based CBT leads to improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life in IBS patients. Thirteen patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria participated in a single-case experimental study using a five-week baseline and a subsequent twelve-session intervention phase focusing on psycho-education, mindfulness and in vivo exposure. Standardized measurement of gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life was conducted weekly during baseline as well as intervention phase and at six-month follow-up. Results showed that over 70% of patients improved significantly on gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and quality of life. Effects on avoidance behavior were modest. These results strengthen and extend earlier findings and provide further support for the efficacy of exposure-based strategies for IBS.

  4. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Isabelle L.; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga,Marta Suely; Yamashita,Fábio; Magnani,Marciane

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the m...

  5. Design and Implement of Pyroelectric Energy Harvester Experimental Measurement System Based on STM32F103VET6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghua Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A design scheme of the pyroelectric energy harvesting and conversion experimental measurement system was proposed. It can be used to evaluate the harvesting and conversion properties of pyroelectric energy harvester. The STM32F103VET6 microcontroller is used as control core, and the variation temperature filed can be generated by using semiconductor chilling plate, which is controlled by Fuzzy-PID temperature module, to achieve the temperature rapid heating or cooling. In system, using DS18B20 to achieve the temperature real-time data acquisition, using TF TLCD 2.8 LCD to set the initial parameters and display the related real-time parameters. The measurement principle, system hardware and software architecture of experiment measurement system are specially described in article. Simultaneously, the energy conversion and harvesting properties of novel pyroelectric energy harvester, which is prepared by Pb[(MnxNb1-x1/2(MnxSb1-x1/2]y(ZrzTi1-z1-yO3 (PMnN-PMS-PZT ceramics, is discussed. The experiment results show that it can quickly realize the system temperature heating or cooling, and also can satisfy the experiment needs of the properties of pyroelectric energy harvesting and conversion characteristics measurement.

  6. A Pilot Study of Biomedical Text Comprehension using an Attention-Based Deep Neural Reader: Design and Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongsoon; Park, Donghyeon; Choi, Yonghwa; Lee, Kyubum; Kim, Byounggun; Jeon, Minji; Kim, Jihye; Tan, Aik Choon; Kang, Jaewoo

    2018-01-05

    With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology centered on deep-learning, the computer has evolved to a point where it can read a given text and answer a question based on the context of the text. Such a specific task is known as the task of machine comprehension. Existing machine comprehension tasks mostly use datasets of general texts, such as news articles or elementary school-level storybooks. However, no attempt has been made to determine whether an up-to-date deep learning-based machine comprehension model can also process scientific literature containing expert-level knowledge, especially in the biomedical domain. This study aims to investigate whether a machine comprehension model can process biomedical articles as well as general texts. Since there is no dataset for the biomedical literature comprehension task, our work includes generating a large-scale question answering dataset using PubMed and manually evaluating the generated dataset. We present an attention-based deep neural model tailored to the biomedical domain. To further enhance the performance of our model, we used a pretrained word vector and biomedical entity type embedding. We also developed an ensemble method of combining the results of several independent models to reduce the variance of the answers from the models. The experimental results showed that our proposed deep neural network model outperformed the baseline model by more than 7% on the new dataset. We also evaluated human performance on the new dataset. The human evaluation result showed that our deep neural model outperformed humans in comprehension by 22% on average. In this work, we introduced a new task of machine comprehension in the biomedical domain using a deep neural model. Since there was no large-scale dataset for training deep neural models in the biomedical domain, we created the new cloze-style datasets Biomedical Knowledge Comprehension Title (BMKC_T) and Biomedical Knowledge Comprehension Last

  7. An Introduction to Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Design research brings together influences from the whole gamut of social, psychological, and more technical sciences to create a tradition of empirical study stretching back over 50 years (Horvath 2004; Cross 2007). A growing part of this empirical tradition is experimental, which has gained...... design researcher. Thus, this book brings together leading researchers from across design research in order to provide the reader with a foundation in experimental design research; an appreciation of possible experimental perspectives; and insight into how experiments can be used to build robust...... and significant scientific knowledge. This chapter sets the stage for these discussions by introducing experimental design research, outlining the various types of experimental approach, and explaining the role of this book in the wider methodological context....

  8. Experimental Test and Simulations on a Linear Generator-Based Prototype of a Wave Energy Conversion System Designed with a Reliability-Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Boscaino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a reliability-oriented design of a linear generator-based prototype of a wave energy conversion (WEC, useful for the production of hydrogen in a sheltered water area like Mediterranean Sea. The hydrogen production has been confirmed by a lot of experimental testing and simulations. The system design is aimed to enhance the robustness and reliability and is based on an analysis of the main WEC failures reported in literature. The results of this analysis led to some improvements that are applied to a WEC system prototype for hydrogen production and storage. The proposed WEC system includes the electrical linear generator, the power conversion system, and a sea-water electrolyzer. A modular architecture is conceived to provide ease of extension of the power capability of the marine plant. The experimental results developed on the permanent magnet linear electric generator have allowed identification of the stator winding typology and, consequently, ability to size the power electronics system. The produced hydrogen has supplied a low-power fuel cell stack directly connected to the hydrogen output from the electrolyzer. The small-scale prototype is designed to be installed, in the near future, into the Mediterranean Sea. As shown by experimental and simulation results, the small-scale prototype is suitable for hydrogen production and storage from sea water in this area.

  9. Experimental toxicology: Issues of statistics, experimental design, and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Wayne; Kirwan, Jeral

    2017-01-01

    The difficulty of replicating experiments has drawn considerable attention. Issues with replication occur for a variety of reasons ranging from experimental design to laboratory errors to inappropriate statistical analysis. Here we review a variety of guidelines for statistical analysis, design, and execution of experiments in toxicology. In general, replication can be improved by using hypothesis driven experiments with adequate sample sizes, randomization, and blind data collection techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulation and Experimental Studies on Grain Selection and Structure Design of the Spiral Selector for Casting Single Crystal Ni-Based Superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Xu, Qingyan

    2017-10-27

    Grain selection is an important process in single crystal turbine blades manufacturing. Selector structure is a control factor of grain selection, as well as directional solidification (DS). In this study, the grain selection and structure design of the spiral selector were investigated through experimentation and simulation. A heat transfer model and a 3D microstructure growth model were established based on the Cellular automaton-Finite difference (CA-FD) method for the grain selector. Consequently, the temperature field, the microstructure and the grain orientation distribution were simulated and further verified. The average error of the temperature result was less than 1.5%. The grain selection mechanisms were further analyzed and validated through simulations. The structural design specifications of the selector were suggested based on the two grain selection effects. The structural parameters of the spiral selector, namely, the spiral tunnel diameter ( d w ), the spiral pitch ( h b ) and the spiral diameter ( h s ), were studied and the design criteria of these parameters were proposed. The experimental and simulation results demonstrated that the improved selector could accurately and efficiently produce a single crystal structure.

  11. Simulation and Experimental Studies on Grain Selection and Structure Design of the Spiral Selector for Casting Single Crystal Ni-Based Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain selection is an important process in single crystal turbine blades manufacturing. Selector structure is a control factor of grain selection, as well as directional solidification (DS. In this study, the grain selection and structure design of the spiral selector were investigated through experimentation and simulation. A heat transfer model and a 3D microstructure growth model were established based on the Cellular automaton-Finite difference (CA-FD method for the grain selector. Consequently, the temperature field, the microstructure and the grain orientation distribution were simulated and further verified. The average error of the temperature result was less than 1.5%. The grain selection mechanisms were further analyzed and validated through simulations. The structural design specifications of the selector were suggested based on the two grain selection effects. The structural parameters of the spiral selector, namely, the spiral tunnel diameter (dw, the spiral pitch (hb and the spiral diameter (hs, were studied and the design criteria of these parameters were proposed. The experimental and simulation results demonstrated that the improved selector could accurately and efficiently produce a single crystal structure.

  12. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvel Skylar W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This

  13. Yakima Hatchery Experimental Design : Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Curtis; Marshall, Anne

    1991-08-01

    This progress report details the results and status of Washington Department of Fisheries' (WDF) pre-facility monitoring, research, and evaluation efforts, through May 1991, designed to support the development of an Experimental Design Plan (EDP) for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), previously termed the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP or Y/KPP). This pre- facility work has been guided by planning efforts of various research and quality control teams of the project that are annually captured as revisions to the experimental design and pre-facility work plans. The current objective are as follows: to develop genetic monitoring and evaluation approach for the Y/KPP; to evaluate stock identification monitoring tools, approaches, and opportunities available to meet specific objectives of the experimental plan; and to evaluate adult and juvenile enumeration and sampling/collection capabilities in the Y/KPP necessary to measure experimental response variables.

  14. Experimental design optimization for screening relevant free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental design methodology was used to optimize the HPLC separation of various relevant phenolic acids from an artificial mixture. The effect of four characteristic factors of the HPLC procedure on the Chromatographic Response Function was investigated by a Central Composite Face-Centred Design and Multi ...

  15. Design and implementation of an Internet based effective controlling and monitoring system with wireless fieldbus communications technologies for process automation--an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinceviz, Yucel; Bayindir, Ramazan

    2012-05-01

    The network requirements of control systems in industrial applications increase day by day. The Internet based control system and various fieldbus systems have been designed in order to meet these requirements. This paper describes an Internet based control system with wireless fieldbus communication designed for distributed processes. The system was implemented as an experimental setup in a laboratory. In industrial facilities, the process control layer and the distance connection of the distributed control devices in the lowest levels of the industrial production environment are provided with fieldbus networks. In this paper, the Internet based control system that will be able to meet the system requirements with a new-generation communication structure, which is called wired/wireless hybrid system, has been designed on field level and carried out to cover all sectors of distributed automation, from process control, to distributed input/output (I/O). The system has been accomplished by hardware structure with a programmable logic controller (PLC), a communication processor (CP) module, two industrial wireless modules and a distributed I/O module, Motor Protection Package (MPP) and software structure with WinCC flexible program used for the screen of Scada (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition), SIMATIC MANAGER package program ("STEP7") used for the hardware and network configuration and also for downloading control program to PLC. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental design in chromatography: a tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, D Brynn

    2012-12-01

    The ability of a chromatographic method to successful separate, identify and quantitate species is determined by many factors, many of which are in the control of the experimenter. When attempting to discover the important factors and then optimise a response by tuning these factors, experimental design (design of experiments, DoE) gives a powerful suite of statistical methodology. Advantages include modelling by empirical functions, not requiring detailed knowledge of the underlying physico-chemical properties of the system, a defined number of experiments to be performed, and available software to accomplish the task. Two uses of DoE in chromatography are for showing lack of significant effects in robustness studies for method validation, and for identifying significant factors and then optimising a response with respect to them in method development. Plackett-Burman designs are widely used in validation studies, and fractional factorial designs and their extensions such as central composite designs are the most popular optimisers. Box-Behnken and Doehlert designs are becoming more used as efficient alternatives. If it is not possible to practically realise values of the factors required by experimental designs, or if there is a constraint on the total number of experiments that can be done, then D-optimal designs can be very powerful. Examples of the use of DoE in chromatography are reviewed. Recommendations are given on how to report DoE studies in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Field Experimental Design of a Strengths-Based Training to Overcome Academic Procrastination: Short- and Long-Term Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lennart Visser; Judith Schoonenboom; Fred A. J. Korthagen

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of a newly developed 4-week strengths-based training approach to overcome academic procrastination, given to first-year elementary teacher education students (N = 54...

  18. Experimental design in chemistry: A tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardi, Riccardo

    2009-10-12

    In this tutorial the main concepts and applications of experimental design in chemistry will be explained. Unfortunately, nowadays experimental design is not as known and applied as it should be, and many papers can be found in which the "optimization" of a procedure is performed one variable at a time. Goal of this paper is to show the real advantages in terms of reduced experimental effort and of increased quality of information that can be obtained if this approach is followed. To do that, three real examples will be shown. Rather than on the mathematical aspects, this paper will focus on the mental attitude required by experimental design. The readers being interested to deepen their knowledge of the mathematical and algorithmical part can find very good books and tutorials in the references [G.E.P. Box, W.G. Hunter, J.S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis, and Model Building, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Brereton, Chemometrics: Data Analysis for the Laboratory and Chemical Plant, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Carlson, J.E. Carlson, Design and Optimization in Organic Synthesis: Second Revised and Enlarged Edition, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 24, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005; J.A. Cornell, Experiments with Mixtures: Designs, Models and the Analysis of Mixture Data, in: Series in Probability and Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991; R.E. Bruns, I.S. Scarminio, B. de Barros Neto, Statistical Design-Chemometrics, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 25, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006; D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 7th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009; T. Lundstedt, E. Seifert, L. Abramo, B. Thelin, A. Nyström, J. Pettersen, R. Bergman, Chemolab 42 (1998) 3; Y. Vander Heyden, LC-GC Europe 19 (9) (2006) 469].

  19. Design and Experimental Study of a Current Transformer with a Stacked PCB Based on B-Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingang; Si, Diancheng; Tian, Tian; Ren, Ran

    2017-04-10

    An electronic current transformer with a B-dot sensor is proposed in this study. The B-dot sensor can realize the current measurement of the transmission line in a non-contact way in accordance with the principle of magnetic field coupling. The multiple electrodes series-opposing structure is applied together with differential input structures and active integrating circuits, which can allow the sensor to operate in differential mode. Maxwell software is adopted to model and simulate the sensor. Optimization of the sensor structural parameters is conducted through finite-element simulation. A test platform is built to conduct the steady-state characteristic, on-off operation, and linearity tests for the designed current transformer under the power-frequency current. As shown by the test results, in contrast with traditional electromagnetic CT, the designed current transformer can achieve high accuracy and good phase-frequency; its linearity is also very good at different distances from the wire. The proposed current transformer provides a new method for electricity larceny prevention and on-line monitoring of the power grid in an electric system, thereby satisfying the development demands of the smart power grid.

  20. Experimental study on the foundation of soft soil solidification formula based on the Design - Expert software search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chaojun; Li, Dahua; Zhang, xian; Zhou, Dongqing; Zhang, Baoliang

    2017-08-01

    Xuan city + 1100 kv search for converter station in Anhui province, in the process of foundation treatment, there is a cloth with a large number of lacustrine soft soil can not reach the need of engineering construction, so we want to cure the soft soil. By combining ratio of blast furnace slag (GGBS), gypsum, exciting agent CaO as a main curing agent for combination of reinforcing soft soil, the indoor unconfined compressive strength test, the influence factors on blast furnace slag, exciting agent and dosage of gypsum as impact factors, response value is 7 d and 28 d unconfined compressive strength of solidified soil, the experimental method is the Box - Behnken. The results show that the 7 d gypsum and the interaction of the blast furnace slag is obvious; 28 d exciting agent and gypsum interaction is obvious. By the analysis plaster, CaO, GGBSIn 7 d optimal proportion is 3.71%, 3.62%, 12.18%, the actual strength of the solidified soil age 1479.33 kPa; 28 d optimal proportion was 4.08%, 4.50%, 11.6%, the actual strength of the solidified soil age 2936.78 kPa. In the soil and the water curing effect of GGBS solidified soil, thereby GGBS this is a kind of new solidification material that can be used as the engineering foundation treatment of soft soil stabilizer has a certain value.

  1. Experimental design-based functional mining and characterization of high-throughput sequencing data in the sequence read archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Takeru; Ohta, Tazro; Bono, Hidemasa

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technology, also called next-generation sequencing (NGS), has the potential to revolutionize the whole process of genome sequencing, transcriptomics, and epigenetics. Sequencing data is captured in a public primary data archive, the Sequence Read Archive (SRA). As of January 2013, data from more than 14,000 projects have been submitted to SRA, which is double that of the previous year. Researchers can download raw sequence data from SRA website to perform further analyses and to compare with their own data. However, it is extremely difficult to search entries and download raw sequences of interests with SRA because the data structure is complicated, and experimental conditions along with raw sequences are partly described in natural language. Additionally, some sequences are of inconsistent quality because anyone can submit sequencing data to SRA with no quality check. Therefore, as a criterion of data quality, we focused on SRA entries that were cited in journal articles. We extracted SRA IDs and PubMed IDs (PMIDs) from SRA and full-text versions of journal articles and retrieved 2748 SRA ID-PMID pairs. We constructed a publication list referring to SRA entries. Since, one of the main themes of -omics analyses is clarification of disease mechanisms, we also characterized SRA entries by disease keywords, according to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) extracted from articles assigned to each SRA entry. We obtained 989 SRA ID-MeSH disease term pairs, and constructed a disease list referring to SRA data. We previously developed feature profiles of diseases in a system called "Gendoo". We generated hyperlinks between diseases extracted from SRA and the feature profiles of it. The developed project, publication and disease lists resulting from this study are available at our web service, called "DBCLS SRA" (http://sra.dbcls.jp/). This service will improve accessibility to high-quality data from SRA.

  2. Experimental design-based functional mining and characterization of high-throughput sequencing data in the sequence read archive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Nakazato

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing technology, also called next-generation sequencing (NGS, has the potential to revolutionize the whole process of genome sequencing, transcriptomics, and epigenetics. Sequencing data is captured in a public primary data archive, the Sequence Read Archive (SRA. As of January 2013, data from more than 14,000 projects have been submitted to SRA, which is double that of the previous year. Researchers can download raw sequence data from SRA website to perform further analyses and to compare with their own data. However, it is extremely difficult to search entries and download raw sequences of interests with SRA because the data structure is complicated, and experimental conditions along with raw sequences are partly described in natural language. Additionally, some sequences are of inconsistent quality because anyone can submit sequencing data to SRA with no quality check. Therefore, as a criterion of data quality, we focused on SRA entries that were cited in journal articles. We extracted SRA IDs and PubMed IDs (PMIDs from SRA and full-text versions of journal articles and retrieved 2748 SRA ID-PMID pairs. We constructed a publication list referring to SRA entries. Since, one of the main themes of -omics analyses is clarification of disease mechanisms, we also characterized SRA entries by disease keywords, according to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH extracted from articles assigned to each SRA entry. We obtained 989 SRA ID-MeSH disease term pairs, and constructed a disease list referring to SRA data. We previously developed feature profiles of diseases in a system called "Gendoo". We generated hyperlinks between diseases extracted from SRA and the feature profiles of it. The developed project, publication and disease lists resulting from this study are available at our web service, called "DBCLS SRA" (http://sra.dbcls.jp/. This service will improve accessibility to high-quality data from SRA.

  3. Experimental design matters for statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Onofri, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    , the experimental design is often more or less neglected when analyzing data. Two data examples were analyzed using different modelling strategies: Firstly, in a randomized complete block design, mean heights of maize treated with a herbicide and one of several adjuvants were compared. Secondly, translocation......BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the evaluation of effects of pesticides often relies on experimental designs that involve multiple concentrations of the pesticide of interest or multiple pesticides at specific comparable concentrations and, possibly, secondary factors of interest. Unfortunately...... of an insecticide applied to maize as a seed treatment was evaluated using incomplete data from an unbalanced design with several layers of hierarchical sampling. Extensive simulations were carried out to further substantiate the effects of different modelling strategies. RESULTS: It was shown that results from sub...

  4. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  5. A theory-based educational intervention targeting nurses' attitudes and knowledge concerning cancer-related pain management: A study protocol of a quasi-experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Markus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is one of the most frequent problems among patients diagnosed with cancer. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments, this group of patients often receives less than optimal treatment. Research into nurses' pain management highlights certain factors, such as lack of knowledge and attitudes and inadequate procedures for systematic pain assessment, as common barriers to effective pain management. However, educational interventions targeting nurses' pain management have shown promise. As cancer-related pain is also known to have a negative effect on vital aspects of the patient's life, as well as being commonly associated with problems such as sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety, further development of knowledge within this area is warranted. Methods/design A quasi-experimental study design will be used to investigate whether the implementation of guidelines for systematic daily pain assessments following a theory-based educational intervention will result in an improvement in knowledge and attitude among nurses. A further aim is to investigate whether the intervention that targets nurses' behaviour will improve hospital patients' perception of pain. Data regarding nurses' knowledge and attitudes to pain (primary outcome, patient perception regarding pain (secondary outcome, together with socio-demographic variables, will be collected at baseline and at four weeks and 12 weeks following the intervention. Discussion Nursing care is nowadays acknowledged as an increasingly complicated activity and "nursing complexity is such that it can be seen as the quintessential complex intervention." To be able to change and improve clinical practice thus requires multiple points of attack appropriate to meet complex challenges. Consequently, we expect the theory-based intervention used in our quasi-experimental study to improve care as well as quality of life for this group of patients and we also envisage that

  6. Net analyte signal-based simultaneous determination of antazoline and naphazoline using wavelength region selection by experimental design-neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Ghavami, Raoof; Miri, Ramin; Shamsipur, Majtaba

    2006-02-15

    Net analyte signal (NAS)-based multivariate calibration methods were employed for simultaneous determination of anthazoline and naphazoline. The NAS vectors calculated from the absorbance data of the drugs mixture were used as input for classical least squares (CLS), principal component and partial least squares regression PCR and PLS methods. A wavelength selection strategy was used to find the best wavelength region for each drug separately. As a new procedure, we proposed an experimental design-neural network strategy for wavelength region optimization. By use of a full factorial design method, some different wavelength regions were selected by taking into account different spectral parameters including the starting wavelength, the ending wavelength and the wavelength interval. The performance of all the multivariate calibration methods, in all selected wavelength regions for both drugs, was evaluated by calculating a fitness function based on the root mean square error of calibration and validation. A three-layered feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) model with back-propagation learning algorithm was employed to model the nonlinear relationship between the spectral parameters and fitness of each regression method. From the resulted ANN models, the spectral regions in which lowest fitness could be obtained were chosen. Comparison of the results revealed that the net NAS-PLS resulted in lower prediction error than the other models. The proposed NAS-based calibration method was successfully applied to the simultaneous analyses of anthazoline and naphazoline in a commercial eye drop sample.

  7. Surgical Simulations Based on Limited Quantitative Data: Understanding How Musculoskeletal Models Can Be Used to Predict Moment Arms and Guide Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jennifer A; Bednar, Michael S; Murray, Wendy M

    2016-01-01

    The utility of biomechanical models and simulations to examine clinical problems is currently limited by the need for extensive amounts of experimental data describing how a given procedure or disease affects the musculoskeletal system. Methods capable of predicting how individual biomechanical parameters are altered by surgery are necessary for the efficient development of surgical simulations. In this study, we evaluate to what extent models based on limited amounts of quantitative data can be used to predict how surgery influences muscle moment arms, a critical parameter that defines how muscle force is transformed into joint torque. We specifically examine proximal row carpectomy and scaphoid-excision four-corner fusion, two common surgeries to treat wrist osteoarthritis. Using models of these surgeries, which are based on limited data and many assumptions, we perform simulations to formulate a hypothesis regarding how these wrist surgeries influence muscle moment arms. Importantly, the hypothesis is based on analysis of only the primary wrist muscles. We then test the simulation-based hypothesis using a cadaveric experiment that measures moment arms of both the primary wrist and extrinsic thumb muscles. The measured moment arms of the primary wrist muscles are used to verify the hypothesis, while those of the extrinsic thumb muscles are used as cross-validation to test whether the hypothesis is generalizable. The moment arms estimated by the models and measured in the cadaveric experiment both indicate that a critical difference between the surgeries is how they alter radial-ulnar deviation versus flexion-extension moment arms at the wrist. Thus, our results demonstrate that models based on limited quantitative data can provide novel insights. This work also highlights that synergistically utilizing simulation and experimental methods can aid the design of experiments and make it possible to test the predictive limits of current computer simulation techniques.

  8. Can a theory-based educational intervention change nurses' knowledge and attitudes concerning cancer pain management? A quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Markus; Borglin, Gunilla

    2013-08-19

    Registered Nurses (RNs) play an important role in caring for patients suffering from cancer pain. A lack of knowledge regarding pain management and the RNs' own perception of cancer pain could act as barriers to effective pain management. Educational interventions that target RNs' knowledge and attitudes have proved promising. However, an intervention consisting of evidence-based practice is a multifaceted process and demands behavioural and cognitive changes to sustain the effects of the intervention. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate if a theory-based educational intervention could change RNs' knowledge and attitudes to cancer pain and pain management, both four and 12 weeks after the start of the intervention. A quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent control groups was used. The primary outcome was measured using a modified version of the instrument Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKAS) at baseline, four weeks and 12 weeks after the start of the intervention to evaluate its persistence. The intervention's educational curriculum was based on the principles of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour and consisted of interactive learning activities conducted in workshops founded on evidence-based knowledge. The RN's own experiences from cancer pain management were used in the learning process. The theory-based educational intervention aimed at changing RNs knowledge and attitudes regarding cancer pain management measured by primary outcome NKAS resulted in a statistical significant (ptheory-based educational intervention focused at RNs can be effective in changing RN's knowledge and attitudes regarding cancer pain management. However, the high number of dropouts between baseline and four weeks needs to be taken into account when evaluating our findings. Finally, this kind of theory-based educational intervention with interactive learning activities has been sparsely researched and needs to be evaluated further in larger projects

  9. A theory-based educational intervention targeting nurses' attitudes and knowledge concerning cancer-related pain management: a study protocol of a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglin, Gunilla; Gustafsson, Markus; Krona, Hans

    2011-09-23

    Pain is one of the most frequent problems among patients diagnosed with cancer. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments, this group of patients often receives less than optimal treatment. Research into nurses' pain management highlights certain factors, such as lack of knowledge and attitudes and inadequate procedures for systematic pain assessment, as common barriers to effective pain management. However, educational interventions targeting nurses' pain management have shown promise. As cancer-related pain is also known to have a negative effect on vital aspects of the patient's life, as well as being commonly associated with problems such as sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety, further development of knowledge within this area is warranted. A quasi-experimental study design will be used to investigate whether the implementation of guidelines for systematic daily pain assessments following a theory-based educational intervention will result in an improvement in knowledge and attitude among nurses. A further aim is to investigate whether the intervention that targets nurses' behaviour will improve hospital patients' perception of pain. Data regarding nurses' knowledge and attitudes to pain (primary outcome), patient perception regarding pain (secondary outcome), together with socio-demographic variables, will be collected at baseline and at four weeks and 12 weeks following the intervention. Nursing care is nowadays acknowledged as an increasingly complicated activity and "nursing complexity is such that it can be seen as the quintessential complex intervention." To be able to change and improve clinical practice thus requires multiple points of attack appropriate to meet complex challenges. Consequently, we expect the theory-based intervention used in our quasi-experimental study to improve care as well as quality of life for this group of patients and we also envisage that evidence-based guidelines targeting this patient group's pain

  10. Fundamentals of statistical experimental design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Easterling, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Professionals in all areas - business; government; the physical, life, and social sciences; engineering; medicine, etc. - benefit from using statistical experimental design to better understand their worlds and then use that understanding to improve the products, processes, and programs they are responsible for. This book aims to provide the practitioners of tomorrow with a memorable, easy to read, engaging guide to statistics and experimental design. This book uses examples, drawn from a variety of established texts, and embeds them in a business or scientific context, seasoned with a dash of humor, to emphasize the issues and ideas that led to the experiment and the what-do-we-do-next? steps after the experiment. Graphical data displays are emphasized as means of discovery and communication and formulas are minimized, with a focus on interpreting the results that software produce. The role of subject-matter knowledge, and passion, is also illustrated. The examples do not require specialized knowledge, and t...

  11. Involving students in experimental design: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, A P; Silverthorn, D U; Stratton, D B

    1998-12-01

    Many faculty want to involve students more actively in laboratories and in experimental design. However, just "turning them loose in the lab" is time-consuming and can be frustrating for both students and faculty. We describe three different ways of providing structures for labs that require students to design their own experiments but guide the choices. One approach emphasizes invertebrate preparations and classic techniques that students can learn fairly easily. Students must read relevant primary literature and learn each technique in one week, and then design and carry out their own experiments in the next week. Another approach provides a "design framework" for the experiments so that all students are using the same technique and the same statistical comparisons, whereas their experimental questions differ widely. The third approach involves assigning the questions or problems but challenging students to design good protocols to answer these questions. In each case, there is a mixture of structure and freedom that works for the level of the students, the resources available, and our particular aims.

  12. Design of Formulated Products: Experimental Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Cheng, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic methodology for the design and verification of chemical-based products is proposed. By integrating modeling, and experiments, the search space is efficiently scanned to identify the feasible product candidates. The product design (or verification) problem consists of three stages: co...... and a sunscreen lotion....

  13. Participatory design based research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Falk, Lars; Jensen, Louise Bach

    This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....

  14. Optimal Experimental Design for Large-Scale Bayesian Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghattas, Omar

    2014-01-06

    We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Research Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation energies in the reaction rate expressions. The control parameters are the initial mixture composition and the temperature. The approach is based on first building a polynomial based surrogate model for the observables relevant to the shock tube experiments. Based on these surrogates, a novel MAP based approach is used to estimate the expected information gain in the proposed experiments, and to select the best experimental set-ups yielding the optimal expected information gains. The validity of the approach is tested using synthetic data generated by sampling the PC surrogate. We finally outline a methodology for validation using actual laboratory experiments, and extending experimental design methodology to the cases where the control parameters are noisy.

  15. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  16. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles : Task 4A : design specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 4A, Design Specifications. : Structural design specifications are base...

  17. Technics Research on Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride Cutting Tools Dry Turning Ti-6AL-4V Alloy Based on Orthogonal Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yunhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V components are the most widely used titanium alloy products not only in the aerospace industry, but also for bio-medical applications. The machine-ability of titanium alloys is impaired by their high temperature chemical reactivity, low thermal conductivity and low modulus of elasticity. Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride represents a substitute tool material for turning titanium alloys due to its high hardness, wear resistance, thermal stability and hot red hardness. For determination of suitable cutting parameters in dry turning Ti-6AL-4V alloy by Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tools, the samples, 300mm in length and 100mm in diameter, were dry machined in a lathe. The turning suitable parameters, such as cutting speed, feed rate and cut depth were determined according to workpieces surface roughness and tools flank wear based on orthogonal experimental design. The experiment showed that the cutting speed in the range of 160~180 m/min, the feed rate is 0.15 mm/rev and the depth of cut is 0.20mm, ideal workpiece surface roughness and little cutting tools flank wear can be obtained.

  18. Fish Attraction Devices (FADs and experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Kingsford

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread use of fish attraction devices (FADs in commercial fisheries and research. Investigations on the utility of FADs to catch fishes, and factors influencing fishes associated with FADs, require careful consideration of experimental designs. The development of appropriate models, from observations and the literature, should be developed before hypotheses can be tested with robust sampling designs. Robust sampling designs may only be possible if investigators have some role in the planning stage of deploying FADs. If the objective of the study is to determine the influence of FADs on assemblages of fishes, then experimenters need to consider that a `FAD-effect´ (=impact cannot be demonstrated without controls. Some preliminary studies may be required to determine the spatial extent of a FAD-effect before suitable sites can be chosen for controls. Other controls may also be necessary, depending on the method used to estimate numbers of fishes (e.g. controls for disturbance. Recent advances in sampling designs that are applicable to impact studies are discussed. Beyond-BACI (Before After Control Impact and MBACI (Multiple BACI designs are recommended because they cater for temporal and spatial variation in the abundance of organisms, which is generally great for pelagic fishes. The utility of orthogonal sampling designs is emphasised as a means of elucidating the influence of multiple factors and, importantly, interactions between them. Further, nested analyses are suggested to deal with multiple temporal and/or spatial time scales in sampling designs. The independence of replicate FADs should also be considered. Problems of independence include: FADs that are connected, thus providing potential routes of movement of associated fishes; temporal dependence where the number of fish at a time influences the number at the next time due to fish becoming residents; and the fact that the proximity of other FADs may influence numbers of

  19. Flexible experimental FPGA based platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karsten Holm; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental flexible Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based platform for testing and verifying digital controlled dc-dc converters. The platform supports different types of control strategies, dc-dc converter topologies and switching frequencies. The controller platform...... interface supporting configuration and reading of setup parameters, controller status and the acquisition memory in a simple way. The FPGA based platform, provides an easy way within education or research to use different digital control strategies and different converter topologies controlled by an FPGA...

  20. Experimental Design-Based Response Surface Methodology Optimization for Synthesis of β-Mercapto Carbonyl Derivatives as Antimycobacterial Drugs Catalyzed by Calcium Pyrophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Abrouki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple protocol for the efficient preparation of β-mercapto carbonyl derivatives as antimycobacterial drugs has been achieved via Thia-Michael reaction between chalcones derivatives and thiols in the presence of calcium pyrophosphate as a heterogeneous catalyst under mild reaction conditions. The central composite design was used to design an experimental program to provide data to model the effects of various factors on reaction yield (Y. The variables chosen were catalyst weight X1, reaction time X2, and solvent volume X3. The mathematical relationship of reaction yield on the three significant independent variables can be approximated by a nonlinear polynomial model. Predicted values were found to be in good agreement with experimental values. The optimum reaction conditions for reaction model (chalcone and thiophenol obtained by response surface were applied to other substrates. This procedure provides several advantages such as high yield, clean product formation, and short reaction time.

  1. Autism genetics: Methodological issues and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Roberto; Lintas, Carla; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-10-01

    Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder of developmental origin, where multiple genetic and environmental factors likely interact resulting in a clinical continuum between "affected" and "unaffected" individuals in the general population. During the last two decades, relevant progress has been made in identifying chromosomal regions and genes in linkage or association with autism, but no single gene has emerged as a major cause of disease in a large number of patients. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific methodological issues and experimental strategies in autism genetic research, based on fourteen years of experience in patient recruitment and association studies of autism spectrum disorder in Italy.

  2. Neural Network Assisted Experimental Designs for Food Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Ramaswamy

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of artificial neural networks (ANN in predicting full factorial data from the fractional data corresponding to some of the commonly used experimental designs is explored in this paper. Factorial and fractional factorial designs such as L8, L9, L18, and Box and Behnken schemes were considered both in their original form and with some variations (L8+6, L15 and L9+1. Full factorial (3 factors x 5 levels and fractional data were generated employing sixteen different mathematical equations (four in each category: linear, with and without interactions, and non-linear, with and without interactions. Different ANN models were trained and the best model was chosen for each equation based on their ability to predict the fractional data. The best experimental design was then chosen based on their ability to simulate the full- factorial data for each equation. In several cases, the mean relative errors with the L18 design (which had more input data than other models were even higher than with other smaller fractional design. In general, the ANN assisted Lm, Box and Behnken, L15 and L18 designs were found to predict the full factorial data reasonably well with errors less than 5 %. The L8+6 model performed well with several experimental datasets reported in the literature.

  3. Problem Based Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various ...... projects and how they learn to analyse, design, and develop for innovation by using it. We will present various cases to exemplify the approach and focus on how the method engages students and aspires for innovation in digital entertainment and games.......At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various...

  4. Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gynther, Karsten; Christensen, Ove; Petersen, Trine Brun

    2012-01-01

    I denne artikel introduceres Design Based Research for første gang på dansk i et videnskabeligt tidsskrift. Artiklen præsenterer de grundlæggende antagelser, som ligger til grund for Design Based Research-traditionen, og artiklen diskuterer de principper, som ligger til grund for gennemførelse af...... et DBR-forskningsprojekt. Med udgangspunkt i forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet ELYK: E-læring, Yderområder og Klyngedannelse, præsenteres den innovationsmodel, som projektet har udviklet med udgangspunkt i Design Based Research traditionen. ELYKs DBR innovationsmodel har vist sig effektiv i forhold...... til projektfremdrift, brugerinvolvering og vidensgenerering, og den vil kunne inspirere andre med interesse i forskningsbaseret udvikling af didaktisk design, der er medieret af digitale teknologier....

  5. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S Y; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (puniversal depression prevention programme was effective in enhancing knowledge of mental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students' anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support.

  6. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza S Y Lai

    Full Text Available A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme.This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1 depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2 knowledge of mental health; (3 attitudes towards mental illness; (4 perceived social support; and (5 help-seeking behaviours.A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (p<.05. A preference among schoolchildren for whom to seek help from was identified.The universal depression prevention programme was effective in enhancing knowledge of mental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students' anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate

  7. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S. Y.; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W. C.; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, “The Little Prince is Depressed”, for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. Methods This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in “The Little Prince is Depressed” programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. Results A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (pstress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support. PMID:26921275

  8. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  9. Experimental Design to Evaluate Directed Adaptive Mutation in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaro, Christopher R; May, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe the experimental design for a methodological approach to determine whether directed adaptive mutation occurs in mammalian cells. Identification of directed adaptive mutation would have profound practical significance for a wide variety of biomedical problems, including disease development and resistance to treatment. In adaptive mutation, the genetic or epigenetic change is not random; instead, the presence and type of selection influences the frequency and character of the mutation event. Adaptive mutation can contribute to the evolution of microbial pathogenesis, cancer, and drug resistance, and may become a focus of novel therapeutic interventions. Objective Our experimental approach was designed to distinguish between 3 types of mutation: (1) random mutations that are independent of selective pressure, (2) undirected adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces a general increase in the mutation rate, and (3) directed adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces targeted mutations that specifically influence the adaptive response. The purpose of this report is to introduce an experimental design and describe limited pilot experiment data (not to describe a complete set of experiments); hence, it is an early report. Methods An experimental design based on immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells is presented that links clonal cell growth to reversal of an inactivating polyadenylation site mutation. Thus, cells exhibit growth only in the presence of both the countermutation and an inducing agent (doxycycline). The type and frequency of mutation in the presence or absence of doxycycline will be evaluated. Additional experimental approaches would determine whether the cells exhibit a generalized increase in mutation rate and/or whether the cells show altered expression of error-prone DNA polymerases or of mismatch repair proteins. Results We performed the initial stages of characterizing our system

  10. Experimental design to evaluate directed adaptive mutation in Mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael; Chiaro, Christopher R; May, Tobias

    2014-12-09

    We describe the experimental design for a methodological approach to determine whether directed adaptive mutation occurs in mammalian cells. Identification of directed adaptive mutation would have profound practical significance for a wide variety of biomedical problems, including disease development and resistance to treatment. In adaptive mutation, the genetic or epigenetic change is not random; instead, the presence and type of selection influences the frequency and character of the mutation event. Adaptive mutation can contribute to the evolution of microbial pathogenesis, cancer, and drug resistance, and may become a focus of novel therapeutic interventions. Our experimental approach was designed to distinguish between 3 types of mutation: (1) random mutations that are independent of selective pressure, (2) undirected adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces a general increase in the mutation rate, and (3) directed adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces targeted mutations that specifically influence the adaptive response. The purpose of this report is to introduce an experimental design and describe limited pilot experiment data (not to describe a complete set of experiments); hence, it is an early report. An experimental design based on immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells is presented that links clonal cell growth to reversal of an inactivating polyadenylation site mutation. Thus, cells exhibit growth only in the presence of both the countermutation and an inducing agent (doxycycline). The type and frequency of mutation in the presence or absence of doxycycline will be evaluated. Additional experimental approaches would determine whether the cells exhibit a generalized increase in mutation rate and/or whether the cells show altered expression of error-prone DNA polymerases or of mismatch repair proteins. We performed the initial stages of characterizing our system and have limited preliminary data

  11. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  12. Two-stage microbial community experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Timothy L; Segata, Nicola; Waldron, Levi; Weingart, Uri; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2013-12-01

    Microbial community samples can be efficiently surveyed in high throughput by sequencing markers such as the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Often, a collection of samples is then selected for subsequent metagenomic, metabolomic or other follow-up. Two-stage study design has long been used in ecology but has not yet been studied in-depth for high-throughput microbial community investigations. To avoid ad hoc sample selection, we developed and validated several purposive sample selection methods for two-stage studies (that is, biological criteria) targeting differing types of microbial communities. These methods select follow-up samples from large community surveys, with criteria including samples typical of the initially surveyed population, targeting specific microbial clades or rare species, maximizing diversity, representing extreme or deviant communities, or identifying communities distinct or discriminating among environment or host phenotypes. The accuracies of each sampling technique and their influences on the characteristics of the resulting selected microbial community were evaluated using both simulated and experimental data. Specifically, all criteria were able to identify samples whose properties were accurately retained in 318 paired 16S amplicon and whole-community metagenomic (follow-up) samples from the Human Microbiome Project. Some selection criteria resulted in follow-up samples that were strongly non-representative of the original survey population; diversity maximization particularly undersampled community configurations. Only selection of intentionally representative samples minimized differences in the selected sample set from the original microbial survey. An implementation is provided as the microPITA (Microbiomes: Picking Interesting Taxa for Analysis) software for two-stage study design of microbial communities.

  13. Design and Implementation of an Experimental Segway Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Wael; Abdelati, Mohammed

    2009-03-01

    The segway is the first transportation product to stand, balance, and move in the same way we do. It is a truly 21st-century idea. The aim of this research is to study the theory behind building segway vehicles based on the stabilization of an inverted pendulum. An experimental model has been designed and implemented through this study. The model has been tested for its balance by running a Proportional Derivative (PD) algorithm on a microprocessor chip. The model has been identified in order to serve as an educational experimental platform for segways.

  14. Design Based Wilderness Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Saulnier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT has been collaborating since 2010 with the Singapore Ministry of Education to help develop the Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD. One element of this collaboration, the Global Leadership Program (GLP, aims to provide SUTD students with the opportunity to interact with the MIT community and experience MIT’s academic culture. During GLP students participate in a program designed to develop leadership ability while also increasing their understanding of engineering science and design thinking. This paper introduces a curriculum combining the pedagogies of design-based learning and wilderness education that was implemented in the summer of 2014 to holistically address the development of these three competencies. Through design-based learning activities, both for and in a natural environment, students were encouraged to develop competencies in engineering science and engineering design while exploring the diverse attributes essential for success as an engineer. This paper examines the results of a retrospective post-then-pre survey administered to the participants upon completion of the program to explore the effects of the program on the development of professional engineering competencies. We find a statistically significant increase in items associated with Individual Leadership Skill, Group Leadership Skill and the role of Society and the Economy. These results are triangulated with student exit interviews and instructor observations.

  15. ACTIVITY - BASED COSTING DESIGNING

    OpenAIRE

    Wioletta Skibiñska; Marta Kad³ubek

    2010-01-01

    The traditional costing system sometimes does not give accurate information about the consumption of different resources and the activities of the organisation. The activity-based costing system is an information-rich costing system which is more and more necessary for the success of many European companies. Base of designing and implementation of an ABC system in the enterprises are presented in the article.

  16. WING/WORLD: An Open Experimental Toolkit for the Design and Deployment of IEEE 802.11-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Testbeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Miorandi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh Networks represent an interesting instance of light-infrastructure wireless networks. Due to their flexibility and resiliency to network failures, wireless mesh networks are particularly suitable for incremental and rapid deployments of wireless access networks in both metropolitan and rural areas. This paper illustrates the design and development of an open toolkit aimed at supporting the design of different solutions for wireless mesh networking by enabling real evaluation, validation, and demonstration. The resulting testbed is based on off-the-shelf hardware components and open-source software and is focused on IEEE 802.11 commodity devices. The software toolkit is based on an “open” philosophy and aims at providing the scientific community with a tool for effective and reproducible performance analysis of WMNs. The paper describes the architecture of the toolkit, and its core functionalities, as well as its potential evolutions.

  17. Rational design of core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer based on computational simulation and Doehlert experimental optimization: application to the separation of tanshinone IIA from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianjun; Li, Hong; Luo, Jing; Lu, Qing; Peng, Yan; Shi, Liying; Liu, Liping; Du, Shuhu; Zhang, Guijun; Chen, Lina

    2012-07-01

    Computational simulation and Doehlert experimental optimization were done for the rational design of a core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer (CS-MIP) for use in the highly selective separation of Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA) from the crude extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SMB). The functional monomer layer of the polymer shells directed the selective occurrence of imprinting polymerization at the surface of silica through the copolymerization of vinyl end groups with functional monomers and also drove TSIIA templates into the formed polymer shells through the charge-transfer complex interactions between TSIIA and the functional monomer layer. As a result, the maximum rebinding capacity was achieved with the use of optimal grafting ratio by the Doehlert design. The CS-MIP exhibited high recognition selectivity and binding affinity to TSIIA. When the imprinted particles were used as dispersive solid phase extraction sorbents, the recovery yield of TSIIA reached 93% by a one-step extraction from the crude extracts of SMB, and the purity of TSIIA was larger than 98% by HPLC analysis. These results show the possibility of a highly selective separation and enrichment of TSIIA from the SMB using the TSIIA-imprinted core-shell molecularly imprinted polymers.

  18. Rational design and synthesis of altered peptide ligands based on human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 epitope: inhibition of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselios, Theodore; Aggelidakis, Mihalis; Tapeinou, Anthi; Tseveleki, Vivian; Kanistras, Ioannis; Gatos, Dimitrios; Matsoukas, John

    2014-11-04

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the etiology of MS remains unclear, there is evidence T-cell recognition of immunodominant epitopes of myelin proteins, such as the 35-55 epitope of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), plays a pathogenic role in the induction of chronic EAE. Cyclization of peptides is of great interest since the limited stability of linear peptides restricts their potential use as therapeutic agents. Herein, we have designed and synthesized a number of linear and cyclic peptides by mutating crucial T cell receptor (TCR) contact residues of the human MOG35-55 epitope. In particular, we have designed and synthesized cyclic altered peptide ligands (APLs) by mutating Arg41 with Ala or Arg41 and Arg46 with Ala. The peptides were synthesized in solid phase on 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl) using the Fmoc/t-Bu methodology. The purity of final products was verified by RP-HPLC and their identification was achieved by ESI-MS. It was found that the substitutions of Arg at positions 41 and 46 with Ala results in peptide analogues that reduce the severity of MOG-induced EAE clinical symptoms in C57BL/6 mice when co-administered with mouse MOG35-55 peptide at the time of immunization.

  19. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    OpenAIRE

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non–expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non–expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the p...

  20. Recurring sequence-structure motifs in (βα)8-barrel proteins and experimental optimization of a chimeric protein designed based on such motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jichao; Zhang, Tongchuan; Liu, Ruicun; Song, Meilin; Wang, Juncheng; Hong, Jiong; Chen, Quan; Liu, Haiyan

    2017-02-01

    An interesting way of generating novel artificial proteins is to combine sequence motifs from natural proteins, mimicking the evolutionary path suggested by natural proteins comprising recurring motifs. We analyzed the βα and αβ modules of TIM barrel proteins by structure alignment-based sequence clustering. A number of preferred motifs were identified. A chimeric TIM was designed by using recurring elements as mutually compatible interfaces. The foldability of the designed TIM protein was then significantly improved by six rounds of directed evolution. The melting temperature has been improved by more than 20°C. A variety of characteristics suggested that the resulting protein is well-folded. Our analysis provided a library of peptide motifs that is potentially useful for different protein engineering studies. The protein engineering strategy of using recurring motifs as interfaces to connect partial natural proteins may be applied to other protein folds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  2. On-Chip Magnetic Bead Manipulation and Detection Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor-Based Micro-Chip: Design Considerations and Experimental Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2016-08-26

    The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA) for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs), and a magnetoresistive sensor for the detection of SPBs is presented. A design methodology, which takes into account the magnetic volume of SPBs, diffusion and heat transfer phenomena, is presented with the aid of numerical analysis to optimize the parameters of the MA. The MA was employed as a magnetic flux generator and experimental analysis with commercially available COMPEL™ and Dynabeads® demonstrated the ability of the MA to precisely transport a small number of SPBs over long distances and concentrate SPBs to a sensing site for detection. Moreover, the velocities of COMPEL™ and Dynabead® SPBs were correlated to their magnetic volumes and were in good agreement with numerical model predictions. We found that 2.8 μm Dynabeads® travel faster, and can be attracted to a magnetic source from a longer distance, than 6.2 μm COMPEL™ beads at magnetic flux magnitudes of less than 10 mT. The micro-chip system could easily be integrated with electronic circuitry and microfluidic functions, paving the way for an on-chip biomolecule quantification device

  3. Experimental Validation of an Integrated Controls-Structures Design Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep; Elliot, Kenny B.; Walz, Joseph E.

    1996-01-01

    The first experimental validation of an integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of large order, flexible space structures is described. Integrated redesign of the controls-structures-interaction evolutionary model, a laboratory testbed at NASA Langley, was described earlier. The redesigned structure was fabricated, assembled in the laboratory, and experimentally tested against the original structure. Experimental results indicate that the structure redesigned using the integrated design methodology requires significantly less average control power than the nominal structure with control-optimized designs, while maintaining the required line-of-sight pointing performance. Thus, the superiority of the integrated design methodology over the conventional design approach is experimentally demonstrated. Furthermore, amenability of the integrated design structure to other control strategies is evaluated, both analytically and experimentally. Using Linear-Quadratic-Guassian optimal dissipative controllers, it is observed that the redesigned structure leads to significantly improved performance with alternate controllers as well.

  4. Experimental Investigations on Performance and Design Parameters of Solar Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim ÜÇGÜL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a solar chimney system, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, is designed theoretically. With the aim of studying experimentally as based on that design, a prototype solar chimney has been constructed in the university campus area of Süleyman Demirel University-RACRER (Research and Application Center for Renewable Energy Resources. Additionally, after the experimental studies, the system is modelled theoretically with depending on the design. Then, this model constituted the basis for developed computer programme and performance parameters of the system are obtained. The obtained findings showed that the solar chimney, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, are sufficient for determining design and performance parameters. The results showed that electricity generation with solar chimney is suitable for areas which have high solar incident and long sunshine duration and similar climate conditions as such as Isparta and its surroundings. When the results are evaluated, it is seen that electricity generation power of solar chimney depends on the region solar data, the chimney height and the size of greenhouse area.

  5. Advances in Design-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihla, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Design-based research (DBR) is a core methodology of the Learning Sciences. Historically rooted as a movement away from the methods of experimental psychology, it is a means to develop "humble" theory that takes into account numerous contextual effects for understanding how and why a design supported learning. DBR involves iterative…

  6. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  7. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2012-10-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

  8. Human Factors Experimental Design and Analysis Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    8.75 83.36 8 =where, tObserved YPD = 53.75 YSD = 62.00 3.6.5. Within-Subjects t-Test (Cont’d) (Click in this red rectangle to see SAS calculations...expands computer experience into 3 levels, High, Medium , and Low, as compared to the original example that used only 2 levels of computer experience...High and Low. In this example, each of the 80 subjects who used the experimental text editor rated their computer experience as high, medium , or

  9. FEA-based development of a new tool for systematic experimental validation of nonlinear strain paths and design of test specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinschenk, Annika; Volk, Wolfram

    2017-10-01

    To achieve high accuracy in finite element simulation, it is beneficial to model forming limit curves (FLCs) for nonlinear strain paths, since FLCs based on linear strain paths inaccurately predict the failure of parts that undergo nonlinear strain paths. Standardized Nakajima or Marciniak tests are used to create a FLC for linear strain paths. For common strain paths, the shapes of the specimens are well-known. Only a limited set of nonlinear strain paths can be generated by using these tests. For example, a biaxial strain path can be generated, and then the test specimen can be cut to generate a uniaxial strain path. However, the other way around is not possible. Therefore, it is important to develop a new tool that can systematically investigate all kinds of nonlinear strain paths. This paper describes a newly developed deep drawing tool that exhibits these properties. Large specimens with homogeneous strain in the centre can be generated for any strain state. These specimens are sufficiently large that a second test specimen can be cut out to generate another strain path using Nakajima or Marciniak tests. The shape of blank for uniaxial, plane and biaxial strains are presented and analysed both numerically and experimentally. A nonlinear strain path consisting of a uniaxial strain path followed by a biaxial strain path is shown as an example.

  10. Community based design support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalhuizen, J.; Badke-Schaub, P.; Fokker, J.

    Different approaches of design methodology that have been developed throughout the history of the design methods movement have produced many insights into the structure of the design process (Alexander, 1964; Simon, 1969; Schön. 1983; Hubka and Eder, 1987; Pahl and Beitz. 1984; Roozenburg and

  11. On experimentation across science, design and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Stefan Darlan

    2016-01-01

    The article describes how the principal idea behind the landscape laboratories has been to develop a 1:1 platform where researchers, practitioners and lay people can meet and cooperate on the development and testing of new design concepts for establishing and managing urban landscapes. This is so......The article describes how the principal idea behind the landscape laboratories has been to develop a 1:1 platform where researchers, practitioners and lay people can meet and cooperate on the development and testing of new design concepts for establishing and managing urban landscapes....... This is something, which is becoming increasingly relevant, as landscape architects and urban planners today have to address the challenges confronting urbanism due to the continued entanglement of urbanisation and anthropogenic processes. These are challenges where the act of destabilizing dichotomies (inside....../outside, natural/manmade, etc.) is one out of several reasons for not only continuing but also strengthening the landscape laboratories as testing grounds for future urban landscapes and green spaces in the Anthropocene....

  12. ANIMATED DOCUMENTARY: EXPERIMENTATION, TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    INDIA MARA MARTINS

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo desta tese é refletir sobre o documentário animado. Um produto audiovisual que mistura documentário e animação e está redefinindo o papel do design na produção das novas mídias. Mostramos também que o documentário animado reacende uma série de debates e reflexões relativas à teoria do documentário e da animação em relação às concepções de realismo. A nossa principal premissa é que o documentário sempre se apropriou da tecnologia de forma a favorecer a experimentação ...

  13. Design of potent inhibitors of human RAD51 recombinase based on BRC motifs of BRCA2 protein: modeling and experimental validation of a chimera peptide.

    KAUST Repository

    Nomme, Julian

    2010-08-01

    We have previously shown that a 28-amino acid peptide derived from the BRC4 motif of BRCA2 tumor suppressor inhibits selectively human RAD51 recombinase (HsRad51). With the aim of designing better inhibitors for cancer treatment, we combined an in silico docking approach with in vitro biochemical testing to construct a highly efficient chimera peptide from eight existing human BRC motifs. We built a molecular model of all BRC motifs complexed with HsRad51 based on the crystal structure of the BRC4 motif-HsRad51 complex, computed the interaction energy of each residue in each BRC motif, and selected the best amino acid residue at each binding position. This analysis enabled us to propose four amino acid substitutions in the BRC4 motif. Three of these increased the inhibitory effect in vitro, and this effect was found to be additive. We thus obtained a peptide that is about 10 times more efficient in inhibiting HsRad51-ssDNA complex formation than the original peptide.

  14. Experimental design in analytical chemistry--part I: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Leardi, Riccardo; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the main concepts of experimental design applicable to the optimization of analytical chemistry techniques. The critical steps and tools for screening, including Plackett-Burman, factorial and fractional factorial designs, and response surface methodology such as central composite, Box-Behnken, and Doehlert designs, are discussed. Some useful routines are also presented for performing the procedures.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING LEATHER APPLICATIONS IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of experimental research in design activity. The designer, as a researcher and a project manager, proposes to establish a relationship between functional-aesthetic-constructive-technological-economic,based on the aesthetic possibilities of the materials used for the experiments. With the aim to identify areas for the application of leather waste resulted from the production process, the paper presents experiments conducted with this material in combination with wood, by using different techniques that lead to different aesthetic effects. Identifying the areas to use and creating products from leather and/or wood waste, is based on the properties of these materials. Leather, the subject of these experiments, has the advantage that it can be used on both sides. Tactile differences of the two sides of this material has both aesthetical and functional advantages, which makes it suitable for applications on products that meet the requirements of "design for all". With differentiated tactile characteristics, in combination with other materials, for these experiments wood, easily "read touch" products can be generated to help people with certain disabilities. Thus, experiments presented in this paper allows the establishment of aesthetic schemes applicable to products that are friendly both with the environment (based on the reuse of wood and leather waste and with the users (can be used as applications, accessories and concepts of products for people with certain disabilities. The designer’s choices or decisions can be based on the results of this experiment. The experiment enables the designer to develop creative, innovative and environmentally friendly products.

  16. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  17. Design-based research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeves, Thomas; McKenney, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Educational design research is a genre of research in which the iterative development of solutions to practical and complex educational problems provides the setting for scientific inquiry. The solutions can be educational products, processes, programs or policies. Educational design research not

  18. Optimal experimental design and therapeutic drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcsár, C; Pronzato, L; Walter, E

    1994-06-01

    A simple example of intravenous theophylline therapy is used to present and compare various drug administration policies based on stochastic control theory. The simplest approach (Heuristic-Certainty-Equivalence (HCE) control) assumes that the model parameters are known. Prior uncertainty on these parameters can be taken into account by using average optimal (AO) control. The available knowledge about the system can be improved by measuring the drug concentration some time after the beginning of the treatment. This corresponds to the notion of feedback and leads to the HCE feedback (HCEF) and AO feedback (AOF) policies. A further step towards optimality consists in choosing the optimal measurement time given that the final purpose is the control of the system and not the estimation of its parameters. Finally, closed-loop optimal (CLO) control optimally chooses both the dosage regimen and measurement time.

  19. Designing Awe in Virtual Reality: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chirico

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Awe is a little-studied emotion with a great transformative potential. Therefore, the interest toward the study of awe’s underlying mechanisms has been increased. Specifically, researchers have been interested in how to reproduce intense feelings of awe within laboratory conditions. It has been proposed that the use of virtual reality (VR could be an effective way to induce awe in controlled experimental settings, thanks to its ability of providing participants with a sense of “presence,” that is, the subjective feeling of being displaced in another physical or imaginary place. However, the potential of VR as awe-inducing medium has not been fully tested yet. In the present study, we provided an evidence-based design and a validation of four immersive virtual environments (VEs involving 36 participants in a within-subject design. Of these, three VEs were designed to induce awe, whereas the fourth VE was targeted as an emotionally neutral stimulus. Participants self-reported the extent to which they felt awe, general affect and sense of presence related to each environment. As expected, results showed that awe-VEs could induce significantly higher levels of awe and presence as compared to the neutral VE. Furthermore, these VEs induced significantly more positive than negative affect. These findings supported the potential of immersive VR for inducing awe and provide useful indications for the design of awe-inspiring virtual environments.

  20. Intensive virtual reality-based training for upper limb motor function in chronic stroke: a feasibility study using a single case experimental design and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster-Amft, Corina; Henneke, Andrea; Hartog-Keisker, Birgit; Holper, Lisa; Siekierka, Ewa; Chevrier, Edith; Pyk, Pawel; Kollias, Spyros; Kiper, Daniel; Eng, Kynan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate feasibility and neurophysiological changes after virtual reality (VR)-based training of upper limb (UL) movements. Single-case A-B-A-design with two male stroke patients (P1:67 y and 50 y, 3.5 and 3 y after onset) with UL motor impairments, 45-min therapy sessions 5×/week over 4 weeks. Patients facing screen, used bimanual data gloves to control virtual arms. Three applications trained bimanual reaching, grasping, hand opening. Assessments during 2-week baseline, weekly during intervention, at 3-month follow-up (FU): Goal Attainment Scale (GAS), Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI), Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA), Extended Barthel Index (EBI), Motor Activity Log (MAL). Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans (FMRI) before, immediately after treatment and at FU. P1 executed 5478 grasps (paretic arm). Improvements in CAHAI (+4) were maintained at FU. GAS changed to +1 post-test and +2 at FU. P2 executed 9835 grasps (paretic arm). CAHAI improvements (+13) were maintained at FU. GAS scores changed to -1 post-test and +1 at FU. MAL scores changed from 3.7 at pre-test to 5.5 post-test and 3.3 at FU. The VR-based intervention was feasible, safe, and intense. Adjustable application settings maintained training challenge and patient motivation. ADL-relevant UL functional improvements persisted at FU and were related to changed cortical activation patterns. Implications for Rehabilitation YouGrabber trains uni- and bimanual upper motor function. Its application is feasible, safe, and intense. The control of the virtual arms can be done in three main ways: (a) normal (b) virtual mirror therapy, or (c) virtual following. The mirroring feature provides an illusion of affected limb movements during the period when the affected upper limb (UL) is resting. The YouGrabber training led to ADL-relevant UL functional improvements that were still assessable 12 weeks after intervention finalization and were related to changed cortical

  1. MicroarrayDesigner: an online search tool and repository for near-optimal microarray experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhatosmanoglu Nilgun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual-channel microarray experiments are commonly employed for inference of differential gene expressions across varying organisms and experimental conditions. The design of dual-channel microarray experiments that can help minimize the errors in the resulting inferences has recently received increasing attention. However, a general and scalable search tool and a corresponding database of optimal designs were still missing. Description An efficient and scalable search method for finding near-optimal dual-channel microarray designs, based on a greedy hill-climbing optimization strategy, has been developed. It is empirically shown that this method can successfully and efficiently find near-optimal designs. Additionally, an improved interwoven loop design construction algorithm has been developed to provide an easily computable general class of near-optimal designs. Finally, in order to make the best results readily available to biologists, a continuously evolving catalog of near-optimal designs is provided. Conclusion A new search algorithm and database for near-optimal microarray designs have been developed. The search tool and the database are accessible via the World Wide Web at http://db.cse.ohio-state.edu/MicroarrayDesigner. Source code and binary distributions are available for academic use upon request.

  2. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  3. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence

  4. A Bayesian experimental design approach to structural health monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric [UCSD; Todd, Michael [UCSD

    2010-01-01

    Optimal system design for SHM involves two primarily challenges. The first is the derivation of a proper performance function for a given system design. The second is the development of an efficient optimization algorithm for choosing a design that maximizes, or nearly maximizes the performance function. In this paper we will outline how an SHM practitioner can construct the proper performance function by casting the entire design problem into a framework of Bayesian experimental design. The approach demonstrates how the design problem necessarily ties together all steps of the SHM process.

  5. Towards a capabilities database to inform inclusive design: experimental investigation of effective survey-based predictors of human-product interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneti, Raji; Johnson, Daniel; Goldenberg, Liz; Parker, Richard A; Huppert, Felicia A

    2012-07-01

    A key issue in the field of inclusive design is the ability to provide designers with an understanding of people's range of capabilities. Since it is not feasible to assess product interactions with a large sample, this paper assesses a range of proxy measures of design-relevant capabilities. It describes a study that was conducted to identify which measures provide the best prediction of people's abilities to use a range of products. A detailed investigation with 100 respondents aged 50-80 years was undertaken to examine how they manage typical household products. Predictor variables included self-report and performance measures across a variety of capabilities (vision, hearing, dexterity and cognitive function), component activities used in product interactions (e.g. using a remote control, touch screen) and psychological characteristics (e.g. self-efficacy, confidence with using electronic devices). Results showed, as expected, a higher prevalence of visual, hearing, dexterity, cognitive and product interaction difficulties in the 65-80 age group. Regression analyses showed that, in addition to age, performance measures of vision (acuity, contrast sensitivity) and hearing (hearing threshold) and self-report and performance measures of component activities are strong predictors of successful product interactions. These findings will guide the choice of measures to be used in a subsequent national survey of design-relevant capabilities, which will lead to the creation of a capability database. This will be converted into a tool for designers to understand the implications of their design decisions, so that they can design products in a more inclusive way. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Design based entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Wikström, Anders; Tollestrup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Designers are often recognized as natural entrepreneurs, due to their creative skills and competences in the idea-generation and product development processes. A number of studies shows that creative professionals are more likely to become self-employed. In general though, there are not many stud...

  7. New synthetic thrombin inhibitors: molecular design and experimental verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I Sinauridze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of new anticoagulants is an important goal for the improvement of thromboses treatments. OBJECTIVES: The design, synthesis and experimental testing of new safe and effective small molecule direct thrombin inhibitors for intravenous administration. METHODS: Computer-aided molecular design of new thrombin inhibitors was performed using our original docking program SOL, which is based on the genetic algorithm of global energy minimization in the framework of a Merck Molecular Force Field. This program takes into account the effects of solvent. The designed molecules with the best scoring functions (calculated binding energies were synthesized and their thrombin inhibitory activity evaluated experimentally in vitro using a chromogenic substrate in a buffer system and using a thrombin generation test in isolated plasma and in vivo using the newly developed model of hemodilution-induced hypercoagulation in rats. The acute toxicities of the most promising new thrombin inhibitors were evaluated in mice, and their stabilities in aqueous solutions were measured. RESULTS: New compounds that are both effective direct thrombin inhibitors (the best K(I was 1111.1 mg/kg. A plasma-substituting solution supplemented with one of the new inhibitors prevented hypercoagulation in the rat model of hemodilution-induced hypercoagulation. Activities of the best new inhibitors in physiological saline (1 µM solutions were stable after sterilization by autoclaving, and the inhibitors remained stable at long-term storage over more than 1.5 years at room temperature and at 4°C. CONCLUSIONS: The high efficacy, stability and low acute toxicity reveal that the inhibitors that were developed may be promising for potential medical applications.

  8. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure.

  9. Adequacy of different experimental designs for eucalyptus spacing trials in Portuguese environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Soares; Margarida Tome

    2000-01-01

    In Portugal, several eucalyptus spacing trials cover a relatively broad range of experimental designs: trials with a non-randomized block design with plots of different size and number of trees per plot; trials based on a non-systematic design in which spacings were randomized resulting in a factorial arrangement with plots of different size and shape and equal number...

  10. The Use of an Experimental Design Approach to Investigate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    This study looked at using statistical design of experimental (DoE) principles to observe interactions between two graphite types and a nanocarbon ... Pb-acid battery, Pb-plate, graphite, expanders, design of experiment. 1. Introduction .... The CCA test was done by placing the cells in a freezer for 24 h at –18 ± 1 °C prior to ...

  11. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This work consisting in use of a central composite design enables the determination of optimal process conditions concerning: leaf extract volume added (7 mL), heating temperature ...

  12. Activity-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

      In many types of activities communicative and material activities are so intertwined that the one cannot be understood without taking the other into account. This is true of maritime and hospital work that are used as examples in the paper. The spatial context of the activity is also important:...... and automatic machinery can replace one another in an activity. It also gives an example of how to use the framework for design....

  13. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  14. Design of an experimental set up for convective drying: experimental studies at different drying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, V. P. Chandra; Talukdar, Prabal

    2013-01-01

    An experimental setup is designed to investigate the convective drying of moist object experimentally. All the design data, components of setup, materials and specifications are presented. Transient moisture content of a rectangular shaped potato slice (4 × 2 × 2 cm) is measured at different air temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C with an air velocity of 2 m/s. Two different drying rate periods are observed. Results are compared with available results from literature.

  15. Experimental studies of tuned particle damper: Design and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Xi, Yanhui; Chen, Tianning; Ma, Zhihao

    2018-01-01

    To better suppress the structural vibration in the micro vibration and harsh environment, a new type of damper, tuned particle damper (TPD), was designed by combining the advantage of classical dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) and particle damper (PD). An equivalent theoretical model was established to describe the dynamic behavior of a cantilever system treated with TPD. By means of a series of sine sweep tests, the dynamic characteristic of TPD under different excitation intensity was explored and the damping performance of TPD was investigated by comparing with classical DVA and PD with the same mass ratio. Experimental results show that with the increasing of excitation intensity TPD shows two different dynamic characteristics successively, i.e., PD-like and DVA-like. TPD shows a wider suppression frequency band than classical DVA and better practicability than PD in the micro vibration environment. Moreover, to characterize the dynamic characteristic of TPD, a simple evaluation of the equivalent dynamic mass and equivalent dynamic damping of the cantilever system treated with TPD was performed by fitting the experimental data to the presented theoretical model. Finally, based on the rheology behaviors of damping particles reported by the previous research results, an approximate phase diagram which shows the motion states of damping particles in TPD was employed to analyze the dynamic characteristic of TPD and several motion states of damping particles in TPD were presented via a high-speed camera.

  16. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  17. Experimental Verification of Current Shear Design Equations for HSRC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attaullah Shah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on the shear capacity of HSRC (High Strength Reinforced Concrete beams is relatively very limited as compared to the NSRC (Normal Strength Reinforced Concrete beams. Most of the Building Codes determine the shear strength of HSRC with the help of empirical equations based on experimental work of NSRC beams and hence these equations are generally regarded as un-conservative for HSRC beams particularly at low level of longitudinal reinforcement. In this paper, 42 beams have been tested in two sets, such that in 21 beams no transverse reinforcement has been used, whereas in the remaining 21 beams, minimum transverse reinforcement has been used as per ACI-318 (American Concrete Institute provisions. Two values of compressive strength 52 and 61 MPa, three values of longitudinal steel ratio and seven values of shear span to depth ratio have been have been used. The beams were tested under concentrated load at the mid span. The results are compared with the equations proposed by different international building codes like ACI, AASHTO LRFD, EC (Euro Code, Canadian Code and Japanese Code for shear strength of HSRC beams.From comparison, it has been observed that some codes are less conservative for shear design of HSRC beams and further research is required to rationalize these equations.

  18. Evidence-based playground design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refshauge, Anne Dahl; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Lamm, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops, explores and evaluates an evidence-based approach to playground design, with a public park playground (playlab Cph) in Copenhagen as a case study. In the increasingly urbanised world, park playgrounds are valuable places that support healthy child development by providing...... opportunities for play, nature exploration and sensory stimulation. As it is increasingly expected that designers base their decisions on research evidence, there is a need to develop approaches to facilitate this, which also applies to playground design. The design of PlayLab Cph was based on relevant evidence...

  19. Development of a novel pH sensor based upon Janus Green B immobilized on triacetyl cellulose membrane: Experimental design and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamkouri, Narges; Niazi, Ali; Zare-Shahabadi, Vali

    2016-03-05

    A novel pH optical sensor was prepared by immobilizing an azo dye called Janus Green B on the triacetylcellulose membrane. Condition of the dye solution used in the immobilization step, including concentration of the dye, pH, and duration were considered and optimized using the Box-Behnken design. The proposed sensor showed good behavior and precision (RSDpH range of 2.0-10.0. Advantages of this optical sensor include on-line applicability, no leakage, long-term stability (more than 6 months), fast response time (less than 1 min), high selectivity and sensitivity as well as good reversibility and reproducibility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a quasi-experimental sibling-comparison, population-based design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Erica D; Willoughby, Michael T; Wright, Suzanne; Sullivan, Elinor L; Stadler, Diane D; Olson, Brent F; Steiner, Robert D; Nigg, Joel T

    2017-03-01

    High maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, whether this effect is attributable to maternal or familial level confounds has been little examined. The present study sought to examine these associations, utilizing data from the medical records of a health care system which treats 350,000 patients annually and a sibling-comparison design in a sample of 4,682 children born to 3,645 mothers. When examining the overall maternal effect, a linear association was observed between maternal prepregnancy BMI and child ADHD [b = 0.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.02-0.06, p = .0003], such that a one-unit (i.e. 1 kg/m(2) ) increase in prepregnancy BMI was associated with a 4% increase in the odds of ADHD (exp b = 1.04). However, when the model was reparameterized to take full advantage of the sibling design to allow for the examination of both maternal and child-specific effects, the child-specific prepregnancy BMI effect was not reliably different from zero (b = -0.08, 95% CI = -0.23 to 0.06, p = .24). In contrast, at the maternal-level, average prepregnancy BMI was a reliably non-zero predictor of child ADHD (b = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.02-0.06, p Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Tabletop Games: Platforms, Experimental Games and Design Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Michael; Forlines, Clifton; Koeffel, Christina; Leitner, Jakob; Shen, Chia

    While the last decade has seen massive improvements in not only the rendering quality, but also the overall performance of console and desktop video games, these improvements have not necessarily led to a greater population of video game players. In addition to continuing these improvements, the video game industry is also constantly searching for new ways to convert non-players into dedicated gamers. Despite the growing popularity of computer-based video games, people still love to play traditional board games, such as Risk, Monopoly, and Trivial Pursuit. Both video and board games have their strengths and weaknesses, and an intriguing conclusion is to merge both worlds. We believe that a tabletop form-factor provides an ideal interface for digital board games. The design and implementation of tabletop games will be influenced by the hardware platforms, form factors, sensing technologies, as well as input techniques and devices that are available and chosen. This chapter is divided into three major sections. In the first section, we describe the most recent tabletop hardware technologies that have been used by tabletop researchers and practitioners. In the second section, we discuss a set of experimental tabletop games. The third section presents ten evaluation heuristics for tabletop game design.

  2. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students’ Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students’ responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students’ experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design. PMID:26086658

  3. Optimal Experimental Design of Furan Shock Tube Kinetic Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daesang

    2015-01-07

    A Bayesian optimal experimental design methodology has been developed and applied to refine the rate coefficients of elementary reactions in Furan combustion. Furans are considered as potential renewable fuels. We focus on the Arrhenius rates of Furan + OH ↔ Furyl-2 + H2O and Furan ↔ OH Furyl-3 + H2O, and rely on the OH consumption rate as experimental observable. A polynomial chaos surrogate is first constructed using an adaptive pseudo-spectral projection algorithm. The PC surrogate is then exploited in conjunction with a fast estimation of the expected information gain in order to determine the optimal design in the space of initial temperatures and OH concentrations.

  4. Principles of Experimental Design for Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovandi, Christopher C; Holmes, Christopher; McGree, James M; Mengersen, Kerrie; Richardson, Sylvia; Ryan, Elizabeth G

    2017-08-01

    Big Datasets are endemic, but are often notoriously difficult to analyse because of their size, heterogeneity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to open a discourse on the potential for modern decision theoretic optimal experimental design methods, which by their very nature have traditionally been applied prospectively, to improve the analysis of Big Data through retrospective designed sampling in order to answer particular questions of interest. By appealing to a range of examples, it is suggested that this perspective on Big Data modelling and analysis has the potential for wide generality and advantageous inferential and computational properties. We highlight current hurdles and open research questions surrounding efficient computational optimisation in using retrospective designs, and in part this paper is a call to the optimisation and experimental design communities to work together in the field of Big Data analysis.

  5. Principles of Experimental Design for Big Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovandi, Christopher C; Holmes, Christopher; McGree, James M; Mengersen, Kerrie; Richardson, Sylvia; Ryan, Elizabeth G

    2016-01-01

    Big Datasets are endemic, but are often notoriously difficult to analyse because of their size, heterogeneity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to open a discourse on the potential for modern decision theoretic optimal experimental design methods, which by their very nature have traditionally been applied prospectively, to improve the analysis of Big Data through retrospective designed sampling in order to answer particular questions of interest. By appealing to a range of examples, it is suggested that this perspective on Big Data modelling and analysis has the potential for wide generality and advantageous inferential and computational properties. We highlight current hurdles and open research questions surrounding efficient computational optimisation in using retrospective designs, and in part this paper is a call to the optimisation and experimental design communities to work together in the field of Big Data analysis. PMID:28883686

  6. Bayesian experimental design of a multichannel interferometer for Wendelstein 7-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, H; Dinklage, A; Fischer, R; Hirsch, M; Kornejew, P

    2008-10-01

    Bayesian experimental design (BED) is a framework for the optimization of diagnostics basing on probability theory. In this work it is applied to the design of a multichannel interferometer at the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator experiment. BED offers the possibility to compare diverse designs quantitatively, which will be shown for beam-line designs resulting from different plasma configurations. The applicability of this method is discussed with respect to its computational effort.

  7. Development and experimental validation of a protein design software

    OpenAIRE

    Stiebritz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Computational protein design - understood as the prediction of an amino acid sequence that will adopt a given 3-dimensional structure associated with a desired function - offers the promising perspective of tailoring proteins according to special needs. From a more fundamental point of view, it improves our understanding of protein architecture, folding and dynamics. Here, the development and experimental validation of a protein design software - MUMBO - is described. The current implementati...

  8. On the construction of experimental designs for a given task by jointly optimizing several quality criteria: Pareto-optimal experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M S; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C

    2012-11-19

    Experimental designs for a given task should be selected on the base of the problem being solved and of some criteria that measure their quality. There are several such criteria because there are several aspects to be taken into account when making a choice. The most used criteria are probably the so-called alphabetical optimality criteria (for example, the A-, E-, and D-criteria related to the joint estimation of the coefficients, or the I- and G-criteria related to the prediction variance). Selecting a proper design to solve a problem implies finding a balance among these several criteria that measure the performance of the design in different aspects. Technically this is a problem of multi-criteria optimization, which can be tackled from different views. The approach presented here addresses the problem in its real vector nature, so that ad hoc experimental designs are generated with an algorithm based on evolutionary algorithms to find the Pareto-optimal front. There is not theoretical limit to the number of criteria that can be studied and, contrary to other approaches, no just one experimental design is computed but a set of experimental designs all of them with the property of being Pareto-optimal in the criteria needed by the user. Besides, the use of an evolutionary algorithm makes it possible to search in both continuous and discrete domains and avoid the need of having a set of candidate points, usual in exchange algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical and experimental design of coaxial shallow geothermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Niranjan

    Geothermal Energy has emerged as one of the front runners in the energy race because of its performance efficiency, abundance and production competitiveness. Today, geothermal energy is used in many regions of the world as a sustainable solution for decreasing dependence on fossil fuels and reducing health hazards. However, projects related to geothermal energy have not received their deserved recognition due to lack of computational tools associated with them and economic misconceptions related to their installation and functioning. This research focuses on numerical and experimental system design analysis of vertical shallow geothermal energy systems. The driving force is the temperature difference between a finite depth beneath the earth and its surface stimulates continuous exchange of thermal energy from sub-surface to the surface (a geothermal gradient is set up). This heat gradient is captured by the circulating refrigerant and thus, tapping the geothermal energy from shallow depths. Traditionally, U-bend systems, which consist of two one-inch pipes with a U-bend connector at the bottom, have been widely used in geothermal applications. Alternative systems include coaxial pipes (pipe-in-pipe) that are the main focus of this research. It has been studied that coaxial pipes have significantly higher thermal performance characteristics than U-bend pipes, with comparative production and installation costs. This makes them a viable design upgrade to the traditional piping systems. Analytical and numerical heat transfer analysis of the coaxial system is carried out with the help of ABAQUS software. It is tested by varying independent parameters such as materials, soil conditions and effect of thermal contact conductance on heat transfer characteristics. With the above information, this research aims at formulating a preliminary theoretical design setup for an experimental study to quantify and compare the heat transfer characteristics of U-bend and coaxial

  10. Squeeze-film damper design with air channels : Experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, R.A.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.; Cretu, E.; Rocha, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental evaluation of damping-improved parallel-plate geometries is reported in this paper. An improved damper geometry with air channels was developed to address contradictory design constraints: large sensing parallel-plate area is desirable for a significant readout capacitance as well

  11. Experimental design of natural and accellerated bone and wood ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Facorellis, Y.; Pournou, A.; Richter, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental design for natural and accelerated ageing of bone and wood samples found in museum conditions that was conceived as part of the INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF) investigating the effects of the environmental factors on natural organic materials....

  12. Experimental and numerical analysis for optimal design parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Later, the response surface curves are studied using ANOVA. Finally, the relations established are confirmed experimentally to validate the models. The relations thus established are beneficent in furtherance of designing evaporators. Additionally, the presentstudy is among the first attempts to reveal the effect of humidity ...

  13. Taguchi method of experimental design in materials education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Taguchi Method of experimental design as applied to Materials Science will be discussed. This is a fractional factorial method that employs the minimum number of experimental trials for the information obtained. The analysis is also very simple to use and teach, which is quite advantageous in the classroom. In addition, the Taguchi loss function can be easily incorporated to emphasize that improvements in reproducibility are often at least as important as optimization of the response. The disadvantages of the Taguchi Method include the fact that factor interactions are normally not accounted for, there are zero degrees of freedom if all of the possible factors are used, and randomization is normally not used to prevent environmental biasing. In spite of these disadvantages it is felt that the Taguchi Method is extremely useful for both teaching experimental design and as a research tool, as will be shown with a number of brief examples.

  14. Design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer for wide angle spin echo spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Peter; Farago, Bela; Andersen, Ken H.; Bentley, Phillip M.; Pastrello, Gilles; Sutton, Iain; Thaveron, Eric; Thomas, Frederic [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Moskvin, Evgeny [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Pappas, Catherine [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This paper describes the design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer optimized for wide angle spin echo spectrometers. The new design is based on nonremanent magnetic supermirrors, which are magnetized by vertical magnetic fields created by NdFeB high field permanent magnets. The solution presented here gives stable performance at moderate costs in contrast to designs invoking remanent supermirrors. In the experimental part of this paper we demonstrate that the new design performs well in terms of polarization, transmission, and that high quality neutron spin echo spectra can be measured.

  15. Design of Pump as Turbine Experimental Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zariatin D. L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design process of experimental test facility for pump as turbine hydropower system. Three design possibilities that related to the PAT condition of operation was developed and analyzed by using CFD Software. It is found that the First Variant with a straight flow to the PAT will produce higher velocity, which is needed to generate more rotation of the shaft generator, in order to generate more electric power. The strength of PAT construction was analyzed by using FEM software. It was found that the maximum stress is 6 MPa and can be concluded that the construction is appropriate to the design requirement.

  16. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .1. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The combination of process variables and mixture variables in experimental design is a problem which has not yet been solved. It is examined here whether a set of designs can be found which can be used for a series of models of reasonable complexity. The proposed designs are compared with known

  17. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .1. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    The combination of process variables and mixture variables in experimental design is a problem which has not yet been solved. It is examined here whether a set of designs can be found which can be used for a series of models of reasonable complexity. The proposed designs are compared with known

  18. Role-Based Design: Design Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles; Hokanson, Brad; Doering, Aaron; Brandt, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This is the fourth and final installment in a series of articles presenting a new outlook on the methods of instructional design. These articles examine the nature of the process of instructional design and are meant to stimulate discussion about the roles of designers in the fields of instructional design, the learning sciences, and interaction…

  19. Design and implementation of telephone dialer based on Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zilong; Lei, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Introduces a system design scheme of the telephone dialer based on Arduino, including the design principle, hardware and software design and the experimental results in this paper. The scheme is based on the dual tone multi frequency (DTMF) dialing mode, using the Arduino UNO as the main controller, the serial port send out the telephone number to be dialed, speaker synthesize the voice.

  20. D-Optimal Experimental Design for Contaminant Source Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Baba, A. K.; Alexanderian, A.

    2016-12-01

    Contaminant source identification seeks to estimate the release history of a conservative solute given point concentration measurements at some time after the release. This can be mathematically expressed as an inverse problem, with a linear observation operator or a parameter-to-observation map, which we tackle using a Bayesian approach. Acquisition of experimental data can be laborious and expensive. The goal is to control the experimental parameters - in our case, the sparsity of the sensors, to maximize the information gain subject to some physical or budget constraints. This is known as optimal experimental design (OED). D-optimal experimental design seeks to maximize the expected information gain, and has long been considered the gold standard in the statistics community. Our goal is to develop scalable methods for D-optimal experimental designs involving large-scale PDE constrained problems with high-dimensional parameter fields. A major challenge for the OED, is that a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the D-optimality criterion requires repeated evaluation of objective function and gradient involving the determinant of large and dense matrices - this cost can be prohibitively expensive for applications of interest. We propose novel randomized matrix techniques that bring down the computational costs of the objective function and gradient evaluations by several orders of magnitude compared to the naive approach. The effect of randomized estimators on the accuracy and the convergence of the optimization solver will be discussed. The features and benefits of our new approach will be demonstrated on a challenging model problem from contaminant source identification involving the inference of the initial condition from spatio-temporal observations in a time-dependent advection-diffusion problem.

  1. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design and its applications

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-01-07

    We summarize our Laplace method and multilevel method of accelerating the computation of the expected information gain in a Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design (OED). Laplace method is a widely-used method to approximate an integration in statistics. We analyze this method in the context of optimal Bayesian experimental design and extend this method from the classical scenario, where a single dominant mode of the parameters can be completely-determined by the experiment, to the scenarios where a non-informative parametric manifold exists. We show that by carrying out this approximation the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence can be significantly accelerated. While Laplace method requires a concentration of measure, multi-level Monte Carlo method can be used to tackle the problem when there is a lack of measure concentration. We show some initial results on this approach. The developed methodologies have been applied to various sensor deployment problems, e.g., impedance tomography and seismic source inversion.

  2. Optimization of Metal Removal Factors Using Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Çağlar GENÇOSMAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental design methodology has been used in various research areas including industrial and chemical engineering. In this paper, factor analysis and response surface optimization approaches were used for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. The factors affecting removal of Cd ions from aqueous solutions were investigated depending on pH, initial metal concentration and solution temperature. Activated carbon used in the experiments was produced from Tunçbilek lignite by physical activation method. The analysis of important factors is established by using the design of experiments method. The effect and the interaction among the investigated factors are evaluated using the analysis of variance method. Together with regression analysis, response surface optimization is also utilized to obtain optimum conditions for best copper removal within the experimental limits.

  3. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.; Bulmer, R.H.; Doggett, J.N.; Johnson, B.M.; Lee, J.D.; Hoard, R.W.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.

    1985-11-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs. (WRF)

  4. Optimization-Based Layout Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abdel-Malek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The layout problem is of importance to ergonomists, vehicle/cockpit packaging engineers, designers of manufacturing assembly lines, designers concerned with the placement of levers, knobs, controls, etc. in the reachable workspace of a human, and also to users of digital human modeling code, where digital prototyping has become a valuable tool. This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method (gradient-based optimization and simulated annealing to obtain the layout design. We implemented the proposed algorithm for a project at Oral-B Laboratories, where a manufacturing cell involves an operator who handles three objects, some with the left hand, others with the right hand.

  5. Findings in Experimental Psychology as Functioning Principles of Theatrical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, George

    A gestalt approach to theatrical design seems to provide some ready and stable explanations for a number of issues in the scenic arts. Gestalt serves as the theoretical base for a number of experiments in psychology whose findings appear to delineate the principles of art to be used in scene design. The fundamental notion of gestalt theory…

  6. Experimental burn plot trial in the Kruger National Park: history, experimental design and suggestions for data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biggs

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental burn plot (EBP trial initiated in 1954 is one of few ongoing long-termfire ecology research projects in Africa. The trial aims to assess the impacts of differentfire regimes in the Kruger National Park. Recent studies on the EBPs have raised questions as to the experimental design of the trial, and the appropriate model specificationwhen analysing data. Archival documentation reveals that the original design was modified on several occasions, related to changes in the park's fire policy. These modifications include the addition of extra plots, subdivision of plots and changes in treatmentsover time, and have resulted in a design which is only partially randomised. The representativity of the trial plots has been questioned on account of their relatively small size,the concentration of herbivores on especially the frequently burnt plots, and soil variation between plots. It is suggested that these factors be included as covariates inexplanatory models or that certain plots be excluded from data analysis based on resultsof independent studies of these factors. Suggestions are provided for the specificationof the experimental design when analysing data using Analysis of Variance. It is concluded that there is no practical alternative to treating the trial as a fully randomisedcomplete block design.

  7. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these

  8. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these

  9. Reusing Design Knowledge Based on Design Cases and Knowledge Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Haobai; Shen, Jiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Design knowledge was reused for innovative design work to support designers with product design knowledge and help designers who lack rich experiences to improve their design capacity and efficiency. First, based on the ontological model of product design knowledge constructed by taxonomy, implicit and explicit knowledge was extracted from some…

  10. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2015-01-07

    Experimental design is very important since experiments are often resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. We carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information, which can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data for our purpose. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that the integral is nested and can be high dimensional. We propose using Multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, the Multilevel Monte Carlo can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the Multilevel Monte Carlo method imposes less assumptions, such as the concentration of measures, required by Laplace method. We test our Multilevel Monte Carlo technique using a numerical example on the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by one dimensional Laplace equation. We also compare the performance of the Multilevel Monte Carlo, Laplace approximation and direct double loop Monte Carlo.

  11. Theoretical and experimental performance analysis for cold trap design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemanath, M.G., E-mail: hemanath@igcar.gov.i [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Meikandamurthy, C.; Kumar, A. Ashok; Chandramouli, S.; Rajan, K.K.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Padmakumar, G.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, Baldev [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-10-15

    Cold trap is a purification unit used in sodium system of FBR's for maintaining the oxygen/hydrogen level in sodium within acceptable limits. It works on the principle of crystallization and precipitation of oxides/hydrides of sodium in a wire mesh, when the temperature of sodium is reduced below the saturation temperature. The cold traps presently used have lower effectiveness and get plugged prematurely. The plugged cold traps are cleaned and then put back into service. Frequent cleaning of cold trap results in the long down time of the sodium system. New design of cold trap has been conceived to overcome the above problems. The mathematical modeling for the new design was carried out and validated with experimentally tested results for its effectiveness. This paper shares the experience gained on the new design of cold trap for FBR's.

  12. Efficient Experimental Design Strategies in Toxicology and Bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy E. O'Brien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling in bioassay often uses linear or nonlinear logistic regression models, and relative potency is often the focus when two or more compounds are to be compared.  Estimation in these settings is typically based on likelihood methods.  Here, we focus on the 3-parameter model representation given in Finney (1978 in which the relative potency is a model parameter.  Using key matrix results and the general equivalence theorem of Kiefer & Wolfowitz (1960, this paper establishes key design properties of the optimal design for relative potency using this model.  We also highlight aspects of subset designs for the relative potency parameter and extend geometric designs to efficient design settings of bioassay.  These latter designs are thus useful for both parameter estimation and checking for goodness-of-fit.  A typical yet insightful example is provided from the field of toxicology to illustrate our findings.

  13. Design-Based Implementation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMahieu, Paul G.; Nordstrum, Lee E.; Potvin, Ashley Seidel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is second of seven in this volume elaborating different approaches to quality improvement in education. It delineates a methodology called design-based implementation research (DBIR). The approach used in this paper is aimed at iteratively improving the quality of classroom teaching and learning practices in defined problem…

  14. Design and implementation of a low cost experimental testbed for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Th is study therefore presents an inexpensive WSN test bed designed and constructed from an ESP8266EX Wi - Fi module. An experiment was conducted and results revealed that ESP8266EX based sensor nodes have a wider network coverage compared to the Arduino sensor s based test bed. The proposed test bed ...

  15. Amplified energy harvester from footsteps: design, modeling, and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Chen, Wusi; Guzman, Plinio; Zuo, Lei

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental analysis of an amplified footstep energy harvester. With the unique design of amplified piezoelectric stack harvester the kinetic energy generated by footsteps can be effectively captured and converted into usable DC power that could potentially be used to power many electric devices, such as smart phones, sensors, monitoring cameras, etc. This doormat-like energy harvester can be used in crowded places such as train stations, malls, concerts, airport escalator/elevator/stairs entrances, or anywhere large group of people walk. The harvested energy provides an alternative renewable green power to replace power requirement from grids, which run on highly polluting and global-warming-inducing fossil fuels. In this paper, two modeling approaches are compared to calculate power output. The first method is derived from the single degree of freedom (SDOF) constitutive equations, and then a correction factor is applied onto the resulting electromechanically coupled equations of motion. The second approach is to derive the coupled equations of motion with Hamilton's principle and the constitutive equations, and then formulate it with the finite element method (FEM). Experimental testing results are presented to validate modeling approaches. Simulation results from both approaches agree very well with experimental results where percentage errors are 2.09% for FEM and 4.31% for SDOF.

  16. FFTF reload core nuclear design for increased experimental capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothrock, R.B.; Nelson, J.V.; Dobbin, K.D.; Bennett, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    In anticipation of continued growth in the FTR experimental irradiations program, the enrichments for the next batches of reload driver fuel to be manufactured have been increased to provide a substantially enlarged experimental reactivity allowance. The enrichments for these fuel assemblies, termed ''Cores 3 and 4,'' were selected to meet the following objectives and constraints: (1) maintain a reactor power capability of 400 MW (based on an evaluation of driver fuel centerline melting probability at 15 percent overpower); (2) provide a peak neutron flux of nominally 7 x 10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/-sec, with a minimum acceptable value of 95 percent of this (i.e., 6.65 x 10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/-sec); and (3) provide the maximum experimental reactivity allowance that is consistent with the above constraints.

  17. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students' responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students' experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design. © 2014 A. P. Dasgupta et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Stimulated Brillouin scattering materials, experimental design and applications: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenxu; Yuan, Hang; Liu, Zhaohong; Xu, Pengbai; Gao, Qilin; Williams, Robert J.; Kitzler, Ondrej; Mildren, Richard P.; Wang, Yulei; Lu, Zhiwei

    2018-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), as one type of third-order nonlinear optics effect, is extensively exploited and rapidly developed in the field of lasers and optoelectronics. A large number of theoretical and experimental studies on SBS have been carried out in the past decades. Especially, the exploration of new SBS materials and new types of SBS modulation methods have been engaged simultaneously, as the properties of different materials have great influence on the SBS performance such as generation threshold, Brillouin amplification efficiency, frequency shift, breakdown threshold, etc. This article provides a comprehensive review of the characteristics of different types of SBS materials, SBS applications, experimental design methods, as well as the parameter optimization method, which is expected to provide reference and guidance to SBS related experiments.

  19. Plant metabolomics: from experimental design to knowledge extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Umashankar, Shivshankar; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics is one of the most recent additions to the functional genomics approaches. It involves the use of analytical chemistry techniques to provide high-density data of metabolic profiles. Data is then analyzed using advanced statistics and databases to extract biological information, thus providing the metabolic phenotype of an organism. Large variety of metabolites produced by plants through the complex metabolic networks and their dynamic changes in response to various perturbations can be studied using metabolomics. Here, we describe the basic features of plant metabolic diversity and analytical methods to describe this diversity, which includes experimental workflows starting from experimental design, sample preparation, hardware and software choices, combined with knowledge extraction methods. Finally, we describe a scenario for using these workflows to identify differential metabolites and their pathways from complex biological samples.

  20. Optimization of formulation variables of benzocaine liposomes using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Paola; Capasso, Gaetano; Maestrelli, Francesca; Furlanetto, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize, by means of an experimental design multivariate strategy, a liposomal formulation for topical delivery of the local anaesthetic agent benzocaine. The formulation variables for the vesicle lipid phase uses potassium glycyrrhizinate (KG) as an alternative to cholesterol and the addition of a cationic (stearylamine) or anionic (dicethylphosphate) surfactant (qualitative factors); the percents of ethanol and the total volume of the hydration phase (quantitative factors) were the variables for the hydrophilic phase. The combined influence of these factors on the considered responses (encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and percent drug permeated at 180 min (P%)) was evaluated by means of a D-optimal design strategy. Graphic analysis of the effects indicated that maximization of the selected responses requested opposite levels of the considered factors: For example, KG and stearylamine were better for increasing EE%, and cholesterol and dicethylphosphate for increasing P%. In the second step, the Doehlert design, applied for the response-surface study of the quantitative factors, pointed out a negative interaction between percent ethanol and volume of the hydration phase and allowed prediction of the best formulation for maximizing drug permeation rate. Experimental P% data of the optimized formulation were inside the confidence interval (P < 0.05) calculated around the predicted value of the response. This proved the suitability of the proposed approach for optimizing the composition of liposomal formulations and predicting the effects of formulation variables on the considered experimental response. Moreover, the optimized formulation enabled a significant improvement (P < 0.05) of the drug anaesthetic effect with respect to the starting reference liposomal formulation, thus demonstrating its actually better therapeutic effectiveness.

  1. Optimal experimental design to position transducers in ultrasound breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta Martiartu, Naiara; Boehm, Christian; Vinard, Nicolas; Jovanović Balic, Ivana; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We present methods to optimize the setup of a 3D ultrasound tomography scanner for breast cancer detection. This approach provides a systematic and quantitative tool to evaluate different designs and to optimize the con- figuration with respect to predefined design parameters. We consider both, time-of-flight inversion using straight rays and time-domain waveform inversion governed by the acoustic wave equation for imaging the sound speed. In order to compare different designs, we measure their quality by extracting properties from the Hessian operator of the time-of-flight or waveform differences defined in the inverse problem, i.e., the second derivatives with respect to the sound speed. Spatial uncertainties and resolution can be related to the eigenvalues of the Hessian, which provide a good indication of the information contained in the data that is acquired with a given design. However, the complete spectrum is often prohibitively expensive to compute, thus suitable approximations have to be developed and analyzed. We use the trace of the Hessian operator as design criterion, which is equivalent to the sum of all eigenvalues and requires less computational effort. In addition, we suggest to take advantage of the spatial symmetry to extrapolate the 3D experimental design from a set of 2D configurations. In order to maximize the quality criterion, we use a genetic algorithm to explore the space of possible design configurations. Numerical results show that the proposed strategies are capable of improving an initial configuration with uniformly distributed transducers, clustering them around regions with poor illumination and improving the ray coverage of the domain of interest.

  2. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... of non-linear wave induced load effects and the corresponding long-term formulations. Methods to combine linear and non-linear components of wave induced load effects have been developed and checked by alternative methods.These improved models were used for the reliability assessment of the primary hull...

  3. Design of Experimental Data Publishing Software for Neutral Beam Injector on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Hu, Chundong; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wu, Deyun

    2015-02-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) is one of the most effective means for plasma heating. Experimental Data Publishing Software (EDPS) is developed to publish experimental data to get the NBI system under remote monitoring. In this paper, the architecture and implementation of EDPS including the design of the communication module and web page display module are presented. EDPS is developed based on the Browser/Server (B/S) model, and works under the Linux operating system. Using the data source and communication mechanism of the NBI Control System (NBICS), EDPS publishes experimental data on the Internet.

  4. Cooperative Experimental System Development - cooperative techniques beyound initial design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1995-01-01

    , however, not limited to this development context, it may be applied for in-house or contract development as well. In system development, particularly in cooperative and experimental system development, we argue that it is necessary to analytically separate the abstract concerns, e.g. analysis, design......This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis/design...

  5. Design of Experimental Suspended Footbridge with Deck Made of UHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blank Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the static and dynamic design of experimental footbridge for pedestrians and cyclists in the municipality Lužec nad Vltavou in Czech Republic, Europe. This work aims to familiarize the reader with calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the static and dynamic properties of proposed footbridge. The construction of footbridge is designed as a suspended structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tons. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings. The utilization of the excellent properties of UHPC allows to design a very thin and lightweight construction of the deck, which could not be achieved with the use of normal concrete.

  6. An Experimental Design of Bypass Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, MM; Aziz, Mohammad Abdul; Raisuddin Khan, Md.

    2017-11-01

    The magnetorheological (MR) fluid bypass damper fluid flow through a bypass by utilizing an external channel which allows the controllability of MR fluid in the channel. The Bypass MR damper (BMRD) contains a rectangular bypass flow channel, current controlled movable piston shaft arrangement and MR fluid. The static piston coil case is winding by a coil which is used inside the piston head arrangement. The current controlled coil case provides a magnetic flux through the BMRD cylinder for controllability. The high strength of alloy steel materials are used for making piston shaft which allows magnetic flux propagation throughout the BMRD cylinder. Using the above design materials, a Bypass MR damper is designed and tested. An excitation of current is applied during the experiment which characterizes the BMRD controllability. It is shown that the BMRD with external flow channel allows a high controllable damping force using an excitation current. The experimental result of damping force-displacement characteristics with current excitation and without current excitation are compared in this research. The BMRD model is validated by the experimental result at various frequencies and applied excitation current.

  7. Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

    2008-10-13

    Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

  8. Fast Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design for Seismic Source Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-06

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments [1] in the context of statistical seismic source inversion [2]. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by the elastic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the true parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem.

  9. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design for seismic source inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-07-01

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments in the context of statistical seismic source inversion. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by elastodynamic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the "true" parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Sparse linear models: Variational approximate inference and Bayesian experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Matthias W [Saarland University and Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E1.4, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2009-12-01

    A wide range of problems such as signal reconstruction, denoising, source separation, feature selection, and graphical model search are addressed today by posterior maximization for linear models with sparsity-favouring prior distributions. The Bayesian posterior contains useful information far beyond its mode, which can be used to drive methods for sampling optimization (active learning), feature relevance ranking, or hyperparameter estimation, if only this representation of uncertainty can be approximated in a tractable manner. In this paper, we review recent results for variational sparse inference, and show that they share underlying computational primitives. We discuss how sampling optimization can be implemented as sequential Bayesian experimental design. While there has been tremendous recent activity to develop sparse estimation, little attendance has been given to sparse approximate inference. In this paper, we argue that many problems in practice, such as compressive sensing for real-world image reconstruction, are served much better by proper uncertainty approximations than by ever more aggressive sparse estimation algorithms. Moreover, since some variational inference methods have been given strong convex optimization characterizations recently, theoretical analysis may become possible, promising new insights into nonlinear experimental design.

  11. Experimental Design and Validation of an Accelerated Random Vibration Fatigue Testing Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Jiang(Center for Statistical and Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province 321004, China); Gun Jin Yun; Li Zhao; Junyong Tao

    2015-01-01

    Novel accelerated random vibration fatigue test methodology and strategy are proposed, which can generate a design of the experimental test plan significantly reducing the test time and the sample size. Based on theoretical analysis and fatigue damage model, several groups of random vibration fatigue tests were designed and conducted with the aim of investigating effects of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian random excitation on the vibration fatigue. First, stress responses at a weak point of a ...

  12. Experimental Investigations of Decentralised Control Design for The Stabilisation of Rotor-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    directions. Hardening and softening P-lead controllers are designed based on the models experimentally identified, and salient features of both controllers are discussed. Both controllers are implemented and validated on the physical test rig. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed......-Box identification for the design of stabilising controllers, capable of enabling the active lubrication of the journal. The root locus analysis shows that two different control solutions are feasible for the dampening of the first two eigenfrequencies of the rotor-gas bearing in the horizontal and vertical...

  13. Experimental measurement and numerical analysis on resonant characteristics of piezoelectric disks with partial electrode designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching

    2004-08-01

    Three experimental techniques are used in this study to access the influence of the electrode arrangement on the resonant characteristics of piezoceramic disks. These methods, including the amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI), laser Doppler vibrometer-dynamic signal analyzer (LDV-DSA), and impedance analysis, are based on the measurement of full-field displacement, pointwise displacement, and electric impedance, respectively. In this study, one full electrode design and three nonsymmetrical partial electrode designs of piezoelectric disks are investigated. Because the clear fringe patterns measured by the AF-ESPI method will be shown only at resonant frequencies, both the resonant frequencies and the corresponding vibration mode shapes are successfully obtained at the same time for out-of-plane and in-plane motions. The second experimental method is the impedance analysis, which is used to measure the resonant and antiresonant frequencies. In addition to these experimental methods, LDV-DSA is used to determine the resonant frequencies of the vibration mode with out-of-plane motion. From the experimental results, the dependence of electrode design on the vibration frequencies and mode shapes is addressed. Numerical computations based on the finite element method are presented, and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. The effect of different designs of electrode is more significant in the in-plane modes than that in the out-of-plane modes.

  14. Bayesian optimal experimental design for priors of compact support

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-08

    In this study, we optimize the experimental setup computationally by optimal experimental design (OED) in a Bayesian framework. We approximate the posterior probability density functions (pdf) using truncated Gaussian distributions in order to account for the bounded domain of the uniform prior pdf of the parameters. The underlying Gaussian distribution is obtained in the spirit of the Laplace method, more precisely, the mode is chosen as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, and the covariance is chosen as the negative inverse of the Hessian of the misfit function at the MAP estimate. The model related entities are obtained from a polynomial surrogate. The optimality, quantified by the information gain measures, can be estimated efficiently by a rejection sampling algorithm against the underlying Gaussian probability distribution, rather than against the true posterior. This approach offers a significant error reduction when the magnitude of the invariants of the posterior covariance are comparable to the size of the bounded domain of the prior. We demonstrate the accuracy and superior computational efficiency of our method for shock-tube experiments aiming to measure the model parameters of a key reaction which is part of the complex kinetic network describing the hydrocarbon oxidation. In the experiments, the initial temperature and fuel concentration are optimized with respect to the expected information gain in the estimation of the parameters of the target reaction rate. We show that the expected information gain surface can change its shape dramatically according to the level of noise introduced into the synthetic data. The information that can be extracted from the data saturates as a logarithmic function of the number of experiments, and few experiments are needed when they are conducted at the optimal experimental design conditions.

  15. Introduction to Experimental Design: Can You Smell Fear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Chris J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to design appropriate experiments in order to interrogate a research question is an important skill for any scientist. The present article describes an interactive lecture-based activity centred around a comparison of two contrasting approaches to investigation of the question "Can you smell fear?" A poorly designed…

  16. Conceptual design of superconducting magnet systems for the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T.; Turner, L.R.; Mills, F.E.; DeMichele, D.W.; Smelser, P.; Kim, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    As an integral effort in the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor Conceptual Design, the conceptual design of a 10-tesla, pure-tension superconducting toroidal-field (TF) coil system has been developed in sufficient detail to define a realistic design for the TF coil system that could be built based upon the current state of technology with minimum technological extrapolations. A conceptual design study on the superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coils and the superconducting equilibrium-field (EF) coils were also completed. These conceptual designs are developed in sufficient detail with clear information on high current ac conductor design, cooling, venting provision, coil structural support and zero loss poloidal coil cryostat design. Also investigated is the EF penetration into the blanket and shield.

  17. Statistics in experimental design, preprocessing, and analysis of proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput experiments in proteomics, such as 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), yield usually high-dimensional data sets of expression values for hundreds or thousands of proteins which are, however, observed on only a relatively small number of biological samples. Statistical methods for the planning and analysis of experiments are important to avoid false conclusions and to receive tenable results. In this chapter, the most frequent experimental designs for proteomics experiments are illustrated. In particular, focus is put on studies for the detection of differentially regulated proteins. Furthermore, issues of sample size planning, statistical analysis of expression levels as well as methods for data preprocessing are covered.

  18. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2015-05-12

    Experimental design can be vital when experiments are resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. In this work, we carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information that can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data about the model parameters. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that it naturally involves nested integration over a possibly high dimensional domain. We use the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, MLMC can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the MLMC method imposes fewer assumptions, such as the asymptotic concentration of posterior measures, required for instance by the Laplace approximation (LA). We test the MLMC method using two numerical examples. The first example is the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by a one-dimensional Poisson equation. We place the sensors in the locations where the pressure is measured, and we model the conductivity field as a piecewise constant random vector with two parameters. The second one is chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) core flooding experiment assuming homogeneous permeability. We measure the cumulative oil recovery, from a horizontal core flooded by water, surfactant and polymer, for different injection rates. The model parameters consist of the endpoint relative permeabilities, the residual saturations and the relative permeability exponents for the three phases: water, oil and

  19. Experimental design data for the biosynthesis of citric acid using Central Composite Design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Anand Kishore; Mekala, Mallaiah; Goli, Venkat Reddy

    2017-06-01

    In the present investigation, we report that statistical design and optimization of significant variables for the microbial production of citric acid from sucrose in presence of filamentous fungi A. niger NCIM 705. Various combinations of experiments were designed with Central Composite Design (CCD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for the production of citric acid as a function of six variables. The variables are; initial sucrose concentration, initial pH of medium, fermentation temperature, incubation time, stirrer rotational speed, and oxygen flow rate. From experimental data, a statistical model for this process has been developed. The optimum conditions reported in the present article are initial concentration of sucrose of 163.6 g/L, initial pH of medium 5.26, stirrer rotational speed of 247.78 rpm, incubation time of 8.18 days, fermentation temperature of 30.06 °C and flow rate of oxygen of 1.35 lpm. Under optimum conditions the predicted maximum citric acid is 86.42 g/L. The experimental validation carried out under the optimal values and reported citric acid to be 82.0 g/L. The model is able to represent the experimental data and the agreement between the model and experimental data is good.

  20. Experimental design data for the biosynthesis of citric acid using Central Composite Design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kishore Kola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we report that statistical design and optimization of significant variables for the microbial production of citric acid from sucrose in presence of filamentous fungi A. niger NCIM 705. Various combinations of experiments were designed with Central Composite Design (CCD of Response Surface Methodology (RSM for the production of citric acid as a function of six variables. The variables are; initial sucrose concentration, initial pH of medium, fermentation temperature, incubation time, stirrer rotational speed, and oxygen flow rate. From experimental data, a statistical model for this process has been developed. The optimum conditions reported in the present article are initial concentration of sucrose of 163.6 g/L, initial pH of medium 5.26, stirrer rotational speed of 247.78 rpm, incubation time of 8.18 days, fermentation temperature of 30.06 °C and flow rate of oxygen of 1.35 lpm. Under optimum conditions the predicted maximum citric acid is 86.42 g/L. The experimental validation carried out under the optimal values and reported citric acid to be 82.0 g/L. The model is able to represent the experimental data and the agreement between the model and experimental data is good.

  1. Feedback control in deep drawing based on experimental datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P.; Heingärtner, J.; Aichholzer, W.; Hortig, D.; Hora, P.

    2017-09-01

    In large-scale production of deep drawing parts, like in automotive industry, the effects of scattering material properties as well as warming of the tools have a significant impact on the drawing result. In the scope of the work, an approach is presented to minimize the influence of these effects on part quality by optically measuring the draw-in of each part and adjusting the settings of the press to keep the strain distribution, which is represented by the draw-in, inside a certain limit. For the design of the control algorithm, a design of experiments for in-line tests is used to quantify the influence of the blank holder force as well as the force distribution on the draw-in. The results of this experimental dataset are used to model the process behavior. Based on this model, a feedback control loop is designed. Finally, the performance of the control algorithm is validated in the production line.

  2. Wind refrigeration : design and results of an experimental facility; Refrigeracion eolica: Diseno y resultados de una instalacion experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, R. G.; Talero, A.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes the experimental setup used to obtain design parameters for a wind driven refrigeration equipment. The system compressor is directly coupled to the wind mill and will provide refrigeration to a community located in La Guajira in northern Colombia. The testing on the experimental installation assessed the refrigeration capacity that could be provided by an open type commercial compressor coupled to the wind mill axis. Power and torque requirements have been evaluated for different wind mill rotational speeds. An assessment of the local conditions relating to wind speed, frequency and preferred direction for the installation site has been made based on measurements by the Meteorological National Institute and independent data from other sources. (Author)

  3. Experimental designs for evaluation of genetic variability and selection of ancient grapevine varieties: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, E; St Aubyn, A; Martins, A

    2010-06-01

    Classical methodologies for grapevine selection used in the vine-growing world are generally based on comparisons among a small number of clones. This does not take advantage of the entire genetic variability within ancient varieties, and therefore limits selection challenges. Using the general principles of plant breeding and of quantitative genetics, we propose new breeding strategies, focussed on conservation and quantification of genetic variability by performing a cycle of mass genotypic selection prior to clonal selection. To exploit a sufficiently large amount of genetic variability, initial selection trials must be generally very large. The use of experimental designs adequate for those field trials has been intensively recommended for numerous species. However, their use in initial trials of grapevines has not been studied. With the aim of identifying the most suitable experimental designs for quantification of genetic variability and selection of ancient varieties, a study was carried out to assess through simulation the comparative efficiency of various experimental designs (randomized complete block design, alpha design and row-column (RC) design). The results indicated a greater efficiency for alpha and RC designs, enabling more precise estimates of genotypic variance, greater precision in the prediction of genetic gain and consequently greater efficiency in genotypic mass selection.

  4. Critical Zone Experimental Design to Assess Soil Processes and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwart, Steve

    2010-05-01

    experimental design studies soil processes across the temporal evolution of the soil profile, from its formation on bare bedrock, through managed use as productive land to its degradation under longstanding pressures from intensive land use. To understand this conceptual life cycle of soil, we have selected 4 European field sites as Critical Zone Observatories. These are to provide data sets of soil parameters, processes and functions which will be incorporated into the mathematical models. The field sites are 1) the BigLink field station which is located in the chronosequence of the Damma Glacier forefield in alpine Switzerland and is established to study the initial stages of soil development on bedrock; 2) the Lysina Catchment in the Czech Republic which is representative of productive soils managed for intensive forestry, 3) the Fuchsenbigl Field Station in Austria which is an agricultural research site that is representative of productive soils managed as arable land and 4) the Koiliaris Catchment in Crete, Greece which represents degraded Mediterranean region soils, heavily impacted by centuries of intensive grazing and farming, under severe risk of desertification.

  5. Experimental Reality: Principles for the Design of Augmented Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, Saadi

    The Laboratory of Design for Cognition at EDF R&D (LDC) is a living laboratory, which we created to develop Augmented Environment (AE) for collaborative work, more specifically “cognitive work” (white collars, engineers, office workers). It is a corporate laboratory in a large industry, where natural activity of real users is observed in a continuous manner in various spaces (project space, meeting room, lounge, etc.) The RAO room, an augmented meeting room, is used daily for “normal” meetings; it is also the “mother room” of all augmented meeting rooms in the company, where new systems, services, and devices are tested. The LDC has gathered a unique set of data on the use of AE, and developed various observation and design techniques, described in this chapter. LDC uses novel techniques of digital ethnography, some of which were invented there (SubCam, offsat) and some of which were developed elsewhere and adapted (360° video, WebDiver, etc.). At LDC, some new theories have also been developed to explain behavior and guide innovation: cognitive attractors, experimental reality, and the triple-determination framework.

  6. Experimental investigation of design parameters on dry powder inhaler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Chang, Lusi; Jia, Xinli; Lau, Raymond

    2013-11-30

    The study aims to investigate the impact of various design parameters of a dry powder inhaler on the turbulence intensities generated and the performance of the dry powder inhaler. The flow fields and turbulence intensities in the dry powder inhaler are measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. In vitro aerosolization and deposition a blend of budesonide and lactose are measured using an Andersen Cascade Impactor. Design parameters such as inhaler grid hole diameter, grid voidage and chamber length are considered. The experimental results reveal that the hole diameter on the grid has negligible impact on the turbulence intensity generated in the chamber. On the other hand, hole diameters smaller than a critical size can lead to performance degradation due to excessive particle-grid collisions. An increase in grid voidage can improve the inhaler performance but the effect diminishes at high grid voidage. An increase in the chamber length can enhance the turbulence intensity generated but also increases the powder adhesion on the inhaler wall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. System design overview of JAXA small supersonic experimental airplane (NEXST-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Takami, Hikaru; 高見 光

    2007-01-01

    The system of JAXA small supersonic experimental airplane (NEXST-1: National EXperimental Supersonic Transport-1) has been briefly explained. Some design problems that the designers have encountered have also been briefly explained.

  8. The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  10. Patient reactions to personalized medicine vignettes: an experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrick, Morgan; Roter, Debra; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Erby, Lori H; Haywood, Carlton; Beach, Mary Catherine; Levy, Howard P

    2011-05-01

    Translational investigation on personalized medicine is in its infancy. Exploratory studies reveal attitudinal barriers to "race-based medicine" and cautious optimism regarding genetically personalized medicine. This study describes patient responses to hypothetical conventional, race-based, or genetically personalized medicine prescriptions. Three hundred eighty-seven participants (mean age = 47 years; 46% white) recruited from a Baltimore outpatient center were randomized to this vignette-based experimental study. They were asked to imagine a doctor diagnosing a condition and prescribing them one of three medications. The outcomes are emotional response to vignette, belief in vignette medication efficacy, experience of respect, trust in the vignette physician, and adherence intention. Race-based medicine vignettes were appraised more negatively than conventional vignettes across the board (Cohen's d = -0.51-0.57-0.64, P medicine (-0.14-0.15-0.17, P = 0.47), with the exception of reduced adherence intention to genetically personalized medicine (Cohen's d = -0.38-0.41-0.44, P = 0.009). This relative reluctance to take genetically personalized medicine was pronounced for racial minorities (Cohen's d = -0.38-0.31-0.25, P = 0.02) and was related to trust in the vignette physician (change in R = 0.23, P medicine technology, especially among racial minorities, and highlights enhancement of adherence through improved doctor- patient relationships.

  11. Quantification of pore size distribution using diffusion NMR: experimental design and physical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yaniv; Nevo, Uri

    2014-04-28

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR experiments are sensitive to restricted diffusion within porous media and can thus reveal essential microstructural information about the confining geometry. Optimal design methods of inverse problems are designed to select preferred experimental settings to improve parameter estimation quality. However, in pore size distribution (PSD) estimation using NMR methods as in other ill-posed problems, optimal design strategies and criteria are scarce. We formulate here a new optimization framework for ill-posed problems. This framework is suitable for optimizing PFG experiments for probing geometries that are solvable by the Multiple Correlation Function approach. The framework is based on a heuristic methodology designed to select experimental sets which balance between lowering the inherent ill-posedness and increasing the NMR signal intensity. This method also selects favorable discrete pore sizes used for PSD estimation. Numerical simulations performed demonstrate that using this framework greatly improves the sensitivity of PFG experimental sets to the pores' sizes. The optimization also sheds light on significant features of the preferred experimental sets. Increasing the gradient strength and varying multiple experimental parameters is found to be preferable for reducing the ill-posedness. We further evaluate the amount of pore size information that can be obtained by wisely selecting the duration of the diffusion and mixing times. Finally, we discuss the ramification of using single PFG or double PFG sequences for PSD estimation. In conclusion, the above optimization method can serve as a useful tool for experimenters interested in quantifying PSDs of different specimens. Moreover, the applicability of the suggested optimization framework extends far beyond the field of PSD estimation in diffusion NMR, and reaches design of sampling schemes of other ill-posed problems.

  12. Experimental validation of systematically designed acoustic hyperbolic meta material slab exhibiting negative refraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    This Letter reports on the experimental validation of a two-dimensional acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial slab optimized to exhibit negative refractive behavior. The slab was designed using a topology optimization based systematic design method allowing for tailoring the refractive behavior....... The experimental results confirm the predicted refractive capability as well as the predicted transmission at an interface. The study simultaneously provides an estimate of the attenuation inside the slab stemming from the boundary layer effects—insight which can be utilized in the further design...... of the metamaterial slabs. The capability of tailoring the refractive behavior opens possibilities for different applications. For instance, a slab exhibiting zero refraction across a wide angular range is capable of funneling acoustic energy through it, while a material exhibiting the negative refractive behavior...

  13. Experimental design strategy a part of an innovative construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarten Gjaltema; Rogier Laterveer; Dr Ruben Vrijhoef

    2013-01-01

    From the article: Abstract. This exploratory and conceptual article sets out to research what arguments and possibilities for experimentation in construction exists and if experimentation can contribute towards more innovative construction as a whole. Traditional, -western- construction is very

  14. Experimental Design Strategy As Part of an Innovative Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogier Laterveer

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory and conceptual article sets out to research what arguments and possibilities for experimentation in construction exists and if experimentation can contribute towards more innovative construction as a whole. Traditional, -western- construction is very conservative and regional, often

  15. Phosphate removal from water by fly ash: factorial experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Mevra Yalvac; Yildiz, Ergun

    2006-07-31

    The influence of three variables (phophate concentration, initial pH of solution (pH(0)) and the fly ash dosage) on the removal efficiency of phosphate (% E) and equilibrium pH of solution (pH(eq)) by using fly ash was studied by means of 2(3) full factorial experimental designs. The parameters coded as x(1), x(2) and x(3), consecutively(,) were used. The parameters were investigated at two levels (-1 and 1). The effects of these factors on dependent variables, namely, % E and pH(eq) were investigated. To determine the significance of effects, the analysis of variance with 95% confidence limits was used. It was shown that % E and pH(eq) obtained in this study were found to be 99.6% and 11.16, corresponding to the operating condition of 25 mg l(-1), 2 g l(-1) and 5.5 for the phosphate concentration, fly ash dosage and pH(0), respectively.

  16. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to operate at net electrical power conditions with a plant capacity factor of 50 percent for 10 years. The EPR operates in a pulsed mode at a frequency of approximately 1/min., with an approximate 75 percent duty cycle, is capable of producing approximately 72 MWe and requires 42 MWe. The annual tritium consumption is 16 kg. The EPR vacuum chamber is 6.25 m in major radius and 2.4 m in minor radius, is constructed of 2-cm thick stainless steel, and has 2-cm thick detachable, beryllium-coated coolant panels mounted on the interior. An 0.28 m stainless steel blanket and a shield ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 m surround the vacuum vessel. The coolant is H/sub 2/O. Sixteen niobium-titanium superconducting toroidal-field coils provide a field of 10 T at the coil and 4.47 T at the plasma. Superconducting ohmic-heating and equilibrium-field coils provide 135 V-s to drive the plasma current. Plasma heating is accomplished by 12 neutral beam-injectors, which provide 60 MW. The energy transfer and storage system consists of a central superconducting storage ring, a homopolar energy storage unit, and a variety of inductor-converters.

  17. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  18. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  19. A Bayesian active learning strategy for sequential experimental design in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Edouard; Lajaunie, Christian; Vert, Jean-Philippe

    2014-09-26

    BackgroundDynamical models used in systems biology involve unknown kinetic parameters. Setting these parameters is a bottleneck in many modeling projects. This motivates the estimation of these parameters from empirical data. However, this estimation problem has its own difficulties, the most important one being strong ill-conditionedness. In this context, optimizing experiments to be conducted in order to better estimate a system¿s parameters provides a promising direction to alleviate the difficulty of the task.ResultsBorrowing ideas from Bayesian experimental design and active learning, we propose a new strategy for optimal experimental design in the context of kinetic parameter estimation in systems biology. We describe algorithmic choices that allow to implement this method in a computationally tractable way and make it fully automatic. Based on simulation, we show that it outperforms alternative baseline strategies, and demonstrate the benefit to consider multiple posterior modes of the likelihood landscape, as opposed to traditional schemes based on local and Gaussian approximations.ConclusionThis analysis demonstrates that our new, fully automatic Bayesian optimal experimental design strategy has the potential to support the design of experiments for kinetic parameter estimation in systems biology.

  20. Design of an experimental setup for hydro-kinetic energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Grabbe, Mårten; Yuen, Katarina; Goude, Anders; Lalander, Emilia; Leijon, Mats

    2009-01-01

    A hydro-kinetic energy project has been underway in Sweden since 2000, and an in-stream prototype setup for experiments at a site in a Swedish river is now in progress. The system comprises a vertical axis turbine and a directly driven permanent magnet generator. Methods and choices used in designing the system are described here. The turbine and generator are evaluated based on measurements and CFD simulations of conditions at the site for the experimental setup.

  1. Experimental demonstration of water based tunable metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odit, Mikhail; Kapitanova, Polina; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    A simple dynamically tunable metasurface (two-dimensional metamaterial) operating at microwave frequencies is developed and experimentally investigated. Conceptually, the simplicity of the approach is granted by reconfigurable properties of unit cells partially filled with distilled water....... The transmission spectra of the metasurface for linear and circular polarizations of the incident wave were experimentally measured under the metasurface rotation around a horizontal axis. The changes in the transmission coefficient magnitude up to 8 dB at 1.25 GHz are reported while rotating the metasurface...

  2. Decision-Based Design Integrating Consumer Preferences into Engineering Design

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Wassenaar, Henk Jan

    2013-01-01

    Building upon the fundamental principles of decision theory, Decision-Based Design: Integrating Consumer Preferences into Engineering Design presents an analytical approach to enterprise-driven Decision-Based Design (DBD) as a rigorous framework for decision making in engineering design.  Once the related fundamentals of decision theory, economic analysis, and econometrics modelling are established, the remaining chapters describe the entire process, the associated analytical techniques, and the design case studies for integrating consumer preference modeling into the enterprise-driven DBD framework. Methods for identifying key attributes, optimal design of human appraisal experiments, data collection, data analysis, and demand model estimation are presented and illustrated using engineering design case studies. The scope of the chapters also provides: •A rigorous framework of integrating the interests from both producer and consumers in engineering design, •Analytical techniques of consumer choice model...

  3. Experimental design issues for the early detection of disease: novel designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Zelen, Marvin

    2002-09-01

    This paper investigates two experimental designs which have been used to evaluate the benefit of the early detection of breast cancer. They have some advantages over a classical design (the screening program versus usual medical care) in that subjects in a control group may benefit by participating in the study. We refer to the two experimental designs as the up-front (UFD) and close-out (COD) designs. The UFD consists of offering an initial exam to all participants. Then they can be randomized to a usual care group or a screening group receiving one or more special examinations. If the outcome of the initial examination is included in the analysis, then the study can answer the question of the benefit of an additional screening program after an initial examination. If the analysis excludes all the cases diagnosed at the initial examination, then the analysis evaluates the benefit of a screening program after elimination of the prevalent cases. These prevalent cases are most likely to be affected by length bias sampling and consequently will tend to have less aggressive disease and live longer. As a result, the UFD can answer two scientific questions. The COD consists of randomizing subjects to a usual care group and a screened group. However, the usual care group receives an examination which coincides at the time of the last exam in the study group. In this paper the power of these two designs have been evaluated. In both cases the power is severely reduced compared to the usual control group receiving no special exams. The power is a function of the sensitivity of the exam, the number and spacings of the exams given to the screened group as well as the sample size, disease incidence of the population and the survival distribution. The theoretical results on power are applied to the Canadian National Breast Cancer Study (ages 40-49) which used an UFD and the Stockholm Mammography Breast Cancer Screening Trial which utilized a COD.

  4. Experimental Design on Laminated Veneer Lumber Fiber Composite: Surface Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekum, U.; Mingmongkol, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Thick laminate veneer lumber(LVL) fibre reinforced composites were constructed from the alternated perpendicularly arrayed of peeled rubber woods. Glass woven was laid in between the layers. Native golden teak veneers were used as faces. In house formulae epoxy was employed as wood adhesive. The hand lay-up laminate was cured at 150° C for 45 mins. The cut specimen was post cured at 80° C for at least 5 hours. The 2k factorial design of experimental(DOE) was used to verify the parameters. Three parameters by mean of silane content in epoxy formulation(A), smoke treatment of rubber wood surface(B) and anti-termite application(C) on the wood surface were analysed. Both low and high levels were further subcategorised into 2 sub-levels. Flexural properties were the main respond obtained. ANOVA analysis of the Pareto chart was engaged. The main effect plot was also testified. The results showed that the interaction between silane quantity and termite treatment is negative effect at high level(AC+). Vice versa, the interaction between silane and smoke treatment was positive significant effect at high level(AB+). According to this research work, the optimal setting to improve the surface adhesion and hence flexural properties enhancement were high level of silane quantity, 15% by weight, high level of smoked wood layers, 8 out of 14 layers, and low anti termite applied wood. The further testes also revealed that the LVL composite had superior properties that the solid woods but slightly inferior in flexibility. The screw withdrawn strength of LVL showed the higher figure than solid wood. It is also better resistance to moisture and termite attack than the rubber wood.

  5. Design of Passive Acoustic Wave Shaping Devices and Their Experimental Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    We discuss a topology optimization based approach for designing passive acoustic wave shaping devices and demonstrate its application to; directional sound emission [1], sound focusing and wave splitting. Optimized devices, numerical and experimental results are presented and benchmarked against...... by the Helmholtz equation. An exterior 2D model domain is used and an array of point sources is considered as sound emitters. The optimization goal is to identify a distribution of solid material in a design sub-domain which produces a desired spatial sound feld pattern across a frequency band of interest...

  6. A projection method for under determined optimal experimental designs

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2014-01-09

    A new implementation, based on the Laplace approximation, was developed in (Long, Scavino, Tempone, & Wang 2013) to accelerate the estimation of the post–experimental expected information gains in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. A closed–form approximation of the inner integral and the order of the corresponding dominant error term were obtained in the cases where the parameters are determined by the experiment. In this work, we extend that method to the general cases where the model parameters could not be determined completely by the data from the proposed experiments. We carry out the Laplace approximations in the directions orthogonal to the null space of the corresponding Jacobian matrix, so that the information gain (Kullback–Leibler divergence) can be reduced to an integration against the marginal density of the transformed parameters which are not determined by the experiments. Furthermore, the expected information gain can be approximated by an integration over the prior, where the integrand is a function of the projected posterior covariance matrix. To deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use Monte Carlo sampling or sparse quadratures for the integration over the prior probability density function, depending on the regularity of the integrand function. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method via several nonlinear under determined numerical examples.

  7. Design of Test Wrapper Scan Chain Based on Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Circuit has entered the era of design of the IP-based SoC (System on Chip, which makes the IP core reuse become a key issue. SoC test wrapper design for scan chain is a NP Hard problem, we propose an algorithm based on Differential Evolution (DE to design wrapper scan chain. Through group’s mutation, crossover and selection operations, the design of test wrapper scan chain is achieved. Experimental verification is carried out according to the international standard benchmark ITC’02. The results show that the algorithm can obtain shorter longest wrapper scan chains, compared with other algorithms.

  8. Experimental and numerical analysis for optimal design parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajneesh Kaushal

    Finally, the relations established are confirmed experimentally to validate the models. The relations thus established are ... Additionally, the present study is among the first attempts to reveal the effect of humidity on the performance of falling film evaporator. .... and accuracies of instruments used. 2.2 Experimental procedure.

  9. 14 CFR 437.85 - Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable design changes; modification of... Conditions of an Experimental Permit § 437.85 Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit. (a) The FAA will identify in the experimental permit the type of changes that the permittee may...

  10. Multiscale experimental mechanics of hierarchical carbon-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Filleter, Tobin; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2012-06-05

    Investigation of the mechanics of natural materials, such as spider silk, abalone shells, and bone, has provided great insight into the design of materials that can simultaneously achieve high specific strength and toughness. Research has shown that their emergent mechanical properties are owed in part to their specific self-organization in hierarchical molecular structures, from nanoscale to macroscale, as well as their mixing and bonding. To apply these findings to manmade materials, researchers have devoted significant efforts in developing a fundamental understanding of multiscale mechanics of materials and its application to the design of novel materials with superior mechanical performance. These efforts included the utilization of some of the most promising carbon-based nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene, together with a variety of matrix materials. At the core of these efforts lies the need to characterize material mechanical behavior across multiple length scales starting from nanoscale characterization of constituents and their interactions to emerging micro- and macroscale properties. In this report, progress made in experimental tools and methods currently used for material characterization across multiple length scales is reviewed, as well as a discussion of how they have impacted our current understanding of the mechanics of hierarchical carbon-based materials. In addition, insight is provided into strategies for bridging experiments across length scales, which are essential in establishing a multiscale characterization approach. While the focus of this progress report is in experimental methods, their concerted use with theoretical-computational approaches towards the establishment of a robust material by design methodology is also discussed, which can pave the way for the development of novel materials possessing unprecedented mechanical properties. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. On the optimal experimental design for heat and moisture parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Julien; Mendes, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    In the context of estimating material properties of porous walls based on in-site measurements and identification method, this paper presents the concept of Optimal Experiment Design (OED). It aims at searching the best experimental conditions in terms of quantity and position of sensors and boundary conditions imposed to the material. These optimal conditions ensure to provide the maximum accuracy of the identification method and thus the estimated parameters. The search of the OED is done by using the Fisher information matrix and a priori knowledge of the parameters. The methodology is applied for two case studies. The first one deals with purely conductive heat transfer. The concept of optimal experiment design is detailed and verified with 100 inverse problems for different experiment designs. The second case study combines a strong coupling between heat and moisture transfer through a porous building material. The methodology presented is based on a scientific formalism for efficient planning of experim...

  12. Increased performance in a bottom-up designed robot by experimentally guided redesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Using a bottom-up, model-free approach when building robots is often seen as a less scientific way, compared to a top-down model-based approach, because the results are not easily generalizable to other systems. The authors, however, hypothesize that this problem may be addressed by using...... solid experimental methods. The purpose of this paper is to show how well-known experimental methods from bio-mechanics are used to measure and locate weaknesses in a bottom-up, model-free implementation of a quadruped walker and come up with a better solution. Design/methodology/approach – To study...... the bottom-up, mode-free approach, the authors used the robotic construction kit, LocoKit. This construction kit allows researchers to construct legged robots, without having a mathematical model beforehand. The authors used no specific mathematical model to design the robot, but instead used intuition...

  13. Self-healing in segmented metallized film capacitors: Experimental and theoretical investigations for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belko, V. O.; Emelyanov, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the efficiency of modern metallized film capacitors has been achieved by the application of special segmented nanometer-thick electrodes. The proper design of the electrode segmentation guarantees the best efficiency of the capacitor's self-healing (SH) ability. Meanwhile, the reported theoretical and experimental results have not led to the commonly accepted model of the SH process, since the experimental SH dissipated energy value is several times higher than the calculated one. In this paper, we show that the difference is caused by the heat outflow into polymer film. Based on this, a mathematical model of the metallized electrode destruction is developed. These insights in turn are leading to a better understanding of the SH development. The adequacy of the model is confirmed by both the experiments and the numerical calculations. A procedure of optimal segmented electrode design is offered.

  14. Advanced computational tools for PEM fuel cell design. Part 2. Detailed experimental validation and parametric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, P. C.; Kumar, S.; Djilali, N.

    This paper reports on the systematic experimental validation of a comprehensive 3D CFD-based computational model presented and documented in Part 1. Simulations for unit cells with straight channels, similar to the Ballard Mk902 hardware, are performed and analyzed in conjunction with detailed current mapping measurements and water mass distributions in the membrane-electrode assembly. The experiments were designed to display sensitivity of the cell over a range of operating parameters including current density, humidification, and coolant temperature, making the data particularly well suited for systematic validation. Based on the validation and analysis of the predictions, values of model parameters, including the electro-osmotic drag coefficient, capillary diffusion coefficient, and catalyst specific surface area are determined adjusted to fit experimental data of current density and MEA water content. The predicted net water flux out of the anode (normalized by the total water generated) increases as anode humidification water flow rate is increased, in agreement with experimental results. A modification of the constitutive equation for the capillary diffusivity of water in the porous electrodes that attempts to incorporate the experimentally observed immobile (or irreducible) saturation yields a better fit of the predicted MEA water mass with experimental data. The specific surface area parameter used in the catalyst layer model is found to be effective in tuning the simulations to predict the correct cell voltage over a range of stoichiometries.

  15. Cultivating engineering innovation ability based on optoelectronic experimental platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dangjuan; Wu, Shenjiang

    2017-08-01

    As the supporting experimental platform of the Xi'an Technological University education reform experimental class, "optical technological innovation experimental platform" integrated the design and comprehensive experiments of the optical multi-class courses. On the basis of summing up the past two years teaching experience, platform pilot projects were improve. It has played a good role by making the use of an open teaching model in the cultivating engineering innovation spirit and scientific thinking of the students.

  16. Structure-based library design: molecular modelling merges with combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, H J; Stahl, M

    2000-06-01

    Recent advances in both computational and experimental techniques now allow a very fruitful interplay of computational and combinatorial chemistry in the structure-based design of combinatorial libraries.

  17. Artificial Warming of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future warming is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate warming is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. Warming and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a warming climate. In the MeadoWarm project we conduct an ecosystem warming experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under environmental stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under warming conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field warming facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC warming on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular

  18. Comprehensive study on enhanced photocatalytic activity of heterojunction ZnS-NiS/zeolite nanoparticles: Experimental design based on response surface methodology (RSM), impedance spectroscopy and GC-MASS studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikvandi, Hadis; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2017-03-15

    In the present work, coupled and supported NiS and ZnS onto the mechanically prepared clinoptilolite nanoparticles (NC) was prepared and characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX, X-ray mapping, DRS, BET, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The obtained catalysts were used in photodegradation of metronidazole (MZ). The mole ratio of NiS/ZnS affects the degradation activity of the obtained catalysts so the best activity was obtained for the NZ4-NC (NiS1.0-ZnS5.2/NC, containing 1.0 and 5.2W% of NiS and ZnS, respectively and mole ratio of ZnS/NiS about 4) catalyst. The simultaneous effects of the experimental parameters were studied using central composite design combined with response surface methodology (RSM). Results of CV and EIS have good agreement with photodegradation results, so the coupled NiS-ZnS-NC system with significant enhancement in charge transfer with respect to the monocomponent systems showed the best photodegradation activity. The best degradation extent of MZ was obtained at a run including pH 2, catalyst dose of 3gL(-1), 4mgL(-1) of MZ at irradiation time of 150min. The high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.9883) for the second-order polynomial model, showed that the data predicted using RSM were in good agreement with the experimental results. Change of initial pH of MZ solution from 5.5 to 4.1 during 150min, confirms formation of acidic degradation intermediates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reform of experimental teaching based on quality cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Xingwei; Liu, Wei; Yao, Tianfu; Shi, Jianhua; Lei, Bing; Hu, Haojun

    2017-08-01

    Experimental teaching plays an import part in quality education which devotes to cultivating students with innovative spirit, strong technological talents and practical ability. However, in the traditional experimental teaching mode, the experiments are treated as a vassal or supplementary mean of theoretical teaching, and students prefer focus on theory to practice. Therefore, the traditional experimental teaching mode is difficult to meet the requirements of quality education. To address this issue, the reform of experimental teaching is introduced in this paper taking the photoelectric detector experiment as the example. The new experimental teaching mode is designed from such aspects as experimental content, teaching method and experimental evaluation. With the purpose of cultivating students' practical ability, two different-level experimental content is designed. Not only the basic experiments used to verify the theory are set to consolidate the students' learned theoretical knowledge, but also comprehensive experiments are designed to encourage the students to apply their learned knowledge to solve practical problems. In the teaching process, heuristic teaching thought is adopt and the traditional `teacher-centered' teaching form is replaced by `student-centered' form, which aims to encourage students to design the experimental systems by their own with the teacher's guidance. In addition to depending on stimulating the students' interest of science research, experimental evaluation is necessary to urge students to complete the experiments efficiently. Multifaceted evaluation method is proposed to test the students' mastery of theoretical knowledge, practice ability, troubleshooting and problem solving skills, and innovation capability comprehensively. Practices demonstrated the satisfying effect of our experimental teaching mode.

  20. On Experimental Research in Sampling-based Motion Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraerts, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    In robotics research, it is often difficult to compare and evaluate techniques experimentally. This paper identifies these difficulties and provides solutions based on our work during the last four years in the field of sampling-based motion planning.

  1. Design and experimental study of a multi-modal piezoelectric energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xing Yu [School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Oyadiji, S. Olutunde [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United States)

    2017-01-15

    A multi-modal piezoelectric vibration energy harvester is designed in this article. It consists of a cantilevered base beam and some upper and lower layer beams with rigid masses bonded between the beams as spacers. For a four-layer harvester subjected to random base excitations, relocating the mass positions leads to the generation of up to four close resonance frequencies over the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 Hz with relative large power output. The harvesters are connected with a resistance decade box and the frequency response functions of the voltage and power on resistive loads are determined. The experimental results are validated with the simulation results using the finite element method. On a certain level of power output, the experimental results show that the multi-modal harvesters can generate a frequency band that is more than two times greater than the frequency band produced by a cantilevered beam harvester.

  2. Advanced Laboratory at Texas State University: Error Analysis, Experimental Design, and Research Experience for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrice, Carl

    2009-04-01

    Physics is an experimental science. In other words, all physical laws are based on experimentally observable phenomena. Therefore, it is important that all physics students have an understanding of the limitations of certain experimental techniques and the associated errors associated with a particular measurement. The students in the Advanced Laboratory class at Texas State perform three detailed laboratory experiments during the semester and give an oral presentation at the end of the semester on a scientific topic of their choosing. The laboratory reports are written in the format of a ``Physical Review'' journal article. The experiments are chosen to give the students a detailed background in error analysis and experimental design. For instance, the first experiment performed in the spring 2009 semester is entitled Measurement of the local acceleration due to gravity in the RFM Technology and Physics Building. The goal of this experiment is to design and construct an instrument that is to be used to measure the local gravitational field in the Physics Building to an accuracy of ±0.005 m/s^2. In addition, at least one of the experiments chosen each semester involves the use of the research facilities within the physics department (e.g., microfabrication clean room, surface science lab, thin films lab, etc.), which gives the students experience working in a research environment.

  3. Model-robust experimental designs for the fractional polynomial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    can give a good a fit to the data and much more plausible behavior between de- sign points than the polynomial models. In this ... often resorted to the theory of optimal designs to get practical designs for those models. However the complexity of these nonlinear ..... on Statistics in Industry and Tech- nology, Dayton, Ohio. 18 ...

  4. The experimental design of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Sheriff; Shuoqiong. He

    1997-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is an experiment that examines the effects of three forest management practices on the forest community. MOFEP is designed as a randomized complete block design using nine sites divided into three blocks. Treatments of uneven-aged, even-aged, and no-harvest management were randomly assigned to sites within each block...

  5. Experimental OAI-Based Digital Library Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L. (Editor); Maly, Kurt (Editor); Zubair, Mohammad (Editor); Rusch-Feja, Diann (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is to develop a simple, lightweight framework to facilitate the discovery of content in distributed archives (http://www.openarchives.org). The focus of the workshop held at the 5th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL 2001) was to bring researchers in the area of digital libraries who are building OAI based systems so as to share their experiences, problems they are facing, and approaches they are taking to address them. The workshop consisted of invited talks from well-established researchers working in building OAI based digital library system along with short paper presentations.

  6. Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

  7. Design of passive directional acoustic devices using Topology Optimization - from method to experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Rasmus E; Fernandez-Grande, Efren

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a topology optimization based method for designing acoustic focusing devices, capable of tailoring the sound emission pattern of one or several sources, across a chosen frequency band. The method is demonstrated numerically considering devices optimized for directional sound emission in two dimensions and is experimentally validated using three dimensional prints of the optimized designs. The emitted fields exhibit a level difference of at least 15 dB on axis relative to the off-axis directions, over frequency bands of approximately an octave. It is demonstrated to be possible to design focusing devices of dimensions comparable to the acoustic wavelength, a frequency range which is typically problematic, as well as devices operating at higher frequencies. The classical parabolic reflector is used as a benchmark. The devices designed using the proposed method are shown to outperform the latter in terms of directivity and maximum side-lobe level over nearly an octave band. A set of frequencies are considered simultaneously in the design formulation and performance robustness toward uniform spatial production errors in the designed devices is assured by including perturbations of the geometry in the design formulation.

  8. Design of integration-ready metasurface-based infrared absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogando, Karim, E-mail: karim@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Pastoriza, Hernán [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atómico Bariloche, Bariloche 8400 (Argentina)

    2015-07-28

    We introduce an integration ready design of metamaterial infrared absorber, highly compatible with many kinds of fabrication processes. We present the results of an exhaustive experimental characterization, including an analysis of the effects of single meta-atom geometrical parameters and collective arrangement. We confront the results with the theoretical interpretations proposed in the literature. Based on the results, we develop a set of practical design rules for metamaterial absorbers in the infrared region.

  9. The Dynamic Similitude Design Method of Thin Walled Structures and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the applicability of dynamic similitude models of thin walled structures, such as engine blades, turbine discs, and cylindrical shells, the dynamic similitude design of typical thin walled structures is investigated. The governing equation of typical thin walled structures is firstly unified, which guides to establishing dynamic scaling laws of typical thin walled structures. Based on the governing equation, geometrically complete scaling law of the typical thin walled structure is derived. In order to determine accurate distorted scaling laws of typical thin walled structures, three principles are proposed and theoretically proved by combining the sensitivity analysis and governing equation. Taking the thin walled annular plate as an example, geometrically complete and distorted scaling laws can be obtained based on the principles of determining dynamic scaling laws. Furthermore, the previous five orders’ accurate distorted scaling laws of thin walled annular plates are presented and numerically validated. Finally, the effectiveness of the similitude design method is validated by experimental annular plates.

  10. Experimental design with applications in management, engineering and the sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Paul D; Celli, Giovana B

    2018-01-01

    This text introduces and provides instruction on the design and analysis of experiments for a broad audience. Formed by decades of teaching, consulting, and industrial experience in the Design of Experiments field, this new edition contains updated examples, exercises, and situations covering the science and engineering practice. This text minimizes the amount of mathematical detail, while still doing full justice to the mathematical rigor of the presentation and the precision of statements, making the text accessible for those who have little experience with design of experiments and who need some practical advice on using such designs to solve day-to-day problems. Additionally, an intuitive understanding of the principles is always emphasized, with helpful hints throughout.

  11. Interdisciplinary for Social Engagement: Art and Design Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hope Angelique Wells; Lyubava Fartushenko; Andrew Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    In this ever-changing world with a population of over seven billion, social equality, and environmental sustainability needs new innovative and inclusive solutions. Today, the interdisciplinary practice of art and design has the ability to raise social awareness and engagement in health-related issues. Art and design experiments with combining the traditional art methods with technology and interactive systems to communicate scientific research with problem solving goals. Creative interdiscip...

  12. Experimental design and Bayesian networks for enhancement of delta-endotoxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Karim; Ayed, Rayda Ben; Hassen, Hanen Ben; Mazzarello, Maura; Ottaviani, Ennio

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, FeSO₄, MnSO₄, and MgSO₄and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO₄, K2HPO₄, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K₂HPO₄, KH₂PO₄and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation.

  13. ERGONOMIC DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON AN ACTUAL CHAINSAW DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaljun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: To develop high quality products, a designer has to consider various influential factors, one of which is ergonomics. And to fashion a specific product for the user, a designer needs expert knowledge of the user’s requirements. However, expert knowledge can also be accessed through an intelligent advisory system for ergonomic design support. The effectiveness of such an expert system depends mainly on the quality of the knowledge base and on the appropriateness of the system's inference engine. Data for the system’s knowledge base can be collected in different ways. One approach is to study relevant projects to collect appropriate ergonomic solutions; another is to recognise bottlenecks in ergonomic design. This paper presents a case study of the design of an actual chainsaw – with emphasis on ergonomic design solutions – that can be transformed into ergonomic design recommendations. At the end of the paper, an application of one of the derived recommendations within the knowledge base of the intelligent advisory system is presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: By die ontwerp van gehaltegoedere moet aandag gegee word aan verskeie faktore soos die Ergonomie. Die produkontwerper moet deeglike kennis dra van die verbruikersbehoeftes. Daarbenewens moet hy liefs ook gebruik maak van ’n intelligente sisteem vir ontwerphulp. Die navorsing is toegespits op datasteun vir ’n kettingsaagontwerp en toon hoe die intelligente sisteem betekenisvolle ondersteuning verleen.

  14. Challenges to Designing Game-Based Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2014-01-01

    The four categories labelled game-design, didactic design, organisational design and business design each constitute a set of challenges, each requiring a particular set of competencies. The key conclusion of the paper is that even though the learning game design constitutes the core of establish......The four categories labelled game-design, didactic design, organisational design and business design each constitute a set of challenges, each requiring a particular set of competencies. The key conclusion of the paper is that even though the learning game design constitutes the core...... of establishing game based business (GBB), the subsequent stages of development call for other kinds of competencies in order to become a viable GBB....

  15. Design of Threshold Controller Based Chaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, I. Raja; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2010-01-01

    We propose a very simple implementation of a second-order nonautonomous chaotic oscillator, using a threshold controller as the only source of nonlinearity. We demonstrate the efficacy and simplicity of our design through numerical and experimental results. Further, we show that this approach...

  16. Reliability based Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional design practice for coastal structures is deterministic in nature and is based on the concept of a design load which should not exceed the resistance (carrying capacity) of the structure. The design load is usually defined on a probabilistic basis as a characteristic value of the loa...

  17. Coal Recycling from Tailings using Flotation with 2-Level Experimental Design Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Jannesar Malakooti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the possibility of producing coal with less than 11% ash from tailings of flotation process was investigated. The effect of six flotation parameters: collector type, collector consumption, frother type, frother consumption, pulp density and mixing rate were studied on a sample from a tailing dam. A software based experimental design approach (DX7 was applied to determine and model effective parameters as well as flotation optimization through fractional factorial. It was shown that collector type and flotation machine mixing rate were the most effective parameters on ash content of concentrate. The results indicated that the production of a desired ash content concentrate, i.e.

  18. Reflections on Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke

    Design-Based Research is an intervention method that researches educational design (products or processes) in real-life settings with the dual purpose of generating theories about the domain and develop the design iteratively. This paper is an integrative review with a personal ethnographic...... narrative that draws on Design-Based Research literature, and identifies and discusses elements from Interaction Design and Action Research that the Design-Based Research approach could apply, situating the research in online educational projects, where participants are distributed in time and space......, and where the learning process expands to everyday work and life practices, as in competence development projects. The elements discussed are: to broaden the concept of users, to include the various roles in the organization; to be explorative and work with potentials, suggestions and alternative designs...

  19. Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias J. R. Eriksson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three designs for electrodynamic flexural transducers (EDFT for air-coupled ultrasonics are presented and compared. An all-metal housing was used for robustness, which makes the designs more suitable for industrial applications. The housing is designed such that there is a thin metal plate at the front, with a fundamental flexural vibration mode at ∼50 kHz. By using a flexural resonance mode, good coupling to the load medium was achieved without the use of matching layers. The front radiating plate is actuated electrodynamically by a spiral coil inside the transducer, which produces an induced magnetic field when an AC current is applied to it. The transducers operate without the use of piezoelectric materials, which can simplify manufacturing and prolong the lifetime of the transducers, as well as open up possibilities for high-temperature applications. The results show that different designs perform best for the generation and reception of ultrasound. All three designs produced large acoustic pressure outputs, with a recorded sound pressure level (SPL above 120 dB at a 40 cm distance from the highest output transducer. The sensitivity of the transducers was low, however, with single shot signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ≃ 15 dB in transmit–receive mode, with transmitter and receiver 40 cm apart.

  20. Managing Model Data Introduced Uncertainties in Simulator Predictions for Generation IV Systems via Optimum Experimental Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turinsky, Paul J [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Abdel-Khalik, Hany S [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Stover, Tracy E [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2011-03-01

    An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept’s core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment

  1. Design versus manufacturing data base management requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenna, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    Data base management systems are valuable manufacturing and design tools as these disciplines are exceptionally information intensive, requiring precise organization and control of data processing and utilization. One such data base manager is the IPAD* system, which was originally developed to support the design process but was expanded to incorporate the additional needs of manufacturing. To set the stage, an overview of the design and manufacturing process is presented. The different functions of computers in these processes are then discussed. Finally, the design and manufacturing requirements for a data base manager are compared and contrasted.

  2. Sampling flies or sampling flaws? Experimental design and inference strength in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J-P; Schoenly, Kenneth G; Moreau, G

    2012-01-01

    Forensic entomology is an inferential science because postmortem interval estimates are based on the extrapolation of results obtained in field or laboratory settings. Although enormous gains in scientific understanding and methodological practice have been made in forensic entomology over the last few decades, a majority of the field studies we reviewed do not meet the standards for inference, which are 1) adequate replication, 2) independence of experimental units, and 3) experimental conditions that capture a representative range of natural variability. Using a mock case-study approach, we identify design flaws in field and lab experiments and suggest methodological solutions for increasing inference strength that can inform future casework. Suggestions for improving data reporting in future field studies are also proposed.

  3. Control System Design for Active Lubrication with Theoretical and Experimental Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Scalabrin, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work focuses on the theoretical and experimental behavior of rigid rotors controlled by tilting-pad journal bearings with active oil injection. Initially the mathematical model of the active bearing is presented: The equations that describe the dynamics of hydraulic actuators are introduced...... into the equations of the lubricant, resulting in a new form of the Reynolds equation for active lubrication. The global model of the system is obtained by coupling the equation of motion of the rigid rotor with the stiffness and damping of the active oil film. This global model is then used to design the control...... system of the active bearing based on root locus curves. The active system stability is analyzed by calculating its eigenvalues and frequency response curves. The theoretical and experimental results show that this kind of bearing can significantly reduce the vibration level of rotating machinery....

  4. An Experimental Verification of morphology of ibuprofen crystals from CAMD designed solvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunanithi, Arunprakash T.; Acquah, Charles; Achenie, Luke E.K.

    2007-01-01

    of crystals formed from solvents, necessitates additional experimental verification steps. In this work we report the experimental verification of crystal morphology for the case study, solvent design for ibuprofen crystallization, presented in Karunanithi et al. [2006. A computer-aided molecular design...

  5. Interdisciplinary for Social Engagement: Art and Design Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Angelique Wells

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this ever-changing world with a population of over seven billion, social equality, and environmental sustainability needs new innovative and inclusive solutions. Today, the interdisciplinary practice of art and design has the ability to raise social awareness and engagement in health-related issues. Art and design experiments with combining the traditional art methods with technology and interactive systems to communicate scientific research with problem solving goals. Creative interdisciplinary opens many doors to a variety of collaborative efforts in seeking proactive solutions to environmental and social issues.

  6. From cultural to environmental heritage. Design experimentations in ancient settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Monsù Scolaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rising awareness of human impacts on the natural environment compels researchers to steadily review the sustainability criteria for the built environment. This evolution clearly influences the research and design experiences reported in this paper, which focus on the reclamation and reuse of the historic urban fabric. These experiments help to imagine a possible future where innovation happens into the core of the city, usually considered a place devoted to tradition, rather than in its outskirts. Unexpected environmental issues consequently come to the fore, that could help in reconsidering prevailing design and building practices as well planning policies.

  7. A unifying experimental design for dissecting tree genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lidan; Zhu, Xuli; Zhang, Qixiang; Wu, Rongling

    2015-08-01

    Linkage mapping and association mapping are adopted as an approach of choice for dissecting complex traits, but each shows a limitation when used alone. We propose an open-pollinated (OP) family design to integrate these two approaches into an organizing framework. The design unifies the strengths of population and quantitative genetic studies for evolutionary inference and high-resolution gene mapping. It particularly suits genome dissection of forest trees given their extant populations that are mostly undomesticated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Information Hiding based Trusted Computing System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Seeing’ ENF: Power Signature Based Timestamp for Digital Multimedia via Optical Sensing and Signal Processing,” IEEE Trans. on Info. Forensics and...Design Automation Conference, pp. 1-4, June 2007. [23] S. Trimberger. “Trusted Design in FPGAs ”, ACM/ IEEE Design Automation Conference, pp. 5-8...random [8-10]. Meanwhile, we propose to use PUF for the protection of FPGA design intellectual properties [11,12]. Electrical network frequency (ENF

  9. Case Based Reasoning for Chemical Engineering Design

    OpenAIRE

    Negny, Stéphane; Le Lann, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    With current industrial environment (competition, lower profit margin, reduced time to market, decreased product life cycle, environmental constraints, sustainable development, reactivity, innovation…), we must decrease the time for design of new products or processes. While the design activity is marked out by several steps, this article proposed a decision support tool for the preliminary design step. This tool is based on the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) method. This method has demonstrated ...

  10. Biocompatible Nanoemulsions for Improved Aceclofenac Skin Delivery: Formulation Approach Using Combined Mixture-Process Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isailović, Tanja; Ðorđević, Sanela; Marković, Bojan; Ranđelović, Danijela; Cekić, Nebojša; Lukić, Milica; Pantelić, Ivana; Daniels, Rolf; Savić, Snežana

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to develop lecithin-based nanoemulsions intended for effective aceclofenac (ACF) skin delivery utilizing sucrose esters [sucrose palmitate (SP) and sucrose stearate (SS)] as additional stabilizers and penetration enhancers. To find the suitable surfactant mixtures and levels of process variables (homogenization pressure and number of cycles - high pressure homogenization manufacturing method) that result in drug-loaded nanoemulsions with minimal droplet size and narrow size distribution, a combined mixture-process experimental design was employed. Based on optimization data, selected nanoemulsions were evaluated regarding morphology, surface charge, drug-excipient interactions, physical stability, and in vivo skin performances (skin penetration and irritation potential). The predicted physicochemical properties and storage stability were proved satisfying for ACF-loaded nanoemulsions containing 2% of SP in the blend with 0%-1% of SS and 1%-2% of egg lecithin (produced at 50°C/20 cycles/800 bar). Additionally, the in vivo tape stripping demonstrated superior ACF skin absorption from these nanoemulsions, particularly from those containing 2% of SP, 0.5% of SS, and 1.5% of egg lecithin, when comparing with the sample costabilized by conventional surfactant - polysorbate 80. In summary, the combined mixture-process experimental design was shown as a feasible tool for formulation development of multisurfactant-based nanosized delivery systems with potentially improved overall product performances.

  11. Experimental investigation of shaping disturbance observer design for motion control of precision mechatronic stages with resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Hu, Chuxiong; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Ze; Zhang, Ming

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, shaping disturbance observer (SDOB) is investigated for precision mechatronic stages with middle-frequency zero/pole type resonance to achieve good motion control performance in practical manufacturing situations. Compared with traditional standard disturbance observer (DOB), in SDOB a pole-zero cancellation based shaping filter is cascaded to the mechatronic stage plant to meet the challenge of motion control performance deterioration caused by actual resonance. Noting that pole-zero cancellation is inevitably imperfect and the controller may even consequently become unstable in practice, frequency domain stability analysis is conducted to find out how each parameter of the shaping filter affects the control stability. Moreover, the robust design criterion of the shaping filter, and the design procedure of SDOB, are both proposed to guide the actual design and facilitate practical implementation. The SDOB with the proposed design criterion is applied to a linear motor driven stage and a voice motor driven stage, respectively. Experimental results consistently validate the effectiveness nature of the proposed SDOB scheme in practical mechatronics motion applications. The proposed SDOB design actually could be an effective unit in the controller design for motion stages of mechanical manufacture equipments.

  12. Multi-objective optimal experimental designs for event-related fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ming-Hung; Mandal, Abhyuday; Lazar, Nicole; Stufken, John

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we propose an efficient approach to find optimal experimental designs for event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI). We consider multiple objectives, including estimating the hemodynamic response function (HRF), detecting activation, circumventing psychological confounds and fulfilling customized requirements. Taking into account these goals, we formulate a family of multi-objective design criteria and develop a genetic-algorithm-based technique to search for optimal designs. Our proposed technique incorporates existing knowledge about the performance of fMRI designs, and its usefulness is shown through simulations. Although our approach also works for other linear combinations of parameters, we primarily focus on the case when the interest lies either in the individual stimulus effects or in pairwise contrasts between stimulus types. Under either of these popular cases, our algorithm outperforms the previous approaches. We also find designs yielding higher estimation efficiencies than m-sequences. When the underlying model is with white noise and a constant nuisance parameter, the stimulus frequencies of the designs we obtained are in good agreement with the optimal stimulus frequencies derived by Liu and Frank, 2004, NeuroImage 21: 387-400. In addition, our approach is built upon a rigorous model formulation.

  13. Experimental characterization and multidisciplinary conceptual design optimization of a bendable load stiffened unmanned air vehicle wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdale, Vijay Narayan

    Demand for deployable MAVs and UAVs with wings designed to reduce aircraft storage volume led to the development of a bendable wing concept at the University of Florida (UF). The wing shows an ability to load stiffen in the flight load direction, still remaining compliant in the opposite direction, enabling UAV storage inside smaller packing volumes. From the design prospective, when the wing shape parameters are treated as design variables, the performance requirements : high aerodynamic efficiency, structural stability under aggressive flight loads and desired compliant nature to prevent breaking while stored, in general conflict with each other. Creep deformation induced by long term storage and its effect on the wing flight characteristics are additional considerations. Experimental characterization of candidate bendable UAV wings is performed in order to demonstrate and understand aerodynamic and structural behavior of the bendable load stiffened wing under flight loads and while the wings are stored inside a canister for long duration, in the process identifying some important wing shape parameters. A multidisciplinary, multiobjective design optimization approach is utilized for conceptual design of a 24 inch span and 7 inch root chord bendable wing. Aerodynamic performance of the wing is studied using an extended vortex lattice method based Athena Vortex Lattice (AVL) program. An arc length method based nonlinear FEA routine in ABAQUS is used to evaluate the structural performance of the wing and to determine maximum flying velocity that the wing can withstand without buckling or failing under aggressive flight loads. An analytical approach is used to study the stresses developed in the composite wing during storage and Tsai-Wu criterion is used to check failure of the composite wing due to the rolling stresses to determine minimum safe storage diameter. Multidisciplinary wing shape and layup optimization is performed using an elitist non-dominated sorting

  14. Experimental design applied to the optimization and partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to optimize the medium composition for maximum pectin-methylesterase (PME) production from a newly isolated strain of Penicillium brasilianum by submerged fermentation. A Plackett-Burman design was first used for the screening of most important factors, followed by a 23 full ...

  15. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations. (MOW)

  16. Model-robust experimental designs for the fractional polynomial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fractional polynomial response surface models are polynomial models whose powers are restricted to a small predefined set of rational numbers. Very often these models can give a good a fit to the data and much more plausible behavior between design points than the polynomial models. In this paper, we propose a ...

  17. An innovative approach for planning and execution of pre-experimental runs for Design of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsalan Farooq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the study of the pre-experimental planning phase of the Design of Experiments (DoE in order to improve the final product quality. The pre-experimental planning phase includes a clear identification of the problem statement, selection of control factors and their respective levels and ranges. To improve production quality based on the DoE a new approach for the pre-experimental planning phase, called Non-Conformity Matrix (NCM, is presented. This article also addresses the key steps of the pre-experimental runs considering a consumer goods manufacturing process. Results of the application for an industrial case show that this methodology can support a clear definition of the problem and also a correct identification of the factor ranges in particular situations. The proposed new approach allows modeling the entire manufacturing system holistically and correctly defining the factor ranges and respective levels for a more effective application of DoE. This new approach can be a useful resource for both research and industrial practitioners who are dedicated to large DoE projects with unknown factor interactions, when the operational levels and ranges are not completely defined.

  18. A highly selective sorbent for removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions based on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum nanocomposite: Optimization by experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Susan, E-mail: ssadeghi@birjand.ac.ir; Rad, Fatemeh Alavi; Moghaddam, Ali Zeraatkar

    2014-12-01

    In this work, poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (P(MMA)-g-TG-MNs) were developed for the selective removal of Cr(VI) species from aqueous solutions in the presence of Cr(III). The sorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). A screening study on operational variables was performed using a two-level full factorial design. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence limit, the significant variables were found. The central composite design (CCD) has also been employed for statistical modeling and analysis of the effects and interactions of significant variables dealing with the Cr(VI) uptake process by the developed sorbent. The predicted optimal conditions were situated at a pH of 5.5, contact time of 3.4 h, and 3.0 g L{sup −1} dose. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were used to describe the equilibrium sorption of Cr(VI) by the absorbent, and the Langmuir isotherm showed the best concordance as an equilibrium model. The adsorption process was followed by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations showed that the biosorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. - Highlights: • Fe3O4 nanoparticles were modified with Poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum • P(MMA)-g-TG -MNPs can preferentially adsorb Cr(VI) in the presence of Cr(III) • The effects of operational parameters on Cr(VI) removal were evaluated by RSM • Adsorption mechanism, kinetics, and isotherm have been explored • The sorbent was successfully used to remove Cr(VI) from different water samples.

  19. Gunnar Aagaard Andersen: Commercial Design and Experimental Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Vibeke Petersen

    2016-01-01

    Gunnar Aagaard Andersen’s relaxed approach both to art and to commercialised creativity positioned him centrally in the field where the two overlap. Other important players were the brothers Aage and Mads Eg Damgaard, who owned textile factories in Herning, the artistic textile firm Unika Væv...... in Copenhagen and the magazine Mobilia. These enterprises were pioneers within both the commercial–industrial creative field and experimental art from the 1950s. The industrial process, from idea and experiment to production,as well as the expanded field of visual art, was demonstrated in concrete painting...... and total decoration. These developments within the visual arts of the 1950s and 1960s were followed up by Paul Gadegaard, Dieter Roth, Arthur Köpcke and Paul Gernes, as well as by Aagaard Andersen himself....

  20. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    , sample extraction, and analytical methods to be used in the INL-2 study. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG using a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design. Then quality control (QC), reference material coupon (RMC), judgmental, and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the sampling plan for each test event. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples were selected with a random aspect and in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence for detecting contamination or clearing uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas. Following sample collection for a given test event, the INL building will be decontaminated. For possibly contaminated areas, the numbers of probabilistic samples were chosen to provide 95% confidence of detecting contaminated areas of specified sizes. For rooms that may be uncontaminated following a contamination event, or for whole floors after decontamination, the numbers of judgmental and probabilistic samples were chosen using the CJR approach. The numbers of samples were chosen to support making X%/Y% clearance statements with X = 95% or 99% and Y = 96% or 97%. The experimental and sampling design also provides for making X%/Y% clearance statements using only probabilistic samples. For each test event, the numbers of characterization and clearance samples were selected within limits based on operational considerations while still maintaining high confidence for detection and clearance aspects. The sampling design for all five test events contains 2085 samples, with 1142 after contamination and 943 after decontamination. These numbers include QC, RMC, judgmental, and probabilistic samples. The experimental and sampling design specified in this report provides a good statistical foundation for achieving the objectives of the INL-2 study.

  1. Experimental characterization of droplet dispensing in electrowetting-based microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Khorsand; Shokoohi, Mehrdad; Passandideh-Fard, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the effect of various parameters on the dispensed droplet size in microchannels based on the electrowetting on dielectric technique is experimentally investigated. A printed circuit board (PCB)-based microfluidic chip is used as a platform for the experiments. A crescent configuration for the channel electrodes is fabricated, which leads to a higher electrowetting force which improves the motion of the droplet. In addition, two electrode designs are proposed, which provide a nearly constant overlapping length on the reservoir electrode. The focus of this paper is on the geometry of the reservoir and the channel electrode; therefore, the channel dimensions, surface conditions, and applied voltage are kept constant. The experiments are performed for various reservoir liquid volumes and different electrode shapes of the reservoir and the microchannel. The results show that decreasing the length of the small reservoir electrode reduces the size of the dispensed droplet. It is also observed that using a channel electrode curved in the opposite direction of the droplet motion leads to a smaller dispensed droplet.

  2. End-point controller design for an experimental two-link flexible manipulator using convex optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Celia M.; Barratt, Craig H.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results in linear controller design are used to design an end-point controller for an experimental two-link flexible manipulator. A nominal 14-state linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller was augmented with a 528-tap finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter designed using convex optimization techniques. The resulting 278-state controller produced improved end-point trajectory tracking and disturbance rejection in simulation and experimentally in real time.

  3. Statistical Approaches in Analysis of Variance: from Random Arrangements to Latin Square Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Radu E. SESTRAŞ; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ

    2009-01-01

    Background: The choices of experimental design as well as of statisticalanalysis are of huge importance in field experiments. These are necessary tobe correctly in order to obtain the best possible precision of the results. Therandom arrangements, randomized blocks and Latin square designs werereviewed and analyzed from the statistical perspective of error analysis.Material and Method: Random arrangements, randomized block and Latinsquares experimental designs were used as field experiments. ...

  4. Experimental design and quality assurance: in situ fluorescence instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N.; Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Downing, Bryan D.; Chen, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Both instrument design and capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy have greatly advanced over the last several decades. Advancements include solid-state excitation sources, integration of fiber optic technology, highly sensitive multichannel detectors, rapid-scan monochromators, sensitive spectral correction techniques, and improve data manipulation software (Christian et al., 1981, Lochmuller and Saavedra, 1986; Cabniss and Shuman, 1987; Lakowicz, 2006; Hudson et al., 2007). The cumulative effect of these improvements have pushed the limits and expanded the application of fluorescence techniques to numerous scientific research fields. One of the more powerful advancements is the ability to obtain in situ fluorescence measurements of natural waters (Moore, 1994). The development of submersible fluorescence instruments has been made possible by component miniaturization and power reduction including advances in light sources technologies (light-emitting diodes, xenon lamps, ultraviolet [UV] lasers) and the compatible integration of new optical instruments with various sampling platforms (Twardowski et at., 2005 and references therein). The development of robust field sensors skirt the need for cumbersome and or time-consuming filtration techniques, the potential artifacts associated with sample storage, and coarse sampling designs by increasing spatiotemporal resolution (Chen, 1999; Robinson and Glenn, 1999). The ability to obtain rapid, high-quality, highly sensitive measurements over steep gradients has revolutionized investigations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical properties, thereby enabling researchers to address novel biogeochemical questions regarding colored or chromophoric DOM (CDOM). This chapter is dedicated to the origin, design, calibration, and use of in situ field fluorometers. It will serve as a review of considerations to be accounted for during the operation of fluorescence field sensors and call attention to areas of concern when making

  5. Product Conceptual Design Based on Agent Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minghai; Wang, Song; Huang, Jinting

    2017-10-01

    A cooperative Agent Federation was used in the complicated products conceptual design after studying the characteristics of the conceptual design. Each Agent Federation designed products cooperatively under the control of the chief Agent Federation. Thus, the mapping of ‘function-behaviour-structure’ was achieved, and the whole process of the conceptual design was accomplished. The functions, communications, cooperation and the theories about running of the key Agent Federation were discussed, and the frame of the conceptual design based on cooperative Agent Federation and work group was established in this paper.

  6. Experimental Design for Testing Local Lorentz Invariance Violations in Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Fen; Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang

    2017-09-01

    Local Lorentz invariance is an important component of General Relativity. Testing for Local Lorentz invariance can not only probe the foundation stone of General Relativity but also help to explore the unified theory for General Relativity and quantum mechanics. In this paper, we search the Local Lorentz invariance violation associated with operators of mass dimension d=6 in the pure-gravity sector with short-range gravitational experiments. To enlarge the Local Lorentz invariance violation signal effectively, we design a new experiment in which the constraints of all fourteen violation coefficients may be improved by about one order of magnitude

  7. Experimental Design of Formulations Utilizing High Dimensional Model Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Genyuan; Bastian, Caleb; Welsh, William; Rabitz, Herschel

    2015-07-23

    Many applications involve formulations or mixtures where large numbers of components are possible to choose from, but a final composition with only a few components is sought. Finding suitable binary or ternary mixtures from all the permissible components often relies on simplex-lattice sampling in traditional design of experiments (DoE), which requires performing a large number of experiments even for just tens of permissible components. The effect rises very rapidly with increasing numbers of components and can readily become impractical. This paper proposes constructing a single model for a mixture containing all permissible components from just a modest number of experiments. Yet the model is capable of satisfactorily predicting the performance for full as well as all possible binary and ternary component mixtures. To achieve this goal, we utilize biased random sampling combined with high dimensional model representation (HDMR) to replace DoE simplex-lattice design. Compared with DoE, the required number of experiments is significantly reduced, especially when the number of permissible components is large. This study is illustrated with a solubility model for solvent mixture screening.

  8. Manufacturing cereal bars with high nutritional value through experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Covino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations responsible for public health throughout the world have been increasingly worrying about how to feed populations encouraging a nutritious and balanced diet in order to decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases, which are constantly related to an inadequate diet. Still, due to matters of modern lifestyle consumers are increasingly seeking convenient products. This being so, cereal bars have been an option when the matter is low calorie fast food which is also source of fiber. This study aimed at developing a cereal bar with high dietary fiber, iron, vitamins A and vitamin E, in order to easily enable adult population achieve the daily recommendation for such nutrients. Eight formulations plus the focal point were conducted through experimental planning; sensory analysis with 110 tasters for each block and texture. Afterwards, we conducted centesimal analysis for all three formulations presenting the best sensory results. After statistical analysis and comparison to the means for products available in the market, it was possible to conclude that the product developed presented great acceptance and fiber level more than twice as much as the means for commercial products.

  9. Application of Plackett-Burman experimental design and Doehlert design to evaluate nutritional requirements for xylanase production by Alternaria mali ND-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Cui, Fengjie; Liu, Zhisheng; Zhao, Hui

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to use statistically based experimental designs for the optimization of xylanase production from Alternaria mali ND-16. Ten components in the medium were screened for nutritional requirements. Three nutritional components, including NH(4)Cl, urea, and MgSO(4), were identified to significantly affect the xylanase production by using the Plackett-Burman experimental design. These three major components were subsequently optimized using the Doehlert experimental design. By using response surface methodology and canonical analysis, the optimal concentrations for xylanase production were: NH(4)Cl 11.34 g L(-1), urea 1.26 g L(-1), and MgSO(4) 0.98 g L(-1). Under these optimal conditions, the xylanase activity from A. mali ND-16 reached 30.35 U mL(-1). Verification of the optimization showed that xylanase production of 31.26 U mL(-1) was achieved.

  10. Experimental Investigation of a Point Design Optimized Arrow Wing HSCT Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narducci, Robert P.; Sundaram, P.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Cheung, S.; Arslan, A. E.; Martin, G. L.

    1999-01-01

    The M2.4-7A Arrow Wing HSCT configuration was optimized for straight and level cruise at a Mach number of 2.4 and a lift coefficient of 0.10. A quasi-Newton optimization scheme maximized the lift-to-drag ratio (by minimizing drag-to-lift) using Euler solutions from FL067 to estimate the lift and drag forces. A 1.675% wind-tunnel model of the Opt5 HSCT configuration was built to validate the design methodology. Experimental data gathered at the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) section #2 facility verified CFL3D Euler and Navier-Stokes predictions of the Opt5 performance at the design point. In turn, CFL3D confirmed the improvement in the lift-to-drag ratio obtained during the optimization, thus validating the design procedure. A data base at off-design conditions was obtained during three wind-tunnel tests. The entry into NASA Langley UPWT section #2 obtained data at a free stream Mach number, M(sub infinity), of 2.55 as well as the design Mach number, M(sub infinity)=2.4. Data from a Mach number range of 1.8 to 2.4 was taken at UPWT section #1. Transonic and low supersonic Mach numbers, M(sub infinity)=0.6 to 1.2, was gathered at the NASA Langley 16 ft. Transonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). In addition to good agreement between CFD and experimental data, highlights from the wind-tunnel tests include a trip dot study suggesting a linear relationship between trip dot drag and Mach number, an aeroelastic study that measured the outboard wing deflection and twist, and a flap scheduling study that identifies the possibility of only one leading-edge and trailing-edge flap setting for transonic cruise and another for low supersonic acceleration.

  11. Norm based design of fault detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered in this paper from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well...

  12. A modified experimental hut design for studying responses of disease-transmitting mosquitoes to indoor interventions: the Ifakara experimental huts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredros O Okumu

    Full Text Available Differences between individual human houses can confound results of studies aimed at evaluating indoor vector control interventions such as insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS. Specially designed and standardised experimental huts have historically provided a solution to this challenge, with an added advantage that they can be fitted with special interception traps to sample entering or exiting mosquitoes. However, many of these experimental hut designs have a number of limitations, for example: 1 inability to sample mosquitoes on all sides of huts, 2 increased likelihood of live mosquitoes flying out of the huts, leaving mainly dead ones, 3 difficulties of cleaning the huts when a new insecticide is to be tested, and 4 the generally small size of the experimental huts, which can misrepresent actual local house sizes or airflow dynamics in the local houses. Here, we describe a modified experimental hut design - The Ifakara Experimental Huts- and explain how these huts can be used to more realistically monitor behavioural and physiological responses of wild, free-flying disease-transmitting mosquitoes, including the African malaria vectors of the species complexes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus, to indoor vector control-technologies including ITNs and IRS. Important characteristics of the Ifakara experimental huts include: 1 interception traps fitted onto eave spaces and windows, 2 use of eave baffles (panels that direct mosquito movement to control exit of live mosquitoes through the eave spaces, 3 use of replaceable wall panels and ceilings, which allow safe insecticide disposal and reuse of the huts to test different insecticides in successive periods, 4 the kit format of the huts allowing portability and 5 an improved suite of entomological procedures to maximise data quality.

  13. Optimization-based controller design for rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsing, N.-K.; Fan, M. K. H.; Barlow, J.; Tits, A. L.; Tischler, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    An optimization-based methodology for linear control system design is outlined by considering the design of a controller for a UH-60 rotorcraft in hover. A wide range of design specifications is taken into account: internal stability, decoupling between longitudinal and lateral motions, handling qualities, and rejection of windgusts. These specifications are investigated while taking into account physical limitations in the swashplate displacements and rates of displacement. The methodology crucially relies on user-machine interaction for tradeoff exploration.

  14. Designers' Cognitive Thinking Based on Evolutionary Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Shutao; Jianning Su; Chibing Hu; Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    The research on cognitive thinking is important to construct the efficient intelligent design systems. But it is difficult to describe the model of cognitive thinking with reasonable mathematical theory. Based on the analysis of design strategy and innovative thinking, we investigated the design cognitive thinking model that included the external guide thinking of "width priority - depth priority" and the internal dominated thinking of "divergent thinking - convergent thinking", built a reaso...

  15. Didanosine extended-release matrix tablets: optimization of formulation variables using statistical experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lafuente, Carla; Furlanetto, Sandra; Fernández-Arévalo, Mercedes; Alvarez-Fuentes, Josefa; Rabasco, Antonio M; Faucci, M Teresa; Pinzauti, Sergio; Mura, Paola

    2002-04-26

    Statistical experimental design was applied to evaluate the influence of some process and formulation variables and possible interactions among such variables, on didanosine release from directly-compressed matrix tablets based on blends of two insoluble polymers, Eudragit RS-PM and Ethocel 100, with the final goal of drug release behavior optimization. The considered responses were the percent of drug released at three determined times, the dissolution efficiency at 6 h and the time to dissolve 10% of drug. Four independent variables were considered: tablet compression force, ratio between the polymers and their particle size, and drug content. The preliminary screening step, carried out by means of a 12-run asymmetric screening matrix according to a D-optimal design strategy, allowed evaluation of the effects of different levels of each variable. The drug content and the polymers ratio had the most important effect on drug release, which, moreover, was favored by greater polymers particle size; on the contrary the compression force did not have a significant effect. The Doehlert design was then applied for a response-surface study, in order to study in depth the effects of the most important variables. The desirability function was used to simultaneously optimize the five considered responses, each having a different target. This procedure allowed selection, in the studied experimental domain, of the best formulation conditions to optimize drug release rate. The experimental values obtained from the optimized formulation highly agreed with the predicted values. The results demonstrated the reliability of the model in the preparation of extended-release matrix tablets with predictable drug release profiles.

  16. Constructing experimental designs for discrete-choice experiments: report of the ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Experimental Design Good Research Practices Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Johnson, F; Lancsar, Emily; Marshall, Deborah; Kilambi, Vikram; Mühlbacher, Axel; Regier, Dean A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Kanninen, Barbara; Bridges, John F P

    2013-01-01

    Stated-preference methods are a class of evaluation techniques for studying the preferences of patients and other stakeholders. While these methods span a variety of techniques, conjoint-analysis methods-and particularly discrete-choice experiments (DCEs)-have become the most frequently applied approach in health care in recent years. Experimental design is an important stage in the development of such methods, but establishing a consensus on standards is hampered by lack of understanding of available techniques and software. This report builds on the previous ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Task Force Report: Conjoint Analysis Applications in Health-A Checklist: A Report of the ISPOR Good Research Practices for Conjoint Analysis Task Force. This report aims to assist researchers specifically in evaluating alternative approaches to experimental design, a difficult and important element of successful DCEs. While this report does not endorse any specific approach, it does provide a guide for choosing an approach that is appropriate for a particular study. In particular, it provides an overview of the role of experimental designs for the successful implementation of the DCE approach in health care studies, and it provides researchers with an introduction to constructing experimental designs on the basis of study objectives and the statistical model researchers have selected for the study. The report outlines the theoretical requirements for designs that identify choice-model preference parameters and summarizes and compares a number of available approaches for constructing experimental designs. The task-force leadership group met via bimonthly teleconferences and in person at ISPOR meetings in the United States and Europe. An international group of experimental-design experts was consulted during this process to discuss existing approaches for experimental design and to review the task force's draft reports. In addition, ISPOR members contributed to developing a consensus

  17. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2012-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have…

  18. Design for game based learning platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Meyer, Bente

    2010-01-01

    Council for Strategic Research, in which an online game-based platform for English as a foreign language in primary school is studied. The paper presents a model for designing for game based learning platforms. This design is based on cultural and ethnographic based research on children's leisure time use......This paper focuses on the challenges related to the design of game based learning platforms for formal learning contexts that are inspired by the pupil's leisure time related use of web 2.0. The paper is based on the project Serious Games on a Global Market Place (2007-2011) founded by the Danish...... of web 2.0 and integrates theories of learning, didactics, games, play, communication, multimodality and different pedagogical approaches. In relation to the introduced model the teacher role is discussed....

  19. Design Criteria Based on Aesthetic Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Aesthetic criteria for designs are often debated in a very subjective manner which makes it difficult to reach consensus. In order to have a more rational and transparent process, in particular in industrial design, we propose a procedure based on Baumgarten's aesthetic considerations and Thommesen...

  20. Aggregation Operator Based Fuzzy Pattern Classifier Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mönks, Uwe; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Lohweg, Volker

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modular fuzzy pattern classifier design framework for intelligent automation systems, developed on the base of the established Modified Fuzzy Pattern Classifier (MFPC) and allows designing novel classifier models which are hardware-efficiently implementable. The perfor...

  1. Web-Based Learning Design Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, F. B.; Silva, T. L. K.; Silva, R. P.; Teixeira, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a web-based tool that enables the development and provision of learning designs and its reuse and re-contextualization as generative learning objects, aimed at developing educational materials. Design/methodology/approach: The use of learning objects can facilitate the process of production and…

  2. GA BASED GLOBAL OPTIMAL DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article uses Genetic Algorithm (GA) for the global design optimization of consecutive reactions taking place in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) connected in series. GA based optimal design determines the optimum number of CSTRs in series to achieve the maximum conversion, fractional yield and selectivity ...

  3. Design and Experimental Study of an Over-Under TBCC Exhaust System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianwei; Xu, Jinglei; Zhang, Liuhuan

    2014-01-01

    Turbine-based combined-cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems have been a topic of research as a means for more efficient flight at supersonic and hypersonic speeds. The present study focuses on the fundamental physics of the complex flow in the TBCC exhaust system during the transition mode as the turbine exhaust is shut off and the ramjet exhaust is increased. A TBCC exhaust system was designed using methods of characteristics (MOC) and subjected to experimental and computational study. The main objectives of the study were: (1) to identify the interactions between the two exhaust jet streams during the transition mode phase and their effects on the whole flow-field structure; (2) to determine and verify the aerodynamic performance of the over-under TBCC exhaust nozzle; and (3) to validate the simulation ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software according to the experimental conditions. Static pressure taps and Schlieren apparatus were employed to obtain the wall pressure distributions and flow-field structures. Steady-state tests were performed with the ramjet nozzle cowl at six different positions at which the turbine flow path were half closed and fully opened, respectively. Methods of CFD were used to simulate the exhaust flow and they complemented the experimental study by providing greater insight into the details of the flow field and a means of verifying the experimental results. Results indicated that the flow structure was complicated because the two exhaust jet streams interacted with each other during the exhaust system mode transition. The exhaust system thrust coefficient varied from 0.9288 to 0.9657 during the process. The CFD simulation results agree well with the experimental data, which demonstrated that the CFD methods were effective in evaluating the aerodynamic performance of the TBCC exhaust system during the mode transition.

  4. Family-Centered Management of Sensory Challenges of Children With Autism: Single-Case Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkeley, Kim; Bundy, Anita; Roberts, Jacqueline; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    We explored the effectiveness of a sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach to changing problematic routines for young children with autism. Three mothers of young children with autism, atypical sensory processing, and global developmental delay each participated in a single-case experimental ABA design study. Mothers selected a problematic daily routine linked to sensory challenges as the focus of four intervention sessions provided in the home. Changes in mothers' perceptions of the children's behavior were the primary outcome, measured daily on a visual analog scale. Visual and descriptive analyses were undertaken. The sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach showed promise for changing sensory-related problem behaviors of young children with autism, but the degree and maintenance of the intervention effect varied among participants. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Exergy Based Methods for Multidisciplinary Analysis & Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Exergy Based Methods for Multidisciplinary Analysis & Design José A. Camberos, David J. Moorhouse, &tc Multidisciplinary Science & Technology...SUBTITLE Exergy Based Methods for Multidisciplinary Analysis & Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...of Exergy Case Studies 3 MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY AFRL Air Vehicles In-House Research Centers 4 Multidisciplinary Science

  6. An Interactive Multimedia Based Instruction in Experimental Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten; Nielsen, J.N.; Østergaard, J.

    1997-01-01

    A CD-ROM based interactive multimedia instruction in experimental modelling for Danish Engineering School teachers is described. The content is based on a new sensitivity approach for direct estimation of physical parameters in linear and nonlinear dynamic systems. The presentation is inspired...

  7. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  8. Design and experimental tests of free electron laser wire scanners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Orlandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SwissFEL is a x-rays free electron laser (FEL driven by a 5.8 GeV linac under construction at Paul Scherrer Institut. In SwissFEL, wire scanners (WSCs will be complementary to view-screens for emittance measurements and routinely used to monitor the transverse profile of the electron beam during FEL operations. The SwissFEL WSC is composed of an in-vacuum beam-probe—motorized by a stepper motor—and an out-vacuum pick-up of the wire signal. The mechanical stability of the WSC in-vacuum hardware has been characterized on a test bench. In particular, the motor induced vibrations of the wire have been measured and mapped for different motor speeds. Electron-beam tests of the entire WSC setup together with different wire materials have been carried out at the 250 MeV SwissFEL Injector Test Facility (SITF, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH and at FERMI (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy. In particular, a comparative study of the relative measurement accuracy and the radiation-dose release of Al(99∶Si(1 and tungsten (W wires has been carried out. On the basis of the outcome of the bench and electron-beam tests, the SwissFEL WSC can be qualified as a high resolution and machine-saving diagnostic tool in consideration of the mechanical stability of the scanning wire at the micrometer level and the choice of the wire material ensuring a drastic reduction of the radiation-dose release with respect to conventional metallic wires. The main aspects of the design, laboratory characterization and electron beam tests of the SwissFEL WSCs are presented.

  9. Design and experimental tests of free electron laser wire scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, G. L.; Heimgartner, P.; Ischebeck, R.; Loch, C. Ozkan; Trovati, S.; Valitutti, P.; Schlott, V.; Ferianis, M.; Penco, G.

    2016-09-01

    SwissFEL is a x-rays free electron laser (FEL) driven by a 5.8 GeV linac under construction at Paul Scherrer Institut. In SwissFEL, wire scanners (WSCs) will be complementary to view-screens for emittance measurements and routinely used to monitor the transverse profile of the electron beam during FEL operations. The SwissFEL WSC is composed of an in-vacuum beam-probe—motorized by a stepper motor—and an out-vacuum pick-up of the wire signal. The mechanical stability of the WSC in-vacuum hardware has been characterized on a test bench. In particular, the motor induced vibrations of the wire have been measured and mapped for different motor speeds. Electron-beam tests of the entire WSC setup together with different wire materials have been carried out at the 250 MeV SwissFEL Injector Test Facility (SITF, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH) and at FERMI (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy). In particular, a comparative study of the relative measurement accuracy and the radiation-dose release of Al (99 )∶Si (1 ) and tungsten (W) wires has been carried out. On the basis of the outcome of the bench and electron-beam tests, the SwissFEL WSC can be qualified as a high resolution and machine-saving diagnostic tool in consideration of the mechanical stability of the scanning wire at the micrometer level and the choice of the wire material ensuring a drastic reduction of the radiation-dose release with respect to conventional metallic wires. The main aspects of the design, laboratory characterization and electron beam tests of the SwissFEL WSCs are presented.

  10. Speed control system design and experimentation for interior PMSM drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang Dang, Dong; Thi-Thuy Vu, Nga; Choi, Han Ho; Jung, Jin-Woo

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a robust speed-control strategy using a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives. The sufficient conditions of linear matrix inequalities, which can guarantee the existence of the fuzzy controller gains, are derived from a common quadratic Lyapunov function. Moreover, the maximum torque per ampere control is incorporated to improve the torque production in the constant torque region and the efficiency of the IPMSM drive. The global stability of an observer-based control system is analytically proven. Simulations and experiments are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach through a prototype IPMSM drive system. Consequently, the proposed fuzzy control methodology can achieve less steady-state error and less sensitivity than the conventional feedback linearisation control method under motor parameter variations and external disturbances.

  11. Model-Based Requirements Management in Gear Systems Design Based On Graph-Based Design Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, a wide-spread consensus concerning the enormous importance of an in-depth clarification of the specifications of a product has been observed. A weak clarification of specifications is repeatedly listed as a main cause for the failure of product development projects. Requirements, which can be defined as the purpose, goals, constraints, and criteria associated with a product development project, play a central role in the clarification of specifications. The collection of activities which ensure that requirements are identified, documented, maintained, communicated, and traced throughout the life cycle of a system, product, or service can be referred to as “requirements engineering”. These activities can be supported by a collection and combination of strategies, methods, and tools which are appropriate for the clarification of specifications. Numerous publications describe the strategy and the components of requirements management. Furthermore, recent research investigates its industrial application. Simultaneously, promising developments of graph-based design languages for a holistic digital representation of the product life cycle are presented. Current developments realize graph-based languages by the diagrams of the Unified Modelling Language (UML, and allow the automatic generation and evaluation of multiple product variants. The research presented in this paper seeks to present a method in order to combine the advantages of a conscious requirements management process and graph-based design languages. Consequently, the main objective of this paper is the investigation of a model-based integration of requirements in a product development process by means of graph-based design languages. The research method is based on an in-depth analysis of an exemplary industrial product development, a gear system for so-called “Electrical Multiple Units” (EMU. Important requirements were abstracted from a gear system

  12. Flowing lead spallation target design for use in an ADTT experimental facility located at LAMPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, C. A.; Bracht, R. R.; Buksa, J. J.; Chaves, W.; DeVolder, B. G.; O'Brien, H.; Park, J. J.; Parker, R. B.; Pillai, C.; Potter, R. C.; Reid, R. S.; Trujillo, D. A.; Vela, O. A.; Venneri, F.; Weinacht, D. J.; Wender, S. A.; Wilson, W. B.; Woloshun, K. A.

    1995-09-01

    A conceptual design has been initiated for a flowing lead spallation target for use in an ADTT experimental facility located at LAMPF. The lead is contained using Nb-1Zr as the structural material. This material was selected based on its favorable material properties as well as its compatibility with the flowing lead. Heat deposited in the lead and the Nb-1Zr container by the 800-MeV, 1-mA beam is removed by the flowing lead and transferred to helium via a conventional heat exchanger. The neutronic, thermal hydraulic, and stress characteristics of the system have been determined. In addition, a module to control the thaw and freeze of the lead has been developed and incorporated into the target system design. The entire primary target system (spallation target, thaw/freeze system, and intermediate heat exchanger) has been designed to be built as a contained module to allow easy insertion into an experimental ADTT blanket assembly and to provide multiple levels of containment for the lead. For the 800-MeV LAMPF beam, the target delivers a source of approximately 18 neutrons/proton. A total of 540 kW are deposited in the target. The lead temperature ranges from 400 to 500 C. The peak structural heating occurs at the beam interface, and the target is designed to maximize cooling at this point. An innovative thin-window structure has been incorporated that allows direct, convective cooling of the window by the inlet flowing lead. Safe and reliable operation of the target has been maximized through simple, robust engineering.

  13. Coupling Optimization Design and Experimental Study on Stable Isotope 13C Separation of the Double-stage Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Ye-sheng;LI Hu-lin;JIANG Yong-yue;LONG Lei;JI Yong-zhe;ZHOU Jian-yue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A coupling optimization design and experimental study method with uniform experimental and Aspen process simulation was established in this paper, which was used for stable isotope 13C separation of the double-stage cascade. Based on the above method, the optimization operating parameters were received. The coupling optimization simulation value showed good agreement with the experimental dates, and the average relative error was only 6.5%. On the other hand, compared with the initial test result, the 13C abundance of optimized experimental was 14.1%, and the actual growth rate of 13C abundance was more than 25%. More importantly, The optimization experimental did not increase energy consumption. The method confirmed by the experiment could provide a solid foundation for the cascade process of 13C industrialization, and it could also be applied to other traditional distillation industry.

  14. Fast Synthesis of Gibbsite Nanoplates and Process Optimization using Box-Behnken Experimental Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Xianwen; Graham, Trenton R.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Mehdi, Beata L.; N' Diaye, Alpha T.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Browning, Nigel D.; Clark, Sue B.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2017-11-13

    Developing the ability to synthesize compositionally and morphologically well-defined gibbsite particles at the nanoscale with high yield is an ongoing need that has not yet achieved the level of rational design. Here we report optimization of a clean inorganic synthesis route based on statistical experimental design examining the influence of Al(OH)3 gel precursor concentration, pH, and aging time at temperature. At 80 oC, the optimum synthesis conditions of gel concentration at 0.5 M, pH at 9.2, and time at 72 h maximized the reaction yield up to ~87%. The resulting gibbsite product is composed of highly uniform euhedral hexagonal nanoplates within a basal plane diameter range of 200-400 nm. The independent roles of key system variables in the growth mechanism are considered. On the basis of these optimized experimental conditions, the synthesis procedure, which is both cost-effective and environmentally friendly, has the potential for mass production scale-up of high quality gibbsite material for various fundamental research and industrial applications.

  15. Bodystorming for Movement-Based Interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Márquez Segura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After a decade of movement-based interaction in human–computer interaction, designing for the moving body still remains a challenge. Research in this field requires methods to help access, articulate, and harness embodied experiences in ways that can inform the design process. To address this challenge, this article appropriates bodystorming, an embodied ideation method for movement-based interaction design. The proposed method allows for early consideration of the physical, collocated, and social aspects of a designed activity as illustrated with two explorative workshops in different application domains: interactive body games and interactive performances. Using a qualitative methods approach, we used video material from the workshops, feedback from participants, and our own experience as participants and facilitators to outline important characteristics of the bodystorming method in the domain of movement-based interaction. The proposed method is compared with previous ones and application implications are discussed.

  16. Delineamento experimental e tamanho de amostra para alface cultivada em hidroponia Experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Schimitz Marodim

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa a estabelecer o delineamento experimental e o tamanho de amostra para a cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa em hidroponia, pelo sistema NFT (Nutrient film technique. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cultivos Sem Solo/Hidroponia, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e baseou-se em dados de massa de plantas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, usando estrutura de cultivo de alface em hidroponia sobre bancadas de fibrocimento com seis canais, o delineamento experimental adequado é blocos ao acaso se a unidade experimental for constituída de faixas transversais aos canais das bancadas, e deve ser inteiramente casualizado se a bancada for a unidade experimental; para a variável massa de plantas, o tamanho da amostra é de 40 plantas para uma semi-amplitude do intervalo de confiança em percentagem da média (d igual a 5% e de 7 plantas para um d igual a 20%.This study was carried out to establish the experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa crop under nutrient film technique. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Hydroponic Crops of the Horticulture Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria. The evaluated traits were plant weight. Under hydroponic conditions on concrete bench with six ducts, the most indicated experimental design for lettuce is randomised blocks for duct transversal plots or completely randomised for bench plot. The sample size for plant weight should be 40 and 7 plants, respectively, for a confidence interval of mean percentage (d equal to 5% and 20%.

  17. Research-based design & design-based research: Affordances, limitations and synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Research-based design is an orientation to educational development that is explicitly informed by existing research as well as formative evaluation. Design-based research is a genre of inquiry in which the design of innovative solutions to problems in educational practice provides the context for

  18. Design, construction and testing of a radon experimental chamber; Diseno, construccion y pruebas de una camara experimental de radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A.; Balcazar G, M

    1991-10-15

    To carry out studies on the radon behavior under controlled and stable conditions it was designed and constructed a system that consists of two parts: a container of mineral rich in Uranium and an experimentation chamber with radon united one to the other one by a step valve. The container of uranium mineral approximately contains 800 gr of uranium with a law of 0.28%; the radon gas emanated by the mineral is contained tightly by the container. When the valve opens up the radon gas it spreads to the radon experimental chamber; this contains 3 accesses that allow to install different types of detectors. The versatility of the system is exemplified with two experiments: 1. With the radon experimental chamber and an associated spectroscopic system, the radon and two of its decay products are identified. 2. The design of the system allows to couple the mineral container to other experimental geometries to demonstrate this fact it was coupled and proved a new automatic exchanger system of passive detectors of radon. The results of the new automatic exchanger system when it leave to flow the radon freely among the container and the automatic exchanger through a plastic membrane of 15 m. are shown. (Author)

  19. Experimental Design for Evaluating the Safety Benefits of Railroad Advance Warning Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    The report presents the findings and conclusions of a study to develop an experimental design and analysis plan for field testing and evaluation of the accident reduction potential of a proposed new railroad grade crossing advance warning sign. Sever...

  20. Design and Development of a Testing Device for Experimental Measurements of Foundation Slabs on the Subsoil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Čajka, Radim; Křivý, Vít; Sekanina, David

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with technical solutions and construction of a testing stand designed for experimental measurements of deformations and state of stress of foundation structures placed on the subsoil...

  1. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  2. Establishing the experimenting society : The historical origin of social experimentation according to the randomized controlled design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    2001-01-01

    This article tl aces the historical origin of social experimentation. It highlights the central role of psychology in establishing the randomized controlled design and its quasi-experimental derivatives. The author investigates the differences in the 19th- and 20th-century meaning of the expression

  3. Design of embedded intelligent monitoring system based on face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weidong; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Liangjin; Li, Jia; Hu, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new embedded intelligent monitoring system based on face recognition is proposed. The system uses Pi Raspberry as the central processor. A sensors group has been designed with Zigbee module in order to assist the system to work better and the two alarm modes have been proposed using the Internet and 3G modem. The experimental results show that the system can work under various light intensities to recognize human face and send alarm information in real time.

  4. Fatigue reliability based optimal design of planar compliant micropositioning stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiliang; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-10-01

    Conventional compliant micropositioning stages are usually developed based on static strength and deterministic methods, which may lead to either unsafe or excessive designs. This paper presents a fatigue reliability analysis and optimal design of a three-degree-of-freedom (3 DOF) flexure-based micropositioning stage. Kinematic, modal, static, and fatigue stress modelling of the stage were conducted using the finite element method. The maximum equivalent fatigue stress in the hinges was derived using sequential quadratic programming. The fatigue strength of the hinges was obtained by considering various influencing factors. On this basis, the fatigue reliability of the hinges was analysed using the stress-strength interference method. Fatigue-reliability-based optimal design of the stage was then conducted using the genetic algorithm and MATLAB. To make fatigue life testing easier, a 1 DOF stage was then optimized and manufactured. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the approach.

  5. OTIMIZATION OF TRANSESTERIFICATION DOUBLE STEP PROCESS (TDSP) TO THE PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL THROUGH DOEHLERT EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Ruschel, Carla Felippi Chiella; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Santos, Francisco Paulo dos; Samios, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Doehlert experimental design was used to optimize the Transesterification Double Step Process (TDSP) method of methyl soybean oil biodiesel production which starts with a basic catalysis followed by an acidic catalysis. The conversion values were calculated from NMR spectra. Response surface was used to show the results of the interactions between the variables. This experimental design evaluated variables like catalyst and alcohol amount for the basic catalysis and time and tem...

  6. Spatiotemporally Representative and Cost-Efficient Sampling Design for Validation Activities in Wanglang Experimental Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofei Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporally representative Elementary Sampling Units (ESUs are required for capturing the temporal variations in surface spatial heterogeneity through field measurements. Since inaccessibility often coexists with heterogeneity, a cost-efficient sampling design is mandatory. We proposed a sampling strategy to generate spatiotemporally representative and cost-efficient ESUs based on the conditioned Latin hypercube sampling scheme. The proposed strategy was constrained by multi-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI imagery, and the ESUs were limited within a sampling feasible region established based on accessibility criteria. A novel criterion based on the Overlapping Area (OA between the NDVI frequency distribution histogram from the sampled ESUs and that from the entire study area was used to assess the sampling efficiency. A case study in Wanglang National Nature Reserve in China showed that the proposed strategy improves the spatiotemporally representativeness of sampling (mean annual OA = 74.7% compared to the single-temporally constrained (OA = 68.7% and the random sampling (OA = 63.1% strategies. The introduction of the feasible region constraint significantly reduces in-situ labour-intensive characterization necessities at expenses of about 9% loss in the spatiotemporal representativeness of the sampling. Our study will support the validation activities in Wanglang experimental site providing a benchmark for locating the nodes of automatic observation systems (e.g., LAINet which need a spatially distributed and temporally fixed sampling design.

  7. Implementing a Generative Urban Design Model : Grammar-based design patterns for urban design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirao, J.N.; Mendes, G.; Duarte, J.; Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the first results of a prototype implementation of a generative urban design tool. This implementation will form part of a design support tool for a GIS based platform defined to formulate, generate and evaluate urban designs. These three goals, formulation, generation and

  8. Measuring and Advancing Experimental Design Ability in an Introductory Course without Altering Existing Lab Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Ryan A; Robertson, Chuck L; Haygood, Christian S; Herdliksa, Anna M; Herdliska, Heather R; Lloyd, Steven A

    2017-01-01

    Introductory biology courses provide an important opportunity to prepare students for future courses, yet existing cookbook labs, although important in their own way, fail to provide many of the advantages of semester-long research experiences. Engaging, authentic research experiences aid biology students in meeting many learning goals. Therefore, overlaying a research experience onto the existing lab structure allows faculty to overcome barriers involving curricular change. Here we propose a working model for this overlay design in an introductory biology course and detail a means to conduct this lab with minimal increases in student and faculty workloads. Furthermore, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) and uncovered two latent factors which provide valid means to assess this overlay model's ability to increase advanced experimental design abilities. In a pre-test/post-test design, we demonstrate significant increases in both basic and advanced experimental design abilities in an experimental and comparison group. We measured significantly higher gains in advanced experimental design understanding in students in the experimental group. We believe this overlay model and EDAT factor analysis contribute a novel means to conduct and assess the effectiveness of authentic research experiences in an introductory course without major changes to the course curriculum and with minimal increases in faculty and student workloads.

  9. Measuring and Advancing Experimental Design Ability in an Introductory Course without Altering Existing Lab Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Shanks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introductory biology courses provide an important opportunity to prepare students for future courses, yet existing cookbook labs, although important in their own way, fail to provide many of the advantages of semester-long research experiences. Engaging, authentic research experiences aid biology students in meeting many learning goals. Therefore, overlaying a research experience onto the existing lab structure allows faculty to overcome barriers involving curricular change. Here we propose a working model for this overlay design in an introductory biology course and detail a means to conduct this lab with minimal increases in student and faculty workloads. Furthermore, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT and uncovered two latent factors which provide valid means to assess this overlay model’s ability to increase advanced experimental design abilities. In a pre-test/post-test design, we demonstrate significant increases in both basic and advanced experimental design abilities in an experimental and comparison group. We measured significantly higher gains in advanced experimental design understanding in students in the experimental group. We believe this overlay model and EDAT factor analysis contribute a novel means to conduct and assess the effectiveness of authentic research experiences in an introductory course without major changes to the course curriculum and with minimal increases in faculty and student workloads.

  10. Chemical morphogenesis: recent experimental advances in reaction-diffusion system design and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, István; Cuiñas, Daniel; Takács, Nándor; Horváth, Judit; De Kepper, Patrick

    2012-08-06

    In his seminal 1952 paper, Alan Turing predicted that diffusion could spontaneously drive an initially uniform solution of reacting chemicals to develop stable spatially periodic concentration patterns. It took nearly 40 years before the first two unquestionable experimental demonstrations of such reaction-diffusion patterns could be made in isothermal single phase reaction systems. The number of these examples stagnated for nearly 20 years. We recently proposed a design method that made their number increase to six in less than 3 years. In this report, we formally justify our original semi-empirical method and support the approach with numerical simulations based on a simple but realistic kinetic model. To retain a number of basic properties of real spatial reactors but keep calculations to a minimal complexity, we introduce a new way to collapse the confined spatial direction of these reactors. Contrary to similar reduced descriptions, we take into account the effect of the geometric size in the confinement direction and the influence of the differences in the diffusion coefficient on exchange rates of species with their feed environment. We experimentally support the method by the observation of stationary patterns in red-ox reactions not based on oxihalogen chemistry. Emphasis is also brought on how one of these new systems can process different initial conditions and memorize them in the form of localized patterns of different geometries.

  11. Chemical morphogenesis: recent experimental advances in reaction–diffusion system design and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, István; Cuiñas, Daniel; Takács, Nándor; Horváth, Judit; De Kepper, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In his seminal 1952 paper, Alan Turing predicted that diffusion could spontaneously drive an initially uniform solution of reacting chemicals to develop stable spatially periodic concentration patterns. It took nearly 40 years before the first two unquestionable experimental demonstrations of such reaction–diffusion patterns could be made in isothermal single phase reaction systems. The number of these examples stagnated for nearly 20 years. We recently proposed a design method that made their number increase to six in less than 3 years. In this report, we formally justify our original semi-empirical method and support the approach with numerical simulations based on a simple but realistic kinetic model. To retain a number of basic properties of real spatial reactors but keep calculations to a minimal complexity, we introduce a new way to collapse the confined spatial direction of these reactors. Contrary to similar reduced descriptions, we take into account the effect of the geometric size in the confinement direction and the influence of the differences in the diffusion coefficient on exchange rates of species with their feed environment. We experimentally support the method by the observation of stationary patterns in red-ox reactions not based on oxihalogen chemistry. Emphasis is also brought on how one of these new systems can process different initial conditions and memorize them in the form of localized patterns of different geometries. PMID:23919126

  12. Design and Testing of an Experimental Steam-Induced Burn Model in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Porumb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most of the current models for experimental burns pose difficulties in ensuring consistency and standardization. Aim of Study. We aimed to develop an automated, reproducible technique for experimental burns using steam-based heat transfer. Methods. The system developed for steam exposure was based on a novel, integrated, computer-controlled design. Three groups of rats were exposed to steam for 1, 3, and 7 seconds. The lesions were evaluated after 20 minutes, 48 hours, and 72 hours after burn induction. Results. One-second steam application produced a superficial second-degree burn; three-second application induced deep second-degree burn; and seven-second application led to a third-degree burn. Conclusion. The high level of automation of our integrated, computer-controlled system makes the difference between our system and other models, by ensuring the control of the duration of exposure, temperature, and pressure and eliminating as many potential human generated errors as possible. The automated system can accurately reproduce specific types of burns, according to histological assessment. This model could generate the reproducible data needed in the study of burn pathology and in order to assess new treatments.

  13. Design and experimental study on Fresnel lens of the combination of equal-width and equal-height of grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Limin; Liu, Youqiang; Huang, Rui; Wang, Zhiyong

    2017-06-01

    High concentrating PV systems rely on large Fresnel lens that must be precisely oriented in the direction of the Sun to maintain high concentration ratio. We propose a new Fresnel lens design method combining equal-width and equal-height of grooves in this paper based on the principle of focused spot maximum energy. In the ring band near the center of Fresnel lens, the design with equal-width grooves is applied, and when the given condition is reached, the design with equal-height grooves is introduced near the edges of the Fresnel lens, which ensures all the lens grooves are planar. In this paper, we establish a Fresnel lens design example model by Solidworks, and simulate it with the software ZEMAX. An experimental test platform is built to test, and the simulation correctness is proved by experiments. Experimental result shows the concentrating efficiency of this example is 69.3%, slightly lower than the simulation result 75.1%.

  14. Inverse wing design for the scaled supersonic experimental airplane with ensuring design constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Kisa; Iwamiya, Toshiyuki; Zhang, Wanqiu; 松島 紀佐; 岩宮 敏幸; Zhang, Wanqiu

    2007-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape of a wing for NAL (National Aerospace Laboratory)'s first SST (SuperSonic Transport) model has been designed by a supersonic inverse design method. This method handles wing-fuselage configurations and provides wing section's geometry at every span for Navier-Stokes flowfields. The design target is a NLF (Natural Laminar Flow) wing at the speed of M(sub infinity) = 2.0. The original system of the inverse design method has to be modified so that several design constraints can ...

  15. Quality Appraisal of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: An Overview and Comparison of Different Appraisal Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Oliver; Miller, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Critical appraisal of the research literature is an essential step in informing and implementing evidence-based practice. Quality appraisal tools that assess the methodological quality of experimental studies provide a means to identify the most rigorous research suitable for evidence-based decision-making. In single-subject experimental research,…

  16. Optimization of fast disintegration tablets using pullulan as diluent by central composite experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipil Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to apply central composite experimental design to investigate main and interaction effect of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegration tablets formulation using pullulan as diluents. Face centered central composite experimental design was employed to optimize fast disintegration tablet formulation. The variables studied were concentration of diluents (pullulan, X1, superdisintigrant (sodium starch glycolate, X2, and direct compression aid (spray dried lactose, X3. Tablets were characterized for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time (Y1 and hardness (Y2. Good correlation between the predicted values and experimental data of the optimized formulation methodology in optimizing fast disintegrating tablets using pullulan as a diluent.

  17. Optimization of fast disintegration tablets using pullulan as diluent by central composite experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipil; Chauhan, Musharraf; Patel, Ravi; Patel, Jayvadan

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work was to apply central composite experimental design to investigate main and interaction effect of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegration tablets formulation using pullulan as diluents. Face centered central composite experimental design was employed to optimize fast disintegration tablet formulation. The variables studied were concentration of diluents (pullulan, X(1)), superdisintigrant (sodium starch glycolate, X(2)), and direct compression aid (spray dried lactose, X(3)). Tablets were characterized for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time (Y(1)) and hardness (Y(2)). Good correlation between the predicted values and experimental data of the optimized formulation methodology in optimizing fast disintegrating tablets using pullulan as a diluent.

  18. Design of high-pressure direct contact heater for promising power supply units: Experimental substantiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, E. V.; Shvarts, A. L.; Turkin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of superheated steam condensation on feed water jets in a highpressure, direct-contact heat exchanger are presented. Direct contact feed water heater (DCFWH) can be used in a dual-flow diagram of a steam-power unit with ultrasupercritical steam parameters (35 MPa, 700/720°C). The direct contact feed water heater is included in the flow diagram of the II circuit in a promising power unit; it provides feed water heating to 340°C in all maintenance and emergency operation modes of the unit. The reliability of the high-pressure direct contact heater operation in this flow diagram is of major importance in relation to the danger of lead solidification in the tube space of the steam generator. Technical requirements to the design of the high-pressure direct contact heater for increasing the heat exchange efficiency are formulated based on the results of earlier studies with steam-water mixture as the heating medium. The results of studies of superheated steam condensation on jets presented in this study testify that feed water is additionally heated to the required temperature at the output of the installation. The influence of initial feed water parameters (outflow velocity and temperature) on the jet heating length is elucidated. The numerical approximation of the experimental data for determination of the jet heating length in the nominal and partial power unit loads is obtained. The results of the calculations are used to simplify the design of the water-supplying element for the direct contact feed water heater. The proposed design of direct contact feed water heater is characterized by simplicity and low metal intensity, which provides the installation reliability at the considered pressure level due to the minimum number of structural elements.

  19. Experimental Investigation of the Optimal Design of the Ultrahigh Early Strength Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mingzhi; Qin, Longfei; Liu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Comparing with the common concrete, the ultrahigh early strength concrete can form in an extremely short time, which can be effectively applied in the field of the fast repair engineering. Based on this point, the design of the optimal mix proportion of ultrahigh early strength concrete was investigated in this study. First, the optimal water-cement ratio was determined through the experiment. Second, the relationship between water reducing agent and concrete strength was investigated, and then the optimal dosage of admixture was determined. The experimental results show that the prepared ultrahigh early strength concrete can obtain the high strength in the early time, which is beneficial for the practical application. Additionally, some other performances are acquired, such as the rapid condensation properties, the permeability resistance and workability etc.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Friction Effect on Liner Model Rolling Bearings for Large Diameter Thrust Bearing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Babu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying friction coefficient has significant importance, especially when dealing with high load and temperature applications that have frequent starting and stopping points. Towards that, two sets of angular contact Linear Model Mockup Bearings (LMMB were designed and fabricated. This linear model assembly was made up of high precision, grounded raceways (AISI 4140 and commercially purchased balls (AISI 52100. The experimental studies were carried out by placing different number of balls between the raceways under different loads at dry lubricating condition. The static friction coefficients were measured using two different experiments: viz gravitation-based experiment and direct linear force measurement experiment. And Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique was used to find the stiffness of LMMB set.

  1. Driving Force Based Design of Cyclic Distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Fjordbak; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Driving force based design is adopted from conventional continuous distillation to cyclic distillation. This leads to a definition of the operating line representation for the cyclic distillation process. A possible realization of the driving force design is presented, which implies operation...... with mixed phase feeds. A range of binary test cases, benzene toluene, methanol water, and ethanol water, are evaluated. The advantage of the design approach in cyclic distillation is shown to be analogous to the advantages obtained in conventional continuous distillation, including a minimal utility...

  2. Data base systems in electronic design engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.

    1980-01-01

    The concepts of an integrated design data base system (DBMS) as it might apply to an electronic design company are discussed. Data elements of documentation, project specifications, project tracking, firmware, software, electronic and mechanical design can be integrated and managed through a single DBMS. Combining the attributes of a DBMS data handler with specialized systems and functional data can provide users with maximum flexibility, reduced redundancy, and increased overall systems performance. Although some system overhead is lost due to redundancy in transitory data, it is believed the combination of the two data types is advisable rather than trying to do all data handling through a single DBMS.

  3. Kriging for Simulation Metamodeling: Experimental Design, Reduced Rank Kriging, and Omni-Rank Kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Michael Robert

    This dissertation improves an analyst's use of simulation by offering improvements in the utilization of kriging metamodels. There are three main contributions. First an analysis is performed of what comprises good experimental designs for practical (non-toy) problems when using a kriging metamodel. Second is an explanation and demonstration of how reduced rank decompositions can improve the performance of kriging, now referred to as reduced rank kriging. Third is the development of an extension of reduced rank kriging which solves an open question regarding the usage of reduced rank kriging in practice. This extension is called omni-rank kriging. Finally these results are demonstrated on two case studies. The first contribution focuses on experimental design. Sequential designs are generally known to be more efficient than "one shot" designs. However, sequential designs require some sort of pilot design from which the sequential stage can be based. We seek to find good initial designs for these pilot studies, as well as designs which will be effective if there is no following sequential stage. We test a wide variety of designs over a small set of test-bed problems. Our findings indicate that analysts should take advantage of any prior information they have about their problem's shape and/or their goals in metamodeling. In the event of a total lack of information we find that Latin hypercube designs are robust default choices. Our work is most distinguished by its attention to the higher levels of dimensionality. The second contribution introduces and explains an alternative method for kriging when there is noise in the data, which we call reduced rank kriging. Reduced rank kriging is based on using a reduced rank decomposition which artificially smoothes the kriging weights similar to a nugget effect. Our primary focus will be showing how the reduced rank decomposition propagates through kriging empirically. In addition, we show further evidence for our

  4. Design and Experimental Validation for Direct-Drive Fault-Tolerant Permanent-Magnet Vernier Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fault-tolerant permanent-magnet vernier (FT-PMV machine is designed for direct-drive applications, incorporating the merits of high torque density and high reliability. Based on the so-called magnetic gearing effect, PMV machines have the ability of high torque density by introducing the flux-modulation poles (FMPs. This paper investigates the fault-tolerant characteristic of PMV machines and provides a design method, which is able to not only meet the fault-tolerant requirements but also keep the ability of high torque density. The operation principle of the proposed machine has been analyzed. The design process and optimization are presented specifically, such as the combination of slots and poles, the winding distribution, and the dimensions of PMs and teeth. By using the time-stepping finite element method (TS-FEM, the machine performances are evaluated. Finally, the FT-PMV machine is manufactured, and the experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical analysis.

  5. Design and Experimental Validation for Direct-Drive Fault-Tolerant Permanent-Magnet Vernier Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Yang, Junqin; Chen, Ming; Chen, Qian

    2014-01-01

    A fault-tolerant permanent-magnet vernier (FT-PMV) machine is designed for direct-drive applications, incorporating the merits of high torque density and high reliability. Based on the so-called magnetic gearing effect, PMV machines have the ability of high torque density by introducing the flux-modulation poles (FMPs). This paper investigates the fault-tolerant characteristic of PMV machines and provides a design method, which is able to not only meet the fault-tolerant requirements but also keep the ability of high torque density. The operation principle of the proposed machine has been analyzed. The design process and optimization are presented specifically, such as the combination of slots and poles, the winding distribution, and the dimensions of PMs and teeth. By using the time-stepping finite element method (TS-FEM), the machine performances are evaluated. Finally, the FT-PMV machine is manufactured, and the experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical analysis. PMID:25045729

  6. Optimization and evaluation of clarithromycin floating tablets using experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğurlu, Timucin; Karaçiçek, Uğur; Rayaman, Erkan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to prepare and evaluate clarithromycin (CLA) floating tablets using experimental mixture design for treatment of Helicobacter pylori provided by prolonged gastric residence time and controlled plasma level. Ten different formulations were generated based on different molecular weight of hypromellose (HPMC K100, K4M, K15M) by using simplex lattice design (a sub-class of mixture design) with Minitab 16 software. Sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid were used as gas generating agents. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique. All of the process variables were fixed. Results of cumulative drug release at 8th h (CDR 8th) were statistically analyzed to get optimized formulation (OF). Optimized formulation, which gave floating lag time lower than 15 s and total floating time more than 10 h, was analyzed and compared with target for CDR 8th (80%). A good agreement was shown between predicted and actual values of CDR 8th with a variation lower than 1%. The activity of clarithromycin contained optimizedformula against H. pylori were quantified using well diffusion agar assay. Diameters of inhibition zones vs. log10 clarithromycin concentrations were plotted in order to obtain a standard curve and clarithromycin activity.

  7. A Fundamental Study of Smoldering with Emphasis on Experimental Design for Zero-G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Pagni, Patrick J.

    1995-01-01

    A research program to study smoldering combustion with emphasis on the design of an experiment to be conducted in the space shuttle was conducted at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley. The motivation of the research is the interest in smoldering both as a fundamental combustion problem and as a serious fire risk. Research conducted included theoretical and experimental studies that have brought considerable new information about smolder combustion, the effect that buoyancy has on the process, and specific information for the design of a space experiment. Experiments were conducted at normal gravity, in opposed and forward mode of propagation and in the upward and downward direction to determine the effect and range of influence of gravity on smolder. Experiments were also conducted in microgravity, in a drop tower and in parabolic aircraft flights, where the brief microgravity periods were used to analyze transient aspects of the problem. Significant progress was made on the study of one-dimensional smolder, particularly in the opposed-flow configuration. These studies provided enough information to design a small-scale space-based experiment that was successfully conducted in the Spacelab Glovebox in the June 1992 USML-1/STS-50 mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia.

  8. Design and experimental validation for direct-drive fault-tolerant permanent-magnet vernier machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Yang, Junqin; Chen, Ming; Chen, Qian

    2014-01-01

    A fault-tolerant permanent-magnet vernier (FT-PMV) machine is designed for direct-drive applications, incorporating the merits of high torque density and high reliability. Based on the so-called magnetic gearing effect, PMV machines have the ability of high torque density by introducing the flux-modulation poles (FMPs). This paper investigates the fault-tolerant characteristic of PMV machines and provides a design method, which is able to not only meet the fault-tolerant requirements but also keep the ability of high torque density. The operation principle of the proposed machine has been analyzed. The design process and optimization are presented specifically, such as the combination of slots and poles, the winding distribution, and the dimensions of PMs and teeth. By using the time-stepping finite element method (TS-FEM), the machine performances are evaluated. Finally, the FT-PMV machine is manufactured, and the experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical analysis.

  9. Experimental Implementation of a Model-Based Inverse Filter to Attenuate Hysteresis in an Atomic Force Microscope

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatch, Andrew; Smith, Ralph G; De, Tathagata

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the development and experimental validation of a model-based, open loop control design for mitigating the frequency-dependent effects of hysteresis in an atomic force microscope (AFM...

  10. De novo peptide design and experimental validation of histone methyltransferase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Smadbeck

    Full Text Available Histones are small proteins critical to the efficient packaging of DNA in the nucleus. DNA-protein complexes, known as nucleosomes, are formed when the DNA winds itself around the surface of the histones. The methylation of histone residues by enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2 maintains gene repression over successive cell generations. Overexpression of EZH2 can silence important tumor suppressor genes leading to increased invasiveness of many types of cancers. This makes the inhibition of EZH2 an important target in the development of cancer therapeutics. We employed a three-stage computational de novo peptide design method to design inhibitory peptides of EZH2. The method consists of a sequence selection stage and two validation stages for fold specificity and approximate binding affinity. The sequence selection stage consists of an integer linear optimization model that was solved to produce a rank-ordered list of amino acid sequences with increased stability in the bound peptide-EZH2 structure. These sequences were validated through the calculation of the fold specificity and approximate binding affinity of the designed peptides. Here we report the discovery of novel EZH2 inhibitory peptides using the de novo peptide design method. The computationally discovered peptides were experimentally validated in vitro using dose titrations and mechanism of action enzymatic assays. The peptide with the highest in vitro response, SQ037, was validated in nucleo using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. This peptide had an IC50 of 13.5 [Formula: see text]M, demonstrated greater potency as an inhibitor when compared to the native and K27A mutant control peptides, and demonstrated competitive inhibition versus the peptide substrate. Additionally, this peptide demonstrated high specificity to the EZH2 target in comparison to other histone methyltransferases. The validated peptides are the first computationally designed peptides that directly

  11. De novo peptide design and experimental validation of histone methyltransferase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Smadbeck

    Full Text Available Histones are small proteins critical to the efficient packaging of DNA in the nucleus. DNA–protein complexes, known as nucleosomes, are formed when the DNA winds itself around the surface of the histones. The methylation of histone residues by enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2 maintains gene repression over successive cell generations. Overexpression of EZH2 can silence important tumor suppressor genes leading to increased invasiveness of many types of cancers. This makes the inhibition of EZH2 an important target in the development of cancer therapeutics. We employed a three-stage computational de novo peptide design method to design inhibitory peptides of EZH2. The method consists of a sequence selection stage and two validation stages for fold specificity and approximate binding affinity. The sequence selection stage consists of an integer linear optimization model that was solved to produce a rank-ordered list of amino acid sequences with increased stability in the bound peptide-EZH2 structure. These sequences were validated through the calculation of the fold specificity and approximate binding affinity of the designed peptides. Here we report the discovery of novel EZH2 inhibitory peptides using the de novo peptide design method. The computationally discovered peptides were experimentally validated in vitro using dose titrations and mechanism of action enzymatic assays. The peptide with the highest in vitro response, SQ037, was validated in nucleo using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. This peptide had an IC50 of 13.5 mM, demonstrated greater potency as an inhibitor when compared to the native and K27A mutant control peptides, and demonstrated competitive inhibition versus the peptide substrate. Additionally, this peptide demonstrated high specificity to the EZH2 target in comparison to other histone methyltransferases. The validated peptides are the first computationally designed peptides that directly inhibit EZH2

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Progress of Linear Collider Final Focus Design and ATF2 Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei; Zimmermann, Frank; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    In this brief overview we will reflect on the process of the design of the linear collider (LC) final focus (FF) optics, and will also describe the theoretical and experimental efforts on design and practical realisation of a prototype of the LC FF optics implemented in the ATF2 facility at KEK, Japan, presently being commissioned and operated.

  13. Overview of design development of FCC-hh Experimental Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082479; Abelleira, Jose; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Van Riesen-Haupt, Leon; Benedikt, Michael; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Buffat, Xavier; Burkhardt, Helmut; Cerutti, Francesco; Langner, Andy Sven; Martin, Roman; Riegler, Werner; Schulte, Daniel; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Rafique, Haroon; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; Boscolo, Manuela; Collamati, Francesco; Nevay, Laurence James; Hofer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The experimental interaction region (EIR) is one of the key areas that define the performance of the Future Circular Collider. In this overview we will describe the status and the evolution of the design of EIR of FCC-hh, focusing on design of the optics, energy deposition in EIR elements, beam-beam effects and machine detector interface issues.

  14. Experimental Bifurcation Analysis By Control-based Continuation - Determining Stability’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Santos, Ilmar; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2012-01-01

    stable and unstable equilibrium states. We present the ongoing work of developing and applying the control-based continuation method to an experimental mechanical test-rig, consisting of a harmonically forced nonlinear impact oscillator controlled by electromagnetic actuators. Furthermore we propose...

  15. Experimental studies on an indigenous coconut shell based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satyabrata Sahoo

    Abstract. Experimental studies are carried out to characterize an indigenous, coconut shell based, activated carbon suitable for storage of natural gas. Properties such as BET surface area, micropore volume, average pore diameter and pore size distribution are obtained by using suitable instruments and techniques.

  16. Design and experimental study of a velocity amplified electromagnetic vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jackson A.; Zuo, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Dedicated sensors are widely used throughout many industries to monitor everyday operations, maintain safety and report performance characteristics. In order to adopt a more sustainable solution, intensive research is being conducted for self-powered sensing. To enable sensors to power themselves, harvesting energy from environmental vibration has been widely studied, however, its overall effectiveness remains questionable due to small vibration amplitudes and thus limited harvestable energy density. This paper addresses the issue by proposing a novel vibration energy harvester in which a metal compliant mechanism frame is used to house both a linear electromagnetic generator and proof mass. Due to the compliant mechanism, the proposed energy harvester is capable of amplifying machine vibration velocity for a dedicated electromagnetic generator, largely increasing the energy density. The harvester prototype is also fabricated and experimentally characterized to verify its effectiveness. When operating at its natural frequency in a low base amplitude, 0.001 in (25.4μm) at 19.4 Hz, during lab tests, the harvester has been shown to produce up to 0.91 V AC open voltage, and a maximum power of 2 mW, amplifying the relative proof mass velocity by approximately 5.4 times. In addition, a mathematical model is created based on the pseudo-rigid-body dynamics and the analysis matches closely with experiments. The proposed harvester was designed using vibration data from nuclear power plants. Further steps for improving such a design are given for broader applications.

  17. Design and experimental characterization of a 350 W High Temperature PEM fuel cell stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Zuliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HT PEM fuel cell based on polybenzimidazole (PBI polymer and phosphoric acid, can be operated at temperature between 120 °C and 180 °C. Reactants humidification is not required and CO content up to 2% in the fuel can be tolerated, affecting only marginally performance. This is what makes HT PEM very attractive, as low quality reformed hydrogen can be used and water management problems are avoided. Till nowadays, from experimental point of view, only few studies relate to the development and characterization of high temperature stacks. The aim of this work is to present the main design features and the performance curves of a 25 cells HT PEM stack based on PBI and phosphoric acid membranes. Performance curves refer to the stack operating with two type of fuels: pure hydrogen and a gas mixture simulating a typical steam reformer output. The stack voltage distribution analysis and the stack temperature distribution analysis suggest that cathode air could be used as coolant leading to a better thermal management. This could simplify stack design and system BOP, thus increasing system performance.

  18. Experimentally quantifying the advantages of weak-value-based metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Viza, Gerardo I.; Martínez-Rincón, Julián; Alves, Gabriel B.; Jordan, Andrew N.; Howell, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the relative advantages of implementing weak-value-based metrology versus standard methods. While the techniques outlined herein apply more generally, we measure small optical beam deflections both using a Sagnac interferometer with a monitored dark port (the weak-value-based technique), and by focusing the entire beam to a split detector (the standard technique). By introducing controlled external transverse detector modulations and transverse beam deflection mo...

  19. Visualizing Experimental Designs for Balanced ANOVA Models using Lisp-Stat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. Iversen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, or Hasse, diagram described by Taylor and Hilton (1981, American Statistician provides a visual display of the relationships between factors for balanced complete experimental designs. Using the Hasse diagram, rules exist for determining the appropriate linear model, ANOVA table, expected means squares, and F-tests in the case of balanced designs. This procedure has been implemented in Lisp-Stat using a software representation of the experimental design. The user can interact with the Hasse diagram to add, change, or delete factors and see the effect on the proposed analysis. The system has potential uses in teaching and consulting.

  20. Visualizing Practices in Project-based Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Jennifer; Tryggestad, Kjell; Comi, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Project-based design involves a variety of visual representations, which are evolved to make decisions and accomplish project objectives. Yet, such mediated and distributed ways of working are difficult to capture through ethnographies that examine situated design. A novel approach is developed t...... representations enabled participants in project-based design to develop and share understanding. The complexity of projects and their distributed and mediated nature makes this approach timely and important in addressing new research questions and practical challenges.......Project-based design involves a variety of visual representations, which are evolved to make decisions and accomplish project objectives. Yet, such mediated and distributed ways of working are difficult to capture through ethnographies that examine situated design. A novel approach is developed...... representations. In the second, the Turning Torso, Malmö, analysis starts from a planning document, tracing connections backward to the paper- and model-work done to produce this consolidated cascade. This work makes a twofold contribution: first, it offers a methodological approach that supplements ethnographies...

  1. Comparing Impact Findings from Design-Based and Model-Based Methods: An Empirical Investigation. NCEE 2017-4026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Tim; Schochet, Peter Z.; Tilley, Charles

    2017-01-01

    A new design-based theory has recently been developed to estimate impacts for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and basic quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) for a wide range of designs used in social policy research (Imbens & Rubin, 2015; Schochet, 2016). These methods use the potential outcomes framework and known features of study designs…

  2. An Empirical Study of Parameter Estimation for Stated Preference Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stated preference experimental design can affect the reliability of the parameters estimation in discrete choice model. Some scholars have proposed some new experimental designs, such as D-efficient, Bayesian D-efficient. But insufficient empirical research has been conducted on the effectiveness of these new designs and there has been little comparative analysis of the new designs against the traditional designs. In this paper, a new metro connecting Chengdu and its satellite cities is taken as the research subject to demonstrate the validity of the D-efficient and Bayesian D-efficient design. Comparisons between these new designs and orthogonal design were made by the fit of model and standard deviation of parameters estimation; then the best model result is obtained to analyze the travel choice behavior. The results indicate that Bayesian D-efficient design works better than D-efficient design. Some of the variables can affect significantly the choice behavior of people, including the waiting time and arrival time. The D-efficient and Bayesian D-efficient design for MNL can acquire reliability result in ML model, but the ML model cannot develop the theory advantages of these two designs. Finally, the metro can handle over 40% passengers flow if the metro will be operated in the future.

  3. Experimental and design activities on WDS and ISS as EU contribution to ITER fue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, Ion; Cristescu, Iona; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, G.; Michling, R.; Schaefer, P.; Welte, S.; Wurster, W.; Doerr, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Murdoch, D. [EFDA Garching (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Water Detritiation System (WDS) of ITER is one of the key systems to control the tritium content in the effluents streams, to recover as much tritium as possible and consequently to minimize the impact on the environment. In order to mitigate the concern over tritium releases into the environment during pulsed operation of the Torus, the WDS and Isotope Separation System (ISS) will be operated in such way that WDS will be a final barrier for the processed protium waste gas stream discharged from ISS. The ITER ISS consists of a cascade of four cryogenic distillation columns with the aim to process mainly two gas streams, one from Torus Exhaust Processing (TEP) and other from WDS mixed with the returned stream from Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI). The behaviour of the CD cascade has to be characterized with high accuracy in view of thermal and isotopic fluctuations during Torus pulses. To support the research activities needed to characterize the performances of various components for WDS and ISS processes in various working conditions and configurations as needed for ITER detailed design, an experimental facility called TRENTA based on the combination Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) - Cryogenic Distillation (CD), representative of the ITER WDS and ISS protium separation column is in operation at TLK. The CECE process consists of a solid polymer electrolyser unit as envisaged to be used in ITER WDS, and an 8 m Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange Column (LPCE). The CD system consists of a refrigeration unit of 250 W cooling capacity at 16 K and a cryogenic distillation column of 55 mm in diameter and 2.7 m as process lengths. The experimental program on the TRENTA facility is focused on two major issues: - To investigate the separation performances and liquid hold up of different packings potentially to be used on cryogenic distillation process and the separation performances of the catalyst/packing for the LPCE process. - Trade off studies between the

  4. Reflections on Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    , namely: Interaction Design and Action Research. The issues discussed are users’ needs, resistance, organizational relations, and alternative design solutions. Also, this type of online and competence development processes needs new empirical methods, and an argument for rigour in the DBR analysis......The paper is an extended and edited version of the HWID conference paper with the same titel. The paper discusses Design-Based Research (DBR), which is an approach that have a dual purpose: to develop domain theories and to develop the design, iteratively. The paper is an integrative review...... that identify and discuss critical elements in DBR, with a focus on online educational projects, where the learning process expands from a traditional classroom to everyday work and life practices, as in competence development projects. DBR is discussed up against two older, more mature, intervention approaches...

  5. Visualizing Practices in Project-based Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Jennifer; Tryggestad, Kjell; Comi, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Project-based design involves a variety of visual representations, which are evolved to make decisions and accomplish project objectives. Yet, such mediated and distributed ways of working are difficult to capture through ethnographies that examine situated design. A novel approach is developed...... that follows cascades of visual representations, and this is illustrated through two empirical studies. In the first case, Heathrow Terminal 5, analysis starts from paper- and model-work used to develop design, tracing connections forward to an assembly manual that forms a ‘consolidated cascade’ of visual...... of situated design. This allows the researcher to be nimble, tracing connections across complex engineering projects; reconstructing practices through their visual representations; and observing their effects. Second, it articulates how, in these empirical cases, interaction with a cascade of visual...

  6. Design and Demonstration of Minimal Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Exohab Team

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: We propose a conceptual analysis of a first minimal lunar base, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture [1-3]. We justify the case for a scientific outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of the Earth, geophysical and geochemical studies of the Moon, life sciences, observation from the Moon). Research: Research activities will be conducted with this first settlement in: - science (of, from and on the Moon) - exploration (robotic mobility, rover, drilling), - technology (communication, command, organisation, automatism). Life sciences. The life sciences aspects are considered through a life support for a crew of 4 (habitat) and a laboratory activity with biological experiments performed on Earth or LEO, but then without any magnetosphere protection and therefore with direct cosmic rays and solar particle effects. Moreover, the ability of studying the lunar environment in the field will be a big asset before settling a permanent base [3-5]. Lunar environment. The lunar environment adds constraints to instruments specifications (vacuum, extreme temperature, regolith, seism, micrometeorites). SMART-1 and other missions data will bring geometrical, chemical and physical details about the environment (soil material characteristics, on surface conditions …). Test bench. To assess planetary technologies and operations preparing for Mars human exploration. Lunar outpost predesign modular concept: To allow a human presence on the moon and to carry out these experiments, we will give a pre-design of a human minimal lunar base. Through a modular concept, this base will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon

  7. Facilitating Transition to Team Based Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of expectations and enhance students attitude towards dealing with development projects as an external professional activity, rather than an internal personal activity, thus increasing team-orientation. This little experiment indicates that there could be a potential increase in students learning and willingness...... given to two set of students; one set that received the survival kit in 2011 and 2012 and one set that did not. The questionnaire inquires the students’ attitude towards 4 aspects: 1.General level of preparedness for team and problem based project work 2.Level of information of expectations from......When students enroll in Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Project-oriented universities at Industrial Design programs, what are their expectations and prerequisites for starting to learn about design and work in teams with design? The short answer is: not as much as they think, studies shows...

  8. An in silico approach helped to identify the best experimental design, population, and outcome for future randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajard, Agathe; Chabaud, Sylvie; Cornu, Catherine; Castellan, Anne-Charlotte; Malik, Salma; Kurbatova, Polina; Volpert, Vitaly; Eymard, Nathalie; Kassai, Behrouz; Nony, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of our work was to compare different randomized clinical trial (RCT) experimental designs in terms of power, accuracy of the estimation of treatment effect, and number of patients receiving active treatment using in silico simulations. A virtual population of patients was simulated and randomized in potential clinical trials. Treatment effect was modeled using a dose-effect relation for quantitative or qualitative outcomes. Different experimental designs were considered, and performances between designs were compared. One thousand clinical trials were simulated for each design based on an example of modeled disease. According to simulation results, the number of patients needed to reach 80% power was 50 for crossover, 60 for parallel or randomized withdrawal, 65 for drop the loser (DL), and 70 for early escape or play the winner (PW). For a given sample size, each design had its own advantage: low duration (parallel, early escape), high statistical power and precision (crossover), and higher number of patients receiving the active treatment (PW and DL). Our approach can help to identify the best experimental design, population, and outcome for future RCTs. This may be particularly useful for drug development in rare diseases, theragnostic approaches, or personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Conceptual design of MCP based particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bykov, A. V.; Ivanov, V. Ya.; Katcin, A. A.; Mamoshkina, E. V.; Ovtin, I. V.; Pivovarov, S. G.; Prisekin, V. G.; Pyata, E. E.

    2017-08-01

    A time-of-flight detector based on microchannel plates (MCP) is under development. The main goal of this work is the creation of a radiation hard large area detector providing 10 ps time resolution in strong magnetic field. The conceptual detector design is described in details.

  10. Standardization of Game Based Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Klemke, Roland; Gruber, Marion; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Kelle, S., Klemke, R., Gruber, M., & Specht, M. (2011). Standardization of Game Based Learning Design. In B. Murgante, O. Gervasi, A. Iglesias, D. Taniar, & B. O. Apduphan (Eds.), Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2011 (pp. 518-532). LNCS 6785 Berlin, Heidelberg & New

  11. Controller reconfiguration based on LTR design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.

    2003-01-01

    Design of controller reconfiguration (CR) for systems with sensor faults are considered in this paper. One way to accommodate a failing sensor, is by replacing it by an observer based on the remaining outputs. A similar approach can be applied for a faulty actuator by duality. By including observ...

  12. Interactive Reliability-Based Optimal Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Siemaszko, A.

    1994-01-01

    Interactive design/optimization of large, complex structural systems is considered. The objective function is assumed to model the expected costs. The constraints are reliability-based and/or related to deterministic code requirements. Solution of this optimization problem is divided in four main...... be used in interactive optimization....

  13. Experimental Modelling of the Breakdown Voltage of Air Using Design of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REZOUGA, M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental and numerical studies were devoted to the electric discharge of air, and some mathematical models were proposed for the critical breakdown voltage. As this latter depends on several parameters, it is difficult to find a formula, theoretical or experimental, which considers many factors. The aim of this paper is to model the critical breakdown voltage in a "Sphere-Sphere� electrodes system by using the methodology of experimental designs. Several factors were considered, such as geometrical factors (inter-electrodes interval, diameter of the electrodes and climatic factors (temperature, humidity. Two factorial centred faces experimental designs (CCF were carried out, a first one for the geometrical factors and a second one for the climatic factors. The obtained results made it possible to propose mathematical models and to study the interactions between the various factors.

  14. Numerical and experimental investigation on the performance of three newly designed 100 kW-class tidal current turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Museok Song

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Three types of 100 kW-class tidal stream turbines are proposed and their performance is studied both numerically and experimentally. Following a wind turbine design procedure, a base blade is derived and two additional blades are newly designed focusing more on efficiency and cavitation. For the three designed turbines, a CFD is performed by using FLUENT. The calculations predict that the newly designed turbines perform better than the base turbine and the tip vortex can be reduced with additional efficiency increase by adopting a tip rake. The performance of the turbines is tested in a towing tank with 700 mm models. The scale problem is carefully investigated and the measurements are compared with the CFD results. All the prediction from the CFD is supported by the model experiment with some quantitative discrepancy. The maximum efficiencies are 0.49 (CFD and 0.45 (experiment at TSR 5.17 for the turbine with a tip rake.

  15. Analysis and Experimental Investigation of Optimum Design of Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating System for Car Seat Climate Control (CSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elarusi, Abdulmunaem; Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung

    2018-02-01

    The optimum design of a thermoelectric system for application in car seat climate control has been modeled and its performance evaluated experimentally. The optimum design of the thermoelectric device combining two heat exchangers was obtained by using a newly developed optimization method based on the dimensional technique. Based on the analytical optimum design results, commercial thermoelectric cooler and heat sinks were selected to design and construct the climate control heat pump. This work focuses on testing the system performance in both cooling and heating modes to ensure accurate analytical modeling. Although the analytical performance was calculated using the simple ideal thermoelectric equations with effective thermoelectric material properties, it showed very good agreement with experiment for most operating conditions.

  16. Rainwater harvesting: model-based design evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S; Memon, F A; Butler, D

    2010-01-01

    The rate of uptake of rainwater harvesting (RWH) in the UK has been slow to date, but is expected to gain momentum in the near future. The designs of two different new-build rainwater harvesting systems, based on simple methods, are evaluated using three different design methods, including a continuous simulation modelling approach. The RWH systems are shown to fulfill 36% and 46% of WC demand. Financial analyses reveal that RWH systems within large commercial buildings maybe more financially viable than smaller domestic systems. It is identified that design methods based on simple approaches generate tank sizes substantially larger than the continuous simulation. Comparison of the actual tank sizes and those calculated using continuous simulation established that the tanks installed are oversized for their associated demand level and catchment size. Oversizing tanks can lead to excessive system capital costs, which currently hinders the uptake of systems. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the catchment area size is often overlooked when designing UK-based RWH systems. With respect to these findings, a recommendation for a transition from the use of simple tools to continuous simulation models is made.

  17. Design of LTCC Based Fractal Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    AdbulGhaffar, Farhan

    2010-09-01

    The thesis presents a Sierpinski Carpet fractal antenna array designed at 24 GHz for automotive radar applications. Miniaturized, high performance and low cost antennas are required for this application. To meet these specifications a fractal array has been designed for the first time on Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) based substrate. LTCC provides a suitable platform for the development of these antennas due to its properties of vertical stack up and embedded passives. The complete antenna concept involves integration of this fractal antenna array with a Fresnel lens antenna providing a total gain of 15dB which is appropriate for medium range radar applications. The thesis also presents a comparison between the designed fractal antenna and a conventional patch antenna outlining the advantages of fractal antenna over the later one. The fractal antenna has a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz which is 7.5% of the centre frequency (24GHz) as compared to 1.9% of the conventional patch antenna. Furthermore the fractal design exhibits a size reduction of 53% as compared to the patch antenna. In the end a sensitivity analysis is carried out for the fractal antenna design depicting the robustness of the proposed design against the typical LTCC fabrication tolerances.

  18. Designing an Effective, Small-Scope Practice-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R David; Regier, Michael D

    2017-08-01

    Present a methodology to promote good practices in designing small-scale, practice-based studies. We propose the following methods to assist clinicians and other practice-based researchers in designing and conducting good quality, small-scale studies in a clinical setting. Research projects applied to a limited, practice-based study may require modification to increase the consistency of patient research. Although common requests to collaborative methodologists mirror methods for experimental design, clinic-based studies may face different limitations. Each participant enrolled consumes resources, including time, and personnel. If practice-based studies have a different goal, to learn about the health outcomes of patients in a medical practice with limited intent for generalization, should the same methods be used? When limitations are clearly stated and the findings are described within the study context, these limitations may not be so severe to discourage the research. We propose a systematic method to conduct practice-based research intended for small-scale study use. Relying heavily on existing research from similar areas, the incorporation of data from the practice, and the a priori defined timelines and resources, we set forth some guiding principles to assist clinic-based investigators. Individualized focus and small-scale studies are growing in use and acceptance especially given the focus on personalized health.

  19. Design Strategies for Aptamer-Based Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kun; Liang, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Nandi

    2010-01-01

    Aptamers have been widely used as recognition elements for biosensor construction, especially in the detection of proteins or small molecule targets, and regarded as promising alternatives for antibodies in bioassay areas. In this review, we present an overview of reported design strategies for the fabrication of biosensors and classify them into four basic modes: target-induced structure switching mode, sandwich or sandwich-like mode, target-induced dissociation/displacement mode and competitive replacement mode. In view of the unprecedented advantages brought about by aptamers and smart design strategies, aptamer-based biosensors are expected to be one of the most promising devices in bioassay related applications. PMID:22399891

  20. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HORIZONTAL LATERAL STIFFNESS OF RAILS UNDER DIFFERENT DESIGNS OF RAIL FASTENERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Velinets

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation of a railway track on the strength is one of the sections of the overall complex research problems of interaction track and rolling stock. This paper describes the experimental study of horizontal transverse stiffness of railway rails with various strands of rail fasteners. Materials of this article should be relevant and will make it possible to calculate the strength of railway track using the correct and corrected performance of horizontal transverse stiffness of rail threads. Methodology. Determination of horizontal transverse rigidity of rail yarns with different designs of rail fasteners was conducted by measuring the quantities of transverse displacement of rails calculation points – namely the head and sole. For research the specialist equipment was created, made up of lineside jack DC-20, equipped with a hydraulic pressure gauge to measure pressure and rigid rod for horizontal rail stop in the thread, the opposite of the jack. Lateral movement of the head and sole of the track were recorded, and measured with indicators of clock type within a few hundredths of a millimeter. The horizontal lateral load on the rail jack was created by the injection pressure in the cylinder which was fixed with manometer into the jack. Load of rails was conducted over 2 tons of degrees ranging from 0 to 8 tons. To obtain reliable measurement results of lateral movement of the head and the base rails, its movement was conducted for each type fasteners not less than in 3 sections. Measurements were carried out without the creation of vertical load. Findings. With the developed method was found transverse displacement magnitude of rails calculation points at different designs of rail fasteners. Originality. The experimental studies were first found the mentioned horizontal transverse stiffness of rail threads in the head and sole of modern designs for different rail fasteners. Practical value. The values of horizontal transverse

  1. Experimental design and statistical analysis for three-drug combination studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Xuerong; Pei, Xin-Yan; Grant, Steven; Tan, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Drug combination is a critically important therapeutic approach for complex diseases such as cancer and HIV due to its potential for efficacy at lower, less toxic doses and the need to move new therapies rapidly into clinical trials. One of the key issues is to identify which combinations are additive, synergistic, or antagonistic. While the value of multidrug combinations has been well recognized in the cancer research community, to our best knowledge, all existing experimental studies rely on fixing the dose of one drug to reduce the dimensionality, e.g. looking at pairwise two-drug combinations, a suboptimal design. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop experimental design and analysis methods for studying multidrug combinations directly. Because the complexity of the problem increases exponentially with the number of constituent drugs, there has been little progress in the development of methods for the design and analysis of high-dimensional drug combinations. In fact, contrary to common mathematical reasoning, the case of three-drug combinations is fundamentally more difficult than two-drug combinations. Apparently, finding doses of the combination, number of combinations, and replicates needed to detect departures from additivity depends on dose-response shapes of individual constituent drugs. Thus, different classes of drugs of different dose-response shapes need to be treated as a separate case. Our application and case studies develop dose finding and sample size method for detecting departures from additivity with several common (linear and log-linear) classes of single dose-response curves. Furthermore, utilizing the geometric features of the interaction index, we propose a nonparametric model to estimate the interaction index surface by B-spine approximation and derive its asymptotic properties. Utilizing the method, we designed and analyzed a combination study of three anticancer drugs, PD184, HA14-1, and CEP3891 inhibiting myeloma H929 cell line

  2. Design, Analysis, and Experimental Evaluation of a Double Coil Magnetorheological Fluid Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A magnetorheological (MR damper is one of the most advanced devices used in a semiactive control system to mitigate unwanted vibration because the damping force can be controlled by changing the viscosity of the internal magnetorheological (MR fluids. This study proposes a typical double coil MR damper where the damping force and dynamic range were derived from a quasistatic model based on the Bingham model of MR fluid. A finite element model was built to study the performance of this double coil MR damper by investigating seven different piston configurations, including the numbers and shapes of their chamfered ends. The objective function of an optimization problem was proposed and then an optimization procedure was constructed using the ANSYS parametric design language (APDL to obtain the optimal damping performance of a double coil MR damper. Furthermore, experimental tests were also carried out, and the effects of the same direction and reverse direction of the currents on the damping forces were also analyzed. The relevant results of this analysis can easily be extended to the design of other types of MR dampers.

  3. Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.

  4. Observer Based Sliding Mode Attitude Control: Theoretical and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Jørgensen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the design of a sliding mode controller for attitude control of spacecraft actuated by three orthogonal reaction wheels. The equilibrium of the closed loop system is proved to be asymptotically stable in the sense of Lyapunov. Due to cases where spacecraft do not have angular velocity measurements, an estimator for the generalized velocity is derived and asymptotic stability is proven for the observer. The approach is tested on an experimental platform with a sphere shaped Autonomous Underwater Vehicle SATellite: AUVSAT, developed at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

  5. Design and experimental investigation of an oxy-fuel combustion system for magnetohydrodynamic power extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Manuel Johannes

    designed to produce gas velocities of 2000 m/s gas and temperatures within the following range of 2800-3000 K. In the injection system, the momentum flux ratio (MFR) was estimated to be 16. The heat loss fraction in this oxy-combustion system, based on CFD and analytical calculations, at optimal operating conditions, was estimated to be less than 10 percent. Furthermore, the heat transfer design removed approximately 7 MW/m2. The experimental performance of oxy-combustion systems demonstrates promise for advanced power generation applications.

  6. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students’ Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students’ competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not measure how well students use standard symbolism to visualize biological experiments. We propose an assessment-design process that 1) provides background knowledge and questions for developers of new “experimentation assessments,” 2) elicits practices of representing experiments with conventional symbol systems, 3) determines how well the assessment reveals expert knowledge, and 4) determines how well the instrument exposes student knowledge and difficulties. To illustrate this process, we developed the Neuron Assessment and coded responses from a scientist and four undergraduate students using the Rubric for Experimental Design and the Concept-Reasoning Mode of representation (CRM) model. Some students demonstrated sound knowledge of concepts and representations. Other students demonstrated difficulty with depicting treatment and control group data or variability in experimental outcomes. Our process, which incorporates an authentic research situation that discriminates levels of visualization and experimentation abilities, shows potential for informing assessment design in other disciplines. PMID:27146159

  7. Designing Dexter-based cooperative hypermedia systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Sloth, Lennard

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses issues for the design of a Dexter-based cooperative hypermedia architecture and a specific system, DeVise Hypermedia (DHM), developed from this architecture. The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model [Hala90] was used as basis for designing the architecture. The Dexter model...... provides a general and solid foundation for designing a general hypermedia architecture. It introduces central concepts and proposes a layering of the architecture. However, to handle cooperative work aspects, such as sharing material and cooperative authoring, we have to go beyond the Dexter model...... concepts. To deal with such aspects we have extended our implementation of the Dexter concepts with support for long-term transactions, locking and event notification as called for by Halasz [Hala88]. The result is a platform independent architecture for developing cooperative hypermedia systems...

  8. Laser-Based Lighting: Experimental Analysis and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Trivellin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive analysis of the operating principles, theoretical background, advantages and limitations of laser-based lighting systems. In the first part of the paper we discuss the main advantages and issues of laser-based lighting, and present a comparison with conventional LED-lighting technology. In the second part of the paper, we present original experimental data on the stability and reliability of phosphor layers for laser lighting, based on high light-intensity and high-temperature degradation tests. In the third part of the paper (for the first time we present a detailed comparison between three different solutions for laser lighting, based on (i transmissive phosphor layers; (ii a reflective/angled phosphor layer; and (iii a parabolic reflector, by discussing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach. The results presented within this paper can be used as a guideline for the development of advanced lighting systems based on laser diodes.

  9. Computational tools for in silico fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Jeremie; Rakers, Christin; Frederick, Raphael; Wolber, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Fragment-based strategy in drug design involves the initial discovery of low-molecular mass molecules. Owing to their small-size, fragments are molecular tools to probe specific sub-pockets within a protein active site. Once their interaction within the enzyme cavity is clearly understood and experimentally validated, they represent a unique opportunity to design potent and efficient larger compounds. Computer-aided methods can essentially support the identification of suitable fragments. In this review, available tools for computational drug design are discussed in the frame of fragmentbased approaches. We analyze and review (i) available commercial fragment libraries with respect to their properties and size, (ii) computational methods for the construction of such a library, (iii) the different strategies and software packages for the selection of the fragments with predicted affinity to a given target, and (iv) tools for the in silico linkage of fragments into an actual high-affinity lead structure candidate.

  10. Circuit Tolerance Design Using Belief Rule Base

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Bin Xu; Zheng Liu; Yu-Wang Chen; Dong-Ling Xu; Cheng-Lin Wen

    2015-01-01

    A belief rule-based (BRB) system provides a generic nonlinear modeling and inference mechanism. It is capable of modeling complex causal relationships by utilizing both quantitative information and qualitative knowledge. In this paper, a BRB system is firstly developed to model the highly nonlinear relationship between circuit component parameters and the performance of the circuit by utilizing available knowledge from circuit simulations and circuit designers. By using rule inference in the ...

  11. An introduction to data base design

    CERN Document Server

    Salzberg, Betty Joan

    1986-01-01

    An Introduction to Data Base Design provides an understanding of how data base management systems (DBMS) work to be able to use any available commercial DBMS intelligently. This book presents the principle of independence of physical and local organization.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of normal form theory. This text then describes the three types of DBMS. Other chapters consider the difficulties in processing queries where the names of the files are not mentioned. This book discusses as well how to group data hierarchically, how to use a preorder tree trave

  12. Optimization of primaquine diphosphate tablet formulation for controlled drug release using the mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Marcelo Dutra; Kreidel, Rogério Nepomuceno; Taqueda, Maria Elena Santos; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Consiglieri, Vladi Olga

    2013-01-01

    A tablet formulation based on hydrophilic matrix with a controlled drug release was developed, and the effect of polymer concentrations on the release of primaquine diphosphate was evaluated. To achieve this purpose, a 20-run, four-factor with multiple constraints on the proportions of the components was employed to obtain tablet compositions. Drug release was determined by an in vitro dissolution study in phosphate buffer solution at pH 6.8. The polynomial fitted functions described the behavior of the mixture on simplex coordinate systems to study the effects of each factor (polymer) on tablet characteristics. Based on the response surface methodology, a tablet composition was optimized with the purpose of obtaining a primaquine diphosphate release closer to a zero order kinetic. This formulation released 85.22% of the drug for 8 h and its kinetic was studied regarding to Korsmeyer-Peppas model, (Adj-R(2) = 0.99295) which has confirmed that both diffusion and erosion were related to the mechanism of the drug release. The data from the optimized formulation were very close to the predictions from statistical analysis, demonstrating that mixture experimental design could be used to optimize primaquine diphosphate dissolution from hidroxypropylmethyl cellulose and polyethylene glycol matrix tablets.

  13. Design and experimentation of an empirical multistructure framework for accurate, sharp and reliable hydrological ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiller, G.; Anctil, F.; Roy, R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper outlines the design and experimentation of an Empirical Multistructure Framework (EMF) for lumped conceptual hydrological modeling. This concept is inspired from modular frameworks, empirical model development, and multimodel applications, and encompasses the overproduce and select paradigm. The EMF concept aims to reduce subjectivity in conceptual hydrological modeling practice and includes model selection in the optimisation steps, reducing initial assumptions on the prior perception of the dominant rainfall-runoff transformation processes. EMF generates thousands of new modeling options from, for now, twelve parent models that share their functional components and parameters. Optimisation resorts to ensemble calibration, ranking and selection of individual child time series based on optimal bias and reliability trade-offs, as well as accuracy and sharpness improvement of the ensemble. Results on 37 snow-dominated Canadian catchments and 20 climatically-diversified American catchments reveal the excellent potential of the EMF in generating new individual model alternatives, with high respective performance values, that may be pooled efficiently into ensembles of seven to sixty constitutive members, with low bias and high accuracy, sharpness, and reliability. A group of 1446 new models is highlighted to offer good potential on other catchments or applications, based on their individual and collective interests. An analysis of the preferred functional components reveals the importance of the production and total flow elements. Overall, results from this research confirm the added value of ensemble and flexible approaches for hydrological applications, especially in uncertain contexts, and open up new modeling possibilities.

  14. Multi-objective optimization design and experimental investigation of centrifugal fan performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Songling; Hu, Chenxing; Zhang, Qian

    2013-11-01

    Current studies of fan performance optimization mainly focus on two aspects: one is to improve the blade profile, and another is only to consider the influence of single impeller structural parameter on fan performance. However, there are few studies on the comprehensive effect of the key parameters such as blade number, exit stagger angle of blade and the impeller outlet width on the fan performance. The G4-73 backward centrifugal fan widely used in power plants is selected as the research object. Based on orthogonal design and BP neural network, a model for predicting the centrifugal fan performance parameters is established, and the maximum relative errors of the total pressure and efficiency are 0.974% and 0.333%, respectively. Multi-objective optimization of total pressure and efficiency of the fan is conducted with genetic algorithm, and the optimum combination of impeller structural parameters is proposed. The optimized parameters of blade number, exit stagger angle of blade and the impeller outlet width are seperately 14, 43.9°, and 21 cm. The experiments on centrifugal fan performance and noise are conducted before and after the installation of the new impeller. The experimental results show that with the new impeller, the total pressure of fan increases significantly in total range of the flow rate, and the fan efficiency is improved when the relative flow is above 75%, also the high efficiency area is broadened. Additionally, in 65% -100% relative flow, the fan noise is reduced. Under the design operating condition, total pressure and efficiency of the fan are improved by 6.91% and 0.5%, respectively. This research sheds light on the considering of comprehensive effect of impeller structrual parameters on fan performance, and a new impeller can be designed to satisfy the engineering demand such as energy-saving, noise reduction or solving air pressure insufficiency for power plants.

  15. Design and experimental validation of an adaptive phononic crystal using highly dissipative polymeric material interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billon, K.; Ouisse, M.; Sadoulet-Reboul, E.; Collet, M.; Chevallier, G.; Khelif, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, some numerical tools for dispersion analysis of periodic structures are presented, with a focus on the ability of the methods to deal with dissipative behaviour of the systems. An adaptive phononic crystal based on the combination of metallic parts and highly dissipative polymeric interface is designed. The system consists in an infinite periodic bidirectional waveguide. The periodic cylindrical pillars include a layer of shape memory polymer and Aluminum. The mechanical properties of the polymer depend on both temperature and frequency and can radically change from glassy to rubbery state, with various combination of high/low stiffness and high/low dissipation. A fractional derivative Zener model is used for the description of the frequency-dependent behaviour of the polymer. A 3D finite element model of the cell is developed for the design of the metamaterial. The "Shifted-Cell Operator" technique consists in a reformulation of the PDE problem by "shifting" in terms of wave number the space derivatives appearing in the mechanical behaviour operator inside the cell, while imposing continuity boundary conditions on the borders of the domain. Damping effects can easily be introduced in the system and a quadratic eigenvalue problem yields to the dispersion properties of the periodic structure. In order to validate the design and the adaptive character of the metamaterial, results issued from a full 3D model of a finite structure embedding an interface composed by a distributed set of the unit cells are presented. Various driving temperature are used to change the behaviour of the system. After this step, a comparison between the results obtained using the tunable structure simulation and the experimental results is presented. Two states are obtained by changing the temperature of the polymeric interface: at 25°C, the bandgap is visible around a selected frequency. Above the glass transition, the phononic crystal tends to behave as an homogeneous plate.

  16. Predicting the ballistic strength of aramid fiber composites by implementing full factorial experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Dimeski, Dimko; Srebrenkoska, Vineta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to predict the ballistic strength of hard aramid fiber/phenolic ballistic composites by implementing the full factorial experimental design. When designing ballistic composites two major factors are the most important: the ballistic strength and the weight of the protection. The ultimate target is to achieve the required ballistic strength with the lowest possible weight of protection. The hard ballistic aramid/phenolic composites were made by open mold...

  17. Experimental Analyses for The Mechanical Behavior of Pressed All-Ceramic Molar Crowns with Anatomical Design

    OpenAIRE

    Porojan Liliana; Porojan Sorin; Rusu Lucian; Boloş Adrian; Savencu Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic restorations show considerable variation in strength and structural reliability regarding to the type of material, and design characteristics. The fracture of ceramics occurs with little or no plastic deformation, with cracks propagated in an unstable manner under applied tensile stresses. The aim of the study was to assess experimental analyses of pressed monolithic ceramic crowns with anatomical design used in the posterior areas in order to understand their mechanical behavior befo...

  18. Design of high productivity antibody capture by protein A chromatography using an integrated experimental and modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Candy K S; Osuna-Sanchez, Hector; Valéry, Eric; Sørensen, Eva; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2012-06-15

    An integrated experimental and modeling approach for the design of high productivity protein A chromatography is presented to maximize productivity in bioproduct manufacture. The approach consists of four steps: (1) small-scale experimentation, (2) model parameter estimation, (3) productivity optimization and (4) model validation with process verification. The integrated use of process experimentation and modeling enables fewer experiments to be performed, and thus minimizes the time and materials required in order to gain process understanding, which is of key importance during process development. The application of the approach is demonstrated for the capture of antibody by a novel silica-based high performance protein A adsorbent named AbSolute. In the example, a series of pulse injections and breakthrough experiments were performed to develop a lumped parameter model, which was then used to find the best design that optimizes the productivity of a batch protein A chromatographic process for human IgG capture. An optimum productivity of 2.9 kg L⁻¹ day⁻¹ for a column of 5mm diameter and 8.5 cm length was predicted, and subsequently verified experimentally, completing the whole process design approach in only 75 person-hours (or approximately 2 weeks). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PLD based design with VHDL RTL design, synthesis and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Taraate, Vaibbhav

    2017-01-01

    This book covers basic fundamentals of logic design and advanced RTL design concepts using VHDL. The book is organized to describe both simple and complex RTL design scenarios using VHDL. It gives practical information on the issues in ASIC prototyping using FPGAs, design challenges and how to overcome practical issues and concerns. It describes how to write an efficient RTL code using VHDL and how to improve the design performance. The design guidelines by using VHDL are also explained with the practical examples in this book. The book also covers the ALTERA and XILINX FPGA architecture and the design flow for the PLDs. The contents of this book will be useful to students, researchers, and professionals working in hardware design and optimization. The book can also be used as a text for graduate and professional development courses.

  20. Computer Based Training Authors' and Designers' training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric GODET

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This communication, through couple of studies driven since 10 years, tries to show how important is the training of authors in Computer Based Training (CBT. We submit here an approach to prepare designers mastering Interactive Multimedia modules in this domain. Which institutions are really dedicating their efforts in training authors and designers in this area of CBTs? Television devices and broadcast organisations offered since year 60s' a first support for Distance Learning. New media, New Information and Communication Technologies (NICT allowed several public and private organisations to start Distance Learning projects. As usual some of them met their training objectives, other of them failed. Did their really failed? Currently, nobody has the right answer. Today, we do not have enough efficient tools allowing us to evaluate trainees' acquisition in a short term view. Training evaluation needs more than 10 to 20 years of elapsed time to bring reliable measures. Nevertheless, given the high investments already done in this area, we cannot wait until the final results of the pedagogical evaluation. A lot of analyses showed relevant issues which can be used as directions for CBTs authors and designers training. Warning - Our studies and the derived conclusions are mainly based on projects driven in the field. We additionally bring our several years experience in the training of movie film authors in the design of interactive multimedia products. Some of our examples are extracting from vocational training projects where we were involved in all development phases from the analysis of needs to the evaluation of the acquisition within the trainee's / employee job's. Obviously, we cannot bring and exhaustive approach in this domain where a lot of parameters are involved as frame for the CBT interactive multimedia modules authors' and designers' training.

  1. Antioxidative Categorization of Twenty Amino Acids Based on Experimental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naijin Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In view of the great importance bestowed on amino acids as antioxidants in oxidation resistance, we attempted two common redox titration methods in this report, including micro-potassium permanganate titration and iodometric titration, to measure the antioxidative capacity of 20 amino acids, which are the construction units of proteins in living organisms. Based on the relative intensities of the antioxidative capacity, we further conducted a quantitative comparison and found out that the product of experimental values obtained from the two methods was proven to be a better indicator for evaluating the relative antioxidative capacity of amino acids. The experimental results were largely in accordance with structural analysis made on amino acids. On the whole, the 20 amino acids concerned could be divided into two categories according to their antioxidative capacity. Seven amino acids, including tryptophan, methionine, histidine, lysine, cysteine, arginine and tyrosine, were greater in total antioxidative capacity compared with the other 13 amino acids.

  2. Antioxidative Categorization of Twenty Amino Acids Based on Experimental Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naijin; Chen, Guanqun; Liu, Hui

    2017-11-27

    In view of the great importance bestowed on amino acids as antioxidants in oxidation resistance, we attempted two common redox titration methods in this report, including micro-potassium permanganate titration and iodometric titration, to measure the antioxidative capacity of 20 amino acids, which are the construction units of proteins in living organisms. Based on the relative intensities of the antioxidative capacity, we further conducted a quantitative comparison and found out that the product of experimental values obtained from the two methods was proven to be a better indicator for evaluating the relative antioxidative capacity of amino acids. The experimental results were largely in accordance with structural analysis made on amino acids. On the whole, the 20 amino acids concerned could be divided into two categories according to their antioxidative capacity. Seven amino acids, including tryptophan, methionine, histidine, lysine, cysteine, arginine and tyrosine, were greater in total antioxidative capacity compared with the other 13 amino acids.

  3. Whither Instructional Design and Teacher Training? The Need for Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    This article takes a contrarian position: an "instructional design" or "teacher training" model, because of the sheer number of its interconnected parameters, is too complex to assess or to compare with other models. Models may not be the way to go just yet. This article recommends instead prior experimental research on limited…

  4. The Impact of the Hawthorne Effect in Experimental Designs in Educational Research. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Desmond L.

    Project objectives included (1) establishing a body of knowledge concerning the role of the Hawthorne effect in experimental designs in educational research, (2) assessing the influence of the Hawthorne effect on educational experiments conducted under varying conditions of control, (3) identifying the major components comprising the effect, and…

  5. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  6. 76 FR 28715 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... species O. mykiss. The common names of the non-anadromous, or resident, form are rainbow trout and redband... species of Pacific salmonid. These fish can be anadromous or freshwater residents, and under some... Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population for Middle Columbia River Steelhead Above...

  7. Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

  8. Combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks in the solid dispersion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medarević, Djordje P; Kleinebudde, Peter; Djuriš, Jelena; Djurić, Zorica; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    This study for the first time demonstrates combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the solid dispersions (SDs) development. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs were prepared by solvent casting method to improve carbamazepine dissolution rate. The influence of the composition of prepared SDs on carbamazepine dissolution rate was evaluated using d-optimal mixture experimental design and multilayer perceptron ANNs. Physicochemical characterization proved the presence of the most stable carbamazepine polymorph III within the SD matrix. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs significantly improved carbamazepine dissolution rate compared to pure drug. Models developed by ANNs and mixture experimental design well described the relationship between proportions of SD components and percentage of carbamazepine released after 10 (Q10) and 20 (Q20) min, wherein ANN model exhibit better predictability on test data set. Proportions of carbamazepine and poloxamer 188 exhibited the highest influence on carbamazepine release rate. The highest carbamazepine release rate was observed for SDs with the lowest proportions of carbamazepine and the highest proportions of poloxamer 188. ANNs and mixture experimental design can be used as powerful data modeling tools in the systematic development of SDs. Taking into account advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, their combined application should be encouraged.

  9. Optimization of the synthesis of 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-propyl-starch through statistical experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbrechts, A.M.L.; Vermonden, T.; Bogaert, P.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Visser, G.M.; Boeriu, C.G.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-propyl starches was studied using a statistical experimental design approach. The etherification of two different granular maize starches with allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) in a heterogeneous alkaline suspension was investigated. The optimal reaction conditions

  10. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we

  11. Building upon the Experimental Design in Media Violence Research: The Importance of Including Receiver Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Tomasello, Tami K.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that the inclusion of viewer interpretation variables in experimental design and analysis procedures can greatly increase the methodology's ability to explain variance. Focuses attention on the between-group differences, while an analysis of how individual participants interpret the cues in the stimulus material focused attention on the…

  12. Guided Inquiry in a Biochemistry Laboratory Course Improves Experimental Design Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodey, Nina M.; Talgar, Cigdem P.

    2016-01-01

    Many biochemistry laboratory courses expose students to laboratory techniques through pre-determined experiments in which students follow stepwise protocols provided by the instructor. This approach fails to provide students with sufficient opportunities to practice experimental design and critical thinking. Ten inquiry modules were created for a…

  13. A Course on Experimental Design for Different University Specialties: Experiences and Changes over a Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Luaces, Victor; Velazquez, Blanca; Dee, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the origin and development of an Experimental Design course which has been taught in several faculties of the Universidad de la Republica and other institutions in Uruguay, over a 10-year period. At the end of the course, students were assessed by carrying out individual work projects on real-life problems, which was innovative for…

  14. Experimental design applied to the formulation of lipsticks with particular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, F; Masiello, S; Bader, S; Guarneri, M; Vojnovic, D

    1998-08-01

    In our work a non-classical experimental design was applied to obtain lipsticks endowed with particular characteristics. Our aim was to formulate lipsticks that leave a brilliant and shiny colour application and have a transparent look. The emollient substances and the waxes (consistency factors) were identified as the main variables of the system. A two phase experimental strategy was thought out: the optimal quantities of consistency factors were selected using a Doehlert experimental matrix, whereas the correct mixtures of emollients were determined using a Scheffé simplex-centroid design. These two design were combined and a set of 49 experiments was obtained. The experiments carried out allowed the definition of a zone of two phases in which the objectives were attained: the correct types and appropriate quantities of emollients and waxes were determined. To find a possible correlation between some mixtures and the lipsticks' sensorial behaviour, differential scanning calorimetry was used. These results, in addition to those obtained using the experimental design allowed us to select the best lipstick formula. (c) Rapid Science Ltd. 1998.

  15. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  16. Experimental Aeroelastic Models Design and Wind Tunnel Testing for Correlation with New Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of experimental model designs, wind tunnel tests and correlation with new theory are presented in this paper. The goal is not only to evaluate a new theory, new computational method or new aeroelastic phonomenon, but also to provide new insights into nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, flutter, limit cycle oscillation (LCO and gust response.

  17. Thermodynamic model using experimental loss factors for dielectric elastomer actuator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking Bigué, J.-P.; Chouinard, P.; Denninger, M.; Proulx, S.; Plante, J.-S.

    2010-04-01

    Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) are a promising actuation technology for mobile robotics due to their high forceto- weight ratio, their potential for high efficiencies, and their low cost. The preliminary design of such actuators requires a quick and precise assessment of actuator energy conversion performance. To do so, this paper proposes a simple thermodynamic model using experimentally acquired loss factors that predict actuator mechanical work, energy consumption, and efficiency when operating under constant voltage and constant charge modes. Mechanical and electrical loss factors for both VHB 4905 (acrylic) and Nusil's CF19-2186 (silicone) are obtained by mapping the performances of cone-shaped DEAs over a broad range of actuator speeds, capacitance ratios, and applied voltages. Extensive experimental results reveal the main performance trends to follow for preliminary actuator design, which are explained by the proposed model. For the tested conditions, the maximum experimental brake efficiencies are ~35% and ~25% for VHB and CF19-2186 respectively.

  18. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  19. Structure-Based Design of Ricin Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon D. Robertus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a potent cytotoxin easily purified in large quantities. It presents a significant public health concern due to its potential use as a bioterrorism agent. For this reason, extensive efforts have been underway to develop antidotes against this deadly poison. The catalytic A subunit of the heterodimeric toxin has been biochemically and structurally well characterized, and is an attractive target for structure-based drug design. Aided by computer docking simulations, several ricin toxin A chain (RTA inhibitors have been identified; the most promising leads belonging to the pterin family. Development of these lead compounds into potent drug candidates is a challenging prospect for numerous reasons, including poor solubility of pterins, the large and highly polar secondary binding pocket of RTA, as well as the enzyme’s near perfect catalytic efficiency and tight binding affinity for its natural substrate, the eukaryotic ribosome. To date, the most potent RTA inhibitors developed using this approach are only modest inhibitors with apparent IC50 values in the 10−4 M range, leaving significant room for improvement. This review highlights the variety of techniques routinely employed in structure-based drug design projects, as well as the challenges faced in the design of RTA inhibitors.

  20. Modelling and experimental validation for off-design performance of the helical heat exchanger with LMTD correction taken into account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phu, Nguyen Minh; Trinh, Nguyen Thi Minh [Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-07-15

    Today the helical coil heat exchanger is being employed widely due to its dominant advantages. In this study, a mathematical model was established to predict off-design works of the helical heat exchanger. The model was based on the LMTD and e-NTU methods, where a LMTD correction factor was taken into account to increase accuracy. An experimental apparatus was set-up to validate the model. Results showed that errors of thermal duty, outlet hot fluid temperature, outlet cold fluid temperature, shell-side pressure drop, and tube-side pressure drop were respectively +-5%, +-1%, +-1%, +-5% and +-2%. Diagrams of dimensionless operating parameters and a regression function were also presented as design-maps, a fast calculator for usage in design and operation of the exchanger. The study is expected to be a good tool to estimate off-design conditions of the single-phase helical heat exchangers.

  1. Invited review: Experimental design, data reporting, and sharing in support of animal systems modeling research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J P; Hanigan, M D; White, R R

    2016-12-01

    The National Animal Nutrition Program "National Research Support Project 9" supports efforts in livestock nutrition, including the National Research Council's committees on the nutrient requirements of animals. Our objective was to review the status of experimentation and data reporting in animal nutrition literature and to provide suggestions for the advancement of animal nutrition research and the ongoing improvement of field-applied nutrient requirement models. Improved data reporting consistency and completeness represent a substantial opportunity to improve nutrition-related mathematical models. We reviewed a body of nutrition research; recorded common phrases used to describe diets, animals, housing, and environmental conditions; and proposed equivalent numerical data that could be reported. With the increasing availability of online supplementary material sections in journals, we developed a comprehensive checklist of data that should be included in publications. To continue to improve our research effectiveness, studies utilizing multiple research methodologies to address complex systems and measure multiple variables will be necessary. From the current body of animal nutrition literature, we identified a series of opportunities to integrate research focuses (nutrition, reproduction and genetics) to advance the development of nutrient requirement models. From our survey of current experimentation and data reporting in animal nutrition, we identified 4 key opportunities to advance animal nutrition knowledge: (1) coordinated experiments should be designed to employ multiple research methodologies; (2) systems-oriented research approaches should be encouraged and supported; (3) publication guidelines should be updated to encourage and support sharing of more complete data sets; and (4) new experiments should be more rapidly integrated into our knowledge bases, research programs and practical applications. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association

  2. South Korean military service promotes smoking: a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Irvin, Veronica L; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2012-03-01

    The South Korean (SK) government monopolizes the tobacco industry and is accused of pushing smoking on captive military personnel. However, estimating the association between military service and smoking is difficult, since military service is required for all SK men and the few civilian waivers are usually based on smoking determinants, e.g., social status. Using a quasi-experimental design we validly estimate the association between military service and smoking. Military service was assigned by immigration patterns to the United States, instead of an experimenter, by comparing Korean Americans who happened to immigrate before or after the age(s) of mandated service. Smoking promotion in the military was also described among SK veterans, to identify the probable mechanisms for veterans' smoking tendencies. Veterans were 15% [95% confidence interval (CI), 4 to 27] more likely to ever-puff and 10% (95% CI, 0 to 23) more likely to ever-smoke cigarettes, compared to a similar group of civilians. Among veterans, 92% (95% CI, 89 to 95) recalled cigarettes were free, 30% (95% CI, 25 to 35) recalled smokers were given more work breaks and 38% (95% CI, 32 to 43) felt explicit "social pressure" to smoke. Free cigarettes was the strongest mechanism for veterans' smoking tendencies, e.g., veterans recalling free cigarette distribution were 16% (95% CI, 1 to 37) more likely to ever-smoke than veterans not recalling. These patterns suggest military service is strongly associated with smoking, and differences between veterans and civilians smoking may carry over long after military service. Given military service remains entirely in government purview, actively changing military smoking policies may prove most efficacious. This highlights the importance of recent bans on military cigarette distribution, but policies eliminating other smoking encouragements described by veterans are necessary and could effectively reduce the smoking prevalence by as much as 10% in SK.

  3. Creating A Data Base For Design Of An Impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prueger, George H.; Chen, Wei-Chung

    1993-01-01

    Report describes use of Taguchi method of parametric design to create data base facilitating optimization of design of impeller in centrifugal pump. Data base enables systematic design analysis covering all significant design parameters. Reduces time and cost of parametric optimization of design: for particular impeller considered, one can cover 4,374 designs by computational simulations of performance for only 18 cases.

  4. French investigations of high burnup effect on LOCA thermomechanical behavior: Part 1. Experimental programmes in support of LOCA design methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waeckel, N. [EDF/SEPTEN Villeurbanne (France); GrandJean, C. [IPSN, Cadarache (France); Cauvin, R.; Lebuffe, C. [EDF/SCMI, Chinon (France)

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of Burn-Up extension request, EDF, FRAMATOME, CEA and IPSN have carried out experimental programmes in order to provide the design of fuel rods under LOCA conditions with relevant data. The design methods used in France for LOCA are based on standard Appendix K methodology updated to take into account some penalties related to the actual conditions of the Nuclear Power Plant. Best-Estimate assessments are used as well. Experimental programmes concern plastic deformation and burst behavior of advanced claddings (EDGAR) and thermal shock quenching behavior of highly irradiated claddings (TAGCIR). The former reveals the important role played by the {alpha}/{beta} transformation kinetics related to advanced alloys (Niobium alloys) and the latter the significative impact of hydrogen charged during in-reactor corrosion on oxidation kinetics and failure behavior in terms of cooling rates.

  5. A new mix design concept for earth-moist concrete: A theoretical and experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsken, Götz; Brouwers, Jos

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses experiments on earth-moist concrete (EMC) based on the ideas of a new mix design concept. First, a brief introduction into particle packing and relevant packing theories is given. Based on packing theories for geometric packing, a new concept for the mix design of earth-moist

  6. An Experimental ASON Based on OADM Rings and a GMPLS Control Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, R.; Pinart, C.; Martinez, R.; Junyent, A.; Junyent, G.

    This article presents the architecture of an ASON testbed implemented in the EMPIRICO project, focusing on design and implementation issues of real-time provisioning of bidirectional optical connections supported by a distributed GMPLS-based control plane and triggered by the network management system. Experimental performance is evaluated over a unidirectional and a bidirectional all-optical OADM ring in which neither wavelength converters nor optical resources discovery are employed. Performance analysis evaluates the blocking probability and the connection setup time.

  7. In silico fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konteatis, Zenon D

    2010-11-01

    In silico fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is a relatively new approach inspired by the success of the biophysical fragment-based drug discovery field. Here, we review the progress made by this approach in the last decade and showcase how it complements and expands the capabilities of biophysical FBDD and structure-based drug design to generate diverse, efficient drug candidates. Advancements in several areas of research that have enabled the development of in silico FBDD and some applications in drug discovery projects are reviewed. The reader is introduced to various computational methods that are used for in silico FBDD, the fragment library composition for this technique, special applications used to identify binding sites on the surface of proteins and how to assess the druggability of these sites. In addition, the reader will gain insight into the proper application of this approach from examples of successful programs. In silico FBDD captures a much larger chemical space than high-throughput screening and biophysical FBDD increasing the probability of developing more diverse, patentable and efficient molecules that can become oral drugs. The application of in silico FBDD holds great promise for historically challenging targets such as protein-protein interactions. Future advances in force fields, scoring functions and automated methods for determining synthetic accessibility will all aid in delivering more successes with in silico FBDD.

  8. Fertilizer Response Curves for Commercial Southern Forest Species Defined with an Un-Replicated Experimental Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Mark; Aubrey, Doug; Coyle, David, R.; Daniels, Richard, F.

    2005-11-01

    There has been recent interest in use of non-replicated regression experimental designs in forestry, as the need for replication in experimental design is burdensome on limited research budgets. We wanted to determine the interacting effects of soil moisture and nutrient availability on the production of various southeastern forest trees (two clones of Populus deltoides, open pollinated Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua and Pinus taeda). Additionally, we required an understanding of the fertilizer response curve. To accomplish both objectives we developed a composite design that includes a core ANOVA approach to consider treatment interactions, with the addition of non-replicated regression plots receiving a range of fertilizer levels for the primary irrigation treatment.

  9. Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, Lowell

    1994-01-01

    This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

  10. A systems-based food safety evaluation: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Charles L; Hartfield, Barry S

    2004-11-01

    Food establishments are complex systems with inputs, subsystems, underlying forces that affect the system, outputs, and feedback. Building on past exploration of the hazard analysis critical control point concept and Ludwig von Bertalanffy General Systems Theory, the National Park Service (NPS) is attempting to translate these ideas into a realistic field assessment of food service establishments and to use information gathered by these methods in efforts to improve food safety. Over the course of the last two years, an experimental systems-based methodology has been drafted, developed, and tested by the NPS Public Health Program. This methodology is described in this paper.

  11. LABEXNET: un Laboratorio de Economía Experimental en Internet. [LABEXNET: Internet-based laboratory for experimental Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán Ordax, José Manuel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Economists have designed over the years a wide range of scientific experiments that can be usefully employed nowadays as teaching aids. The interactive and participatory nature of such experiments serves as a motivation to students, stimulates their own thinking, and enhances their insights into the forces that drive economic markets: the aggregate interactions of economic agents within a market institution. Economic classroom games have been recognised as useful teaching tools for decades, and they have often produced surprising results and better understanding of market dynamics and institutions. Nowadays the new information technologies can be brought into play to conduct and analyse experimental games in unprecedented ways: using Internet-based tools, the design, execution and analysis of classroom games can be made considerably easier than traditionally. In this paper we introduce LABEXNET, a program designed to conduct Internet-based economic classroom games. LABEXNET is freely available to the academic community.. La Economía Experimental ha desarrollado diferentes experimentos que pueden ser aprovechados como una actividad docente en la enseñanza de la Economía. Su naturaleza activa y participativa motiva a los alumnos y estimula la reflexión y la mejor comprensión de algunos fenómenos económicos como el funcionamiento de los mercados, donde los resultados individuales dependen del conjunto de las decisiones de los agentes y de sus interacciones. Los experimentos económicos tienen ya una larga tradición, y han proporcionado resultados espectaculares y conclusiones ampliamente admitidas sobre la dinámica de mercados y el efecto de las instituciones económicas. Las nuevas tecnologías facilitan la realización y el análisis de estos experimentos. En este artículo presentamos LABEXNET, un programa informático para la realización de experimentos económicos por Internet puesto a libre disposición de la comunidad

  12. Cultural evolutionary design of adaptive wavelet filters based on lifting scheme for micro-instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Manna, C; Romanucci, Carmine; Zanesco, Antonio; Arpaia, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    An evolutionary procedure based on cultural algorithms for the optimal design of adaptive wavelet filters based on lifting scheme is proposed. Numerical results of characterization, based on statistical experiment design, as well as validation, based on the comparison with a genetic optimization algorithm, are presented. Experimental results of the validation on two case studies for reducing uncertainty arising from noise in on-field corrosion rate measurements are highlighted. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A robust sensorless output feedback controller of the induction motor drives: new design and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanes, M.; Barbot, J.-B.; De Leon, J.; Glumineau, A.

    2010-03-01

    In this article, a sensorless output feedback controller is designed in order to drive the induction motor (IM) without the use of flux and speed sensors. First, an observer that uses only the measured stator currents is synthesised to estimate the mechanical variables (speed and load torque) and the magnetic variables (fluxes) by structurally taking into account the unobservability phenomena of the sensorless IM (SIM) and the parametric uncertainties. Second, a current-based field-oriented sliding mode control that uses the flux and the speed estimates given by the former observer is developed so as to steer the estimated speed and flux magnitude to the desired references. Since the observer error dynamic is independent from the known input control and depends on the IM parametric uncertainties, a kind of separation principle is introduced to guarantee the practical stability of the whole closed-loop system 'observer-controller' ('O-C') according to observability and unobservability time variation. A significant benchmark taking into account the unobservability phenomena of the SIM is presented to show the performances of the whole control scheme against experimental set-up.

  14. Design of a management information system for the Shielding Experimental Reactor ageing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jie, E-mail: hejiejoe@163.co [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Xianhong [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The problem of nuclear reactor ageing is a topic of increasing importance in nuclear safety recent years. Ageing management is usually implemented for reactors maintenance. In the practice, a large number of data and records need to be processed. However, there are few professional software applications that aid reactor ageing management, especially for research reactors. This paper introduces the design of a new web-based management information system (MIS), named the Shielding Experimental Reactor Ageing Management Information System (SERAMIS). It is an auxiliary means that helps to collect data, keep records, and retrieve information for a research reactor ageing management. The Java2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) and network database techniques, such as three-tiered model, Model-View-Controller architecture, transaction-oriented operations, and JavaScript techniques, are used in the development of this system. The functionalities of the application cover periodic safety review (PSR), regulatory references, data inspection, and SSCs classification according to ageing management methodology. Data and examples are presented to demonstrate the functionalities. For future work, techniques of data mining will be employed to support decision-making.

  15. Evaluating in Vitro Culture Medium of Gut Microbiome with Orthogonal Experimental Design and a Metaproteomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Zhang, Xu; Ning, Zhibin; Mayne, Janice; Moore, Jasmine I; Butcher, James; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Mack, David; Stintzi, Alain; Figeys, Daniel

    2017-11-22

    In vitro culture based approaches are time- and cost-effective solutions for rapidly evaluating the effects of drugs or natural compounds against microbiomes. The nutritional composition of the culture medium is an important determinant for effectively maintaining the gut microbiome in vitro. This study combines orthogonal experimental design and a metaproteomics approach to obtaining functional insights into the effects of different medium components on the microbiome. Our results show that the metaproteomic profile respond differently to medium components, including inorganic salts, bile salts, mucin, and short-chain fatty acids. Multifactor analysis of variance further revealed significant main and interaction effects of inorganic salts, bile salts, and mucin on the different functional groups of gut microbial proteins. While a broad regulating effect was observed on basic metabolic pathways, different medium components also showed significant modulations on cell wall, membrane, and envelope biogenesis and cell motility related functions. In particular, flagellar assembly related proteins were significantly responsive to the presence of mucin. This study provides information on the functional influences of medium components on the in vitro growth of microbiome communities and gives insight on the key components that must be considered when selecting and optimizing media for culturing ex vivo microbiotas.

  16. Standardization of Experimental Design for Crop Cultivation in Life Support Systems for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Silje Aase; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Kittang Jost, Ann-Iren

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, fresh air, and clean water for humans. The extensive work performed have shown that higher plants are able to adapt to space conditions in low Earth orbit, at least from one generation from seed to seed. Since the hardware has turned out to be of great importance for the results in microgravity research, full environmental monitoring and control must be the standard for future experiments. Selecting a few model plants, including crop plants for life support, would further increase the comparability between studies. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plants, with continuous recycling of resources. In the present study, recommended standardization of the experimental design for future scientific work assessing the effects of graded gravity on plant metabolism will be presented. This includes the environmental conditions required for cultivation of the selected MEliSSA species (wheat, bread wheat, soybean and potato), as well as guidelines for sowing, plant handling and analysis. Keywords: microgravity; magnetic field; radiation; MELiSSA; Moon; Mars.

  17. A regression-based Kansei engineering system based on form feature lines for product form design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When developing new products, it is important for a designer to understand users’ perceptions and develop product form with the corresponding perceptions. In order to establish the mapping between users’ perceptions and product design features effectively, in this study, we presented a regression-based Kansei engineering system based on form feature lines for product form design. First according to the characteristics of design concept representation, product form features–product form feature lines were defined. Second, Kansei words were chosen to describe image perceptions toward product samples. Then, multiple linear regression and support vector regression were used to construct the models, respectively, that predicted users’ image perceptions. Using mobile phones as experimental samples, Kansei prediction models were established based on the front view form feature lines of the samples. From the experimental results, these two predict models were of good adaptability. But in contrast to multiple linear regression, the predict performance of support vector regression model was better, and support vector regression is more suitable for form regression prediction. The results of the case showed that the proposed method provided an effective means for designers to manipulate product features as a whole, and it can optimize Kansei model and improve practical values.

  18. An experimental school prototype: Integrating 3rs (reduce, reuse & recycle concept into architectural design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Seng Yeap

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted a design project to examine the use of school as an ecological learning hub for children. Specifically, this study explores the ecological innovations that transform physical environment into three-dimensional textbooks for environmental education. A series of design workshops were carried out to gain interdisciplinary input for ecological school design. The findings suggest to integrate the concept of 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse & Recycle into the physical environment. As a result, an experimental school prototype is developed. It represents a series of recommendations that are rendered by novel ideas through the amalgamation of architecture, ecology and education. These findings promote the development of sustainable and interactive learning spaces through cross-disciplinary investigations in school architecture. Designers and practitioners interested in educational facilities design would find this article useful.

  19. Experimental demonstration of a magnetically tunable ferrite based metamaterial absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongjun; Wen, Guangjun; Zhu, Weiren; Li, Jian; Si, Li-Ming; Premaratne, Malin

    2014-06-30

    We synthesize and systematically characterize a novel type of magnetically tunable metamaterial absorber (MA) by integrating ferrite as a substrate or superstrate into a conventional passive MA. The nearly perfect absorption and tunability of this device is studied both numerically and experimentally within X-band (8-12 GHz) in a rectangular waveguide setup. Our measurements clearly show that the resonant frequency of the MA can be shifted across a wide frequency band by continuous adjustment of a magnetic field acting on the ferrite. Moreover, the effects of substrate/superstrate's thickness on the MA's tunability are discussed. The insight gained from the generic analysis enabled us to design an optimized tunable MA with relative frequency tuning range as larger as 11.5% while keeping the absorptivity higher than 98.5%. Our results pave a path towards applications with tunable devices, such as selective thermal emitters, sensors, and bolometers.

  20. Toxic responses to defined chemical mixtures: mathematical models and experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J P; Gandolfi, A J; Brendel, K

    1994-01-01

    The problem and relevance of assessing biological responses to chemical mixtures is presented with reference to the literature on this problem and its possible solutions. This review is intended for a general audience as an introduction to, and comment on, assessing the interactions of defined mixtures of xenobiotics. The focus is on experimental toxicology, however, the methods are also applicable to pharmacology. Much of the literature on this topic is quite specialized in statistics, theory, or specific applications. This may deter a significant portion of the growing number of investigators in this field from using this literature, and may partially account for the persistent use of methods which have been shown to permit precarious conclusions. References are given for some of the most comprehensive and recent work and reviews on the subject. The reader is given some familiarity with this topic's basic problems and ideas, and the controversy on terminology. One example is presented of a popular experimental design and data analysis method which while applicable in some situations, has been shown to lead to precarious and even erroneous conclusions. Eight other methods of data analysis are briefly presented and some of their advantages, disadvantages, assumptions, and limitations are discussed. These methods were selected to illustrate similarities and differences in the various approaches taken in addressing this problem. Three basic types of experimental design appropriate to these kinds of studies are outlined. General considerations, suggested guidelines, and possible pitfalls in experimental design, and data analysis of biological responses to chemical mixtures are discussed.

  1. Reliability based investigation of design factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-30

    Second-moment probabilistic techniques are used to formulate structural resistances and loads and to derive reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors for design. Existing concepts of the second-moment reliability theory have been extended to the practical case of multiple load combinations. This development consistently includes the stochastic character of loads and the unpredictable nature of their combinations. For this purpose, a new technique for the evaluation of load combinations is presented, whereby the moments of the extreme of combined loads is obtained in terms of the moments of individual loads and parameters describing their random fluctuations in time. Reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors are derived in terms of the acceptable level of risk, the coefficients of variation of the loads and resistance, uncertainties associated with errors in modeling and estimation, and a set of parameters describing the stochastic nature of loads and their combinations.

  2. Risk assessment and experimental design in the development of a prolonged release drug delivery system with paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurian, Sonia; Turdean, Luana; Tomuta, Ioan

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of a drug product based on a risk assessment-based approach, within the quality by design paradigm. A prolonged release system was proposed for paliperidone (Pal) delivery, containing Kollidon® SR as an insoluble matrix agent and hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a hydrophilic polymer. The experimental part was preceded by the identification of potential sources of variability through Ishikawa diagrams, and failure mode and effects analysis was used to deliver the critical process parameters that were further optimized by design of experiments. A D-optimal design was used to investigate the effects of Kollidon SR ratio (X1), the type of hydrophilic polymer (X2), and the percentage of hydrophilic polymer (X3) on the percentages of dissolved Pal over 24 h (Y1-Y9). Effects expressed as regression coefficients and response surfaces were generated, along with a design space for the preparation of a target formulation in an experimental area with low error risk. The optimal formulation contained 27.62% Kollidon SR and 8.73% HPMC and achieved the prolonged release of Pal, with low burst effect, at ratios that were very close to the ones predicted by the model. Thus, the parameters with the highest impact on the final product quality were studied, and safe ranges were established for their variations. Finally, a risk mitigation and control strategy was proposed to assure the quality of the system, by constant process monitoring.

  3. Sequential ensemble-based optimal design for parameter estimation: SEQUENTIAL ENSEMBLE-BASED OPTIMAL DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Zhang, Jiangjiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zeng, Lingzao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA

    2016-10-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been widely used in parameter estimation for hydrological models. The focus of most previous studies was to develop more efficient analysis (estimation) algorithms. On the other hand, it is intuitively understandable that a well-designed sampling (data-collection) strategy should provide more informative measurements and subsequently improve the parameter estimation. In this work, a Sequential Ensemble-based Optimal Design (SEOD) method, coupled with EnKF, information theory and sequential optimal design, is proposed to improve the performance of parameter estimation. Based on the first-order and second-order statistics, different information metrics including the Shannon entropy difference (SD), degrees of freedom for signal (DFS) and relative entropy (RE) are used to design the optimal sampling strategy, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by synthetic one-dimensional and two-dimensional unsaturated flow case studies. It is shown that the designed sampling strategies can provide more accurate parameter estimation and state prediction compared with conventional sampling strategies. Optimal sampling designs based on various information metrics perform similarly in our cases. The effect of ensemble size on the optimal design is also investigated. Overall, larger ensemble size improves the parameter estimation and convergence of optimal sampling strategy. Although the proposed method is applied to unsaturated flow problems in this study, it can be equally applied in any other hydrological problems.

  4. A mobile robots experimental environment with event-based wireless communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinaldo, María; Fábregas, Ernesto; Farias, Gonzalo; Dormido-Canto, Sebastián; Chaos, Dictino; Sánchez, José; Dormido, Sebastián

    2013-07-22

    An experimental platform to communicate between a set of mobile robots through a wireless network has been developed. The mobile robots get their position through a camera which performs as sensor. The video images are processed in a PC and a Waspmote card sends the corresponding position to each robot using the ZigBee standard. A distributed control algorithm based on event-triggered communications has been designed and implemented to bring the robots into the desired formation. Each robot communicates to its neighbors only at event times. Furthermore, a simulation tool has been developed to design and perform experiments with the system. An example of usage is presented.

  5. Model-Based Design of Biochemical Microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbinger, Tobias; Gahn, Markus; Neuss-Radu, Maria; Hante, Falk M; Voll, Lars M; Leugering, Günter; Knabner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of biochemical pathways is an important resource in Synthetic Biology, as the predictive power of simulating synthetic pathways represents an important step in the design of synthetic metabolons. In this paper, we are concerned with the mathematical modeling, simulation, and optimization of metabolic processes in biochemical microreactors able to carry out enzymatic reactions and to exchange metabolites with their surrounding medium. The results of the reported modeling approach are incorporated in the design of the first microreactor prototypes that are under construction. These microreactors consist of compartments separated by membranes carrying specific transporters for the input of substrates and export of products. Inside the compartments of the reactor multienzyme complexes assembled on nano-beads by peptide adapters are used to carry out metabolic reactions. The spatially resolved mathematical model describing the ongoing processes consists of a system of diffusion equations together with boundary and initial conditions. The boundary conditions model the exchange of metabolites with the neighboring compartments and the reactions at the surface of the nano-beads carrying the multienzyme complexes. Efficient and accurate approaches for numerical simulation of the mathematical model and for optimal design of the microreactor are developed. As a proof-of-concept scenario, a synthetic pathway for the conversion of sucrose to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) was chosen. In this context, the mathematical model is employed to compute the spatio-temporal distributions of the metabolite concentrations, as well as application relevant quantities like the outflow rate of G6P. These computations are performed for different scenarios, where the number of beads as well as their loading capacity are varied. The computed metabolite distributions show spatial patterns, which differ for different experimental arrangements. Furthermore, the total output of G6P

  6. Optimization of Protease Production from Aspergillus Oryzae Sp. Using Box-Behnken Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srinu Babu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease production by Aspergillus oryzae was optimized in shake-flask cultures using Box-Behnken experimental design. An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to describe the relationship between tested variable (peptone, glucose, soyabeanmeal and pH. Maximum enzyme activity was attained with Peptone at 4 g∕L; temperature at 30 °C glucose at 6 g∕L; 30 °C and pH at 10. Experimental verification of the model showed a validation of 95%, which is more than 3-fold increase compare to the basal medium.

  7. Comparing linkage designs based on land facets to linkage designs based on focal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Brian M; Beier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5-16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches.

  8. Advanced overlay analysis through design based metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sunkeun; Yoo, Gyun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Kang, Hyunwoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    As design rule shrink, overlay has been critical factor for semiconductor manufacturing. However, the overlay error which is determined by a conventional measurement with an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion caused by etching or CMP also can be a source of the mismatch. In 2014, we have demonstrated that method of overlay measurement in the cell area by using DBM (Design Based Metrology) tool has more accurate overlay value than conventional method by using an overlay mark. We have verified the reproducibility by measuring repeatable patterns in the cell area, and also demonstrated the reliability by comparing with CD-SEM data. We have focused overlay mismatching between overlay mark and cell area until now, further more we have concerned with the cell area having different pattern density and etch loading. There appears a phenomenon which has different overlay values on the cells with diverse patterning environment. In this paper, the overlay error was investigated from cell edge to center. For this experiment, we have verified several critical layers in DRAM by using improved(Better resolution and speed) DBM tool, NGR3520.

  9. Overview of the TIBER 2 (Thermal Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, C. D.; Logan, B. G.

    1987-10-01

    The TIBER 2 Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor design is the result of efforts by numerous people and institutions, including many fusion laboratories, universities, and industries. While subsystems will be covered extensively in other reports, this overview will attempt to place the work in perspective. Major features of the design are compact size, low cost, and steady-state operation. These are achieved through plasma shaping and innovative features such as radiation tolerant magnets and optimized shielding. While TIBER 2 can operate in a pulsed mode, steady-state is preferred for nuclear testing. Current drive is achieved by a combination of lower hybrid and neutral beams. In addition, 10 MW of ECR is added for disruption control and current drive profiling. The TIBER 2 design has been the US option in preparation for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Other equivalent national designs are the NET in Europe, the FER in Japan and the OTR in the USSR. These designs will help set the basis for the new international design effort.

  10. Optimal experimental designs for estimating Henry's law constants via the method of phase ratio variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelner, Adam; Krieger, Abba; Blanford, William J

    2016-10-14

    When measuring Henry's law constants (kH) using the phase ratio variation (PRV) method via headspace gas chromatography (GC), the value of kH of the compound under investigation is calculated from the ratio of the slope to the intercept of a linear regression of the inverse GC response versus the ratio of gas to liquid volumes of a series of vials drawn from the same parent solution. Thus, an experimenter collects measurements consisting of the independent variable (the gas/liquid volume ratio) and dependent variable (the GC-1 peak area). A review of the literature found that the common design is a simple uniform spacing of liquid volumes. We present an optimal experimental design which estimates kH with minimum error and provides multiple means for building confidence intervals for such estimates. We illustrate performance improvements of our design with an example measuring the kH for Naphthalene in aqueous solution as well as simulations on previous studies. Our designs are most applicable after a trial run defines the linear GC response and the linear phase ratio to the GC-1 region (where the PRV method is suitable) after which a practitioner can collect measurements in bulk. The designs can be easily computed using our open source software optDesignSlopeInt, an R package on CRAN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Two-Stage Experimental Design for Dose-Response Modeling in Toxicology Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yang, Feng; Porter, Dale W; Wu, Nianqiang

    The efficient design of experiments (i.e., selection of experimental doses and allocation of animals) is important to establishing dose-response relationships in toxicology studies. The proposed procedure for design of experiments is distinct from those in the literature because it is able to adequately accommodate the special features of the dose-response data, which include non-normality, variance heterogeneity, possibly nonlinearity of the dose-response curve, and data scarcity. The design procedure is built in a sequential two-stage paradigm that allows for a learning process. In the first stage, preliminary experiments are performed to gain information regarding the underlying dose-response curve and variance structure. In the second stage, the prior information obtained from the previous stage is utilized to guide the second-stage experiments. An optimization algorithm is developed to search for the design of experiments that will lead to dose-response models of the highest quality. To evaluate model quality (or uncertainty), which is the basis of design optimization, a bootstrapping method is employed; unlike standard statistical methods, bootstrapping is not subject to restrictive assumptions such as normality or large sample sizes. The design procedure in this paper will help to reduce the experimental cost/time in toxicology studies and alleviate the sustainability concerns regarding the tremendous new materials and chemicals.

  12. Design and Characterization of a Hydride-based Hydrogen Storage Container for Neutron Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruj, A.; Ardito, M.; Marín, J.; Sánchez, F.; Borzone, E. M.; Meyer, G.

    We have designed, constructed and tested a prototype hydride-based container to in-situ observe the hydride decomposition process using a neutron imaging facility. This work describes the container design parameters and the experimental setup used for the studies. The results open new possibilities for the application of the neutron imaging technique to visualize the internal state of massive hydride-based hydrogen containers, thus aiding in the design of efficient hydrogen storage tanks.

  13. Experimental Design of Electrocoagulation and Magnetic Technology for Enhancing Suspended Solids Removal from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Faiqun Ni'am

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of experiments (DOE is one of the statistical method that is used as a tool to enhance and improve experimental quality. The changes to the variables of a process or system is supposed to give the optimal result (response and quite satisfactory. Experimental design can defined as a test or series of test series by varying the input variables (factors of a process that can known to cause changes in output (response. This paper presents the results of experimental design of wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation (EC technique. A combined magnet and electrocoagulation (EC technology were designed to increase settling velocity and to enhance suspended solid removal efficiencies from wastewater samples. In this experiment, a synthetic wastewater samples were prepared by mixing 700 mg of the milk powder in one litre of water and treated by using an acidic buffer solution. The monopolar iron (Fe plate anodes and cathodes were employed as electrodes. Direct current was varied in a range of between 0.5 and 1.1 A, and flowrate in a range of between 1.00 to 3.50 mL/s. One permanent magnets namely AlNiCo with a magnetic strength of 0.16T was used in this experiment. The results show that the magnetic field and the flowrate have major influences on suspended solids removal. The efficiency removals of suspended solids, turbidity and COD removal efficiencies at optimum conditions were found to be more than 85%, 95%, and 75%, respectively.

  14. Experimental demonstration of dielectric structure based two beam acceleration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, W.; Conde, M. E.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.; Schoessow, P.; Sun, X.; Zou, P.

    2000-11-28

    We report on the experimental results of the dielectric based two beam accelerator (step-up transformer). By using a single high charge beam, we have generated and extracted a high power RF pulse from a 7.8 GHz primary dielectric structure and then subsequently transferred to a second accelerating structure with higher dielectric constant and smaller transverse dimensions. We have measured the energy change of a second (witness) beam passing through the acceleration stage. The measured gradient is >4 times the deceleration gradient. The detailed experiment of set-up and results of the measurements are dimmed. Future plans for the development of a 100 MeV demonstration accelerator based on this technique is presented.

  15. Design considerations and experimental observations for the TAMU air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system for the VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, S. A., E-mail: shamsulamri@tamu.edu; Dominguez-Ontiveros, E. E., E-mail: elvisdom@tamu.edu; Alhashimi, T., E-mail: jbudd123@tamu.edu; Budd, J. L., E-mail: dubaiboy@tamu.edu; Matos, M. D., E-mail: mailgoeshere@gmail.com; Hassan, Y. A., E-mail: yhasssan@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3133 (United States)

    2015-04-29

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a promising passive decay heat removal system for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to ensure reliability of the transfer of the core residual and decay heat to the environment under all off-normal circumstances. A small scale experimental test facility was constructed at Texas A and M University (TAMU) to study pertinent multifaceted thermal hydraulic phenomena in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design based on the General Atomics (GA) concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The TAMU Air-Cooled Experimental Test Facility is ⅛ scale from the proposed GA-MHTGR design. Groundwork for experimental investigations focusing into the complex turbulence mixing flow behavior inside the upper plenum is currently underway. The following paper illustrates some of the chief design considerations used in construction of the experimental test facility, complete with an outline of the planned instrumentation and data acquisition methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to furnish some insights on the overall behavior of the air flow in the system. CFD simulations assisted the placement of the flow measurement sensors location. Preliminary experimental observations of experiments at 120oC inlet temperature suggested the presence of flow reversal for cases involving single active riser at both 5 m/s and 2.25 m/s, respectively and four active risers at 2.25 m/s. Flow reversal may lead to thermal stratification inside the upper plenum by means of steady state temperature measurements. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to furnish some insight on flow patterns and directions.

  16. Design considerations and experimental observations for the TAMU air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system for the VHTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, S. A.; Dominguez-Ontiveros, E. E.; Alhashimi, T.; Budd, J. L.; Matos, M. D.; Hassan, Y. A.

    2015-04-01

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a promising passive decay heat removal system for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to ensure reliability of the transfer of the core residual and decay heat to the environment under all off-normal circumstances. A small scale experimental test facility was constructed at Texas A&M University (TAMU) to study pertinent multifaceted thermal hydraulic phenomena in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design based on the General Atomics (GA) concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The TAMU Air-Cooled Experimental Test Facility is ⅛ scale from the proposed GA-MHTGR design. Groundwork for experimental investigations focusing into the complex turbulence mixing flow behavior inside the upper plenum is currently underway. The following paper illustrates some of the chief design considerations used in construction of the experimental test facility, complete with an outline of the planned instrumentation and data acquisition methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to furnish some insights on the overall behavior of the air flow in the system. CFD simulations assisted the placement of the flow measurement sensors location. Preliminary experimental observations of experiments at 120oC inlet temperature suggested the presence of flow reversal for cases involving single active riser at both 5 m/s and 2.25 m/s, respectively and four active risers at 2.25 m/s. Flow reversal may lead to thermal stratification inside the upper plenum by means of steady state temperature measurements. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to furnish some insight on flow patterns and directions.

  17. A CWT-based methodology for piston slap experimental characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, M.; Mucchi, E.; Dalpiaz, G.

    2017-03-01

    Noise and vibration control in mechanical systems has become ever more significant for automotive industry where the comfort of the passenger compartment represents a challenging issue for car manufacturers. The reduction of piston slap noise is pivotal for a good design of IC engines. In this scenario, a methodology has been developed for the vibro-acoustic assessment of IC diesel engines by means of design changes in piston to cylinder bore clearance. Vibration signals have been analysed by means of advanced signal processing techniques taking advantage of cyclostationarity theory. The procedure departs from the analysis of the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) in order to identify a representative frequency band of piston slap phenomenon. Such a frequency band has been exploited as the input data in the further signal processing analysis that involves the envelope analysis of the second order cyclostationary component of the signal. The second order harmonic component has been used as the benchmark parameter of piston slap noise. An experimental procedure of vibrational benchmarking is proposed and verified at different operational conditions in real IC engines actually equipped on cars. This study clearly underlines the crucial role of the transducer positioning when differences among real piston-to-cylinder clearances are considered. In particular, the proposed methodology is effective for the sensors placed on the outer cylinder wall in all the tested conditions.

  18. Agricultural interventions for water saving and crop yield improvement, in a Mediterranean area - an experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morianou, Giasemi; Kourgialas, Nektarios; Psarras, George; Koubouris, George; Arampatzis, George; Karatzas, George; Pavlidou, Elisavet

    2017-04-01

    This work is a part of LIFE+ AGROCLIMAWATER project and the aim is to improve the water efficiency, increase the adaptive capacity of tree corps and save water, in a Mediterranean area, under different climatic conditions and agricultural practices. The experimental design as well as preliminary results at farm and river basin scales are presented in this work. Specifically, ten (10) pilot farms, both organic and conventional ones have been selected in the sub-basin of Platanias in western Crete - Greece. These ten pilot farms were selected representing the most typical crops in Platanias area (olive trees and citrus trees), as well as the typical soil, landscape and agricultural practices differentiation for each crop (field slope, water availability, soil type, management regime). From the ten pilot farms, eight were olive farms and the rest two citrus. This proportion correspond adequacy to the presentence of olive and citrus crops in the extended area of Platanias prefecture. Each of the ten pilot farm has been divided in two parts, the first one will be used as a control part, while the other one as the demonstration part where the interventions will be applied. The action plans for each selected farm are based on the following groups of possible interventions: a) reduction of water evaporation losses from soil surface, b) reduction of transpiration water losses through winter pruning and summer pruning, c) reduction of deep percolation water and nutrient losses, d) reduction of surface runoff, e) measures in order to maximize the efficiency of irrigation and f) rationalization of fertilizers and agrochemicals utilized. Preliminary results indicate that water saving and crop yield can be significantly improved based on the above innervations both at farm and river basin scale.

  19. Statistical guidance for experimental design and data analysis of mutation detection in rare monogenic mendelian diseases by exome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degui Zhi

    Full Text Available Recently, whole-genome sequencing, especially exome sequencing, has successfully led to the identification of causal mutations for rare monogenic Mendelian diseases. However, it is unclear whether this approach can be generalized and effectively applied to other Mendelian diseases with high locus heterogeneity. Moreover, the current exome sequencing approach has limitations such as false positive and false negative rates of mutation detection due to sequencing errors and other artifacts, but the impact of these limitations on experimental design has not been systematically analyzed. To address these questions, we present a statistical modeling framework to calculate the power, the probability of identifying truly disease-causing genes, under various inheritance models and experimental conditions, providing guidance for both proper experimental design and data analysis. Based on our model, we found that the exome sequencing approach is well-powered for mutation detection in recessive, but not dominant, Mendelian diseases with high locus heterogeneity. A disease gene responsible for as low as 5% of the disease population can be readily identified by sequencing just 200 unrelated patients. Based on these results, for identifying rare Mendelian disease genes, we propose that a viable approach is to combine, sequence, and analyze patients with the same disease together, leveraging the statistical framework presented in this work.

  20. Constructivism Based Learning: Design and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Kurniawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of many problems in the madrasahs is that learning processes less-involve students actively (teacher-centered, thus, it affects to the improvement of learning outcomes and quality of the graduates. The purposes of this study are , firstly, to analyze what type of constructivism learning models, which can be developed to overcome madrasahs’ problems. Secondly, how to design and implement a learning plan based on the developed constructivism models. This research was conducted at Private Islamic Elementary School  (Madrasah Ad-Diyanah Ciputat, South Tangerang. Research method used in this study is descriptive-qualitative research. The results showed that the active learning models based on constructivism are suitable to be developed in the Madarasah, which were the models of Problem Based Learning (PBM, Realistic Learning, Inquiry Learning and Thematic Learning and also how the development of the learning processes from the lesson plans to the learning implementation showed a paradigm shifting from teacher-centered to student-centered. Abstrak Salah satu permasalahan di madrasah-madrasah adalah proses pembelajaran yang kurang melibatkan siswa secara aktif (berpusat pada guru, sehingga hal ini mengakibatkan pada peningkatan hasil belajar dan kualitas lulusan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah, pertama, untuk menganalisis jenis model pembelajaran konstruktivisme apa yang dapat dikembangkan untuk mengatasi permasalahan di madrasah. Ke dua, bagaimana merancang dan melaksanakan rencana pembelajaran berdasarkan model konstruktivisme yang dikembangkan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Sekolah Dasar Swasta (madrasah Ad-Diayanah Ciputat, Tangerang Selatan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif-kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa model pembelajaran aktif yang berbasis konstruktivisme sesuai untuk dikembangkan di madrasah, yakni model pembelajaran Problem Based Learning (PBL, Pembelajaran Realistis, Pembelajaran