WorldWideScience

Sample records for experimental transport benchmarks

  1. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    to support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One...... way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the socalled Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent......, Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts...

  2. Benchmarking and Sustainable Transport Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Wyatt, Andrew; Gordon, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Order to learn from the best. In 2000 the European Commission initiated research to explore benchmarking as a tool to promote policies for ‘sustainable transport’. This paper reports findings and recommendations on how to address this challenge. The findings suggest that benchmarking is a valuable......’ evokes a broad range of concerns that are hard to address fully at the level of specific practices. Thirdly policies are not directly comparable across space and context. For these reasons attempting to benchmark ‘sustainable transport policies’ against one another would be a highly complex task, which...

  3. 47 CFR 69.108 - Transport rate benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport rate benchmark. 69.108 Section 69.108... Computation of Charges § 69.108 Transport rate benchmark. (a) For transport charges computed in accordance with this subpart, the DS3-to-DS1 benchmark ratio shall be calculated as follows: the telephone company...

  4. EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING OF THE MAGNETIZED FRICTION FORCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; GALNANDER, B.; LITVINENKO, V.N.; LOFNES, T.; SIDORIN, A.O.; SMIRNOV, A.V.; ZIEMANN, V.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires accurate description of the friction force. A series of measurements were performed at CELSIUS with the goal to provide accurate data needed for the benchmarking of theories and simulations. Some results of accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented.

  5. A Uranium Bioremediation Reactive Transport Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Sengor, Sevinc; Fang, Yilin

    2015-06-01

    A reactive transport benchmark problem set has been developed based on in situ uranium bio-immobilization experiments that have been performed at a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado, USA. Acetate-amended groundwater stimulates indigenous microorganisms to catalyze the reduction of U(VI) to a sparingly soluble U(IV) mineral. The interplay between the flow, acetate loading periods and rates, microbially-mediated and geochemical reactions leads to dynamic behavior in metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, pH, alkalinity, and reactive mineral surfaces. The benchmark is based on an 8.5 m long one-dimensional model domain with constant saturated flow and uniform porosity. The 159-day simulation introduces acetate and bromide through the upgradient boundary in 14-day and 85-day pulses separated by a 10 day interruption. Acetate loading is tripled during the second pulse, which is followed by a 50 day recovery period. Terminal electron accepting processes for goethite, phyllosilicate Fe(III), U(VI), and sulfate are modeled using Monod-type rate laws. Major ion geochemistry modeled includes mineral reactions, as well as aqueous and surface complexation reactions for UO2++, Fe++, and H+. In addition to the dynamics imparted by the transport of the acetate pulses, U(VI) behavior involves the interplay between bioreduction, which is dependent on acetate availability, and speciation-controlled surface complexation, which is dependent on pH, alkalinity and available surface complexation sites. The general difficulty of this benchmark is the large number of reactions (74), multiple rate law formulations, a multisite uranium surface complexation model, and the strong interdependency and sensitivity of the reaction processes. Results are presented for three simulators: HYDROGEOCHEM, PHT3D, and PHREEQC.

  6. Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Meylianti S, Brigita

    1999-01-01

    Benchmarking has different meaning to different people. There are five types of benchmarking, namely internal benchmarking, competitive benchmarking, industry / functional benchmarking, process / generic benchmarking and collaborative benchmarking. Each type of benchmarking has its own advantages as well as disadvantages. Therefore it is important to know what kind of benchmarking is suitable to a specific application. This paper will discuss those five types of benchmarking in detail, includ...

  7. 2009 South American benchmarking study: natural gas transportation companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Nathalie [Gas TransBoliviano S.A. (Bolivia); Walter, Juliana S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the current business environment large corporations are constantly seeking to adapt their strategies. Benchmarking is an important tool for continuous improvement and decision-making. Benchmarking is a methodology that determines which aspects are the most important to be improved upon, and it proposes establishing a competitive parameter in an analysis of the best practices and processes, applying continuous improvement driven by the best organizations in their class. At the beginning of 2008, GTB (Gas TransBoliviano S.A.) contacted several South American gas transportation companies to carry out a regional benchmarking study in 2009. In this study, the key performance indicators of the South American companies, whose reality is similar, for example, in terms of prices, availability of labor, and community relations, will be compared. Within this context, a comparative study of the results, the comparative evaluation among natural gas transportation companies, is becoming an essential management instrument to help with decision-making. (author)

  8. Analytical Radiation Transport Benchmarks for The Next Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.D. Ganapol

    2005-01-19

    Verification of large-scale computational algorithms used in nuclear engineering and radiological applications is an essential element of reliable code performance. For this reason, the development of a suite of multidimensional semi-analytical benchmarks has been undertaken to provide independent verification of proper operation of codes dealing with the transport of neutral particles. The benchmarks considered cover several one-dimensional, multidimensional, monoenergetic and multigroup, fixed source and critical transport scenarios. The first approach, called the Green's Function. In slab geometry, the Green's function is incorporated into a set of integral equations for the boundary fluxes. Through a numerical Fourier transform inversion and subsequent matrix inversion for the boundary fluxes, a semi-analytical benchmark emerges. Multidimensional solutions in a variety of infinite media are also based on the slab Green's function. In a second approach, a new converged SN method is developed. In this method, the SN solution is ''minded'' to bring out hidden high quality solutions. For this case multigroup fixed source and criticality transport problems are considered. Remarkably accurate solutions can be obtained with this new method called the Multigroup Converged SN (MGCSN) method as will be demonstrated.

  9. Experimental Criticality Benchmarks for SNAP 10A/2 Reactor Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krass, A.W.

    2005-12-19

    This report describes computational benchmark models for nuclear criticality derived from descriptions of the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Critical Assembly (SCA)-4B experimental criticality program conducted by Atomics International during the early 1960's. The selected experimental configurations consist of fueled SNAP 10A/2-type reactor cores subject to varied conditions of water immersion and reflection under experimental control to measure neutron multiplication. SNAP 10A/2-type reactor cores are compact volumes fueled and moderated with the hydride of highly enriched uranium-zirconium alloy. Specifications for the materials and geometry needed to describe a given experimental configuration for a model using MCNP5 are provided. The material and geometry specifications are adequate to permit user development of input for alternative nuclear safety codes, such as KENO. A total of 73 distinct experimental configurations are described.

  10. Benchmark models and experimental data for a U(20) polyethylene-moderated critical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Larry [Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group Inc.; Busch, Robert D. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Bowen, Douglas G [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This work involves the analysis of recent experiments performed on the Aerojet General Nucleonics (AGN)-201M (AGN) polyethylene-moderated research reactor at the University of New Mexico (UNM). The experiments include 36 delayed critical (DC) configurations and 11 positive-period and rod-drop measurements (transient sequences). The Even Parity Neutron Transport (EVENT) radiation transport code was chosen to analyze these steady state and time-dependent experimental configurations. The UNM AGN specifications provided in a benchmark calculation report (2007) were used to initiate AGN EVENT model development and to test the EVENT AGN calculation methodology. The results of the EVENT DC experimental analyses compared well with the experimental data; the average AGN EVENT calculation bias in the keff is –0.0048% for the Legrendre Flux Expansion Order of 11 (P11) cases and +0.0119% for the P13 cases. The EVENT transient analysis also compared well with the AGN experimental data with respect to predicting the reactor period and control rod worth values. This paper discusses the benchmark models used, the recent experimental configurations, and the EVENT experimental analysis.

  11. Experimental benchmark of kinetic simulations of capacitively coupled plasmas in molecular gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkó, Z.; Derzsi, A.; Korolov, I.; Hartmann, P.; Brandt, S.; Schulze, J.; Berger, B.; Koepke, M.; Bruneau, B.; Johnson, E.; Lafleur, T.; Booth, J.-P.; Gibson, A. R.; O’Connell, D.; Gans, T.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the origin of uncertainties in the results of numerical simulations of low-temperature plasma sources, focusing on capacitively coupled plasmas. These sources can be operated in various gases/gas mixtures, over a wide domain of excitation frequency, voltage, and gas pressure. At low pressures, the non-equilibrium character of the charged particle transport prevails and particle-based simulations become the primary tools for their numerical description. The particle-in-cell method, complemented with Monte Carlo type description of collision processes, is a well-established approach for this purpose. Codes based on this technique have been developed by several authors/groups, and have been benchmarked with each other in some cases. Such benchmarking demonstrates the correctness of the codes, but the underlying physical model remains unvalidated. This is a key point, as this model should ideally account for all important plasma chemical reactions as well as for the plasma-surface interaction via including specific surface reaction coefficients (electron yields, sticking coefficients, etc). In order to test the models rigorously, comparison with experimentalbenchmark data’ is necessary. Examples will be given regarding the studies of electron power absorption modes in O2, and CF4–Ar discharges, as well as on the effect of modifications of the parameters of certain elementary processes on the computed discharge characteristics in O2 capacitively coupled plasmas.

  12. Benchmarking Benchmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Blitz (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBenchmarking benchmarks is a bundle of six studies that are inspired by the prevalence of benchmarking in academic finance research as well as in investment practice. Three studies examine if current benchmark asset pricing models adequately describe the cross-section of stock returns.

  13. SeSBench - An initiative to benchmark reactive transport models for environmental subsurface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Diederik

    2017-04-01

    As soil functions are governed by a multitude of interacting hydrological, geochemical and biological processes, simulation tools coupling mathematical models for interacting processes are needed. Coupled reactive transport models are a typical example of such coupled tools mainly focusing on hydrological and geochemical coupling (see e.g. Steefel et al., 2015). Mathematical and numerical complexity for both the tool itself or of the specific conceptual model can increase rapidly. Therefore, numerical verification of such type of models is a prerequisite for guaranteeing reliability and confidence and qualifying simulation tools and approaches for any further model application. In 2011, a first SeSBench -Subsurface Environmental Simulation Benchmarking- workshop was held in Berkeley (USA) followed by four other ones. The objective is to benchmark subsurface environmental simulation models and methods with a current focus on reactive transport processes. The final outcome was a special issue in Computational Geosciences (2015, issue 3 - Reactive transport benchmarks for subsurface environmental simulation) with a collection of 11 benchmarks. Benchmarks, proposed by the participants of the workshops, should be relevant for environmental or geo-engineering applications; the latter were mostly related to radioactive waste disposal issues - excluding benchmarks defined for pure mathematical reasons. Another important feature is the tiered approach within a benchmark with the definition of a single principle problem and different sub problems. The latter typically benchmarked individual or simplified processes (e.g. inert solute transport, simplified geochemical conceptual model) or geometries (e.g. batch or one-dimensional, homogeneous). Finally, three codes should be involved into a benchmark. The SeSBench initiative contributes to confidence building for applying reactive transport codes. Furthermore, it illustrates the use of those type of models for different

  14. [Benchmark experiment to verify radiation transport calculations for dosimetry in radiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Franziska

    2016-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are regarded as the most accurate method of solving complex problems in the field of dosimetry and radiation transport. In (external) radiation therapy they are increasingly used for the calculation of dose distributions during treatment planning. In comparison to other algorithms for the calculation of dose distributions, Monte Carlo methods have the capability of improving the accuracy of dose calculations - especially under complex circumstances (e.g. consideration of inhomogeneities). However, there is a lack of knowledge of how accurate the results of Monte Carlo calculations are on an absolute basis. A practical verification of the calculations can be performed by direct comparison with the results of a benchmark experiment. This work presents such a benchmark experiment and compares its results (with detailed consideration of measurement uncertainty) with the results of Monte Carlo calculations using the well-established Monte Carlo code EGSnrc. The experiment was designed to have parallels to external beam radiation therapy with respect to the type and energy of the radiation, the materials used and the kind of dose measurement. Because the properties of the beam have to be well known in order to compare the results of the experiment and the simulation on an absolute basis, the benchmark experiment was performed using the research electron accelerator of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), whose beam was accurately characterized in advance. The benchmark experiment and the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations were carried out for two different types of ionization chambers and the results were compared. Considering the uncertainty, which is about 0.7 % for the experimental values and about 1.0 % for the Monte Carlo simulation, the results of the simulation and the experiment coincide. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Benchmarking Heavy Ion Transport Codes FLUKA, HETC-HEDS MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronningen, Reginald Martin [Michigan State University; Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Heilbronn, Lawrence H. [University of Tennessee-Knoxville

    2013-06-07

    Powerful accelerators such as spallation neutron sources, muon-collider/neutrino facilities, and rare isotope beam facilities must be designed with the consideration that they handle the beam power reliably and safely, and they must be optimized to yield maximum performance relative to their design requirements. The simulation codes used for design purposes must produce reliable results. If not, component and facility designs can become costly, have limited lifetime and usefulness, and could even be unsafe. The objective of this proposal is to assess the performance of the currently available codes PHITS, FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and HETC-HEDS that could be used for design simulations involving heavy ion transport. We plan to access their performance by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data of benchmark quality. Quantitative knowledge of the biases and the uncertainties of the simulations is essential as this potentially impacts the safe, reliable and cost effective design of any future radioactive ion beam facility. Further benchmarking of heavy-ion transport codes was one of the actions recommended in the Report of the 2003 RIA R&D Workshop".

  16. Benchmark solutions for transport in $d$-dimensional Markov binary mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Larmier, Coline; Malvagi, Fausto; Mazzolo, Alain; Zoia, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Linear particle transport in stochastic media is key to such relevant applications as neutron diffusion in randomly mixed immiscible materials, light propagation through engineered optical materials, and inertial confinement fusion, only to name a few. We extend the pioneering work by Adams, Larsen and Pomraning \\cite{benchmark_adams} (recently revisited by Brantley \\cite{brantley_benchmark}) by considering a series of benchmark configurations for mono-energetic and isotropic transport through Markov binary mixtures in dimension $d$. The stochastic media are generated by resorting to Poisson random tessellations in $1d$ slab, $2d$ extruded, and full $3d$ geometry. For each realization, particle transport is performed by resorting to the Monte Carlo simulation. The distributions of the transmission and reflection coefficients on the free surfaces of the geometry are subsequently estimated, and the average values over the ensemble of realizations are computed. Reference solutions for the benchmark have never be...

  17. Benchmark experiment for the verification of radiation transport calculations for the radiotherapy dosimetry; Benchmark-Experiment zur Verifikation von Strahlungstransportrechnungen fuer die Dosimetrie in der Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Franziska

    2014-10-02

    Monte Carlo simulations are regarded as the most accurate method of solving complex problems of radiation transport. Therefore, they have great potential to realize more exact dose calculations for treatment planning in radiation therapy. However, there is a lack of information on how correct the results of Monte Carlo calculations are on an absolute basis. A practical verification of the calculations can be performed by direct comparison with a benchmark experiment. Thereby, the uncertainties of the experimental result and of the simulation also have to be considered to make a meaningful comparison between the experiment and the simulation possible. This dissertation presents a benchmark experiment and its results, including the uncertainty, which can be used to test the accuracy of Monte Carlo calculations in the field of radiation therapy. The experiment was planned to have parallels to clinical radiation therapy, among other things, with respect to the radiation applied, the materials used and the manner of dose detection. The benchmark experiment aimed at an absolute comparison with a simulation result and because of this it was necessary to use a special research accelerator as a radiation source in the experiment. The accurate characterization of the accelerator beam was a precondition to define a realistic radiation source for the Monte Carlo simulation. Therefore, this work also deals with the characterization of the source and investigations regarding the X-ray target used. Additionally, the dissertation contains the verification of the widely used Monte Carlo program EGSnrc by the benchmark experiment. The simulation of the experiment by EGSnrc, the results and the estimation of the uncertainty related to the simulation are documented in this work.The results and findings of this dissertation end in a comparison between the results of the benchmark experiment and the corresponding calculations with EGSnrc. The benchmark experiment and the simulations

  18. The VENUS-7 benchmarks. Results from state-of-the-art transport codes and nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwermann, Winfried; Pautz, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Garching (Germany); Timm, Wolf [AREVA NP, Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    For the validation of both nuclear data and computational methods, comparisons with experimental data are necessary. Most advantageous are assemblies where not only the multiplication factors or critical parameters were measured, but also additional quantities like reactivity differences or pin-wise fission rate distributions have been assessed. Currently there is a comprehensive activity to evaluate such measure-ments and incorporate them in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments. A large number of such experiments was performed at the VENUS zero power reactor at SCK/CEN in Belgium in the sixties and seventies. The VENUS-7 series was specified as an international benchmark within the OECD/NEA Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS), and results obtained with various codes and nuclear data evaluations were summarized. In the present paper, results of high-accuracy transport codes with full spatial resolution with up-to-date nuclear data libraries from the JEFF and ENDF/B evaluations are presented. The comparisons of the results, both code-to-code and with the measured data are augmented by uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to nuclear data uncertainties. For the multiplication factors, these are performed with the TSUNAMI-3D code from the SCALE system. In addition, uncertainties in the reactivity differences are analyzed with the TSAR code which is available from the current SCALE-6 version. (orig.)

  19. Analytical three-dimensional neutron transport benchmarks for verification of nuclear engineering codes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapol, B.D.; Kornreich, D.E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1997-07-01

    Because of the requirement of accountability and quality control in the scientific world, a demand for high-quality analytical benchmark calculations has arisen in the neutron transport community. The intent of these benchmarks is to provide a numerical standard to which production neutron transport codes may be compared in order to verify proper operation. The overall investigation as modified in the second year renewal application includes the following three primary tasks. Task 1 on two dimensional neutron transport is divided into (a) single medium searchlight problem (SLP) and (b) two-adjacent half-space SLP. Task 2 on three-dimensional neutron transport covers (a) point source in arbitrary geometry, (b) single medium SLP, and (c) two-adjacent half-space SLP. Task 3 on code verification, includes deterministic and probabilistic codes. The primary aim of the proposed investigation was to provide a suite of comprehensive two- and three-dimensional analytical benchmarks for neutron transport theory applications. This objective has been achieved. The suite of benchmarks in infinite media and the three-dimensional SLP are a relatively comprehensive set of one-group benchmarks for isotropically scattering media. Because of time and resource limitations, the extensions of the benchmarks to include multi-group and anisotropic scattering are not included here. Presently, however, enormous advances in the solution for the planar Green`s function in an anisotropically scattering medium have been made and will eventually be implemented in the two- and three-dimensional solutions considered under this grant. Of particular note in this work are the numerical results for the three-dimensional SLP, which have never before been presented. The results presented were made possible only because of the tremendous advances in computing power that have occurred during the past decade.

  20. OECD/NEA benchmark for time-dependent neutron transport calculations without spatial homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Jason, E-mail: jason.hou@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Ivanov, Kostadin N. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Boyarinov, Victor F.; Fomichenko, Peter A. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A time-dependent homogenization-free neutron transport benchmark was created. • The first phase, known as the kinetics phase, was described in this work. • Preliminary results for selected 2-D transient exercises were presented. - Abstract: A Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) benchmark for the time-dependent neutron transport calculations without spatial homogenization has been established in order to facilitate the development and assessment of numerical methods for solving the space-time neutron kinetics equations. The benchmark has been named the OECD/NEA C5G7-TD benchmark, and later extended with three consecutive phases each corresponding to one modelling stage of the multi-physics transient analysis of the nuclear reactor core. This paper provides a detailed introduction of the benchmark specification of Phase I, known as the “kinetics phase”, including the geometry description, supporting neutron transport data, transient scenarios in both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) configurations, as well as the expected output parameters from the participants. Also presented are the preliminary results for the initial state 2-D core and selected transient exercises that have been obtained using the Monte Carlo method and the Surface Harmonic Method (SHM), respectively.

  1. Beam equipment electromagnetic interaction in accelerators: simulation and experimental benchmarking

    CERN Document Server

    Passarelli, Andrea; Vaccaro, Vittorio Giorgio; Massa, Rita; Masullo, Maria Rosaria

    One of the most significant technological problems to achieve the nominal performances in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) concerns the system of collimation of particle beams. The use of collimators crystals, exploiting the channeling effect on extracted beam, has been experimentally demonstrated. The first part of this thesis is about the optimization of UA9 goniometer at CERN, this device used for beam collimation will replace a part of the vacuum chamber. The optimization process, however, requires the calculation of the coupling impedance between the circulating beam and this structure in order to define the threshold of admissible intensity to do not trigger instability processes. Simulations have been performed with electromagnetic codes to evaluate the coupling impedance and to assess the beam-structure interaction. The results clearly showed that the most concerned resonance frequencies are due solely to the open cavity to the compartment of the motors and position sensors considering the crystal in o...

  2. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  3. Benchmark studies of BOUT++ code and TPSMBI code on neutral transport during SMBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Z.H., E-mail: zhwang@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Guo, W., E-mail: wfguo@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Ren, Q.L. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, A.P.; Xu, M.; Wang, A.K. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xiang, N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-06-09

    SMBI (supersonic molecule beam injection) plays an important role in tokamak plasma fuelling, density control and ELM mitigation in magnetic confinement plasma physics, which has been widely used in many tokamaks. The trans-neut module of BOUT++ code is the only large-scale parallel 3D fluid code used to simulate the SMBI fueling process, while the TPSMBI (transport of supersonic molecule beam injection) code is a recent developed 1D fluid code of SMBI. In order to find a method to increase SMBI fueling efficiency in H-mode plasma, especially for ITER, it is significant to first verify the codes. The benchmark study between the trans-neut module of BOUT++ code and the TPSMBI code on radial transport dynamics of neutral during SMBI has been first successfully achieved in both slab and cylindrical coordinates. The simulation results from the trans-neut module of BOUT++ code and TPSMBI code are consistent very well with each other. Different upwind schemes have been compared to deal with the sharp gradient front region during the inward propagation of SMBI for the code stability. The influence of the WENO3 (weighted essentially non-oscillatory) and the third order upwind schemes on the benchmark results has also been discussed. - Highlights: • A 1D model of SMBI has developed. • Benchmarks of BOUT++ and TPSMBI codes have first been finished. • The influence of the WENO3 and the third order upwind schemes on the benchmark results has also been discussed.

  4. NACA0012 benchmark model experimental flutter results with unsteady pressure distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Bennett, Robert M.; Durham, Michael H.; Silva, Walter A.

    1992-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics Division at NASA Langley Research Center has started a wind tunnel activity referred to as the Benchmark Models Program. The primary objective of this program is to acquire measured dynamic instability and corresponding pressure data that will be useful for developing and evaluating aeroelastic type computational fluid dynamics codes currently in use or under development. The program is a multi-year activity that will involve testing of several different models to investigate various aeroelastic phenomena. This paper describes results obtained from a second wind tunnel test of the first model in the Benchmark Models Program. This first model consisted of a rigid semispan wing having a rectangular planform and a NACA 0012 airfoil shape which was mounted on a flexible two degree of freedom mount system. Experimental flutter boundaries and corresponding unsteady pressure distribution data acquired over two model chords located at the 60 and 95 percent span stations are presented.

  5. Experimental investigation of deep drawing of C-rail benchmark using various lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the deep drawing of C-rail experimental benchmark, which has a complex deformation path. The influence of various lubricants, including the dry friction, low and high viscosity mineral oil, semisolid grease and PTFE film on the drawability of dual-phase steel sheets, was performed. The digital image correlation technique was applied for component tests as well as the deformation analysis. The drawability was experimentally assessed by comparing surface roughness, thickness reduction, and springback of drawn component. The experimental results indicate that the interfacial lubrication between tools and work-piece plays an important role on the drawability of advanced high strength steel sheets. The quality of component was improved obviously by using PTFE film compared to the other lubricants.

  6. Framing Social Inclusion as a Benchmark for Cycling-Inclusive Transport Policy in Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Alando

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycling in many cities of the Global South faces unending exclusion from street spaces despite the on-going transport policy reforms. This exclusion worsens the marginalisation of the poor majority who use this mode. In this paper, we formulate social inclusion as a policy tool for reconciling transport policy to the cycling needs of Kisumu, Kenya. We draw from social quality theory and Lefebvre’s right to the city concept to assemble the ideals of social inclusion. These ideals form the benchmark for a qualitative content analysis of the policy pronouncements contained in the Kenya Vision 2030 and the Integrated National Transport Policy to ascertain the opportunities presented by these policies for cycling inclusion. Findings from interviews held with transport professionals in government and private practice support this content analysis. Results show that while the Kenya Vision 2030 focuses on economic growth, the Government has prioritised the implementation of its projects, thus diminishing the fragile opportunity for cycling inclusion presented by the transport policy. To consolidate this opportunity, we propose different policy recommendations to improve the terms for cyclists to claim and produce street spaces.

  7. Experimental benchmark and code validation for airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, D.; Manolesos, M.; Ferreira, C.; González Salcedo, Á.; Aparicio, M.; Chaviaropoulos, T.; Diakakis, K.; Florentie, L.; García, N. R.; Papadakis, G.; Sørensen, N. N.; Timmer, N.; Troldborg, N.; Voutsinas, S.; van Zuijlen, A.

    2016-09-01

    Experimental results and complimentary computations for airfoils with vortex generators are compared in this paper, as part of an effort within the AVATAR project to develop tools for wind turbine blade control devices. Measurements from two airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators, a 30% thick DU97W300 and an 18% thick NTUA T18 have been used for benchmarking several simulation tools. These tools span low-to-high complexity, ranging from engineering-level integral boundary layer tools to fully-resolved computational fluid dynamics codes. Results indicate that with appropriate calibration, engineering-type tools can capture the effects of vortex generators and outperform more complex tools. Fully resolved CFD comes at a much higher computational cost and does not necessarily capture the increased lift due to the VGs. However, in lieu of the limited experimental data available for calibration, high fidelity tools are still required for assessing the effect of vortex generators on airfoil performance.

  8. Experimental benchmark and code validation for airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldacchino, D.; Manolesos, M.; Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results and complimentary computations for airfoils with vortex generators are compared in this paper, as part of an effort within the AVATAR project to develop tools for wind turbine blade control devices. Measurements from two airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators, a 30......% thick DU97W300 and an 18% thick NTUA T18 have been used for benchmarking several simulation tools. These tools span low-to-high complexity, ranging from engineering-level integral boundary layer tools to fully-resolved computational fluid dynamics codes. Results indicate that with appropriate...... calibration, engineering-type tools can capture the effects of vortex generators and outperform more complex tools. Fully resolved CFD comes at a much higher computational cost and does not necessarily capture the increased lift due to the VGs. However, in lieu of the limited experimental data available...

  9. Benchmark Study of 3D Pore-scale Flow and Solute Transport Simulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, T. D.; Yang, X.; Mehmani, Y.; Perkins, W. A.; Pasquali, A.; Schoenherr, M.; Kim, K.; Perego, M.; Parks, M. L.; Trask, N.; Balhoff, M.; Richmond, M. C.; Geier, M.; Krafczyk, M.; Luo, L. S.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple numerical approaches have been developed to simulate porous media fluid flow and solute transport at the pore scale. These include 1) methods that explicitly model the three-dimensional geometry of pore spaces and 2) methods that conceptualize the pore space as a topologically consistent set of stylized pore bodies and pore throats. In previous work we validated a model of the first type, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes employing standard finite volume method (FVM), against magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements of pore-scale velocities. Here we expand that benchmark study to include additional models of the first type based on the immersed-boundary method (IMB), lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), as well as a model of the second type, a pore-network model (PNM). While the PNM approach is computationally much less demanding than direct numerical simulation methods, the effect of conceptualizing complex three-dimensional pore geometries in the manner of PNMs has not been fully determined. We apply all five approaches (FVM-based CFD, IMB, LBM, SPH and PNM) to simulate pore-scale velocity distributions and nonreactive solute transport, and intercompare the model results. Comparisons are drawn both in terms of macroscopic variables (e.g., permeability, solute breakthrough curves) and microscopic variables (e.g., local velocities and concentrations). Generally good agreement was achieved among the various approaches, but some differences were observed depending on the model context. The benchmark study was challenging because of variable capabilities of the codes, and inspired some code enhancements to allow consistent comparison of flow and transport simulations across the full suite of methods. This study provides support for confidence in a variety of pore-scale modeling methods, and motivates further development and application of pore-scale simulation methods.

  10. Active transportation measurement and benchmarking development : New Orleans state of active transportation report 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a surge in bicycle and pedestrian use in communities that have invested in active transportation infrastruc-ture and programming. While these increases show potentially promising trends, many of the cities that ha...

  11. Three-dimensional benchmark for variable-density flow and transport simulation: matching semi-analytic stability modes for steady unstable convection in an inclined porous box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Simmons, Craig T.; Robinson, Neville I.

    2010-01-01

    This benchmark for three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulators of variable-density groundwater flow and solute or energy transport consists of matching simulation results with the semi-analytical solution for the transition from one steady-state convective mode to another in a porous box. Previous experimental and analytical studies of natural convective flow in an inclined porous layer have shown that there are a variety of convective modes possible depending on system parameters, geometry and inclination. In particular, there is a well-defined transition from the helicoidal mode consisting of downslope longitudinal rolls superimposed upon an upslope unicellular roll to a mode consisting of purely an upslope unicellular roll. Three-dimensional benchmarks for variable-density simulators are currently (2009) lacking and comparison of simulation results with this transition locus provides an unambiguous means to test the ability of such simulators to represent steady-state unstable 3D variable-density physics.

  12. The new deterministic 3-D radiation transport code Multitrans: C5G7 MOX fuel assembly benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotiluoto, P. [VTT Technical Research Centre (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    The novel deterministic three-dimensional radiation transport code MultiTrans is based on combination of the advanced tree multigrid technique and the simplified P3 (SP3) radiation transport approximation. In the tree multigrid technique, an automatic mesh refinement is performed on material surfaces. The tree multigrid is generated directly from stereo-lithography (STL) files exported by computer-aided design (CAD) systems, thus allowing an easy interface for construction and upgrading of the geometry. The deterministic MultiTrans code allows fast solution of complicated three-dimensional transport problems in detail, offering a new tool for nuclear applications in reactor physics. In order to determine the feasibility of a new code, computational benchmarks need to be carried out. In this work, MultiTrans code is tested for a seven-group three-dimensional MOX fuel assembly transport benchmark without spatial homogenization (NEA C5G7 MOX). (author)

  13. The BOUT Project: Validation and Benchmark of BOUT Code and Experimental Diagnostic Tools for Fusion Boundary Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X Q

    2001-08-09

    A boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT is presented. The preliminary encouraging results have been obtained when comparing with probe measurements for a typical Ohmic discharge in CT-7 tokamak. The validation and benchmark of BOUT code and experimental diagnostic tools for fusion boundary plasma turbulence is proposed.

  14. Electric transport in the Netherlands in an international perspective. Benchmark electric driving 2012; Elektrisch vervoer in Nederland in internationaal perspectief. Benchmark elektrisch rijden 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P.; Weeda, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Appels, D. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    This international benchmark on electric mobility has been conducted to compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport. The countries that have been considered in this benchmark are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles compared to other countries without a large car industry. As for the envisaged number of charging points, the Netherlands is one of the prominent leaders. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the benchmark has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. However, regarding general market penetration, the Netherlands is one of the leading countries, next to Norway, based on the relative number of passenger cars and commercial vehicles on the road. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure, but also in this field the Netherlands has a prominent position in the group of countries that follow. In the current pre-commercial phase, the introduction of electric transportation in the Netherlands is supported by a high-level advisory group, the so-called Formula E-Team. This group consists of representatives and experts from industry and (scientific) society, and acts as a figurehead for electric transport. The group advises on coordination of actions to stimulate not only electro- mobility, but also innovation which should lead to new economic activities. Currently, about two hundred companies are already active in the field of electro-mobility in the Netherlands, including some top players and many SMEs (Small Medium Enterprises). The

  15. Modernization at the Y-12 National Security Complex: A Case for Additional Experimental Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornbury, M. L. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Juarez, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Krass, A. W. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Efforts are underway at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) to modernize the recovery, purification, and consolidation of un-irradiated, highly enriched uranium metal. Successful integration of advanced technology such as Electrorefining (ER) eliminates many of the intermediate chemistry systems and processes that are the current and historical basis of the nuclear fuel cycle at Y-12. The cost of operations, the inventory of hazardous chemicals, and the volume of waste are significantly reduced by ER. It also introduces unique material forms and compositions related to the chemistry of chloride salts for further consideration in safety analysis and engineering. The work herein briefly describes recent investigations of nuclear criticality for 235UO2Cl2 (uranyl chloride) and 6LiCl (lithium chloride) in aqueous solution. Of particular interest is the minimum critical mass of highly enriched uranium as a function of the molar ratio of 6Li to 235U. The work herein also briefly describes recent investigations of nuclear criticality for 235U metal reflected by salt mixtures of 6LiCl or 7LiCl (lithium chloride), KCl (potassium chloride), and 235UCl3 or 238UCl3 (uranium tri-chloride). Computational methods for analysis of nuclear criticality safety and published nuclear data are employed in the absence of directly relevant experimental criticality benchmarks.

  16. Experimental damage localization in a full-scale 7 story benchmark building under seismic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovino, C.; Ditommaso, R.; Limongelli, M. P.; Ponzo, F. C.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper two methods of damage localization previously proposed by the authors are combined to smooth the possible drawbacks and boost the advantages each of them. The Modal Interpolation Method (IM), recently proposed, is based on a damage feature defined in terms of the loss of smoothness (that is local increases of curvature) of the modal shapes induced by a local reduction of stiffness. Herein the combination of the IM with the Curvature Evolution Methods (CEM) is proposed. The CEM is based on the use of a Band-Variable Filter able to extract from recorded responses the nonlinear response of one mode of vibration enabling the detection of possible changes of a properly defined damage feature, during a single earthquake. In the CEM the modal curvature is assumed as damage feature. The combination of the two methods CEM and IM is carried out using the Band-Variable Filter to extract the nonlinear response of the structure and assuming as a damage feature the variation of the interpolation error computed at different times during the strong motion. The validation of the combined approach, named Interpolation Evolution Method (IEM), is carried out on a full scale experimental benchmark tested on the UCSD-NEES shake table.

  17. Benchmarking numerical codes for tracer transport with the aid of laboratory-scale experiments in 2D heterogeneous porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Fadji Hassane; Ackerer, Philippe; Younes, Anis; Guadagnini, Alberto; Berkowitz, Brian

    2017-06-07

    We present a combined experimental and numerical modeling study that addresses two principal questions: (i) is any particular Eulerian-based method used to solve the classical advection-dispersion equation (ADE) clearly superior (relative to the others), in terms of yielding solutions that reproduce BTCs of the kind that are typically sampled at the outlet of a laboratory cell? and (ii) in the presence of matches of comparable quality against such BTCs, do any of these methods render different (or similar) numerical BTCs at locations within the domain? To address these questions, we obtained measurements from carefully controlled laboratory experiments, and employ them as a reference against which numerical results are benchmarked and compared. The experiments measure solute transport breakthrough curves (BTCs) through a square domain containing various configurations of coarse, medium, and fine quartz sand. The approaches to solve the ADE involve Eulerian-Lagrangian and Eulerian (finite volume, finite elements, mixed and discontinuous finite elements) numerical methods. Model calibration is not examined; permeability and porosity of each sand were determined previously through separate, standard laboratory tests, while dispersivities are assigned values proportional to mean grain size. We find that the spatial discretization of the flow field is of critical importance, due to the non-uniformity of the domain. Although simulated BTCs at the system outlet are observed to be very similar for these various numerical methods, computed local (point-wise, inside the domain) BTCs can be very different. We find that none of the numerical methods is able to fully reproduce the measured BTCs. The impact of model parameter uncertainty on the calculated BTCs is characterized through a set of numerical Monte Carlo simulations; in cases where the impact is significant, assessment of simulation matches to the experimental data can be ambiguous. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  18. EVALUATION OF U10MO FUEL PLATE IRRADIATION BEHAVIOR VIA NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel J. Miller; Hakan Ozaltun

    2012-11-01

    This article analyzes dimensional changes due to irradiation of monolithic plate-type nuclear fuel and compares results with finite element analysis of the plates during fabrication and irradiation. Monolithic fuel plates tested in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Lab (INL) are being used to benchmark proposed fuel performance for several high power research reactors. Post-irradiation metallographic images of plates sectioned at the midpoint were analyzed to determine dimensional changes of the fuel and the cladding response. A constitutive model of the fabrication process and irradiation behavior of the tested plates was developed using the general purpose commercial finite element analysis package, Abaqus. Using calculated burn-up profiles of irradiated plates to model the power distribution and including irradiation behaviors such as swelling and irradiation enhanced creep, model simulations allow analysis of plate parameters that are either impossible or infeasible in an experimental setting. The development and progression of fabrication induced stress concentrations at the plate edges was of primary interest, as these locations have a unique stress profile during irradiation. Additionally, comparison between 2D and 3D models was performed to optimize analysis methodology. In particular, the ability of 2D and 3D models account for out of plane stresses which result in 3-dimensional creep behavior that is a product of these components. Results show that assumptions made in 2D models for the out-of-plane stresses and strains cannot capture the 3-dimensional physics accurately and thus 2D approximations are not computationally accurate. Stress-strain fields are dependent on plate geometry and irradiation conditions, thus, if stress based criteria is used to predict plate behavior (as opposed to material impurities, fine micro-structural defects, or sharp power gradients), unique 3D finite element formulation for each plate is required.

  19. Development and Experimental Benchmark of Simulations to Predict Used Nuclear Fuel Cladding Temperatures during Drying and Transfer Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Radial hydride formation in high-burnup used fuel cladding has the potential to radically reduce its ductility and suitability for long-term storage and eventual transport. To avoid this formation, the maximum post-reactor temperature must remain sufficiently low to limit the cladding hoop stress, and so that hydrogen from the existing circumferential hydrides will not dissolve and become available to re-precipitate into radial hydrides under the slow cooling conditions during drying, transfer and early dry-cask storage. The objective of this research is to develop and experimentallybenchmark computational fluid dynamics simulations of heat transfer in post-pool-storage drying operations, when high-burnup fuel cladding is likely to experience its highest temperature. These benchmarked tools can play a key role in evaluating dry cask storage systems for extended storage of high-burnup fuels and post-storage transportation, including fuel retrievability. The benchmarked tools will be used to aid the design of efficient drying processes, as well as estimate variations of surface temperatures as a means of inferring helium integrity inside the canister or cask. This work will be conducted effectively because the principal investigator has experience developing these types of simulations, and has constructed a test facility that can be used to benchmark them.

  20. MIN3P-Thcm Reactive Transport Modelling in Low Permeability Media - Mont Terri in-Situ Diffusion Experiments and EBS-TF-C Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M.; Rasouli, P.; Mayer, K. U.; MacQuarrie, K. T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive transport modelling is one method for assessing long-term geochemical processes influencing radionuclide mobility in geologic formations considered for implementation of the multi-barrier deep geologic repository concept. A key issue revolves around the quantitative prediction and assessment of solute migration and retardation through engineered and enclosing natural barriers. The reactive transport code MIN3P-THCm, with several code enhancements (i.e., multisite ion exchange, multicomponent diffusion and hybrid multicomponent diffusion models), was used to simulate a series of benchmarking problems, laboratory experiments, and in-situ diffusion experiments in the framework of the Mont Terri and EBS-TF-C projects. For the Mont Terri project, excellent agreement was achieved with other groups for the generic benchmarking simulations. Additional simulations were undertaken to reproduce in-situ borehole diffusion experiments using parameters determined through laboratory experiments. Comparison of the simulated and the in-situ borehole diffusion data showed: good agreement for HTO, anions, weakly sorbing tracers and major ions, but some discrepancies for strongly sorbing tracers. Sensitivity analysis revealed that a scenario in which the borehole filter is assumed to be partially filled with dispersed fine clay particles originating from the host rock might explain the rapid concentration decrease of strongly sorbing tracers in the borehole solution. For the EBS-TF-C project, comparison of simulated and experimental data shows very good agreement for cases involving conservative transport and anion migration. Excellent agreement was also obtained for cation migration in comparison to other established reactive transport codes; however, some discrepancies remain between observed and simulated data. In the future, continued development of conceptual models and numerical implementations could lead to further improvements in mechanistic descriptions of strongly

  1. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for

  2. Characterization of mechanical behavior of woven fabrics: experimental methods and benchmark results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, J.; Akkerman, Remko; Boisse, P.; Chen, J.; Cheng, H.S.; de Graaf, E.F.; Gorczyca, J.L.; Harrison, P.

    2008-01-01

    Textile composites made of woven fabrics have demonstrated excellent mechanical properties for the production of high specific-strength products. Research efforts in the woven fabric sheet forming are currently at a point where benchmarking will lead to major advances in understanding both the

  3. X-ray synchrotron microdosimetry: Experimental benchmark of a general-purpose Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugtenburg, R.P. [Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, School of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Queen Elizabeth Medical Centre, University Hospital Birmingham, NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: r.p.hugtenburg@swansea.ac.uk; Baker, A.E.R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Green, S. [Queen Elizabeth Medical Centre, University Hospital Birmingham, NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Microdosimetry is useful in mixed-field radiation treatment strategies but relies on an understanding of electron physics at sub-micron dimensions. Monochromatic synchrotron light will be valuable in the development of Monte Carlo models of radiation transport at this length scale. In addition, synchrotron light offers new treatment strategies benefiting from high degrees of brightness and coherence including binary therapies such as photoactivation therapy (PAT) utilising photoelectric enhancement occurring in the kilovoltage range. Microdosimetric spectra for monoenergetic beams have been obtained in the range 15-33 keV with a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and have been compared to Monte Carlo calculations based on atomic models initially. Transport of electrons in molecular systems can also be considered where fundamental interaction data are also obtainable in synchrotron beams via photon scattering experiments utilising the optical model. In the absence of data from liquid water systems, MOSFET and silica-based optical fibre TLD are emerging contenders for experimental verification of microdosimetric spectra in the solid-state and glassy-state phases, respectively.

  4. Experimental Data from the Benchmark SuperCritical Wing Wind Tunnel Test on an Oscillating Turntable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Piatak, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The Benchmark SuperCritical Wing (BSCW) wind tunnel model served as a semi-blind testcase for the 2012 AIAA Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop (AePW). The BSCW was chosen as a testcase due to its geometric simplicity and flow physics complexity. The data sets examined include unforced system information and forced pitching oscillations. The aerodynamic challenges presented by this AePW testcase include a strong shock that was observed to be unsteady for even the unforced system cases, shock-induced separation and trailing edge separation. The current paper quantifies these characteristics at the AePW test condition and at a suggested benchmarking test condition. General characteristics of the model's behavior are examined for the entire available data set.

  5. Benchmarking passenger air transport marketing activities in Vietnam : case company: Etihad Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Nga Nguyen, Thi

    2015-01-01

    Marketing strategy is crucial for businesses operating in highly competitive environments. Especially with the intense competition over international flights in the Vietnamese air travel market, it is important for airlines to adopt superior strategy, in order to incorporate brand presence in the market. Hence, performing benchmarking on marketing strategy for Etihad Airways is timely and necessary. The thesis adopts the combination of inductive and deductive approaches, with the assistan...

  6. An experimental data set for benchmarking 1-D, transient heat and moisture transfer models of hygroscopic building materials. Part II: Experimental, numerical and analytical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, Prabal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Osanyintola, Olalekan F. [XXL Engineering Ltd., 101-807 Manning Road NE, Calgary, AB (Canada); Olutimayin, Stephen O.; Simonson, Carey J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the experimental results on spruce plywood and cellulose insulation using the transient moisture transfer (TMT) facility presented in Part I [P. Talukdar, S.O. Olutmayin, O.F. Osanyintola, C.J. Simonson, An experimental data set for benchmarking 1-D, transient heat and moisture transfer models of hygroscopic building materials-Part-I: experimental facility and property data, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, in press, doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2007.03.026] of this paper. The temperature, relative humidity and moisture accumulation distributions within both materials are presented following different and repeated step changes in air humidity and different airflow Reynolds numbers above the materials. The experimental data are compared with numerical data, numerical sensitivity studies and analytical solutions to increase the confidence in the experimental data set. (author)

  7. Guiding the Design of Radiation Imagers with Experimentally Benchmarked Geant4 Simulations for Electron-Tracking Compton Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffer, Amy Beth

    -scattered electron-trajectories is with high-resolution Charged-Coupled Devices (CCDs). The proof-of-principle CCD-based ETCI experiment demonstrated the CCDs' ability to measure the Compton-scattered electron-tracks as a 2-dimensional image. Electron-track-imaging algorithms using the electron-track-image are able to determine the 3-dimensional electron-track trajectory within +/- 20 degrees. The work presented here is the physics simulations developed along side the experimental proof-of-principle experiment. The development of accurate physics modeling for multiple-layer CCDs based ETCI systems allow for the accurate prediction of future ETCI system performance. The simulations also enable quick development insights for system design, and they guide the development of electron-track reconstruction methods. The physics simulation efforts for this project looked closely at the accuracy of the Geant4 Monte Carlo methods for medium energy electron transport. In older version of Geant4 there were some discrepancies between the electron-tracking experimental measurements and the simulation results. It was determined that when comparing the electron dynamics of electrons at very high resolutions, Geant4 simulations must be fine tuned with careful choices for physics production cuts and electron physics stepping sizes. One result of this work is a CCDs Monte Carlo model that has been benchmarked to experimental findings and fully characterized for both photon and electron transport. The CCDs physics model now match to within 1 percent error of experimental results for scattered-electron energies below 500 keV. Following the improvements of the CCDs simulations, the performance of a realistic two-layer CCD-stack system was characterized. The realistic CCD-stack system looked at the effect of thin passive-layers on the CCDs' front face and back-contact. The photon interaction efficiency was calculated for the two-layer CCD-stack, and we found that there is a 90 percent probability of

  8. Active transportation measurement and benchmarking development : New Orleans pedestrian and bicycle count report, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a surge in bicycle and pedestrian use in communities that have invested in active transportation infrastructure and programming. While these increases show potentially promising trends, many of the cities that hav...

  9. An integrated model of tritium transport and corrosion in Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) – Part I: Theory and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempien, John D., E-mail: john.stempien@inl.gov; Ballinger, Ronald G., E-mail: hvymet@mit.edu; Forsberg, Charles W., E-mail: cforsber@mit.edu

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A model was developed for use with FHRs and benchmarked with experimental data. • Model results match results of tritium diffusion experiments. • Corrosion simulations show reasonable agreement with molten salt loop experiments. • This is the only existing model of tritium transport and corrosion in FHRs. • Model enables proposing and evaluating tritium control options in FHRs. - Abstract: The Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) is a pebble bed nuclear reactor concept cooled by a liquid fluoride salt known as “flibe” ({sup 7}LiF-BeF{sub 2}). A model of TRITium Diffusion EvolutioN and Transport (TRIDENT) was developed for use with FHRs and benchmarked with experimental data. TRIDENT is the first model to integrate the effects of tritium production in the salt via neutron transmutation, with the effects of the chemical redox potential, tritium mass transfer, tritium diffusion through pipe walls, tritium uptake by graphite, selective chromium attack by tritium fluoride, and corrosion product mass transfer. While data from a forced-convection polythermal loop of molten salt containing tritium did not exist for comparison, TRIDENT calculations were compared to data from static salt diffusion tests in flibe and flinak (0.465LiF-0.115NaF-0.42KF) salts. In each case, TRIDENT matched the transient and steady-state behavior of these tritium diffusion experiments. The corrosion model in TRIDENT was compared against the natural convection flow-loop experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from the 1960s and early 1970s which used Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel-salt containing UF{sub 4}. Despite the lack of data required by TRIDENT for modeling the loops, some reasonable results were obtained. The TRIDENT corrosion rates follow the experimentally observed dependence on the square root of the product of the chromium solid-state diffusion coefficient with time. Additionally the TRIDENT model predicts mass

  10. Experimental benchmark of the NINJA code for application to the Linac4 H‑ ion source plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S.; Mattei, S.; Rauner, D.; Lettry, J.; Tran, M. Q.; Fantz, U.

    2017-10-01

    For a dedicated performance optimization of negative hydrogen ion sources applied at particle accelerators, a detailed assessment of the plasma processes is required. Due to the compact design of these sources, diagnostic access is typically limited to optical emission spectroscopy yielding only line-of-sight integrated results. In order to allow for a spatially resolved investigation, the electromagnetic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code NINJA has been developed for the Linac4 ion source at CERN. This code considers the RF field generated by the ICP coil as well as the external static magnetic fields and calculates self-consistently the resulting discharge properties. NINJA is benchmarked at the diagnostically well accessible lab experiment CHARLIE (Concept studies for Helicon Assisted RF Low pressure Ion sourcEs) at varying RF power and gas pressure. A good general agreement is observed between experiment and simulation although the simulated electron density trends for varying pressure and power as well as the absolute electron temperature values deviate slightly from the measured ones. This can be explained by the assumption of strong inductive coupling in NINJA, whereas the CHARLIE discharges show the characteristics of loosely coupled plasmas. For the Linac4 plasma, this assumption is valid. Accordingly, both the absolute values of the accessible plasma parameters and their trends for varying RF power agree well in measurement and simulation. At varying RF power, the H‑ current extracted from the Linac4 source peaks at 40 kW. For volume operation, this is perfectly reflected by assessing the processes in front of the extraction aperture based on the simulation results where the highest H‑ density is obtained for the same power level. In surface operation, the production of negative hydrogen ions at the converter surface can only be considered by specialized beam formation codes, which require plasma parameters as input. It has been demonstrated

  11. Framing Social Inclusion as a Benchmark for Cycling-Inclusive Transport Policy in Kisumu, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Alando; Joachim Scheiner

    2016-01-01

    Cycling in many cities of the Global South faces unending exclusion from street spaces despite the on-going transport policy reforms. This exclusion worsens the marginalisation of the poor majority who use this mode. In this paper, we formulate social inclusion as a policy tool for reconciling transport policy to the cycling needs of Kisumu, Kenya. We draw from social quality theory and Lefebvre’s right to the city concept to assemble the ideals of social inclusion. These ideals form the benc...

  12. Experimental benchmark and code validation for airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldacchino, D.; Manolesos, M.; Simao Ferreira, C.; Gonz?alez Salcedo, A; Aparicio, M.; Chaviaropoulos, T.; Diakakis, K.; Florentie, L.; Garci??a, M.; Papadakis, G; So?rensen, N.N.; Timmer, W.A.; Troldborg, N.; Voutsinas, S.; van Zuijlen, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results and complimentary computations for airfoils with vortex generators are compared in this paper, as part of an e_ort within the AVATAR project to develop tools for wind turbine blade control devices. Measurements from two airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators, a 30%

  13. Benchmark Thermochemistry for Biologically Relevant Adenine and Cytosine. A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H; Shoifet, Evgeni; Meurer, Florian; Verevkin, Sergey P; Schick, Christoph; Held, Christoph

    2015-09-17

    The thermochemical properties available in the literature for adenine and cytosine are in disarray. A new condensed phase standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation at T = 298.15 K was measured by using combustion calorimetry. New molar enthalpies of sublimation were derived from the temperature dependence of vapor pressure measured by transpiration and by the quarz-crystal microbalance technique. The heat capacities of crystalline adenine and cytosine were measured by temperature-modulated DSC. Thermodynamic data on adenine and cytosine available in the literature were collected, evaluated, and combined with our experimental results. Thus, the evaluated collection of data together with the new experimental results reported here has helped to resolve contradictions in the available enthalpies of formation. A set of reliable thermochemical data is recommended for adenine and cytosine for further thermochemical calculations. Quantum-chemical calculations of the gas phase molar enthalpies of formation of adenine and cytosine have been performed by using the G4 method and results were in excellent agreement with the recommended experimental data. The standard molar entropies of formation and the standard molar Gibbs functions of formation in crystal and gas state have been calculated. Experimental vapor-pressure data measured in this work were used to estimate pure-component PC-SAFT parameters. This allowed modeling solubility of adenine and cytosine in water over the temperature interval 278-310 K.

  14. Derivation and experimental test of fidelity benchmarks for remote preparation of arbitrary qubit states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, N.; Biggerstaff, D. N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Resch, K. J.; Lütkenhaus, N.

    2010-01-01

    Remote state preparation (RSP) is the act of preparing a quantum state at a remote location without actually transmitting the state itself. Using at most two classical bits and a single shared maximally entangled state, one can in theory remotely prepare any qubit state with certainty and with perfect fidelity. However, in any experimental implementation the average fidelity between the target and output states cannot be perfect. In order for an RSP experiment to demonstrate genuine quantum advantages, it must surpass the optimal threshold of a comparable classical protocol. Here we study the fidelity achievable by RSP protocols lacking shared entanglement and determine the optimal value for the average fidelity in several different cases. We implement an experimental scheme for deterministic remote preparation of arbitrary photon polarization qubits, preparing 178 different pure and mixed qubit states with an average fidelity of 0.995. Our experimentally achieved average fidelities surpass our derived classical thresholds whenever the classical protocol does not trivially allow for perfect RSP.

  15. Vibroacoustic benchmarking; Vibroakustisches Benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaesler, R.; Prinzler, H. [Freudenberg Dichtungs- und Schwingungstechnik KG, Weinheim (Germany). Technische Entwicklungszentrum

    2000-03-01

    Improved driving comfort is one of the main enhancements in the automotive industry today. It affects not only the constructive design of a car and its equipment but also the vibroacoustic adaptation of the entire vehicle. For several years now, Freudenberg Dichtungs- und Schwingungstechnik has been benchmarking automobiles with respect to their vibroacoustic performance, with the aim of optimising the vibrational layout of engine mounting systems, chassis mounting concepts and finally the overall adaptation of the vehicle. The results of this benchmarking programme are listed according to vehicle class (luxury, mid-range, compact or subcompact class) and constitute an impressive vibroacoustic assessment of current developments in this field. (orig.) [German] Die Steigerung des Fahrkomforts gehoert zu den aktuellen Hauptentwicklungen der Fahrzeughersteller. Dies betrifft nicht nur die konstruktive Gestaltung und Ausstattung der Kraftfahrzeuge, sondern insbesondere die vibroakustische Abstimmung des Gesamtfahrzeugs. Freudenberg Dichtungs- und Schwingungstechnik fuehrte seit mehreren Jahren ein vibroakustisches Fahrzeug-Benchmarking durch, um die schwingungstechnische Auslegung von Aggregatelagerungssystem, Fahrwerklagerungskonzepten und in der Endstufe die Gesamtabstimmung zu optimieren. Die Ergebnisse werden nach Fahrzeugklassen (Luxus-, Mittel-, Kompaktklasse und Kleinwagen) geordnet und stellen eine vibroakustische Bestandsaufnahme der aktuellen Entwicklungen dar. (orig.)

  16. Standard Guide for Benchmark Testing of Light Water Reactor Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers general approaches for benchmarking neutron transport calculations in light water reactor systems. A companion guide (Guide E2005) covers use of benchmark fields for testing neutron transport calculations and cross sections in well controlled environments. This guide covers experimental benchmarking of neutron fluence calculations (or calculations of other exposure parameters such as dpa) in more complex geometries relevant to reactor surveillance. Particular sections of the guide discuss: the use of well-characterized benchmark neutron fields to provide an indication of the accuracy of the calculational methods and nuclear data when applied to typical cases; and the use of plant specific measurements to indicate bias in individual plant calculations. Use of these two benchmark techniques will serve to limit plant-specific calculational uncertainty, and, when combined with analytical uncertainty estimates for the calculations, will provide uncertainty estimates for reactor fluences with ...

  17. Experimental study on cuttings transportation in turbulent pipe flow

    OpenAIRE

    Boiten, Maren Louise

    2016-01-01

    Experimental investigation on cuttings transportation in turbulent flow, in both horizontal and inclined pipes were performed in the multiphase-laboratory at the University of Stavanger. Spherical glass particles were used to indicate the cuttings transportation. The focus of the experiments was to investigate how pipe inclination, flow rate, particle size and rotation on drill string (DS) affect the particle transport. Different experiments were conducted for single-phase water flow and two-...

  18. Benchmarking in a rotating annulus: a comparative experimental and numerical study of baroclinic wave dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Vincze, Miklos; Achatz, Ulrich; von Larcher, Thomas; Baumann, Martin; Hertel, Claudia; Remmler, Sebastian; Beck, Teresa; Alexandrov, Kiril; Egbers, Christoph; Froehlich, Jochen; Heuveline, Vincent; Hickel, Stefan; Harlander, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    The differentially heated rotating annulus is a widely studied tabletop-size laboratory model of the general mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. The two most relevant factors of cyclogenesis, namely rotation and meridional temperature gradient are quite well captured in this simple arrangement. The radial temperature difference in the cylindrical tank and its rotation rate can be set so that the isothermal surfaces in the bulk tilt, leading to the formation of baroclinic waves. The signatures of these waves at the free water surface have been analyzed via infrared thermography in a wide range of rotation rates (keeping the radial temperature difference constant) and under different initial conditions. In parallel to the laboratory experiments, five groups of the MetStr\\"om collaboration have conducted numerical simulations in the same parameter regime using different approaches and solvers, and applying different initial conditions and perturbations. The experimentally and numerically obtained baroclinic wa...

  19. Benchmarking in a rotating annulus: a comparative experimental and numerical study of baroclinic wave dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Vincze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The differentially heated rotating annulus is a widely studied tabletop-size laboratory model of the general mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. The two most relevant factors of cyclogenesis, namely rotation and meridional temperature gradient are quite well captured in this simple arrangement. The radial temperature difference in the cylindrical tank and its rotation rate can be set so that the isothermal surfaces in the bulk tilt, leading to the formation of baroclinic waves. The signatures of these waves at the free water surface have been analyzed via infrared thermography in a wide range of rotation rates (keeping the radial temperature difference constant and under different initial conditions. In parallel to the laboratory experiments, five groups of the MetStröm collaboration have conducted numerical simulations in the same parameter regime using different approaches and solvers, and applying different initial conditions and perturbations. The experimentally and numerically obtained baroclinic wave patterns have been evaluated and compared in terms of their dominant wave modes, spatio-temporal variance properties and drift rates. Thus certain “benchmarks” have been created that can later be used as test cases for atmospheric numerical model validation.

  20. Benchmarking the invariant embedding method against analytical solutions in model transport problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlberg Malin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the invariant embedding method in a few model transport problems for which it is also possible to obtain an analytical solution. The use of the method is demonstrated in three different areas. The first is the calculation of the energy spectrum of sputtered particles from a scattering medium without absorption, where the multiplication (particle cascade is generated by recoil production. Both constant and energy dependent cross-sections with a power law dependence were treated. The second application concerns the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. This is a relatively novel application, since the embedding equations do not resolve the depth variable. The third application concerns the demonstration that solutions in an infinite medium and in a half-space are interrelated through embedding-like integral equations, by the solution of which the flux reflected from a half-space can be reconstructed from solutions in an infinite medium or vice versa. In all cases, the invariant embedding method proved to be robust, fast, and monotonically converging to the exact solutions.

  1. Experimental evidence of turbulent transport regulation by zonal flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenmeier, G; Ramisch, M; Schmid, B; Stroth, U

    2013-04-05

    The regulation of turbulent transport by zonal flows is studied experimentally on a flux surface of the stellarator experiment TJ-K. Data of 128 Langmuir probes at different toroidal and poloidal positions on a single flux surface enable us to measure simultaneously the zonal flow activity and the turbulent transport in great detail. A reduction of turbulent transport by 30% during the zonal flow phase is found. It is shown that the reduction process is initiated by a modification in the cross phase between density and electric field followed by a reduction in the fluctuation levels, which sustain low transport levels on larger time scales than the zonal flow lifetime.

  2. Suite of Benchmark Tests to Conduct Mesh-Convergence Analysis of Nonlinear and Non-constant Coefficient Transport Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, K.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Verification of geophysics codes is imperative to avoid serious academic as well as practical consequences. In case that access to any given source code is not possible, the Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) cannot be employed in code verification. In contrast, employing the Method of Exact Solution (MES) has several practical advantages. In this research, we first provide four new one-dimensional analytical solutions designed for code verification; these solutions are able to uncover the particular imperfections of the Advection-diffusion-reaction equation, such as nonlinear advection, diffusion or source terms, as well as non-constant coefficient equations. After that, we provide a solution of Burgers' equation in a novel setup. Proposed solutions satisfy the continuity of mass for the ambient flow, which is a crucial factor for coupled hydrodynamics-transport solvers. Then, we use the derived analytical solutions for code verification. To clarify gray-literature issues in the verification of transport codes, we designed a comprehensive test suite to uncover any imperfection in transport solvers via a hierarchical increase in the level of tests' complexity. The test suite includes hundreds of unit tests and system tests to check vis-a-vis the portions of the code. Examples for checking the suite start by testing a simple case of unidirectional advection; then, bidirectional advection and tidal flow and build up to nonlinear cases. We design tests to check nonlinearity in velocity, dispersivity and reactions. The concealing effect of scales (Peclet and Damkohler numbers) on the mesh-convergence study and appropriate remedies are also discussed. For the cases in which the appropriate benchmarks for mesh convergence study are not available, we utilize symmetry. Auxiliary subroutines for automation of the test suite and report generation are designed. All in all, the test package is not only a robust tool for code verification but it also provides comprehensive

  3. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: one-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.

  4. Benchmarking Tokamak edge modelling codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contributors To The Efda-Jet Work Programme; Coster, D. P.; Bonnin, X.; Corrigan, G.; Kirnev, G. S.; Matthews, G.; Spence, J.; Contributors to the EFDA-JET work programme

    2005-03-01

    Tokamak edge modelling codes are in widespread use to interpret and understand existing experiments, and to make predictions for future machines. Little direct benchmarking has been done between the codes, and the users of the codes have tended to concentrate on different experimental machines. An important validation step is to compare the codes for identical scenarios. In this paper, two of the major edge codes, SOLPS (B2.5-Eirene) and EDGE2D-NIMBUS are benchmarked against each other. A set of boundary conditions, transport coefficients, etc. for a JET plasma were chosen, and the two codes were run on the same grid. Initially, large differences were seen in the resulting plasmas. These differences were traced to differing physics assumptions with respect to the parallel heat flux limits. Once these were switched off in SOLPS, or implemented and switched on in EDGE2D-NIMBUS, the remaining differences were small.

  5. High-resolution monitoring of bedload transport rates: a benchmark of two approaches (accelerometers and image processing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Blaise; Rousseau, Gauthier; Ancey, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Experimental and field studies have shown how intermittent bedload transport can be at low flow rates. The development and validation of bedload-transport equations require high-resolution records over long periods of time. Two technologies are considered in the present investigation: image processing and accelerometers mounted on impact plates. The former has been successfully applied to monitor bedload transport in many flume experiments, and the latter has shown encouraging results at different field sites. Calibration is a major issue in both cases, and it is often difficult to assess the precision of the data collected. In our talk, we show how to calibrate and compare the performances of accelerometer and image-processing based techniques in laboratory conditions. The accelerometer is fixed on a perforated steel plate, which is placed vertically at the lower end of the flume. The vibrations due to the particles impacting the plate are recorded with a sampling frequency of 10 kHz. The proxy for bedload transport rate is chosen as the number of peaks above a fixed threshold of the recorded signal. Note that impact plates are usually set in flush with the bed, and to our knowledge, the vertical configuration presented here has not yet been documented. The experimental setup for image processing involves a video-camera that takes top-view images of the particles moving over a white board mounted at the outlet of the flume. Data storage poses an issue, which can be got round by pre-processing the images in real time. The bedload transport rate is estimated based on the number of particles that are identified on the images. The two technologies have the advantages of being cost-effective and demanding limited effort for implementation. They provide high-resolution bedload transport rates over several hours. Estimates of bedload discharge were found to be robust and accurate for low sediment transport rates. At higher rates, the sensors may saturate due the arrival

  6. Experimental Challenges to Stiffness as a Transport Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, T. C.

    2017-10-01

    Transport in plasmas is treated experimentally as a relationship between gradients and fluxes in analogy to the random-walk problem. Gyrokinetic models often predict strong increases in local flux for small increases in local gradient when above a threshold, holding all other parameters fixed. This has been named `stiffness'. The radial scalelength is then expected to vary little with source strength as a result of high stiffness. To probe the role of ExB shearing on stiffness in the DIII-D tokamak, two neutral beam injection power scans in H-mode plasmas were specially crafted-one with constant, low torque and one with increasing torque. The ion heat, electron heat, and ion toroidal momentum transport do not show expected signatures of stiffness, while the ion particle transport does. The ion heat transport shows the clearest discrepancy; the normalized heat flux drops with increasing inverse ion temperature scalelength. ExB shearing affects the transport magnitude, but not the scalelength dependence. Linear gyrofluid (TGLF) and nonlinear gyrokinetic (GYRO) predictions show stiff ion heat transport around the experimental profiles. The ion temperature gradient required to match the ion heat flux with increasing auxiliary power is not correctly described by TGLF, even when parameters are varied within the experimental uncertainties. TGLF also underpredicts transport at smaller radii, but overpredicts transport at larger radii. Independent of the theory/experiment comparison, it is not clear that the theoretical definition of stiffness yields any prediction about parameter scans such as the power scans here, because the quantities that must be held fixed to quantify stiffness are varied. A survey of recent literature indicated that profile resilience is routinely attributed to stiffness, but simple model calculations show profile resilience does not imply stiffness. Taken together, these observations challenge the use of local stiffness as a paradigm for explaining

  7. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  8. Experimental validation of convection-diffusion discretisation scheme employed for computational modelling of biological mass transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku David N

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The finite volume solver Fluent (Lebanon, NH, USA is a computational fluid dynamics software employed to analyse biological mass-transport in the vasculature. A principal consideration for computational modelling of blood-side mass-transport is convection-diffusion discretisation scheme selection. Due to numerous discretisation schemes available when developing a mass-transport numerical model, the results obtained should either be validated against benchmark theoretical solutions or experimentally obtained results. Methods An idealised aneurysm model was selected for the experimental and computational mass-transport analysis of species concentration due to its well-defined recirculation region within the aneurysmal sac, allowing species concentration to vary slowly with time. The experimental results were obtained from fluid samples extracted from a glass aneurysm model, using the direct spectrophometric concentration measurement technique. The computational analysis was conducted using the four convection-diffusion discretisation schemes available to the Fluent user, including the First-Order Upwind, the Power Law, the Second-Order Upwind and the Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinetics (QUICK schemes. The fluid has a diffusivity of 3.125 × 10-10 m2/s in water, resulting in a Peclet number of 2,560,000, indicating strongly convection-dominated flow. Results The discretisation scheme applied to the solution of the convection-diffusion equation, for blood-side mass-transport within the vasculature, has a significant influence on the resultant species concentration field. The First-Order Upwind and the Power Law schemes produce similar results. The Second-Order Upwind and QUICK schemes also correlate well but differ considerably from the concentration contour plots of the First-Order Upwind and Power Law schemes. The computational results were then compared to the experimental findings. An average error of 140

  9. Library Benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiji Suwarno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The term benchmarking has been encountered in the implementation of total quality (TQM or in Indonesian termed holistic quality management because benchmarking is a tool to look for ideas or learn from the library. Benchmarking is a processof measuring and comparing for continuous business process of systematic and continuous measurement, the process of measuring and comparing for continuous business process of an organization to get information that can help these organization improve their performance efforts.

  10. The effect of coupled mass transport and internal reforming on modeling of solid oxide fuel cells part II: Benchmarking transient response and dynamic model fidelity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kevin J.; Braun, Robert J.

    2016-02-01

    One- and 'quasi' two-dimensional (2-D) dynamic, interface charge transport models of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) developed previously in a companion paper, are benchmarked against other models and simulated to evaluate the effects of coupled transport and chemistry. Because the reforming reaction can distort the concentration profiles of the species within the anode, a 'quasi' 2-D model that captures porous media mass transport and electrochemistry is required. The impact of a change in concentration at the triple-phase boundary is twofold wherein the local Nernst potential and anode exchange current densities are influenced, thereby altering the current density and temperature distributions of the cell. Thus, the dynamic response of the cell models are compared, and benchmarked against previous channel-level models to gauge the relative importance of capturing in-situ reforming phenomena on cell performance. Simulation results indicate differences in the transient electrochemical response for a step in current density where the 'quasi' 2-D model predicts a slower rise and fall in cell potential due to the additional volume of the porous media and mass transport dynamics. Delays in fuel flow rate are shown to increase the difference observed in the electrochemical response of the cells.

  11. Benchmark selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2002-01-01

    Within a production theoretic framework, this paper considers an axiomatic approach to benchmark selection. It is shown that two simple and weak axioms; efficiency and comprehensive monotonicity characterize a natural family of benchmarks which typically becomes unique. Further axioms are added...... in order to obtain a unique selection...

  12. Interactive benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    We discuss individual learning by interactive benchmarking using stochastic frontier models. The interactions allow the user to tailor the performance evaluation to preferences and explore alternative improvement strategies by selecting and searching the different frontiers using directional...... in the suggested benchmarking tool. The study investigates how different characteristics on dairy farms influences the technical efficiency....

  13. Trinity Multiscale Transport Code Development for Experimental Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highcock, E.; Barnes, M.; Colyer, G.; Citrin, J.; Dickinson, D.; Mandel, N.; van Wyk, F.; Roach, C.; Schekochihin, A.; Dorland, W.

    2014-10-01

    The Trinity multiscale transport code has been extensively upgraded to further its use in experimental comparison. The upgrades to Trinity have extended its capability to work with experimental data, allowed it to evolve the magnetic equilibrium self-consistently (at fixed current) and significantly enhanced the range and performance of its turbulent transport modeling options. To enhance its capability to reproduce experiment, Trinity is now able to take output from the CRONOS integrated modelling suite, which is able to provide high quality reconstructions of experimental equilibria of, for example, JET. Trinity has also been integrated with the CHEASE Grad-Shafranov code. This allows the magnetic equilibrium to be re-computed self consistently as the pressure gradient evolves. Trinity has been given new options for modeling turbulent transport. These include the well-known TGLF framework, and the newly developed GPU-based nonlinear code GRYFX. These will allow rapid initial scans with Trinity before more detailed gyrokinetic modeling. Trinity's performance will benefit from an extensive programme to upgrade one of its primary gyrokinetic turbulence modeling options, GS2. We present a summary of these improvements and preliminary results. This work was supported by STFC and the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy. Computing time was provided by IFERC grants MULTEI and GKDELB, The Hartree Centre, and EPSRC Grants EP/H002081/1 and EP/L000237/1.

  14. Laboratory experimental investigation of heat transport in fractured media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicoletta Maria

    2017-01-01

    Low enthalpy geothermal energy is a renewable resource that is still underexploited nowadays in relation to its potential for development in society worldwide. Most of its applications have already been investigated, such as heating and cooling of private and public buildings, road defrosting, cooling of industrial processes, food drying systems or desalination. Geothermal power development is a long, risky and expensive process. It basically consists of successive development stages aimed at locating the resources (exploration), confirming the power generating capacity of the reservoir (confirmation) and building the power plant and associated structures (site development). Different factors intervene in influencing the length, difficulty and materials required for these phases, thereby affecting their cost. One of the major limitations related to the installation of low enthalpy geothermal power plants regards the initial development steps that are risky and the upfront capital costs that are huge. Most of the total cost of geothermal power is related to the reimbursement of invested capital and associated returns. In order to increase the optimal efficiency of installations which use groundwater as a geothermal resource, flow and heat transport dynamics in aquifers need to be well characterized. Especially in fractured rock aquifers these processes represent critical elements that are not well known. Therefore there is a tendency to oversize geothermal plants. In the literature there are very few studies on heat transport, especially on fractured media. This study is aimed at deepening the understanding of this topic through heat transport experiments in fractured networks and their interpretation. Heat transfer tests have been carried out on the experimental apparatus previously employed to perform flow and tracer transport experiments, which has been modified in order to analyze heat transport dynamics in a network of fractures. In order to model the obtained

  15. OECD/NEA burnup credit criticality benchmarks phase IIIA: Criticality calculations of BWR spent fuel assemblies in storage and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Naito, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ando, Yoshihira [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    The report describes the final results of Phase IIIA Benchmarks conducted by the Burnup Credit Criticality Calculation Working Group under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The benchmarks are intended to confirm the predictive capability of the current computer code and data library combinations for the neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of a layer of irradiated BWR fuel assembly array model. In total 22 benchmark problems are proposed for calculations of k{sub eff}. The effects of following parameters are investigated: cooling time, inclusion/exclusion of FP nuclides and axial burnup profile, and inclusion of axial profile of void fraction or constant void fractions during burnup. Axial profiles of fractional fission rates are further requested for five cases out of the 22 problems. Twenty-one sets of results are presented, contributed by 17 institutes from 9 countries. The relative dispersion of k{sub eff} values calculated by the participants from the mean value is almost within the band of {+-}1%{delta}k/k. The deviations from the averaged calculated fission rate profiles are found to be within {+-}5% for most cases. (author)

  16. SU-F-T-153: Experimental Validation and Calculation Benchmark for a Commercial Monte Carlo Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy Treatment Planning System in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L; Huang, S; Kang, M; Ainsley, C; Solberg, T; McDonough, J; Simone, C [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hiltunen, P; Vanderstraeten, R; Lindberg, J; Siljamaki, S; Wareing, T; Davis, I; Barnett, A; McGhee, J [Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Eclipse proton Monte Carlo AcurosPT 13.7 was commissioned and experimentally validated for an IBA dedicated PBS nozzle in water. Topas 1.3 was used to isolate the cause of differences in output and penumbra between simulation and experiment. Methods: The spot profiles were measured in air at five locations using Lynx. PTW-34070 Bragg peak chamber (Freiburg, Germany) was used to collect the relative integral Bragg peak for 15 proton energies from 100 MeV to 225 MeV. The phase space parameters (σx, σθ, ρxθ) number of protons per MU, energy spread and calculated mean energy provided by AcurosPT were identically implemented into Topas. The absolute dose, profiles and field size factors measured using ionization chamber arrays were compared with both AcurosPT and Topas. Results: The beam spot size, σx, and the angular spread, σθ, in air were both energy-dependent: in particular, the spot size in air at isocentre ranged from 2.8 to 5.3 mm, and the angular spread ranged from 2.7 mrad to 6 mrad. The number of protons per MU increased from ∼9E7 at 100 MeV to ∼1.5E8 at 225 MeV. Both AcurosPT and TOPAS agree with experiment within 2 mm penumbra difference or 3% dose difference for scenarios including central axis depth dose and profiles at two depths in multi-spot square fields, from 40 to 200 mm, for all the investigated single-energy and multi-energy beams, indicating clinically acceptable source model and radiation transport algorithm in water. Conclusion: By comparing measured data and TOPAS simulation using the same source model, the AcurosPT 13.7 was validated in water within 2 mm penumbra difference or 3% dose difference. Benchmarks versus an independent Monte Carlo code are recommended to study the agreement in output, filed size factors and penumbra differences. This project is partially supported by the Varian grant under the master agreement between University of Pennsylvania and Varian.

  17. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  18. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  19. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouffani, Khalid [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  20. Financial benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Palanevich, Yana

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on financial benchmarking of KBJ VELKOOBCHODY s.r.o. The aim of this study is to evaluate the financial situation of the company and to compare the results within the same field and with the best companies in this branch as well as direct competitors. The purpose is to gain an overview of the financial health of the company and also the relevation of strengths and weaknesses through Benchmarking diagnostic system of financial indicators INFA. The theoretical pa...

  1. Predicting subsurface uranium transport: Mechanistic modeling constrained by experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottman, Michael; Schenkeveld, Walter D. C.; Kraemer, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) munitions and their widespread use throughout conflict zones around the world pose a persistent health threat to the inhabitants of those areas long after the conclusion of active combat. However, little emphasis has been put on developing a comprehensive, quantitative tool for use in remediation and hazard avoidance planning in a wide range of environments. In this context, we report experimental data on U interaction with soils and sediments. Here, we strive to improve existing risk assessment modeling paradigms by incorporating a variety of experimental data into a mechanistic U transport model for subsurface environments. 20 different soils and sediments from a variety of environments were chosen to represent a range of geochemical parameters that are relevant to U transport. The parameters included pH, organic matter content, CaCO3, Fe content and speciation, and clay content. pH ranged from 3 to 10, organic matter content from 6 to 120 g kg-1, CaCO3 from 0 to 700 g kg-1, amorphous Fe content from 0.3 to 6 g kg-1 and clay content from 4 to 580 g kg-1. Sorption experiments were then performed, and linear isotherms were constructed. Sorption experiment results show that among separate sets of sediments and soils, there is an inverse correlation between both soil pH and CaCO¬3 concentration relative to U sorptive affinity. The geological materials with the highest and lowest sorptive affinities for U differed in CaCO3 and organic matter concentrations, as well as clay content and pH. In a further step, we are testing if transport behavior in saturated porous media can be predicted based on adsorption isotherms and generic geochemical parameters, and comparing these modeling predictions with the results from column experiments. The comparison of these two data sets will examine if U transport can be effectively predicted from reactive transport modeling that incorporates the generic geochemical parameters. This work will serve to show

  2. Complementary numerical–experimental benchmarking for shape optimization and validation of structures subjected to wave and current forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markus, D.; Ferri, Francesco; Wüchner, R.

    2015-01-01

    A new benchmark problem is proposed and evaluated targeting fluid related shape optimization problems, motivated by design related ocean engineering tasks. The analyzed test geometry is a bottom mounted, polygonal structure in a channel flow. The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of shape...... is to provide clear and thorough information for validation and verification of methods and codes used to analyze fluid related shape optimization problems....... variations of the structure on the resulting horizontal forces. Steady current conditions, dynamic loading due to waves, and combined wave–current scenarios are considered. A clear focus is put on simplicity and reproducibility, allowing for efficient testing of related methods and codes. This is achieved...

  3. Experimental studies and computational benchmark on heavy liquid metal natural circulation in a full height-scale test loop for small modular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yong-Hoon, E-mail: chaotics@snu.ac.kr [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaehyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111 Daedeok-daero, 989 Beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jueun; Ju, Heejae; Sohn, Sungjune; Kim, Yeji; Noh, Hyunyub; Hwang, Il Soon [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Experimental studies on natural circulation for lead-bismuth eutectic were conducted. • Adiabatic wall boundaries conditions were established by compensating heat loss. • Computational benchmark with a system thermal-hydraulics code was performed. • Numerical simulation and experiment showed good agreement in mass flow rate. • An empirical relation was formulated for mass flow rate with experimental data. - Abstract: In order to test the enhanced safety of small lead-cooled fast reactors, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) natural circulation characteristics have been studied. We present results of experiments with LBE non-isothermal natural circulation in a full-height scale test loop, HELIOS (heavy eutectic liquid metal loop for integral test of operability and safety of PEACER), and the validation of a system thermal-hydraulics code. The experimental studies on LBE were conducted under steady state as a function of core power conditions from 9.8 kW to 33.6 kW. Local surface heaters on the main loop were activated and finely tuned by trial-and-error approach to make adiabatic wall boundary conditions. A thermal-hydraulic system code MARS-LBE was validated by using the well-defined benchmark data. It was found that the predictions were mostly in good agreement with the experimental data in terms of mass flow rate and temperature difference that were both within 7%, respectively. With experiment results, an empirical relation predicting mass flow rate at a non-isothermal, adiabatic condition in HELIOS was derived.

  4. Deregulated Renal Calcium and Phosphate Transport during Experimental Kidney Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilco P Pulskens

    Full Text Available Impaired mineral homeostasis and inflammation are hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD, yet the underlying mechanisms of electrolyte regulation during CKD are still unclear. Here, we applied two different murine models, partial nephrectomy and adenine-enriched dietary intervention, to induce kidney failure and to investigate the subsequent impact on systemic and local renal factors involved in Ca(2+ and Pi regulation. Our results demonstrated that both experimental models induce features of CKD, as reflected by uremia, and elevated renal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL expression. In our model kidney failure was associated with polyuria, hypercalcemia and elevated urinary Ca(2+ excretion. In accordance, CKD augmented systemic PTH and affected the FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D axis by elevating circulatory FGF23 levels and reducing renal αklotho expression. Interestingly, renal FGF23 expression was also induced by inflammatory stimuli directly. Renal expression of Cyp27b1, but not Cyp24a1, and blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 were significantly elevated in both models. Furthermore, kidney failure was characterized by enhanced renal expression of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5 (TRPV5, calbindin-D28k, and sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2b (NaPi2b, whereas the renal expression of sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2a (NaPi2a and type 3 (PIT2 were reduced. Together, our data indicates two different models of experimental kidney failure comparably associate with disturbed FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D signalling and a deregulated electrolyte homeostasis. Moreover, this study identifies local tubular, possibly inflammation- or PTH- and/or FGF23-associated, adaptive mechanisms, impacting on Ca(2+/Pi homeostasis, hence enabling new opportunities to target electrolyte disturbances that emerge as a consequence of CKD development.

  5. Charge Transport in LDPE Nanocomposites Part I—Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh T. Hoang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results of bulk conductivity and surface potential decay measurements on low-density polyethylene and its nanocomposites filled with uncoated MgO and Al2O3, with the aim to highlight the effect of the nanofillers on charge transport processes. Material samples at various filler contents, up to 9 wt %, were prepared in the form of thin films. The performed measurements show a significant impact of the nanofillers on reduction of material’s direct current (dc conductivity. The investigations thus focused on the nanocomposites having the lowest dc conductivity. Various mechanisms of charge generation and transport in solids, including space charge limited current, Poole-Frenkel effect and Schottky injection, were utilized for examining the experimental results. The mobilities of charge carriers were deduced from the measured surface potential decay characteristics and were found to be at least two times lower for the nanocomposites. The temperature dependencies of the mobilities were compared for different materials.

  6. Dynamic transport of suspended sediment by solitary wave: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    cho, JaeNam; Kim, DongHyun; Hwang, KyuNam; Lee, SeungOh

    2016-04-01

    Solitary waves are able to transport a large amount of suspended sediment when approaching on the beach, which sometimes causes - serious beach erosion, especially in the east and south coastal lines in Korea. But it has rarely been known about the method how to evaluate or estimate the amount of beach erosion caused by solitary waves. Experimental assessment is necessary to comprehend the process of sediment transport on a slope. The prismatic rectangular channel is 12 m long, 0.8 m wide, and 0.75 m high. A sluice gate is applied at prismatic channel in order to produce the solitary waves. Upstream water depth is more than channel water depth and the sluice gate is suddenly opened to simulate conditions of solitary waves. A sand slope with a 1/6 and a sediment thickness is 0.03 m. The experimental sediments are used anthracite (d_50=1.547 mm ,C_u=1.38) and Jumoonjin sand (d_50=0.627 mm ,C_u=1.68). Specific laboratory equipment are designed to collect suspended sediment samples at the same time along the wave propagation at 5 points with evenly space. Each amount of sampling is approximately 25 ml and they are completely dried in oven over 24 hours according to the USGS (Guideline and standard techniques and method 3-C4). Two video cameras (Model No. : Sony, HDR-XR550) are mounted for capturing images at top and side-view when the processes of solitary wave and run up/down on slope. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between Suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Turbidity is used to verify suspended sediment concentration. Dimensionless analyses of experimental results carried out in this study. One dimensionless parameter is expressed with pressure of solitary wave on a slope to suspended sediment concentration, which is concerned about lifting force. The other is relate to drag force presenting with run up/down velocity on a slope and

  7. SU-F-T-152: Experimental Validation and Calculation Benchmark for a Commercial Monte Carlo Pencil BeamScanning Proton Therapy Treatment Planning System in Heterogeneous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L; Huang, S; Kang, M; Ainsley, C; Simone, C; McDonough, J; Solberg, T [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Eclipse AcurosPT 13.7, the first commercial Monte Carlo pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy treatment planning system (TPS), was experimentally validated for an IBA dedicated PBS nozzle in the CIRS 002LFC thoracic phantom. Methods: A two-stage procedure involving the use of TOPAS 1.3 simulations was performed. First, Geant4-based TOPAS simulations in this phantom were experimentally validated for single and multi-spot profiles at several depths for 100, 115, 150, 180, 210 and 225 MeV proton beams, using the combination of a Lynx scintillation detector and a MatriXXPT ionization chamber array. Second, benchmark calculations were performed with both AcurosPT and TOPAS in a phantom identical to the CIRS 002LFC, with the exception that the CIRS bone/mediastinum/lung tissues were replaced with similar tissues that are predefined in AcurosPT (a limitation of this system which necessitates the two stage procedure). Results: Spot sigmas measured in tissue were in agreement within 0.2 mm of TOPAS simulation for all six energies, while AcurosPT was consistently found to have larger spot sigma (<0.7 mm) than TOPAS. Using absolute dose calibration by MatriXXPT, the agreements between profiles measurements and TOPAS simulation, and calculation benchmarks are over 97% except near the end of range using 2 mm/2% gamma criteria. Overdosing and underdosing were observed at the low and high density side of tissue interfaces, respectively, and these increased with increasing depth and decreasing energy. Near the mediastinum/lung interface, the magnitude can exceed 5 mm/10%. Furthermore, we observed >5% quenching effect in the conversion of Lynx measurements to dose. Conclusion: We recommend the use of an ionization chamber array in combination with the scintillation detector to measure absolute dose and relative PBS spot characteristics. We also recommend the use of an independent Monte Carlo calculation benchmark for the commissioning of a commercial TPS. Partially

  8. NASA astronaut dosimetry: Implementation of scalable human phantoms and benchmark comparisons of deterministic versus Monte Carlo radiation transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir Alexander

    Astronauts are exposed to a unique radiation environment in space. United States terrestrial radiation worker limits, derived from guidelines produced by scientific panels, do not apply to astronauts. Limits for astronauts have changed throughout the Space Age, eventually reaching the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration limit of 3% risk of exposure induced death, with an administrative stipulation that the risk be assured to the upper 95% confidence limit. Much effort has been spent on reducing the uncertainty associated with evaluating astronaut risk for radiogenic cancer mortality, while tools that affect the accuracy of the calculations have largely remained unchanged. In the present study, the impacts of using more realistic computational phantoms with size variability to represent astronauts with simplified deterministic radiation transport were evaluated. Next, the impacts of microgravity-induced body changes on space radiation dosimetry using the same transport method were investigated. Finally, dosimetry and risk calculations resulting from Monte Carlo radiation transport were compared with results obtained using simplified deterministic radiation transport. The results of the present study indicated that the use of phantoms that more accurately represent human anatomy can substantially improve space radiation dose estimates, most notably for exposures from solar particle events under light shielding conditions. Microgravity-induced changes were less important, but results showed that flexible phantoms could assist in optimizing astronaut body position for reducing exposures during solar particle events. Finally, little overall differences in risk calculations using simplified deterministic radiation transport and 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport were found; however, for the galactic cosmic ray ion spectra, compensating errors were observed for the constituent ions, thus exhibiting the need to perform evaluations on a particle

  9. A Heterogeneous Medium Analytical Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapol, B.D.

    1999-09-27

    A benchmark, called benchmark BLUE, has been developed for one-group neutral particle (neutron or photon) transport in a one-dimensional sub-critical heterogeneous plane parallel medium with surface illumination. General anisotropic scattering is accommodated through the Green's Function Method (GFM). Numerical Fourier transform inversion is used to generate the required Green's functions which are kernels to coupled integral equations that give the exiting angular fluxes. The interior scalar flux is then obtained through quadrature. A compound iterative procedure for quadrature order and slab surface source convergence provides highly accurate benchmark qualities (4- to 5- places of accuracy) results.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Actinide Transport in a Fractured Granodiorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reimus, Paul W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-03-16

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate and evaluate new experimental methods for quantifying the potential for actinide transport in deep fractured crystalline rock formations. We selected a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland as a model system because field experiments have already been conducted with uranium and additional field experiments using other actinides are planned at the site. Thus, working on this system provides a unique opportunity to compare lab experiment results with fieldscale observations. Rock cores drilled from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and microscopy, and used in batch sorption and column breakthrough experiments. Solutions with pH 6.8 and 8.8 were tested. Solutions were switched to radionuclide-free synthetic Grimsel groundwater after near-steady actinide/colloid breakthrough occurred in column experiments. We are currently evaluating actinide adsorption/desorption rates as a function of water chemistry (initial focus on pH), with future testing planned to evaluate the influence of carbonate concentrations, flow rates, and mineralogy in solutions and suspensions with bentonite colloids. (auth)

  11. Electrostatic contribution of surface charge residues to the stability of a thermophilic protein: benchmarking experimental and predicted pKa values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ho Chan

    Full Text Available Optimization of the surface charges is a promising strategy for increasing thermostability of proteins. Electrostatic contribution of ionizable groups to the protein stability can be estimated from the differences between the pKa values in the folded and unfolded states of a protein. Using this pKa-shift approach, we experimentally measured the electrostatic contribution of all aspartate and glutamate residues to the stability of a thermophilic ribosomal protein L30e from Thermococcus celer. The pKa values in the unfolded state were found to be similar to model compound pKas. The pKa values in both the folded and unfolded states obtained at 298 and 333 K were similar, suggesting that electrostatic contribution of ionizable groups to the protein stability were insensitive to temperature changes. The experimental pKa values for the L30e protein in the folded state were used as a benchmark to test the robustness of pKa prediction by various computational methods such as H++, MCCE, MEAD, pKD, PropKa, and UHBD. Although the predicted pKa values were affected by crystal contacts that may alter the side-chain conformation of surface charged residues, most computational methods performed well, with correlation coefficients between experimental and calculated pKa values ranging from 0.49 to 0.91 (p<0.01. The changes in protein stability derived from the experimental pKa-shift approach correlate well (r = 0.81 with those obtained from stability measurements of charge-to-alanine substituted variants of the L30e protein. Our results demonstrate that the knowledge of the pKa values in the folded state provides sufficient rationale for the redesign of protein surface charges leading to improved protein stability.

  12. Benchmarking hypercube hardware and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Dirk C.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1986-01-01

    It was long a truism in computer systems design that balanced systems achieve the best performance. Message passing parallel processors are no different. To quantify the balance of a hypercube design, an experimental methodology was developed and the associated suite of benchmarks was applied to several existing hypercubes. The benchmark suite includes tests of both processor speed in the absence of internode communication and message transmission speed as a function of communication patterns.

  13. Experimental challenges to stiffness as a transport paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, T. C.; Burrell, K. H.; Holland, C.; Marinoni, A.; Petty, C. C.; Smith, S. P.; Austin, M. E.; Grierson, B. A.; Zeng, L.

    2018-02-01

    Two power scans were carried out in H-mode plasmas in DIII-D; one employed standard co-current neutral beam injection (NBI), while the other used a mixture of co-current and counter-current NBI to scan power while holding the torque to a low fixed value. Analysis of the ion and electron heat transport, ion toroidal angular momentum transport, and thermal deuterium transport from these scans is presented. Invariance of the gradients or gradient scalelengths, as might be expected from stiff transport, was not generally observed. When invariance was seen, it was not accompanied by a strong increase in transport, except in the case of the absolute deuterium ion transport. Conduction in the ion channel is the dominant energy loss mechanism. The variation of the ion heat transport with applied power is similar for the co-injection and fixed torque scans, indicating that E  ×  B shearing is not determining the plasma response to additional power. There is however, a quantitative difference in the transport between the two scans, indicating E  ×  B shearing does play a role in the transport. Comparison of these results with a previous experiment that directly probed stiffness at a single radius leads to the following conclusion: while local stiffness as formally defined may hold, invariance of the gradients or normalized scalelengths does not follow from stiff transport in more practical scaling experiments, such as the power scans discussed here. Possible reasons for the lack of correspondence between the local picture and the global expectations are discussed.

  14. Experimental investigation of the magnetic configuration dependence of turbulent transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenmeier, G; Ramisch, M; Manz, P; Nold, B; Stroth, U

    2011-07-08

    The dependence of turbulent transport on magnetic field properties is measured in detail on a plasma in a stellarator configuration. Pronounced poloidal asymmetries of fluctuation amplitudes and turbulent transport are observed. The transport maximum is located in regions where normal curvature of the magnetic field is negative and simultaneously the geodesic curvature has positive values. A major role of the local magnetic shear cannot be confirmed. The results can have important implications for the optimization of stellarators and the power influx into the scrape-off layer.

  15. Analytical and experimental analysis of solute transport in heterogeneous porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Gao, Bin; Tian, Yuan; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of solute transport in heterogeneous porous media is crucial to monitor contaminant fate and transport in soil and groundwater systems. In this study, we present new findings from experimental and mathematical analysis to improve current understanding of solute transport in structured heterogeneous porous media. Three saturated columns packed with different sand combinations were used to examine the breakthrough behavior of bromide, a conservative tracer. Experimental results showed that bromide had different breakthrough responses in the three types of sand combinations, indicating that heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity has a significant effect on the solute transport in structured heterogeneous porous media. Simulations from analytical solutions of a two-domain solute transport model matched experimental breakthrough data well for all the experimental conditions tested. Experimental and model results show that under saturated flow conditions, advection dominates solute transport in both fast-flow and slow-flow domains. The sand with larger hydraulic conductivity provided a preferential flow path for solute transport (fast-flow domain) that dominates the mass transfer in the heterogeneous porous media. Importantly, the transport in the slow-flow domain and mass exchange between the domains also contribute to the flow and solute transport processes and thus must be considered when investigating contaminant transport in heterogeneous porous media.

  16. Kvantitativ benchmark - Produktionsvirksomheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole H.; Andersen, Vibeke

    Rapport med resultatet af kvantitativ benchmark over produktionsvirksomhederne i VIPS projektet.......Rapport med resultatet af kvantitativ benchmark over produktionsvirksomhederne i VIPS projektet....

  17. Benchmarking in Student Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Robert E.; Schwarzmueller, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of benchmarking in student affairs, focusing on issues related to student housing. Provides examples of how benchmarking has influenced administrative practice at many institutions. (EV)

  18. Experimental investigation of heat transport through single synthetic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Nicola; Cherubini, Claudia; Giasi, Concetta I.; Redondo, Jose M.

    2017-04-01

    In fractured geothermal reservoirs, heat transport is highly influenced by the presence of the fractures, so appropriate knowledge of heat behaviour in fractured porous media is essential for accurate prediction of the energy extraction in geothermal reservoirs. The present study focuses on the study of heat transport within single synthetic fractures. In particular manner several tests have been carried out in order to explore the role of fracture roughness, aperture variability and the fracture-matrix ratio on the heat transport dynamics. The Synfrac program together with a 3d printer have been used to build several fracture planes having different geometrical characteristics that have been moulded to generate concrete porous fractured blocks. The tests regard the observation of the thermal breakthrough curves obtained through a continuous flow injection in correspondence of eight thermocouples located uniformly on the fractured blocks. The physical model developed permits to reproduce and understand adequately some features of heat transport dynamics in fractured media. The results give emphasis on the errors of the assumptions commonly used in heat transport modelling.

  19. Cuttings Transport Models and Experimental Visualization of Underbalanced Horizontal Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling technology has become the focus of the drilling industry at home and abroad, and one of the engineering core issues is the horizontal borehole cleaning. Therefore, calculating the minimum injection volume of gas and liquid accurately is essential for the construction in aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling. This paper establishes a physical model of carrying cuttings and borehole cleaning in wellbore of horizontal well and a critical transport mathematical model according to gas-liquid-solid flow mechanism and large plane dunes particle transport theory.

  20. Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 101 NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database is a collection of experimental and ab initio thermochemical properties for a selected set of molecules. The goals are to provide a benchmark set of molecules for the evaluation of ab initio computational methods and allow the comparison between different ab initio computational methods for the prediction of thermochemical properties.

  1. Cuttings Transport Models and Experimental Visualization of Underbalanced Horizontal Drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Na Wei; YingFeng Meng; Gao Li; LiPing Wan; ZhaoYang Xu; XiaoFeng Xu; YuRui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling technology has become the focus of the drilling industry at home and abroad, and one of the engineering core issues is the horizontal borehole cleaning. Therefore, calculating the minimum injection volume of gas and liquid accurately is essential for the construction in aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling. This paper establishes a physical model of carrying cuttings and borehole cleaning in wellbore of horizontal well and a critical transport ma...

  2. A service quality experimental measure for public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzulla, Gabriella; Eboli, Laura

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the importance of service quality attributes for public transport is estabilished by Importance Value calculation. Attribute weights (IV) are calculated by a specific empirical procedure in which a rate is assigned to each attribute according to the preferences of passengers. Finally, a Service Quality Index (SQI) for measuring the effectiveness of supplied services is calculated according to the main service quality attributes and their weights. This index can be us...

  3. Laboratory transport experiments with antibiotic sulfadiazine: Experimental results and parameter uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, S.; Vrugt, J. A.; Kasteel, R.; Groeneweg, J.; Vereecken, H.

    2011-12-01

    Persistent antibiotics in the soil potentially contaminate the groundwater and affect the quality of drinking water. To improve our understanding of antibiotic transport in soils, we performed laboratory transport experiments in soil columns under constant irrigation conditions with repeated applications of chloride and radio-labeled SDZ. The tracers were incorporated in the first centimeter, either with pig manure or with solution. Breakthrough curves and concentration profiles of the parent compound and the main transformation products were measured. The goal is to describe the observed nonlinear and kinetic transport behavior of SDZ. Our analysis starts with synthetic transport data for the given laboratory flow conditions for tracers which exhibit increasingly complex interactions with the solid phase. This first step is necessary to benchmark our inverse modeling approach for ideal situations. Then we analyze the transport behavior using the column experiments in the laboratory. Our analysis uses a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler (Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis algorithm, DREAM) to efficiently search the parameter space of an advective-dispersion model. Sorption of the antibiotics to the soil was described using a model regarding reversible as well as irreversible sorption. This presentation will discuss our initial findings. We will present the data of our laboratory experiments along with an analysis of parameter uncertainty.

  4. Bulk shielding benchmark experiment at Frascati neutron generator (FNG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, P.; Angelone, M.; Martone, M.; Pillon, M.; Rado, V. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Santamarina, A.; Abidi, I.; Gastaldi, B.; Martini, M.; Marquette, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1994-11-01

    In the framework of the European Fusion Technology Program, ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) - Frascati and CEA (Commissariat a` l`Energie Atomique) - Cadarache, in collaboration performed a bulk shielding benchmark experiment, using the 14-MeV Frascati neutron generator (FNG), aimed at obtaining accurate experimental data for improving the nuclear data base and methods used in shielding designs. The experiment consisted of the irradiation of a stainless steel block by 14-MeV neutrons. The experimental results have been compared with numerical results calculated using both Sn and Monte Carlo transport codes and the cross section library EFF.1 (european fusion file).

  5. New Multi-group Transport Neutronics (PHISICS) Capabilities for RELAP5-3D and its Application to Phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhard Strydom; Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi

    2012-10-01

    PHISICS is a neutronics code system currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its goal is to provide state of the art simulation capability to reactor designers. The different modules for PHISICS currently under development are a nodal and semi-structured transport core solver (INSTANT), a depletion module (MRTAU) and a cross section interpolation (MIXER) module. The INSTANT module is the most developed of the mentioned above. Basic functionalities are ready to use, but the code is still in continuous development to extend its capabilities. This paper reports on the effort of coupling the nodal kinetics code package PHISICS (INSTANT/MRTAU/MIXER) to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D, to enable full core and system modeling. This will enable the possibility to model coupled (thermal-hydraulics and neutronics) problems with more options for 3D neutron kinetics, compared to the existing diffusion theory neutron kinetics module in RELAP5-3D (NESTLE). In the second part of the paper, an overview of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW benchmark is given. This benchmark has been approved by the OECD, and is based on the General Atomics 350 MW Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR) design. The benchmark includes coupled neutronics thermal hydraulics exercises that require more capabilities than RELAP5-3D with NESTLE offers. Therefore, the MHTGR benchmark makes extensive use of the new PHISICS/RELAP5-3D coupling capabilities. The paper presents the preliminary results of the three steady state exercises specified in Phase I of the benchmark using PHISICS/RELAP5-3D.

  6. Three-dimensional whole-core transport calculation of the OECD benchmark problem C5G7 MOX by the CRX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Soo Lee; Nam, Zin Cho [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Yusong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The OECD 3-dimensional benchmark problem C5G7 MOX was calculated by the CRX code. For 3-dimensional heterogeneous calculation, the CRX code uses a fusion technique of 2-dimensional/1-dimensional methods: the method of characteristics for radial 2-dimensional calculation and diamond difference scheme (DD) that is an S{sub N}-like method for axial 1-dimensional calculation. We improve the fusion method by using a linear characteristics (LC) solver in the 1-dimensional calculation. Here, we present brief structure of 2-dimensional/1-dimensional fusion method and the results of 3 configurations of benchmark problem. We also present results of several different 1-dimensional calculation options. Numerical results show that the LC scheme presents better performance than DD. In the results of the benchmark problem, k(eff) errors are less than 0.05% and the averages of pin power errors are less than 1% for all calculations.

  7. Experimental investigation of turbulent transport of momentum and heat in the atmospheric surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guowen; Zheng, X. J.; Bo, Tianli

    2017-11-01

    In our study, turbulent transport of momentum and heat is investigated in the neutral and unstable atmospheric surface layer (ASL) over the edge of a desert. Our results reveal that with the increase of wind speed the transport efficiencies for momentum and heat increased, furthermore, transport efficiency of momentum increases faster than that of heat. In addition, the method of quadrant analysis and turbulent events were used to analyze the moment flux and heat flux. Experimental results show that the influence of wind speed on moment flux and heat flux can be quite different, which maybe has a great impact on the turbulent transport of momentum and heat in ASL.

  8. Experimental investigation of heat transport enhancement in bubbly flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdic, Biljana; Almeras, Elise; Mathai, Varghese; van Gils, Dennis; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-11-01

    Bubble injection into a carrier fluid can enhance the convective heat transfer. The exact mechanism behind this phenomenon is still unclear since most of the heat transport measurements in bubbly flows are limited to time-averaged global quantities. In this study we measure the statistical properties of the local temperature fluctuations along with global heat flux measurements in a rectangular bubble column heated from one sidewall and cooled from the opposite wall. We varied the Rayleigh number from 109 to 1011, and the gas volume fraction from 0.5 to 5%. Due to bubble injection, the Nusselt number is increased up to 20 times as compared to the single-phase case. Surprisingly, we find that the Nusselt number is nearly independent on the Rayleigh number in two-phase flows for each studied gas volume fraction. Furthermore, the Nusselt number is found to be proportional to the square root of the gas volume fraction, which is suggestive of a diffusive process. Local measurements of the bulk temperature fluctuations show that not only are the fluctuations increased up to 100 times due to bubble injection, but also that mixing is present at shorter time scales, which is reflected in the power spectrum of the temperature fluctuations.

  9. Benchmarking biofuels; Biobrandstoffen benchmarken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-03-15

    A sustainability benchmark for transport biofuels has been developed and used to evaluate the various biofuels currently on the market. For comparison, electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and petrol/diesel vehicles were also included. A range of studies as well as growing insight are making it ever clearer that biomass-based transport fuels may have just as big a carbon footprint as fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, or even bigger. At the request of Greenpeace Netherlands, CE Delft has brought together current understanding on the sustainability of fossil fuels, biofuels and electric vehicles, with particular focus on the performance of the respective energy carriers on three sustainability criteria, with the first weighing the heaviest: (1) Greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Land use; and (3) Nutrient consumption [Dutch] Greenpeace Nederland heeft CE Delft gevraagd een duurzaamheidsmeetlat voor biobrandstoffen voor transport te ontwerpen en hierop de verschillende biobrandstoffen te scoren. Voor een vergelijk zijn ook elektrisch rijden, rijden op waterstof en rijden op benzine of diesel opgenomen. Door onderzoek en voortschrijdend inzicht blijkt steeds vaker dat transportbrandstoffen op basis van biomassa soms net zoveel of zelfs meer broeikasgassen veroorzaken dan fossiele brandstoffen als benzine en diesel. CE Delft heeft voor Greenpeace Nederland op een rijtje gezet wat de huidige inzichten zijn over de duurzaamheid van fossiele brandstoffen, biobrandstoffen en elektrisch rijden. Daarbij is gekeken naar de effecten van de brandstoffen op drie duurzaamheidscriteria, waarbij broeikasgasemissies het zwaarst wegen: (1) Broeikasgasemissies; (2) Landgebruik; en (3) Nutriëntengebruik.

  10. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the...

  11. Benchmarking Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Identifies and discusses the myriad perspectives on measures of quality and benchmarking in distance education. Reviews the standards or benchmarks of quality that have been promulgated by various stakeholder groups. (EV)

  12. Determinación experimental de los coeficientes locales de transporte de humedad en almacenes soterrados. // Experimental determination of local humidity transport coefficients in underground warehouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. D. Andrade Gregori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se fundamentan los mecanismos de transporte de humedad que tienen lugar en almacenes soterrados dadas lascaracterísticas climáticas y geohidrològicas de Cuba. Se establece una analogía con la ley de Fick y se propone un modeloteórico que describe este mecanismo de transporte hacia las cavidades. Se determinó experimentalmente los coeficienteslocales de transporte de humedad para diferentes tipos de recubrimiento en paredes y diferentes formas geométricas de losalmacenes.Palabras claves: Almacenes, soterrado, humedad, conservación, coeficientes._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper the mechanisms of humidity transport are explained. These mechanisms have place in underground warehousesaccording to the climatic and geohydrological characteristics of Cuba. An analogy with the Fick´s law is stated and it intends atheoretical model that describes this mechanism of transport toward the cavities. It was determined the local coefficients oftransport of humidity experimentally for different recover types in walls and different geometric forms of the warehouses.Key words: Store, buried, humidity, conservation, and coefficients.

  13. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  14. IAEA coordinated research program on `harmonization and validation of fast reactor thermomechanical and thermohydraulic codes using experimental data`. 1. Thermohydraulic benchmark analysis on high-cycle thermal fatigue events occurred at French fast breeder reactor Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-06-01

    A benchmark exercise on `Tee junction of Liquid Metal Fast Reactor (LMFR) secondary circuit` was proposed by France in the scope of the said Coordinated Research Program (CRP) via International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The physical phenomenon chosen here deals with the mixture of two flows of different temperature. In a LMFR, several areas of the reactor are submitted to this problem. They are often difficult to design, because of the complexity of the phenomena involved. This is one of the major problems of the LMFRs. This problem has been encountered in the Phenix reactor on the secondary loop, where defects in a tee junction zone were detected during a campaign of inspections after an operation of 90,000 hours of the reactor. The present benchmark is based on an industrial problem and deal with thermal striping phenomena. Problems on pipes induced by thermal striping phenomena have been observed in some reactors and experimental facilities coolant circuits. This report presents numerical results on thermohydraulic characteristics of the benchmark problem, carried out using a direct numerical simulation code DINUS-3 and a boundary element code BEMSET. From the analysis with both the codes, it was confirmed that the hot sodium from the small pipe rise into the cold sodium of the main pipe with thermally instabilities. Furthermore, it was indicated that the coolant mixing region including the instabilities agrees approximately with the result by eye inspections. (author)

  15. Multiscale benchmarking of drug delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Huw D; Ware, Matthew J; Majithia, Ravish; Meissner, Kenith E; Godin, Biana; Rees, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cross-system comparisons of drug delivery vectors are essential to ensure optimal design. An in-vitro experimental protocol is presented that separates the role of the delivery vector from that of its cargo in determining the cell response, thus allowing quantitative comparison of different systems. The technique is validated through benchmarking of the dose-response of human fibroblast cells exposed to the cationic molecule, polyethylene imine (PEI); delivered as a free molecule and as a cargo on the surface of CdSe nanoparticles and Silica microparticles. The exposure metrics are converted to a delivered dose with the transport properties of the different scale systems characterized by a delivery time, τ. The benchmarking highlights an agglomeration of the free PEI molecules into micron sized clusters and identifies the metric determining cell death as the total number of PEI molecules presented to cells, determined by the delivery vector dose and the surface density of the cargo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An informatics benchmarking statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigott, K; de Lusignan, S; Rapley, A; Robinson, J; Pritchard-Copley, A

    2007-01-01

    Benchmarking statements provide a mechanism for making academic standards explicit within a subject area. They allow comparisons between courses to be based on learning outcomes rather than by defining a curriculum. No such statement has been produced for informatics. In the absence of any established benchmarking statements for informatics a new biomedical informatics course at St. George's has developed a first benchmarking statement - which defines the skills knowledge and understanding a biomedical informatics student should acquire by the time they complete the course. Review of national biomedical science and computing subject benchmarking statements and academic educational objectives and national occupational competencies in informatics. We have developed a twenty-item benchmarking statement and this is available on-line at: http://www.gpinformatics.org/benchmark2006/. This benchmarking statement includes a definition and justification for all twenty statements. We found international educational objectives and national informatics competencies useful and these are mapped to each one. National subject benchmarks for computing and biomedical science were less useful and have not been systematically mapped. Benchmarking the skills, knowledge and understanding that a student should acquire during their course of study may be more useful than setting a standard curriculum. This benchmarking statement is a first step towards defining the learning outcomes and competencies a student of this discipline should acquire. The international informatics community should consider moving from a standard curriculum to an agreed subject benchmarking statement for medical, health and biomedical informatics.

  17. Benchmarking in University Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kuźmicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the face of global competition and rising challenges that higher education institutions (HEIs meet, it is imperative to increase innovativeness and efficiency of their management. Benchmarking can be the appropriate tool to search for a point of reference necessary to assess institution’s competitive position and learn from the best in order to improve. The primary purpose of the paper is to present in-depth analysis of benchmarking application in HEIs worldwide. The study involves indicating premises of using benchmarking in HEIs. It also contains detailed examination of types, approaches and scope of benchmarking initiatives. The thorough insight of benchmarking applications enabled developing classification of benchmarking undertakings in HEIs. The paper includes review of the most recent benchmarking projects and relating them to the classification according to the elaborated criteria (geographical range, scope, type of data, subject, support and continuity. The presented examples were chosen in order to exemplify different approaches to benchmarking in higher education setting. The study was performed on the basis of the published reports from benchmarking projects, scientific literature and the experience of the author from the active participation in benchmarking projects. The paper concludes with recommendations for university managers undertaking benchmarking, derived on the basis of the conducted analysis.

  18. Changes in mode of travel to work: a natural experimental study of new transport infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, E; Panter, J.; Mackett, R.; Ogilvie, D

    2015-01-01

    Background New transport infrastructure may promote a shift towards active travel, thereby improving population health. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a major transport infrastructure project on commuters? mode of travel, trip frequency and distance travelled to work. Methods Quasi-experimental analysis nested within a cohort study of 470 adults working in Cambridge, UK. The intervention consisted of the opening of a guided busway with a path for walking and cycling ...

  19. Current transport modeling and experimental study of THz room temperature ballistic deflection transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Vikas; Margala, Martin; Yu, Qiaoyan; Ampadu, Paul; Guarino, Gregg; Sobolewski, Roman

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, two different theoretical models, Comsol Multiphysics™ (a Finite Element Analysis tool), and a field solver Atlas/Blaze from Silvaco, are compared qualitatively to study the effect of the deflector position, its size and electric field on the charge transport and its distribution along the channel, resulting in current outputs and leakages in ballistic deflection transistors (BDT). Silvaco simulations and experimental results were then used to study the lateral charge transport as a result of variation in electric field distribution, which controls the charge current along the channel in BDT. The electric field dependence of gain is also studied with experimental and theoretical results.

  20. Current transport modeling and experimental study of THz room temperature ballistic deflection transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushal, Vikas; Margala, Martin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA, 01854 (United States); Yu Qiaoyan; Ampadu, Paul; Guarino, Gregg; Sobolewski, Roman, E-mail: vikas_kaushal@student.uml.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, NY, 14627 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, two different theoretical models, Comsol Multiphysics{sup TM} (a Finite Element Analysis tool), and a field solver Atlas/Blaze from Silvaco, are compared qualitatively to study the effect of the deflector position, its size and electric field on the charge transport and its distribution along the channel, resulting in current outputs and leakages in ballistic deflection transistors (BDT). Silvaco simulations and experimental results were then used to study the lateral charge transport as a result of variation in electric field distribution, which controls the charge current along the channel in BDT. The electric field dependence of gain is also studied with experimental and theoretical results.

  1. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Mark Allen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-05

    Turbulence, and turbulence-driven transport are ubiquitous in magnetically confined plasmas, where there is an intimate relationship between turbulence, transport, instability driving mechanisms (such as gradients), plasma flows, and flow shear. Though many of the detailed physics of the interrelationship between turbulence, transport, drive mechanisms, and flow remain unclear, there have been many demonstrations that transport and/or turbulence can be suppressed or reduced via manipulations of plasma flow profiles. This is well known in magnetic fusion plasmas [e.g., high confinement mode (H-mode) and internal transport barriers (ITB’s)], and has also been demonstrated in laboratory plasmas. However, it may be that the levels of particle transport obtained in such cases [e.g. H-mode, ITB’s] are actually lower than is desirable for a practical fusion device. Ideally, one would be able to actively feedback control the turbulent transport, via manipulation of the flow profiles. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using both advanced model-based control algorithms, as well as non-model-based algorithms, to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles. The University of New Mexico was responsible for the experimental portion of the project, while our collaborators at the University of Montana provided plasma transport modeling, and collaborators at Lehigh University developed and explored control methods.

  2. Theoretical and experimental study of the transport of granular materials by inclined vibratory conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, E.M.; Sloot, E.M.; Kruyt, Nicolaas P.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was made of the conveying speed with which granular materials are transported by vibratory conveyors. The basic assumption made is that the layer of granular material can be considered as a point mass. The theory incorporates rest, slide, and flight phases of the

  3. Experimental and AI-based numerical modeling of contaminant transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourani, Vahid; Mousavi, Shahram; Sadikoglu, Fahreddin; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-10-01

    This study developed a new hybrid artificial intelligence (AI)-meshless approach for modeling contaminant transport in porous media. The key innovation of the proposed approach is that both black box and physically-based models are combined for modeling contaminant transport. The effectiveness of the approach was evaluated using experimental and real world data. Artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) were calibrated to predict temporal contaminant concentrations (CCs), and the effect of noisy and de-noised data on the model performance was evaluated. Then, considering the predicted CCs at test points (TPs, in experimental study) and piezometers (in Myandoab plain) as interior conditions, the multiquadric radial basis function (MQ-RBF), as a meshless approach which solves partial differential equation (PDE) of contaminant transport in porous media, was employed to estimate the CC values at any point within the study area where there was no TP or piezometer. Optimal values of the dispersion coefficient in the advection-dispersion PDE and shape coefficient of MQ-RBF were determined using the imperialist competitive algorithm. In temporal contaminant transport modeling, de-noised data enhanced the performance of ANN and ANFIS methods in terms of the determination coefficient, up to 6 and 5%, respectively, in the experimental study and up to 39 and 18%, respectively, in the field study. Results showed that the efficiency of ANFIS-meshless model was more than ANN-meshless model up to 2 and 13% in the experimental and field studies, respectively.

  4. RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biwer, B.M.; Arnish, J.J.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models.

  5. The Conic Benchmark Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Henrik A.

    This document constitutes the technical reference manual of the Conic Benchmark Format with le extension: .cbf or .CBF. It unies linear, second-order cone (also known as conic quadratic) and semidenite optimization with mixed-integer variables. The format has been designed with benchmark libraries...... in mind, and therefore focuses on compact and easily parsable representations. The problem structure is separated from the problem data, and the format moreover facilitate benchmarking of hotstart capability through sequences of changes....

  6. Aeroelastic Benchmark Experiments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to conduct canonical aeroelastic benchmark experiments. These experiments will augment existing sources for aeroelastic data in the transonic...

  7. Validation of VHTRC calculation benchmark of critical experiment using the MCB code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisz Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation benchmark problem Very High Temperature Reactor Critical (VHTR a pin-in-block type core critical assembly has been investigated with the Monte Carlo Burnup (MCB code in order to validate the latest version of Nuclear Data Library based on ENDF format. Executed benchmark has been made on the basis of VHTR benchmark available from the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments. This benchmark is useful for verifying the discrepancies in keff values between various libraries and experimental values. This allows to improve accuracy of the neutron transport calculations that may help in designing the high performance commercial VHTRs. Almost all safety parameters depend on the accuracy of neutron transport calculation results that, in turn depend on the accuracy of nuclear data libraries. Thus, evaluation of the libraries applicability to VHTR modelling is one of the important subjects. We compared the numerical experiment results with experimental measurements using two versions of available nuclear data (ENDF-B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 prepared for required temperatures. Calculations have been performed with the MCB code which allows to obtain very precise representation of complex VHTR geometry, including the double heterogeneity of a fuel element. In this paper, together with impact of nuclear data, we discuss also the impact of different lattice modelling inside the fuel pins. The discrepancies of keff have been successfully observed and show good agreement with each other and with the experimental data within the 1 σ range of the experimental uncertainty. Because some propagated discrepancies observed, we proposed appropriate corrections in experimental constants which can improve the reactivity coefficient dependency. Obtained results confirm the accuracy of the new Nuclear Data Libraries.

  8. Experimental and analytical study of interfacial area transport phenomena in a vertical two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Byung-Gil; Euh, Dong-Jin; Yun, Byong-Jo; Youn, Young-Jung; Yoon, Han-Yeong; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2005-03-01

    The number density transport equations for various bubble groups are used to predict the void fraction and the interfacial area concentration. As the closure relations for number density transport equation, the coalescence due to random collisions and the breakup due to the impact of turbulent eddies is modified based on the previous studies and the bubble expansion term due to the pressure reduction is considered. Also, the coalescence due to a wake entrainment is modeled newly to apply to the number density transport equation. In order to predict the local experimental data, the code is developed that the two-fluid model is coupled systematically with the number density transport equation for each bubble group. As for the results of the numerical analysis, the void fraction and interfacial area concentration are predicted well by the developed code and models although some deviations exist in the values between the prediction and experiment, especially, for the high void fraction conditions.

  9. Experimental and theoretical study of particle transport in the TCV Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fable, E.

    2009-06-15

    The main scope of this thesis work is to compare theoretical models with experimental observations on particle transport in particular regimes of plasma operation from the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) located at CRPP–EPFL in Lausanne. We introduce the main topics in Tokamak fusion research and the challenging problems in the first Chapter. A particular attention is devoted to the modelling of heat and particle transport. In the second Chapter the experimental part is presented, including an overview of TCV capabilities, a brief review of the relevant diagnostic systems, and a discussion of the numerical tools used to analyze the experimental data. In addition, the numerical codes that are used to interpret the experimental data and to compare them with theoretical predictions are introduced. The third Chapter deals with the problem of understanding the mechanisms that regulate the transport of energy in TCV plasmas, in particular in the electron Internal Transport Barrier (eITB) scenario. A radial transport code, integrated with an external module for the calculation of the turbulence-induced transport coefficients, is employed to reproduce the experimental scenario and to understand the physics at play. It is shown how the sustainment of an improved confinement regime is linked to the presence of a reversed safety factor profile. The improvement of confinement in the eITB regime is visible in the energy channel and in the particle channel as well. The density profile shows strong correlation with the temperature profile and has a large local logarithmic gradient. This is an important result obtained from the TCV eITB scenario analysis and is presented in the fourth Chapter. In the same chapter we present the estimate of the particle diffusion and convection coefficients obtained from density transient experiments performed in the eITB scenario. The theoretical understanding of the strong correlation between density and temperature observed in the e

  10. Experimental Verification of the Behavioral Foundation of Bacterial Transport Parameters Using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Stocker, Roman

    2008-01-01

    We present novel microfluidic experiments to quantify population-scale transport parameters (chemotactic sensitivity χ0 and random motility μ) of a population of bacteria. Previously, transport parameters have been derived theoretically from single-cell swimming behavior using probabilistic models, yet the mechanistic foundations of this upscaling process have not been verified experimentally. We designed a microfluidic capillary assay to generate and accurately measure gradients of chemoattractant (α-methylaspartate) while simultaneously capturing the swimming trajectories of individual Escherichia coli bacteria using videomicroscopy and cell tracking. By measuring swimming speed and bias in the swimming direction of single cells for a range of chemoattractant concentrations and concentration gradients, we directly computed the chemotactic velocity VC and the associated chemotactic sensitivity χ0. We then show how μ can also be readily determined using microfluidics but that a population-scale microfluidic approach is experimentally more convenient than a single-cell analysis in this case. Measured values of both χ0 [(12.4 ± 2.0) × 10−4 cm2 s−1] and μ [(3.3 ± 0.8) × 10−6 cm2 s−1] are comparable to literature results. This microscale approach to bacterial chemotaxis lends experimental support to theoretical derivations of population-scale transport parameters from single-cell behavior. Furthermore, this study shows that microfluidic platforms can go beyond traditional chemotaxis assays and enable the quantification of bacterial transport parameters. PMID:18658218

  11. The Drill Down Benchmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); T. Rühl (Tim); F. Kwakkel

    1998-01-01

    textabstractData Mining places specific requirements on DBMS query performance that cannot be evaluated satisfactorily using existing OLAP benchmarks. The DD Benchmark - defined here - provides a practical case and yardstick to explore how well a DBMS is able to support Data Mining applications. It

  12. Internet based benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the design of interactive, internet based benchmarking using parametric (statistical) as well as nonparametric (DEA) models. The user receives benchmarks and improvement potentials. The user is also given the possibility to search different efficiency frontiers and hereby to explore...

  13. Benchmark af erhvervsuddannelserne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wittrup, Jesper

    I dette arbejdspapir diskuterer vi, hvorledes de danske erhvervsskoler kan benchmarkes, og vi præsenterer resultaterne af en række beregningsmodeller. Det er begrebsmæssigt kompliceret at benchmarke erhvervsskolerne. Skolerne udbyder en lang række forskellige uddannelser. Det gør det vanskeligt...

  14. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  15. Benchmarking af kommunernes sagsbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    Fra 2007 skal Ankestyrelsen gennemføre benchmarking af kommuernes sagsbehandlingskvalitet. Formålet med benchmarkingen er at udvikle praksisundersøgelsernes design med henblik på en bedre opfølgning og at forbedre kommunernes sagsbehandling. Dette arbejdspapir diskuterer metoder for benchmarking...

  16. Experimental validation of a filament transport model in turbulent magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Carralero, D; Aho-Mantila, L; Birkenmeier, G; Brix, M; Groth, M; Müller, H W; Stroth, U; Vianello, N; Wolfrum, E; Contributors, JET

    2015-01-01

    In a wide variety of natural and laboratory magnetized plasmas, filaments appear as a result of interchange instability. These convective structures substantially enhance transport in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. According to filament models, their propagation may follow different regimes depending on the parallel closure of charge conservation. This is of paramount importance in magnetic fusion plasmas, as high collisionality in the scrape-off layer may trigger a regime transition leading to strongly enhanced perpendicular particle fluxes. This work reports for the first time on an experimental verification of this process, linking enhanced transport with a regime transition as predicted by models. Based on these results, a novel scaling for global perpendicular particle transport in reactor relevant tokamaks such as ASDEX-Upgrade and JET is found, leading to important implications for next generation fusion devices.

  17. Theoretical and experimental study of the transport of granular materials by inclined vibratory conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Sloot, E.M.; Kruyt, Nicolaas P.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was made of the conveying speed with which granular materials are transported by vibratory conveyors. The basic assumption made is that the layer of granular material can be considered as a point mass. The theory incorporates rest, slide, and flight phases of the material. Although the emphasis of this study is on the effect of the inclination (and declination) of the conveyor on the conveying speed, the effects of throw number, friction coefficient and vi...

  18. Benchmarking and the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, M; Nadin, L

    2001-01-01

    This article describes how benchmarking can be used to assess laboratory performance. Two benchmarking schemes are reviewed, the Clinical Benchmarking Company's Pathology Report and the College of American Pathologists' Q-Probes scheme. The Clinical Benchmarking Company's Pathology Report is undertaken by staff based in the clinical management unit, Keele University with appropriate input from the professional organisations within pathology. Five annual reports have now been completed. Each report is a detailed analysis of 10 areas of laboratory performance. In this review, particular attention is focused on the areas of quality, productivity, variation in clinical practice, skill mix, and working hours. The Q-Probes scheme is part of the College of American Pathologists programme in studies of quality assurance. The Q-Probes scheme and its applicability to pathology in the UK is illustrated by reviewing two recent Q-Probe studies: routine outpatient test turnaround time and outpatient test order accuracy. The Q-Probes scheme is somewhat limited by the small number of UK laboratories that have participated. In conclusion, as a result of the government's policy in the UK, benchmarking is here to stay. Benchmarking schemes described in this article are one way in which pathologists can demonstrate that they are providing a cost effective and high quality service. Key Words: benchmarking • pathology PMID:11477112

  19. Insights into the transport of aqueous quaternary ammonium cations: a combined experimental and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Himanshu N; Lindberg, Gerrick E; Yang, Yuan; Felberg, Lisa E; Voth, Gregory A; Herring, Andrew M

    2014-02-06

    This study focuses on understanding the relative effects of ammonium substituent groups (we primarily consider tetramethylammonium, benzyltrimethylammonium, and tetraethylammonium cations) and anion species (OH(-), HCO3(-), CO3(2-), Cl(-), and F(-)) on ion transport by combining experimental and computational approaches. We characterize transport experimentally using ionic conductivity and self-diffusion coefficients measured from NMR. These experimental results are interpreted using simulation methods to describe the transport of these cations and anions considering the effects of the counterion. It is particularly noteworthy that we directly probe cation and anion diffusion with pulsed gradient stimulated echo NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, corroborating these methods and providing a direct link between atomic-resolution simulations and macroscale experiments. By pairing diffusion measurements and simulations with residence times, we were able to understand the interplay between short-time and long-time dynamics with ionic conductivity. With experiment, we determined that solutions of benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide have the highest ionic conductivity (0.26 S/cm at 65 °C), which appears to be due to differences for the ions in long-time diffusion and short-time water caging. We also examined the effect of CO2 on ionic conductivity in ammonium hydroxide solutions. CO2 readily reacts with OH(-) to form HCO(-)3 and is found to lower the solution ionic conductivity by almost 50%.

  20. The Graphical Benchmark Information Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Papiani

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike single-processor benchmarks, multiprocessor benchmarks can yield tens of numbers for each benchmark on each computer, as factors such as the number of processors and problem size are varied. A graphical display of performance surfaces therefore provides a satisfactory way of comparing results. The University of Southampton has developed the Graphical Benchmark Information Service (GBIS on the World Wide Web (WWW to display interactively graphs of user-selected benchmark results from the GENESIS and PARKBENCH benchmark suites.

  1. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red

  2. Benchmarking expert system tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  3. Benchmarking of Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculations for applications to JET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrizzi, L; Batistoni, P; Fischer, U; Loughlin, M; Pereslavtsev, P; Villari, R

    2005-01-01

    The calculation of dose rates after shutdown is an important issue for operating nuclear reactors. A validated computational tool is needed for reliable dose rate calculations. In fusion reactors neutrons induce high levels of radioactivity and presumably high doses. The complex geometries of the devices require the use of sophisticated geometry modelling and computational tools for transport calculations. Simple rule of thumb laws do not always apply well. Two computational procedures have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines. Comparisons between the two methods showed some inherent discrepancies when applied to calculation for the ITER while good agreement was found for a 14 MeV point source neutron benchmark experiment. Further benchmarks were considered necessary to investigate in more detail the reasons for the different results in different cases. In this frame the application to the Joint European Torus JET machine has been considered as a useful benchmark exercise. In a first calculational benchmark with a representative D-T irradiation history of JET the two methods differed by no more than 25%. In another, more realistic benchmark exercise, which is the subject of this paper, the real irradiation history of D-T and D-D campaigns conducted at JET in 1997-98 were used to calculate the shut-down doses at different locations, irradiation and decay times. Experimental dose data recorded at JET for the same conditions offer the possibility to check the prediction capability of the calculations and thus show the applicability (and the constraints) of the procedures and data to the rather complex shutdown dose rate analysis of real fusion devices. Calculation results obtained by the two methods are reported below, comparison with experimental results give discrepancies ranging between 2 and 10. The reasons of that can be ascribed to the high uncertainty on the experimental data and the unsatisfactory JET model used in the calculation. A new

  4. Geothermal Fluid Interaction with Mafic Rocks in Porous Media - AN Experimental and Reactive Transport Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Reaction and reactive transport modeling is becoming an increasingly popular method to study fluid-rock interaction and fluid transport on small to large scales. In this study, fluid-rock experiments were carried out and the observations compared with the results of reaction and reactive transport models. The systems studied included fluid-rock interaction of olivine on one hand and basaltic glass on the other hand with dilute aqueous solutions containing CO2 at acid to neutral pH and temperatures from ambient to 250 °C. The experiments were conducted using batch type experiments in closed reactors and 1-D plug experiments in flow-through reactors and the solution chemistry, the reaction progress, secondary mineralization and porosity changes analyzed as a function of time. The reaction and 1-D reactive transport simulations were conducted with the aid of the PHREEQC program. For the simulations the thermodynamic database for mineral reactions was largely updated and the kinetics of mineral dissolution as well as mineral nucleation and crystal growth was incorporated. According to the experimental results and the reactive transport simulations, olivine and basaltic glass progressively dissolves forming secondary minerals and solutes that are partially transported out of them column (system). The exact reaction path was found to depend on solution composition and pH and reaction progress (time). The mass movement of the system at a particular steady state as well as porosity changes may be divided into three stages. Stage I is characterized by initial olivine or basaltic glass leaching, stage II is characterized by progressive mineral formation and decrease in porosity and stage III is characterized by remobilization of the previously formed secondary minerals and eventual increase in porosity. The reaction and reactive transport modeling was found to simulate reasonable the reaction path as a function of reaction time. However, exact mass movement and time

  5. Benchmarking TENDL-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marck, S. C.; Koning, A. J.; Rochman, D. A.

    2014-04-01

    The new release of the TENDL nuclear data library, TENDL-2012, was tested by performing many benchmark calculations. Close to 2000 criticality safety benchmark cases were used, as well as many benchmark shielding cases. All the runs could be compared with similar runs based on the nuclear data libraries ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0, and JEFF-3.1.1 respectively. The results are that many of the criticality safety results obtained with TENDL-2012 are close to the ones for the other libraries. In particular the results for the thermal spectrum cases with LEU fuel are good. Nevertheless, there is a fair amount of cases for which the TENDL-2012 results are not as good as the other libraries. Especially a number of fast spectrum cases with reflectors are not well described. The results for the shielding benchmarks are mostly similar to the ones for the other libraries. Some isolated cases with differences are identified.

  6. Benchmarking Academic Anatomic Pathologists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbara S. Ducatman MD; Tristram Parslow MD, PhD

    2016-01-01

    .... We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data...

  7. Financial Integrity Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data compiles standard financial integrity benchmarks that allow the City to measure its financial standing. It measure the City's debt ratio and bond ratings....

  8. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  9. Benchmarking and Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    . The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  10. How Activists Use Benchmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Non-governmental organisations use benchmarks as a form of symbolic violence to place political pressure on firms, states, and international organisations. The development of benchmarks requires three elements: (1) salience, that the community of concern is aware of the issue and views it as impo...... interests and challenge established politico-economic norms. Differentiating these cycles provides insights into how activists work through organisations and with expert networks, as well as how campaigns on complex economic issues can be mounted and sustained....

  11. On Big Data Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Rui; Lu, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Big data systems address the challenges of capturing, storing, managing, analyzing, and visualizing big data. Within this context, developing benchmarks to evaluate and compare big data systems has become an active topic for both research and industry communities. To date, most of the state-of-the-art big data benchmarks are designed for specific types of systems. Based on our experience, however, we argue that considering the complexity, diversity, and rapid evolution of big data systems, fo...

  12. Benchmarking in University Toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Kuźmicz

    2015-01-01

    In the face of global competition and rising challenges that higher education institutions (HEIs) meet, it is imperative to increase innovativeness and efficiency of their management. Benchmarking can be the appropriate tool to search for a point of reference necessary to assess institution’s competitive position and learn from the best in order to improve. The primary purpose of the paper is to present in-depth analysis of benchmarking application in HEIs worldwide. The study involves indica...

  13. Benchmarking Software Assurance Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    product The chicken#. (a.k.a. Process Focused Assessment ) – Management Systems ( ISO 9001, ISO 27001 , ISO 2000) – Capability Maturity Models (CMMI...Benchmarking Software Assurance Implementation Michele Moss SSTC Conference May 18, 2011 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking Software Assurance Implementation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  14. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base.

  15. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Low-Solubility Radionuclides: A Field, Experimental, and Modeling Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, A B; Reimus, P W; Abdel-Fattah, A; Allen, P G; Anghel, I; Benedict, F C; Esser, B K; Lu, N; Kung, K S; Nelson, J; Neu, M P; Reilly, S D; Smith, D K; Sylwester, E R; Wang, L; Ware, S D; Warren, RG; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2003-02-01

    rate of Pu transport. Currently, the role of colloids in facilitating the transport of low-solubility radionuclides is not understood well enough to effectively model contaminant transport. A fundamental understanding of the role that colloids may or may not play in the transport of low-solubility radionuclides is needed in order to predict contaminant transport, design remediation strategies and provide risk assessments. Ryan and Elimelech (1996) have argued that in order to evaluate the potential for colloids to transport radionuclides, several criteria must be met: (1) colloids must exist and be stable, (2) radionuclides must have a high sorption affinity for the colloids, and (3) colloids must be transported. Only then can we understand the conditions where colloids can and will facilitate transport of radionuclides. In this report we compile the results from a series of field, laboratory and modeling studies funded by the UGTA program in order to evaluate the potential for colloids to transport low-solubility radionuclides at the NTS. The studies presented in this report fall under three general areas of investigation: Characterization of natural colloids in groundwater at NTS, Pu sorption/desorption experiments on colloid minerals identified in NTS groundwater, and Transport of Pu-doped colloids through fractured rock core. Chapter 1 is a background review of our current understanding of colloids and their role in facilitating contaminant transport. Chapters 2, and 3 are field studies that focused on characterizing natural colloids at different hydrologic environments at the NTS and address Ryan and Elimelech's (1996) first criteria regarding the existence and stability of colloids. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 are laboratory experimental studies that investigate the sorption/desorption behavior of Pu and other low-solubility radionuclides on colloid minerals observed in NTS groundwater. These studies evaluate Ryan and Elimelech's (1996) second criteria that the

  16. A 3D stylized half-core CANDU benchmark problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounders, Justin M. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States); Rahnema, Farzad, E-mail: farzad@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States); Serghiuta, Dumitru, E-mail: Dumitru.Serghiuta@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, 280 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5S9 (Canada); Tholammakkil, John [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, 280 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5S9 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    A 3D stylized half-core Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor benchmark problem is presented. The benchmark problem is comprised of a heterogeneous lattice of 37-element natural uranium fuel bundles, heavy water moderated, heavy water cooled, with adjuster rods included as reactivity control devices. Furthermore, a 2-group macroscopic cross section library has been developed for the problem to increase the utility of this benchmark for full-core deterministic transport methods development. Monte Carlo results are presented for the benchmark problem in cooled, checkerboard void, and full coolant void configurations.

  17. Experimental study of the pH influence on the transport mechanisms of phenols in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Silvia; Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Genon, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The study of the transport mechanisms connected to solid-liquid interactions is fundamental in the determination of the extension of the pollution of a site and in the evaluation of the best remediation process to be applied. The sorption of hydrophobic ionizable organic contaminants from the groundwaters is supervised not only by the physico-chemical properties of soil and pollutants, but also by the groundwaters pH, which deeply influences their solubility in the aqueous media, and consequently their transport mechanisms in the aquifer. In this work an experimental study of the sorption of phenol and 2-nitrophenol on two soils, different in particle-size distribution, CEC and organic carbon content, was realized. The sorption potential of the soils was evaluated by means of a physical, mineralogical and chemical characterization. The experimental data coming from some batch tests, performed at pH values equal to 4, 7 and 10 were fitted by means of linear, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms models. The soil-contaminants interaction mechanisms that influence the isotherms shapes were then analyzed and discussed, and a comparison between the theoretical and experimental values of the partitioning coefficient KD was performed.

  18. A hybrid numerical-experimental study of fluid transport by migrating zooplankton aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Monica; Dabiri, John; Nawroth, Janna; Gemmell, Brad; Collins, Samantha

    2014-11-01

    Zooplankton aggregations that undergo diel vertical migrations have been hypothesized to play an important role in local nutrient transport and global ocean dynamics. The degree of the contributions of these naturally occurring events ultimately relies on how efficiently fluid is transported and eventually mixed within the water column. By implementing solutions to the Stokes equations, numerical models have successfully captured the time-averaged far-field flow of self-propelled swimmers. However, discrepancies between numerical fluid transport estimates and field measurements of individual jellyfish suggest the need to include near-field effects to assess the impact of biomixing in oceanic processes. Here, we bypass the inherent difficulty of modeling the unsteady flow of active swimmers while including near-field effects by integrating experimental velocity data of zooplankton into our numerical model. Fluid transport is investigated by tracking a sheet of artificial fluid particles during vertical motion of zooplankton. Collective effects are addressed by studying different swimmer configurations within an aggregation from the gathered data for a single swimmer. Moreover, the dependence of animal swimming mode is estimated by using data for different species of zooplankton.

  19. Experimental investigation of suspended particles transport through porous media: particle and grain size effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quansheng; Cui, Xianze; Zhang, Chengyuan; Huang, Shibing

    2016-01-01

    Particle and grain size may influence the transportation and deposition characteristics of particles within pollutant transport and within granular filters that are typically used in wastewater treatment. We conducted two-dimensional sandbox experiments using quartz powder as the particles and quartz sand as the porous medium to study the response of transportation and deposition formation to changes in particle diameter (ds, with median diameter 18, 41, and 82 μm) and grain diameter (dp, with median diameter 0.36, 1.25, and 2.82 mm) considering a wide range of diameter ratios (ds/dp) from 0.0064 to 0.228. Particles were suspended in deionized water, and quartz sand was used as the porous medium, which was meticulously cleaned to minimize any physicochemical and impurities effects that could result in indeterminate results. After the experiments, the particle concentration of the effluent and particle mass per gram of dry sands were measured to explore changes in transportation and deposition characteristics under different conditions. In addition, a micro-analysis was conducted to better analyse the results on a mesoscopic scale. The experimental observation analyses indicate that different diameter ratios (ds/dp) may lead to different deposit formations. As ds/dp increased, the deposit formation changed from 'Random Deposition Type' to 'Gradient Deposition Type', and eventually became 'Inlet Deposition Type'.

  20. Experimental dissection of oxygen transport resistance in the components of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwanyeong; Lee, Yoo il; Lee, Guesang; Min, Kyoungdoug; Yi, Jung S.

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen transport resistance is a major obstacle for obtaining high performance in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). To distinguish the major components that inhibit oxygen transport, an experimental method is established to dissect the oxygen transport resistance of the components of the PEMFC, such as the substrate, micro-porous layer (MPL), catalyst layer, and ionomer film. The Knudsen numbers are calculated to determine the types of diffusion mechanisms at each layer by measuring the pore sizes with either mercury porosimetry or BET analysis. At the under-saturated condition where condensation is mostly absent, the molecular diffusion resistance is dissected by changing the type of inert gas, and ionomer film permeation is separated by varying the inlet gas humidity. Moreover, the presence of the MPL and the variability of the substrate thickness allow the oxygen transport resistance at each component of a PEMFC to be dissected. At a low relative humidity of 50% and lower, an ionomer film had the largest resistance, while the contribution of the MPL was largest for the other humidification conditions.

  1. Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

  2. Benchmarking in Academic Pharmacy Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Bosso, John A.; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O.; Ross, Leigh Ann

    2010-01-01

    Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilit...

  3. PNNL Information Technology Benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DD Hostetler

    1999-09-08

    Benchmarking is a methodology for searching out industry best practices that lead to superior performance. It is exchanging information, not just with any organization, but with organizations known to be the best within PNNL, in industry, or in dissimilar industries with equivalent functions. It is used as a continuous improvement tool for business and technical processes, products, and services. Information technology--comprising all computer and electronic communication products and services--underpins the development and/or delivery of many PNNL products and services. This document describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) approach to information technology (IT) benchmarking. The purpose is to engage other organizations in the collaborative process of benchmarking in order to improve the value of IT services provided to customers. TM document's intended audience consists of other US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and their IT staff. Although the individual participants must define the scope of collaborative benchmarking, an outline of IT service areas for possible benchmarking is described.

  4. Experimental evaluation of spatial resolution in phase maps retrieved by transport of intensity equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Oshima, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    The transport of intensity equation (TIE) is a convenient method of obtaining a potential distribution, as it requires only three transmission electron microscopy images with different amounts of defocus. However, the spatial resolution of the TIE phase map has not yet been evaluated experimentally. In this study, we investigated the phase distribution of spherical gold nanoparticles and its dependence on the defocus difference and found that the spatial resolution was finer than 2 nm, even for a defocus difference of 4 µm. Theoretical calculations reproduced the experimental results well. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Expression of basolateral organic anion and cation transporters in experimental cadmium nephrotoxicity in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubojević, Marija; Breljak, Davorka; Herak-Kramberger, Carol M; Anzai, Naohiko; Sabolić, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd)-intoxicated experimental animals exhibit impaired renal secretion of organic anions (OA) and cations (OC), indicating their transporters (Oats and Octs) in the proximal tubule (PT) basolateral membrane as possible targets of Cd. To correlate transport data from the literature with the expression of relevant transporters, we performed immunochemical and RT-PCR studies of renal Oats and Octs in the subchronic (treatment with CdCl2; 2 mg Cd/kg b.m./day, for 2 weeks) and acute (treatment with Cd-metallothionein (CdMT); 0.4 mg Cd/kg b.m., 6 or 12 h before killing) models of Cd nephrotoxicity. In the subchronic model, PT exhibited a minor loss of basolateral invaginations and overall unchanged expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and GAPDH proteins and mRNAs, while the expression of Oat and Oct proteins and their mRNAs was strongly downregulated. In the acute model, a time-related redistribution of basolateral transporters to the intracellular vesicular compartment was a major finding. However, 6 h following CdMT treatment, the total abundance of Oat and Oct proteins in the renal tissue remained unchanged, the expression of mRNAs decreased only for Oats, while a limited Oat1 and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity in the PT apical membrane indicated loss of cell polarity. As tested in rats treated with colchicine, the observed loss/redistribution of basolateral transporters in both models may be independent on microtubules. Therefore, the diminished renal secretion of OA and OC via PT in Cd nephrotoxicity may result from (a) limited loss of secretory surface (basolateral invaginations), (b) selective loss of Oats and Octs, and (c) loss of cell polarity.

  6. Deviating From the Benchmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; Carneiro, Anabela

    This paper studies three related questions: To what extent otherwise similar startups employ different quantities and qualities of human capital at the moment of entry? How persistent are initial human capital choices over time? And how does deviating from human capital benchmarks influence firm...... survival? The analysis is based on a matched employer-employee dataset and covers about 17,500 startups in manufacturing and services. We adopt a new procedure to estimate individual benchmarks for the quantity and quality of initial human resources, acknowledging correlations between hiring decisions......, founders human capital, and the ownership structure of startups (solo entrepreneurs versus entrepreneurial teams). We then study the survival implications of exogenous deviations from these benchmarks, based on spline models for survival data. Our results indicate that (especially negative) deviations from...

  7. Benchmarking for Best Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Zairi, Mohamed

    1998-01-01

    Benchmarking for Best Practice uses up-to-the-minute case-studies of individual companies and industry-wide quality schemes to show how and why implementation has succeeded. For any practitioner wanting to establish best practice in a wide variety of business areas, this book makes essential reading. .It is also an ideal textbook on the applications of TQM since it describes concepts, covers definitions and illustrates the applications with first-hand examples. Professor Mohamed Zairi is an international expert and leading figure in the field of benchmarking. His pioneering work in this area l

  8. Benchmarking Danish Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Bentzen, Eric; Aagaard Andreassen, Mette

    2003-01-01

    compatible survey. The International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) doesbring up the question of supply chain management, but unfortunately, we did not have access to thedatabase. Data from the members of the SCOR-model, in the form of benchmarked performance data,may exist, but are nonetheless...... not public. The survey is a cooperative project "Benchmarking DanishIndustries" with CIP/Aalborg University, the Danish Technological University, the DanishTechnological Institute and Copenhagen Business School as consortia partners. The project has beenfunded by the Danish Agency for Trade and Industry...

  9. Theoretical modeling and experimental validation of transport and separation properties of carbon nanotube electrospun membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2016-12-27

    Developing a high flux and selective membrane is required to make membrane distillation (MD) a more attractive desalination process. Amongst other characteristics membrane hydrophobicity is significantly important to get high vapor transport and low wettability. In this study, a laboratory fabricated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite electrospun (E-CNT) membrane was tested and has showed a higher permeate flux compared to poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PH) electrospun membrane (E-PH membrane) in a direct contact MD (DCMD) configuration. Only 1% and 2% of CNTs incorporation resulted in an enhanced permeate flux with lower sensitivity to feed salinity while treating a 35 and 70 g/L NaCl solutions. Experimental results and the mechanisms of E-CNT membrane were validated by a proposed new step-modeling approach. The increased vapor transport in E-CNT membranes could not be elucidated by an enhancement of mass transfer only at a given physico-chemical properties. However, the theoretical modeling approach considering the heat and mass transfers simultaneously enabled to explain successfully the enhanced flux in the DCMD process using E-CNT membranes. This indicates that both mass and heat transfers improved by CNTs are attributed to the enhanced vapor transport in the E-CNT membrane.

  10. 77 FR 15969 - Waybill Data Released in Three-Benchmark Rail Rate Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1244 Waybill Data Released in Three-Benchmark Rail Rate..., 2010, the Board is formalizing its rules with respect to the Three-Benchmark methodology for... formalizing its rules with respect to the Three-Benchmark methodology used to adjudicate simplified rate case...

  11. Benchmarking of workplace performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to present a process model of value adding corporate real estate and facilities management and to discuss which indicators can be used to measure and benchmark workplace performance.

    In order to add value to the organisation, the work environment has to provide value for

  12. Benchmarking the World's Best

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    A century ago, the United States was a world leader in industrial benchmarking. However, after World War II, once no one could compete with the U.S., it became complacent. Many industrialized countries now have higher student achievement and more equitable and efficient education systems. A higher proportion of young people in their workforces…

  13. Benchmarking RDF Storage Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying); M.-D. Pham (Minh-Duc); F.E. Groffen (Fabian); E. Liarou (Erietta); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin); J.P. Calbimonte; O. Corcho

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this deliverable, we present version V1.0 of SRBench, the first benchmark for Streaming RDF engines, designed in the context of Task 1.4 of PlanetData, completely based on real-world datasets. With the increasing problem of too much streaming data but not enough knowledge, researchers

  14. The COST Benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Tiesyte, Dalia; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2006-01-01

    takes into account that the available positions of the moving objects are inaccurate, an aspect largely ignored in previous indexing research. The concepts of data and query enlargement are introduced for addressing inaccuracy. As proof of concepts of the benchmark, the paper covers the application...

  15. Benchmarking in Foodservice Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-19

    fifth generation was global benchmarking, which was "a global application where international trade, cultural, and business process distinctions...religious dietary needs of inmates. In the financial area of foodservice, usage offood cost percentage, labor cost percentage, supply cost percentage

  16. Surveys and Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Surveys and benchmarks continue to grow in importance for community colleges in response to several factors. One is the press for accountability, that is, for colleges to report the outcomes of their programs and services to demonstrate their quality and prudent use of resources, primarily to external constituents and governing boards at the state…

  17. Benchmarking and Performance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TANTAU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the chosen topic is explained by the meaning of the firm efficiency concept - the firm efficiency means the revealed performance (how well the firm performs in the actual market environment given the basic characteristics of the firms and their markets that are expected to drive their profitability (firm size, market power etc.. This complex and relative performance could be due to such things as product innovation, management quality, work organization, some other factors can be a cause even if they are not directly observed by the researcher. The critical need for the management individuals/group to continuously improve their firm/company’s efficiency and effectiveness, the need for the managers to know which are the success factors and the competitiveness determinants determine consequently, what performance measures are most critical in determining their firm’s overall success. Benchmarking, when done properly, can accurately identify both successful companies and the underlying reasons for their success. Innovation and benchmarking firm level performance are critical interdependent activities. Firm level variables, used to infer performance, are often interdependent due to operational reasons. Hence, the managers need to take the dependencies among these variables into account when forecasting and benchmarking performance. This paper studies firm level performance using financial ratio and other type of profitability measures. It uses econometric models to describe and then propose a method to forecast and benchmark performance.

  18. Experimental verification of NOVICE transport code predictions of electron distributions from targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, S.; Brucker, G.J.; Jordan, T.; Bechtel, E.; Gentner, F.; Groeber, E

    2002-04-01

    This paper reports the results of experiments that were designed to check the validity of the NOVICE Adjoint Monte Carlo Transport code in predicting emission-electron distributions from irradiated targets. Previous work demonstrated that the code accurately calculated total electron yields from irradiated targets. In this investigation, a gold target was irradiated by X-rays with effective quantum energies of 79, 127, 174, 216, and 250 keV. Spectra of electrons from the target were measured for an incident photon angle of 45 deg., an emission-electron polar angle of 45 deg., azimuthal angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg., and in both the forward and backward directions. NOVICE was used to predict those electron-energy-distributions for the same set of experimental conditions. The agreement in shape of the theoretical and experimental distributions was good, whereas the absolute agreement in amplitude was within about a factor of 2 over most of the energy range of the spectra. Previous experimental and theoretical comparisons together with these results show that the code can be used to simulate the generation physics of those distributions.

  19. Experimental verification of NOVICE transport code predictions of electron distributions from targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kronenberg, S; Jordan, T; Bechtel, E; Gentner, F; Groeber, E

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the results of experiments that were designed to check the validity of the NOVICE Adjoint Monte Carlo Transport code in predicting emission-electron distributions from irradiated targets. Previous work demonstrated that the code accurately calculated total electron yields from irradiated targets. In this investigation, a gold target was irradiated by X-rays with effective quantum energies of 79, 127, 174, 216, and 250 keV. Spectra of electrons from the target were measured for an incident photon angle of 45 deg., an emission-electron polar angle of 45 deg., azimuthal angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg., and in both the forward and backward directions. NOVICE was used to predict those electron-energy-distributions for the same set of experimental conditions. The agreement in shape of the theoretical and experimental distributions was good, whereas the absolute agreement in amplitude was within about a factor of 2 over most of the energy range of the spectra. Previous experimental and theoretical c...

  20. Spatial and temporal features of density-dependent contaminant transport: experimental investigation and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoia, Andrea; Latrille, Christelle; Beccantini, Alberto; Cartadale, Alain

    2009-10-13

    We investigate the spatial and temporal features of variable-density contaminant plumes migration in porous materials. Our analysis is supported by novel experimental results concerning concentration profiles inside a vertical column setup that has been conceived at CEA to this aim. The experimental method relies on X-ray spectrometry, which allows determining solute profiles as a function of time at several positions along the column. The salient outcomes of the measurements are elucidated, with focus on miscible fluids in homogeneous saturated media. The role of the injected solution molarity is evidenced. As molarity increases, the solutes plume transport progressively deviates from the usual Fickian behavior, and pollutants distribution becomes skewed in the direction dictated by gravity. By resorting to a finite elements approach, we numerically solve the nonlinear equations that rule the pollutants migration: a good agreement is found between the simulated profiles and the experimental data. At high molarity, a strong dependence on initial conditions is found. Finally, we qualitatively explore the (unstable) interfacial dynamics between the dense contaminant plume and the lighter resident fluid that saturates the column, and detail its evolution for finite-duration contaminant injections.

  1. Experimental benchmark of non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium plasma atomic physics codes; Validation experimentale des codes de physique atomique des plasmas hors equilibre thermodynamique local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagels-Silvert, V

    2004-09-15

    The main purpose of this thesis is to get experimental data for the testing and validation of atomic physics codes dealing with non-local-thermodynamical-equilibrium plasmas. The first part is dedicated to the spectroscopic study of xenon and krypton plasmas that have been produced by a nanosecond laser pulse interacting with a gas jet. A Thomson scattering diagnostic has allowed us to measure independently plasma parameters such as electron temperature, electron density and the average ionisation state. We have obtained time integrated spectra in the range between 5 and 10 angstroms. We have identified about one hundred xenon rays between 8.6 and 9.6 angstroms via the use of the Relac code. We have discovered unknown rays for the krypton between 5.2 and 7.5 angstroms. In a second experiment we have extended the wavelength range to the X UV domain. The Averroes/Transpec code has been tested in the ranges from 9 to 15 angstroms and from 10 to 130 angstroms, the first range has been well reproduced while the second range requires a more complex data analysis. The second part is dedicated to the spectroscopic study of aluminium, selenium and samarium plasmas in femtosecond operating rate. We have designed an interferometry diagnostic in the frequency domain that has allowed us to measure the expanding speed of the target's backside. Via the use of an adequate isothermal model this parameter has led us to know the plasma electron temperature. Spectra and emission times of various rays from the aluminium and selenium plasmas have been computed satisfactorily with the Averroes/Transpec code coupled with Film and Multif hydrodynamical codes. (A.C.)

  2. Numerical and experimental approaches to study soil transport and clogging in granular filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarska, Y.; Smith, J. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Lomov, I.; Glascoe, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    Failure of a dam by erosion ranks among the most serious accidents in civil engineering. The best way to prevent internal erosion is using adequate granular filters in the transition areas where important hydraulic gradients can appear. In case of cracking and erosion, if the filter is capable of retaining the eroded particles, the crack will seal and the dam safety will be ensured. Numerical modeling has proved to be a cost-effective tool for improving our understanding of physical processes. Traditionally, the consideration of flow and particle transport in porous media has focused on treating the media as continuum. Practical models typically address flow and transport based on the Darcy's law as a function of a pressure gradient and a medium-dependent permeability parameter. Additional macroscopic constitutes describe porosity, and permeability changes during the migration of a suspension through porous media. However, most of them rely on empirical correlations, which often need to be recalibrated for each application. Grain-scale modeling can be used to gain insight into scale dependence of continuum macroscale parameters. A finite element numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow together with Lagrange multiplier technique for solid particles was applied to the simulation of soil filtration in the filter layers of gravity dam. The numerical approach was validated through comparison of numerical simulations with the experimental results of base soil particle clogging in the filter layers performed at ERDC. The numerical simulation correctly predicted flow and pressure decay due to particle clogging. The base soil particle distribution was almost identical to those measured in the laboratory experiment. It is believed that the agreement between simulations and experimental data demonstrates the applicability of the proposed approach for prediction of the soil transport and clogging in embankment dams. To get more precise understanding of

  3. Experimental study of transport of relativistic electron beams in strong magnetic mirror field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Shohei; Kondo, Kotaro; Bailly-Grandvaux, Mathiu; Bellei, Claudio; Santos, Joao; Firex Project Team

    2015-11-01

    Relativistic electron beams REB produced by ultra high intense laser pulses have generally a large divergence angle that results in degradation of energy coupling between the REB and a fuel core in the fast ignition scheme. Guiding and focusing of the REB by a strong external magnetic field was proposed to achieve high efficiency. We investigated REB transport through 50 μm or 250 μm thick plastic foils CuI doped under external magnetic fields, in magnetic mirror configurations of 1.2 or 4 mirror ratio. The experiment was carried out at the GEKKO XII and LFEX laser facility. Spatial pattern of the REB was measured by coherent transition radiation and/or Cu Ka x ray emission from the rear surface of the foil targets. Strong collimation of the REB by the external magnetic field was observed with 50 μm thick plastic targets, while the REB scattered in 250 μm thick targets. The experimental results are compared with computer simulations to understand the physical mechanisms of the REB transport in the external magnetic field. This work is supported by NIFS (Japan), MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (Japan), JSPS Fellowship (Japan), ANR (France) and COST (Europe).

  4. Experimental Study and Reactive Transport Modeling of Boric Acid Leaching of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang K.-T. K.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Borated water leakage through spent fuel pools (SFPs at pressurized water reactors is a concern because it could cause corrosion of reinforcement steel in the concrete structure, compromise the integrity of the structure, or cause unmonitored releases of contaminated water to the environment. Experimental data indicate that pH is a critical parameter that determines the corrosion susceptibility of rebar in borated water and the degree of concrete degradation by boric acid leaching. In this study, reactive transport modeling of concrete leaching by borated water was performed to provide information on the solution pH in the concrete crack or matrix and the degree of concrete degradation at different locations of an SFP concrete structure exposed to borated water. Simulations up to 100 years were performed using different boric acid concentrations, crack apertures, and solution flow rates. Concrete cylinders were immersed in boric acid solutions for several months and the mineralogical changes and boric acid penetration in the concrete cylinder were evaluated as a function of time. The depths of concrete leaching by boric acid solution derived from the reactive transport simulations were compared with the measured boric acid penetration depth.

  5. Determinación experimental de los coeficientes locales de transporte de humedad en almacenes soterrados. // Experimental determination of local humidity transport coefficients in underground warehouses.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. D. Andrade Gregori; R. Hernández Rubio; M. Piedra Díaz

    2006-01-01

    En el trabajo se fundamentan los mecanismos de transporte de humedad que tienen lugar en almacenes soterrados dadas lascaracterísticas climáticas y geohidrològicas de Cuba. Se establece una analogía con la ley de Fick y se propone un modeloteórico que describe este mecanismo de transporte hacia las cavidades. Se determinó experimentalmente los coeficienteslocales de transporte de humedad para diferentes tipos de recubrimiento en paredes y diferentes formas geométricas de losalmacenes.Palabras...

  6. EBR-II Reactor Physics Benchmark Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Chad L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Lum, Edward S [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Stewart, Ryan [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Byambadorj, Bilguun [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Beaulieu, Quinton [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2017-12-28

    This report provides a reactor physics benchmark evaluation with associated uncertainty quantification for the critical configuration of the April 1986 Experimental Breeder Reactor II Run 138B core configuration.

  7. Benchmarking i den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Dietrichson, Lars; Sandalgaard, Niels

    2008-01-01

    I artiklen vil vi kort diskutere behovet for benchmarking i fraværet af traditionelle markedsmekanismer. Herefter vil vi nærmere redegøre for, hvad benchmarking er med udgangspunkt i fire forskellige anvendelser af benchmarking. Regulering af forsyningsvirksomheder vil blive behandlet, hvorefter...

  8. Argonne Code Center: benchmark problem book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    This report is a supplement to the original report, published in 1968, as revised. The Benchmark Problem Book is intended to serve as a source book of solutions to mathematically well-defined problems for which either analytical or very accurate approximate solutions are known. This supplement contains problems in eight new areas: two-dimensional (R-z) reactor model; multidimensional (Hex-z) HTGR model; PWR thermal hydraulics--flow between two channels with different heat fluxes; multidimensional (x-y-z) LWR model; neutron transport in a cylindrical ''black'' rod; neutron transport in a BWR rod bundle; multidimensional (x-y-z) BWR model; and neutronic depletion benchmark problems. This supplement contains only the additional pages and those requiring modification. (RWR)

  9. Algebraic Multigrid Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-08-01

    AMG is a parallel algebraic multigrid solver for linear systems arising from problems on unstructured grids. It has been derived directly from the BoomerAMG solver in the hypre library, a large linear solvers library that is being developed in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) at LLNL and is very similar to the AMG2013 benchmark with additional optimizations. The driver provided in the benchmark can build various test problems. The default problem is a Laplace type problem with a 27-point stencil, which can be scaled up and is designed to solve a very large problem. A second problem simulates a time dependent problem, in which successively various smnllcr systems are solved.

  10. Piping systems physical benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezler, P.; Subudhi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Physical benchmark evaluations are used to assess the accuracy and adequacy of the analysis methods and assumptions used in typical piping qualification evaluations. To date physical benchmark evaluations have been completed for five systems involving both laboratory tested and in situ piping. In each evaluation elastic finite element methods are used to predict the time history response of a system for which physical test results are available. In the analytical simulations the measured support excitations and the measured damping properties are used as input and the acceleration and displacement response of piping interior points are predicted as output. Most evaluations were performed blind in that only the measured inputs are provided at the time of analysis. A summary of the overall results as well as predicted and measured time history traces for selected points are included.

  11. Benchmarking HIPAA compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, James R; Thoman, Deborah J; Anumalasetty, Karthikeyan; Hardre, Pat; Ross-Lazarov, Tsvetomir

    2002-01-01

    One of the nation's largest academic medical centers is benchmarking its operations using internally developed software to improve privacy/confidentiality of protected health information (PHI) and to enhance data security to comply with HIPAA regulations. It is also coordinating the development of a web-based interactive product that can help hospitals, physician practices, and managed care organizations measure their compliance with HIPAA regulations.

  12. Experimental investigation of airborne contaminant transport by a human wake moving in a ventilated aircraft cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane B.

    The air ventilation system in jetliners provides a comfortable and healthy environment for passengers. Unfortunately, the increase in global air traffic has amplified the risks presented by infectious aerosols or noxious material released during flight. Inside the cabin, air typically flows continuously from overhead outlets into sidewall exhausts in a circular pattern that minimizes secondary flow between adjacent seat rows. However, disturbances frequently introduced by individuals walking along an aisle may alter air distribution, and contribute to spreading of contaminants. Numerical simulation of these convoluted transient flow phenomena is difficult and complex, and experimental assessment of contaminant distribution in real cabins often impractical. A fundamental experimental study was undertaken to examine the transport phenomena, to validate computations and to improve air monitoring systems. A finite moving body was modeled in a 10:1 scale simplified aircraft cabin equipped with ventilation, at a Reynolds number (based on body diameter) of the order of 10,000. An experimental facility was designed and constructed to permit measurements of the ventilation and wake velocity fields using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Contaminant migration was imaged using the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. The effect of ventilation was estimated by comparison with a companion baseline study. Results indicate that the evolution of a downwash predominant behind finite bodies of small aspect ratio is profoundly perturbed by the ventilation flow. The reorganization of vortical structures in the near-wake leads to a shorter longitudinal recirculation region. Furthermore, mixing in the wake is modified and contaminant is observed to convect to higher vertical locations corresponding to seated passenger breathing level.

  13. Benchmarking Cloud Resources for HEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alef, M.; Cordeiro, C.; De Salvo, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Field, L.; Giordano, D.; Guerri, M.; Schiavi, F. C.; Wiebalck, A.

    2017-10-01

    In a commercial cloud environment, exhaustive resource profiling is beneficial to cope with the intrinsic variability of the virtualised environment, allowing to promptly identify performance degradation. In the context of its commercial cloud initiatives, CERN has acquired extensive experience in benchmarking commercial cloud resources. Ultimately, this activity provides information on the actual delivered performance of invoiced resources. In this report we discuss the experience acquired and the results collected using several fast benchmark applications adopted by the HEP community. These benchmarks span from open-source benchmarks to specific user applications and synthetic benchmarks. The workflow put in place to collect and analyse performance metrics is also described.

  14. Absorption and transport of radioactive /sup 57/Co-vitamin B/sub 12/ in experimental giardiasis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, N.C.; Sehgal, A.K.; Chnuttani, P.N. (Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India))

    1981-11-01

    Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of /sup 57/Co-vitamin B/sub 12/ in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B/sub 12/ was unimpaired.

  15. Experimental and Computational Studies of Temperature Gradient Driven Molecular Transport in Gas Flows through Nano/Micro-Scale Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yen-Lin; Alexeenko, Alina A; Young, Marcus; Muntz, Eric Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Studies at the University of Southern California have shown that an unconventional solid-state device, the Knudsen Compressor, can be operated as a micro-scale pump or compressor. The critical components of Knudsen Compressors are gas transport membranes, which can be formed from porous materials or densely packed parallel arrays of channels. An applied temperature gradient across a transport membrane creates a thermal creep pumping action. Experimental and computational techniques that have ...

  16. LUGH an experimental facility for preferential flow-colloidal transport in heterogeneous unsaturated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Bien, L.; Hehn, V.; Winiarski, T.

    2011-12-01

    with detachment efficiency depending upon the history of the detachment process. A relationship between the outflow and both solute and colloid transfer is established on the separate analysis of the 15 breakthrough curves, leading to the estimation of 15 darcian velocities. Velocity variability witnesses the flow heterogeneity and spatial variability of local capillary barriers. Numerical modeling shows actual flow field and travel length that can be related to each breakthrourgh curve. The spatial distribution of concentrations on some hydrofacies shows that both solute and colloids are predominantly transported through those preferential pathways. The use of a suitable lysimeter allows coupling a good simulation of the heterogeneity of the medium with a precise analysis of the 3D distribution of water, solute and colloids. It allows, experimentally and by modeling to point out the lithofacies that are predominant in the unsaturated zone regarding colloid transport.

  17. Predicting Transport of 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol Into Saliva Using a Combination Experimental and Computational Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan Ned; Carver, Zana A.; Weber, Thomas J.; Timchalk, Charles

    2017-04-11

    A combination experimental and computational approach was developed to predict chemical transport into saliva. A serous-acinar chemical transport assay was established to measure chemical transport with non-physiological (standard cell culture medium) and physiological (using surrogate plasma and saliva medium) conditions using 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) a metabolite of the pesticide chlorpyrifos. High levels of TCPy protein binding was observed in cell culture medium and rat plasma resulting in different TCPy transport behaviors in the two experimental conditions. In the non-physiological transport experiment, TCPy reached equilibrium at equivalent concentrations in apical and basolateral chambers. At higher TCPy doses, increased unbound TCPy was observed, and TCPy concentrations in apical and basolateral chambers reached equilibrium faster than lower doses, suggesting only unbound TCPy is able to cross the cellular monolayer. In the physiological experiment, TCPy transport was slower than non-physiological conditions, and equilibrium was achieved at different concentrations in apical and basolateral chambers at a comparable ratio (0.034) to what was previously measured in rats dosed with TCPy (saliva:blood ratio: 0.049). A cellular transport computational model was developed based on TCPy protein binding kinetics and accurately simulated all transport experiments using different permeability coefficients for the two experimental conditions (1.4 vs 0.4 cm/hr for non-physiological and physiological experiments, respectively). The computational model was integrated into a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and accurately predicted TCPy concentrations in saliva of rats dosed with TCPy. Overall, this study demonstrates an approach to predict chemical transport in saliva potentially increasing the utility of salivary biomonitoring in the future.

  18. Numerical and experimental predictions of fine-soil erosion, transport and trapping in embankment dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarska, Y.; Lomov, I.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T. H.; Glascoe, L. G.

    2011-12-01

    A determination of the safety of dam structures requires the characterization of fine-soil erosion processes and the ability of filter layers to capture fine-soil particles to prevent dam failure. We investigated numerically and experimentally different aspects of this problem at a grain scale. The numerical method was based on Lagrange multiplier technique (Kanarska et al., 2011). The particle-particle interactions were implemented using explicit force-displacement interactions for frictional inelastic particles similar to the distinct element method (DEM) (Cundall and Strack, 1979), with some modifications using the volume of the overlapping region as the input to the contact forces. The first set of numerical tests was performed to describe the response of a granular bed to forcing by a fluid, which flows over the crack surface. We investigated how particle properties, such as size and shape, affect threshold values for critical shear stresses and mean velocities. A good agreement between numerical results and experiments was found. A general constitutive erosion law, critical shear stresses, and erosion velocities were derived and validated against the available experimental range of conditions for different particle sizes, particle shapes, and flow conditions. We confirmed that a linear relationship between particle mass fluxes and shear stresses well describes soil behavior. A second set of numerical and experimental tests to investigate sediment trapping in the filter layers was also performed. The laboratory experiments on soil transport and trapping in granular media were conducted in constant-head flow chamber filled with filter media. We investigated how particle properties and amplitude of the applied hydraulic gradient affect clogging criteria and changes in hydraulic conductivity of the medium. The numerical results were validated against available experimental data. We started with spherical particles. In the future, we are planning to investigate

  19. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the

  20. Thermal transport across metal silicide-silicon interfaces: An experimental comparison between epitaxial and nonepitaxial interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ning; Feser, Joseph P.; Sadasivam, Sridhar; Fisher, Timothy S.; Wang, Tianshi; Ni, Chaoying; Janotti, Anderson

    2017-02-01

    Silicides are used extensively in nano- and microdevices due to their low electrical resistivity, low contact resistance to silicon, and their process compatibility. In this work, the thermal interface conductance of TiSi2, CoSi2, NiSi, and PtSi are studied using time-domain thermoreflectance. Exploiting the fact that most silicides formed on Si(111) substrates grow epitaxially, while most silicides on Si(100) do not, we study the effect of epitaxy, and show that for a wide variety of interfaces there is no dependence of interface conductance on the detailed structure of the interface. In particular, there is no difference in the thermal interface conductance between epitaxial and nonepitaxial silicide/silicon interfaces, nor between epitaxial interfaces with different interface orientations. While these silicide-based interfaces yield the highest reported interface conductances of any known interface with silicon, none of the interfaces studied are found to operate close to the phonon radiation limit, indicating that phonon transmission coefficients are nonunity in all cases and yet remain insensitive to interfacial structure. In the case of CoSi2, a comparison is made with detailed computational models using (1) full-dispersion diffuse mismatch modeling (DMM) including the effect of near-interfacial strain, and (2) an atomistic Green' function (AGF) approach that integrates near-interface changes in the interatomic force constants obtained through density functional perturbation theory. Above 100 K, the AGF approach significantly underpredicts interface conductance suggesting that energy transport does not occur purely by coherent transmission of phonons, even for epitaxial interfaces. The full-dispersion DMM closely predicts the experimentally observed interface conductances for CoSi2, NiSi, and TiSi2 interfaces, while it remains an open question whether inelastic scattering, cross-interfacial electron-phonon coupling, or other mechanisms could also account for

  1. Risk assessment of nitrate transport through subsurface layers and groundwater using experimental and modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alslaibi, Tamer M; Abunada, Ziyad; Abu Amr, Salem S; Abustan, Ismail

    2017-09-22

    Landfills are one of the main point sources of groundwater pollution. This research mainly aims to assess the risk of nitrate [Formula: see text] transport from the unlined landfill to subsurface layers and groundwater using experimental results and the SESOIL model. Samples from 12 groundwater wells downstream of the landfill were collected and analyzed in 2008, 21 years after the landfill construction. The average [Formula: see text] concentration in the wells was 54 mg/L, slightly higher than the World Health Organization ([Formula: see text] 50 mg/L) standards. SESOIL model was used to predict the [Formula: see text] concentration at the bottom of the unsaturated zone. Results indicated that the current mean [Formula: see text] concentration at the bottom of the unsaturated zone is 75 mg/L. the model predicted that the level of NO 3 will increased up to 325 mg/L within 30 years. Accordingly, the [Formula: see text] concentration in groundwater wells near the landfill area is expected to gradually increase with time. Although the current risk associated with the [Formula: see text] level might not be harm to adults, however, it might pose severe risks to both adults and infants in the near future due to [Formula: see text] leaching. Urgent mitigation measures such as final cell cover (cap), lining system and vertical expansion should be considered at the landfill to protect the public health in the area.

  2. Aeroelasticity Benchmark Assessment: Subsonic Fixed Wing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florance, Jennifer P.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental technical challenge in computational aeroelasticity is the accurate prediction of unsteady aerodynamic phenomena and the effect on the aeroelastic response of a vehicle. Currently, a benchmarking standard for use in validating the accuracy of computational aeroelasticity codes does not exist. Many aeroelastic data sets have been obtained in wind-tunnel and flight testing throughout the world; however, none have been globally presented or accepted as an ideal data set. There are numerous reasons for this. One reason is that often, such aeroelastic data sets focus on the aeroelastic phenomena alone (flutter, for example) and do not contain associated information such as unsteady pressures and time-correlated structural dynamic deflections. Other available data sets focus solely on the unsteady pressures and do not address the aeroelastic phenomena. Other discrepancies can include omission of relevant data, such as flutter frequency and / or the acquisition of only qualitative deflection data. In addition to these content deficiencies, all of the available data sets present both experimental and computational technical challenges. Experimental issues include facility influences, nonlinearities beyond those being modeled, and data processing. From the computational perspective, technical challenges include modeling geometric complexities, coupling between the flow and the structure, grid issues, and boundary conditions. The Aeroelasticity Benchmark Assessment task seeks to examine the existing potential experimental data sets and ultimately choose the one that is viewed as the most suitable for computational benchmarking. An initial computational evaluation of that configuration will then be performed using the Langley-developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FUN3D1 as part of its code validation process. In addition to the benchmarking activity, this task also includes an examination of future research directions. Researchers within the

  3. A benchmarking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Groessing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A benchmark study for permeability measurement is presented. In the past studies of other research groups which focused on the reproducibility of 1D-permeability measurements showed high standard deviations of the gained permeability values (25%, even though a defined test rig with required specifications was used. Within this study, the reproducibility of capacitive in-plane permeability testing system measurements was benchmarked by comparing results of two research sites using this technology. The reproducibility was compared by using a glass fibre woven textile and carbon fibre non crimped fabric (NCF. These two material types were taken into consideration due to the different electrical properties of glass and carbon with respect to dielectric capacitive sensors of the permeability measurement systems. In order to determine the unsaturated permeability characteristics as function of fibre volume content the measurements were executed at three different fibre volume contents including five repetitions. It was found that the stability and reproducibility of the presentedin-plane permeability measurement system is very good in the case of the glass fibre woven textiles. This is true for the comparison of the repetition measurements as well as for the comparison between the two different permeameters. These positive results were confirmed by a comparison to permeability values of the same textile gained with an older generation permeameter applying the same measurement technology. Also it was shown, that a correct determination of the grammage and the material density are crucial for correct correlation of measured permeability values and fibre volume contents.

  4. The Experimental Measurement of Local and Bulk Oxygen Transport Resistances in the Catalyst Layer of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Cheng, Xiaojing; Lu, Jiabin; Shen, Shuiyun; Yan, Xiaohui; Yin, Jiewei; Wei, Guanghua; Zhang, Junliang

    2017-12-07

    Remarkable progress has been made in reducing the cathodic Pt loading of PEMFCs; however, a huge performance loss appears at high current densities, indicating the existence of a large oxygen transport resistance associated with the ultralow Pt loading catalyst layer. To reduce the Pt loading without sacrificing cell performance, it is essential to illuminate the oxygen transport mechanism in the catalyst layer. Toward this goal, an experimental approach to measure the oxygen transport resistance in catalyst layers is proposed and realized for the first time in this study. The measuring approach involves a dual-layer catalyst layer design, which consists of a dummy catalyst layer and a practical catalyst layer, followed by changing the thickness of dummy layer to respectively quantify the local and bulk resistances via limiting current measurements combined with linear extrapolation. The experimental results clearly reveal that the local resistance dominates the total resistance in the catalyst layer.

  5. Thermal Performance Benchmarking: Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuhui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center

    2017-10-19

    In FY16, the thermal performance of the 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid power electronics thermal management systems were benchmarked. Both experiments and numerical simulation were utilized to thoroughly study the thermal resistances and temperature distribution in the power module. Experimental results obtained from the water-ethylene glycol tests provided the junction-to-liquid thermal resistance. The finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were found to yield a good match with experimental results. Both experimental and modeling results demonstrate that the passive stack is the dominant thermal resistance for both the motor and power electronics systems. The 2014 Accord power electronics systems yield steady-state thermal resistance values around 42- 50 mm to the 2nd power K/W, depending on the flow rates. At a typical flow rate of 10 liters per minute, the thermal resistance of the Accord system was found to be about 44 percent lower than that of the 2012 Nissan LEAF system that was benchmarked in FY15. The main reason for the difference is that the Accord power module used a metalized-ceramic substrate and eliminated the thermal interface material layers. FEA models were developed to study the transient performance of 2012 Nissan LEAF, 2014 Accord, and two other systems that feature conventional power module designs. The simulation results indicate that the 2012 LEAF power module has lowest thermal impedance at a time scale less than one second. This is probably due to moving low thermally conductive materials further away from the heat source and enhancing the heat spreading effect from the copper-molybdenum plate close to the insulated gate bipolar transistors. When approaching steady state, the Honda system shows lower thermal impedance. Measurement results of the thermal resistance of the 2015 BMW i3 power electronic system indicate that the i3 insulated gate bipolar transistor module has significantly lower junction

  6. Benchmarking and library quality maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, F.; Town, SJ

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - It remains unresolved from the literature whether benchmarking is a useful and appropriate tool for the library and information services sector. The aim of this research was to gather evidence to establish whether benchmarking provides a real and lasting benefit to library and information services. Design/methodology/approach - The study investigated the long term effects of a benchmarking exercise on the quality level of three UK academic libraries. However, an appropriate frame...

  7. HPC Benchmark Suite NMx Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc., (IAI) and University of Central Florida (UCF) propose to develop a comprehensive numerical test suite for benchmarking current and...

  8. Experimental determination of soil heat storage for the simulation of heat transport in a coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Michael; Swain, Matthew; Lohmann, Melinda; Swain, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Two physical experiments were developed to better define the thermal interaction of wetland water and the underlying soil layer. This information is important to numerical models of flow and heat transport that have been developed to support biological studies in the South Florida coastal wetland areas. The experimental apparatus consists of two 1.32. m diameter by 0.99. m tall, trailer-mounted, well-insulated tanks filled with soil and water. A peat-sand-soil mixture was used to represent the wetland soil, and artificial plants were used as a surrogate for emergent wetland vegetation based on size and density observed in the field. The tanks are instrumented with thermocouples to measure vertical and horizontal temperature variations and were placed in an outdoor environment subject to solar radiation, wind, and other factors affecting the heat transfer. Instruments also measure solar radiation, relative humidity, and wind speed.Tests indicate that heat transfer through the sides and bottoms of the tanks is negligible, so the experiments represent vertical heat transfer effects only. The temperature fluctuations measured in the vertical profile through the soil and water are used to calibrate a one-dimensional heat-transport model. The model was used to calculate the thermal conductivity of the soil. Additionally, the model was used to calculate the total heat stored in the soil. This information was then used in a lumped parameter model to calculate an effective depth of soil which provides the appropriate heat storage to be combined with the heat storage in the water column. An effective depth, in the model, of 5.1. cm of wetland soil represents the heat storage needed to match the data taken in the tank containing 55.9. cm of peat/sand/soil mix. The artificial low-density laboratory sawgrass reduced the solar energy absorbed by the 35.6. cm of water and 55.9. cm of soil at midday by less than 5%. The maximum heat transfer into the underlying peat-sand-soil mix

  9. Experimental Investigations of Thermal Transport in Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and Nanoscale Point Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettes, Michael Thompson

    As silicon-based transistor technology continues to scale ever downward, anticipation of the fundamental limitations of ultimately-scaled devices has driven research into alternative device technologies as well as new materials for interconnects and packaging. Additionally, as power dissipation becomes an increasingly important challenge in highly miniaturized devices, both the implementation and verification of high mobility, high thermal conductivity materials, such as low dimensional carbon nanomaterials, and the experimental investigation of heat transfer in the nanoscale regime are requisite to continued progress. This work furthers the current understanding of structure-property relationships in low dimensional carbon nanomaterials, specifically carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene, through use of combined thermal conductance and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements on the same individual nanomaterials suspended between two micro-resistance thermometers. Through the development of a method to measure thermal contact resistance, the intrinsic thermal conductivity, kappa, of multi-walled (MW) CNTs is found to correlate with TEM observed defect density, linking phonon-defect scattering to the low kappa in these chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesized nanomaterials. For single- (S) and double- (D) walled (W) CNTs, the kappa is found to be limited by thermal contact resistance for the as-grown samples but still four times higher than that for bulk Si. Additionally, through the use of a combined thermal transport-TEM study, the kappa of bi-layer graphene is correlated with both crystal structure and surface conditions. Theoretical modeling of the kappa temperature dependence allows for the determination that phonon scattering mechanisms in suspended bi-layer graphene with a thin polymeric coating are similar to those for the case of graphene supported on SiO2. Furthermore, a method is developed to investigate heat transfer through a nanoscale

  10. The dominant role of structure for solute transport in soil: experimental evidence and modelling of structure and transport in a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Vogel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A classical transport experiment was performed in a field plot of 2.5 m2 using the dye tracer brilliant blue. The measured tracer distribution demonstrates the dominant role of the heterogeneous soil structure for solute transport. As with many other published experiments, this evidences the need of considering the macroscopic structure of soil to predict flow and transport. We combine three different approaches to represent the relevant structure of the specific situation of our experiment: i direct measurement, ii statistical description of heterogeneities and iii a conceptual model of structure formation. The structure of soil layers was directly obtained from serial sections in the field. The sub-scale heterogeneity within the soil horizons was modelled through correlated random fields with estimated correlation lengths and anisotropy. Earthworm burrows played a dominant role at the transition between the upper soil horizon and the subsoil. A model based on percolation theory is introduced that mimics the geometry of earthworm burrow systems. The hydraulic material properties of the different structural units were obtained by direct measurements where available and by a best estimate otherwise. From the hydraulic structure, the 3-dimensional velocity field of water was calculated by solving Richards' Equation and solute transport was simulated. The simulated tracer distribution compares reasonably well with the experimental data. We conclude that a rough representation of the structure and a rough representation of the hydraulic properties might be sufficient to predict flow and transport, but both elements are definitely required.

  11. Benchmarking Academic Anatomic Pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S. Ducatman MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common benchmarks for faculty productivity are derived from Medical Group Management Association (MGMA or Vizient-AAMC Faculty Practice Solutions Center ® (FPSC databases. The Association of Pathology Chairs has also collected similar survey data for several years. We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data. We hypothesized that the variability in calculated faculty productivity is due to the type of practice model and clinical effort allocation. Data from the Association of Pathology Chairs survey on 629 surgical pathologists and/or anatomic pathologists from 51 programs were analyzed. From review of service assignments, we were able to assign each pathologist to a specific practice model: general anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists, 1 or more subspecialties, or a hybrid of the 2 models. There were statistically significant differences among academic ranks and practice types. When we analyzed our data using each organization’s methods, the median results for the anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists general practice model compared to MGMA and FPSC results for anatomic and/or surgical pathology were quite close. Both MGMA and FPSC data exclude a significant proportion of academic pathologists with clinical duties. We used the more inclusive FPSC definition of clinical “full-time faculty” (0.60 clinical full-time equivalent and above. The correlation between clinical full-time equivalent effort allocation, annual days on service, and annual work relative value unit productivity was poor. This study demonstrates that effort allocations are variable across academic departments of pathology and do not correlate well with either work relative value unit effort or reported days on service. Although the Association of Pathology Chairs–reported median work relative

  12. Benchmarking Academic Anatomic Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Tristram

    2016-01-01

    The most common benchmarks for faculty productivity are derived from Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) or Vizient-AAMC Faculty Practice Solutions Center® (FPSC) databases. The Association of Pathology Chairs has also collected similar survey data for several years. We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data. We hypothesized that the variability in calculated faculty productivity is due to the type of practice model and clinical effort allocation. Data from the Association of Pathology Chairs survey on 629 surgical pathologists and/or anatomic pathologists from 51 programs were analyzed. From review of service assignments, we were able to assign each pathologist to a specific practice model: general anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists, 1 or more subspecialties, or a hybrid of the 2 models. There were statistically significant differences among academic ranks and practice types. When we analyzed our data using each organization’s methods, the median results for the anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists general practice model compared to MGMA and FPSC results for anatomic and/or surgical pathology were quite close. Both MGMA and FPSC data exclude a significant proportion of academic pathologists with clinical duties. We used the more inclusive FPSC definition of clinical “full-time faculty” (0.60 clinical full-time equivalent and above). The correlation between clinical full-time equivalent effort allocation, annual days on service, and annual work relative value unit productivity was poor. This study demonstrates that effort allocations are variable across academic departments of pathology and do not correlate well with either work relative value unit effort or reported days on service. Although the Association of Pathology Chairs–reported median work relative value unit

  13. Self-benchmarking Guide for Cleanrooms: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William

    2009-07-13

    This guide describes energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks that can be used to track the performance of and identify potential opportunities to reduce energy use in laboratory buildings. This guide is primarily intended for personnel who have responsibility for managing energy use in existing laboratory facilities - including facilities managers, energy managers, and their engineering consultants. Additionally, laboratory planners and designers may also use the metrics and benchmarks described in this guide for goal-setting in new construction or major renovation. This guide provides the following information: (1) A step-by-step outline of the benchmarking process. (2) A set of performance metrics for the whole building as well as individual systems. For each metric, the guide provides a definition, performance benchmarks, and potential actions that can be inferred from evaluating this metric. (3) A list and descriptions of the data required for computing the metrics. This guide is complemented by spreadsheet templates for data collection and for computing the benchmarking metrics. This guide builds on prior research supported by the national Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Much of the benchmarking data are drawn from the Labs21 benchmarking database and technical guides. Additional benchmark data were obtained from engineering experts including laboratory designers and energy managers.

  14. Self-benchmarking Guide for Laboratory Buildings: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Sartor, Dale

    2009-07-13

    This guide describes energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks that can be used to track the performance of and identify potential opportunities to reduce energy use in laboratory buildings. This guide is primarily intended for personnel who have responsibility for managing energy use in existing laboratory facilities - including facilities managers, energy managers, and their engineering consultants. Additionally, laboratory planners and designers may also use the metrics and benchmarks described in this guide for goal-setting in new construction or major renovation. This guide provides the following information: (1) A step-by-step outline of the benchmarking process. (2) A set of performance metrics for the whole building as well as individual systems. For each metric, the guide provides a definition, performance benchmarks, and potential actions that can be inferred from evaluating this metric. (3) A list and descriptions of the data required for computing the metrics. This guide is complemented by spreadsheet templates for data collection and for computing the benchmarking metrics. This guide builds on prior research supported by the national Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Much of the benchmarking data are drawn from the Labs21 benchmarking database and technical guides. Additional benchmark data were obtained from engineering experts including laboratory designers and energy managers.

  15. BN-600 full MOX core benchmark analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. I.; Hill, R. N.; Grimm, K.; Rimpault, G.; Newton, T.; Li, Z. H.; Rineiski, A.; Mohanakrishan, P.; Ishikawa, M.; Lee, K. B.; Danilytchev, A.; Stogov, V.; Nuclear Engineering Division; International Atomic Energy Agency; CEA/Cadarache; SERCO Assurance; China Inst. of Atomic Energy; Forschnungszentrum Karlsruhe; Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research; Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst.; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2004-01-01

    As a follow-up of the BN-600 hybrid core benchmark, a full MOX core benchmark was performed within the framework of the IAEA co-ordinated research project. Discrepancies between the values of main reactivity coefficients obtained by the participants for the BN-600 full MOX core benchmark appear to be larger than those in the previous hybrid core benchmarks on traditional core configurations. This arises due to uncertainties in the proper modelling of the axial sodium plenum above the core. It was recognized that the sodium density coefficient strongly depends on the core model configuration of interest (hybrid core vs. fully MOX fuelled core with sodium plenum above the core) in conjunction with the calculation method (diffusion vs. transport theory). The effects of the discrepancies revealed between the participants results on the ULOF and UTOP transient behaviours of the BN-600 full MOX core were investigated in simplified transient analyses. Generally the diffusion approximation predicts more benign consequences for the ULOF accident but more hazardous ones for the UTOP accident when compared with the transport theory results. The heterogeneity effect does not have any significant effect on the simulation of the transient. The comparison of the transient analyses results concluded that the fuel Doppler coefficient and the sodium density coefficient are the two most important coefficients in understanding the ULOF transient behaviour. In particular, the uncertainty in evaluating the sodium density coefficient distribution has the largest impact on the description of reactor dynamics. This is because the maximum sodium temperature rise takes place at the top of the core and in the sodium plenum.

  16. Experimental and theoretical aspects of studying themodynamics and mass transport in polymer-solvent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Peter Kennedy

    Mass transport and thermodynamics in polymer-solvent systems are two key areas of importance to the polymer industry. Numerous processes including polymerization reactors, membrane separations, foam production, devolatilization processes, film and coating drying, supercritical extractions, drug delivery, and even nano-technology require fundamental phase equilibria and diffusion information. Although such information is vital in equipment design and optimization, acquisition and modeling of these data are still in the research and development stages. This thesis is rather diverse as it addresses many realms of this broad research area. From high pressure to low pressure, experimental to theoretical, and infinite dilution to finite concentration, the thesis covers a wide range of topics that are of current importance to the industrial and academic polymer community. Chapter 1 discusses advances in the development of a new volumetric sorption pressure decay technique to make phase equilibrium and diffusion measurements in severe temperature-pressure environments. Chapter 2 provides the derivations and results of a new completely predictive Group Contribution Lattice Fluid Equation of State for multi-component polymer-solvent systems. The remaining four chapters demonstrate advances in the modeling of inverse gas chromatography (IGC) experiments. IGC has been used extensively of the last 50 years to make low pressure sorption and diffusion measurements at infinitely dilute and finite solvent concentrations. Chapter 3 proposes a new IGC experiment capable of obtaining ternary vapor-liquid equilibria in polymer-solvent-solvent systems. Also in that chapter, an extensive derivation is provided for a continuum model capable of describing the results of such an experiment. Chapter 4 presents new data collected on a packed column IGC experiment and a new model that can be used with those experimental data to obtain diffusion and partition coefficients. Chapter 5 addresses a

  17. Benchmarking foreign electronics technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostian, C.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Leachman, R.C.; Sheridan, T.B.; Tsang, W.T.; White, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report has been drafted in response to a request from the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center`s (JTEC) Panel on Benchmarking Select Technologies. Since April 1991, the Competitive Semiconductor Manufacturing (CSM) Program at the University of California at Berkeley has been engaged in a detailed study of quality, productivity, and competitiveness in semiconductor manufacturing worldwide. The program is a joint activity of the College of Engineering, the Haas School of Business, and the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, under sponsorship of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and with the cooperation of semiconductor producers from Asia, Europe and the United States. Professors David A. Hodges and Robert C. Leachman are the project`s Co-Directors. The present report for JTEC is primarily based on data and analysis drawn from that continuing program. The CSM program is being conducted by faculty, graduate students and research staff from UC Berkeley`s Schools of Engineering and Business, and Department of Economics. Many of the participating firms are represented on the program`s Industry Advisory Board. The Board played an important role in defining the research agenda. A pilot study was conducted in 1991 with the cooperation of three semiconductor plants. The research plan and survey documents were thereby refined. The main phase of the CSM benchmarking study began in mid-1992 and will continue at least through 1997. reports are presented on the manufacture of integrated circuits; data storage; wireless technology; human-machine interfaces; and optoelectronics. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. How Does Fiction Reading Influence Empathy? An Experimental Investigation on the Role of Emotional Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Veltkamp, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated whether fiction experiences change empathy of the reader. Based on transportation theory, it was predicted that when people read fiction, and they are emotionally transported into the story, they become more empathic. Two experiments showed that empathy was influenced over a period of one week for people who read a fictional story, but only when they were emotionally transported into the story. No transportation led to lower empathy in both studies, while study 1 showed that high transportation led to higher empathy among fiction readers. These effects were not found for people in the control condition where people read non-fiction. The study showed that fiction influences empathy of the reader, but only under the condition of low or high emotional transportation into the story. PMID:23383160

  19. How does fiction reading influence empathy? An experimental investigation on the role of emotional transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P Matthijs; Veltkamp, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated whether fiction experiences change empathy of the reader. Based on transportation theory, it was predicted that when people read fiction, and they are emotionally transported into the story, they become more empathic. Two experiments showed that empathy was influenced over a period of one week for people who read a fictional story, but only when they were emotionally transported into the story. No transportation led to lower empathy in both studies, while study 1 showed that high transportation led to higher empathy among fiction readers. These effects were not found for people in the control condition where people read non-fiction. The study showed that fiction influences empathy of the reader, but only under the condition of low or high emotional transportation into the story.

  20. Ion and solvent Transport in Polypyrrole: Experimental Test of Osmotic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Skaarup, Steen

    2005-01-01

    Ion and solvent transport in the conjugated polymer actuator material, polypyrrole, doped with the immobile anion dodecyl benzene sulphonate, has been investigated by simultaneous cyclic voltammetry and Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance measurements. The purpose was to elucidate the pre...... from almost pure cation transport to ca. equal amount of anion transport; exchanging Br- for Cl- ions has only negligible effect at lower concentrations at equal osmotic pressures. Ca. 4 H2O molecules are tightly bound to each Na+ ion at concentrations

  1. EPA's Benchmark Dose Modeling Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA developed the Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) as a tool to help Agency risk assessors facilitate applying benchmark dose (BMD) method’s to EPA’s human health risk assessment (HHRA) documents. The application of BMD methods overcomes many well know limitations ...

  2. Internal Benchmarking for Institutional Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Sharron L.

    2012-01-01

    Internal benchmarking is an established practice in business and industry for identifying best in-house practices and disseminating the knowledge about those practices to other groups in the organization. Internal benchmarking can be done with structures, processes, outcomes, or even individuals. In colleges or universities with multicampuses or a…

  3. Benchmark job – Watch out!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On 12 December 2016, in Echo No. 259, we already discussed at length the MERIT and benchmark jobs. Still, we find that a couple of issues warrant further discussion. Benchmark job – administrative decision on 1 July 2017 On 12 January 2017, the HR Department informed all staff members of a change to the effective date of the administrative decision regarding benchmark jobs. The benchmark job title of each staff member will be confirmed on 1 July 2017, instead of 1 May 2017 as originally announced in HR’s letter on 18 August 2016. Postponing the administrative decision by two months will leave a little more time to address the issues related to incorrect placement in a benchmark job. Benchmark job – discuss with your supervisor, at the latest during the MERIT interview In order to rectify an incorrect placement in a benchmark job, it is essential that the supervisor and the supervisee go over the assigned benchmark job together. In most cases, this placement has been done autom...

  4. Entropy-based benchmarking methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temurshoev, Umed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth

  5. Final Technical Report: Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Eugenio

    2014-05-02

    The strong coupling between the different physical variables involved in the plasma transport phenomenon and the high complexity of its dynamics call for a model-based, multivariable approach to profile control where those predictive models could be exploited. The overall objective of this project has been to extend the existing body of work by investigating numerically and experimentally active control of unstable fluctuations, including fully developed turbulence and the associated cross-field particle transport, via manipulation of flow profiles in a magnetized laboratory plasma device. Fluctuations and particle transport can be monitored by an array of electrostatic probes, and Ex B flow profiles can be controlled via a set of biased concentric ring electrodes that terminate the plasma column. The goals of the proposed research have been threefold: i- to develop a predictive code to simulate plasma transport in the linear HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) plasma device at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where the experimental component of the proposed research has been carried out; ii- to establish the feasibility of using advanced model-based control algorithms to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles, iii- to investigate the fundamental nonlinear dynamics of turbulence and transport physics. Lehigh University (LU), including Prof. Eugenio Schuster and one full-time graduate student, has been primarily responsible for control-oriented modeling and model-based control design. Undergraduate students have also participated in this project through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program. The main goal of the LU Plasma Control Group has been to study the feasibility of controlling turbulence-driven transport by shaping the radial poloidal flow profile (i.e., by controlling flow shear) via biased concentric ring electrodes.

  6. Benchmark Verordening, ook voor u relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    De Europese Commissie heeft een voorstel gedaan voor een Benchmark Verordening. Deze verordening die eind 2015 in werking zou moeten treden, reguleert het aanbieden van benchmarks, het gebruik van benchmarks voor financiële producten en het leveren van inputgegevens voor benchmarks. De Benchmark

  7. Laboratory And Lysimeter Experimentation And Transport Modeling Of Neptunium And Strontium In Savannah River Site Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Powell, B. A.; Miller, Todd J.

    2012-09-24

    existing data sets. The first data set used laboratory generated Np sorption data as a function of concentration (three orders of magnitude) and as a function of pH (four orders of magnitude of proton concentration). In this modeling exercise, a very simple solution was identified by assuming that all sorption occurred only to the iron oxides in the sediment and that all the added NpO{sub 4}{sup -} remained in the oxidized state and was not reduced to the Np(IV) state (as occurs rapidly with Pu(V)). With rather limited input data, very good agreement between experimental and modeling results was observed. This modeling approach would be easy to add to the PA with little additional data requirements. This model would be useful in a system where pH is expected to change greatly, such as directly beneath a grout or concrete structure. The second model discussed in the report was to derive strontium K{sub d} values from data collected in an 11-year-old field transport study. In this controlled lysimeter study, a sensitivity analysis was conducted of hydrological and chemical processes that influence contaminant transport, including diffusion coefficients, seepage velocity, and K{sub d} value. The best overall K{sub d} derived from the model fit to the data was 32 L kg{sup -1}, which was the same value that was previously measured in traditional laboratory batch sorption studies. This was an unexpected result given the differences in experimental conditions between the batch test and the lysimeter flow through test, in particular the differences between strontium adsorption and desorption processes occurring in the latter test and not in the former. There were some trends in the lysimeter strontium data that were not predicted by the K{sub d} model, which suggest that other geochemical processes are likely also controlling strontium transport. Strontium release and cation exchange are being evaluated. These results suggest that future modeling efforts (e.g., PAs) could be

  8. How does fiction reading influence empathy? An experimental investigation on the role of emotional transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Veltkamp, M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated whether fiction experiences change empathy of the reader. Based on transportation theory, it was predicted that when people read fiction, and they are emotionally transported into the story, they become more empathic. Two experiments showed that empathy was influenced

  9. An experimental setup for measuring generation and transport of radon in building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pal, M.; Hendriks, N.A.; de Meijer, R.J.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Wit, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    This study describes an approach for measuring and modelling diffusive and advective transport of radon through building materials. The goal of these measurements and model calculations is to improve our understanding concerning the factors influencing the transport of radon through building

  10. Physics benchmarks of the VELO upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, L.

    2016-12-01

    The LHCb Experiment at the LHC is successfully performing precision measurements primarily in the area of flavour physics. The collaboration is preparing an upgrade that will start taking data in 2021 with a trigger-less readout at five times the current luminosity. The vertex locator has been crucial in the success of the experiment and will continue to be so for the upgrade. It will be replaced by a hybrid pixel detector and this paper discusses the performance benchmarks of the upgraded detector. Despite the challenging experimental environment, the vertex locator will maintain or improve upon its benchmark figures compared to the current detector. Finally the long term plans for LHCb, beyond those of the upgrade currently in preparation, are discussed.

  11. ASBench: benchmarking sets for allosteric discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenkang; Wang, Guanqiao; Shen, Qiancheng; Liu, Xinyi; Lu, Shaoyong; Geng, Lv; Huang, Zhimin; Zhang, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Allostery allows for the fine-tuning of protein function. Targeting allosteric sites is gaining increasing recognition as a novel strategy in drug design. The key challenge in the discovery of allosteric sites has strongly motivated the development of computational methods and thus high-quality, publicly accessible standard data have become indispensable. Here, we report benchmarking data for experimentally determined allosteric sites through a complex process, including a 'Core set' with 235 unique allosteric sites and a 'Core-Diversity set' with 147 structurally diverse allosteric sites. These benchmarking sets can be exploited to develop efficient computational methods to predict unknown allosteric sites in proteins and reveal unique allosteric ligand-protein interactions to guide allosteric drug design. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. IOP Physics benchmarks of the VELO upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068636

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb Experiment at the LHC is successfully performing precision measurements primarily in the area of flavour physics. The collaboration is preparing an upgrade that will start taking data in 2021 with a trigger-less readout at five times the current luminosity. The vertex locator has been crucial in the success of the experiment and will continue to be so for the upgrade. It will be replaced by a hybrid pixel detector and this paper discusses the performance benchmarks of the upgraded detector. Despite the challenging experimental environment, the vertex locator will maintain or improve upon its benchmark figures compared to the current detector. Finally the long term plans for LHCb, beyond those of the upgrade currently in preparation, are discussed.

  13. Benchmarking: applications to transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelseth, Torunn Oveland; Molnar, Laura; Arnold, Emmy; Heddle, Nancy M

    2012-10-01

    Benchmarking is as a structured continuous collaborative process in which comparisons for selected indicators are used to identify factors that, when implemented, will improve transfusion practices. This study aimed to identify transfusion medicine studies reporting on benchmarking, summarize the benchmarking approaches used, and identify important considerations to move the concept of benchmarking forward in the field of transfusion medicine. A systematic review of published literature was performed to identify transfusion medicine-related studies that compared at least 2 separate institutions or regions with the intention of benchmarking focusing on 4 areas: blood utilization, safety, operational aspects, and blood donation. Forty-five studies were included: blood utilization (n = 35), safety (n = 5), operational aspects of transfusion medicine (n = 5), and blood donation (n = 0). Based on predefined criteria, 7 publications were classified as benchmarking, 2 as trending, and 36 as single-event studies. Three models of benchmarking are described: (1) a regional benchmarking program that collects and links relevant data from existing electronic sources, (2) a sentinel site model where data from a limited number of sites are collected, and (3) an institutional-initiated model where a site identifies indicators of interest and approaches other institutions. Benchmarking approaches are needed in the field of transfusion medicine. Major challenges include defining best practices and developing cost-effective methods of data collection. For those interested in initiating a benchmarking program, the sentinel site model may be most effective and sustainable as a starting point, although the regional model would be the ideal goal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental and modelling investigations of tracer transport in variably saturated agricultural soil of Thailand: Column study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulaya Masipan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tracer (Bromide movement through the unsaturated agricultural soil was investigated in soil columns. Two tracer column experiments, with a diameter of 7 cm and a depth of 25 cm, were vertically homogeneous packed with sandy loam and then carried out to investigate bromide (Br− transport under different water contents (at steady flow condition. One soil column (Column 1 represents the unsaturated agricultural soil in dry season (with water content ranging from 0.23 to 0.26 and the other (Column 2 represents the soil in wet season (water content from 0.24 to 0.35. Bromide samples were periodically collected by vacuum tubes inserted at 6.25 cm equally spaced intervals (e.g., 6.25, 12.5, 18.75 and 25 cm along the length of the column and the effluent collected at the end of the column. The observed breakthrough curves (BTCs of bromide in both columns represented a relative smooth and sigmodal curves at different distances (sampling ports. Dispersivity (α, cm for sandy loam at different locations was numerically estimated by curve fitting the experimental data with HYDRUS-1D. The α can be well described by the convection–dispersion equation and these values derived from Column 1 (ranging from 0.37 to 0.98 cm are more than those from Column 2 (0.25–0.59. Moreover, the α in both columns increases with the travel distance due to the scale-dependent effect. Furthermore, the α values were plotted on a log–log scale against travel distances and they yield empirical power law relationships with an excellent correlation (α = 0.102 (L0.697, R2 = 0.999 and α = 0.086 (L0.579, R2 = 0.963 for Column 1 and 2, respectively.

  15. Experimental investigation of the impact of compound-specific dispersion and electrostatic interactions on transient transport and solute breakthrough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of compound-specific diffusion/dispersion and electrochemical migration on transient solute transport in saturated porous media. We conducted laboratory bench-scale experiments, under advection-dominated regimes (seepage velocity: 0.5, 5, 25 m/d), in a quasi two....... The experimental results show that compound-specific effects and charge-induced Coulombic interactions are important not only at low velocities and/or for steady state plumes but also for transient transport under high flow velocities. Such effects can lead to a remarkably different behavior of measured...... breakthrough curves also at very high Péclet numbers. To quantitatively interpret the experimental results, we used four modeling approaches: classical advection-dispersion equation (ADE), continuous time random walk (CTRW), dual-domain mass transfer model (DDMT), and a multicomponent ionic dispersion model...

  16. An Experimental Study on Solute Transport in One-Dimensional Clay Soil Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaheer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solute transport in low-permeability media such as clay has not been studied carefully up to present, and we are often unclear what the proper governing law is for describing the transport process in such media. In this study, we composed and analyzed the breakthrough curve (BTC data and the development of leaching in one-dimensional solute transport experiments in low-permeability homogeneous and saturated media at small scale, to identify key parameters controlling the transport process. Sodium chloride (NaCl was chosen to be the tracer. A number of tracer tests were conducted to inspect the transport process under different conditions. The observed velocity-time behavior for different columns indicated the decline of soil permeability when switching from tracer introducing to tracer flushing. The modeling approaches considered were the Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE, Two-Region Model (TRM, Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW, and Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equation (FADE. It was found that all the models can fit the transport process very well; however, ADE and TRM were somewhat unable to characterize the transport behavior in leaching. The CTRW and FADE models were better in capturing the full evaluation of tracer-breakthrough curve and late-time tailing in leaching.

  17. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  18. PHITS benchmark of partial charge-changing cross sections for intermediate-mass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancusi, Davide; Sihver, Lembit; Gustafsson, Katarina; La Tessa, Chiara; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.; Miller, Jack; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Niita, Koji; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Murakami, Takeshi; Iwata, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    The PHITS (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport System) code is a three-dimensional Monte Carlo code that is able to simulate the transport of nuclei and other particles in complicated geometries and calculate fluxes, doses, energy-deposition distributions and many other observables. Among its many possible fields of application, it can be used e.g. to design and optimise radiation shields for space vessels. However, the reliability of the predictions of the code depends directly on the certified accuracy of the code components, i.e. the models the code uses to estimate the quantities necessary for the transport calculation. As a part of a comprehensive benchmarking program, we have investigated the possibility of using PHITS to calculate partial charge-changing cross sections and we have compared the results with measurements performed by some of us (CZ, LH, JM, SG). The results, although limited, suggest that the current reaction-cross-section models might be inadequate for use in space radioprotection; we therefore claim the need for a thorough benchmarking of the models and for new reaction-cross-section measurements and experimental techniques.

  19. Optix: A Monte Carlo scintillation light transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, M.J., E-mail: mjsafari@aut.ac.ir [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amir Kabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afarideh, H. [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amir Kabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghal-Eh, N. [School of Physics, Damghan University, PO Box 36716-41167, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davani, F. Abbasi [Nuclear Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University, PO Box 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-11

    The paper reports on the capabilities of Monte Carlo scintillation light transport code Optix, which is an extended version of previously introduced code Optics. Optix provides the user a variety of both numerical and graphical outputs with a very simple and user-friendly input structure. A benchmarking strategy has been adopted based on the comparison with experimental results, semi-analytical solutions, and other Monte Carlo simulation codes to verify various aspects of the developed code. Besides, some extensive comparisons have been made against the tracking abilities of general-purpose MCNPX and FLUKA codes. The presented benchmark results for the Optix code exhibit promising agreements. -- Highlights: • Monte Carlo simulation of scintillation light transport in 3D geometry. • Evaluation of angular distribution of detected photons. • Benchmark studies to check the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, John A; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O; Ross, Leigh Ann

    2010-10-11

    Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation.

  1. Benchmarking in Academic Pharmacy Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O.; Ross, Leigh Ann

    2010-01-01

    Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation. PMID:21179251

  2. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Sick Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of accessibility to urban jobs via a public transport system on individual earnings. The effect of improved public transport based accessibility on earnings and commuting behaviour is determined by exploiting the exogenous variation in access to a public rail...... and Metro system due to the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to the city centre of Copenhagen. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...... with a change in commuting patterns as the improved access to public transport facilitates a shift from employment within the township to better paid jobs in the city centre, as well as in other suburbs of the Copenhagen metropolitan area....

  3. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of accessibility to urban jobs via a public transport system on individual earnings and commuting behaviour. The effect of improved public transport based accessibility on these outcomes is determined by exploiting the exogenous variation in access to a public rail...... and Metro system resulting from the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to Copenhagen city centre. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...... with a change in commuting patterns as the improved access to public transport facilitates a shift from employment within the township to better paid jobs in the city centre, as well as in other suburbs of the Copenhagen Metropolitan area...

  4. A Simplified HTTR Diffusion Theory Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodolfo M. Ferrer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema

    2010-10-01

    The Georgia Institute of Technology (GA-Tech) recently developed a transport theory benchmark based closely on the geometry and the features of the HTTR reactor that is operational in Japan. Though simplified, the benchmark retains all the principal physical features of the reactor and thus provides a realistic and challenging test for the codes. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first goal is an extension of the benchmark to diffusion theory applications by generating the additional data not provided in the GA-Tech prior work. The second goal is to use the benchmark on the HEXPEDITE code available to the INL. The HEXPEDITE code is a Green’s function-based neutron diffusion code in 3D hexagonal-z geometry. The results showed that the HEXPEDITE code accurately reproduces the effective multiplication factor of the reference HELIOS solution. A secondary, but no less important, conclusion is that in the testing against actual HTTR data of a full sequence of codes that would include HEXPEDITE, in the apportioning of inevitable discrepancies between experiment and models, the portion of error attributable to HEXPEDITE would be expected to be modest. If large discrepancies are observed, they would have to be explained by errors in the data fed into HEXPEDITE. Results based on a fully realistic model of the HTTR reactor are presented in a companion paper. The suite of codes used in that paper also includes HEXPEDITE. The results shown here should help that effort in the decision making process for refining the modeling steps in the full sequence of codes.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of the Transport Mechanisms of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For the development of an efficient intestinal delivery system for Porcine interferon-α (PoIFN-α, the understanding of transport mechanisms of which in the intestinal cell is essential. In this study, we investigated the absorption mechanisms of PoIFN-α in intestine cells. Caco-2 cells and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled (FITC-PoIFN-α were used to explore the whole transport process, including endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, exocytosis, and transcytosis. Via various techniques, the transport pathways of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 cells and the mechanisms were clarified. Firstly, the endocytosis of PoIFN-α by Caco-2 cells was time, concentration and temperature dependence. And the lipid raft/caveolae endocytosis was the most likely endocytic pathway for PoIFN-α. Secondly, both Golgi apparatus and lysosome were involved in the intracellular trafficking of PoIFN-α. Thirdly, the treatment of indomethacin resulted in a significant decrease of exocytosis of PoIFN-α, indicating the participation of cyclooxygenase. Finally, to evaluate the efficiency of PoIFN-α transport, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER value was measured to investigate the tight junctional integrity of the cell monolayers. The fluorescence microscope results revealed that the transport of PoIFN-α across the Caco-2 cell monolayers was restricted. In conclusion, this study depicts a probable picture of PoIFN-α transport in Caco-2 cells characterized by non-specificity, partial energy-dependency and low transcytosis.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of the Transport Mechanisms of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Sidi; Qin, Yue; Ding, Wenya; Tu, Yabin; Chen, Xingru; Wu, Yunzhou; Yanhua, Li; Cai, Xuehui

    2017-01-01

    For the development of an efficient intestinal delivery system for Porcine interferon-α (PoIFN-α), the understanding of transport mechanisms of which in the intestinal cell is essential. In this study, we investigated the absorption mechanisms of PoIFN-α in intestine cells. Caco-2 cells and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled (FITC)-PoIFN-α were used to explore the whole transport process, including endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, exocytosis, and transcytosis. Via various techniques, the transport pathways of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 cells and the mechanisms were clarified. Firstly, the endocytosis of PoIFN-α by Caco-2 cells was time, concentration and temperature dependence. And the lipid raft/caveolae endocytosis was the most likely endocytic pathway for PoIFN-α. Secondly, both Golgi apparatus and lysosome were involved in the intracellular trafficking of PoIFN-α. Thirdly, the treatment of indomethacin resulted in a significant decrease of exocytosis of PoIFN-α, indicating the participation of cyclooxygenase. Finally, to evaluate the efficiency of PoIFN-α transport, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) value was measured to investigate the tight junctional integrity of the cell monolayers. The fluorescence microscope results revealed that the transport of PoIFN-α across the Caco-2 cell monolayers was restricted. In conclusion, this study depicts a probable picture of PoIFN-α transport in Caco-2 cells characterized by non-specificity, partial energy-dependency and low transcytosis.

  7. Experimental investigation of transport phenomena in the scrape-off layer and divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBombard, B.; Goetz, J.A.; Hutchinson, I.; Jablonski, D.; Kesner, J.; Kurz, C.; Lipschultz, B.; McCracken, G.M.; Niemczewski, A.; Terry, J.; Allen, A.; Boivin, R.L.; Bombarda, F.; Bonoli, P.; Christensen, C.; Fiore, C.; Garnier, D.; Golovato, S.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Horne, S.; Hubbard, A.; Irby, J.; Lo, D.; Lumma, D.; Marmar, E.; May, M.; Mazurenko, A.; Nachtrieb, R.; Ohkawa, H.; O`Shea, P.; Porkolab, M.; Reardon, J.; Rice, J.; Rost, J.; Schachter, J.; Snipes, J.; Sorci, J.; Stek, P.; Takase, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watterson, R.; Weaver, J.; Welch, B.; Wolfe, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technol., Cambridge (United States). Plasma Fusion Center]|[Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy)]|[Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Transport physics in the divertor and scrape-off layer of Alcator C-Mod is investigated for a wide range of plasma conditions. Parallel (parallel) transport topics include: low recycling, high-recycling, and detached regimes, thermoelectric currents, asymmetric heat fluxes driven by thermoelectric currents, and reversed divertor flows. Perpendicular (perpendicular to) transport topics include: expected and measured scalings of perpendicular to gradients with local conditions, estimated {chi} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} profiles and scalings, divertor neutral retention effects, and L-mode/H-mode effects. Key results are: (i) classical parallel transport is obeyed with ion-neutral momentum coupling effects, (ii) perpendicular to heat transport is proportional to local gradients, (iii) {chi} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} {proportional_to}T{sub e}{sup -0.6} n{sup -0.6} L{sup -0.7} in L-mode, insensitive to toroidal field, (iv) {chi} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} is dependent on divertor neutral retention, (v) H-mode transport barrier effects partially extend inside the SOL, (vi) inside/outside divertor asymmetries may be caused by a thermoelectric instability, and (vii) reversed parallel flows depend on divertor asymmetries and their implicit ionization source imbalances. (orig.).

  8. Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Validation of Nanoemulsion-Based Drug Transport across Cellular Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Ekta; Shah, Lipa; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2017-07-01

    Nanoemulsions have shown potential in delivering drug across epithelial and endothelial cell barriers, which express efflux transporters. However, their transport mechanisms are not entirely understood. Our goal was to investigate the cellular permeability of nanoemulsion-encapsulated drugs and apply mathematical modeling to elucidate transport mechanisms and sensitive nanoemulsion attributes. Transport studies were performed in Caco-2 cells, using fish oil nanoemulsions and a model substrate, rhodamine-123. Permeability data was modeled using a semi-mechanistic approach, capturing the following cellular processes: endocytotic uptake of the nanoemulsion, release of rhodamine-123 from the nanoemulsion, efflux and passive permeability of rhodamine-123 in aqueous solution. Nanoemulsions not only improved the permeability of rhodamine-123, but were also less sensitive to efflux transporters. The model captured bidirectional permeability results and identified sensitive processes, such as the release of the nanoemulsion-encapsulated drug and cellular uptake of the nanoemulsion. Mathematical description of cellular processes, improved our understanding of transport mechanisms, such as nanoemulsions don't inhibit efflux to improve drug permeability. Instead, their endocytotic uptake, results in higher intracellular drug concentrations, thereby increasing the concentration gradient and transcellular permeability across biological barriers. Modeling results indicated optimizing nanoemulsion attributes like the droplet size and intracellular drug release rate, may further improve drug permeability.

  9. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  10. Meta-analysis of the effects of soil properties, site factors and experimental conditions on preferential solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, J. K.; Moeys, J.; Jarvis, N. J.

    2011-11-01

    than electrically neutral tracers under comparable experimental conditions. We also found that the strength of preferential transport increased at larger flow rates and water saturations, which suggests that macropore flow was a more important flow mechanism than heterogeneous flow in the soil matrix. Nevertheless, our data shows that heterogeneous flow in the soil matrix also occasionally leads to strong preferential transport. Furthermore, we show that preferential solute transport under steady-state flow depends on soil texture in a threshold-like manner: moderate to strong preferential transport was found to occur only for undisturbed soils which contain more than 8% clay. Preferential flow characteristics were also absent for columns filled with glass beads, clean sands, or sieved soil. No clear effect of land use on the pattern of solute transport could be discerned, probably because the available dataset was too small and too much affected by cross-correlations with experimental conditions. Our results suggest that in developing pedotransfer functions for solute transport properties of soils it is critically important to account for travel distance, lateral observation scale, and water flow rate and saturation.

  11. Benchmarking and Learning in Public Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckmaster, Natalie; Mouritsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of learning-oriented benchmarking in public healthcare settings. Benchmarking is a widely adopted yet little explored accounting practice that is part of the paradigm of New Public Management. Extant studies are directed towards mandated coercive benchmarking...... applications. The present study analyses voluntary benchmarking in a public setting that is oriented towards learning. The study contributes by showing how benchmarking can be mobilised for learning and offers evidence of the effects of such benchmarking for performance outcomes. It concludes that benchmarking...... can enable learning in public settings but that this requires actors to invest in ensuring that benchmark data are directed towards improvement....

  12. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  13. Experimental evaluation of the significance of the pressure transport term for the Turbulence Kinetic Energy Budget across contrasting forest architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrnsperger, Laura; Wunder, Tobias; Thomas, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Forests are one of the dominant vegetation types on Earth and are an important sink for carbon on our planet. Forests are special ecosystems due to their great canopy height und complex architecture consisting of a subcanopy and a canopy layer, which changes the mechanisms of turbulent exchange within the plant canopy. To date, the sinks and sources of turbulence in forest canopies are not completely understood, especially the role of the pressure transport remains unclear. The INTRAMIX experiment was conducted in a mountainous Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest at the Fluxnet Waldstein site (DE-Bay) in Bavaria, Germany, for a period of 10 weeks in order to experimentally evaluate the significance of the pressure transport to the TKE budget for the first time. The INTRAMIX data of the dense mountain forest was compared to observations from a sparse Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stand in Oregon, USA, to study the influence of forest architecture. We hypothesized that the pressure transport is more important in dense forest canopies as the crown decouples the subcanopy from the buoyancy- and shear-driven flow above the canopy. It is also investigated how atmospheric stability influences the TKE budget. Based upon model results from literature we expect the pressure transport to act as a source for TKE especially under free convective and unstable dynamic stability. Results to date indicate that pressure transport is most important in the subcanopy with decreasing magnitude with increasing height. Nevertheless, pressure transport is a continuous source of TKE above the canopy, while in the canopy and subcanopy layer pressure transport acts both as a sink and source term for TKE. In the tree crown layer pressure transport is a source in the morning and afternoon hours and acts as a sink during the evening, while in the subcanopy pressure transport is a source around noon and during the night and acts as a sink in the early morning and afternoon hours. This

  14. Perspective: Selected benchmarks from commercial CFD codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, C.J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Computational Mechanics Section

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a series of five benchmark simulations which were completed using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These simulations were performed by the vendors themselves, and then reported by them in ASME`s CFD Triathlon Forum and CFD Biathlon Forum. The first group of benchmarks consisted of three laminar flow problems. These were the steady, two-dimensional flow over a backward-facing step, the low Reynolds number flow around a circular cylinder, and the unsteady three-dimensional flow in a shear-driven cubical cavity. The second group of benchmarks consisted of two turbulent flow problems. These were the two-dimensional flow around a square cylinder with periodic separated flow phenomena, and the stead, three-dimensional flow in a 180-degree square bend. All simulation results were evaluated against existing experimental data nd thereby satisfied item 10 of the Journal`s policy statement for numerical accuracy. The objective of this exercise was to provide the engineering and scientific community with a common reference point for the evaluation of commercial CFD codes.

  15. Benchmarking for On-Scalp MEG Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Minshu; Schneiderman, Justin F; Chukharkin, Maxim L; Kalabukhov, Alexei; Riaz, Bushra; Lundqvist, Daniel; Whitmarsh, Stephen; Hamalainen, Matti; Jousmaki, Veikko; Oostenveld, Robert; Winkler, Dag

    2017-06-01

    We present a benchmarking protocol for quantitatively comparing emerging on-scalp magnetoencephalography (MEG) sensor technologies to their counterparts in state-of-the-art MEG systems. As a means of validation, we compare a high-critical-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (high Tc SQUID) with the low- Tc SQUIDs of an Elekta Neuromag TRIUX system in MEG recordings of auditory and somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) on one human subject. We measure the expected signal gain for the auditory-evoked fields (deeper sources) and notice some unfamiliar features in the on-scalp sensor-based recordings of SEFs (shallower sources). The experimental results serve as a proof of principle for the benchmarking protocol. This approach is straightforward, general to various on-scalp MEG sensors, and convenient to use on human subjects. The unexpected features in the SEFs suggest on-scalp MEG sensors may reveal information about neuromagnetic sources that is otherwise difficult to extract from state-of-the-art MEG recordings. As the first systematically established on-scalp MEG benchmarking protocol, magnetic sensor developers can employ this method to prove the utility of their technology in MEG recordings. Further exploration of the SEFs with on-scalp MEG sensors may reveal unique information about their sources.

  16. Experimental and simulated dosimetry of the university of Utah TRIGA reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, Benjamin James

    Simulated neutron and gamma transport enable the gamma dose to be estimated at the surface of the University of Utah TRIGA Reactor UUTR pool. These results are benchmarked against experimental results for model verification. This model is useful for future licensing and possible reactor power upgrades. MCNP5 was utilized for the UUTR simulation and comparison with thermoluminescent detectors TLDs.

  17. Water Level Superseded Benchmark Sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images of National Coast & Geodetic Survey (now NOAA's National Geodetic Survey/NGS) tidal benchmarks which have been superseded by new markers or locations....

  18. Benchmark simulation models, quo vadis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, U.; Alex, J; Batstone, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    As the work of the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is coming to an end, it is essential to disseminate the knowledge gained. For this reason, all authors of the IWA Scientific and Technical Report on benchmarking have come together...... to provide their insights, highlighting areas where knowledge may still be deficient and where new opportunities are emerging, and to propose potential avenues for future development and application of the general benchmarking framework and its associated tools. The paper focuses on the topics of temporal...... and spatial extension, process modifications within the WWTP, the realism of models, control strategy extensions and the potential for new evaluation tools within the existing benchmark system. We find that there are major opportunities for application within all of these areas, either from existing work...

  19. Benchmarking Complications Associated with Esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Donald E.; Kuppusamy, Madhan Kumar; Alderson, Derek; Cecconello, Ivan; Chang, Andrew C.; Darling, Gail; Davies, Andrew; D'journo, Xavier Benoit; Gisbertz, Suzanne S.; Griffin, S. Michael; Hardwick, Richard; Hoelscher, Arnulf; Hofstetter, Wayne; Jobe, Blair; Kitagawa, Yuko; Law, Simon; Mariette, Christophe; Maynard, Nick; Morse, Christopher R.; Nafteux, Philippe; Pera, Manuel; Pramesh, C. S.; Puig, Sonia; Reynolds, John V.; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Smithers, Mark; Wijnhoven, B. P. L.

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing a standardized dataset with specific definitions to prospectively collect international data to provide a benchmark for complications and outcomes associated with esophagectomy. Outcome reporting in oncologic surgery has suffered from the lack of a standardized system for reporting

  20. Methodology for Benchmarking IPsec Gateways

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam Tisovský; Ivan Baronák

    2012-01-01

    ... proposed equilibrium throughput. According to our observations equilibrium throughput might be the most universal parameter for benchmarking security gateways as the others may be dependent on the duration of test trials...

  1. High Z neoclassical transport: Application and limitation of analytical formulae for modelling JET experimental parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, S.; Casson, F. J.; Bourdelle, C.; Angioni, C.; Belli, E.; Camenen, Y.; Citrin, J.; Garbet, X.; Sarazin, Y.; Sertoli, M.; JET Contributors

    2018-01-01

    Heavy impurities, such as tungsten (W), can exhibit strongly poloidally asymmetric density profiles in rotating or radio frequency heated plasmas. In the metallic environment of JET, the poloidal asymmetry of tungsten enhances its neoclassical transport up to an order of magnitude, so that neoclassical convection dominates over turbulent transport in the core. Accounting for asymmetries in neoclassical transport is hence necessary in the integrated modeling framework. The neoclassical drift kinetic code, NEO [E. Belli and J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion P50, 095010 (2008)], includes the impact of poloidal asymmetries on W transport. However, the computational cost required to run NEO slows down significantly integrated modeling. A previous analytical formulation to describe heavy impurity neoclassical transport in the presence of poloidal asymmetries in specific collisional regimes [C. Angioni and P. Helander, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 124001 (2014)] is compared in this work to numerical results from NEO. Within the domain of validity of the formula, the factor for reducing the temperature screening due to poloidal asymmetries had to be empirically adjusted. After adjustment, the modified formula can reproduce NEO results outside of its definition domain, with some limitations: When main ions are in the banana regime, the formula reproduces NEO results whatever the collisionality regime of impurities, provided that the poloidal asymmetry is not too large. However, for very strong poloidal asymmetries, agreement requires impurities in the Pfirsch-Schlüter regime. Within the JETTO integrated transport code, the analytical formula combined with the poloidally symmetric neoclassical code NCLASS [W. A. Houlberg et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 3230 (1997)] predicts the same tungsten profile as NEO in certain cases, while saving a factor of one thousand in computer time, which can be useful in scoping studies. The parametric dependencies of the temperature

  2. A benchmark for fault tolerant flight control evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaili, H.; Breeman, J.; Lombaerts, T.; Stroosma, O.

    2013-01-01

    A large transport aircraft simulation benchmark (REconfigurable COntrol for Vehicle Emergency Return ? RECOVER) has been developed within the GARTEUR (Group for Aeronautical Research and Technology in Europe) Flight Mechanics Action Group 16 (FM-AG(16)) on Fault Tolerant Control (2004 2008) for the

  3. Research on computer systems benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan Jay (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This grant addresses the topic of research on computer systems benchmarking and is more generally concerned with performance issues in computer systems. This report reviews work in those areas during the period of NASA support under this grant. The bulk of the work performed concerned benchmarking and analysis of CPUs, compilers, caches, and benchmark programs. The first part of this work concerned the issue of benchmark performance prediction. A new approach to benchmarking and machine characterization was reported, using a machine characterizer that measures the performance of a given system in terms of a Fortran abstract machine. Another report focused on analyzing compiler performance. The performance impact of optimization in the context of our methodology for CPU performance characterization was based on the abstract machine model. Benchmark programs are analyzed in another paper. A machine-independent model of program execution was developed to characterize both machine performance and program execution. By merging these machine and program characterizations, execution time can be estimated for arbitrary machine/program combinations. The work was continued into the domain of parallel and vector machines, including the issue of caches in vector processors and multiprocessors. All of the afore-mentioned accomplishments are more specifically summarized in this report, as well as those smaller in magnitude supported by this grant.

  4. Benchmarking in Czech Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaček Michal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this article surveys the current experience with the use of benchmarking at Czech universities specializing in economics and management. The results indicate that collaborative benchmarking is not used on this level today, but most actors show some interest in its introduction. The expression of the need for it and the importance of benchmarking as a very suitable performance-management tool in less developed countries are the impetus for the second part of our article. Based on an analysis of the current situation and existing needs in the Czech Republic, as well as on a comparison with international experience, recommendations for public policy are made, which lie in the design of a model of a collaborative benchmarking for Czech economics and management in higher-education programs. Because the fully complex model cannot be implemented immediately – which is also confirmed by structured interviews with academics who have practical experience with benchmarking –, the final model is designed as a multi-stage model. This approach helps eliminate major barriers to the implementation of benchmarking.

  5. Meta-analysis of the effects of soil properties, site factors and experimental conditions on solute transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Koestel

    2012-06-01

    increased at larger flow rates and water saturations, which suggests that macropore flow was a more important flow mechanism than heterogeneous flow in the soil matrix. Nevertheless, our data show that heterogeneous flow in the soil matrix also occasionally leads to strong preferential transport. Furthermore, we show that preferential solute transport under steady-state flow depends on soil texture in a threshold-like manner: moderate to strong preferential transport was found to occur only for undisturbed soils that contain more than 8% clay. Preferential flow characteristics were also absent for columns filled with glass beads, clean sands, or sieved soil. No clear effect of land use on the pattern of solute transport could be discerned, probably because the available dataset was too small and too strongly affected by cross-correlations with experimental conditions. Our results suggest that, in developing pedotransfer functions for solute transport properties of soils, it is critically important to account for travel distance, lateral observation scale, and water flow rate and saturation.

  6. Meta-analysis of the effects of soil properties, site factors and experimental conditions on solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, J. K.; Moeys, J.; Jarvis, N. J.

    2012-06-01

    flow rates and water saturations, which suggests that macropore flow was a more important flow mechanism than heterogeneous flow in the soil matrix. Nevertheless, our data show that heterogeneous flow in the soil matrix also occasionally leads to strong preferential transport. Furthermore, we show that preferential solute transport under steady-state flow depends on soil texture in a threshold-like manner: moderate to strong preferential transport was found to occur only for undisturbed soils that contain more than 8% clay. Preferential flow characteristics were also absent for columns filled with glass beads, clean sands, or sieved soil. No clear effect of land use on the pattern of solute transport could be discerned, probably because the available dataset was too small and too strongly affected by cross-correlations with experimental conditions. Our results suggest that, in developing pedotransfer functions for solute transport properties of soils, it is critically important to account for travel distance, lateral observation scale, and water flow rate and saturation.

  7. Experimental investigation of internal structure of open-channel flow with intense transport of sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek Václav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gravity-driven open-channel flows carrying coarse sediment over an erodible granular deposit are studied. Results of laboratory experiments with artificial sediments in a rectangular tilting flume are described and analyzed. Besides integral quantities such as flow rate of mixture, transport concentration of sediment and hydraulic gradient, the experiments include measurements of the one-dimensional velocity distribution across the flow. A vertical profile of the longitudinal component of local velocity is measured across the vertical axis of symmetry of a flume cross section using three independent measuring methods. Due to strong flow stratification, the velocity profile covers regions of very different local concentrations of sediment from virtually zero concentration to the maximum concentration of bed packing. The layered character of the flow results in a velocity distribution which tends to be different in the transport layer above the bed and in the sediment-free region between the top of the transport layer and the water surface. Velocity profiles and integral flow quantities are analyzed with the aim of evaluating the layered structure of the flow and identifying interfaces in the flow with a developed transport layer above the upper plane bed.

  8. Water flow and pesticide transport in cultivated sandy soils : experimental data on complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2010-01-01

    The risk of leaching of agricultural pesticides from soil to groundwater and water courses has to be evaluated. Complications in water flow and pesticide transport in humic-sandy and loamy-sandy soil profiles can be expected to increase the risk of leaching. Much of the precipitation water is

  9. An advanced three-phase physical, experimental and numerical method for tsunami induced boulder transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Coasts around the world are affected by high-energy wave events like storm surges or tsunamis depending on their regional climatological and geological settings. By focusing on tsunami impacts, we combine the abilities and experiences of different scientific fields aiming at improved insights of near- and onshore tsunami hydrodynamics. We investigate the transport of coarse clasts - so called boulders - due to tsunami impacts by a multi-methodology approach of numerical modelling, laboratory experiments, and sedimentary field records. Coupled numerical hydrodynamic and boulder transport models (BTM) are widely applied for analysing the impact characteristics of the transport by tsunami, such as wave height and flow velocity. Numerical models able to simulate past tsunami events and the corresponding boulder transport patterns with high accuracy and acceptable computational effort can be utilized as powerful forecasting models predicting the impact of a coast approaching tsunami. We have conducted small-scale physical experiments in the tilting flume with real shaped boulder models. Utilizing the structure from motion technique (Westoby et al., 2012) we reconstructed real boulders from a field study on the Island of Bonaire (Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Engel & May, 2012). The obtained three-dimensional boulder meshes are utilized for creating downscaled replica of the real boulder for physical experiments. The results of the irregular shaped boulder are compared to experiments with regular shaped boulder models to achieve a better insight about the shape related influence on transport patterns. The numerical model is based on the general two-phase mass flow model by Pudasaini (2012) enhanced for boulder transport simulations. The boulder is implemented using the immersed boundary technique (Peskin, 2002) and the direct forcing approach. In this method Cartesian grids (fluid and particle phase) and Lagrangian meshes (boulder) are combined. By applying the

  10. Benchmarking of HEU mental annuli critical assemblies with internally reflected graphite cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experimental configurations of critical assemblies, performed in 1963 at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiment Facility, which are assembled using three different diameter HEU annuli (15-9 inches, 15-7 inches and 13-7 inches metal annuli with internally reflected graphite cylinder are evaluated and benchmarked. The experimental uncertainties which are 0.00057, 0.00058 and 0.00057 respectively, and biases to the benchmark models which are − 0.00286, − 0.00242 and − 0.00168 respectively, were determined, and the experimental benchmark keff results were obtained for both detailed and simplified models. The calculation results for both detailed and simplified models using MCNP6-1.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 agree well to the benchmark experimental results within difference less than 0.2%. The benchmarking results were accepted for the inclusion of ICSBEP Handbook.

  11. Benchmarking of HEU Mental Annuli Critical Assemblies with Internally Reflected Graphite Cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaobo, Liu; Bess, John D.; Marshall, Margaret A.

    2016-09-01

    Three experimental configurations of critical assemblies, performed in 1963 at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiment Facility, which are assembled using three different diameter HEU annuli (15-9 inches, 15-7 inches and 13-7 inches) metal annuli with internally reflected graphite cylinder are evaluated and benchmarked. The experimental uncertainties which are 0.00055, 0.00055 and 0.00055 respectively, and biases to the detailed benchmark models which are -0.00179, -0.00189 and -0.00114 respectively, were determined, and the experimental benchmark keff results were obtained for both detailed and simplified model. The calculation results for both detailed and simplified models using MCNP6-1.0 and ENDF VII.1 agree well to the benchmark experimental results with a difference of less than 0.2%. These are acceptable benchmark experiments for inclusion in the ICSBEP Handbook.

  12. Benchmarking of HEU mental annuli critical assemblies with internally reflected graphite cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaobo, Liu; Bess, John D.; Marshall, Margaret A.

    2017-09-01

    Three experimental configurations of critical assemblies, performed in 1963 at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiment Facility, which are assembled using three different diameter HEU annuli (15-9 inches, 15-7 inches and 13-7 inches) metal annuli with internally reflected graphite cylinder are evaluated and benchmarked. The experimental uncertainties which are 0.00057, 0.00058 and 0.00057 respectively, and biases to the benchmark models which are - 0.00286, - 0.00242 and - 0.00168 respectively, were determined, and the experimental benchmark keff results were obtained for both detailed and simplified models. The calculation results for both detailed and simplified models using MCNP6-1.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 agree well to the benchmark experimental results within difference less than 0.2%. The benchmarking results were accepted for the inclusion of ICSBEP Handbook.

  13. The bulk shielding benchmark experiment at the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, P. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Angelone, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Martone, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Pillon, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Rado, V. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Santamarina, A. [Commissariat al`Energie Atomique, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Abidi, I. [Commissariat al`Energie Atomique, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gastaldi, B. [Commissariat al`Energie Atomique, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Martini, M. [Commissariat al`Energie Atomique, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Marquette, J.P. [Commissariat al`Energie Atomique, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    1995-03-01

    In the design of next-step fusion devices such as NET/ITER the nuclear performance of shielding blankets is of key importance in terms of nuclear heating of superconducting magnets and radiation damage. In the framework of the European Fusion Technology Program, ENEA Frascati and CEA Cadarache in collaboration performed a bulk shielding benchmark experiment using the 14MeV Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG), aimed at obtaining accurate experimental data for improving the nuclear database and methods used in shielding designs. The experiment consisted of the irradiation of a stainless steel block by 14MeV neutrons. The neutron reaction rates at various depths inside the block have been measured using fission chambers and activation foils characterized by different energy response ranges. The experimental results have been compared with numerical results calculated using both S{sub n} and Monte Carlo transport codes and the cross-section library EFF.1 (European Fusion File). (orig.).

  14. Comparing solute and particulate transport in streams using Notre Dame Linked Experimental Ecosystem Facility (ND-LEEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, A.; Tank, J. L.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Bolster, D.

    2016-12-01

    in streams and rivers. These processes co-vary across systems and are thus difficult to isolate. Therefore, to improve our understanding of drivers of fine-scale transport and retention of particles and solutes in streams, we experimentally compared transport and retention dynamics of two different particles (brewers yeast, 7μm; corn pollen, 70μm), a non-reactive solute (RhodamineWT), and a biologically reactive solute, nitrate (NO3-). We conducted experiments in four semi-natural constructed streams at the Notre Dame Linked Ecosystem Experimental Facility (ND-LEEF) in South Bend, Indiana. Each of the four 50 m replicate stream was lined with a unique configuration of substrate: pea gravel (PG, D50 = 0.5cm) and cobble (COB, D50 = 5cm) and structural complexity: alternating 2m sections of PG and COB substrates (ALT) and a random 50/50 mix (MIX). We allowed the experimental streams to naturally colonize with biofilm and periphyton throughout the summer sampling season. For particles, we estimated transport distance (Sp) and deposition velocity (vdep) and for solutes, we estimated uptake lengths (Sw) and uptake velocity (vf) using a short-term pulse addition technique. Sp and vdep were variable for particles, and were most strongly predicted by biofilm colonization on substrata in each stream. Biofilm accumulation also increased uptake of the reactive solute, though in contrast to particles, there were no significant differences in Sw or vf among streams suggesting that substrate type was not the main driver of reactive solute retention. These results emphasize the dynamic relationship between the physical and biological drivers influencing particle and solute retention in streams. Differential uptake of particles and solutes highlights the non stationarity of controlling variables along spatial or temporal continua. Even in highly controlled systems like those at ND-LEEF, physical vs. biological drivers are difficult to isolate.

  15. Parametric dependencies of the experimental tungsten transport coefficients in ICRH and ECRH assisted ASDEX Upgrade H-modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoli, M.; Angioni, C.; Odstrcil, T.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Eurofusion MST1 Team

    2017-11-01

    The profiles of the W transport coefficients have been experimentally calculated for a large database of identical ASDEX Upgrade H-mode discharges where only the radio-frequency (RF) power characteristics have been varied [Angioni et al., Nucl. Fusion 57, 056015 (2017)]. Central ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in the minority heating scheme has been compared with central and off-axis electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), using both localized and broad heat deposition profiles. The transport coefficients have been calculated applying the gradient-flux relation to the evolution of the intrinsic W density in-between sawtooth cycles as measured using the soft X-ray diagnostic. For both ICRH and ECRH, the major player in reducing the central W density peaking is found to be the reduction of inward pinch and, in the case of ECRH, the rise of an outward convection. The impurity convection increases, from negative to positive, almost linearly with RF-power, while no appreciable changes are observed in the diffusion coefficient, which remains roughly at neoclassical levels independent of RF power or background plasma conditions. The ratio vW/DW is consistent with the equilibrium ∇ n W / n W prior to the sawtooth crash, corroborating the separate estimates of diffusion and convection. These experimental findings are slightly different from previous results obtained analysing the evolution of impurity injections over many sawtooth cycles. Modelling performed using the drift-kinetic code NEO and the gyro-kinetic code GKW (assuming axisymmetry) overestimates the diffusion coefficient and underestimates the experimental positive convection. This is a further indication that magneto-hydrodynamic/neoclassical models accounting for 3D effects may be needed to characterize impurity transport in sawtoothing tokamak plasmas.

  16. Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-01-07

    Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

  17. Experimental Study on the Euglena gracilis for Micro-Transportation using a Phototatic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Nguyen, Vu Dat; Byun, Doyoung

    2012-11-01

    Recently, there has been growing interests in micro or nano-scale biological organisms for the micro-robotics to develop actively controlled micro or nano-level machines. The Euglena gracilis is a genus of unicellular protists, whose body size ranges from 30 to 70 μm. The Euglena gracilis contains an eyespot, a primitive organelle that filters sunlight into the light-detecting, photo-sensitive structures. It actively swims at the base of the flagellum. In this study, we investigated the controllability of Euglena gracilis for transporting a structure attaching itself. When a LED light is detected, the Euglena gracilis accordingly adjust its position to enhance photosynthesis. Using the phototactic control, we achieved the efficient transportation of a micro-structure. Partially funded by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF, 2011-0016461) and the Industrial Core Technology Development Project through the Ministry of Knowledge and Commerce.

  18. Experimental evidence for anisotropic double exchange interaction driven anisotropic transport in manganite heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Zhaoliang; Koster, Gertjan; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    An anisotropic double exchange interaction driven giant transport anisotropy is demonstrated in a canonic double exchange system of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 ultrathin films epitaxially grown on NdGaO3 (110) substrates. The oxygen octahedral coupling at the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/NdGaO3 interface induces a planar

  19. Experimental Study of Vacuum Transport in a Horizontal 50-Millimeter Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Arlington, Virginia 22217-5000 62233N 12830 -102 YM3E8004 IDN 778155 11. TITLE (Include Security Clasificauton) PERIMENTAL STUDY OF VACUUM TRANSPORT IN...Manometer as the calibration standard . The Inficon has an accuracy of ± 0.01 % of reading. Readings were made for five vacuums ranging from 0 to 68.60...sensor and a temperature sensor. They are responsive to the product of air density and velocity and are calibrated assuming that the air is at standard

  20. Transportes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento de materiales dentro de la Factoría está atendido por tres principales medios de transporte, en consonancia con las características del material y de los desplazamientos. Así se han establecido: sistemas de cintas transportadoras, una red ferroviaria de ancho normal y una completa malla de caminos enlazando funcionalmente las instalaciones.

  1. Experimental observations of transport of picosecond laser generated electrons in a nail-like target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasley, J.; Wei, M.; Shipton, E.; Chen, S.; Ma, T.; Beg, F. N.; Alexander, N.; Stephens, R.; MacPhee, A. G.; Hey, D.; Le Pape, S.; Patel, P.; Mackinnon, A.; Key, M.; Offermann, D.; Link, A.; Chowdhury, E.; Van-Woerkom, L.; Freeman, R. R.

    2007-12-01

    The transport of relativistic electrons, generated by the interaction of a high intensity (2×1020W/cm2) laser, has been studied in a nail-like target comprised of a 20μm diameter solid copper wire, coated with ˜2μm of titanium, with an 80μm diameter hemispherical termination. A ˜500fs, ˜200J pulse of 1.053μm laser light produced by the Titan Laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was focused to a ˜20μm diameter spot centered on the flat face of the hemisphere. Kα fluorescence from the Cu and Ti regions was imaged together with extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emission at 68 and 256eV. Results showed a quasiexponential decline in Kα emission along the wire over a distance of a few hundred microns from the laser focus, consistent with bulk Ohmic inhibition of the relativistic electron transport. Weaker Kα and XUV emission on a longer scale length showed limb brightening suggesting a transition to enhanced transport at the surface of the wire.

  2. Experimental and theoretical study of the transport of silver nanoparticles at their prolonged administration into a mammal organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferova, A. A.; Buzulukov, Yu. P.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    The transport of silver nanoparticles in the organism of laboratory animals has been investigated. A mathematical model of the biokinetics of prolonged administration of nonmetabolizable and nonaglomerating pharmaceutical preparations is proposed, and its analytical solution is found. Based on the experimental data on the prolonged introduction and excretion of colloidal silver nanoparticles and the numerical approximation of the solutions to the equations for the proposed model, time dependences of the silver mass content in brain and blood are obtained and some other important biokinetic parameters are determined. It is concluded that both chronic1 and subchronic2 peroral application of these nanoparticles as an biologically active additive or antiseptic is potentially dangerous.

  3. Benchmarking for best practice environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Bryan R; Hine, Philip T

    2003-06-01

    Benchmarking of environmental performance to demonstrate the achievement of best practice environmental management is a component of a new form of licensing of industrial discharges in Western Australia. The paper describes the approaches to benchmarking for the critical environmental issues for an alumina refinery and wastewater treatment plant. It also describes the lessons learnt from the benchmarking process on appropriate methods, the benefits and difficulties in the benchmarking process, and changes that would assist benchmarking for best practice environmental management.

  4. Regional Competitive Intelligence: Benchmarking and Policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    Huggins, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Benchmarking exercises have become increasingly popular within the sphere of regional policymaking in recent years. The aim of this paper is to analyse the concept of regional benchmarking and its links with regional policymaking processes. It develops a typology of regional benchmarking exercises and regional benchmarkers, and critically reviews the literature, both academic and policy oriented. It is argued that critics who suggest regional benchmarking is a flawed concept and technique fai...

  5. 42 CFR 440.385 - Delivery of benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage through managed care entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery of benchmark and benchmark-equivalent...: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.385 Delivery of benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage through managed care entities. In implementing benchmark or benchmark...

  6. Physiological response of invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) submitted to transport and experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, N I S; Andrade, J T M; Montresor, L C; Luz, D M R; Araújo, J M; Martinez, C B; Pinheiro, J; Vidigal, T H D A

    2017-03-01

    Successful animal rearing under laboratory conditions for commercial processes or laboratory experiments is a complex chain that includes several stressors (e.g., sampling and transport) and incurs, as a consequence, the reduction of natural animal conditions, economic losses and inconsistent and unreliable biological results. Since the invasion of the bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in South America, several studies have been performed to help control and manage this fouling pest in industrial plants that use raw water. Relatively little attention has been given to the laboratory rearing procedure of L. fortunei, its condition when exposed to a stressor or its acclimation into laboratory conditions. Considering this issue, the aims of this study are to (i) investigate L. fortunei physiological responses when submitted to the depuration process and subsequent air transport (without water/dry condition) at two temperatures, based on glycogen concentrations, and (ii) monitor the glycogen concentrations in different groups when maintained for 28 days under laboratory conditions. Based on the obtained results, depuration did not affect either of the groups when they were submitted to approximately eight hours of transport. The variation in glycogen concentration among the specimens that were obtained from the field under depurated and non-depurated conditions was significant only in the first week of laboratory growth for the non-depurated group and in the second week for the depurated group. In addition, the tested temperature did not affect either of the groups that were submitted to transport. The glycogen concentrations were similar to those of the specimens that were obtained from the field in third week, which suggests that the specimens acclimated to laboratory conditions during this period of time. Thus, the results indicate that the air transport and acclimation time can be successfully incorporated into experimental studies of L. fortunei. Finally

  7. Benchmark simulation models, quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppsson, U; Alex, J; Batstone, D J; Benedetti, L; Comas, J; Copp, J B; Corominas, L; Flores-Alsina, X; Gernaey, K V; Nopens, I; Pons, M-N; Rodríguez-Roda, I; Rosen, C; Steyer, J-P; Vanrolleghem, P A; Volcke, E I P; Vrecko, D

    2013-01-01

    As the work of the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is coming to an end, it is essential to disseminate the knowledge gained. For this reason, all authors of the IWA Scientific and Technical Report on benchmarking have come together to provide their insights, highlighting areas where knowledge may still be deficient and where new opportunities are emerging, and to propose potential avenues for future development and application of the general benchmarking framework and its associated tools. The paper focuses on the topics of temporal and spatial extension, process modifications within the WWTP, the realism of models, control strategy extensions and the potential for new evaluation tools within the existing benchmark system. We find that there are major opportunities for application within all of these areas, either from existing work already being done within the context of the benchmarking simulation models (BSMs) or applicable work in the wider literature. Of key importance is increasing capability, usability and transparency of the BSM package while avoiding unnecessary complexity.

  8. Benchmarking of human resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Akinnusi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of human resource management (HRM which, today, plays a strategic partnership role in management. The focus of the paper is on HRM in the public sector, where much hope rests on HRM as a means of transforming the public service and achieving much needed service delivery. However, a critical evaluation of HRM practices in the public sector reveals that these services leave much to be desired. The paper suggests the adoption of benchmarking as a process to revamp HRM in the public sector so that it is able to deliver on its promises. It describes the nature and process of benchmarking and highlights the inherent difficulties in applying benchmarking in HRM. It concludes with some suggestions for a plan of action. The process of identifying “best” practices in HRM requires the best collaborative efforts of HRM practitioners and academicians. If used creatively, benchmarking has the potential to bring about radical and positive changes in HRM in the public sector. The adoption of the benchmarking process is, in itself, a litmus test of the extent to which HRM in the public sector has grown professionally.

  9. Benchmarking on Tsunami Currents with ComMIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharghi vand, N.; Kanoglu, U.

    2015-12-01

    There were no standards for the validation and verification of tsunami numerical models before 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Even, number of numerical models has been used for inundation mapping effort, evaluation of critical structures, etc. without validation and verification. After 2004, NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) established standards for the validation and verification of tsunami numerical models (Synolakis et al. 2008 Pure Appl. Geophys. 165, 2197-2228), which will be used evaluation of critical structures such as nuclear power plants against tsunami attack. NCTR presented analytical, experimental and field benchmark problems aimed to estimate maximum runup and accepted widely by the community. Recently, benchmark problems were suggested by the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Mapping & Modeling Benchmarking Workshop: Tsunami Currents on February 9-10, 2015 at Portland, Oregon, USA (http://nws.weather.gov/nthmp/index.html). These benchmark problems concentrated toward validation and verification of tsunami numerical models on tsunami currents. Three of the benchmark problems were: current measurement of the Japan 2011 tsunami in Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, USA and in Tauranga Harbor, New Zealand, and single long-period wave propagating onto a small-scale experimental model of the town of Seaside, Oregon, USA. These benchmark problems were implemented in the Community Modeling Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT) (Titov et al. 2011 Pure Appl. Geophys. 168, 2121-2131), which is a user-friendly interface to the validated and verified Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) (Titov and Synolakis 1995 J. Waterw. Port Coastal Ocean Eng. 121, 308-316) model and is developed by NCTR. The modeling results are compared with the required benchmark data, providing good agreements and results are discussed. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant

  10. Experimental visualization of solutes transport in two-dimensional saturated permeable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Edinsson; Herrera, Paulo

    2017-04-01

    Mass transport processes in groundwater flows control transport of contaminants or other dissolved substances. A good characterization of transport processes should allow, for example, the optimization of remediation systems or the prediction of natural attenuation or dilution of pollutants in aquifers. Several previous studies have highlighted the role of heterogeneity in transverse mixing processes, which may be enhanced by the convergence of streamlines due to the presence of high permeability materials. The convergence of streamlines increases the concentration gradients in the direction transverse to the flow, which results in greater transverse mixing and natural dilution. This mixing makes possible the occurrence of chemical reactions between species dissolved in groundwater of different origin. We used image analysis techniques to characterize experiments that replicate the transport of a conservative tracer in two types of quasi 2-D homogeneous and heterogeneous saturated permeable media. The experiments were carried out in an acrylic glass tank, 85 cm long, 16 cm wide and 1 cm thick. We simulated flow conditions found in confined aquifers by imposing a vertical flow fed by a peristaltic pump that injected water at eight points at the bottom of the tank, while we controlled the outflow through the top boundary by using a constant head reservoir. We filled the tank with glass beads with mean diameter 0.05 cm to model the matrix material of the porous media and we used glass beads of 0.2 cm to create a high permeability inclusion to study the effect of heterogeneity on transverse mixing. After steady-state of flux was reached, we injected a conservative tracer (Blue Brilliant) only at the two central ports, while clean water continued flowing through the other six ports. We took digital pictures of the steady-state plume and analyzed the concentration of the tracer along perpendicular to the mean flow fringes, using a piecewise linear model to convert light

  11. Mineralogical comparisons of experimental results investigating the biological impacts on rock transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Doris; Milodowski, Antoni E; West, Julia M; Wragg, Joanna; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the influence of microbes on fluid transport in sedimentary and igneous host rock environments. It particularly focuses on granodiorite rock (Äspö; Sweden) and mudstone (Horonobe; Japan) that were utilised during laboratory-based column experiments. The results showed that biofilms form on both rock types in low nutrient conditions. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology of biofilaments varied from filamentous meshwork (in crushed granodiorite column experiments) to clusters of rod-like cells (fracture surfaces in mudstone). X-ray diffraction analysis of the fine fractions (containment and migration of contaminants.

  12. Water transport in gas diffusion media for PEM fuel cells. Experimental and numerical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Joerg

    2010-08-20

    The water flux in partially saturated hydrophobic carbon fibre paper for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell applications is investigated and compared with the frequently used constitutive two-phase flow model based on Darcy's law. Further, the first steps towards a math-based material design for gas diffusion media are explored in this thesis. Two self-developed ex-situ experiments to investigate the liquid water transport are introduced. The first is a newly developed buoyancy-based measurement of the pressuresaturation relationship on thin porous material with an accuracy of 0.5 kPa for the pressure and {+-} 5% for the saturation. The second experiment measures the pressure drop in dependence of flow rates down to magnitudes of {mu}L/s across the partially saturated thin porous material. This flow rate is relevant for the fuel cell application. The liquid water transport through Toray 060 carbon fibre paper, impregnated with 7% and 10% PTFE is investigated at wet and dry boundary conditions. The experiments are also accompanied by analytical and numerical free surface modelling with the consideration of the material morphology and liquid-solid interaction. The imbibing and draining cases of an arrangement of six fibres at varying solid-liquid interaction and boundary conditions are studied with 'Surface Evolver'. In order to evaluate the findings of ex-situ and modelling work for applicability to water transport in fuel cell operation, the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is assessed. The focus is on the visualisation of 2D and 3D water distribution in the operating fuel cell. The compatibility of the NMR experiment with fuel cell operation in relation to material selection, operating temperature, and current density is addressed. NMR imaging is employed for different current densities, stoichiometries, and fuel cell arrangements. The fuel cell arrangements differ by the cathode diffusion medium. Plain, hydrophobic, and

  13. Review of pore network modelling of porous media: Experimental characterisations, network constructions and applications to reactive transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qingrong; Baychev, Todor G.; Jivkov, Andrey P.

    2016-09-01

    Pore network models have been applied widely for simulating a variety of different physical and chemical processes, including phase exchange, non-Newtonian displacement, non-Darcy flow, reactive transport and thermodynamically consistent oil layers. The realism of such modelling, i.e. the credibility of their predictions, depends to a large extent on the quality of the correspondence between the pore space of a given medium and the pore network constructed as its representation. The main experimental techniques for pore space characterisation, including direct imaging, mercury intrusion porosimetry and gas adsorption, are firstly summarised. A review of the main pore network construction techniques is then presented. Particular focus is given on how such constructions are adapted to the data from experimentally characterised pore systems. Current applications of pore network models are considered, with special emphasis on the effects of adsorption, dissolution and precipitation, as well as biomass growth, on transport coefficients. Pore network models are found to be a valuable tool for understanding and predicting meso-scale phenomena, linking single pore processes, where other techniques are more accurate, and the homogenised continuum porous media, used by engineering community.

  14. Two-Phase Thermal Transport in Microgap Channels—Theory, Experimental Results, and Predictive Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Avram; Sheehan, Jessica R.; Rahim, Emil

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review and analysis of recent microchannel/microgap heat transfer data for two-phase flow of refrigerants and dielectric liquids is presented. The flow regime progression in such a microgap channel is shown to be predicted by the traditional flow regime maps. Moreover, Annular flow is shown to be the dominant regime for this thermal transport configuration and to grow in importance as the channel diameter decreases. The results of heat transfer studies of single miniature channels, as well as the analysis and inverse calculation of IR images of a heated microgap channel wall, are used to identify the existence of a characteristic M-shaped heat transfer coefficient variation with quality (or superficial velocity), with inflection points corresponding to transitions in the two-phase cooling modalities. For the high-quality, Annular flow conditions, the venerable Chen correlation is shown to yield predictive agreement for microgap channels that is comparable to that attained for macrochannels and to provide a mechanistic context for the thermal transport rates attained in microgap channels. Results obtained from infrared imaging, revealing previously undetected, large surface temperature variations in Annular flow, are also reviewed and related to the termination of the favorable thin-film evaporation mode in such channels.

  15. Optimal Experimental Designs For The Identification of Release and Transport Parameters of Reactive Solutes In Column Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrer, M.; Totsche, K. U.; Huwe, B.

    Knowledge about the release and transport of contaminants in natural porous media plays a crucial role in the estimation of the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Thus, robust and reliable experimental methods are necessary for the prediction of contaminant fate in soils and aquifers. In this context, soil column experiments are widely used to determine the reactive solute transport parameters. The scope of this work is to analyze (un)saturated column outflow experiments with respect to their suit- ability for the understanding of interaction processes and their properties. Employing numerical case studies, the effect of singular and composite processes (e.g. sorption, partitioning, dispersion) and properties (linearity of the interactions, rate constrictions) on the breakthrough curve are investigated. Numerical scenarios are based on real world data sets and further consider analytical constraints like limits of determina- tion, precision and accuracy. The results suggest that uniqueness problems arise in the identification and quantification of flow and transport parameters. These problems are caused by the lack of "usable information" in the column response to the rather simple input signal, i.e., the continuous feed or pulse type inflow boundary condition. In gen- eral, shape and curvature of the breakthrough curve - which are used to identify the governing processes - are affected by processes and properties which enforce, weaken or compensate each other. To eliminate this deficiency, we will propose different ex- perimental designs which help to improve our ability for parameter identification but simultaneously minimize both time and financial investments

  16. Experimental Study and Numerical Solution of Poly Acrylic Acid Supported Magnetite Nanoparticles Transport in a One-Dimensional Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Golzar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, iron nanoparticles have attracted more attention for groundwater remediation due to its potential to reduce subsurface contaminants such as PCBs, chlorinated solvents, and heavy metals. The magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles cause to attach to each other and form bigger colloid particles of iron nanoparticles with more rapid sedimentation rate in aqueous environment. Using the surfactants such as poly acrylic acid (PAA prevents iron nanoparticles from forming large flocs that may cause sedimentation and so increases transport distance of the nanoparticles. In this study, the transport of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 stabilized with PAA in a one-dimensional porous media (column was investigated. The slurries with concentrations of 20,100 and 500 (mg/L were injected into the bottom of the column under hydraulic gradients of 0.125, 0.375, and 0.625. The results obtained from experiments were compared with the results obtained from numerical solution of advection-dispersion equation based on the classical colloid filtration theory (CFT. The experimental and simulated breakthrough curves showed that CFT is able to predict the transport and fate of iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with PAA (up to concentration 500 ppm in a porous media.

  17. Experimental study of a fuel cell power train for road transport application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, P.; Corcione, F. E.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    The development of fuel cell electric vehicles requires the on-board integration of fuel cell systems and electric energy storage devices, with an appropriate energy management system. The optimization of performance and efficiency needs an experimental analysis of the power train, which has to be effected in both stationary and transient conditions (including standard driving cycles). In this paper experimental results concerning the performance of a fuel cell power train are reported and discussed. In particular characterization results for a small sized fuel cell system (FCS), based on a 2.5 kW PEM stack, alone and coupled to an electric propulsion chain of 3.7 kW are presented and discussed. The control unit of the FCS allowed the main stack operative parameters (stoichiometric ratio, hydrogen and air pressure, temperature) to be varied and regulated in order to obtain optimized polarization and efficiency curves. Experimental runs effected on the power train during standard driving cycles have allowed the performance and efficiency of the individual components (fuel cell stack and auxiliaries, dc-dc converter, traction batteries, electric engine) to be evaluated, evidencing the role of output current and voltage of the dc-dc converter in directing the energy flows within the propulsion system.

  18. Influences of Electromagnetic Energy on Bio-Energy Transport through Protein Molecules in Living Systems and Its Experimental Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Pang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The influences of electromagnetic fields (EMFs on bio-energy transport and its mechanism of changes are investigated through analytic and numerical simulation and experimentation. Bio-energy transport along protein molecules is performed by soliton movement caused by the dipole–dipole electric interactions between neighboring amino acid residues. As such, EMFs can affect the structure of protein molecules and change the properties of the bio-energy transported in living systems. This mechanism of biological effect from EMFs involves the amino acid residues in protein molecules. To study and reveal this mechanism, we simulated numerically the features of the movement of solitons along protein molecules with both a single chain and with three channels by using the Runge–Kutta method and Pang’s soliton model under the action of EMFs with the strengths of 25,500, 51,000, 76,500, and 102,000 V/m in the single-chain protein, as well as 17,000, 25,500, and 34,000 V/m in the three-chain protein, respectively. Results indicate that electric fields (EFs depress the binding energy of the soliton, decrease its amplitude, and change its wave form. Also, the soliton disperses at 102,000 V/m in a single-chain protein and at 25,500 and 34,000 V/m in three-chain proteins. These findings signify that the influence of EMFs on the bio-energy transport cannot be neglected; however, these variations depend on both the strength and the direction of the EF in the EMF. This direction influences the biological effects of EMF, which decrease with increases in the angle between the direction of the EF and that of the dipole moment of amino acid residues; however, randomness at the macroscopic level remains. Lastly, we experimentally confirm the existence of a soliton and the validity of our conclusion by using the infrared spectra of absorption of the collagens, which is activated by another type of EF. Thus, we can affirm that both the described mechanism and the

  19. Influences of Electromagnetic Energy on Bio-Energy Transport through Protein Molecules in Living Systems and Its Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Shude; Wang, Xianghui; Zhong, Lisheng

    2016-07-25

    The influences of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on bio-energy transport and its mechanism of changes are investigated through analytic and numerical simulation and experimentation. Bio-energy transport along protein molecules is performed by soliton movement caused by the dipole-dipole electric interactions between neighboring amino acid residues. As such, EMFs can affect the structure of protein molecules and change the properties of the bio-energy transported in living systems. This mechanism of biological effect from EMFs involves the amino acid residues in protein molecules. To study and reveal this mechanism, we simulated numerically the features of the movement of solitons along protein molecules with both a single chain and with three channels by using the Runge-Kutta method and Pang's soliton model under the action of EMFs with the strengths of 25,500, 51,000, 76,500, and 102,000 V/m in the single-chain protein, as well as 17,000, 25,500, and 34,000 V/m in the three-chain protein, respectively. Results indicate that electric fields (EFs) depress the binding energy of the soliton, decrease its amplitude, and change its wave form. Also, the soliton disperses at 102,000 V/m in a single-chain protein and at 25,500 and 34,000 V/m in three-chain proteins. These findings signify that the influence of EMFs on the bio-energy transport cannot be neglected; however, these variations depend on both the strength and the direction of the EF in the EMF. This direction influences the biological effects of EMF, which decrease with increases in the angle between the direction of the EF and that of the dipole moment of amino acid residues; however, randomness at the macroscopic level remains. Lastly, we experimentally confirm the existence of a soliton and the validity of our conclusion by using the infrared spectra of absorption of the collagens, which is activated by another type of EF. Thus, we can affirm that both the described mechanism and the corresponding theory are

  20. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... of the ‘inside’ costs of the sub-component, technical specifications of the product, opportunistic behavior from the suppliers and cognitive limitation. These are all aspects that easily can dismantle the market mechanism and make it counter-productive in the organization. Thus, by directing more attention...

  1. The contextual benchmark method: benchmarking e-government services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; de Vries, Sjoerd A.; van Schaik, P.; van Schaik, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a new method for benchmarking e-Government services. Government organizations no longer doubt the need to deliver their services on line. Instead, the question that is more relevant is how well the electronic services offered by a particular organization perform in comparison with

  2. POTENTIAL BENCHMARKS FOR ACTINIDE PRODUCTION IN HANFORD REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PUIGH RJ; TOFFER H

    2011-10-19

    A significant experimental program was conducted in the early Hanford reactors to understand the reactor production of actinides. These experiments were conducted with sufficient rigor, in some cases, to provide useful information that can be utilized today in development of benchmark experiments that may be used for the validation of present computer codes for the production of these actinides in low enriched uranium fuel.

  3. Single well thermal tracer test, a new experimental set up for characterizing thermal transport in fractured media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Bernardie, Jérôme; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Longuevergne, Laurent; Le Lay, Hugo; Koch, Floriant; Gerard, Marie-Françoise; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2017-04-01

    Thermal transport in fractured media depends on the hydrological properties of fractures and thermal characteristics of rock. Tracer tests using heat as tracer can thus be a good alternative to characterize fractured media for shallow geothermal needs. This study investigates the possibility of implementing a new thermal tracer test set up, the single well thermal tracer test, to characterize hydraulic and thermal transport properties of fractured crystalline rock. The experimental setup is based on injecting hot water in a fracture isolated by a double straddle packer in the borehole while pumping and monitoring the temperature in a fracture crossing the same borehole at greater elevation. One difficulty comes from the fact that injection and withdrawal are achieved in the same borehole involving thermal losses along the injection tube that may disturb the heat recovery signal. To be able to well localize the heat influx, we implemented a Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS) which allows the temperature monitoring with high spatial and temporal resolution (29 centimeters and 30 seconds respectively). Several tests, at different pumping and injection rates, were performed in a crystalline rock aquifer at the experimental site of Ploemeur (H+ observatory network). We show through signal processing how the thermal breakthrough may be extracted thanks to Fiber-Optic distributed temperature measurements. In particular, we demonstrate how detailed distributed temperature measurements were useful to identify different inflows and to estimate how much heat was transported and stored within the fractures network. Thermal breakthrough curves of single well thermal tracer tests were then interpreted with a simple analytical model to characterize hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the fractured media. We finally discuss the advantages of these tests compared to cross-borehole thermal tracer tests.

  4. Benchmark experiment on vanadium assembly with D-T neutrons. In-situ measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Konno, Chikara; Wada, Masayuki; Oyama, Yukio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Murata, Isao; Kokooo; Takahashi, Akito

    1998-03-01

    Fusion neutronics benchmark experimental data on vanadium were obtained for neutrons in almost entire energies as well as secondary gamma-rays. Benchmark calculations for the experiment were performed to investigate validity of recent nuclear data files, i.e., JENDL Fusion File, FENDL/E-1.0 and EFF-3. (author)

  5. Experimental Investigation of Active Feedback Control of Turbulent Transport in a Magnetized Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Mark Allen [University of New Mexico

    2013-07-07

    A new and unique basic plasma science laboratory device - the HelCat device (HELicon-CAThode) - has been constructed and is operating at the University of New Mexico. HelCat is a 4 m long, 0.5 m diameter device, with magnetic field up to 2.2 kG, that has two independent plasmas sources - an RF helicon source, and a thermionic cathode. These two sources, which can operate independently or simultaneously, are capable of producing plasmas with a wide range of parameters and turbulence characteristics, well suited to a variety of basic plasma physics experiments. An extensive set of plasma diagnostics is also operating. Experiments investigating the active feedback control of turbulent transport of particles and heat via electrode biasing to affect plasma ExB flows are underway, and ongoing.

  6. Experimental study on noise reduction effect of a muffler inserted in liquid transporting pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T.; Xu, W. W.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    In order to reduce the noise of liquid transporting pipelines caused by the motion of the power unit, a kind of compact hydrodynamic muffler used in pipes with small diameters is proposed which achieves good vibration damping as well as hydrodynamic noise reduction. Based on the rubber damper tube, according to the structure characteristics, the muffler is composed of two main parts, the rubber damper tube and the inner noise reducing structure. Experiment on insertion loss of the muffler in stationary state is conducted. It is found that the rubber damper tube itself has a good performance at noise reducing at the frequency band considered here, total insertion loss values can reach 10 dB and the inner structures improve the performance of the muffler at low frequency band.

  7. A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

    2012-01-01

    Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast

  8. Synthetic torpor: A method for safely and practically transporting experimental animals aboard spaceflight missions to deep space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griko, Yuri; Regan, Matthew D.

    2018-02-01

    Animal research aboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station has provided vital information on the physiological, cellular, and molecular effects of spaceflight. The relevance of this information to human spaceflight is enhanced when it is coupled with information gleaned from human-based research. As NASA and other space agencies initiate plans for human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), incorporating animal research into these missions is vitally important to understanding the biological impacts of deep space. However, new technologies will be required to integrate experimental animals into spacecraft design and transport them beyond LEO in a safe and practical way. In this communication, we propose the use of metabolic control technologies to reversibly depress the metabolic rates of experimental animals while in transit aboard the spacecraft. Compared to holding experimental animals in active metabolic states, the advantages of artificially inducing regulated, depressed metabolic states (called synthetic torpor) include significantly reduced mass, volume, and power requirements within the spacecraft owing to reduced life support requirements, and mitigated radiation- and microgravity-induced negative health effects on the animals owing to intrinsic physiological properties of torpor. In addition to directly benefitting animal research, synthetic torpor-inducing systems will also serve as test beds for systems that may eventually hold human crewmembers in similar metabolic states on long-duration missions. The technologies for inducing synthetic torpor, which we discuss, are at relatively early stages of development, but there is ample evidence to show that this is a viable idea and one with very real benefits to spaceflight programs. The increasingly ambitious goals of world's many spaceflight programs will be most quickly and safely achieved with the help of animal research systems transported beyond LEO; synthetic torpor may

  9. Experimental investigation of the impact of compound-specific dispersion and electrostatic interactions on transient transport and solute breakthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of compound-specific diffusion/dispersion and electrochemical migration on transient solute transport in saturated porous media. We conducted laboratory bench-scale experiments, under advection-dominated regimes (seepage velocity: 0.5, 5, 25 m/d), in a quasi two-dimensional flow-through setup using pulse injection of multiple tracers (both uncharged and ionic species). Extensive sampling and measurement of solutes' concentrations (˜1500 samples; >3000 measurements) were performed at the outlet of the flow-through setup, at high spatial and temporal resolution. The experimental results show that compound-specific effects and charge-induced Coulombic interactions are important not only at low velocities and/or for steady state plumes but also for transient transport under high flow velocities. Such effects can lead to a remarkably different behavior of measured breakthrough curves also at very high Péclet numbers. To quantitatively interpret the experimental results, we used four modeling approaches: classical advection-dispersion equation (ADE), continuous time random walk (CTRW), dual-domain mass transfer model (DDMT), and a multicomponent ionic dispersion model. The latter is based on the multicomponent formulation of coupled diffusive/dispersive fluxes and was used to describe and explain the electrostatic effects of charged species. Furthermore, we determined experimentally the temporal profiles of the flux-related dilution index. This metric of mixing, used in connection with the traditional solute breakthrough curves, proved to be useful to correctly distinguish between plume spreading and mixing, particularly for the cases in which the sole analysis of integrated concentration breakthrough curves may lead to erroneous interpretation of plume dilution.

  10. Solute transport in periodical heterogeneous porous media: Importance of observation scale and experimental sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalani, S.; Chazarin, J. P.; Delenne, C.; Guinot, V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of the observation scale and sampling on the dispersion of tracers in periodical heterogeneous porous media. A Model Heterogeneous Porous Medium (MHPM) with a high degree of heterogeneity was built. It consists of a preferential flow path surrounded by glass beads. 44 tracer experiments were carried out on several series of periodic MHPM to investigate the effect of the observation scale on solute dispersion. Each series was replicated several times, allowing for a statistical description of the unit transfer function of the MHPM. No significant trend was found for the dispersion coefficient as a function of the size of the MHPM. However, given the variability of the breakthrough curves from one experiment replicate to another, under-sampling might easily lead to conclude that the dispersion coefficient is variable with distance. Depending on the samples used, it would be as easy to (wrongly) detect an increasing trend as to detect a decreasing one. A confidence interval analysis of the experimental breakthrough curves in the Laplace space shows that (i) there exists a model with scale independent parameters that can describe the experimental breakthrough curves within the limits of experimental uncertainty, (ii) this model is not the advection-dispersion (AD) model, (iii) the modelling error of the AD model decreases with the number of periods, (iv) the size of the Reference Elementary Volume for the dispersion coefficient is between 10 and 20 periods. The effects of sampling prove to override those of scaling. This, with the invalidity of the AD model, leads to question attempts to calibrate and/or identify trends in the dispersion coefficient at intermediate scales from a limited number of experiment replicates.

  11. Selected issues concerning calculations and experimental tests of transport means construction elements fatigue life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan LIGAJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of an algorithm of fatigue life of structural components of road and rail vehicles as well as sea vessels and aircrafts involves three groups of activities connected with: development of fatigue load spectra on the basis measurement of service loads, determination of the construction material fatigue properties and a selection of the best hypothesis for estimating the fatigue damage to be used for a phenomenological description of the fatigue process. The above listed groups of problems include the main causes of differences that occur between the calculation results and the results of fatigue life experimental tests. Evaluation of these differences is the main goal of this article.

  12. Simplified two and three dimensional HTTR benchmark problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhan [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State St., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Rahnema, Farzad, E-mail: Farzad@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State St., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Zhang Dingkang; Pounders, Justin M. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State St., Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Ougouag, Abderrafi M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Ms-3860, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To assess the accuracy of diffusion or transport methods for reactor calculations, it is desirable to create heterogeneous benchmark problems that are typical of whole core configurations. In this paper we have created two and three dimensional numerical benchmark problems typical of high temperature gas cooled prismatic cores. Additionally, a single cell and single block benchmark problems are also included. These problems were derived from the HTTR start-up experiment. Since the primary utility of the benchmark problems is in code-to-code verification, minor details regarding geometry and material specification of the original experiment have been simplified while retaining the heterogeneity and the major physics properties of the core from a neutronics viewpoint. A six-group material (macroscopic) cross section library has been generated for the benchmark problems using the lattice depletion code HELIOS. Using this library, Monte Carlo solutions are presented for three configurations (all-rods-in, partially-controlled and all-rods-out) for both the 2D and 3D problems. These solutions include the core eigenvalues, the block (assembly) averaged fission densities, local peaking factors, the absorption densities in the burnable poison and control rods, and pin fission density distribution for selected blocks. Also included are the solutions for the single cell and single block problems.

  13. Assessment of Static Delamination Propagation Capabilities in Commercial Finite Element Codes Using Benchmark Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orifici, Adrian C.; Krueger, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    With capabilities for simulating delamination growth in composite materials becoming available, the need for benchmarking and assessing these capabilities is critical. In this study, benchmark analyses were performed to assess the delamination propagation simulation capabilities of the VCCT implementations in Marc TM and MD NastranTM. Benchmark delamination growth results for Double Cantilever Beam, Single Leg Bending and End Notched Flexure specimens were generated using a numerical approach. This numerical approach was developed previously, and involves comparing results from a series of analyses at different delamination lengths to a single analysis with automatic crack propagation. Specimens were analyzed with three-dimensional and two-dimensional models, and compared with previous analyses using Abaqus . The results demonstrated that the VCCT implementation in Marc TM and MD Nastran(TradeMark) was capable of accurately replicating the benchmark delamination growth results and that the use of the numerical benchmarks offers advantages over benchmarking using experimental and analytical results.

  14. Benchmarking in de Europese Unie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    2004-01-01

    Dit artikel geeft een beschrijving van de toepassing van de zogenaamde open methode van beleidscoördinatie in de Europese Unie, en van de rol die benchmarking en best practices daarin spelen. Ingegaan wordt op de achtergrond van de totstandkoming van de methode, en op enkele toepassingen, die in de

  15. Benchmarks for industrial energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarnath, K.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kumana, J.D. [Linnhoff March, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shah, J.V. [Electric Power Research Inst., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemicals and Petroleum Center

    1996-12-31

    What are the standards for improving energy efficiency for industries such as petroleum refining, chemicals, and glass manufacture? How can different industries in emerging markets and developing accelerate the pace of improvements? This paper discusses several case studies and experiences relating to this subject emphasizing the use of energy efficiency benchmarks. Two important benchmarks are discussed. The first is based on a track record of outstanding performers in the related industry segment; the second benchmark is based on site specific factors. Using energy use reduction targets or benchmarks, projects have been implemented in Mexico, Poland, India, Venezuela, Brazil, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Republic of South Africa and Russia. Improvements identified through these projects include a variety of recommendations. The use of oxy-fuel and electric furnaces in the glass industry in Poland; reconfiguration of process heat recovery systems for refineries in China, Malaysia, and Russia; recycling and reuse of process wastewater in Republic of South Africa; cogeneration plant in Venezuela. The paper will discuss three case studies of efforts undertaken in emerging market countries to improve energy efficiency.

  16. Benchmarking forensic mental health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Tim; Taylor, Monica; Pirkis, Jane

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the forensic mental health forums that were conducted as part of the National Mental Health Benchmarking Project (NMHBP). These forums encouraged participating organizations to compare their performance on a range of key performance indicators (KPIs) with that of their peers. Four forensic mental health organizations took part in the NMHBP. Representatives from these organizations attended eight benchmarking forums at which they documented their performance against previously agreed KPIs. They also undertook three special projects which explored some of the factors that might explain inter-organizational variation in performance. The inter-organizational range for many of the indicators was substantial. Observing this led participants to conduct the special projects to explore three factors which might help explain the variability - seclusion practices, delivery of community mental health services, and provision of court liaison services. The process of conducting the special projects gave participants insights into the practices and structures employed by their counterparts, and provided them with some important lessons for quality improvement. The forensic mental health benchmarking forums have demonstrated that benchmarking is feasible and likely to be useful in improving service performance and quality.

  17. Benchmarked Library Websites Comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.

  18. Towards Systematic Benchmarking of Climate Model Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleckler, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The process by which climate models are evaluated has evolved substantially over the past decade, with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) serving as a centralizing activity for coordinating model experimentation and enabling research. Scientists with a broad spectrum of expertise have contributed to the CMIP model evaluation process, resulting in many hundreds of publications that have served as a key resource for the IPCC process. For several reasons, efforts are now underway to further systematize some aspects of the model evaluation process. First, some model evaluation can now be considered routine and should not require "re-inventing the wheel" or a journal publication simply to update results with newer models. Second, the benefit of CMIP research to model development has not been optimal because the publication of results generally takes several years and is usually not reproducible for benchmarking newer model versions. And third, there are now hundreds of model versions and many thousands of simulations, but there is no community-based mechanism for routinely monitoring model performance changes. An important change in the design of CMIP6 can help address these limitations. CMIP6 will include a small set standardized experiments as an ongoing exercise (CMIP "DECK": ongoing Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima), so that modeling groups can submit them at any time and not be overly constrained by deadlines. In this presentation, efforts to establish routine benchmarking of existing and future CMIP simulations will be described. To date, some benchmarking tools have been made available to all CMIP modeling groups to enable them to readily compare with CMIP5 simulations during the model development process. A natural extension of this effort is to make results from all CMIP simulations widely available, including the results from newer models as soon as the simulations become available for research. Making the results from routine

  19. Study of Uranium Transport Utilizing Reactive Numerical Modeling and Experimental Data from Heterogeneous Intermediate-Scale Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, D.; Miller, A.; Honeyman, B.

    2007-12-01

    The study of the transport of contaminants in groundwater is critical in order to mitigate risks to downstream receptors from sites where past releases of these contaminants has resulted in the degradation of the water quality of the underlying aquifer. In most cases, the fate and transport of these contaminants occurs in a chemically and physically heterogeneous environment; thereby making the prediction of the ultimate fate of these contaminants difficult. In order to better understand the fundamental processes that have the greatest effect on the transport of these contaminants, careful laboratory study must be completed in a controlled environment. Once the experimental data has been generated, the validation of numerical models may then be achieved. Questions on the management of contaminated sites may center on the long-term release (e.g., desorption, dissolution) behavior of contaminated geomedia. Data on the release of contaminants is often derived from bench-scale experiments or, in rare cases, through field-scale experiments. A central question, however, is how molecular-scale processes (e.g., bond breaking) are expressed at the macroscale. This presentation describes part of a collaborative study between the Colorado School of Mines, the USGS and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab on upscaling pore-scale processes to understanding field-scale observations. In the work described here, two experiments were conducted in two intermediate-scale tanks (2.44 m x 1.22 m x 7.6 cm and 2.44 m x 0.61 m x 7.6 cm) to generate data to quantify the processes of uranium dissolution and transport in fully saturated conditions, and to evaluate the ability of two reactive transport models to capture the relevant processes and predict U behavior at the intermediate scale. Each tank was designed so that spatial samples could be collected from the side of the tank, as well as samples from the effluent end of the tank. The larger tank was packed with a less than 2mm fraction of a

  20. Experimental Exploration of Particle-Scale Bed Load Transport and Near-Bed Fluid Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathel, S. L.; Furbish, D. J.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    Bed load sediment particles move as complex motions over the surface of a stream bed, accelerating and decelerating in response to the near-bed turbulence and due to particle-bed interactions. Using high-speed imagery of coarse sand particles on a planer bed surface, we track individual particle motions from start to stop, combined with measurements of near-bed fluid velocities to better characterize the relationship between these properties. These simultaneous measurements provide an initial step towards describing the dynamic relationship between the fluid and particle entrainment on the grain-scale. We start with an Eulerian a priori method wherein we grid the analyzed area and compare the fluid velocity time series to the entrainment time series within each grid space. We progressively increase the size of the grids and monitor the correlation between the two time series. We then use an a posteriori method that focuses on the fluid velocities in the vicinity of entrained particles both at the moment of entrainment and prior to the initiation of motion. We further our analysis of the relationship between particle motions and the near-bed fluid using detailed measurements of particle motions to calibrate estimates of the sediment load using a pixel differencing method. This allows us to examine connections between the fluid and particle activity over many frames rather than over the limited, manually tracked time period. Furthermore, this allows us to empirically define a distribution of particle wait times, or the duration of time between successive entrainment events over a set area, which acts to determine the transport intensity. Preliminary results suggest that there is not a clear correlation between near-bed fluid velocities and particle entrainment. In absence of a correlation we find that (1) we must think more deeply about collective entrainment and how it 'works', and (2) we must consider how the microstructure of the particles on the bed act to set up

  1. Particle and impurity transport in the Axial Symmetric Divertor Experiment Upgrade and the Joint European Torus, experimental observations and theoretical understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angioni, C.; Carraro, L.; Dannert, T.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental observations on core particle and impurity transport from the Axial Symmetric Divertor Experiment Upgrade [O. Gruber, H.-S. Bosch, S. Gunter , Nucl Fusion 39, 1321 (1999)] and the Joint European Torus [J. Pamela, E. R. Solano, and JET EFDA Contributors, Nucl. Fusion 43, 1540 (2003......)] tokamaks are reviewed and compared. Robust general experimental behaviors observed in both the devices and related parametric dependences are identified. The experimental observations are compared with the most recent theoretical results in the field of core particle transport. (C) 2007 American Institute...

  2. Experimental investigation of gas hydrate formation, plugging and transportability in partially dispersed and water continuous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayamohan, Prithvi

    As oil/gas subsea fields mature, the amount of water produced increases significantly due to the production methods employed to enhance the recovery of oil. This is true especially in the case of oil reservoirs. This increase in the water hold up increases the risk of hydrate plug formation in the pipelines, thereby resulting in higher inhibition cost strategies. A major industry concern is to reduce the severe safety risks associated with hydrate plug formation, and significantly extending subsea tieback distances by providing a cost effective flow assurance management/safety tool for mature fields. Developing fundamental understanding of the key mechanistic steps towards hydrate plug formation for different multiphase flow conditions is a key challenge to the flow assurance community. Such understanding can ultimately provide new insight and hydrate management guidelines to diminish the safety risks due to hydrate formation and accumulation in deepwater flowlines and facilities. The transportability of hydrates in pipelines is a function of the operating parameters, such as temperature, pressure, fluid mixture velocity, liquid loading, and fluid system characteristics. Specifically, the hydrate formation rate and plugging onset characteristics can be significantly different for water continuous, oil continuous, and partially dispersed systems. The latter is defined as a system containing oil/gas/water, where the water is present both as a free phase and partially dispersed in the oil phase (i.e., entrained water in the oil). Since hydrate formation from oil dispersed in water systems and partially dispersed water systems is an area which is poorly understood, this thesis aims to address some key questions in these systems. Selected experiments have been performed at the University of Tulsa flowloop to study the hydrate formation and plugging characteristics for the partially dispersed water/oil/gas systems as well as systems where the oil is completely dispersed

  3. Benchmarking short sequence mapping tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Ayat; Bozdağ, Doruk; Toland, Amanda E; Çatalyürek, Ümit V

    2013-06-07

    The development of next-generation sequencing instruments has led to the generation of millions of short sequences in a single run. The process of aligning these reads to a reference genome is time consuming and demands the development of fast and accurate alignment tools. However, the current proposed tools make different compromises between the accuracy and the speed of mapping. Moreover, many important aspects are overlooked while comparing the performance of a newly developed tool to the state of the art. Therefore, there is a need for an objective evaluation method that covers all the aspects. In this work, we introduce a benchmarking suite to extensively analyze sequencing tools with respect to various aspects and provide an objective comparison. We applied our benchmarking tests on 9 well known mapping tools, namely, Bowtie, Bowtie2, BWA, SOAP2, MAQ, RMAP, GSNAP, Novoalign, and mrsFAST (mrFAST) using synthetic data and real RNA-Seq data. MAQ and RMAP are based on building hash tables for the reads, whereas the remaining tools are based on indexing the reference genome. The benchmarking tests reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each tool. The results show that no single tool outperforms all others in all metrics. However, Bowtie maintained the best throughput for most of the tests while BWA performed better for longer read lengths. The benchmarking tests are not restricted to the mentioned tools and can be further applied to others. The mapping process is still a hard problem that is affected by many factors. In this work, we provided a benchmarking suite that reveals and evaluates the different factors affecting the mapping process. Still, there is no tool that outperforms all of the others in all the tests. Therefore, the end user should clearly specify his needs in order to choose the tool that provides the best results.

  4. Benchmarking organic mixed conductors for transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Inal, Sahika

    2017-11-20

    Organic mixed conductors have garnered significant attention in applications from bioelectronics to energy storage/generation. Their implementation in organic transistors has led to enhanced biosensing, neuromorphic function, and specialized circuits. While a narrow class of conducting polymers continues to excel in these new applications, materials design efforts have accelerated as researchers target new functionality, processability, and improved performance/stability. Materials for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) require both efficient electronic transport and facile ion injection in order to sustain high capacity. In this work, we show that the product of the electronic mobility and volumetric charge storage capacity (µC*) is the materials/system figure of merit; we use this framework to benchmark and compare the steady-state OECT performance of ten previously reported materials. This product can be independently verified and decoupled to guide materials design and processing. OECTs can therefore be used as a tool for understanding and designing new organic mixed conductors.

  5. Shift: A Massively Parallel Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M [ORNL; Johnson, Seth R [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the massively-parallel Monte Carlo radiation transport package, Shift, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It reviews the capabilities, implementation, and parallel performance of this code package. Scaling results demonstrate very good strong and weak scaling behavior of the implemented algorithms. Benchmark results from various reactor problems show that Shift results compare well to other contemporary Monte Carlo codes and experimental results.

  6. Which physical and social environmental factors are most important for adolescents' cycling for transport? An experimental study using manipulated photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Hannah; Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2017-08-17

    Ecological models emphasize that cycling for transport is determined by an interplay between individual, physical and social environmental factors. The current study investigated (a) which physical and social environmental factors determine adolescents' preferences towards cycling for transport and (b) which individual, physical and social environmental factors are associated with their intention to actually cycle for transport. An online questionnaire consisting of questions on individual and social environmental variables, and 15 choice-based conjoint tasks with manipulated photographs was completed by 882 adolescents (55.3% male; 13.9 ± 1.6 years). Within the choice tasks, participants were asked to indicate which of two situations they would prefer to cycle to a friend's house. The manipulated photographs were all modified versions of one semi-urban street which differed in the following physical micro-environmental attributes (separation of cycle path, evenness of cycle path, speed limit, speed bump, traffic density, amount of vegetation and maintenance). In addition, each photograph was accompanied by two sentences which described varying cycling distances and co-participation in cycling (i.e. cycling alone or with a friend). After each choice task participants were also asked if they would actually cycle in that situation in real life (i.e. intention). Hierarchical Bayes analyses were performed to calculate relative importances and part-worth utilities of environmental attributes. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate which individual, physical and social environmental factors were associated with adolescents' intention to actually cycle for transport. Adolescents' preference to cycle for transport was predominantly determined by separation of cycle path, followed by shorter cycling distance and co-participation in cycling. Higher preferences were observed for a separation between the cycle path and motorized traffic by means of a

  7. Current Reactor Physics Benchmark Activities at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall; Mackenzie L. Gorham; Joseph Christensen; James C. Turnbull; Kim Clark

    2011-11-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [1] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) [2] were established to preserve integral reactor physics and criticality experiment data for present and future research. These valuable assets provide the basis for recording, developing, and validating our integral nuclear data, and experimental and computational methods. These projects are managed through the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA). Staff and students at the Department of Energy - Idaho (DOE-ID) and INL are engaged in the development of benchmarks to support ongoing research activities. These benchmarks include reactors or assemblies that support Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) research, space nuclear Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) design validation, and currently operational facilities in Southeastern Idaho.

  8. Comparison of Experimental Methods for Estimating Matrix Diffusion Coefficients for Contaminant Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telfeyan, Katherine Christina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ware, Stuart Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-06

    Diffusion cell and diffusion wafer experiments were conducted to compare methods for estimating matrix diffusion coefficients in rock core samples from Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). A diffusion wafer method, in which a solute diffuses out of a rock matrix that is pre-saturated with water containing the solute, is presented as a simpler alternative to the traditional through-diffusion (diffusion cell) method. Both methods yielded estimates of matrix diffusion coefficients that were within the range of values previously reported for NNSS volcanic rocks. The difference between the estimates of the two methods ranged from 14 to 30%, and there was no systematic high or low bias of one method relative to the other. From a transport modeling perspective, these differences are relatively minor when one considers that other variables (e.g., fracture apertures, fracture spacings) influence matrix diffusion to a greater degree and tend to have greater uncertainty than diffusion coefficients. For the same relative random errors in concentration measurements, the diffusion cell method yields diffusion coefficient estimates that have less uncertainty than the wafer method. However, the wafer method is easier and less costly to implement and yields estimates more quickly, thus allowing a greater number of samples to be analyzed for the same cost and time. Given the relatively good agreement between the methods, and the lack of any apparent bias between the methods, the diffusion wafer method appears to offer advantages over the diffusion cell method if better statistical representation of a given set of rock samples is desired.

  9. Comparison of experimental methods for estimating matrix diffusion coefficients for contaminant transport modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfeyan, Katherine; Ware, S Doug; Reimus, Paul W; Birdsell, Kay H

    2018-02-01

    Diffusion cell and diffusion wafer experiments were conducted to compare methods for estimating effective matrix diffusion coefficients in rock core samples from Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). A diffusion wafer method, in which a solute diffuses out of a rock matrix that is pre-saturated with water containing the solute, is presented as a simpler alternative to the traditional through-diffusion (diffusion cell) method. Both methods yielded estimates of effective matrix diffusion coefficients that were within the range of values previously reported for NNSS volcanic rocks. The difference between the estimates of the two methods ranged from 14 to 30%, and there was no systematic high or low bias of one method relative to the other. From a transport modeling perspective, these differences are relatively minor when one considers that other variables (e.g., fracture apertures, fracture spacings) influence matrix diffusion to a greater degree and tend to have greater uncertainty than effective matrix diffusion coefficients. For the same relative random errors in concentration measurements, the diffusion cell method yields effective matrix diffusion coefficient estimates that have less uncertainty than the wafer method. However, the wafer method is easier and less costly to implement and yields estimates more quickly, thus allowing a greater number of samples to be analyzed for the same cost and time. Given the relatively good agreement between the methods, and the lack of any apparent bias between the methods, the diffusion wafer method appears to offer advantages over the diffusion cell method if better statistical representation of a given set of rock samples is desired. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Recommendations for Benchmarking Preclinical Studies of Nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidczyk, Charlene M; Russell, Luisa M; Searson, Peter C

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticle-based delivery systems provide new opportunities to overcome the limitations associated with traditional small-molecule drug therapy for cancer and to achieve both therapeutic and diagnostic functions in the same platform. Preclinical trials are generally designed to assess therapeutic potential and not to optimize the design of the delivery platform. Consequently, progress in developing design rules for cancer nanomedicines has been slow, hindering progress in the field. Despite the large number of preclinical trials, several factors restrict comparison and benchmarking of different platforms, including variability in experimental design, reporting of results, and the lack of quantitative data. To solve this problem, we review the variables involved in the design of preclinical trials and propose a protocol for benchmarking that we recommend be included in in vivo preclinical studies of drug-delivery platforms for cancer therapy. This strategy will contribute to building the scientific knowledge base that enables development of design rules and accelerates the translation of new technologies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Benchmark models, planes lines and points for future SUSY searches at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdusSalam, S.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Allanach, B.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Dreiner, H.K. [Bonn Univ. (DE). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Inst.] (and others)

    2012-03-15

    We define benchmark models for SUSY searches at the LHC, including the CMSSM, NUHM, mGMSB, mAMSB, MM-AMSB and p19MSSM, as well as models with R-parity violation and the NMSSM. Within the parameter spaces of these models, we propose benchmark subspaces, including planes, lines and points along them. The planes may be useful for presenting results of the experimental searches in different SUSY scenarios, while the specific benchmark points may serve for more detailed detector performance tests and comparisons. We also describe algorithms for defining suitable benchmark points along the proposed lines in the parameter spaces, and we define a few benchmark points motivated by recent fits to existing experimental data.

  12. Experimental Study on Interfacial Area Transport of Two-Phase Flow under Vibration Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on air-water two-phase flow under vibration condition has been conducted using double-sensor conductivity probe. The test section is an annular geometry with hydraulic diameter of 19.1 mm. The vibration frequency ranges from 0.47 Hz to 2.47 Hz. Local measurements of void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC, and Sauter mean diameter have been performed along one radius in the vibration direction. The result shows that local parameters fluctuate continuously around the base values in the vibration cycle. Additional bubble force due to inertia is used to explain lateral bubble motions. The fluctuation amplitudes of local void fraction and IAC increase significantly with vibration frequency. The radial distribution of local parameters at the maximum vibration displacement is specifically analyzed. In the void fraction and IAC profiles, the peak near the inner wall is weakened or even disappearing and a strong peak skewed to outer wall is gradually observed with the increase of vibration frequency. The nondimensional peak void fraction can reach a maximum of 49% and the mean relative variation of local void fraction can increase to more than 29% as the vibration frequency increases to 2.47 Hz. But the increase of vibration frequency does not bring significant change to bubble diameter.

  13. Tourism Destination Benchmarking: Evaluation and Selection of the Benchmarking Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luštický Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development has an irreplaceable role in regional policy of almost all countries. This is due to its undeniable benefits for the local population with regards to the economic, social and environmental sphere. Tourist destinations compete for visitors at tourism market and subsequently get into a relatively sharp competitive struggle. The main goal of regional governments and destination management institutions is to succeed in this struggle by increasing the competitiveness of their destination. The quality of strategic planning and final strategies is a key factor of competitiveness. Even though the tourism sector is not the typical field where the benchmarking methods are widely used, such approaches could be successfully applied. The paper focuses on key phases of the benchmarking process which lies in the search for suitable referencing partners. The partners are consequently selected to meet general requirements to ensure the quality if strategies. Following from this, some specific characteristics are developed according to the SMART approach. The paper tests this procedure with an expert evaluation of eight selected regional tourism strategies of regions in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Great Britain. In this way it validates the selected criteria in the frame of the international environment. Hence, it makes it possible to find strengths and weaknesses of selected strategies and at the same time facilitates the discovery of suitable benchmarking partners.

  14. Benchmarking set for domestic smart grid management

    OpenAIRE

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a benchmark for domestic smart grid management. It consists of an in-depth description of a domestic smart grid, in which local energy consumers, producers and buffers can be controlled. First, from this description a general benchmark framework is derived, which can be used as a guideline to create benchmark sets to compare domestic smart grid management methodologies. Secondly, an implementation of such a benchmark set is discussed in full detail, to give an example...

  15. Benchmarking clinical photography services in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, Giles

    2015-01-01

    Benchmarking is used in services across the National Health Service (NHS) using various benchmarking programs. Clinical photography services do not have a program in place and services have to rely on ad hoc surveys of other services. A trial benchmarking exercise was undertaken with 13 services in NHS Trusts. This highlights valuable data and comparisons that can be used to benchmark and improve services throughout the profession.

  16. Benchmarking: Achieving the best in class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaemmerer, L

    1996-05-01

    Oftentimes, people find the process of organizational benchmarking an onerous task, or, because they do not fully understand the nature of the process, end up with results that are less than stellar. This paper presents the challenges of benchmarking and reasons why benchmarking can benefit an organization in today`s economy.

  17. Benchmarking and Learning in Public Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckmaster, Natalie; Mouritsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the effects of learning-oriented benchmarking in public healthcare settings. Benchmarking is a widely adopted yet little explored accounting practice that is part of the paradigm of New Public Management. Extant studies are directed towards mandated coercive benchmarkin...... can enable learning in public settings but that this requires actors to invest in ensuring that benchmark data are directed towards improvement....

  18. Benchmarking Academic Standards in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Mantz

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a pilot study of benchmarking of academic standards in the United Kingdom and offers empirical data that benchmarking in higher education needs to be approached differently than benchmarking in the industrial/commercial milieu. Argues that the complexity which underpins academic standards is inimical to generalizations applicable across…

  19. How Benchmarking and Higher Education Came Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gary D.; Ronco, Sharron L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter introduces the concept of benchmarking and how higher education institutions began to use benchmarking for a variety of purposes. Here, benchmarking is defined as a strategic and structured approach whereby an organization compares aspects of its processes and/or outcomes to those of another organization or set of organizations to…

  20. Benchmark problem for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coordinated research program (CRP) on gas-cooled reactor (GCR) afterheat Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Shoji; Shiina, Yasuaki; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hishida, Makoto; Sudo, Yukio

    1997-12-31

    In IAEA CRP on `Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for GCRs under Accident Conditions`, experimental data of the JAERI`s cooling panel test apparatus were selected as benchmark problems to verify the validity of computational codes for design and evaluation of the performance of heat transfer and temperature distribution of components in the cooling panel system of the HTGR. The test apparatus was composed of a pressure vessel (P.V) with 1m in diameter and 3m in height, containing heaters with the maximum heating rate of 100kW simulating decay heat, cooling panels surrounding the P.V and the reactor cavity occupied by air at the atmospheric pressure. Seven experimental data were established as benchmark problems to evaluate the effect of natural convection of superheated gas on temperature distribution of the P.V and the performance of heat transfer of both the water and the air cooling panel systems. The analytical code THANPACST2 was applied to analyze two benchmark problems to verify the validity of the analytical methods and models proposed. Under the conditions at helium gas pressure of 0.73MPa and temperature of 210degC in the P.V of the water cooling panel system, temperatures of the P.V were well estimated within the errors of -14% to +27% compared with the experimental data. The analyses indicated that the heat transferred to the cooling panel was 11.4% less than the experimental value and the heat transferred by thermal radiation was 74.4% of the total heat input. (author)

  1. Benchmark experiment on stainless steel bulk shielding at Frascati neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, P.; Angelone, M.; Martone, M.; Pillon, M.; Rado, V. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia - Area Energia e Innovazione

    1994-11-01

    In the framework of the European Technology Program for NET/ITER, ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) - Frascati and CEA (Commissariat a L`Energie Atomique) - Cadarache collaborated on a Bulk Shield Benchmark Experiment using the 14-MeV Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG). The aim of the experiment was to obtain accurate experimental data for improving the nuclear database and methods used in shielding designs, through a rigorous analysis of the results. The experiment consisted of the irradiation of a stainless steel block by 14-MeV neutrons. The neutron reaction rates at different depths inside the block were measured by fission chambers and activation foils characterized by different energy response ranges. The experimental results have been compared with numerical results calculated using both S{sub N} and Monte Carlo transport codes and as transport cross section library the European Fusion File (EFF). In particular, the present report describes the experimental and numerical activity, including neutron measurements and Monte Carlo calculations, carried out by the (ENEA Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) team.

  2. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  3. Iraq: Government Formation and Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-10

    of a new de-Baathification law and approval of a flag and national anthem law. The De-Baathification reform law (benchmark # 2) remains stalled...vote 5 — Iraqi Turkomen Front (Turkomen, Kirkuk-based, pro- Turkey ) 3 1 National Independent and Elites (Jan)/Risalyun (Message, Dec) pro-Sadr 3 2...Elections and Constitutional Referendum in 2005 The first election (January 30, 2005) was for a 275-seat transitional National Assembly, a provincial

  4. Investible benchmarks & hedge fund liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Freed, Marc S; McMillan, Ben

    2011-01-01

    A lack of commonly accepted benchmarks for hedge fund performance has permitted hedge fund managers to attribute to skill returns that may actually accrue from market risk factors and illiquidity. Recent innovations in hedge fund replication permits us to estimate the extent of this misattribution. Using an option-based model, we find evidence that the value of liquidity options that investors implicitly grant managers when they invest may account for part or even all hedge fund returns. C...

  5. Restaurant Energy Use Benchmarking Guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrick, R.; Smith, V.; Field, K.

    2011-07-01

    A significant operational challenge for food service operators is defining energy use benchmark metrics to compare against the performance of individual stores. Without metrics, multiunit operators and managers have difficulty identifying which stores in their portfolios require extra attention to bring their energy performance in line with expectations. This report presents a method whereby multiunit operators may use their own utility data to create suitable metrics for evaluating their operations.

  6. Prismatic VHTR neutronic benchmark problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Kevin John, E-mail: connolly@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Rahnema, Farzad, E-mail: farzad@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tsvetkov, Pavel V. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • High temperature gas-cooled reactor neutronics benchmark problems. • Description of a whole prismatic VHTR core in its full heterogeneity. • Modeled using continuous energy nuclear data at a representative hot operating temperature. • Benchmark results for core eigenvalue, block-averaged power, and some selected pin fission density results. - Abstract: This paper aims to fill an apparent scarcity of benchmarks based on high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Within is a description of a whole prismatic VHTR core in its full heterogeneity and modeling using continuous energy nuclear data at a representative hot operating temperature. Also included is a core which has been simplified for ease in modeling while attempting to preserve as faithfully as possible the neutron physics of the core. Fuel and absorber pins have been homogenized from the particle level, however, the blocks which construct the core remain strongly heterogeneous. A six group multigroup (discrete energy) cross section set has been developed via Monte Carlo using the original heterogeneous core as a basis. Several configurations of the core have been solved using these two cross section sets; eigenvalue results, block-averaged power results, and some selected pin fission density results are presented in this paper, along with the six-group cross section data, so that method developers may use these problems as a standard reference point.

  7. Benchmarking adult mental health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Tim; Geyer, Tania; Pirkis, Jane

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the adult mental health forums that were conducted as part of the National Mental Health Benchmarking Project (NMHBP). Eight adult mental health forums were attended by staff from eight adult mental health services from around the country. The forums provided an avenue for these participants to document their organizations' performances against previously agreed key performance indicators (KPIs), and to compare this performance with that of their peers. The forums also encouraged discussion about appropriate targets. Forum participants found that the inter-organizational range for many of the KPIs was substantial, and they used this to inform practice change within their own organizations. They also found that they could set "alert targets" and "good practice targets" for some KPIs but not others. The discussion that ensued informed participants' understanding of factors that were within the control of their organizations that could be modified to improve service quality. Benchmarking in adult mental health services is not only possible but also likely to be extremely worthwhile as an exercise in improving service quality. For benchmarking to realize its potential, it requires strong national and local leadership, and a spirit of openness on the part of participating organizations.

  8. Thermal Performance Benchmarking: Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilbert

    2016-04-08

    The goal for this project is to thoroughly characterize the performance of state-of-the-art (SOA) automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Information obtained from these studies will be used to: Evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management strategies; establish baseline metrics for the thermal management systems; identify methods of improvement to advance the SOA; increase the publicly available information related to automotive traction-drive thermal management systems; help guide future electric drive technologies (EDT) research and development (R&D) efforts. The performance results combined with component efficiency and heat generation information obtained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may then be used to determine the operating temperatures for the EDT components under drive-cycle conditions. In FY15, the 2012 Nissan LEAF power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems were benchmarked. Testing of the 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid power electronics thermal management system started in FY15; however, due to time constraints it was not possible to include results for this system in this report. The focus of this project is to benchmark the thermal aspects of the systems. ORNL's benchmarking of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technology reports provide detailed descriptions of the electrical and packaging aspects of these automotive systems.

  9. HS06 Benchmark for an ARM Server

    CERN Document Server

    Kluth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  10. HS06 Benchmark for an ARM Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    We benchmarked an ARM cortex-A9 based server system with a four-core CPU running at 1.1 GHz. The system used Ubuntu 12.04 as operating system and the HEPSPEC 2006 (HS06) benchmarking suite was compiled natively with gcc-4.4 on the system. The benchmark was run for various settings of the relevant gcc compiler options. We did not find significant influence from the compiler options on the benchmark result. The final HS06 benchmark result is 10.4.

  11. Accumulation and transport of microbial-size particles in a pressure protected model burn unit: CFD simulations and experimental evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimoun Maurice

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling airborne contamination is of major importance in burn units because of the high susceptibility of burned patients to infections and the unique environmental conditions that can accentuate the infection risk. In particular the required elevated temperatures in the patient room can create thermal convection flows which can transport airborne contaminates throughout the unit. In order to estimate this risk and optimize the design of an intensive care room intended to host severely burned patients, we have relied on a computational fluid dynamic methodology (CFD. Methods The study was carried out in 4 steps: i patient room design, ii CFD simulations of patient room design to model air flows throughout the patient room, adjacent anterooms and the corridor, iii construction of a prototype room and subsequent experimental studies to characterize its performance iv qualitative comparison of the tendencies between CFD prediction and experimental results. The Electricité De France (EDF open-source software Code_Saturne® (http://www.code-saturne.org was used and CFD simulations were conducted with an hexahedral mesh containing about 300 000 computational cells. The computational domain included the treatment room and two anterooms including equipment, staff and patient. Experiments with inert aerosol particles followed by time-resolved particle counting were conducted in the prototype room for comparison with the CFD observations. Results We found that thermal convection can create contaminated zones near the ceiling of the room, which can subsequently lead to contaminate transfer in adjacent rooms. Experimental confirmation of these phenomena agreed well with CFD predictions and showed that particles greater than one micron (i.e. bacterial or fungal spore sizes can be influenced by these thermally induced flows. When the temperature difference between rooms was 7°C, a significant contamination transfer was observed to

  12. Accumulation and transport of microbial-size particles in a pressure protected model burn unit: CFD simulations and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchêne, Christian; Laudinet, Nicolas; Choukri, Firas; Rousset, Jean-Luc; Benhamadouche, Sofiane; Larbre, Juliette; Chaouat, Marc; Benbunan, Marc; Mimoun, Maurice; Lajonchère, Jean-Patrick; Bergeron, Vance; Derouin, Francis

    2011-03-03

    Controlling airborne contamination is of major importance in burn units because of the high susceptibility of burned patients to infections and the unique environmental conditions that can accentuate the infection risk. In particular the required elevated temperatures in the patient room can create thermal convection flows which can transport airborne contaminates throughout the unit. In order to estimate this risk and optimize the design of an intensive care room intended to host severely burned patients, we have relied on a computational fluid dynamic methodology (CFD). The study was carried out in 4 steps: i) patient room design, ii) CFD simulations of patient room design to model air flows throughout the patient room, adjacent anterooms and the corridor, iii) construction of a prototype room and subsequent experimental studies to characterize its performance iv) qualitative comparison of the tendencies between CFD prediction and experimental results. The Electricité De France (EDF) open-source software Code_Saturne® (http://www.code-saturne.org) was used and CFD simulations were conducted with an hexahedral mesh containing about 300 000 computational cells. The computational domain included the treatment room and two anterooms including equipment, staff and patient. Experiments with inert aerosol particles followed by time-resolved particle counting were conducted in the prototype room for comparison with the CFD observations. We found that thermal convection can create contaminated zones near the ceiling of the room, which can subsequently lead to contaminate transfer in adjacent rooms. Experimental confirmation of these phenomena agreed well with CFD predictions and showed that particles greater than one micron (i.e. bacterial or fungal spore sizes) can be influenced by these thermally induced flows. When the temperature difference between rooms was 7°C, a significant contamination transfer was observed to enter into the positive pressure room when the

  13. 75 FR 16712 - Waybill Data Released in Three-Benchmark Rail Rate Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1244 Waybill Data Released in Three-Benchmark Rail Rate... Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method (RSAM) figures. The parties would then use the released Waybill Sample..., therefore, had been waived. Id. at 246-47. \\1\\ Canadian Pacific Railway Co., Soo Line Railroad Company...

  14. Coupled dynamics of the co-evolution of gravel bed topography, flow turbulence and sediment transport in an experimental channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Porté-Agel, Fernando; Wilcock, Peter R.

    2012-12-01

    A series of flume experiments were conducted in a large experimental channel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory to understand the coupled dynamics of flow and bed forms above the sediment-water interface. Simultaneous high resolution measurements of velocity fluctuations, bed elevations and sediment flux at the downstream end of the channel, were made for a range of discharges. The probability density functions (pdfs) of bed elevation increments and instantaneous Reynolds stress reveal a power law tail behavior and a wavelet cross-correlation analysis depicts a strong dependence of these series across a range of scales, indicating a feedback between bed form dynamics and near-bed turbulence. These results complement our previous findings in which the signature of bed form evolution on the near-bed velocity fluctuations was confirmed via the presence of a spectral gap and two distinct power law scaling regimes in the spectral density of velocity fluctuations. We report herein a strong asymmetry in the probability distribution of bed elevation increments and instantaneous Reynolds stresses, the latter being further analyzed and interpreted via a quadrant analysis of velocity fluctuations in the longitudinal and vertical directions. We also report the presence of intermittency (multifractality) in bed elevation increments and interpret it, in view of the asymmetric nature of the pdfs, as the result of scale coupling. In other words, the geometric asymmetry at the bed form scale gets transferred down to a probabilistic asymmetry at all smaller scales indicating a local anisotropy in the energy transfer. Finally, we propose a predictive relationship between bed form averaged sediment transport rates and bed form averaged instantaneous Reynolds stress and validate it using our experimental data.

  15. Experimental evaluation of the 'transport-of-intensity' equation for magnetic phase reconstruction in Lorentz transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Amit; Habibi, Avihay; Mayo, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The 'transport-of-intensity' equation (TIE) is a general phase reconstruction methodology that can be applied to Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (TEM) through the use of Fresnel-contrast (defocused) images. We present an experimental study to test the application of the TIE for quantitative magnetic mapping in Lorentz TEM without aberration correction by examining sub-micrometer sized Ni80Fe20 (Permalloy) elements. For a JEOL JEM 2100F adapted for Lorentz microscopy, we find that quantitative magnetic phase reconstructions are possible for defoci distances ranging between approximately 200 μm and 800 μm. The lower limit originates from competing sources of image intensity variations in Fresnel-contrast images, namely structural defects and diffraction contrast. The upper defocus limit is due to a numerical error in the estimation of the intensity derivative based on three images. For magnetic domains, we show quantitative reconstructions of the product of the magnetic induction vector and thickness in element sizes down to approximately 100 nm in lateral size and 5 nm thick resulting in a minimal detection of 5Tnm. Three types of magnetic structures are tested in terms of phase reconstruction: vortex cores, domain walls, and element edges. We quantify vortex core structures at a diameter of 12 nm while the structures of domain walls and element edges are characterized qualitatively. Finally, we show by image simulations that the conclusions of this experimental study are relevant to other Lorentz TEM in which spherical aberration and defocus are dominant aberrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Closed-loop neuromorphic benchmarks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stewart, TC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available the study was exempt from ethical approval procedures.) Did the study presented in the manuscript involve human or animal subjects: No I v i w 1Closed-loop Neuromorphic Benchmarks Terrence C. Stewart 1,∗, Travis DeWolf 1, Ashley Kleinhans 2 and Chris..._link335 program from ev3dev-c (https://github.com/in4lio/ev3dev-c). This allows the EV3 to336 listen for UDP commands that tell it to set motor values and read sensor values. Communication with337 a PC was over a USB link (although the system also...

  17. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Sally; Rarick, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Benchmarking was very interesting and provided a wealth of information (1) We did see potential solutions to some of our "top 10" issues (2) We have an assessment of where NASA stands with relation to other aerospace/defense groups We formed new contacts and potential collaborations (1) Several organizations sent us examples of their templates, processes (2) Many of the organizations were interested in future collaboration: sharing of training, metrics, Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) appraisers, instructors, etc. We received feedback from some of our contractors/ partners (1) Desires to participate in our training; provide feedback on procedures (2) Welcomed opportunity to provide feedback on working with NASA

  18. Benchmarking the state comparison amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczkowska, Klaudia; Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese; Bain, Lauren; Andersson, Erika

    2017-10-01

    The state comparison amplifier is a recently proposed probabilistic quantum amplifier, intended especially for amplifying coherent states. Its realization is simple and uses only linear optics and photodetectors, and the preparation of a "guess" state, typically a coherent state. Fidelity and success probability can be high compared with other probabilistic amplifiers. State comparison amplification does, however, extract information about the amplified state, which means that it is especially important to benchmark it against a simple measure-and-resend procedure. We compare state comparison quantum amplifiers to measure-and-resend strategies, and identify parameter regimes and scenarios where these can and where they cannot provide an advantage.

  19. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of inverted planar perovskite solar cells based on NiOx hole transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xian; Jiang, Hailong; Huang, Yongliang; Han, Anjun; Gao, Qi; Bian, Jiantao; Liu, Zhengxin

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulation of inverted planar perovskite solar cells based on NiOx hole transport layer was performed with AMPS-1D program. The simulated device parameters were shown to agree well with our experimental work. The simulated results revealed that the device contained typical p-i-n junction configuration. The optimum thickness of the absorber, the effects of the absorber quality, the defect density of interfaces, the effects of VBO and CBO, the interface contact at front and back electrodes were analyzed. Open-circuit voltage mainly depended on the defect density in CH3NH3PbI3 layer, the recombination at HTL/CH3NH3PbI3 and ETL/CH3NH3PbI3 interface, the values of VBO and CBO, while short-circuit current mainly depended on the thickness of CH3NH3PbI3 layer. Fill factor was significantly influenced by the interface contact at front and back electrodes. Remarkably, a power conversion efficiency of 21.8% is obtained under optimised conditions. Real devices with PCE of up to 15% were obtained by initially optimizing the preparation of CH3NH3PbI3 absorber layer. Our work can provide some important guidance for device design and optimization from the considerations of both theory and experiment.

  20. Validation of Geant4 on Proton Transportation for Thick Absorbers: Study Based on Tschalär Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Gabriela; Denyak, Valeriy; Schelin, Hugo R.; Paschuk, Sergei

    2017-02-01

    Imaging techniques using protons as incident particles are currently being developed to substitute X-ray computer tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance methods in proton therapy. They deal with relatively thick targets, like the human head or trunk, where protons lose a significant part of their energy, however, they have enough energy to exit the target. The physical quantities important in proton imaging are kinetic energy, angle and coordinates of emerging proton from an absorber material. In recent times, many research groups use the Geant4 toolkit to simulate proton imaging devices. Most of the available publications about validation of Geant4 models are for thin or thick absorbers (Bragg Peak studies), that are not consistent with the contour conditions applied to proton imaging. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the kinetic energy spectrum for protons emerging from homogeneous absorbers slabs comparing it to the experimental results published by Tschalär and Maccabee, in 1970. Different models (standard and detailed) available on Geant4 (version 9.6.p03) are explored taking into account its accuracy and computational performance. This paper presents a validation for protons with incident kinetic energies of 19.68 MeV and 49.10 MeV. The validation results from the emerging protons kinetic energy spectra show that: (i) there are differences between the reference data and the data produced by different processes evoked for transportation and (ii) the validation energies are sensitive to sub-shell processes.

  1. Outward particle transport by coherent mode in the H-mode pedestal in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Han, X.; Gao, X.; Liu, H. Q.; Shi, T. H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, Y.; Kong, D. F.; Liu, Z. X.; Qu, H.; Xiang, H. M.; Geng, K. N.; Wang, Y. M.; Wen, F.; Zhang, S. B.; Ling, B. L.; the EAST Team

    2017-06-01

    A coherent mode (CM) in the edge pedestal region has been observed on different fluctuation quantities, including density fluctuation, electron temperature fluctuation and magnetic fluctuation in H mode plasma on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak. Measurements at different poloidal positions show that the local poloidal wavenumber is smallest at the outboard midplane and will increase with poloidal angle. This poloidal asymmetry is consistent with the flute-like assumption (i.e. k// ˜ 0) from which the toroidal mode number of the mode has been estimated as between 12 and 17. It was further found that the density fluctuation amplitude of the CM also demonstrated poloidal asymmetry. The appearance of a CM can clearly decrease or even stop the increase in the edge density, while the disappearance of a CM will lead to an increase in the pedestal density and density gradient. Statistical analysis showed there was a trend that as the CM mode amplitude increased, the rate of increase of the edge density decreased and the particle flux (Γdiv) onto the divertor plate increased. The CM sometimes showed burst behavior, and these bursts led bursts on Γdiv with a time of about 230 μs, which is close to the time for particle flow from the outer midplane to the divertor targets along the scrape-off layer magnetic field line. This evidence showed that the CM had an effect on the outward transport of particles.

  2. Higgs Pair Production: Choosing Benchmarks With Cluster Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Alexandra; Dorigo, Tommaso; Goertz, Florian; Gottardo, Carlo A.; Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    New physics theories often depend on a large number of free parameters. The precise values of those parameters in some cases drastically affect the resulting phenomenology of fundamental physics processes, while in others finite variations can leave it basically invariant at the level of detail experimentally accessible. When designing a strategy for the analysis of experimental data in the search for a signal predicted by a new physics model, it appears advantageous to categorize the parameter space describing the model according to the corresponding kinematical features of the final state. A multi-dimensional test statistic can be used to gauge the degree of similarity in the kinematics of different models; a clustering algorithm using that metric may then allow the division of the space into homogeneous regions, each of which can be successfully represented by a benchmark point. Searches targeting those benchmark points are then guaranteed to be sensitive to a large area of the parameter space. In this doc...

  3. A Web Resource for Standardized Benchmark Datasets, Metrics, and Rosetta Protocols for Macromolecular Modeling and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Conchúir, Shane; Barlow, Kyle A; Pache, Roland A; Ollikainen, Noah; Kundert, Kale; O'Meara, Matthew J; Smith, Colin A; Kortemme, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The development and validation of computational macromolecular modeling and design methods depend on suitable benchmark datasets and informative metrics for comparing protocols. In addition, if a method is intended to be adopted broadly in diverse biological applications, there needs to be information on appropriate parameters for each protocol, as well as metrics describing the expected accuracy compared to experimental data. In certain disciplines, there exist established benchmarks and public resources where experts in a particular methodology are encouraged to supply their most efficient implementation of each particular benchmark. We aim to provide such a resource for protocols in macromolecular modeling and design. We present a freely accessible web resource (https://kortemmelab.ucsf.edu/benchmarks) to guide the development of protocols for protein modeling and design. The site provides benchmark datasets and metrics to compare the performance of a variety of modeling protocols using different computational sampling methods and energy functions, providing a "best practice" set of parameters for each method. Each benchmark has an associated downloadable benchmark capture archive containing the input files, analysis scripts, and tutorials for running the benchmark. The captures may be run with any suitable modeling method; we supply command lines for running the benchmarks using the Rosetta software suite. We have compiled initial benchmarks for the resource spanning three key areas: prediction of energetic effects of mutations, protein design, and protein structure prediction, each with associated state-of-the-art modeling protocols. With the help of the wider macromolecular modeling community, we hope to expand the variety of benchmarks included on the website and continue to evaluate new iterations of current methods as they become available.

  4. A Web Resource for Standardized Benchmark Datasets, Metrics, and Rosetta Protocols for Macromolecular Modeling and Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Ó Conchúir

    Full Text Available The development and validation of computational macromolecular modeling and design methods depend on suitable benchmark datasets and informative metrics for comparing protocols. In addition, if a method is intended to be adopted broadly in diverse biological applications, there needs to be information on appropriate parameters for each protocol, as well as metrics describing the expected accuracy compared to experimental data. In certain disciplines, there exist established benchmarks and public resources where experts in a particular methodology are encouraged to supply their most efficient implementation of each particular benchmark. We aim to provide such a resource for protocols in macromolecular modeling and design. We present a freely accessible web resource (https://kortemmelab.ucsf.edu/benchmarks to guide the development of protocols for protein modeling and design. The site provides benchmark datasets and metrics to compare the performance of a variety of modeling protocols using different computational sampling methods and energy functions, providing a "best practice" set of parameters for each method. Each benchmark has an associated downloadable benchmark capture archive containing the input files, analysis scripts, and tutorials for running the benchmark. The captures may be run with any suitable modeling method; we supply command lines for running the benchmarks using the Rosetta software suite. We have compiled initial benchmarks for the resource spanning three key areas: prediction of energetic effects of mutations, protein design, and protein structure prediction, each with associated state-of-the-art modeling protocols. With the help of the wider macromolecular modeling community, we hope to expand the variety of benchmarks included on the website and continue to evaluate new iterations of current methods as they become available.

  5. Benchmarking a first-principles thermal neutron scattering law for water ice with a diffusion experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jesse; Zerkle, Michael; Heinrichs, David

    2017-09-01

    The neutron scattering properties of water ice are of interest to the nuclear criticality safety community for the transport and storage of nuclear materials in cold environments. The common hexagonal phase ice Ih has locally ordered, but globally disordered, H2O molecular orientations. A 96-molecule supercell is modeled using the VASP ab initio density functional theory code and PHONON lattice dynamics code to calculate the phonon vibrational spectra of H and O in ice Ih. These spectra are supplied to the LEAPR module of the NJOY2012 nuclear data processing code to generate thermal neutron scattering laws for H and O in ice Ih in the incoherent approximation. The predicted vibrational spectra are optimized to be representative of the globally averaged ice Ih structure by comparing theoretically calculated and experimentally measured total cross sections and inelastic neutron scattering spectra. The resulting scattering kernel is then supplied to the MC21 Monte Carlo transport code to calculate time eigenvalues for the fundamental mode decay in ice cylinders at various temperatures. Results are compared to experimental flux decay measurements for a pulsed-neutron die-away diffusion benchmark.

  6. Reevaluation of the Jezebel Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Every nuclear engineering student is familiar with Jezebel, the homogeneous bare sphere of plutonium first assembled at Los Alamos in 1954-1955. The actual Jezebel assembly was neither homogeneous, nor bare, nor spherical; nor was it singular – there were hundreds of Jezebel configurations assembled. The Jezebel benchmark has been reevaluated for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook. Logbooks, original drawings, mass accountability statements, internal reports, and published reports have been used to model four actual three-dimensional Jezebel assemblies with high fidelity. Because the documentation available today is often inconsistent, three major assumptions were made regarding plutonium part masses and dimensions. The first was that the assembly masses given in Los Alamos report LA-4208 (1969) were correct, and the second was that the original drawing dimension for the polar height of a certain major part was correct. The third assumption was that a change notice indicated on the original drawing was not actually implemented. This talk will describe these assumptions, the alternatives, and the implications. Since the publication of the 2013 ICSBEP Handbook, the actual masses of the major components have turned up. Our assumption regarding the assembly masses was proven correct, but we had the mass distribution incorrect. Work to incorporate the new information is ongoing, and this talk will describe the latest assessment.

  7. BENCHMARK DOSE TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA conducts risk assessments for an array of health effects that may result from exposure to environmental agents, and that require an analysis of the relationship between exposure and health-related outcomes. The dose-response assessment is essentially a two-step process, the first being the definition of a point of departure (POD), and the second extrapolation from the POD to low environmentally-relevant exposure levels. The benchmark dose (BMD) approach provides a more quantitative alternative to the first step in the dose-response assessment than the current NOAEL/LOAEL process for noncancer health effects, and is similar to that for determining the POD proposed for cancer endpoints. As the Agency moves toward harmonization of approaches for human health risk assessment, the dichotomy between cancer and noncancer health effects is being replaced by consideration of mode of action and whether the effects of concern are likely to be linear or nonlinear at low doses. Thus, the purpose of this project is to provide guidance for the Agency and the outside community on the application of the BMD approach in determining the POD for all types of health effects data, whether a linear or nonlinear low dose extrapolation is used. A guidance document is being developed under the auspices of EPA's Risk Assessment Forum. The purpose of this project is to provide guidance for the Agency and the outside community on the application of the benchmark dose (BMD) appr

  8. Pynamic: the Python Dynamic Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G L; Ahn, D H; de Supinksi, B R; Gyllenhaal, J C; Miller, P J

    2007-07-10

    Python is widely used in scientific computing to facilitate application development and to support features such as computational steering. Making full use of some of Python's popular features, which improve programmer productivity, leads to applications that access extremely high numbers of dynamically linked libraries (DLLs). As a result, some important Python-based applications severely stress a system's dynamic linking and loading capabilities and also cause significant difficulties for most development environment tools, such as debuggers. Furthermore, using the Python paradigm for large scale MPI-based applications can create significant file IO and further stress tools and operating systems. In this paper, we present Pynamic, the first benchmark program to support configurable emulation of a wide-range of the DLL usage of Python-based applications for large scale systems. Pynamic has already accurately reproduced system software and tool issues encountered by important large Python-based scientific applications on our supercomputers. Pynamic provided insight for our system software and tool vendors, and our application developers, into the impact of several design decisions. As we describe the Pynamic benchmark, we will highlight some of the issues discovered in our large scale system software and tools using Pynamic.

  9. The Isprs Benchmark on Indoor Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshelham, K.; Díaz Vilariño, L.; Peter, M.; Kang, Z.; Acharya, D.

    2017-09-01

    Automated generation of 3D indoor models from point cloud data has been a topic of intensive research in recent years. While results on various datasets have been reported in literature, a comparison of the performance of different methods has not been possible due to the lack of benchmark datasets and a common evaluation framework. The ISPRS benchmark on indoor modelling aims to address this issue by providing a public benchmark dataset and an evaluation framework for performance comparison of indoor modelling methods. In this paper, we present the benchmark dataset comprising several point clouds of indoor environments captured by different sensors. We also discuss the evaluation and comparison of indoor modelling methods based on manually created reference models and appropriate quality evaluation criteria. The benchmark dataset is available for download at: html"target="_blank">http://www2.isprs.org/commissions/comm4/wg5/benchmark-on-indoor-modelling.html.

  10. [Benchmarking in health care: conclusions and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Max; Selbmann, Hans-Konrad

    2011-01-01

    The German Health Ministry funded 10 demonstration projects and accompanying research of benchmarking in health care. The accompanying research work aimed to infer generalisable findings and recommendations. We performed a meta-evaluation of the demonstration projects and analysed national and international approaches to benchmarking in health care. It was found that the typical benchmarking sequence is hardly ever realised. Most projects lack a detailed analysis of structures and processes of the best performers as a starting point for the process of learning from and adopting best practice. To tap the full potential of benchmarking in health care, participation in voluntary benchmarking projects should be promoted that have been demonstrated to follow all the typical steps of a benchmarking process. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. THE ISPRS BENCHMARK ON INDOOR MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khoshelham

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automated generation of 3D indoor models from point cloud data has been a topic of intensive research in recent years. While results on various datasets have been reported in literature, a comparison of the performance of different methods has not been possible due to the lack of benchmark datasets and a common evaluation framework. The ISPRS benchmark on indoor modelling aims to address this issue by providing a public benchmark dataset and an evaluation framework for performance comparison of indoor modelling methods. In this paper, we present the benchmark dataset comprising several point clouds of indoor environments captured by different sensors. We also discuss the evaluation and comparison of indoor modelling methods based on manually created reference models and appropriate quality evaluation criteria. The benchmark dataset is available for download at: http://www2.isprs.org/commissions/comm4/wg5/benchmark-on-indoor-modelling.html.

  12. The Inverted Pendulum Benchmark in Nonlinear Control Theory: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Boubaker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For at least fifty years, the inverted pendulum has been the most popular benchmark, among others, in nonlinear control theory. The fundamental focus of this work is to enhance the wealth of this robotic benchmark and provide an overall picture of historical and current trend developments in nonlinear control theory, based on its simple structure and its rich nonlinear model. In this review, we will try to explain the high popularity of such a robotic benchmark, which is frequently used to realize experimental models, validate the efficiency of emerging control techniques and verify their implementation. We also attempt to provide details on how many standard techniques in control theory fail when tested on such a benchmark. More than 100 references in the open literature, dating back to 1960, are compiled to provide a survey of emerging ideas and challenging problems in nonlinear control theory accomplished and verified using this robotic system. Possible future trends that we can envision based on the review of this area are also presented.

  13. BENCHMARKING FOR THE ROMANIAN HEAVY COMMERCIAL VEHICLES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalization has led to a better integration of international markets of goods, services and capital markets, fact which leads to a significant increase of investments in those regions with low labor cost and with access to commercial routes. The development of international trade has imposed a continuous growth of the volumes of transported goods and the development of a transport system, able to stand against the new pressure exercised by cost, time and space. The solution to efficient transport is the intermodal transportation relying on state-of-the-art technological platforms, which integrates the advantages specific to each means of transportation: flexibility for road transportation, high capacity for railway, low costs for sea, and speed for air transportation. Romania’s integration in the pan-European transport system alongside with the EU’s enlargement towards the east will change Romania’s positioning into a central one. The integrated governmental program of improving the intermodal infrastructure will ensure fast railway, road and air connections. For the Danube harbors and for the sea ports, EU grants and allowances will be used thus increasing Romania’s importance in its capacity as one of Europe’s logistical hubs. The present paper intends to use benchmarking, the management and strategic marketing tool, in order to realize an evaluation of the Romanian heavy commercial vehicles market, within European context. Benchmarking encourages change in a complex and dynamic context where a permanent solution cannot be found. The different results stimulate the use of benchmarking as a solution to reduce gaps. MAN’s case study shows the dynamics of the players on the Romanian market for heavy commercial vehicles, when considering the strong growth of Romanian exported goods but with a modest internal demand, a limited but developing road infrastructure, and an unfavorable international economical context together with

  14. Benchmarking of flux-driven full-F gyrokinetic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Yuuichi; Grandgirard, Virginie; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Garbet, Xavier; Latu, Guillaume; Sarazin, Yanick; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Donnel, Peter; Ehrlacher, Charles

    2017-10-01

    Two full-F global gyrokinetic codes are benchmarked to compute flux-driven ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence in tokamak plasmas. For this purpose, the Semi-Lagrangian code GYrokinetic SEmi-LAgrangian and the Eulerian code GT5D are employed, which solve the full-F gyrokinetic equation with a realistic fixed flux condition. The equilibrium poloidal flow profile formation processes are benchmarked and compared against the local neoclassical theory. The simulations above are carried out without turbulence, which agree well with each other and with the theoretical estimates. Here, a lot of attention has been paid to the boundary conditions, which have huge impacts on the global shape of radial electric field. The behaviors of micro-instabilities are benchmarked for linear and nonlinear cases without a heat source, where we found good agreements in the linear growth rates and nonlinear critical gradient level. In the nonlinear case, initial conditions are chosen to be identical since they dominate the transient turbulence behavior. Using the appropriate settings for the boundary and initial conditions obtained in the benchmarks above, a flux-driven ITG turbulence simulation is carried out. The avalanche-like transport is assessed with a focus on spatio-temporal properties. A statistical analysis is performed to discuss this self-organized criticality (SOC) like behaviors, where we found a 1/f spectra and a transition to 1/f3 spectra at high-frequency side in both codes. Based on these benchmarks, it is verified that the SOC-like behavior is robust and not dependent on numerics.

  15. Benchmarking i eksternt regnskab og revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Kiertzner, Lars

    2001-01-01

    løbende i en benchmarking-proces. Dette kapitel vil bredt undersøge, hvor man med nogen ret kan få benchmarking-begrebet knyttet til eksternt regnskab og revision. Afsnit 7.1 beskæftiger sig med det eksterne årsregnskab, mens afsnit 7.2 tager fat i revisionsområdet. Det sidste afsnit i kapitlet opsummerer...... betragtningerne om benchmarking i forbindelse med begge områder....

  16. Benchmarking for Excellence and the Nursing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleboda, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Nursing is a service profession. The services provided are essential to life and welfare. Therefore, setting the benchmark for high quality care is fundamental. Exploring the definition of a benchmark value will help to determine a best practice approach. A benchmark is the descriptive statement of a desired level of performance against which quality can be judged. It must be sufficiently well understood by managers and personnel in order that it may serve as a standard against which to measure value.

  17. Statistical benchmark for BosonSampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walschaers, Mattia; Kuipers, Jack; Urbina, Juan-Diego; Mayer, Klaus; Tichy, Malte Christopher; Richter, Klaus; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Boson samplers—set-ups that generate complex many-particle output states through the transmission of elementary many-particle input states across a multitude of mutually coupled modes—promise the efficient quantum simulation of a classically intractable computational task, and challenge the extended Church-Turing thesis, one of the fundamental dogmas of computer science. However, as in all experimental quantum simulations of truly complex systems, one crucial problem remains: how to certify that a given experimental measurement record unambiguously results from enforcing the claimed dynamics, on bosons, fermions or distinguishable particles? Here we offer a statistical solution to the certification problem, identifying an unambiguous statistical signature of many-body quantum interference upon transmission across a multimode, random scattering device. We show that statistical analysis of only partial information on the output state allows to characterise the imparted dynamics through particle type-specific features of the emerging interference patterns. The relevant statistical quantifiers are classically computable, define a falsifiable benchmark for BosonSampling, and reveal distinctive features of many-particle quantum dynamics, which go much beyond mere bunching or anti-bunching effects.

  18. Improvement of the experimental validation of the DARWIN code system due to the JEFF3.1 library for UOX spent fuel inventory and decay heat calculation - synthesis of the tendencies obtained with the MALIBU international benchmark and the French Post-Irradiation Examination database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschbach, Romain; Riffard, Cecile; San Felice, Laurence; Marimbeau, Pierre; Venard, Christophe [CEA/DEN/DER/SPRC, CE Cadarache, St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Laugier, Frederic [EdF, R and D, 1 av. General de Gaulle, 92131 Clamart Cedex (France); Thro, Jean-Francois [AREVA-NC, Tour Areva, 92084 Paris La Defense (France)

    2008-07-01

    This paper deals with the experimental qualification of the French package DARWIN for the PWR UOX fuel inventory calculation, focused on the isotopes involved in Burnup Credit (BUC) applications and decay heat calculation. The calculation - experiment (C/E-1) discrepancies are calculated with the latest European Evaluation File JEFF3 associated with the SHEM energy mesh, and compared with the previous results obtained with JEF2.2. An overview of the tendencies for the JEFF3 / JEF2 comparison is obtained on a complete range of burnup from 10 to 70 GWd/t, from the French Post Irradiation Examination (P.I.E.) database and the experimental results obtained in the framework of the international benchmark MALIBU. For the most previously unsatisfactory isotopes ({sup 236}U, {sup 242}Pu/{sup 243}Am, {sup 143}Nd, {sup 147,150,152}Sm, {sup 155}Gd and {sup 153,154,155}Eu), the (C/E-1) trends are considerably reduced. Uncertainty on decay heat calculation is systematically reduced with JEFF3, especially for short and very long cooling time, up to 40 % compared to JEF2.2 (authors)

  19. Professional Performance and Bureaucratic Benchmarking Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Melanie L.; Mahlendorf, Matthias D.; Schäffer, Utz

    Prior research documents positive effects of benchmarking information provision on performance and attributes this to social comparisons. However, the effects on professional recipients are unclear. Studies of professional control indicate that professional recipients often resist bureaucratic...... controls because of organizational-professional conflicts. We therefore analyze the association between bureaucratic benchmarking information provision and professional performance and suggest that the association is more positive if prior professional performance was low. We test our hypotheses based...... on archival, publicly disclosed, professional performance data for 191 German orthopedics departments, matched with survey data on bureaucratic benchmarking information given to chief orthopedists by the administration. We find a positive association between bureaucratic benchmarking information provision...

  20. Benchmarking for controllere: Metoder, teknikker og muligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Der vil i artiklen blive stillet skarpt på begrebet benchmarking ved at præsentere og diskutere forskellige facetter af det. Der vil blive redegjort for fire forskellige anvendelser af benchmarking for at vise begrebets bredde og væsentligheden af at klarlægge formålet med et benchmarkingprojekt......, inden man går i gang. Forskellen på resultatbenchmarking og procesbenchmarking vil blive behandlet, hvorefter brugen af intern hhv. ekstern benchmarking vil blive diskuteret. Endelig introduceres brugen af benchmarking i budgetlægning og budgetopfølgning....

  1. Professional Performance and Bureaucratic Benchmarking Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Melanie L.; Mahlendorf, Matthias D.; Schäffer, Utz

    controls because of organizational-professional conflicts. We therefore analyze the association between bureaucratic benchmarking information provision and professional performance and suggest that the association is more positive if prior professional performance was low. We test our hypotheses based......Prior research documents positive effects of benchmarking information provision on performance and attributes this to social comparisons. However, the effects on professional recipients are unclear. Studies of professional control indicate that professional recipients often resist bureaucratic...... on archival, publicly disclosed, professional performance data for 191 German orthopedics departments, matched with survey data on bureaucratic benchmarking information given to chief orthopedists by the administration. We find a positive association between bureaucratic benchmarking information provision...

  2. A benchmark for fault tolerant flight control evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaili, H.; Breeman, J.; Lombaerts, T.; Stroosma, O.

    2013-12-01

    A large transport aircraft simulation benchmark (REconfigurable COntrol for Vehicle Emergency Return - RECOVER) has been developed within the GARTEUR (Group for Aeronautical Research and Technology in Europe) Flight Mechanics Action Group 16 (FM-AG(16)) on Fault Tolerant Control (2004 2008) for the integrated evaluation of fault detection and identification (FDI) and reconfigurable flight control strategies. The benchmark includes a suitable set of assessment criteria and failure cases, based on reconstructed accident scenarios, to assess the potential of new adaptive control strategies to improve aircraft survivability. The application of reconstruction and modeling techniques, based on accident flight data, has resulted in high-fidelity nonlinear aircraft and fault models to evaluate new Fault Tolerant Flight Control (FTFC) concepts and their real-time performance to accommodate in-flight failures.

  3. The Zoo, Benchmarks & You: How To Reach the Oregon State Benchmarks with Zoo Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This document aligns Oregon state educational benchmarks and standards with Oregon Zoo resources. Benchmark areas examined include English, mathematics, science, social studies, and career and life roles. Brief descriptions of the programs offered by the zoo are presented. (SOE)

  4. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Robin M; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W; Swanson, Don; Kent, Adam J R

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions can be used to estimate crystallization depths for the olivine host. However, the original dissolved CO2concentration of melt inclusions at the time of trapping can be difficult to measure directly because in many cases substantial CO2 is transferred to shrinkage bubbles that form during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization. To investigate this problem, we heated olivine from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki and 1960 Kapoho (Hawai‘i) eruptions in a 1-atm furnace to temperatures above the melt inclusion trapping temperature to redissolve the CO2 in shrinkage bubbles. The measured CO2 concentrations of the experimentally rehomogenized inclusions (⩽590 ppm for Kīlauea Iki [n=10]; ⩽880 ppm for Kapoho, with one inclusion at 1863 ppm [n=38]) overlap with values for naturally quenched inclusions from the same samples, but experimentally rehomogenized inclusions have higher within-sample median CO2 values than naturally quenched inclusions, indicating at least partial dissolution of CO2 from the vapor bubble during heating. Comparison of our data with predictions from modeling of vapor bubble formation and published Raman data on the density of CO2 in the vapor bubbles suggests that 55-85% of the dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to post-entrapment shrinkage bubbles. Our results combined with the Raman data demonstrate that olivine from the early part of the Kīlauea Iki eruption crystallized at crystallized over a much wider range of depths (∼1-16 km). The wider depth range requires magma transport during the Kapoho eruption from deep beneath the summit region and/or from deep beneath Kīlauea’s east rift zone. The deeply derived olivine crystals and their host magma mixed with stored, more evolved magma in the rift zone, and the mixture was later erupted at Kapoho.

  5. Updates to the Integrated Protein-Protein Interaction Benchmarks : Docking Benchmark Version 5 and Affinity Benchmark Version 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreven, Thom; Moal, Iain H.; Vangone, Anna|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370549694; Pierce, Brian G.; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315886668; Torchala, Mieczyslaw; Chaleil, Raphael; Jiménez-García, Brian; Bates, Paul A.; Fernandez-Recio, Juan; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238; Weng, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    We present an updated and integrated version of our widely used protein-protein docking and binding affinity benchmarks. The benchmarks consist of non-redundant, high-quality structures of protein-protein complexes along with the unbound structures of their components. Fifty-five new complexes were

  6. Benchmarking: A tool to enhance performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kristal, J. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, G.; Johnson, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Office of Environmental Management is bringing Headquarters and the Field together to implement process improvements throughout the Complex through a systematic process of organizational learning called benchmarking. Simply stated, benchmarking is a process of continuously comparing and measuring practices, processes, or methodologies with those of other private and public organizations. The EM benchmarking program, which began as the result of a recommendation from Xerox Corporation, is building trust and removing barriers to performance enhancement across the DOE organization. The EM benchmarking program is designed to be field-centered with Headquarters providing facilitatory and integrative functions on an ``as needed`` basis. One of the main goals of the program is to assist Field Offices and their associated M&O/M&I contractors develop the capabilities to do benchmarking for themselves. In this regard, a central precept is that in order to realize tangible performance benefits, program managers and staff -- the ones closest to the work - must take ownership of the studies. This avoids the ``check the box`` mentality associated with some third party studies. This workshop will provide participants with a basic level of understanding why the EM benchmarking team was developed and the nature and scope of its mission. Participants will also begin to understand the types of study levels and the particular methodology the EM benchmarking team is using to conduct studies. The EM benchmarking team will also encourage discussion on ways that DOE (both Headquarters and the Field) can team with its M&O/M&I contractors to conduct additional benchmarking studies. This ``introduction to benchmarking`` is intended to create a desire to know more and a greater appreciation of how benchmarking processes could be creatively employed to enhance performance.

  7. Semi-Analytical Benchmarks for MCNP6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grechanuk, Pavel Aleksandrovi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-07

    Code verification is an extremely important process that involves proving or disproving the validity of code algorithms by comparing them against analytical results of the underlying physics or mathematical theory on which the code is based. Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP6 must undergo verification and testing upon every release to ensure that the codes are properly simulating nature. Specifically, MCNP6 has multiple sets of problems with known analytic solutions that are used for code verification. Monte Carlo codes primarily specify either current boundary sources or a volumetric fixed source, either of which can be very complicated functions of space, energy, direction and time. Thus, most of the challenges with modeling analytic benchmark problems in Monte Carlo codes come from identifying the correct source definition to properly simulate the correct boundary conditions. The problems included in this suite all deal with mono-energetic neutron transport without energy loss, in a homogeneous material. The variables that differ between the problems are source type (isotropic/beam), medium dimensionality (infinite/semi-infinite), etc.

  8. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarick, Heather L.; Godfrey, Sara H.; Kelly, John C.; Crumbley, Robert T.; Wifl, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    To identify best practices for the improvement of software engineering on projects, NASA's Offices of Chief Engineer (OCE) and Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) formed a team led by Heather Rarick and Sally Godfrey to conduct this benchmarking study. The primary goals of the study are to identify best practices that: Improve the management and technical development of software intensive systems; Have a track record of successful deployment by aerospace industries, universities [including research and development (R&D) laboratories], and defense services, as well as NASA's own component Centers; and Identify candidate solutions for NASA's software issues. Beginning in the late fall of 2010, focus topics were chosen and interview questions were developed, based on the NASA top software challenges. Between February 2011 and November 2011, the Benchmark Team interviewed a total of 18 organizations, consisting of five NASA Centers, five industry organizations, four defense services organizations, and four university or university R and D laboratory organizations. A software assurance representative also participated in each of the interviews to focus on assurance and software safety best practices. Interviewees provided a wealth of information on each topic area that included: software policy, software acquisition, software assurance, testing, training, maintaining rigor in small projects, metrics, and use of the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) framework, as well as a number of special topics that came up in the discussions. NASA's software engineering practices compared favorably with the external organizations in most benchmark areas, but in every topic, there were ways in which NASA could improve its practices. Compared to defense services organizations and some of the industry organizations, one of NASA's notable weaknesses involved communication with contractors regarding its policies and requirements for acquired software. One of NASA's strengths

  9. Robust Multivariable Flutter Suppression for the Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) Wind-Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    1997-01-01

    The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) project is part of NASA Langley Research Center s Benchmark Models Program for studying transonic aeroelastic phenomena. In January of 1996 the BACT wind-tunnel model was used to successfully demonstrate the application of robust multivariable control design methods (H and -synthesis) to flutter suppression. This paper addresses the design and experimental evaluation of robust multivariable flutter suppression control laws with particular attention paid to the degree to which stability and performance robustness was achieved.

  10. Automated benchmarking of peptide-MHC class I binding predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, Thomas; Metushi, Imir G.; Greenbaum, Jason A.; Kim, Yohan; Sidney, John; Lund, Ole; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern; Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Numerous in silico methods predicting peptide binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules have been developed over the last decades. However, the multitude of available prediction tools makes it non-trivial for the end-user to select which tool to use for a given task. To provide a solid basis on which to compare different prediction tools, we here describe a framework for the automated benchmarking of peptide-MHC class I binding prediction tools. The framework runs weekly benchmarks on data that are newly entered into the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), giving the public access to frequent, up-to-date performance evaluations of all participating tools. To overcome potential selection bias in the data included in the IEDB, a strategy was implemented that suggests a set of peptides for which different prediction methods give divergent predictions as to their binding capability. Upon experimental binding validation, these peptides entered the benchmark study. Results: The benchmark has run for 15 weeks and includes evaluation of 44 datasets covering 17 MHC alleles and more than 4000 peptide-MHC binding measurements. Inspection of the results allows the end-user to make educated selections between participating tools. Of the four participating servers, NetMHCpan performed the best, followed by ANN, SMM and finally ARB. Availability and implementation: Up-to-date performance evaluations of each server can be found online at http://tools.iedb.org/auto_bench/mhci/weekly. All prediction tool developers are invited to participate in the benchmark. Sign-up instructions are available at http://tools.iedb.org/auto_bench/mhci/join. Contact: mniel@cbs.dtu.dk or bpeters@liai.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25717196

  11. Internal methane transport through Juncus effusus: experimental manipulation of morphological barriers to test above- and below-ground diffusion limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Anders; Sorrell, Brian K; Brix, Hans

    2012-11-01

    Aerenchymatous plants can transport methane (CH(4) ) from the root zone to the atmosphere, bypassing the surface-oxidizing layers of the soil, yet morphological and anatomical factors that govern the transport of methane have rarely been critically tested in manipulative experiments. Here, we investigated the methane transport capacity of hydroponically grown Juncus effusus, in experiments with roots submerged in nutrient solutions sparged with methane (1.16 mmol CH(4) l(-1)). Through a range of manipulations of the above- and below-ground plant parts, we tested the contradictory claims in the literature regarding which sites provide the greatest resistance to gas transport. Root manipulations had the greatest effect on methane transport. Removing root material reduced methane transport significantly, and especially the lateral roots and the root tips were important. Cutting of the shoots, with or without subsequent sealing, did not alter methane transport significantly. We confirm modelling predictions that the limiting factor for methane transport in the tussock forming wetland graminoid, J. effusus, is the amount of permeable root surface, estimated using the proxy measurement of root length. The aerial tissues do not provide any significant resistance to methane transport, and the methane is emitted from the lower 50 mm of the shoots. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Reactor based plutonium disposition - physics and fuel behaviour benchmark studies of an OECD/NEA experts group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Hondt, P. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Gehin, J. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Na, B.C.; Sartori, E. [Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy les Moulineaux (France); Wiesenack, W. [Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development/HRP, Halden (Norway)

    2001-07-01

    One of the options envisaged for disposing of weapons grade plutonium, declared surplus for national defence in the Russian Federation and Usa, is to burn it in nuclear power reactors. The scientific/technical know-how accumulated in the use of MOX as a fuel for electricity generation is of great relevance for the plutonium disposition programmes. An Expert Group of the OECD/Nea is carrying out a series of benchmarks with the aim of facilitating the use of this know-how for meeting this objective. This paper describes the background that led to establishing the Expert Group, and the present status of results from these benchmarks. The benchmark studies cover a theoretical reactor physics benchmark on a VVER-1000 core loaded with MOX, two experimental benchmarks on MOX lattices and a benchmark concerned with MOX fuel behaviour for both solid and hollow pellets. First conclusions are outlined as well as future work. (author)

  13. 42 CFR 440.390 - Assurance of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurance of transportation. 440.390 Section 440...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.390 Assurance of transportation. If a benchmark or benchmark-equivalent plan does not include transportation to and from medically necessary covered Medicaid services, the State must...

  14. Benchmark Assessment for Improved Learning. AACC Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan L.; Osmundson, Ellen; Dietel, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the purposes of benchmark assessments and provides recommendations for selecting and using benchmark assessments--addressing validity, alignment, reliability, fairness and bias and accessibility, instructional sensitivity, utility, and reporting issues. We also present recommendations on building capacity to support schools'…

  15. BENCHOP - The BENCHmarking project in Option Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. von Sydow; L.J. Höök; E. Larsson; E. Lindström; S. Molanovic; J. Persson; V. Shcherbakov; Y. Shpolyansky; V. Shcherbakov (Vadim); S. Sirén; J. Toivanen; J. Waldén; M. Wiktorsson; J. Levesley; J. Li; C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis); M.J. Ruijter (Marjon); A. Toropov; Y. Zhao; J. Li (Jiayuan)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe aim of the BENCHOP project is to provide the finance community with a common suite of benchmark problems for option pricing. We provide a detailed description of the six benchmark problems together with methods to compute reference solutions. We have implemented fifteen different

  16. Benchmark Two-Good Utility Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.

    Benchmark two-good utility functions involving a good with zero income elasticity and unit income elasticity are well known. This paper derives utility functions for the additional benchmark cases where one good has zero cross-price elasticity, unit own-price elasticity, and zero own price

  17. International Benchmarking of Vocational Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tim

    2004-01-01

    This report critically examines two approaches to benchmarking vocational education and training (VET) - benchmarking through performance indicators and comparative case studies. The author finds both approaches provide useful information, although the case study approach enables a more thorough analysis of particular issues and can take greater…

  18. Medical school benchmarking - from tools to programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Hudson, Judith N; Mccoll, Geoffrey J; Hu, Wendy C Y; Jolly, Brian C; Schuwirth, Lambert W T

    2015-02-01

    Benchmarking among medical schools is essential, but may result in unwanted effects. To apply a conceptual framework to selected benchmarking activities of medical schools. We present an analogy between the effects of assessment on student learning and the effects of benchmarking on medical school educational activities. A framework by which benchmarking can be evaluated was developed and applied to key current benchmarking activities in Australia and New Zealand. The analogy generated a conceptual framework that tested five questions to be considered in relation to benchmarking: what is the purpose? what are the attributes of value? what are the best tools to assess the attributes of value? what happens to the results? and, what is the likely "institutional impact" of the results? If the activities were compared against a blueprint of desirable medical graduate outcomes, notable omissions would emerge. Medical schools should benchmark their performance on a range of educational activities to ensure quality improvement and to assure stakeholders that standards are being met. Although benchmarking potentially has positive benefits, it could also result in perverse incentives with unforeseen and detrimental effects on learning if it is undertaken using only a few selected assessment tools.

  19. Benchmarking Learning and Teaching: Developing a Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson-Smart, Cheryl; Winning, Tracey; Gerzina, Tania; King, Shalinie; Hyde, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for benchmarking teaching and learning in response to an institutional need to validate a new program in Dentistry at the University of Sydney, Australia. Design/methodology/approach: After a collaborative partner, University of Adelaide, was identified, the areas of teaching and learning to be benchmarked, PBL…

  20. Benchmarking set for domestic smart grid management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a benchmark for domestic smart grid management. It consists of an in-depth description of a domestic smart grid, in which local energy consumers, producers and buffers can be controlled. First, from this description a general benchmark framework is derived, which can be used

  1. Aerodynamic Benchmarking of the Deepwind Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedona, Gabriele; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The aerodynamic benchmarking for the DeepWind rotor is conducted comparing different rotor geometries and solutions and keeping the comparison as fair as possible. The objective for the benchmarking is to find the most suitable configuration in order to maximize the power production and minimize...

  2. Benchmarking nutrient use efficiency of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, W.; Groen, E.A.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Hennart, S.; Stilmant, D.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of a system, generally computed as the amount of nutrients in valuable outputs over the amount of nutrients in all inputs, is commonly used to benchmark the environmental performance of dairy farms. Benchmarking the NUE of farms, however, may lead to biased

  3. HPC Analytics Support. Requirements for Uncertainty Quantification Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Patrick R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purohit, Sumit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rodriguez, Luke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report outlines techniques for extending benchmark generation products so they support uncertainty quantification by benchmarked systems. We describe how uncertainty quantification requirements can be presented to candidate analytical tools supporting SPARQL. We describe benchmark data sets for evaluating uncertainty quantification, as well as an approach for using our benchmark generator to produce data sets for generating benchmark data sets.

  4. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is health...

  5. High-Temperature Liquid Metal Transport Physics of Capillary Pumping Heat Transport System (CPHTS) Research: Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Evaporating Liquid Metal Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Gagliardo, D. L. Jacobson, D. S. Hussey and M. Arif, "Use of neutron imaging for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance analysis...Borgmeyer, C. Wilson, R. A. Winholtz, H. B. Ma, D. Jacobson, D. Hussey , 2010, “Heat Transport Capability and Fluid Flow Neutron Radiography of Three

  6. Levermore-Pomraning Model Results for an Interior Source Binary Stochastic Medium Benchmark Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, P S; Palmer, T S

    2009-02-24

    The accuracy of the Levermore-Pomraning model for particle transport through a binary stochastic medium is investigated using an interior source benchmark problem. As in previous comparisons of the model for incident angular flux benchmark problems, the model accurately computes the leakage and the scalar flux distributions for optically thin slabs. The model is less accurate for more optically thick slabs but has a maximum relative error in the leakage of approximately 10% for the problems examined. The maximum root-mean-squared relative errors for the total and material scalar flux distributions approach 65% for the more optically thick slabs. Consistent with previous benchmark comparisons, the results of these interior source benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the Levermore-Pomraning model produces qualitatively correct and semi-quantitatively correct results for both leakage values and scalar flux distributions.

  7. An approach for the assessment of the statistical aspects of the SEA coupling loss factors and the vibrational energy transmission in complex aircraft structures: Experimental investigation and methods benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhaj, M.; von Estorff, O.; Peiffer, A.

    2017-09-01

    In the application of Statistical Energy Analysis ;SEA; to complex assembled structures, a purely predictive model often exhibits errors. These errors are mainly due to a lack of accurate modelling of the power transmission mechanism described through the Coupling Loss Factors (CLF). Experimental SEA (ESEA) is practically used by the automotive and aerospace industry to verify and update the model or to derive the CLFs for use in an SEA predictive model when analytical estimates cannot be made. This work is particularly motivated by the lack of procedures that allow an estimate to be made of the variance and confidence intervals of the statistical quantities when using the ESEA technique. The aim of this paper is to introduce procedures enabling a statistical description of measured power input, vibration energies and the derived SEA parameters. Particular emphasis is placed on the identification of structural CLFs of complex built-up structures comparing different methods. By adopting a Stochastic Energy Model (SEM), the ensemble average in ESEA is also addressed. For this purpose, expressions are obtained to randomly perturb the energy matrix elements and generate individual samples for the Monte Carlo (MC) technique applied to derive the ensemble averaged CLF. From results of ESEA tests conducted on an aircraft fuselage section, the SEM approach provides a better performance of estimated CLFs compared to classical matrix inversion methods. The expected range of CLF values and the synthesized energy are used as quality criteria of the matrix inversion, allowing to assess critical SEA subsystems, which might require a more refined statistical description of the excitation and the response fields. Moreover, the impact of the variance of the normalized vibration energy on uncertainty of the derived CLFs is outlined.

  8. Analysis of the impact of correlated benchmark experiments on the validation of codes for criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, M.; Stuke, M.; Behler, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Garching (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The validation of a code for criticality safety analysis requires the recalculation of benchmark experiments. The selected benchmark experiments are chosen such that they have properties similar to the application case that has to be assessed. A common source of benchmark experiments is the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments' (ICSBEP Handbook) compiled by the 'International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project' (ICSBEP). In order to take full advantage of the information provided by the individual benchmark descriptions for the application case, the recommended procedure is to perform an uncertainty analysis. The latter is based on the uncertainties of experimental results included in most of the benchmark descriptions. They can be performed by means of the Monte Carlo sampling technique. The consideration of uncertainties is also being introduced in the supplementary sheet of DIN 25478 'Application of computer codes in the assessment of criticality safety'. However, for a correct treatment of uncertainties taking into account the individual uncertainties of the benchmark experiments is insufficient. In addition, correlations between benchmark experiments have to be handled correctly. For example, these correlations can arise due to different cases of a benchmark experiment sharing the same components like fuel pins or fissile solutions. Thus, manufacturing tolerances of these components (e.g. diameter of the fuel pellets) have to be considered in a consistent manner in all cases of the benchmark experiment. At the 2012 meeting of the Expert Group on 'Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment' (UACSA) of the OECD/NEA a benchmark proposal was outlined that aimed for the determination of the impact on benchmark correlations on the estimation of the computational bias of the neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}). The analysis presented here is based on this

  9. Benchmarking Density Functionals for Chemical Bonds of Gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    Gold plays a major role in nanochemistry, catalysis, and electrochemistry. Accordingly, hundreds of studies apply density functionals to study chemical bonding with gold, yet there is no systematic attempt to assess the accuracy of these methods applied to gold. This paper reports a benchmark...... correlation produce weaker bonds to gold. Most functionals provide similar trend accuracy, though somewhat lower for M06 and M06L, but very different numerical accuracy. Notably, PBE and TPSS functionals with dispersion display the smallest numerical errors and very small mean signed errors (0-6 kJ/mol), i...... against 51 experimental bond enthalpies of AuX systems and seven additional polyatomic and cationic molecules. Twelve density functionals were tested, covering meta functionals, hybrids with variable HF exchange, double-hybrid, dispersion-corrected, and nonhybrid GGA functionals. The defined benchmark...

  10. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  11. National Energy Software Center: benchmark problem book. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-12-01

    Computational benchmarks are given for the following problems: (1) Finite-difference, diffusion theory calculation of a highly nonseparable reactor, (2) Iterative solutions for multigroup two-dimensional neutron diffusion HTGR problem, (3) Reference solution to the two-group diffusion equation, (4) One-dimensional neutron transport transient solutions, (5) To provide a test of the capabilities of multi-group multidimensional kinetics codes in a heavy water reactor, (6) Test of capabilities of multigroup neutron diffusion in LMFBR, and (7) Two-dimensional PWR models.

  12. Benchmarking for Major Producers of Limestone in the Czech Republic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanék, Michal; Mikoláš, Milan; Bora, Petr

    2013-01-01

    .... Benchmarking is a method which can yield quality information. The importance of benchmarking is strengthened by the fact that many authors consider benchmarking to be an integral part of strategic management...

  13. Benchmarking for Bayesian Reinforcement Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Castronovo

    Full Text Available In the Bayesian Reinforcement Learning (BRL setting, agents try to maximise the collected rewards while interacting with their environment while using some prior knowledge that is accessed beforehand. Many BRL algorithms have already been proposed, but the benchmarks used to compare them are only relevant for specific cases. The paper addresses this problem, and provides a new BRL comparison methodology along with the corresponding open source library. In this methodology, a comparison criterion that measures the performance of algorithms on large sets of Markov Decision Processes (MDPs drawn from some probability distributions is defined. In order to enable the comparison of non-anytime algorithms, our methodology also includes a detailed analysis of the computation time requirement of each algorithm. Our library is released with all source code and documentation: it includes three test problems, each of which has two different prior distributions, and seven state-of-the-art RL algorithms. Finally, our library is illustrated by comparing all the available algorithms and the results are discussed.

  14. Benchmarking for Bayesian Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, Michael; Ernst, Damien; Couëtoux, Adrien; Fonteneau, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    In the Bayesian Reinforcement Learning (BRL) setting, agents try to maximise the collected rewards while interacting with their environment while using some prior knowledge that is accessed beforehand. Many BRL algorithms have already been proposed, but the benchmarks used to compare them are only relevant for specific cases. The paper addresses this problem, and provides a new BRL comparison methodology along with the corresponding open source library. In this methodology, a comparison criterion that measures the performance of algorithms on large sets of Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) drawn from some probability distributions is defined. In order to enable the comparison of non-anytime algorithms, our methodology also includes a detailed analysis of the computation time requirement of each algorithm. Our library is released with all source code and documentation: it includes three test problems, each of which has two different prior distributions, and seven state-of-the-art RL algorithms. Finally, our library is illustrated by comparing all the available algorithms and the results are discussed.

  15. Benchmarking Measures of Network Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramson, Aaron; Vandermarliere, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Identifying key agents for the transmission of diseases (ideas, technology, etc.) across social networks has predominantly relied on measures of centrality on a static base network or a temporally flattened graph of agent interactions. Various measures have been proposed as the best trackers of influence, such as degree centrality, betweenness, and k-shell, depending on the structure of the connectivity. We consider SIR and SIS propagation dynamics on a temporally-extruded network of observed interactions and measure the conditional marginal spread as the change in the magnitude of the infection given the removal of each agent at each time: its temporal knockout (TKO) score. We argue that this TKO score is an effective benchmark measure for evaluating the accuracy of other, often more practical, measures of influence. We find that none of the network measures applied to the induced flat graphs are accurate predictors of network propagation influence on the systems studied; however, temporal networks and the TKO measure provide the requisite targets for the search for effective predictive measures.

  16. What Randomized Benchmarking Actually Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Timothy; Rudinger, Kenneth; Young, Kevin; Sarovar, Mohan; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2017-09-01

    Randomized benchmarking (RB) is widely used to measure an error rate of a set of quantum gates, by performing random circuits that would do nothing if the gates were perfect. In the limit of no finite-sampling error, the exponential decay rate of the observable survival probabilities, versus circuit length, yields a single error metric r . For Clifford gates with arbitrary small errors described by process matrices, r was believed to reliably correspond to the mean, over all Clifford gates, of the average gate infidelity between the imperfect gates and their ideal counterparts. We show that this quantity is not a well-defined property of a physical gate set. It depends on the representations used for the imperfect and ideal gates, and the variant typically computed in the literature can differ from r by orders of magnitude. We present new theories of the RB decay that are accurate for all small errors describable by process matrices, and show that the RB decay curve is a simple exponential for all such errors. These theories allow explicit computation of the error rate that RB measures (r ), but as far as we can tell it does not correspond to the infidelity of a physically allowed (completely positive) representation of the imperfect gates.

  17. Academic Benchmarks for Otolaryngology Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Blake, Danielle M; D'Aguillo, Christine; Svider, Peter F; Folbe, Adam J; Baredes, Soly

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to characterize current benchmarks for academic otolaryngologists serving in positions of leadership and identify factors potentially associated with promotion to these positions. Information regarding chairs (or division chiefs), vice chairs, and residency program directors was obtained from faculty listings and organized by degree(s) obtained, academic rank, fellowship training status, sex, and experience. Research productivity was characterized by (a) successful procurement of active grants from the National Institutes of Health and prior grants from the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation Centralized Otolaryngology Research Efforts program and (b) scholarly impact, as measured by the h-index. Chairs had the greatest amount of experience (32.4 years) and were the least likely to have multiple degrees, with 75.8% having an MD degree only. Program directors were the most likely to be fellowship trained (84.8%). Women represented 16% of program directors, 3% of chairs, and no vice chairs. Chairs had the highest scholarly impact (as measured by the h-index) and the greatest external grant funding. This analysis characterizes the current picture of leadership in academic otolaryngology. Chairs, when compared to their vice chair and program director counterparts, had more experience and greater research impact. Women were poorly represented among all academic leadership positions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF MULTI-SPECIES TRANSPORT IN SOILS UNDER ELECTRIC FIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project investigated an innovative approach for transport of inorganic species under the influence of electric fields. This process, commonly known as electrokinetics uses low-level direct current (dc) electrical potential difference across a soil mass applied through inert...

  19. Benchmarking PET for geoscientific applications: 3D quantitative diffusion coefficient determination in clay rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann-Pipke, J.; Gerasch, R.; Schikora, J.; Kulenkampff, J.

    2017-04-01

    The 3D diagonal anisotropic effective diffusion coefficient of Na+, Deff=(Dxx, Dyy, Dzz), was quantified in a clay material in one single experiment/simulation. That is possible due to the combination of the non-invasive observation of Na+ diffusion in Opalinus clay by means of GeoPET method (PET: positron emission tomography) followed by quantitative 3D+t data evaluation by means of the finite element numerical modelling (FEM). The extracted anisotropic effective diffusion coefficient parallel (||) and normal (⊥) to the bedding of the clay rock, Deff=(D||, D⊥, D||) are comparable to those obtained on earlier experimental studies in the same clay material but with different methods. We consider this study as benchmark for the long-standing development of our GeoPET method, that explicitly includes a resolute and physics based attenuation and Compton scatter correction algorithm (Kulenkampff, J., M. Gründig, A. Zakhnini and J. Lippmann-Pipke (2016). "Geoscientific process monitoring with positron emission tomography (GeoPET)." Solid Earth 7: 1217-1231). We suggest GeoPET based fluid flow transport visualization combined with computer based process simulation henceforth as a qualified way for the quantification of three-dimensional, effective transport parameters in geosciences.

  20. Multi scale experimental study of water and ionic transport in porous charged media: clays; Etude experimentale multiechelle du transport ionique et aqueux en milieu poreux charge: argiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadene, A

    2005-10-15

    Clays are porous media of industrial interest. Due to their retention capacities and low permeability to water, they are the principal candidate for the conception of engineered barriers radioactive waste disposal. The main interest of this study is the experimental determination of the cationic and water dynamics in montmorillonite and fluoro-hectorite at low water contents This latter synthetic smectite has been used as a model clay to help the interpretation of the results issued from the first natural one. After a summary on the clayey system, this work reports the many experimental techniques (Atomic Force Microscopy, Photo-Correlation Spectroscopy, Micro-calorimetry, Powder Diffraction) used during the preliminary study concerning structural characterisation of the samples. The study of the sodic form of smectites with the use of a combination of quasi-elastic neutron scattering techniques (Time of Flight and Spin Echo) succeeded to water diffusion coefficients but also to a discernment of the limits of such techniques. Experiments with montmorillonite samples are in agreement with the simulations, so tending to a validation of the models. Experimental data obtained from synthetic hectorites will be in the near future compared to simulations In the last part, this work shows the application of Broad Band Dielectric Spectroscopy for the investigation of ionic dynamic in these porous media. Many models have been developed for the interpretation of the experimental raw data obtained with this technique. (author)

  1. Developing integrated benchmarks for DOE performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, Jr. H.C.

    1992-09-30

    The objectives of this task were to describe and evaluate selected existing sources of information on occupational safety and health with emphasis on hazard and exposure assessment, abatement, training, reporting, and control identifying for exposure and outcome in preparation for developing DOE performance benchmarks. Existing resources and methodologies were assessed for their potential use as practical performance benchmarks. Strengths and limitations of current data resources were identified. Guidelines were outlined for developing new or improved performance factors, which then could become the basis for selecting performance benchmarks. Data bases for non-DOE comparison populations were identified so that DOE performance could be assessed relative to non-DOE occupational and industrial groups. Systems approaches were described which can be used to link hazards and exposure, event occurrence, and adverse outcome factors, as needed to generate valid, reliable, and predictive performance benchmarks. Data bases were identified which contain information relevant to one or more performance assessment categories . A list of 72 potential performance benchmarks was prepared to illustrate the kinds of information that can be produced through a benchmark development program. Current information resources which may be used to develop potential performance benchmarks are limited. There is need to develop an occupational safety and health information and data system in DOE, which is capable of incorporating demonstrated and documented performance benchmarks prior to, or concurrent with the development of hardware and software. A key to the success of this systems approach is rigorous development and demonstration of performance benchmark equivalents to users of such data before system hardware and software commitments are institutionalized.

  2. Benchmarking gate-based quantum computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, Kristel; Nocon, Madita; Willsch, Dennis; Jin, Fengping; Lippert, Thomas; De Raedt, Hans

    2017-11-01

    With the advent of public access to small gate-based quantum processors, it becomes necessary to develop a benchmarking methodology such that independent researchers can validate the operation of these processors. We explore the usefulness of a number of simple quantum circuits as benchmarks for gate-based quantum computing devices and show that circuits performing identity operations are very simple, scalable and sensitive to gate errors and are therefore very well suited for this task. We illustrate the procedure by presenting benchmark results for the IBM Quantum Experience, a cloud-based platform for gate-based quantum computing.

  3. Benchmarking Attosecond Physics with Atomic Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-25

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12 Mar 12 – 11 Mar 15 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking attosecond physics with atomic hydrogen 5a...AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking attosecond physics with atomic hydrogen 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-12-1-4025 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Final Report for AOARD Grant FA2386-12-1-4025 “ Benchmarking

  4. Standardized benchmarking in the quest for orthologs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenhoff, Adrian M; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    -recall trade-offs. As a result, it is difficult to assess the performance of orthology inference methods. Here, we present a community effort to establish standards and an automated web-based service to facilitate orthology benchmarking. Using this service, we characterize 15 well-established inference methods...... and resources on a battery of 20 different benchmarks. Standardized benchmarking provides a way for users to identify the most effective methods for the problem at hand, sets a minimum requirement for new tools and resources, and guides the development of more accurate orthology inference methods....

  5. Benchmark Generator for the IEEE WCCI-2014 Competition on Evolutionary Computation for Dynamic Optimization Problems: Dynamic Rotation Peak Benchmark Generator (DRPBG) and Dynamic Composition Benchmark Generator (DCBG)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Changhe; Mavrovouniotis, Michalis; Yang, Shengxiang; Yao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Based on our previous benchmark generator for the IEEE CEC’12 Competition on Dynamic Optimization, this report updates the two benchmark instances where two new features have 1been developed as well as a constraint to the benchmark instance of the dynamic rotation peak benchmark generator. The source code in C++ language for the two benchmark instances is included in the library of EAlib, which is an open platform to test and compare the performances of EAs.

  6. Benchmarking inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariv, G; Paul, M; Shani, V; Muchtar, E; Leibovici, L

    2013-07-01

    Inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment for severe infections is associated with increased mortality. Superfluous treatment is associated with resistance induction. We aimed to define acceptable rates of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment. We included all prospective cohort studies published between 1975 and 2009 reporting the proportion of appropriate and inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment of microbiologically documented infections. Studies were identified in PubMed and in reference lists of included studies. Funnel plots were drawn using the proportion of inappropriate empirical treatment as the effect size. A pooled estimate of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment was calculated using a β-binomial model. Control limits were calculated with the overdispersion factor technique and 20% winsorized data. Heterogeneity was assessed through subgroup analysis for categorical moderators and meta-regression for continuous variables. Eighty-seven studies, comprising 92 study groups, with 27 628 patients met inclusion criteria. The pooled rate of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment was 28.6% (95% CI 25.4-31.8). Funnel plot analysis yielded a dispersed graph with only 37 (40%) studies falling within the control limits. Using the overdispersion factor technique with 20% winsorizing, 79 (86%) studies fell within the control limits. None of the clinical or methodological factors could explain the large heterogeneity observed. The funnel plot presented can be used to benchmark rates of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment. Based on the control limits found, at least 500 patients should be evaluated before establishing a local rate. Lower and higher than expected rates might indicate overly aggressive treatment or poor performance, respectively. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Summary of Results for the VENUS-7 Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwermann, Winfried; Langenbuch, Siegfried [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany); Na, Byung-Chan [ITER Organization, Cadarache (France); Sartori, Enrico [OECD/NEA Data Bank, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); Wehmann, Udo-Karl [Consultant, Hildesheim (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Within the OECD/NEA Working Party on Scientific Issues in Reactor Systems, an international benchmark was specified concerning the VENUS-7 critical assemblies as part of a continuous LWR criticality and reactor physics benchmark activity, with the focus on MOX and mixed UO{sub 2}/MOX-cores. This contribution summarizes the results. In pin cell calculations, excellent agreement is obtained among all benchmark contributions. Concerning the critical assemblies, the agreement among the calculated multiplication factors is also very satisfactory, accepting a considerable underestimation of the experimental values by all calculations. The degree of underestimation in Monte Carlo solutions using continuous energy nuclear data is directly related to the basic data used. Calculations with ENDF/B-VI yield the lowest multiplication factors, while using JEFF-3.1 yields the highest values. This is in line with the results for other small LWR critical assemblies. The quality of multiplication factors and reactivity differences obtained with codes using multi-group data is comparable to Monte Carlo results. (authors)

  8. The FLUKA Code: Description And Benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistoni, Giuseppe; Muraro, S.; Sala, Paola R.; /INFN, Milan; Cerutti, Fabio; Ferrari, A.; Roesler, Stefan; /CERN; Fasso, A.; /SLAC; Ranft, J.; /Siegen U.

    2007-09-18

    The physics model implemented inside the FLUKA code are briefly described, with emphasis on hadronic interactions. Examples of the capabilities of the code are presented including basic (thin target) and complex benchmarks.

  9. Benchmarking Linked Open Data Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Angles Rojas (Renzo); M.-D. Pham (Minh-Duc); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractWith inherent support for storing and analysing highly interconnected data, graph and RDF databases appear as natural solutions for developing Linked Open Data applications. However, current benchmarks for these database technologies do not fully attain the desirable characteristics

  10. Benchmarking and validation activities within JEFF project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabellos, O.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Angelone, M.; Diez, C. J.; Dyrda, J.; Fiorito, L.; Fischer, U.; Fleming, M.; Haeck, W.; Hill, I.; Ichou, R.; Kim, D. H.; Klix, A.; Kodeli, I.; Leconte, P.; Michel-Sendis, F.; Nunnenmann, E.; Pecchia, M.; Peneliau, Y.; Plompen, A.; Rochman, D.; Romojaro, P.; Stankovskiy, A.; Sublet, J. Ch.; Tamagno, P.; Marck, S. van der

    2017-09-01

    The challenge for any nuclear data evaluation project is to periodically release a revised, fully consistent and complete library, with all needed data and covariances, and ensure that it is robust and reliable for a variety of applications. Within an evaluation effort, benchmarking activities play an important role in validating proposed libraries. The Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) Project aims to provide such a nuclear data library, and thus, requires a coherent and efficient benchmarking process. The aim of this paper is to present the activities carried out by the new JEFF Benchmarking and Validation Working Group, and to describe the role of the NEA Data Bank in this context. The paper will also review the status of preliminary benchmarking for the next JEFF-3.3 candidate cross-section files.

  11. XWeB: The XML Warehouse Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hadj; Darmont, Jérôme

    With the emergence of XML as a standard for representing business data, new decision support applications are being developed. These XML data warehouses aim at supporting On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) operations that manipulate irregular XML data. To ensure feasibility of these new tools, important performance issues must be addressed. Performance is customarily assessed with the help of benchmarks. However, decision support benchmarks do not currently support XML features. In this paper, we introduce the XML Warehouse Benchmark (XWeB), which aims at filling this gap. XWeB derives from the relational decision support benchmark TPC-H. It is mainly composed of a test data warehouse that is based on a unified reference model for XML warehouses and that features XML-specific structures, and its associate XQuery decision support workload. XWeB's usage is illustrated by experiments on several XML database management systems.

  12. Benchmarking by State Higher Education Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Robert J.; Kniker, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how state higher education governing boards can use benchmarking to provide direction for colleges and universities. Provides an in-depth example and indicators used by selected state higher education boards. (EV)

  13. Professional Performance and Bureaucratic Benchmarking Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Melanie L.; Mahlendorf, Matthias D.; Schäffer, Utz

    Prior research documents positive effects of benchmarking information provision on performance and attributes this to social comparisons. However, the effects on professional recipients are unclear. Studies of professional control indicate that professional recipients often resist bureaucratic co...

  14. Medicare Contracting - Redacted Benchmark Metric Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has compiled aggregate national benchmark cost and workload metrics using data submitted to CMS by the AB MACs and the...

  15. Integrated Approach to Construction of Benchmarking Network in DEA-Based Stepwise Benchmark Target Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehun Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stepwise benchmark target selection in data envelopment analysis (DEA is a realistic and effective method by which inefficient decision-making units (DMUs can choose benchmarks in a stepwise manner. We propose, for the construction of a benchmarking network (i.e., a network structure consisting of an alternative sequence of benchmark targets, an approach that integrates the cross-efficiency DEA, K-means clustering and context-dependent DEA methods to minimize resource improvement pattern inconsistency in the selection of the intermediate benchmark targets (IBTs of an inefficient DMU. The specific advantages and overall effectiveness of the proposed method were demonstrated by application to a case study of 34 actual container terminal ports and the successful determination of the stepwise benchmarking path of an inefficient DMU.

  16. Experimental and Particle-Tracking Model Analysis of Anomalous Transport and Sorption of Nickel in Natural Soil Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edery, Y.; Rubin, S.; Dror, I.; Berkowitz, B.

    2012-12-01

    Nickel migration measured in laboratory-scale, natural soil column experiments is shown to display anomalous (non-Fickian) transport and non-equilibrium adsorption and desorption patterns. Similar experiments using a conservative tracer also exhibit anomalous behavior. In parallel batch experiments, adsorption and desorption isotherms demonstrate hysteresis, indicating some permanent adsorption. While adsorption is described by the Langmuir isotherm, equilibrium concentrations are higher than those predicted by the same model for desorption. Furthermore, batch and flow-through column experiments show the occurrence of ion exchange of nickel with magnesium and potassium in the soil; aluminum and other ion concentrations are also affected by the presence of nickel. Strong retention of nickel during transport in soil columns leads to delayed initial breakthrough (~40 pore volumes), slow increase in concentration, and extended concentration tailing at long times. Standard models, including two-site non-equilibrium formulations, fail to capture these features quantitatively. We describe the mechanisms of transport and adsorption/desorption in terms of a continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, and use a particle tracking formulation to simulate the nickel migration in the column. This approach allows us to capture the non-Fickian transport and the subtle local effects of adsorption and desorption. The model uses transport parameters estimated from the conservative tracer and, as a starting point, adsorption/desorption parameters based on the batch experiments to account for the reactions. It is shown that the batch parameters under-estimate the actual adsorption in the column. The CTRW particle tracking model is shown to capture both the full evolution of the measured breakthrough curve and the measured spatial concentration profile. Analysis of these results provides further understanding of the interaction and dynamics between transport and sorption mechanisms in

  17. Experimental quantification of solute transport through the vadose zone under dynamic boundary conditions with dye tracers and optical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of subsurface solute transport processes is vital to investigate e.g. groundwater contamination, nutrient uptake by plant roots and to implement remediation strategies. Beside field measurements and numerical simulations, physical laboratory experiments represent a way to establish process understanding and furthermore validate numerical schemes. Atmospheric forcings, such as erratically varying infiltration and evaporation cycles, subject the shallow subsurface to local and temporal variations in water content and associated hydraulic conductivity of the prevailing porous media. Those variations in material properties can cause flow paths to differ between upward and downward flow periods. Thereby, the unsaturated subsurface presents a highly complicated, dynamic system. Following an extensive systematical numerical investigation of flow and transport through bimodal, unsaturated porous media under dynamic boundary conditions (Cremer et al., 2016), we conduct physical laboratory experiments in a 22 cm x 8 cm x 1 cm flow cell where we introduce structural heterogeneity in the form sharp material interfaces between different porous media. In all experiments, a constant pressure head is implemented at the lower boundary, while cyclic infiltration-evaporation phases are applied at the soil surface. As a reference case a stationary infiltration with a rate corresponding to the cycle-averaged infiltration rate is applied. By initial application of dye tracers, solute transport within the domain is visualized such that transport paths and redistribution processes can be observed in a qualitative manner. Solute leaching is quantified at the bottom outlet, where breakthrough curves are obtained via spectroscopy. Liquid and vapor flow in and out of the domain is obtained from multiple balances. Thereby, the interplay of material structural heterogeneity and alternating flow (transport) directions and flow (transport) paths is investigated. Results show lateral

  18. A framework for benchmarking land models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. Luo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past few decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land model performances and, meanwhile, highlights major challenges at this infant stage of benchmark analysis. The framework includes (1 targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated, (2 a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance, (3 metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies, and (4 model improvement. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and land surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics in response to climate change across broad temporal and spatial scales. Thus, one major challenge is to select and define a limited number of benchmarks to effectively evaluate land model performance. The second challenge is to develop metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks. The metrics may include (1 a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2 a scoring system to combine data–model mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance to guide future development, thus enabling improved predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate. The near-future research effort should be on development of a set of widely acceptable benchmarks that can be used to objectively, effectively, and reliably evaluate fundamental properties

  19. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  20. Benchmarks for multicomponent diffusion and electrochemical migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasouli, Pejman; Steefel, Carl I.; Mayer, K. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    . The first benchmark focuses on the 1D transient diffusion of HNO3 (pH = 4) in a NaCl solution into a fixed concentration reservoir, also containing NaCl—but with lower HNO3 concentrations (pH = 6). The second benchmark describes the 1D steady-state migration of the sodium isotope 22Na triggered by sodium...

  1. 75 FR 66057 - Waybill Data Released in Three-Benchmark Rail Rate Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1244 Waybill Data Released in Three-Benchmark Rail Rate... use the released Waybill Sample data to form their traffic comparison groups. The Board seeks comments.... at 246-47. \\1\\ Canadian Pacific Railway Co., Soo Line Railroad Company, Delaware & Hudson Railway...

  2. Action-Oriented Benchmarking: Concepts and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    California Energy Commission; Mathew, Paul; Mills, Evan; Mathew, Paul; Piette, Mary Ann; Bourassa, Norman; Brook, Martha

    2008-02-13

    Most energy benchmarking tools provide static feedback on how one building compares to a larger set of loosely similar buildings, without providing information at the end-use level or on what can be done to reduce consumption, cost, or emissions. In this article--Part 1 of a two-part series--we describe an 'action-oriented benchmarking' approach, which extends whole-building energy benchmarking to include analysis of system and component energy use metrics and features. Action-oriented benchmarking thereby allows users to generate more meaningful metrics and to identify, screen and prioritize potential efficiency improvements. This opportunity assessment process can then be used to inform and optimize a full-scale audit or commissioning process. We introduce a new web-based action-oriented benchmarking system and associated software tool-EnergyIQ. The benchmarking methods, visualizations, and user interface design are informed by an end-user needs assessment survey and best-practice guidelines from ASHRAE.

  3. Benchmarking for Cost Improvement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) conducted the Benchmarking for Cost Improvement initiative with three objectives: Pilot test benchmarking as an EM cost improvement tool; identify areas for cost improvement and recommend actions to address these areas; provide a framework for future cost improvement. The benchmarking initiative featured the use of four principal methods (program classification, nationwide cost improvement survey, paired cost comparison and component benchmarking). Interested parties contributed during both the design and execution phases. The benchmarking initiative was conducted on an accelerated basis. Of necessity, it considered only a limited set of data that may not be fully representative of the diverse and complex conditions found at the many DOE installations. The initiative generated preliminary data about cost differences and it found a high degree of convergence on several issues. Based on this convergence, the report recommends cost improvement strategies and actions. This report describes the steps taken as part of the benchmarking initiative and discusses the findings and recommended actions for achieving cost improvement. The results and summary recommendations, reported below, are organized by the study objectives.

  4. Benchmarking for controllere: metoder, teknikker og muligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Sandalgaard, Niels Erik; Dietrichson, Lars Grubbe

    2008-01-01

    Benchmarking indgår på mange måder i både private og offentlige virksomheders ledelsespraksis. I økonomistyring anvendes benchmark-baserede indikatorer (eller nøgletal), eksempelvis ved fastlæggelse af mål i resultatkontrakter eller for at angive det ønskede niveau for visse nøgletal i et Balanced...... Scorecard eller tilsvarende målstyringsmodeller. Artiklen redegør for begrebet benchmarking ved at præsentere og diskutere forskellige facetter af det, samt redegør for fire forskellige anvendelser af benchmarking for at vise begrebets bredde og væsentligheden af at klarlægge formålet med et...... benchmarkingprojekt. Dernæst bliver forskellen på resultatbenchmarking og procesbenchmarking behandlet, hvorefter brugen af intern hhv. ekstern benchmarking, samt brugen af benchmarking i budgetlægning og budgetopfølgning, behandles....

  5. Modeling of the Ionic Multi-Species Transport Phenomena in Electrokinetic Processes and Comparison with Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    A model to predict the transport of ionic species within the pore solution of porous materials, under the effect of an external electric field has been developed. A Finite Elements method was implemented and used for the integration of the Nernst-Plank equations for each ionic species considered....

  6. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease results in decreased hepatic uptake transporter expression and function in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Craig D.; Lickteig, Andrew J.; Augustine, Lisa M.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Besselsen, David G.; Erickson, Robert P.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a

  7. Experimental observation and modelling of roughness variation due to supply-limited sediment transport in uni-directional flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijnder, Arjan; Ribberink, Jan S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the relationship between supply-limited bedform formation and the hydraulic roughness of the riverbed. The results of several new sets of flume experiments with supply-limited or partial transport conditions with bimodal sediment are presented. The results show that

  8. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  9. Benchmark testing the flow and solidification modeling of AI castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirrell, B.; Holliday, M.; Campbell, J.

    1996-03-01

    Although the heat flow aspects of the simulation of castings now appears to be tolerably well advanced, a recent exercise has revealed that computed predictions can, in fact, be widely different from experimentally observed values. The modeling of flow, where turbulence is properly taken into account, appears to be good in its macroscopic ability. However, better resolution and the possible general incorporation of surface tension will be required to simulate the damaging effect of air entrainment common in most metal castings. It is envisaged that the results of this excercise will constitute a useful benchmark test for computer models of flow and solidification for the foreseeable future.

  10. Benchmarking comparison and validation of MCNP photon interaction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, Bethany; Kodeli, I.; Lilley, S.; Packer, L. W.

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the research was to test available photoatomic data libraries for fusion relevant applications, comparing against experimental and computational neutronics benchmarks. Photon flux and heating was compared using the photon interaction data libraries (mcplib 04p, 05t, 84p and 12p). Suitable benchmark experiments (iron and water) were selected from the SINBAD database and analysed to compare experimental values with MCNP calculations using mcplib 04p, 84p and 12p. In both the computational and experimental comparisons, the majority of results with the 04p, 84p and 12p photon data libraries were within 1σ of the mean MCNP statistical uncertainty. Larger differences were observed when comparing computational results with the 05t test photon library. The Doppler broadening sampling bug in MCNP-5 is shown to be corrected for fusion relevant problems through use of the 84p photon data library. The recommended libraries for fusion neutronics are 84p (or 04p) with MCNP6 and 84p if using MCNP-5.

  11. Benchmarks and statistics of entanglement dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiersch, Markus

    2009-09-04

    In the present thesis we investigate how the quantum entanglement of multicomponent systems evolves under realistic conditions. More specifically, we focus on open quantum systems coupled to the (uncontrolled) degrees of freedom of an environment. We identify key quantities that describe the entanglement dynamics, and provide efficient tools for its calculation. For quantum systems of high dimension, entanglement dynamics can be characterized with high precision. In the first part of this work, we derive evolution equations for entanglement. These formulas determine the entanglement after a given time in terms of a product of two distinct quantities: the initial amount of entanglement and a factor that merely contains the parameters that characterize the dynamics. The latter is given by the entanglement evolution of an initially maximally entangled state. A maximally entangled state thus benchmarks the dynamics, and hence allows for the immediate calculation or - under more general conditions - estimation of the change in entanglement. Thereafter, a statistical analysis supports that the derived (in-)equalities describe the entanglement dynamics of the majority of weakly mixed and thus experimentally highly relevant states with high precision. The second part of this work approaches entanglement dynamics from a topological perspective. This allows for a quantitative description with a minimum amount of assumptions about Hilbert space (sub-)structure and environment coupling. In particular, we investigate the limit of increasing system size and density of states, i.e. the macroscopic limit. In this limit, a universal behaviour of entanglement emerges following a ''reference trajectory'', similar to the central role of the entanglement dynamics of a maximally entangled state found in the first part of the present work. (orig.)

  12. Reaction Rate Benchmark Experiments with Miniature Fission Chambers at the Slovenian TRIGA Mark II Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štancar, Žiga; Kaiba, Tanja; Snoj, Luka; Barbot, Loïc; Destouches, Christophe; Fourmentel, Damien; Villard, Jean-François AD(; )

    2018-01-01

    A series of fission rate profile measurements with miniature fission chambers, developed by the Commisariat á l'énergie atomique et auxénergies alternatives, were performed at the Jožef Stefan Institute's TRIGA research reactor. Two types of fission chambers with different fissionable coating (235U and 238U) were used to perform axial fission rate profile measurements at various radial positions and several control rod configurations. The experimental campaign was supported by an extensive set of computations, based on a validated Monte Carlo computational model of the TRIGA reactor. The computing effort included neutron transport calculations to support the planning and design of the experiments as well as calculations to aid the evaluation of experimental and computational uncertainties and major biases. The evaluation of uncertainties was performed by employing various types of sensitivity analyses such as experimental parameter perturbation and core reaction rate gradient calculations. It has been found that the experimental uncertainty of the measurements is sufficiently low, i.e. the total relative fission rate uncertainty being approximately 5 %, in order for the experiments to serve as benchmark experiments for validation of fission rate profiles. The effect of the neutron flux redistribution due to the control rod movement was studied by performing measurements and calculations of fission rates and fission chamber responses in different axial and radial positions at different control rod configurations. It was confirmed that the control rod movement affects the position of the maximum in the axial fission rate distribution, as well as the height of the local maxima. The optimal detector position, in which the redistributions would have minimum effect on its signal, was determined.

  13. Benchmarking as a strategy policy tool for energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Nijkamp, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyse to what extent benchmarking is a valuable tool in strategic energy policy analysis. First, the theory on benchmarking is concisely presented, e.g., by discussing the benchmark wheel and the benchmark path. Next, some results of surveys among business firms are presented. To

  14. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center Benchmark Report: Framework and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-23

    This report documents the CEMAC methodologies for developing and reporting annual global clean energy manufacturing benchmarks. The report reviews previously published manufacturing benchmark reports and foundational data, establishes a framework for benchmarking clean energy technologies, describes the CEMAC benchmark analysis methodologies, and describes the application of the methodologies to the manufacturing of four specific clean energy technologies.

  15. Benchmarking von Krankenhausinformationssystemen – eine vergleichende Analyse deutschsprachiger Benchmarkingcluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn, Franziska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benchmarking is a method of strategic information management used by many hospitals today. During the last years, several benchmarking clusters have been established within the German-speaking countries. They support hospitals in comparing and positioning their information system’s and information management’s costs, performance and efficiency against other hospitals. In order to differentiate between these benchmarking clusters and to provide decision support in selecting an appropriate benchmarking cluster, a classification scheme is developed. The classification scheme observes both general conditions and examined contents of the benchmarking clusters. It is applied to seven benchmarking clusters which have been active in the German-speaking countries within the last years. Currently, performance benchmarking is the most frequent benchmarking type, whereas the observed benchmarking clusters differ in the number of benchmarking partners and their cooperation forms. The benchmarking clusters also deal with different benchmarking subjects. Assessing costs and quality application systems, physical data processing systems, organizational structures of information management and IT services processes are the most frequent benchmarking subjects. There is still potential for further activities within the benchmarking clusters to measure strategic and tactical information management, IT governance and quality of data and data-processing processes. Based on the classification scheme and the comparison of the benchmarking clusters, we derive general recommendations for benchmarking of hospital information systems.

  16. Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

    2007-10-30

    Critical data science applications requiring frequent access to storage perform poorly on today's computing architectures. This project addresses efficient computation of data-intensive problems in national security and basic science by exploring, advancing, and applying a new form of computing called storage-intensive supercomputing (SISC). Our goal is to enable applications that simply cannot run on current systems, and, for a broad range of data-intensive problems, to deliver an order of magnitude improvement in price/performance over today's data-intensive architectures. This technical report documents much of the work done under LDRD 07-ERD-063 Storage Intensive Supercomputing during the period 05/07-09/07. The following chapters describe: (1) a new file I/O monitoring tool iotrace developed to capture the dynamic I/O profiles of Linux processes; (2) an out-of-core graph benchmark for level-set expansion of scale-free graphs; (3) an entity extraction benchmark consisting of a pipeline of eight components; and (4) an image resampling benchmark drawn from the SWarp program in the LSST data processing pipeline. The performance of the graph and entity extraction benchmarks was measured in three different scenarios: data sets residing on the NFS file server and accessed over the network; data sets stored on local disk; and data sets stored on the Fusion I/O parallel NAND Flash array. The image resampling benchmark compared performance of software-only to GPU-accelerated. In addition to the work reported here, an additional text processing application was developed that used an FPGA to accelerate n-gram profiling for language classification. The n-gram application will be presented at SC07 at the High Performance Reconfigurable Computing Technologies and Applications Workshop. The graph and entity extraction benchmarks were run on a Supermicro server housing the NAND Flash 40GB parallel disk array, the Fusion-io. The Fusion system specs are as follows

  17. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Under current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation, it is not sufficient for used nuclear fuel (UNF) to simply maintain its integrity during the storage period, it must maintain its integrity in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and moving it to treatment or recycling facilities, or a geologic repository. Hence it is necessary to understand the performance characteristics of aged UNF cladding and ancillary components under loadings stemming from transport initiatives. Researchers would like to demonstrate that enough information, including experimental support and modeling and simulation capabilities, exists to establish a preliminary determination of UNF structural performance under normal conditions of transport (NCT). This research, development and demonstration (RD&D) plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. This methodology will be used to provide a preliminary assessment of the performance characteristics of UNF cladding and ancillary components under rail-related NCT loading. The methodology couples modeling and simulation and experimental efforts currently under way within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC). The methodology will involve limited uncertainty quantification in the form of sensitivity evaluations focused around available fuel and ancillary fuel structure properties exclusively. The work includes collecting information via literature review, soliciting input/guidance from subject matter experts, performing computational analyses, planning experimental measurement and possible execution (depending on timing), and preparing a variety of supporting documents that will feed into and provide the basis for future initiatives. The methodology demonstration will focus on structural performance evaluation of

  18. Full sphere hydrodynamic and dynamo benchmarks

    KAUST Repository

    Marti, P.

    2014-01-26

    Convection in planetary cores can generate fluid flow and magnetic fields, and a number of sophisticated codes exist to simulate the dynamic behaviour of such systems. We report on the first community activity to compare numerical results of computer codes designed to calculate fluid flow within a whole sphere. The flows are incompressible and rapidly rotating and the forcing of the flow is either due to thermal convection or due to moving boundaries. All problems defined have solutions that alloweasy comparison, since they are either steady, slowly drifting or perfectly periodic. The first two benchmarks are defined based on uniform internal heating within the sphere under the Boussinesq approximation with boundary conditions that are uniform in temperature and stress-free for the flow. Benchmark 1 is purely hydrodynamic, and has a drifting solution. Benchmark 2 is a magnetohydrodynamic benchmark that can generate oscillatory, purely periodic, flows and magnetic fields. In contrast, Benchmark 3 is a hydrodynamic rotating bubble benchmark using no slip boundary conditions that has a stationary solution. Results from a variety of types of code are reported, including codes that are fully spectral (based on spherical harmonic expansions in angular coordinates and polynomial expansions in radius), mixed spectral and finite difference, finite volume, finite element and also a mixed Fourier-finite element code. There is good agreement between codes. It is found that in Benchmarks 1 and 2, the approximation of a whole sphere problem by a domain that is a spherical shell (a sphere possessing an inner core) does not represent an adequate approximation to the system, since the results differ from whole sphere results. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.

  19. Review of pore network modelling of porous media: experimental characterisations, network constructions and applications to reactive transport

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Qingrong; Baychev, Todor; Jivkov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Pore network models have been applied widely for simulating a variety of different physical and chemical processes, including phase exchange, non-Newtonian displacement, non-Darcy flow, reactive transport and thermodynamically consistent oil layers. The realism of such modelling, i.e. the credibility of their predictions, depends to a large extent on the quality of the correspondence between the pore space of a given medium and the pore network constructed as its representation. The main expe...

  20. Solid–liquid transport in a modified co-rotating twin-screw extruder-dynamic simulator and experimental validations

    OpenAIRE

    Prat, Laurent E.; N'Diaye, Senghane; Rigal, Luc; Gourdon, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a dynamic transport model of a solid–liquid media through a twin-screw extruder (TSE). The application under consideration is the solid–liquid extraction of solute from raw plant substrate. Dynamic experiments are performed and compared with the simulated results for step functions on the solid feed rate and on the screw rotating speed. Despite some imperfections, results allow to validate the simulator.

  1. Experimental determination of the hydrothermal solubility of ReS2 and the Re–ReO2 buffer assemblage and transport of rhenium under supercritical conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood Scott A; Xiong Yongliang

    2002-01-01

    To understand the aqueous species important for transport of rhenium under supercritical conditions, we conducted a series of solubility experiments on the Re–ReO2 buffer assemblage and ReS2. In these experiments, pH was buffered by the K–feldspar–muscovite–quartz assemblage; in sulfur-free systems was buffered by the Re–ReO2 assemblage; and and in sulfur-containing systems were buffered by the magnetite–pyrite–pyrrhotite assemblage. Our experimental studies indicate that the species ReCl...

  2. THESEUS - achieving maximum possible road transport tanker safety by means of experimental accident simulation; THESEUS - Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechsterreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompe, K.; Heuser, G.

    1996-03-01

    In spring 1990, the Federal German Minister for Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) commissioned the team from the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), DEKRA, Daimler-Benz, the Federal Road Research Institute (BASt) with the University of Cologne, Ellinghaus and TUeV Rheinland (project leader) to perform the research project `THESEUS` (the acronym THESEUS comes from the German `Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechst erreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation`, which translates as `achieving maximum possible road transport tanker safety by means of experimental accident simulation`). Arting from an analysis of road transport tanker accidents, crash tests and overturn tests were performed and supplemented by investigations of road transport tanker components and accompanying complex calculations of the failure processes. Parallel to this, the static side-tilt stability of road transport tankers was determined on a tilting test platform. The causes of and constructive possibilities for avoiding overturning, which is the most common cause of accidents in which hazardous materials escape, wewre analysed in dynamic driving tests with supplementary computer simulation. Various measures for improving the safety of road transport tankers were determined and subjected to a cost-benefit analysis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie hat seit 1990 das Forschungsproject `THESEUS` (Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechst erreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation) der Arbeitsgemeinschaft aus TUeV Rheinland (Federfuehrung), Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), DEKRA, Daimler Benz, Bundesanstalt fuer Strassenwesen (BASt), Universitaet Koeln und Ellinghaus gefoerdert. Ausgehend von der detaillierten Analyse von 231 Tankfahrzeugunfaellen wurden Tankfahrzeug-Crashversuche und Tankfahrzeug-Umsturzversuche durchgefuehrt. Diese Messungen an kompletten Fahrzeugen

  3. Solution of the stationary state of the PWR MOX/UO-2 core transient benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seubert, A.; Langenbuch, S.; Zwermann, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GRS mbH, Forschungsinstitute, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The multi-group Discrete Ordinates transport code DORT is applied to solve the stationary state of the OECD/NEA PWR MOX/UO-2 Core Transient Benchmark. Pin cell homogenised cross sections in 16 energy groups and P{sub 1} scattering order have been obtained by fuel assembly burn-up calculations using HELIOS. In this paper, we report on the details of our calculations for this benchmark problem and show our results to be in good agreement with an MCNP Monte Carlo solution with nuclear point data and a multi-group DeCART Method of Characteristics solution. (authors)

  4. Test Nationally, Benchmark Locally: Using Local DIBELS Benchmarks to Predict Performance on the Pssa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchalk, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) benchmarks are frequently used to make important decision regarding student performance. More information, however, is needed to understand if the nationally-derived benchmarks created by the DIBELS system provide the most accurate criterion for evaluating reading proficiency. The…

  5. The Concepts "Benchmarks and Benchmarking" Used in Education Planning: Teacher Education as Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Planning in education is a structured activity that includes several phases and steps that take into account several kinds of information (Steyn, Steyn, De Waal & Wolhuter, 2002: 146). One of the sets of information that are usually considered is the (so-called) "benchmarks" and "benchmarking" regarding the focus of a…

  6. The ORSphere Benchmark Evaluation and Its Potential Impact on Nuclear Criticality Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall; J. Blair Briggs

    2013-10-01

    In the early 1970’s, critical experiments using an unreflected metal sphere of highly enriched uranium (HEU) were performed with the focus to provide a “very accurate description…as an ideal benchmark for calculational methods and cross-section data files.” Two near-critical configurations of the Oak Ridge Sphere (ORSphere) were evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (ICSBEP Handbook). The results from those benchmark experiments were then compared with additional unmoderated and unreflected HEU metal benchmark experiment configurations currently found in the ICSBEP Handbook. For basic geometries (spheres, cylinders, and slabs) the eigenvalues calculated using MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 were within 3 of their respective benchmark values. There appears to be generally a good agreement between calculated and benchmark values for spherical and slab geometry systems. Cylindrical geometry configurations tended to calculate low, including more complex bare HEU metal systems containing cylinders. The ORSphere experiments do not calculate within their 1s uncertainty and there is a possibility that the effect of the measured uncertainties for the GODIVA I benchmark may need reevaluated. There is significant scatter in the calculations for the highly-correlated ORCEF cylinder experiments, which are constructed from close-fitting HEU discs and annuli. Selection of a nuclear data library can have a larger impact on calculated eigenvalue results than the variation found within calculations of a given experimental series, such as the ORCEF cylinders, using a single nuclear data set.

  7. A benchmark server using high resolution protein structure data, and benchmark results for membrane helix predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Emma M; Tessier, Dominique; Campbell, Alexander A; Lee, Hong Ching; Werner, Tim; Salam, Noeris K; Lee, Lawrence K; Church, W Bret

    2013-03-27

    Helical membrane proteins are vital for the interaction of cells with their environment. Predicting the location of membrane helices in protein amino acid sequences provides substantial understanding of their structure and function and identifies membrane proteins in sequenced genomes. Currently there is no comprehensive benchmark tool for evaluating prediction methods, and there is no publication comparing all available prediction tools. Current benchmark literature is outdated, as recently determined membrane protein structures are not included. Current literature is also limited to global assessments, as specialised benchmarks for predicting specific classes of membrane proteins were not previously carried out. We present a benchmark server at http://sydney.edu.au/pharmacy/sbio/software/TMH_benchmark.shtml that uses recent high resolution protein structural data to provide a comprehensive assessment of the accuracy of existing membrane helix prediction methods. The server further allows a user to compare uploaded predictions generated by novel methods, permitting the comparison of these novel methods against all existing methods compared by the server. Benchmark metrics include sensitivity and specificity of predictions for membrane helix location and orientation, and many others. The server allows for customised evaluations such as assessing prediction method performances for specific helical membrane protein subtypes.We report results for custom benchmarks which illustrate how the server may be used for specialised benchmarks. Which prediction method is the best performing method depends on which measure is being benchmarked. The OCTOPUS membrane helix prediction method is consistently one of the highest performing methods across all measures in the benchmarks that we performed. The benchmark server allows general and specialised assessment of existing and novel membrane helix prediction methods. Users can employ this benchmark server to determine the most

  8. Benchmarking child and adolescent mental health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Peter; Walter, Garry; Coombs, Tim

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes aspects of the child and adolescent benchmarking forums that were part of the National Mental Health Benchmarking Project (NMHBP). These forums enabled participating child and adolescent mental health organizations to benchmark themselves against each other, with a view to understanding variability in performance against a range of key performance indicators (KPIs). Six child and adolescent mental health organizations took part in the NMHBP. Representatives from these organizations attended eight benchmarking forums at which they documented their performance against relevant KPIs. They also undertook two special projects designed to help them understand the variation in performance on given KPIs. There was considerable inter-organization variability on many of the KPIs. Even within organizations, there was often substantial variability over time. The variability in indicator data raised many questions for participants. This challenged participants to better understand and describe their local processes, prompted them to collect additional data, and stimulated them to make organizational comparisons. These activities fed into a process of reflection about their performance. Benchmarking has the potential to illuminate intra- and inter-organizational performance in the child and adolescent context.

  9. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

  10. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of waste transport in selected rocks: 1977 annual report of LBL Contract No. 45901AK. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program: collection and generation of transport data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.; Benson, L.V.; Lucas, J.; Mathur, A.K.; Tsao, L.

    1977-09-01

    During fiscal year 1977, the following subtasks were performed. (1) Thermodynamic data were tabulated for those aqueous complexes and solid phases of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium likely to form in the environment. (2) Eh-pH diagrams were computed and drafted for plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium at 25/sup 0/C and one atmosphere. (3) The literature on distribution coefficients of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium was reviewed. (4) Preliminary considerations were determined for an experimental method of measuring radionuclide transport in water-saturated rocks. (5) The transport mechanisms of radionuclides in water-saturated rocks were reviewed. (6) A computer simulation was attempted of mass transfer involving actinides in water-saturated rocks. Progress in these tasks is reported. Subtasks 1, 2, 3, and 4 are complete. The progress made in subtask 5 is represented by an initial theoretical survey to define the conditions needed to characterize the transport of radionuclides in rocks. Subtask 6 has begun but is not complete.

  11. Higgs pair production: choosing benchmarks with cluster analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Alexandra; Dall’Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Goertz, Florian [CERN,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gottardo, Carlo A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Tosi, Mia [CERN,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-04-20

    New physics theories often depend on a large number of free parameters. The phenomenology they predict for fundamental physics processes is in some cases drastically affected by the precise value of those free parameters, while in other cases is left basically invariant at the level of detail experimentally accessible. When designing a strategy for the analysis of experimental data in the search for a signal predicted by a new physics model, it appears advantageous to categorize the parameter space describing the model according to the corresponding kinematical features of the final state. A multi-dimensional test statistic can be used to gauge the degree of similarity in the kinematics predicted by different models; a clustering algorithm using that metric may allow the division of the space into homogeneous regions, each of which can be successfully represented by a benchmark point. Searches targeting those benchmarks are then guaranteed to be sensitive to a large area of the parameter space. In this document we show a practical implementation of the above strategy for the study of non-resonant production of Higgs boson pairs in the context of extensions of the standard model with anomalous couplings of the Higgs bosons. A non-standard value of those couplings may significantly enhance the Higgs boson pair-production cross section, such that the process could be detectable with the data that the LHC will collect in Run 2.

  12. Pescara benchmark: overview of modelling, testing and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellino, A; Garibaldi, L; Marchesiello, S [Dynamics/Identification Research Group, Department of Mechanics, Politecnico of Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Brancaleoni, F; Gabriele, S; Spina, D [Department of Structures, University ' Roma Tre' of Rome, Via C. Segre 4/6, 00146 Rome (Italy); Bregant, L [Department of Mechanical and Marine Engineering , University of Trieste, Via Valerio 8, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Carminelli, A; Catania, G; Sorrentino, S [Diem Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Di Evangelista, A; Valente, C; Zuccarino, L, E-mail: c.valente@unich.it [Department of Engineering, University ' G. d' Annunzio' of Chieti-Pescara Viale Pindaro 42, 65127 Pescara (Italy)

    2011-07-19

    The 'Pescara benchmark' is part of the national research project 'BriViDi' (BRIdge VIbrations and DIagnosis) supported by the Italian Ministero dell'Universita e Ricerca. The project is aimed at developing an integrated methodology for the structural health evaluation of railway r/c, p/c bridges. The methodology should provide for applicability in operating conditions, easy data acquisition through common industrial instrumentation, robustness and reliability against structural and environmental uncertainties. The Pescara benchmark consisted in lab tests to get a consistent and large experimental data base and subsequent data processing. Special tests were devised to simulate the train transit effects in actual field conditions. Prestressed concrete beams of current industrial production both sound and damaged at various severity corrosion levels were tested. The results were collected either in a deterministic setting and in a form suitable to deal with experimental uncertainties. Damage identification was split in two approaches: with or without a reference model. In the first case f.e. models were used in conjunction with non conventional updating techniques. In the second case, specialized output-only identification techniques capable to deal with time-variant and possibly non linear systems were developed. The lab tests allowed validating the above approaches and the performances of classical modal based damage indicators.

  13. Pescara benchmark: overview of modelling, testing and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, A.; Brancaleoni, F.; Bregant, L.; Carminelli, A.; Catania, G.; Di Evangelista, A.; Gabriele, S.; Garibaldi, L.; Marchesiello, S.; Sorrentino, S.; Spina, D.; Valente, C.; Zuccarino, L.

    2011-07-01

    The `Pescara benchmark' is part of the national research project `BriViDi' (BRIdge VIbrations and DIagnosis) supported by the Italian Ministero dell'Universitá e Ricerca. The project is aimed at developing an integrated methodology for the structural health evaluation of railway r/c, p/c bridges. The methodology should provide for applicability in operating conditions, easy data acquisition through common industrial instrumentation, robustness and reliability against structural and environmental uncertainties. The Pescara benchmark consisted in lab tests to get a consistent and large experimental data base and subsequent data processing. Special tests were devised to simulate the train transit effects in actual field conditions. Prestressed concrete beams of current industrial production both sound and damaged at various severity corrosion levels were tested. The results were collected either in a deterministic setting and in a form suitable to deal with experimental uncertainties. Damage identification was split in two approaches: with or without a reference model. In the first case f.e. models were used in conjunction with non conventional updating techniques. In the second case, specialized output-only identification techniques capable to deal with time-variant and possibly non linear systems were developed. The lab tests allowed validating the above approaches and the performances of classical modal based damage indicators.

  14. Benchmark Dataset for Whole Genome Sequence Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C L, Biji; S Nair, Achuthsankar

    2017-01-01

    The research in DNA data compression lacks a standard dataset to test out compression tools specific to DNA. This paper argues that the current state of achievement in DNA compression is unable to be benchmarked in the absence of such scientifically compiled whole genome sequence dataset and proposes a benchmark dataset using multistage sampling procedure. Considering the genome sequence of organisms available in the National Centre for Biotechnology and Information (NCBI) as the universe, the proposed dataset selects 1,105 prokaryotes, 200 plasmids, 164 viruses, and 65 eukaryotes. This paper reports the results of using three established tools on the newly compiled dataset and show that their strength and weakness are evident only with a comparison based on the scientifically compiled benchmark dataset. The sample dataset and the respective links are available @ https://sourceforge.net/projects/benchmarkdnacompressiondataset/.

  15. New Test Set for Video Quality Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raventos, Joaquin

    A new test set design and benchmarking approach (US Patent pending) allows a "standard observer" to assess the end-to-end image quality characteristics of video imaging systems operating in day time or low-light conditions. It uses randomized targets based on extensive application of Photometry, Geometrical Optics, and Digital Media. The benchmarking takes into account the target's contrast sensitivity, its color characteristics, and several aspects of human vision such as visual acuity and dynamic response. The standard observer is part of the "extended video imaging system" (EVIS). The new test set allows image quality benchmarking by a panel of standard observers at the same time. The new approach shows that an unbiased assessment can be guaranteed. Manufacturers, system integrators, and end users will assess end-to-end performance by simulating a choice of different colors, luminance levels, and dynamic conditions in the laboratory or in permanent video systems installations.

  16. Benchmarking with Spine Tango: potentials and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, L.; Dietrich, D.; Zweig, T.; Melloh, M.; Aebi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The newly released online statistics function of Spine Tango allows comparison of own data against the aggregated results of the data pool that all other participants generate. This comparison can be considered a very simple way of benchmarking, which means that the quality of what one organization does is compared with other similar organizations. The goal is to make changes towards better practice if benchmarking shows inferior results compared with the pool. There are, however, pitfalls in this simplified way of comparing data that can result in confounding. This means that important influential factors can make results appear better or worse than they are in reality and these factors can only be identified and neutralized in a multiple regression analysis performed by a statistical expert. Comparing input variables, confounding is less of a problem than comparing outcome variables. Therefore, the potentials and limitations of automated online comparisons need to be considered when interpreting the results of the benchmarking procedure. PMID:19337759

  17. Experimental type II diabetes and related models of impaired glucose metabolism differentially regulate glucose transporters at the proximal tubule brush border membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichger, Havovi; Cleasby, Mark E; Srai, Surjit K; Unwin, Robert J; Debnam, Edward S; Marks, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? Although SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy, the influence of metabolic disruption on the expression and function of glucose transporters is largely unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? In vivo models of metabolic disruption (Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rat and junk-food diet) demonstrate increased expression of SGLT1, SGLT2 and GLUT2 in the proximal tubule brush border. In the type II diabetic model, this is accompanied by increased SGLT- and GLUT-mediated glucose uptake. A fasted model of metabolic disruption (high-fat diet) demonstrated increased GLUT2 expression only. The differential alterations of glucose transporters in response to varying metabolic stress offer insight into the therapeutic value of inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors are now in clinical use to reduce hyperglycaemia in type II diabetes. However, renal glucose reabsorption across the brush border membrane (BBM) is not completely understood in diabetes. Increased consumption of a Western diet is strongly linked to type II diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the adaptations that occur in renal glucose transporters in response to experimental models of diet-induced insulin resistance. The study used Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rats and normal rats rendered insulin resistant using junk-food or high-fat diets. Levels of protein kinase C-βI (PKC-βI), GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 were determined by Western blotting of purified renal BBM. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated d-[(3) H]glucose uptake by BBM vesicles was measured in the presence and absence of the SGLT inhibitor phlorizin. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated glucose transport was elevated in type II diabetic rats, accompanied by increased expression of GLUT2, its upstream regulator PKC-βI and SGLT1 protein. Junk-food and high-fat diet feeding also caused higher membrane expression of GLUT2 and its upstream regulator PKC

  18. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V. L. Hunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

  19. Interim report on verification and benchmark testing of the NUFT computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.H.; Nitao, J.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kulshrestha, A. [Weiss Associates, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This interim report presents results of work completed in the ongoing verification and benchmark testing of the NUFT (Nonisothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) computer code. NUFT is a suite of multiphase, multicomponent models for numerical solution of thermal and isothermal flow and transport in porous media, with application to subsurface contaminant transport problems. The code simulates the coupled transport of heat, fluids, and chemical components, including volatile organic compounds. Grid systems may be cartesian or cylindrical, with one-, two-, or fully three-dimensional configurations possible. In this initial phase of testing, the NUFT code was used to solve seven one-dimensional unsaturated flow and heat transfer problems. Three verification and four benchmarking problems were solved. In the verification testing, excellent agreement was observed between NUFT results and the analytical or quasianalytical solutions. In the benchmark testing, results of code intercomparison were very satisfactory. From these testing results, it is concluded that the NUFT code is ready for application to field and laboratory problems similar to those addressed here. Multidimensional problems, including those dealing with chemical transport, will be addressed in a subsequent report.

  20. BENCHMARKING, OR THE BEST PRACTICE AS A SOLUTION OF BUSINESS REENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHICAJANU MIHAELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I shall present "the best practice technique" or benchmarking, as a solution used in business process reengineering. Although known mainly as a technique in implementing Quality Management System, it can also be used and adapted to reengineering business processes. Thus, I shall present: what are the business environments where the benchmarking technique can be implemented, when and how to apply benchmarking in an organization, forms of this technique. As a case study I will present some of the solutions and methods of best practice in freight transport by rail, applied in some European countries like Hungary, England, Belgium, Holland and France, which can also be applied in our country.

  1. A Base Integer Programming Model and Benchmark Suite for Liner-Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Alvarez, Fernando; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2014-01-01

    . The potential for making cost-effective and energy-efficient liner-shipping networks using operations research (OR) is huge and neglected. The implementation of logistic planning tools based upon OR has enhanced performance of airlines, railways, and general transportation companies, but within the field...... problem to be strongly NP-hard. A benchmark suite of data instances to reflect the business structure of a global liner shipping network is presented. The design of the benchmark suite is discussed in relation to industry standards, business rules, and mathematical programming. The data are based on real......-life data from the largest global liner-shipping company, Maersk Line, and supplemented by data from several industry and public stakeholders. Computational results yielding the first best known solutions for six of the seven benchmark instances is provided using a heuristic combining tabu search...

  2. Confidential benchmarking based on multiparty computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Damgård, Kasper Lyneborg; Nielsen, Kurt

    We report on the design and implementation of a system that uses multiparty computation to enable banks to benchmark their customers' confidential performance data against a large representative set of confidential performance data from a consultancy house. The system ensures that both the banks......' and the consultancy house's data stays confidential, the banks as clients learn nothing but the computed benchmarking score. In the concrete business application, the developed prototype help Danish banks to find the most efficient customers among a large and challenging group of agricultural customers with too much...

  3. Improved benchmarks for computational motif discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walseng Vegard

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important step in annotation of sequenced genomes is the identification of transcription factor binding sites. More than a hundred different computational methods have been proposed, and it is difficult to make an informed choice. Therefore, robust assessment of motif discovery methods becomes important, both for validation of existing tools and for identification of promising directions for future research. Results We use a machine learning perspective to analyze collections of transcription factors with known binding sites. Algorithms are presented for finding position weight matrices (PWMs, IUPAC-type motifs and mismatch motifs with optimal discrimination of binding sites from remaining sequence. We show that for many data sets in a recently proposed benchmark suite for motif discovery, none of the common motif models can accurately discriminate the binding sites from remaining sequence. This may obscure the distinction between the potential performance of the motif discovery tool itself versus the intrinsic complexity of the problem we are trying to solve. Synthetic data sets may avoid this problem, but we show on some previously proposed benchmarks that there may be a strong bias towards a presupposed motif model. We also propose a new approach to benchmark data set construction. This approach is based on collections of binding site fragments that are ranked according to the optimal level of discrimination achieved with our algorithms. This allows us to select subsets with specific properties. We present one benchmark suite with data sets that allow good discrimination between positive and negative instances with the common motif models. These data sets are suitable for evaluating algorithms for motif discovery that rely on these models. We present another benchmark suite where PWM, IUPAC and mismatch motif models are not able to discriminate reliably between positive and negative instances. This suite could be used

  4. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets.

  5. Standardized benchmarking in the quest for orthologs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenhoff, Adrian M; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Achieving high accuracy in orthology inference is essential for many comparative, evolutionary and functional genomic analyses, yet the true evolutionary history of genes is generally unknown and orthologs are used for very different applications across phyla, requiring different precision...... and resources on a battery of 20 different benchmarks. Standardized benchmarking provides a way for users to identify the most effective methods for the problem at hand, sets a minimum requirement for new tools and resources, and guides the development of more accurate orthology inference methods....

  6. Benchmarking af kommunernes førtidspensionspraksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ole

    Hvert år udgiver Den Sociale Ankestyrelse statistikken over afgørelser i sager om førtidspension. I forbindelse med årsstatistikken udgives resultater fra en benchmarking model, hvor antal tilkendelser i den enkelte kommune sammenlignes med et forventet antal tilkendelser, hvis kommunen havde haft...... samme afgørelsespraksis, som den "gennemsnitlige kommune", når vi korrigerer for den sociale struktur i kommunen. Den hidtil anvendte benchmarking model er dokumenteret i Ole Gregersen (1994): Kommunernes Pensionspraksis, Servicerapport, Socialforskningsinstituttet. I dette notat dokumenteres en...

  7. Coarse-graining polymers with the MARTINI force-field: polystyrene as a benchmark case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, G.; Monticelli, L.; Puisto, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    in the parameterization. We refine the MARTINI procedure by including one additional target property related to the structure of the polymer, namely the radius of gyration. The force-field optimization is mainly based on experimental data. We test our procedure on polystyrene, a standard benchmark for coarse-grained (CG...

  8. Creating a benchmark of vertical axis wind turbines in dynamic stall for validating numerical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelein, D.; Ragni, D.; Tescione, G.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental campaign using Particle Image Velocimetry (2C-PIV) technique has been conducted on a H-type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) to create a benchmark for validating and comparing numerical models. The turbine is operated at tip speed ratios (TSR) of 4.5 and 2, at an average chord...

  9. Benchmarking of Voltage Sag Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    to guide these grid-connected distributed power generation systems. In order to verify the response of such systems for voltage disturbance, mainly for evaluation of voltage sags/dips, a Voltage Sag Generator (VSG) is needed. This paper evaluates such sag test devices according to IEC 61000 in order...... to provide cheaper solutions to test against voltage sags. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the shunt impedance based VSG solution is the easiest and cheapest one for laboratory test applications. The back-to-back fully controlled converter based VSG is the most flexible solution......The increased penetration of renewable energy systems, like photovoltaic and wind power systems, rises the concern about the power quality and stability of the utility grid. Some regulations for Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) for medium voltage or high voltage applications, are coming into force...

  10. Synthesis of the OECD/NEA-PSI CFD benchmark exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, Michele, E-mail: Michele.andreani@psi.ch; Badillo, Arnoldo; Kapulla, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • A benchmark exercise on stratification erosion in containment was conducted using a test in the PANDA facility. • Blind calculations were provided by nineteen participants. • Results were compared with experimental data. • A ranking was made. • A large spread of results was observed, with very few simulations providing accurate results for the most important variables, though not for velocities. - Abstract: The third International Benchmark Exercise (IBE-3) conducted under the auspices of OECD/NEA is based on the comparison of blind CFD simulations with experimental data addressing the erosion of a stratified layer by an off-axis buoyant jet in a large vessel. The numerical benchmark exercise is based on a dedicated experiment in the PANDA facility conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland, using only one vessel. The use of non-prototypical fluids (i.e. helium as simulant for hydrogen, and air as simulant for steam), and the consequent absence of the complex physical effects produced by steam condensation enhanced the suitability of the data for CFD validation purposes. The test started with a helium–air layer at the top of the vessel and air in the lower part. The helium-rich layer was gradually eroded by a low-momentum air/helium jet emerging at a lower elevation. Blind calculation results were submitted by nineteen participants, and the calculation results have been compared with the PANDA data. This report, adopting the format of the reports for the two previous exercises, includes a ranking of the contributions, where the largest weight is given to the time progression of the erosion of the helium-rich layer. In accordance with the limited scope of the benchmark exercise, this report is more a collection of comparisons between calculated results and data than a synthesis. Therefore, the few conclusions are based on the mere observation of the agreement of the various submissions with the test result, and do not

  11. CFD validation in OECD/NEA t-junction benchmark.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obabko, A. V.; Fischer, P. F.; Tautges, T. J.; Karabasov, S.; Goloviznin, V. M.; Zaytsev, M. A.; Chudanov, V. V.; Pervichko, V. A.; Aksenova, A. E. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Cambridge Univ.); (Moscow Institute of Nuclar Energy Safety)

    2011-08-23

    When streams of rapidly moving flow merge in a T-junction, the potential arises for large oscillations at the scale of the diameter, D, with a period scaling as O(D/U), where U is the characteristic flow velocity. If the streams are of different temperatures, the oscillations result in experimental fluctuations (thermal striping) at the pipe wall in the outlet branch that can accelerate thermal-mechanical fatigue and ultimately cause pipe failure. The importance of this phenomenon has prompted the nuclear energy modeling and simulation community to establish a benchmark to test the ability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to predict thermal striping. The benchmark is based on thermal and velocity data measured in an experiment designed specifically for this purpose. Thermal striping is intrinsically unsteady and hence not accessible to steady state simulation approaches such as steady state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models.1 Consequently, one must consider either unsteady RANS or large eddy simulation (LES). This report compares the results for three LES codes: Nek5000, developed at Argonne National Laboratory (USA), and Cabaret and Conv3D, developed at the Moscow Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety at (IBRAE) in Russia. Nek5000 is based on the spectral element method (SEM), which is a high-order weighted residual technique that combines the geometric flexibility of the finite element method (FEM) with the tensor-product efficiencies of spectral methods. Cabaret is a 'compact accurately boundary-adjusting high-resolution technique' for fluid dynamics simulation. The method is second-order accurate on nonuniform grids in space and time, and has a small dispersion error and computational stencil defined within one space-time cell. The scheme is equipped with a conservative nonlinear correction procedure based on the maximum principle. CONV3D is based on the immersed boundary method and is validated on a wide set of the experimental

  12. Theoretical and experimental studies of reverse osmosis separation of inorganic salts in aqueous solutions; Estudio teorico y experimental de parametros de transporte a traves de membranas de osmosis inversa : Efecto de varios tipos de sales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khavet, M.; Mengual, J. I.

    2004-07-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of reverse osmosis separation of inorganic salts in aqueous solutions have been carried out. In this study, a polyamide thin film composite membrane in spiral wound configuration was used. The free energy of different inorganic monovalent (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, NaBr, NaI, LiBr, KBr) and divalent (MgCl2, MnCl2, CaCl2, MgBr2) salts has been calculated. The solute transport parameters were related to the free energy of the corresponding cations and anions. The mass transfer coefficient at the high pressure feed side of the spiral wound module was determined for each type of salt. The obtained theoretical values were compared to the experimental ones. The good agreements observed between the experimental and theoretical results confirm the validity of the theoretical procedure, which may be applied in modelling solar reverse osmosis plants for the prediction of the separation factor of various types of inorganic salts. (Author)

  13. Physical Model Development and Benchmarking for MHD Flows in Blanket Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakanth Munipalli; P.-Y.Huang; C.Chandler; C.Rowell; M.-J.Ni; N.Morley; S.Smolentsev; M.Abdou

    2008-06-05

    An advanced simulation environment to model incompressible MHD flows relevant to blanket conditions in fusion reactors has been developed at HyPerComp in research collaboration with TEXCEL. The goals of this phase-II project are two-fold: The first is the incorporation of crucial physical phenomena such as induced magnetic field modeling, and extending the capabilities beyond fluid flow prediction to model heat transfer with natural convection and mass transfer including tritium transport and permeation. The second is the design of a sequence of benchmark tests to establish code competence for several classes of physical phenomena in isolation as well as in select (termed here as “canonical”,) combinations. No previous attempts to develop such a comprehensive MHD modeling capability exist in the literature, and this study represents essentially uncharted territory. During the course of this Phase-II project, a significant breakthrough was achieved in modeling liquid metal flows at high Hartmann numbers. We developed a unique mathematical technique to accurately compute the fluid flow in complex geometries at extremely high Hartmann numbers (10,000 and greater), thus extending the state of the art of liquid metal MHD modeling relevant to fusion reactors at the present time. These developments have been published in noted international journals. A sequence of theoretical and experimental results was used to verify and validate the results obtained. The code was applied to a complete DCLL module simulation study with promising results.

  14. An experimental trace gas investigation of fluid transport and mixing in a circular-to-rectangular transition duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, B. A.; Hingst, W. R.; Okiishi, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    An ethylene trace gas technique was used to map out fluid transport and mixing within a circular-to-rectangular transition duct. Ethylene gas was injected at several points in a cross stream plane upstream of the transition duct. Ethylene concentration contours were determined at several cross stream measurement planes spaced axially within the duct. The flow involved a uniform inlet flow at a Mach number level of 0.5. Statistical analyses were used to quantitatively interpret the trace gas results. Also, trace gas data were considered along with aerodynamic and surface flow visualization results to ascertain transition duct flow phenomena. Convection of wall boundary layer fluid by vortices produced regions of high total pressure loss in the duct. The physical extent of these high loss regions is governed by turbulent diffusion.

  15. A Benchmark and Simulator for UAV Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-09-16

    In this paper, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photorealistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the first evaluation of many state-of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. The simulator can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV “in the field”, as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with automatic ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator are made publicly available to the vision community on our website to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. (https://ivul.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/pub-benchmark-simulator-uav.aspx.). © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  16. Parton Distribution Benchmarking with LHC Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Richard D.; Carrazza, Stefano; Debbio, Luigi Del; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Hartland, Nathan; Huston, Joey; Nadolsky, Pavel; Rojo, Juan; Stump, Daniel; Thorne, Robert S.; Yuan, C. -P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of the most recent sets of NNLO PDFs from the ABM, CT, HERAPDF, MSTW and NNPDF collaborations. We compare parton distributions at low and high scales and parton luminosities relevant for LHC phenomenology. We study the PDF dependence of LHC benchmark inclusive cross

  17. Benchmarking image fusion system design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Christopher L.

    2013-06-01

    A clear and absolute method for discriminating between image fusion algorithm performances is presented. This method can effectively be used to assist in the design and modeling of image fusion systems. Specifically, it is postulated that quantifying human task performance using image fusion should be benchmarked to whether the fusion algorithm, at a minimum, retained the performance benefit achievable by each independent spectral band being fused. The established benchmark would then clearly represent the threshold that a fusion system should surpass to be considered beneficial to a particular task. A genetic algorithm is employed to characterize the fused system parameters using a Matlab® implementation of NVThermIP as the objective function. By setting the problem up as a mixed-integer constraint optimization problem, one can effectively look backwards through the image acquisition process: optimizing fused system parameters by minimizing the difference between modeled task difficulty measure and the benchmark task difficulty measure. The results of an identification perception experiment are presented, where human observers were asked to identify a standard set of military targets, and used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the benchmarking process.

  18. Benchmarking optimization solvers for structural topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Labanda, Susana; Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    sizes is developed for this benchmarking. The problems are based on a material interpolation scheme combined with a density filter. Different optimization solvers including Optimality Criteria (OC), the Method of Moving Asymptotes (MMA) and its globally convergent version GCMMA, the interior point...

  19. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  20. Benchmarks for dynamic multi-objective optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Helbig, M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available of dynamic multi-objective optimisation algorithms (DMOAs) are highlighted. In addition, new DMOO benchmark functions with complicated Pareto-optimal sets (POSs) and approaches to develop DMOOPs with either an isolated or deceptive Pareto-optimal front (POF...