WorldWideScience

Sample records for experimental system qualitative

  1. Qualitative tools and experimental philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andow, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, and freedom. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in experimental philosophy might encounter, and provide reasons to think they are ill-founded. PMID:28392629

  2. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...

  3. Experimental lithium system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.M.; Berg, J.D.; Kolowith, R.; Miller, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Experimental Lithium System is a test loop built to support design and operation of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility. ELS has achieved over 15,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program has demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including an electromagnetic pump, lithium jet target, and vacuum system. Data on materials corrosion and behavior of lithium impurities are also presented. (author)

  4. Qualitative feature extractions of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicha, T.; Dohnal, M.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of chaos offers useful tools for systems analysis. However, models of complex systems are based on a network of inconsistent, space and uncertain knowledge items. Traditional quantitative methods of chaos analysis are therefore not applicable. The paper by the same authors [Vicha T, Dohnal M. Qualitative identification of chaotic systems behaviours. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, in press, [Log. No. 601019] ] presents qualitative interpretation of some chaos concepts. There are only three qualitative values positive/increasing, negative/decreasing and zero/constant. It means that any set of qualitative multidimensional descriptions of unsteady state behaviours is discrete and finite. A finite upper limit exists for the total number of qualitatively distinguishable scenarios. A set of 21 published chaotic models is solved qualitatively and 21 sets of all existing qualitative scenarios are presented. The intersection of all 21 scenario sets is empty. There is no such a behaviour which is common for all 21 models. The set of 21 qualitative models (e.g. Lorenz, Roessler) can be used to compare chaotic behaviours of an unknown qualitative model with them to evaluate if its chaotic behaviours is close to e.g. Lorenz chaotic model and how much

  5. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  6. Qualitative models for space system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to investigate the implications of qualitative modeling techniques for problems arising in the monitoring, diagnosis, and design of Space Station subsystems and procedures; (2) to identify the issues involved in using qualitative models to enhance and automate engineering functions. These issues include representing operational criteria, fault models, alternate ontologies, and modeling continuous signals at a functional level of description; and (3) to develop a prototype collection of qualitative models for fluid and thermal systems commonly found in Space Station subsystems. Potential applications of qualitative modeling to space-systems engineering, including the notion of intelligent computer-aided engineering are summarized. Emphasis is given to determining which systems of the proposed Space Station provide the most leverage for study, given the current state of the art. Progress on using qualitative models, including development of the molecular collection ontology for reasoning about fluids, the interaction of qualitative and quantitative knowledge in analyzing thermodynamic cycles, and an experiment on building a natural language interface to qualitative reasoning is reported. Finally, some recommendations are made for future research.

  7. Experimental inventory verification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, C.A.; Angerman, M.I.

    1991-01-01

    As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) goals and Department of Energy (DOE) inventory requirements are frequently in conflict at facilities across the DOE complex. The authors wish, on one hand, to verify the presence of correct amounts of nuclear materials that are in storage or in process; yet on the other hand, we wish to achieve ALARA goals by keeping individual and collective exposures as low as social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations permit. The Experimental Inventory Verification System (EIVSystem) is a computer-based, camera-driven system that utilizes image processing technology to detect change in vault areas. Currently in the test and evaluation phase at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this system guards personnel. The EIVSystem continually monitors the vault, providing proof of changed status for objects sorted within the vault. This paper reports that these data could provide the basis for reducing inventory requirements when no change has occurred, thus helping implement ALARA policy; the data will also help describe there target area of an inventory when change has been shown to occur

  8. Qualitative investigation of students' views about experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehui; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study examines students' reasoning surrounding seemingly contradictory Likert-scale responses within five items in the Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). We administered the E-CLASS with embedded open-ended prompts, which asked students to provide explanations after making a Likert-scale selection. The quantitative scores on those items showed that our sample of the 216 students enrolled in first year and beyond first year physics courses demonstrated the same trends as previous national data. A qualitative analysis of students' open-ended responses was used to examine common reasoning patterns related to particular Likert-scale responses. When explaining responses to items regarding the role of experiments in confirming known results and also contributing to the growth of scientific knowledge, a common reasoning pattern suggested that confirming known results in a classroom experiment can help with understanding concepts. Thus, physics experiments contribute to students' personal scientific knowledge growth, while also confirming widely known results. Many students agreed that having correct formatting and making well-reasoned conclusions are the main goal for communicating experimental results. Students who focused on sections and formatting emphasized how it enables clear and efficient communication. However, very few students discussed the link between well-reasoned conclusions and effective scientific communication. Lastly, many students argued it was possible to complete experiments without understanding equations and physics concepts. The most common justification was that they could simply follow instructions to finish the lab without understanding. The findings suggest several implications for teaching physics laboratory courses, for example, incorporating some lab activities with outcomes that are unknown to the students might have a significant impact on students' understanding of experiments as an

  9. Experimental integrated photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Markovska, Natasha; Dimitrov, D.; Kocev, K.; Dimitrovski, D.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the interest in building-integrated photovoltaic installations has started to increase within governmental and municipality authorities, as well as some industrial companies. To serve a national public-awareness program of solar electricity promotion and education, the indigenous solar energy potential, optimization of possible PV installation, and three test cases of building-integrated grid-connected experimental facilities have been studied. The results showed the feasibility and performance of the proposed concepts. (Original)

  10. Startup of Experimental Lithium System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    The Experimental Lithium System (ELS) is designed for full-scale testing of targets and other lithium system components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The system also serves as a test bed for development of lithium purification and characterization equipment, provides experience in operation of large lithium systems, and helps guide FMIT design

  11. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  12. Qualitative safety analysis in accelerator based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Chowdhury, Lekha M.

    2006-01-01

    In recent developments connected to high energy and high current accelerators, the accelerator driven systems (ADS) and the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities come in the forefront of application. For medical and industrial applications high current accelerators often need to be located in populated areas. These facilities pose significant radiological hazard during their operation and accidental situations. We have done a qualitative evaluation of radiological safety analysis using the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) methods for accelerator-based systems. The major contribution to hazard comes from a target rupture scenario in both ADS and RIB facilities. Other significant contributors to hazard in the facilities are also discussed using fault tree and event tree methodologies. (author)

  13. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten Haack

    2006-01-01

    An engineering course, Simulation and Experimental Modeling, has been developed that is based on a method for direct estimation of physical parameters in dynamic systems. Compared with classical system identification, the method appears to be easier to understand, apply, and combine with physical...

  14. Control systems for experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    At an international conference last year at Villars-sur-Ollon (Switzerland), scientists from all over the world looked at the problems of controlling complex physics installations, including particle accelerators, nuclear reactors, large telescopes and high energy physics detectors. The meeting, organized by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Experimental Physics Control Systems, EPCS, brought together 180 scientists from the world's leading experimental physics research laboratories, universities and industries

  15. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m 3 lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion

  16. Scenario development, qualitative causal analysis and system dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Ruge

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to demonstrate that technology assessments can be supported by methods such as scenario modeling and qualitative causal analysis. At Siemens, these techniques are used to develop preliminary purely qualitative models. These or parts of these comprehensive models may be extended to system dynamics models. While it is currently not possible to automatically generate a system dynamics models (or vice versa, obtain a qualitative simulation model from a system dynamics model, the two thechniques scenario development and qualitative causal analysis provide valuable indications on how to proceed towards a system dynamics model. For the qualitative analysis phase, the Siemens – proprietary prototype Computer – Aided Technology Assessment Software (CATS supportes complete cycle and submodel analysis. Keywords: Health care, telecommucations, qualitative model, sensitivity analysis, system dynamics.

  17. Qualitative identification of chaotic systems behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicha, T.; Dohnal, M.

    2008-01-01

    There are only three qualitative values positive, negative and zero. This means that there is a maximal number of qualitatively distinguishable scenarios, prescribed by the number of variables and the highest qualitative derivative taken into consideration. There are several chaos related tasks, which can be solved with great difficulties on the numerical level if multidimensional problems are studied. One of them is the identification of all qualitatively different behaviours. To make sure that all distinctive qualitative scenarios are identified a qualitative interpretation of a classical quantitative phase portrait is used. The highest derivatives are usually the second derivatives as it is not possible to safely identify higher derivatives if tasks related to ecology or economics are studied. Two classical models are discussed - Damped oscillation (non chaotic) and Lorenz model (chaotic). There are 191 scenarios of the Lorenz model if only the second derivatives are considered. If the third derivatives are taken into consideration then the number of scenarios is 2619. Complete qualitative results are given in details

  18. Qualitative behavior of global solutions to inhomogeneous quasilinear hyperbolic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, L.

    1994-01-01

    The emphasis is the influence to the qualitative behavior of solutions caused by the lower order term, which is certain dissipation, in quasilinear hyperbolic systems. Both classical solutions and discontinuous weak solutions are discussed. (author). 12 refs

  19. Experimental database retrieval system 'DARTS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Tetsuo; Tani, Keiji; Haginoya, Hirobumi; Naito, Shinjiro.

    1989-02-01

    In JT-60, a large tokamak device of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a plasma is fired for 5 ∼ 10 seconds at intervals of about 10 minutes. The each firing is called a shot. Plasma diagnostic data are edited as JT-60 experimental database at every shot cycle and are stored in a large-scale computer (FACOM-M780). Experimentalists look up the data for specific shots which they want to analyze and consider. As the total number of shots increases, they find a difficulty in the looking-up work. In order that they can easily access to their objective shot data or shot group data by using a computer terminal, 'DARTS' (DAtabase ReTrieval System) has been developed. This report may provide enough information on DARTS handling for users. (author)

  20. Experimental research control software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, I A; Kovalenko, A G; Vystavkin, A N

    2014-01-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  1. Experimental research control software system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, I. A.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Vystavkin, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  2. Making Sense of Alternative Assessment in a Qualitative Evaluation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Serrano, Javier

    2017-01-01

    In a Colombian private English institution, a qualitative evaluation system has been incorporated. This type of evaluation poses challenges to students who have never been evaluated through a system that eliminates exams or quizzes and, as a consequence, these students have to start making sense of it. This study explores the way students face the…

  3. An experimental maintenance management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Virginia's maintenance management system and to recommend modifications directed at improving it. The study revealed that (1) the current system of allocating maintenance monies is based upon centerline milea...

  4. A qualitative evaluation approach for energy system modelling frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Frauke; Hilpert, Simon; Kaldemeyer, Cord

    2018-01-01

    properties define how useful it is in regard to the existing challenges. For energy system models, evaluation methods exist, but we argue that many decisions upon properties are rather made on the model generator or framework level. Thus, this paper presents a qualitative approach to evaluate frameworks...

  5. Graphical means for inspecting qualitative models of system behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, A.; Bredeweg, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the design and evaluation of a tool for inspecting conceptual models of system behaviour. The basis for this research is the Garp framework for qualitative simulation. This framework includes modelling primitives, such as entities, quantities and causal dependencies, which are

  6. Operating systems for experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    Modern high energy physics experiments are very dependent on the use of computers and present a fairly well defined list of technical demands on them. It is therefore possible to look at the construction of a computer operating system and to see how the design choices should be made in order to make the systems as useful as possible to physics experiments or, more practically, to look at existing operating systems to see which can most easily be used to do the jobs of rapid data acquisition and checking. In these notes, operating systems are looked at from the point of view of the informed user. Emphasis is placed on systems which are intended for single processor microcomputers of the type frequently used for data acquisition applications. The principles described are, of course, equally valid for other kinds of system. (Auth.)

  7. Experimental study of oscillating plates in viscous fluids: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the flow physics and hydrodynamic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishwash; Ahsan, Syed N.; Aureli, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive experimental study on harmonic oscillations of a submerged rigid plate in a quiescent, incompressible, Newtonian, viscous fluid. The fluid-structure interaction problem is analyzed from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives via a detailed particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental campaign conducted over a broad range of oscillation frequency and amplitude parameters. Our primary goal is to identify the effect of the oscillation characteristics on the mechanisms of fluid-structure interaction and on the dynamics of vortex shedding and convection and to elucidate the behavior of hydrodynamic forces on the oscillating structure. Towards this goal, we study the flow in terms of qualitative aspects of its pathlines, vortex shedding, and symmetry breaking phenomena and identify distinct hydrodynamic regimes in the vicinity of the oscillating structure. Based on these experimental observations, we produce a novel phase diagram detailing the occurrence of distinct hydrodynamic regimes as a function of relevant governing nondimensional parameters. We further study the hydrodynamic forces associated with each regime using both PIV and direct force measurement via a load cell. Our quantitative results on experimental estimation of hydrodynamic forces show good agreement against predictions from the literature, where numerical and semi-analytical models are available. The findings and observations in this work shed light on the relationship between flow physics, vortex shedding, and convection mechanisms and the hydrodynamic forces acting on a rigid oscillating plate and, as such, have relevance to various engineering applications, including energy harvesting devices, biomimetic robotic system, and micro-mechanical sensors and actuators.

  8. Religiosity and value system of young lecturers: qualitative research data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavenkov Oleg Vladimirovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Orthodox religion as a factor of formation of spiritual and value system of young teachers. Young lecturers belong to the socio-demographic group of 20 to 35 years involved mainly in teaching and research activities. The article presents the results of a qualitative study of value system of 23 informants. The study showed that the system of values of informants is characterized by syncretism. Almost all the informants are religious, but religiosity is differently ranked in their value system. Religiosity is often in a latent form.

  9. Acquisition and treatment systems for experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouard, E.

    1988-01-01

    The acquisition and treatment systems for experimental data has been conceived to give a response to experimental requirements in a research reactor such OSIRIS. Its objective is to acquire and treat the ensemble of informations coming from one or many experiences, to archive useful data for an ulterior treatment and to give at the experimentator a tool ensemble for a better track of his experience. Its main characteristics are given in this text [fr

  10. Experimental analysis of disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Disordered systems present a special challenge to anyone interested in understanding their underlying physical properties. The author sees one aspect of this quite vividly if we compare an amorphous solid with a crystal or periodic system. Suppose you are given a material and are told that it has a particular crystal structure with a specified lattice constant (i.e., nearest-neighbor spacing). Once you are given the position of one atom and the orientation of the crystal, you will know the exact equilibrium position of every atom in the sample. A tremendous amount of information, the position of roughly 1,023 particles, has been conveyed in just a few sentences. It is not surprising that, using mathematical tools, this information can be used efficiently to calculate many of the material's important physical properties. For an amorphous solid, on the other hand, although there may be some short-range order (such as that every atom is surrounded by a well-defined coordination shell of neighbors), there is no long-range order. All that we can say about the material is that at large distances an atom is surrounded by an average density of other particles. A knowledge of this average density is much less impressive than a knowledge of the exact positions of all the particles and it provides much less information with which to construct a theory

  11. A qualitative diagnosis method for a continuous process monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, B.; Evrard, J.M.; Lorre, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    SEXTANT, an expert system for the analysis of transients, was built initially to study physical transients in nuclear reactors. It combines several knowledge bases concerning measurements, models and qualitative behavior of the plant with a generate-and-test mechanism and a set of numerical models of the physical process. The integration of an improved diagnosis method using a mixed model in SEXTANT in order to take into account the existence and the reliability of only a few number of sensors, the knowledge on failure and the possibility of non anticipated failures, is presented. This diagnosis method is based on two complementary qualitative models of the process and a methodology to build these models from a system description. 8 figs., 17 refs

  12. An experimental study for qualitatively diagnosing stapes lesions by helical 3-dimensional CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaue, Akifumi; Kuki, Kiyonori; Yamanaka, Noboru; Nishimura, Michihiko

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate qualitative diagnosis of stapes lesions by 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) combined with superselective image processing (3D-SS) of stapes, we studied helical 3D-CT on a phantom model of the temporal bone. Two stapes models were used-1 made from the bone filler, Celatite, consistent in bone density but changing in cross sectional area, and the other made from an apacerum rod used in quantitative computed tomography (QCT), consistent in cross sectional area but changing in bone density. These stapes models were put into a skull phantom and analyzed by helical 3D-CT. The influence of the tympanic cavity conditions on CT images of stapes was evaluated by filling the phantom model with Vaseline following 3D selective reconstruction. In all stapes models, lowering the lower CT window width threshold resulted in an enlarged cross-sectional area of the model. The higher the bone density, the lower the increase in cross-sectional area in the image. The stapes model with lower density had greater influence on the imaging by tympanic cavity conditions and was likely to be misdiagnosed as showing higher bone density. Based on the experimental study, 3D-SS by helical 3D-CT appears to be a useful measure for qualitatively diagnosing stapes lesions. (author)

  13. Dust removal system for fusion experimental reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Ueda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y.; Seki, Y.; Ueda, S.; Aoki, I.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a dust removal system using static electricity has been conducted. It is envisioned that the system can collect and transport dust under vacuum. In the system, the dust is charged by dielectric polarization and floated by an electrostatic attraction force that is generated by the DC electric field. The dust is then transported by the electric curtain formed by the three-phase AC electric field. Experimental investigation has been conducted to examine the characteristics of the system. Current research results indicate that the dust removal system using static electricity can be used for fusion experimental reactors

  14. Dust removal system for fusion experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M.; Ueda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Seki, Y.; Ueda, S.; Aoki, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of a dust removal system using static electricity has been conducted. It is envisioned that the system can collect and transport dust under vacuum. In the system, the dust is charged by dielectric polarization and floated by an electrostatic attraction force that is generated by the DC electric field. The dust is then transported by the electric curtain formed by the three-phase AC electric field. Experimental investigation has been conducted to examine the characteristics of the system. Current research results indicate that the dust removal system using static electricity can be used for fusion experimental reactors.

  15. Control systems: More for experimental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-03-15

    The European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Experimental Physics Control Systems (EPCS) ended 1989 on an optimistic note, welcoming its 30th member institution and having substantially enlarged its range of activities.

  16. Control systems: More for experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Experimental Physics Control Systems (EPCS) ended 1989 on an optimistic note, welcoming its 30th member institution and having substantially enlarged its range of activities.

  17. Computer system for Monte Carlo experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A new computer system for Monte Carlo Experimentation is presented. The new system speeds and simplifies the process of coding and preparing a Monte Carlo Experiment; it also encourages the proper design of Monte Carlo Experiments, and the careful analysis of the experimental results. A new functional language is the core of this system. Monte Carlo Experiments, and their experimental designs, are programmed in this new language; those programs are compiled into Fortran output. The Fortran output is then compiled and executed. The experimental results are analyzed with a standard statistics package such as Si, Isp, or Minitab or with a user-supplied program. Both the experimental results and the experimental design may be directly loaded into the workspace of those packages. The new functional language frees programmers from many of the details of programming an experiment. Experimental designs such as factorial, fractional factorial, or latin square are easily described by the control structures and expressions of the language. Specific mathematical modes are generated by the routines of the language

  18. Experimental functional realization of attribute grammar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Attali

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental functional realization of attribute grammar(AG system for personal computers. For AG system functioning only Turbo Prolog compiler is required. The system functioning is based on a specially elaborated metalanguage for AG description, universal syntactic and semantic constructors. The AG system provides automatic generation of target compiler (syntax--oriented software using Turbo Prolog as object language.

  19. Experimental Study of a Thermoelectric Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Junpeng; Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2011-01-01

    . System-level simulation is carried out using a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model that enables direct comparison with experimental results. The results of both experiment and simulation will provide a foundation to improve and optimize complex thermoelectric generation systems....

  20. System Based Practice in Iran: A Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrolsadat Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systems-based practice (SBP is one of the six competencies introduced to assess the competency of physicians in America. In this study, we aimed to define the characteristics of SBP for general practitioners in Iran using content analysis in order to gain maximum qualitative data.Methods: A qualitative content analysis was conducted and the units of analysis were ministry documents, interviews with four managers, one expert and five general and family physicians. Inductive analysis process was mainly performed by open coding, abstraction, categorization, and definign themes using the iterative method.Results: 65 codes were placed in 16 sub-categories and 7 categories. Three themes emerged: Effective role playing in inter-professional team, balanced decision between patient needs and system goals, and actingfor system improvement. These themes were accompanied by meaning units that clarified their meaning. Conclusion: The exact definition of these themes in Iran could facilitate SBP training as well as evaluation.Keywords: SYSTEM BASED PRACTICE, ALIGNMENT, HEALTH ADVOCACY

  1. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures

  2. Qualitative Evaluation of the Java Intelligent Tutoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Sykes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to support the growing trend of the Java programming language and to promote web-based personalized education, the Java Intelligent Tutoring System (JITS was designed and developed. This tutoring system is unique in a number of ways. Most Intelligent Tutoring Systems require the teacher to author problems with corresponding solutions. JITS, on the other hand, requires the teacher to only supply the problem and problem specification. JITS is designed to "intelligently" examine the student's submitted code and determines appropriate feedback based on a number of factors such as JITS' cognitive model of the student, the student's skill level, and problem details. JITS is intended to be used by beginner programming students in their first year of College or University. This paper discusses the important aspects of the design and development of JITS, the qualitative methods and procedures, and findings. Research was conducted at the Sheridan Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, Ontario, Canada.

  3. Partially to fully saturated flow through smooth, clean, open fractures: qualitative experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brendon R.; Brouwers, Luke B.; Dippenaar, Matthys A.

    2018-05-01

    Fractures are both rough and irregular but can be expressed by a simple model concept of two smooth parallel plates and the associated cubic law governing discharge through saturated fractures. However, in natural conditions and in the intermediate vadose zone, these assumptions are likely violated. This paper presents a qualitative experimental study investigating the cubic law under variable saturation in initially dry free-draining discrete fractures. The study comprised flow visualisation experiments conducted on transparent replicas of smooth parallel plates with inlet conditions of constant pressure and differing flow rates over both vertical and horizontal inclination. Flow conditions were altered to investigate the influence of intermittent and continuous influx scenarios. Findings from this research proved, for instance, that saturated laminar flow is not likely achieved, especially in nonhorizontal fractures. In vertical fractures, preferential flow occupies the minority of cross-sectional area despite the water supply. Movement of water through the fractured vadose zone therefore becomes a matter of the continuity principle, whereby water should theoretically be transported downward at significantly higher flow rates given the very low degree of water saturation. Current techniques that aim to quantify discrete fracture flow, notably at partial saturation, are questionable. Inspired by the results of this study, it is therefore hypothetically improbable to achieve saturation in vertical fractures under free-draining wetting conditions. It does become possible under extremely excessive water inflows or when not free-draining; however, the converse is not true, as a wet vertical fracture can be drained.

  4. Partially to fully saturated flow through smooth, clean, open fractures: qualitative experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brendon R.; Brouwers, Luke B.; Dippenaar, Matthys A.

    2017-11-01

    Fractures are both rough and irregular but can be expressed by a simple model concept of two smooth parallel plates and the associated cubic law governing discharge through saturated fractures. However, in natural conditions and in the intermediate vadose zone, these assumptions are likely violated. This paper presents a qualitative experimental study investigating the cubic law under variable saturation in initially dry free-draining discrete fractures. The study comprised flow visualisation experiments conducted on transparent replicas of smooth parallel plates with inlet conditions of constant pressure and differing flow rates over both vertical and horizontal inclination. Flow conditions were altered to investigate the influence of intermittent and continuous influx scenarios. Findings from this research proved, for instance, that saturated laminar flow is not likely achieved, especially in nonhorizontal fractures. In vertical fractures, preferential flow occupies the minority of cross-sectional area despite the water supply. Movement of water through the fractured vadose zone therefore becomes a matter of the continuity principle, whereby water should theoretically be transported downward at significantly higher flow rates given the very low degree of water saturation. Current techniques that aim to quantify discrete fracture flow, notably at partial saturation, are questionable. Inspired by the results of this study, it is therefore hypothetically improbable to achieve saturation in vertical fractures under free-draining wetting conditions. It does become possible under extremely excessive water inflows or when not free-draining; however, the converse is not true, as a wet vertical fracture can be drained.

  5. A qualitative numerical study of high dimensional dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, David James

    Since Poincare, the father of modern mathematical dynamical systems, much effort has been exerted to achieve a qualitative understanding of the physical world via a qualitative understanding of the functions we use to model the physical world. In this thesis, we construct a numerical framework suitable for a qualitative, statistical study of dynamical systems using the space of artificial neural networks. We analyze the dynamics along intervals in parameter space, separating the set of neural networks into roughly four regions: the fixed point to the first bifurcation; the route to chaos; the chaotic region; and a transition region between chaos and finite-state neural networks. The study is primarily with respect to high-dimensional dynamical systems. We make the following general conclusions as the dimension of the dynamical system is increased: the probability of the first bifurcation being of type Neimark-Sacker is greater than ninety-percent; the most probable route to chaos is via a cascade of bifurcations of high-period periodic orbits, quasi-periodic orbits, and 2-tori; there exists an interval of parameter space such that hyperbolicity is violated on a countable, Lebesgue measure 0, "increasingly dense" subset; chaos is much more likely to persist with respect to parameter perturbation in the chaotic region of parameter space as the dimension is increased; moreover, as the number of positive Lyapunov exponents is increased, the likelihood that any significant portion of these positive exponents can be perturbed away decreases with increasing dimension. The maximum Kaplan-Yorke dimension and the maximum number of positive Lyapunov exponents increases linearly with dimension. The probability of a dynamical system being chaotic increases exponentially with dimension. The results with respect to the first bifurcation and the route to chaos comment on previous results of Newhouse, Ruelle, Takens, Broer, Chenciner, and Iooss. Moreover, results regarding the high

  6. Learning about Ecological Systems by Constructing Qualitative Models with DynaLearn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiba, Moshe; Zuzovsky, Ruth; Mioduser, David; Benayahu, Yehuda; Nachmias, Rafi

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative model of a system is an abstraction that captures ordinal knowledge and predicts the set of qualitatively possible behaviours of the system, given a qualitative description of its structure and initial state. This paper examines an innovative approach to science education using an interactive learning environment that supports…

  7. Systematic integration of experimental data and models in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peter; Dada, Joseph O; Jameson, Daniel; Spasic, Irena; Swainston, Neil; Carroll, Kathleen; Dunn, Warwick; Khan, Farid; Malys, Naglis; Messiha, Hanan L; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Weichart, Dieter; Winder, Catherine; Wishart, Jill; Broomhead, David S; Goble, Carole A; Gaskell, Simon J; Kell, Douglas B; Westerhoff, Hans V; Mendes, Pedro; Paton, Norman W

    2010-11-29

    The behaviour of biological systems can be deduced from their mathematical models. However, multiple sources of data in diverse forms are required in the construction of a model in order to define its components and their biochemical reactions, and corresponding parameters. Automating the assembly and use of systems biology models is dependent upon data integration processes involving the interoperation of data and analytical resources. Taverna workflows have been developed for the automated assembly of quantitative parameterised metabolic networks in the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). A SBML model is built in a systematic fashion by the workflows which starts with the construction of a qualitative network using data from a MIRIAM-compliant genome-scale model of yeast metabolism. This is followed by parameterisation of the SBML model with experimental data from two repositories, the SABIO-RK enzyme kinetics database and a database of quantitative experimental results. The models are then calibrated and simulated in workflows that call out to COPASIWS, the web service interface to the COPASI software application for analysing biochemical networks. These systems biology workflows were evaluated for their ability to construct a parameterised model of yeast glycolysis. Distributed information about metabolic reactions that have been described to MIRIAM standards enables the automated assembly of quantitative systems biology models of metabolic networks based on user-defined criteria. Such data integration processes can be implemented as Taverna workflows to provide a rapid overview of the components and their relationships within a biochemical system.

  8. Qualitative models and experimental investigation of chaotic NOR gates and set/reset flip-flops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Jordan, Ian; Blackmore, Denis

    2018-01-01

    It has been observed through experiments and SPICE simulations that logical circuits based upon Chua's circuit exhibit complex dynamical behaviour. This behaviour can be used to design analogues of more complex logic families and some properties can be exploited for electronics applications. Some of these circuits have been modelled as systems of ordinary differential equations. However, as the number of components in newer circuits increases so does the complexity. This renders continuous dynamical systems models impractical and necessitates new modelling techniques. In recent years, some discrete dynamical models have been developed using various simplifying assumptions. To create a robust modelling framework for chaotic logical circuits, we developed both deterministic and stochastic discrete dynamical models, which exploit the natural recurrence behaviour, for two chaotic NOR gates and a chaotic set/reset flip-flop. This work presents a complete applied mathematical investigation of logical circuits. Experiments on our own designs of the above circuits are modelled and the models are rigorously analysed and simulated showing surprisingly close qualitative agreement with the experiments. Furthermore, the models are designed to accommodate dynamics of similarly designed circuits. This will allow researchers to develop ever more complex chaotic logical circuits with a simple modelling framework.

  9. Variability Bugs in Highly Configurable Systems: A Qualitative Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Melo, Jean; Stanciulescu, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Variability-sensitive verification pursues effective analysis of the exponentially many variants in number of features of a program family. Several variability-aware techniques have been proposed, but researchers still lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, occurring in real large......-scale systems. A collection of real world bugs is needed to evaluate tool implementations of variability-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 98 diverse variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits in the Apache, BusyBox, Linux kernel and Marlin repositories....... We analyze each of the bugs, and record the results in a database. For each bug, we create a self-contained simplified C99 version and a simplified patch, in order to help researchers who are not experts on these subject studies to understand them, so that they can use it for evaluation...

  10. Real-time qualitative reasoning for telerobotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Eancois G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the sensor-based telerobotic driving of a car in a-priori unknown environments using 'human-like' reasoning schemes implemented on custom-designed VLSI fuzzy inferencing boards. These boards use the Fuzzy Set theoretic framework to allow very vast (30 kHz) processing of full sets of information that are expressed in qualitative form using membership functions. The sensor-based and fuzzy inferencing system was incorporated on an outdoor test-bed platform to investigate two control modes for driving a car on the basis of very sparse and imprecise range data. In the first mode, the car navigates fully autonomously to a goal specified by the operator, while in the second mode, the system acts as a telerobotic driver's aid providing the driver with linguistic (fuzzy) commands to turn left or right, speed up, slow down, stop, or back up depending on the obstacles perceived by the sensors. Indoor and outdoor experiments with both modes of control are described in which the system uses only three acoustic range (sonar) sensor channels to perceive the environment. Sample results are presented that illustrate the feasibility of developing autonomous navigation modules and robust, safety-enhancing driver's aids for telerobotic systems using the new fuzzy inferencing VLSI hardware and 'human-like' reasoning schemes.

  11. Experimental evaluation of Arabic OCR systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Alghamdi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this paper is to experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of the state-of-the-art printed Arabic text recognition systems to determine open areas for future improvements. In addition, this paper proposes a standard protocol with a set of metrics for measuring the effectiveness of Arabic optical character recognition (OCR systems to assist researchers in comparing different Arabic OCR approaches. Design/methodology/approach – This paper describes an experiment to automatically evaluate four well-known Arabic OCR systems using a set of performance metrics. The evaluation experiment is conducted on a publicly available printed Arabic dataset comprising 240 text images with a variety of resolution levels, font types, font styles and font sizes. Findings – The experimental results show that the field of character recognition for printed Arabic still requires further research to reach an efficient text recognition method for Arabic script. Originality/value – To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work that provides a comprehensive automated evaluation of Arabic OCR systems with respect to the characteristics of Arabic script and, in addition, proposes an evaluation methodology that can be used as a benchmark by researchers and therefore will contribute significantly to the enhancement of the field of Arabic script recognition.

  12. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Abbasi Moghadam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital information system (HIS should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, in-depth personal interviews were conducted with the hospital's senior managers, and discussions were conducted in six to eight member focus groups. To include participants for interviews, purposive sampling was used in an Iranian hospital among doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers who had experience in using HIS. Data collection continued until saturation stage. The meetings took about 90 to 120 minutes, in which the participants were asked about discovering needs as well as facilitating and inhibiting factors regarding HIS application. Two members of the research team independently analyzed the interview transcripts.  As a result, problems in HIS isolation were reported to be related to the following: software, hardware, manpower, management and training. About the last point, it was stated that adequate continuing professional development programs did not exist for proper use of computers in the hospital. To achieve the ultimate goal of HISs (e.g. increasing patient satisfaction and decreasing hospital costs, it is necessary to create basic changes in the training system, and to get feedback from hospital personnel. Other steps include addressing software and hardware shortcomings as well as moving towards reinforcing the facilitating factors and refraining from inhibiting ones discovered in this study.

  13. Toward a Cooperative Experimental System Development Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1997-01-01

    This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis....../design activities of development projects. In contrast, the CESD approach is characterized by its focus on: active user involvement throughout the entire development process; prototyping experiments closely coupled to work-situations and use-scenarios; transforming results from early cooperative analysis...

  14. Experimental chaos in nonlinear vibration isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jingjun; Zhu Shijian; He Lin; He Qiwei

    2009-01-01

    The chaotic vibration isolation method was studied thoroughly from an experimental perspective. The nonlinear load-deflection characteristic of the conical coil spring used in the experiment was surveyed. Chaos and subharmonic responses including period-2 and period-6 motions were observed. The line spectrum reduction and the drop of the acceleration vibration level in chaotic state and that in non-chaotic state were compared, respectively. It was concluded from the experiment that the nonlinear vibration isolation system in chaotic state has strong ability in line spectrum reduction.

  15. The Aircraft Electric Taxi System: A Qualitative Multi Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Frank

    The problem this research addresses is the airline industry, and the seemingly unwillingness attitude towards adopting ways to taxi aircraft without utilizing thrust from the main engines. The purpose of the study was to get a better understanding of the decision-making process of airline executives, in respect to investing in cost saving technology. A qualitative research method is used from personal interviews with 24 airline executives from two major U.S. airlines, related industry journal articles, and aircraft performance data. The following three research questions are addressed. RQ1. Does the cost of jet fuel influence airline executives' decision of adopting the aircraft electric taxi system technology? RQ2 Does the measurable payback period for a return on investment influence airline executives' decision of adopting ETS technology? RQ3. Does the amount of government assistance influence airline executives' decision of adopting ETS technology? A multi case research study design is used with a triangulation technique. The participant perceptions indicate the need to reduce operating costs, they have concerns about investment risk, and they are in favor of future government sponsored performance improvement projects. Based on the framework, findings and implications of this study, a future research paper could focus on the positive environmental effects of the ETS application. A study could be conducted on current airport area air quality and the effects that aircraft main engine thrust taxiing has on the surrounding air quality.

  16. Fault diagnosis of air conditioning systems based on qualitative bond graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiaus, C.

    1999-01-01

    The bond graph method represents a unified approach for modeling engineering systems. The main idea is that power transfer bonds the components of a system. The bond graph model is the same for both quantitative representation, in which parameters have numerical values, and qualitative approach, in which they are classified qualitatively. To infer the cause of faults using a qualitative method, a system of qualitative equations must be solved. However, the characteristics of qualitative operators require specific methods for solving systems of equations having qualitative variables. This paper proposes both a method for recursively solving the qualitative system of equations derived from bond graph, and a bond graph model of a direct-expansion, mechanical vapor-compression air conditioning system. Results from diagnosing two faults in a real air conditioning system are presented and discussed. Occasionally, more than one fault candidate is inferred for the same set of qualitative values derived from measurements. In these cases, additional information is required to localize the fault. Fault diagnosis is initiated by a fault detection mechanism which also classifies the quantitative measurements into qualitative values; the fault detection is not presented here. (author)

  17. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvel Skylar W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This

  18. Experimental grid connected PV system power analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaoui, Smail; Abdeladim, Kamel; Arab, Amar Hadj; Boulahchich, Saliha; Amrouche, Said Ould; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2018-05-01

    Almost 80 % of Algerian territory is appropriate for the exploitation of solar energy. The Algerian energetic strategy provides a substantial injection of PV electricity to the national grid. Currently, about 344 MWp of PV arrays which corresponds approximately to 2,34 km2 of module surfaces, are connected on electricity grid over the national territory. The Algerian Northern regions are characterized by strong pollution and high humidity. These phenomena affect the energetic productivity of PV generator. The objective of our study is to analyze experimental grid connected PV system power in coastal locations. Hence, experiments have been conducted on three identical PV systems to determine the electrical performances. Transformer-less inverters are the most attractive for the ground-based photovoltaic (PV) system due to their efficiencies, reduced cost and weight. Besides, the absence of the galvanic isolation generates problems of capacitive leakage current on the AC side and the degradation of the insulation resistance on the DC side of the inverter. In this work, experimental study of the behavior of single-phase inverters without transformers is presented. The main objective of this work is to study the degradation of the insulation resistance at the input of the inverter, and the capacitive leakage current at the output of the inverter. This study was achieved at the CDER on a rainy day of 15/03/2017, on the first PV plant connected to the low voltage network in Algeria. This investigation can help forecasting the PV array energetic production by taking into account natural conditions.

  19. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  20. [The effect of qualitatively different fatty components of the diet on mitochondrial membranes in animals with experimental anthracosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichkhadze, G M; Daĭker, V R

    1989-01-01

    The diets with qualitatively different content of fat were found to produce structural and functional alternations in liver mitochondria of rats with experimental anthracosis. It was established in particular that the increase of the vegetable oil quota in the diet of rats affected the structure and function of mitochondria whereas the diet whose fat component included butter, lard, sunflower oil, and margarine at a ratio of 1:1, 5:1:0.5 reduced the untoward effect of coal dust and exercise on the mitochondrial membranes.

  1. Try and try again--qualitative insights into adolescent smoking experimentation and notions of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine; Wood, Lisa; Phillips, Fiona; Rosenberg, Michael

    2010-12-01

    addiction is a relatively unexplored issue in youth tobacco control. Increasingly, there is recognition of addiction experiences in regular and irregular teenage smokers. Research was undertaken on behalf of the Smarter than Smoking (STS) project to probe young people's reasons for smoking uptake, their attitudes towards the social acceptability of smoking, predictors of continued smoking after trial and understandings and perceptions of addiction. twenty focus groups were conducted to collect qualitative data from young people (n=92) aged 13 to 15 years from metropolitan and regional areas of Western Australia (WA), from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds, including young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. of the young people spoken to, 20% smoked regularly, 40% had tried smoking and 40% had never tried. Acceptability and normalcy of trialling smoking was a recurring theme, with little perceived risk of trial leading to regular smoking or becoming addicted. Even non-smokers accepted 'just having a try' in the context of curiosity, life experiences and 'informed choice'. preventing continuation after trial of smoking among young people needs to increase in importance, given the prevailing norms around 'trying it' and individual choice.

  2. An experimental system for thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.E.G.; George, E.

    1965-08-01

    A thermoluminescent dosimeter (T.L.D.) reader has been developed for experimental investigations on the use of lithium fluoride for 'finger tip' dosimetry. The design of the reader is based on the maximum use of standard electronic units in the A.E.R.E. Type 2000 series but some new unit development has been necessary. The reader gives improved experimental facilities over present commercially-available designs. The technique for 'finger-tip' dosimetry is described and the initial experimental results are given. (author)

  3. Qualitative Knowledge Construction for Engineering Systems: Extending the Design Structure Matrix Methodology in Scope and Procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartolomei, Jason E

    2007-01-01

    ...), by providing a dynamic, end-to-end representation of an engineering system. In support of this contribution, a new research methodology is presented called Qualitative Knowledge Construction (QKC...

  4. A conceptual framework to model long-run qualitative change in the energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Ebersberger, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    A conceptual framework to model long-run qualitative change in the energy system / A. Pyka, B. Ebersberger, H. Hanusch. - In: Evolution and economic complexity / ed. J. Stanley Metcalfe ... - Cheltenham [u.a.] : Elgar, 2004. - S. 191-213

  5. Integrating qualitative research methods into care improvement efforts within a learning health system: addressing antibiotic overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Parry, Carla; Hahn, Erin E; Tang, Tania; Nguyen, Huong Q; Gould, Michael K; Kanter, Michael H; Sharp, Adam L

    2016-08-15

    Despite reports advocating for integration of research into healthcare delivery, scant literature exists describing how this can be accomplished. Examples highlighting application of qualitative research methods embedded into a healthcare system are particularly needed. This article describes the process and value of embedding qualitative research as the second phase of an explanatory, sequential, mixed methods study to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. Purposive sampling of providers for in-depth interviews improved understanding of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing and elicited stakeholder recommendations for improvement. Qualitative data collection, transcription and constant comparative analyses occurred iteratively. Emerging themes and sub-themes identified primary drivers of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing patterns and recommendations for improving practice. These findings informed the design of a health system intervention to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. Core components of the intervention are also described. Qualitative research can be effectively applied in learning healthcare systems to elucidate quantitative results and inform improvement efforts.

  6. An experimental study of a flashing-driven CANDU moderator cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khartabil, H F; Spinks, N J [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The results of an experimental study to investigate the feasibility of using a passive flashing-driven natural circulation loop for CANDU-reactor moderator heat rejection are presented. A scaled loop was constructed and tested at conditions approximating those of a CANDU calandria cooling system. The results showed that stable loop operation was possible at simulated powers approaching normal full power. At lower powers, flow oscillations occurred as the flow in the hot-leg periodically changed from two-phase to single-phase. The results from earlier numerical predictions using the CATHENA thermalhydraulics code showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results. (author). 6 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Development of the NSRR experimental data bank system, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishijima, Kiyomi; Uemura, Mutsumi; Ohnishi, Nobuaki

    1981-01-01

    To promote collection, arrangement, and utilization of the NSRR experimental data, development of the NSRR experimental data bank system was intended. Fundamental parts of the NSRR experimental data bank system, including the processing program DTBNK, have been completed. Data of the experiments performed so far have been collected and stored. Outline of the processing program and the method of utilization and the present status of the data bank system are discussed. (author)

  8. Avaliação qualitativa em modelo experimental fotoelástico do sistema de força gerado pela mola "T" centralizada com pré-ativações preconizadas por Burstone Qualitative evaluation in photoelastic experimental models of the force system generated by T-springs placed in the center of the interbracket space with pre-activations advocated by Burstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme Martins Maia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o sistema de forças gerado pela mola T centralizada no espaço interbraquete, com pré-ativação preconizada por Burstone. MÉTODOS: utilizando-se modelos fotoelásticos, a mola T com pré-ativações preconizadas por Burstone, confeccionada com fio retangular de titânio-molibdênio (TMA de secção 0,017"x 0,025", centralizada e com ativação de 6mm, 3mm e em posição neutra. Para melhor confiabilidade dos resultados, os testes foram repetidos em três modelos igualmente duplicados e confeccionados pelo mesmo operador. Utilizou-se uma distância interbraquetes de 27mm. Para compreensão dos resultados, as franjas foram visualizadas através do polariscópio, fotografadas e analisadas qualitativamente. RESULTADOS: por meio da análise qualitativa da ordem de franjas no modelo fotoelástico, notou-se que, nas extremidades de retração e ancoragem, ambas apresentaram simetria no sistema de força, em toda extensão radicular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the force system generated by T-springs placed in the center of the interbracket space using the pre-activations advocated by Burstone. METHODS: Photoelastic models were used to assess T-springs fabricated with 0.017x0.025-in rectangular titanium-molybdenum alloy wire (TMA, centrally positioned, with 6.0 mm activation, 3 mm activation, and in neutral position. To ensure reliable results, tests were repeated on three photoelastic models equally duplicated and fabricated by the same operator. An interbracket distance of 27.0 mm was used. For a better understanding of the results, the fringes were viewed in a polariscope, then photographed and qualitatively analyzed. RESULTS: Through qualitative analysis of the fringe order in the photoelastic model it was noted that both the retraction and anchorage ends displayed force system symmetry across the full extent of the root.

  9. Development of X-ray diffractometers XD-D1 AI qualitative analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroshi; Uota, Atsushi; Ishida, Hidenobu

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative X-ray diffraction is a very important analytical method, however, it is also very difficult to perform and needs some special skills. Also, the analysis accuracy depends on the operators' knowledge of qualitative analysis. In order that even a beginner analyst can obtain accurate results, we have developed the 'XD-D1 AI Qualitative Analysis System'. This system can support analytical operations with the experts' knowledge made available by AI techniques. Systematizing the experts' knowledge, we applied the system to our expert shell 'GENZO-I/PRO'. This system enabled a beginner analyst to get the same results as a specialist would get. In this paper, we will describe the process of system design, system construction and an example analysis. (author)

  10. Qualitative Description of Electric Power System Future States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Trevor D.; Corbin, Charles D.

    2018-03-06

    The simulation and evaluation of transactive systems depends to a large extent on the context in which those efforts are performed. Assumptions regarding the composition of the electric power system, the regulatory and policy environment, the distribution of renewable and other distributed energy resources (DERs), technological advances, and consumer engagement all contribute to, and affect, the evaluation of any given transactive system, regardless of its design. It is our position that the assumptions made about the state of the future power grid will determine, to some extent, the systems ultimately deployed, and that the transactive system itself may play an important role in the evolution of the power system.

  11. Problems of Clinical Nurse Performance Appraisal System: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Nikpeyma

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study reveal that the nurse performance appraisal system confronts with various problems. Some of these problems are related to organizational context while the others concerned structure, process and results of the performance appraisal system. In order to achieve high quality of patient care as the final goal of performance appraisal, changing and revision of this system is necessary.

  12. A qualitative approach to systemic diagnosis of the SSME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy W.; Maul, William A.

    1993-01-01

    A generic software architecture has been developed for posttest diagnostics of rocket engines, and is presently being applied to the posttest analysis of the SSME. This investigation deals with the Systems Section module of the architecture, which is presently under development. Overviews of the manual SSME systems analysis process and the overall SSME diagnostic system architecture are presented.

  13. CONFIG - Adapting qualitative modeling and discrete event simulation for design of fault management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Basham, Bryan D.

    1989-01-01

    CONFIG is a modeling and simulation tool prototype for analyzing the normal and faulty qualitative behaviors of engineered systems. Qualitative modeling and discrete-event simulation have been adapted and integrated, to support early development, during system design, of software and procedures for management of failures, especially in diagnostic expert systems. Qualitative component models are defined in terms of normal and faulty modes and processes, which are defined by invocation statements and effect statements with time delays. System models are constructed graphically by using instances of components and relations from object-oriented hierarchical model libraries. Extension and reuse of CONFIG models and analysis capabilities in hybrid rule- and model-based expert fault-management support systems are discussed.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  15. Management system and organizational life cycle: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Zone Fekih Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This research deals with the importance of the components of the management system according to the phases of organizational life cycle. The goal of our research is to provide the theoretical reflection on the life cycle of the organization and to shed light on the components of the management system for each phase. The conceptual analysis shows that the management system is made up of its three components: ethics, mode of functioning and procedure of regulation. The organizational life cycle...

  16. Data acquisition system from uncorrelated experimental inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bals, I.; Caprini, M.; Goran, B.; Lutescu, S.; Niculescu, D.

    1974-01-01

    The system described in this work was performed as a small acquisition center for neutron physics experiment and was designed as a specialized device. The system was entirely MSI and SSI integrated circuits performed using 33 double sided printed circuit boards. The modular structure with information flow on buses led to wining simplification. The system can be further developed, using appropriate interfaces and programming modules to extend the range of possible experiments

  17. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE

  18. Experimental overview on small collision systems at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loizides, Constantin

    2016-12-15

    These conferences proceedings summarize the experimental findings obtained in small collision systems at the LHC, as presented in the special session on “QGP in small systems?” at the Quark Matter 2015 conference.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of solvent systems for countercurrent separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, J Brent; Ahmed, Sana; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-01-16

    Rational solvent system selection for countercurrent chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography technology (collectively known as countercurrent separation) studies continues to be a scientific challenge as the fundamental questions of comparing polarity range and selectivity within a solvent system family and between putative orthogonal solvent systems remain unanswered. The current emphasis on metabolomic investigations and analysis of complex mixtures necessitates the use of successive orthogonal countercurrent separation (CS) steps as part of complex fractionation protocols. Addressing the broad range of metabolite polarities demands development of new CS solvent systems with appropriate composition, polarity (π), selectivity (σ), and suitability. In this study, a mixture of twenty commercially available natural products, called the GUESSmix, was utilized to evaluate both solvent system polarity and selectively characteristics. Comparisons of GUESSmix analyte partition coefficient (K) values give rise to a measure of solvent system polarity range called the GUESSmix polarity index (GUPI). Solvatochromic dye and electrical permittivity measurements were also evaluated in quantitatively assessing solvent system polarity. The relative selectivity of solvent systems were evaluated with the GUESSmix by calculating the pairwise resolution (αip), the number of analytes found in the sweet spot (Nsw), and the pairwise resolution of those sweet spot analytes (αsw). The combination of these parameters allowed for both intra- and inter-family comparison of solvent system selectivity. Finally, 2-dimensional reciprocal shifted symmetry plots (ReSS(2)) were created to visually compare both the polarities and selectivities of solvent system pairs. This study helps to pave the way to the development of new solvent systems that are amenable to successive orthogonal CS protocols employed in metabolomic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Patient Safety Learning Systems: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A patient safety learning system (sometimes called a critical incident reporting system) refers to structured reporting, collation, and analysis of critical incidents. To inform a provincial working group's recommendations for an Ontario Patient Safety Event Learning System, a systematic review was undertaken to determine design features that would optimize its adoption into the health care system and would inform implementation strategies. The objective of this review was to address two research questions: (a) what are the barriers to and facilitators of successful adoption of a patient safety learning system reported by health professionals and (b) what design components maximize successful adoption and implementation? To answer the first question, we used a published systematic review. To answer the second question, we used scoping study methodology. Common barriers reported in the literature by health care professionals included fear of blame, legal penalties, the perception that incident reporting does not improve patient safety, lack of organizational support, inadequate feedback, lack of knowledge about incident reporting systems, and lack of understanding about what constitutes an error. Common facilitators included a non-accusatory environment, the perception that incident reporting improves safety, clarification of the route of reporting and of how the system uses reports, enhanced feedback, role models (such as managers) using and promoting reporting, legislated protection of those who report, ability to report anonymously, education and training opportunities, and clear guidelines on what to report. Components of a patient safety learning system that increased successful adoption and implementation were emphasis on a blame-free culture that encourages reporting and learning, clear guidelines on how and what to report, making sure the system is user-friendly, organizational development support for data analysis to generate meaningful learning outcomes

  1. Qualitative Description and Quantitative Optimization of Tactical Reconnaissance Agents System Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of qualitative description and quantitative optimization for tactical reconnaissance agents system organization is considered with objective of higher teamwork efficiency and more reasonable task balancing strategies. By analyzing tactical reconnaissance system and its environment, task-(role-entity agent mapping mechanism and agents in system organization, the system framework is qualitatively described. By transforming the system into an interaction task request-service mechanism queuing system, a Markov chain of system state transition is obtained, since its state transition process in interaction is Markov process and accords with real tactical reconnaissance behaviors. By solving the state transition equations, the inherent relationship of tactical reconnaissance agents is found and the optimized system configuration is obtained. The established simulation demonstration system proves that the proposed approach and model are feasible and effective.

  2. Qualitative Phenomenological Study of Data Management Information System Deployments: Financial Services Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Dannie J.

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of financial services industry change managers to understand the genesis of low data management information system project adoption rates. The goal of the study was to find methods to improve data management information system adoption rates. The participant pool consisted of 19…

  3. Computer aided approach for qualitative risk assessment of engineered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, W.K.; Arendt, J.S.; Fussell, J.B.; Rooney, J.J.; Wagner, D.P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper outlines a computer aided methodology for determining the relative contributions of various subsystems and components to the total risk associated with an engineered system. Major contributors to overall task risk are identified through comparison of an expected frequency density function with an established risk criterion. Contributions that are inconsistently high are also identified. The results from this analysis are useful for directing efforts for improving system safety and performance. An analysis of uranium hexafluoride handling risk at a gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plant using a preliminary version of the computer program EXCON is briefly described and illustrated

  4. Software Safety Analysis of Digital Protection System Requirements Using a Qualitative Formal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Kwon, Kee-Choon; Cha, Sung-Deok

    2004-01-01

    The safety analysis of requirements is a key problem area in the development of software for the digital protection systems of a nuclear power plant. When specifying requirements for software of the digital protection systems and conducting safety analysis, engineers find that requirements are often known only in qualitative terms and that existing fault-tree analysis techniques provide little guidance on formulating and evaluating potential failure modes. A framework for the requirements engineering process is proposed that consists of a qualitative method for requirements specification, called the qualitative formal method (QFM), and a safety analysis method for the requirements based on causality information, called the causal requirements safety analysis (CRSA). CRSA is a technique that qualitatively evaluates causal relationships between software faults and physical hazards. This technique, extending the qualitative formal method process and utilizing information captured in the state trajectory, provides specific guidelines on how to identify failure modes and the relationship among them. The QFM and CRSA processes are described using shutdown system 2 of the Wolsong nuclear power plants as the digital protection system example

  5. Experimental OAI-Based Digital Library Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L. (Editor); Maly, Kurt (Editor); Zubair, Mohammad (Editor); Rusch-Feja, Diann (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is to develop a simple, lightweight framework to facilitate the discovery of content in distributed archives (http://www.openarchives.org). The focus of the workshop held at the 5th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL 2001) was to bring researchers in the area of digital libraries who are building OAI based systems so as to share their experiences, problems they are facing, and approaches they are taking to address them. The workshop consisted of invited talks from well-established researchers working in building OAI based digital library system along with short paper presentations.

  6. Experimental modeling of a deoiling hydrocyclone system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bram, Mads Valentin; Hassan, Abdiladif Ahmed; Hansen, Dennis Severin

    2015-01-01

    responses of PDR via dedicated experiments a set of first-order-plus-dead-time (FOPDT) models that represent the main characteristics of the concerned hydrocyclone system is developed and analyzed for the entire operating range. The obtained multiple FOPDT models can illustrate the system performance...... acrylic hydrocyclone was tested as proof of concept for obtaining its steady-state and dynamic performances. The steady-state performance is able to provide the proportional correlation between PDR and flow split which is essential for optimizing steady-state separation efficiency. By analyzing step...

  7. Sociotechnical factors influencing unsafe use of hospital information systems: A qualitative study in Malaysian government hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Lizawati; Ismail, Zuraini; Hashim, Ummi Rabaah; Raja Ikram, Raja Rina; Ismail, Nor Haslinda; Naim Mohayat, Mohd Hariz

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to identify factors influencing unsafe use of hospital information systems in Malaysian government hospitals. Semi-structured interviews with 31 medical doctors in three Malaysian government hospitals implementing total hospital information systems were conducted between March and May 2015. A thematic qualitative analysis was performed on the resultant data to deduce the relevant themes. A total of five themes emerged as the factors influencing unsafe use of a hospital information system: (1) knowledge, (2) system quality, (3) task stressor, (4) organization resources, and (5) teamwork. These qualitative findings highlight that factors influencing unsafe use of a hospital information system originate from multidimensional sociotechnical aspects. Unsafe use of a hospital information system could possibly lead to the incidence of errors and thus raises safety risks to the patients. Hence, multiple interventions (e.g. technology systems and teamwork) are required in shaping high-quality hospital information system use.

  8. Nursing Information System (NIS): A Tool for Qualitative Nursing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing health care cost, nurse shortages, high patient acuity and the need for more accuracy in care create the need for an effective Nursing Information System. This paper therefore highlights the relevance of NIS in enhancing professional growth and efficiency in nursing practice. It also opens up the anticipated ...

  9. Structural and Qualitative Analysis of the Romanian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara Niculina APETRI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector, the predominant component of the Romanian financial system, had a relatively stable structure in the period 2005-2009 and has experienced significant consolidation, particularly in the years 2005-2006, this being sustained mainly by the restructuring and privatization process, but also by Romania's EU accession perspective and the competitive environment in this area. Given the new status of Romania as EU member country, the competition in the banking system has increased significantly, leading to both structural changes, but also to changes in levels of analysis indicators of banking structure and performance. Following this analysis, it appears that, recently, our country's banking system saw a dynamic and unprecedented diversification resulting from the economic development of the society and adaptation to EU requirements, and we can say that in Romania there is, now, a modern and competitive banking system, which provides circulation of the domestic economy and provides banking products and services in accordance with trends in the European banking sector.

  10. A qualitative review for wireless health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Atika; Fadzil Ismail, Ahmad; Khan, Sheroz; Zahirul Alam, A. H. M.; Tasnim, Rumana; Samnan Haider, Syed; Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Shahid, Zeeshan

    2013-12-01

    A proliferating interest has been being observed over the past years in accurate wireless system development in order to monitor incessant human activities in health care centres. Furthermore because of the swelling number of elderly population and the inadequate number of competent staffs for nursing homes there is a big market petition for health care monitoring system. In order to detect human researchers developed different methods namely which include Field Identification technique, Visual Sensor Network, radar detection, e-mobile techniques and so on. An all-encompassing overview of the non-wired human detection application advancement is presented in this paper. Inductive links are used for human detection application while wiring an electronic system has become impractical in recent times. Keeping in mind the shortcomings, an Inductive Intelligent Sensor (IIS) has been proposed as a novel human monitoring system for future implementation. The proposed sensor works towards exploring the signature signals of human body movement and size. This proposed sensor is fundamentally based on inductive loop that senses the presence and a passing human resulting an inductive change.

  11. Fault tree construction of hybrid system requirements using qualitative formal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Cha, Sung-Deok

    2005-01-01

    When specifying requirements for software controlling hybrid systems and conducting safety analysis, engineers experience that requirements are often known only in qualitative terms and that existing fault tree analysis techniques provide little guidance on formulating and evaluating potential failure modes. In this paper, we propose Causal Requirements Safety Analysis (CRSA) as a technique to qualitatively evaluate causal relationship between software faults and physical hazards. This technique, extending qualitative formal method process and utilizing information captured in the state trajectory, provides specific guidelines on how to identify failure modes and relationship among them. Using a simplified electrical power system as an example, we describe step-by-step procedures of conducting CRSA. Our experience of applying CRSA to perform fault tree analysis on requirements for the Wolsong nuclear power plant shutdown system indicates that CRSA is an effective technique in assisting safety engineers

  12. Cable systems for experimental facilities in JAERI TANDEM ACCELERATOR BUILDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukihashi, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takekoshi, Eiko

    1979-03-01

    Measuring cable systems for experimental facilities in JAERI TANDEM ACCELERATOR BUILDING were completed recently. Measures are taken to prevent penetration of noises into the measuring systems. The cable systems are described in detail, including power supplies and grounding for the measuring systems. (author)

  13. Experimental consideration for realizing image based visual servo control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, N.; Suzuki, K.; Fujii, Y.; Usui, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we consider the experimental aspect of image based visual servo control system. The items considered are the following; 1) Inertial parameter estimation, 2) Focal point estimation, 3) Controller performance for the system with delay. From the experimental result of visual control, it is found that the system is very sensitive to the controller gain because of the computational delay of vision. In order to establish a satisfactory delay compensation, more investigations on controller design are required. (author)

  14. Effects of alternative cropping systems on globe artichoke qualitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Emanuela; Deligios, Paola A; Azara, Emanuela; Delogu, Giovanna; Ledda, Luigi

    2018-02-01

    Traditionally, globe artichoke cultivation in the Mediterranean basin is based on monoculture and on use of high amounts of nitrogen fertiliser. This raises issues regarding its compatibility with sustainable agriculture. We studied the effect of one typical conventional (CONV) and two alternative cropping systems [globe artichoke in sequence with French bean (NCV1), or in biannual rotation (NCV2) with cauliflower and with a leguminous cover crop in inter-row spaces] on yield, polyphenol and mineral content of globe artichoke heads over two consecutive growing seasons. NCV2 showed statistical differences in terms of fresh product yield with respect to the monoculture systems. In addition, the dihydroxycinnamic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acids of non-conventional samples were one-fold significantly higher than the conventional one. All the samples reported good mineral content, although NCV2 achieved a higher Fe content than conventional throughout the two seasons. After two and three dates of sampling, the CONV samples showed the highest levels of K content. In our study, an acceptable commercial yield and quality of 'Spinoso sardo' were achieved by shifting the common conventional agronomic management to more sustainable ones, by means of an accurate choice of cover crop species and rotations introduced in the systems. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. EPICS: Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epics Development Team

    2013-02-01

    EPICS is a set of software tools and applications developed collaboratively and used to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments such as particle accelerators and telescopes. Such distributed control systems typically comprise tens or even hundreds of computers, networked together to allow communication between them and to provide control and feedback of the various parts of the device from a central control room, or even remotely over the internet. EPICS uses Client/Server and Publish/Subscribe techniques to communicate between the various computers. A Channel Access Gateway allows engineers and physicists elsewhere in the building to examine the current state of the IOCs, but prevents them from making unauthorized adjustments to the running system. In many cases the engineers can make a secure internet connection from home to diagnose and fix faults without having to travel to the site. EPICS is used by many facilities worldwide, including the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, Fermilab, Keck Observatory, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Australian Synchrotron, and Stanford Linear Accellerator Center.

  16. The experimental optical burst switching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Wu, Guiling; Wang, Hui; Lu, Jialin; Ye, Ailun

    2005-02-01

    The first optical burst switching (OBS) system has been demonstrated in China, which includes three edge routers and one core-node. A kind of fast wavelength selective optical switching was used in the system. The core OBS node consists of a kind of wavelength selective optical switch we developed. It consists of two SOA switches and one wavelength selective thin film filter with centre wavelength at one wavelength. There are one input optical fiber and two output fibers, each fiber carries two wavelengths. The Dell PE2650 servers act as the edge OBS routers. The wavelength of each data channel is located in C-band and the bit rate is at 1.25Gbps. The control channel uses bit rate of 100Mbps at wavelength of 1310 nm. A novel effective scheme for Just-In-Time (JIT) protocol was proposed and implemented. OBS services, such as Video on Demand (VOD) and file transfer protocol (FTP), have been demonstrated. Assembling and scheduling methods that are capable to guarantee the QoS (quality of service) of the transported service are studied.

  17. Study of TXRF experimental system by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Ana Cristina M.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Conti, Claudio C.

    2011-01-01

    The Total-Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) technique offers unique possibilities to study the concentrations of a wide range of trace elements in various types of samples. Besides that, the TXRF technique is widely used to study the trace elements in biological, medical and environmental samples due to its multielemental character as well as simplicity of sample preparation and quantification methods used. In general the TXRF experimental setup is not simple and might require substantial experimental efforts. On the other hand, in recent years, experimental TXRF portable systems have been developed. It has motivated us to develop our own TXRF portable system. In this work we presented a first step in order to optimize a TXRF experimental setup using Monte Carlo simulation by MCNP code. The results found show that the Monte Carlo simulation method can be used to investigate the development of a TXRF experimental system before its assembly. (author)

  18. Energy management of DSL systems: Experimental findings

    KAUST Repository

    Guenach, Mamoun

    2013-12-01

    We present a measurement study of the energy consumption of an operator-side digital subscriber line (DSL) board under various conditions of data rate and power spectral density, with and without vectoring. The results highlight practical opportunities and challenges for optimizing rate-power-stability tradeoffs in DSL access systems, complementing simulation-based studies focused on energy reduction through spectral optimization. We validate models for line board consumption that can be tied with line driver consumption based on the aggregate transmit power of each line, and demonstrate that near-optimal rate-power-stability tradeoffs can be obtained through external line management of data rate, Signal-to-Noise-Ratio margin and power spectral density parameters. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Solar-Diesel Hybrid Power System Optimization and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Headley Stewart

    As of 2008 1.46 billion people, or 22 percent of the World's population, were without electricity. Many of these people live in remote areas where decentralized generation is the only method of electrification. Most mini-grids are powered by diesel generators, but new hybrid power systems are becoming a reliable method to incorporate renewable energy while also reducing total system cost. This thesis quantifies the measurable Operational Costs for an experimental hybrid power system in Sierra Leone. Two software programs, Hybrid2 and HOMER, are used during the system design and subsequent analysis. Experimental data from the installed system is used to validate the two programs and to quantify the savings created by each component within the hybrid system. This thesis bridges the gap between design optimization studies that frequently lack subsequent validation and experimental hybrid system performance studies.

  20. Systemic lupus erythematosus observations of travel burden: A qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edith M; Ortiz, Kasim; Flournoy-Floyd, Minnjuan; Bruner, Larisa; Kamen, Diane

    2015-09-01

    Explorations of travel impediments among patients suffering from rheumatic diseases have been very limited. Research has consistently indicated a shortage of rheumatologists, resulting in patients potentially having to travel long distances for care. The purpose of our study was to explore how systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients experience travel issues differentially by race and socio-economic status. We conducted semi-structured interviews and a brief demographic survey with 10 patients diagnosed with SLE. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using NVivo Analysis Software to facilitate the reporting of recurrent themes and supporting quotations, and an initial codebook was independently developed by two researchers on the study team and then verified together. Patients described three major areas of concern with respect to travel burden in accessing their rheumatologists: reliance on caregivers; meeting financial priorities; and pain and physical limitations. Our data suggest general traveling challenges interfering with medical appointment compliance for several participants and the importance of socio-economic issues when considering travel issues. This study highlights an important area with implications for adherence to medical appointments and participation in research among patients with SLE. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. User's manual of JT-60 experimental data analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takashi; Morishima, Soichi; Yoshioka, Yuji

    2010-02-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency Naka Fusion Institute, a lot of experiments have been conducted by using the large tokamak device JT-60 aiming to realize fusion power plant. In order to optimize the JT-60 experiment and to investigate complex characteristics of plasma, JT-60 experimental data analysis system was developed and used for collecting, referring and analyzing the JT-60 experimental data. Main components of the system are a data analysis server and a database server for the analyses and accumulation of the experimental data respectively. Other peripheral devices of the system are magnetic disk units, NAS (Network Attached Storage) device, and a backup tape drive. This is a user's manual of the JT-60 experimental data analysis system. (author)

  2. Biofouling in forward osmosis systems: An experimental and numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates with numerical simulations supported by experimental data the impact of biofouling on membrane performance in a cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) system. The two-dimensional numerical model couples liquid flow with solute

  3. Synchronised laser chaos communication: statistical investigation of an experimental system

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrance, Anthony J.; Papamarkou, Theodore; Uchida, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    The paper is concerned with analyzing data from an experimental antipodal laser-based chaos shift-keying communication system. Binary messages are embedded in a chaotically behaving laser wave which is transmitted through a fiber-optic cable and are decoded at the receiver using a second laser synchronized with the emitter laser. Instrumentation in the experimental system makes it particularly interesting to be able to empirically analyze both optical noise and synchronization error as well a...

  4. What Affects People's Willingness to Participate in Qualitative Research? An Experimental Comparison of Five Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Margolis, Marjorie; McCormack, Lauren; LeBaron, Patricia A.; Chowdhury, Dhuly

    2017-01-01

    The literature on factors that influence participation in qualitative research is lacking. We conducted an experiment with a nationally representative sample to test the impact of different incentive types and amounts on willingness to participate in a hypothetical qualitative interview. We randomized participants from an online panel to one of…

  5. Emergency reactor cooling systems for the experimental VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, Susumu; Suzuki, Katsuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Tamura, Kazuo; Ezaki, Masahiro.

    1983-03-01

    Performances and design of the panel cooling system which has been proposed to be equipped as an emergency reactor cooling system for the experimental multi purpose very high temperature gas-cooled reactor are explained. Effects of natural circulation flow which would develop in the core and temperature transients of the panel in starting have been precisely investigated. Conditions and procedures for settling accidents with the proposed panel cooling system have been also studied. Based on these studies, it has been shown that the panel cooling system is effective and useful for the emergency reactor cooling of the experimental VHTR. (author)

  6. Development of experimental systems for material sciences under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Jun; Obi, Shinzo; Kamimiyata, Yotsuo; Ajimine, Akio

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Space Experiment Program of the Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, three experimental systems (G452, G453, G454) have been developed for materials science studies under microgravity by the NEC Corporation. These systems are to be flown as Get Away Special payloads for studying the feasibility of producing new materials. Together with the experimental modules carrying the hardware specific to the experiment, the three systems all comprise standard subsystems consisting of a power supply, sequence controller, temperature controller, data recorder, and video recorder.

  7. Disruptions in large value payment systems: an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Bosman, R.; Heijmans, R.; van Winden, F.

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the behaviour of banks in a large value payment system. More specifically,we look at 1) the reactions of banks to disruptions in the payment system, 2) the way in which the history of disruptions affects the behaviour of banks (path dependency) and 3) the effect

  8. Disruptions in large value payment systems: An experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Bosman, R.; Heijmans, R.; van Winden, F.; Hellqvist, M.; Laine, T.

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the behaviour of banks in a large value payment system. More specifically, we look at 1) the reactions of banks to disruptions in the payment system, 2) the way in which the history of disruptions affects the behaviour of banks (path dependency) and 3) the effect

  9. Experimental analyses of dynamical systems involving shape memory alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Savi, Marcelo A.; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in dynamical systems has an increasing importance in engineering especially due to their capacity to provide vibration reductions. In this regard, experimental tests are essential in order to show all potentialities of this kind of systems. In this work, SMA ...

  10. Overhead traveling crane vibration research using experimental wireless measuring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz HANISZEWSKI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an operations and constructions description of theexperimental wireless measuring system for measuring accelerations in bridge cranes,based on PHIDGET 1056 sensors. Developed experimental research and measuringmethodology allows the use of the proposed wireless system on other cranesconstructions. The paper also shows examples of the results of vibration measurementsand FFT spectra, obtained on the basis of accelerations measurements.

  11. Use of Soft Computing Technologies for a Qualitative and Reliable Engine Control System for Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Brown, Terry; Crumbley, R. T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is to explore how the use of Soft Computing Technologies (SCT) could be employed to improve overall vehicle system safety, reliability, and rocket engine performance by development of a qualitative and reliable engine control system (QRECS). Specifically, this will be addressed by enhancing rocket engine control using SCT, innovative data mining tools, and sound software engineering practices used in Marshall's Flight Software Group (FSG). The principle goals for addressing the issue of quality are to improve software management, software development time, software maintenance, processor execution, fault tolerance and mitigation, and nonlinear control in power level transitions. The intent is not to discuss any shortcomings of existing engine control methodologies, but to provide alternative design choices for control, implementation, performance, and sustaining engineering, all relative to addressing the issue of reliability. The approaches outlined in this paper will require knowledge in the fields of rocket engine propulsion (system level), software engineering for embedded flight software systems, and soft computing technologies (i.e., neural networks, fuzzy logic, data mining, and Bayesian belief networks); some of which are briefed in this paper. For this effort, the targeted demonstration rocket engine testbed is the MC-1 engine (formerly FASTRAC) which is simulated with hardware and software in the Marshall Avionics & Software Testbed (MAST) laboratory that currently resides at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, building 4476, and is managed by the Avionics Department. A brief plan of action for design, development, implementation, and testing a Phase One effort for QRECS is given, along with expected results. Phase One will focus on development of a Smart Start Engine Module and a Mainstage Engine Module for proper engine start and mainstage engine operations. The overall intent is to demonstrate that by

  12. Experimental gingivitis, bacteremia and systemic biomarkers: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, D F; Zhang, P; Benakanakere, M; Singleton, J; Biesbrock, A; Nonnenmacher, C; He, T

    2015-12-01

    Bacteremia and systemic inflammatory markers are associated with periodontal and systemic diseases and may be linking mechanisms between these conditions. We hypothesized that in the development of gingival inflammation, systemic markers of inflammation and bacteremia would increase. To study the effect of bacteremia on systemic inflammatory markers, we recruited 80 subjects to participate in an experimental gingivitis study. Subjects were stratified based on gender, smoking and the number of bleeding sites and then randomized to one of two groups: control group (n = 40) or experimental gingivitis group (n = 40). Subjects in the control group conducted an oral hygiene regimen: brushing twice daily with a regular sodium fluoride cavity protection dentifrice and a standard manual toothbrush, flossing twice daily, and mouth rinsing with an anti-cavity fluoride rinse once daily. The experimental group stopped brushing and flossing, and used only the fluoride anti-cavity mouth rinse for 21 d. Seventy-nine of 80 subjects were evaluable. One subject in the control group was excluded from the results due to antibiotic use during the study. Our data showed the experimental gingivitis group exhibited a significant (p gingival inflammatory indices relative to baseline and the control group but a decrease in bacteremia and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels vs. baseline. Bacteremia was negatively correlated with gingival inflammatory indices and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in the experimental gingivitis group, thus negating our hypothesis. We conclude that there are marked differences in systemic cytokine levels over the course of short-term experimentally induced gingivitis and further conclude that a long-term periodontitis study must be considered to address mechanisms whereby oral diseases may affect systemic diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Experimental investigation of system effects in stressed-skin elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Stang, B.; Isaksson, T.; Hansson, M.

    What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity and behavi......What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity...

  14. Concept for a Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System : Volume 4. Operational Description and Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    The volume presents a description of how the Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System (SAATMS) operates and a qualitative assessment of the system. The operational description includes the services, functions, and tasks performed by the...

  15. The IPIRG-1 pipe system fracture tests: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.J.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the First International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-1) program, six dynamic pipe system experiments were conducted. The objective of these experiments was to generate experimental data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system subjected to combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The pipe system evaluated was an expansion loop with over 30 m (100 feet) of 16-inch nominal diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility was equipped with special hardware to ensure that system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe system experiments. The uncracked-pipe experiment was conducted to evaluate the piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments were conducted to evaluate the fracture behavior, piping system response, and fracture stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided the tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Key results from the six pipe system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Detailed analyses will be published in a companion paper

  16. An approach to combining heuristic and qualitative reasoning in an expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Si; Han, Chia Yung; Tsai, Lian Cheng; Wee, William G.

    1988-01-01

    An approach to combining the heuristic reasoning from shallow knowledge and the qualitative reasoning from deep knowledge is described. The shallow knowledge is represented in production rules and under the direct control of the inference engine. The deep knowledge is represented in frames, which may be put in a relational DataBase Management System. This approach takes advantage of both reasoning schemes and results in improved efficiency as well as expanded problem solving ability.

  17. Nonlinearities Lead to Qualitative Differences in Population Dynamics of Predator-Prey Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ameixa, Olga; Messelink, G. J.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2013), e62530-e62530 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA ČR(CZ) GEVOL/11/E036 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : nonlinear system * population density * population dynamics * predator * predator prey interaction * qualitative analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  18. Qualitative Fault Isolation of Hybrid Systems: A Structural Model Decomposition-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Quick and robust fault diagnosis is critical to ensuring safe operation of complex engineering systems. A large number of techniques are available to provide fault diagnosis in systems with continuous dynamics. However, many systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete behavioral modes, each with its own continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task computationally more complex due to the large number of possible system modes and the existence of autonomous mode transitions. This paper presents a qualitative fault isolation framework for hybrid systems based on structural model decomposition. The fault isolation is performed by analyzing the qualitative information of the residual deviations. However, in hybrid systems this process becomes complex due to possible existence of observation delays, which can cause observed deviations to be inconsistent with the expected deviations for the current mode in the system. The great advantage of structural model decomposition is that (i) it allows to design residuals that respond to only a subset of the faults, and (ii) every time a mode change occurs, only a subset of the residuals will need to be reconfigured, thus reducing the complexity of the reasoning process for isolation purposes. To demonstrate and test the validity of our approach, we use an electric circuit simulation as the case study.

  19. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  20. The design status of CSNS experimental control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Zhuang; Yuanping Chu; Dapeng Jin; Yuqian Liu; Yinhong Zhang; Zhuoyu Zhang; Kejun Zhu; Libin Ding; Lei Hu; Jiajie Li; Yali, Liu

    2012-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand from user community, China decided to build a world-class spallation neutron source, called CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source). It can provide users a neutron scattering platform with high flux, wide wavelength range and high efficiency. CSNS construction is expected to start in 2011 and will last 6.5 years. The control system of CSNS is divided into accelerator control system and experimental control system. CSNS Experimental Control System is based on EPICS architecture, offering device operation and device debug interface, communication between devices, environment monitor, machine and personnel protection, interface to accelerator control system, overall system monitor and database service. The control system is divided into 4 parts, such as front control layer, local and global control layer based on EPICS, database and network service and the others. The front control layer is based on YOKOGAWA PLC and other controllers. EPICS includes local and global control layer provides all system control and information exchange. Embedded PLC YOKOGAWA RP61 and others is to be used as communication node between front layer and EPICS. Database service provides system configuration and historical data. From the experience of BESIII, MySQL is an option. The system will be developed in Dongguan, Guangdong province and Beijing. So VPN will be used to help development. Now, total 9 persons are working on this system. (authors)

  1. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Nestor Fonseca [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure. (author)

  2. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor, E-mail: nestorfonseca5@hotmail.co [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure.

  3. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR EXPERIMENTATION IN AC ELECTROGRAVIMETRY I: TECHNIQUE FUNDAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbinson Torres

    Full Text Available Basic fundamentals of AC electrogravimetry are introduced. Their main requirements and characteristics are detailed to establish the design of an electronic system that allows the appropriate extraction of data needed to determine the electrogravimetric transfer function (EGTF and electrochemical impedance (EI, in an experimental set-up for the AC electrogravimetry technique.

  4. Some existing Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems at KIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litfin, K.

    2013-01-01

    An overview is given of: • Liquid Metal Loops at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of KIT; • THESYS: Technologies for HEavy metal SYStems; • Thermal Hydraulic experiments in THESYS; • THEADES: THErmalhydraulics and Ads DESign; • Thermal Hydraulic experiments in THEADES; • CORRIDA: CORRosion In Dynamic lead Alloys; • Experimental stagnant facilities at KALLA; • INR Liquid metal research

  5. Mechanical technology unique to laser fusion experimental systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Hardware design for laser fusion experimental machines has led to a combination of engineering technologies that are critical to the successful operation of these machines. These large opto-mechanical systems are dependent on extreme cleanliness, accommodation to efficient maintenance, and high stability. These three technologies are the primary mechanical engineering criteria for laser fusion devices

  6. Experimental systems of integrated and organic wheat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives and significance of integrated and organic farming are briefly discussed. In wheat production, the cropping methods involved are then described and compared to those of a conventional system. Initial results from an experimental farm at Nagele, The Netherlands, indicate that by an

  7. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERISTIC PERFORMANCE OF STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra Kishore; Anirban Nandy*; O.P. Pandey

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an insight solar PV Stand Alone system which is a practical model with a halogen light source. At different situations the performance of solar PV cells are analyzed. The system produces power with depending on the change in halogen light intensity & temperature. A theoretical & experimental analysis of the PV cell can be achieved. In this paper the I-V & P-V characteristic of the solar photovoltaic cells with changes in temperature and isolation have been showed. With...

  8. FURAX: assistance tools for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of systems reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moureau, R.

    1995-01-01

    FURAX is a set of tools for the qualitative and quantitative safety analysis of systems functioning. It is particularly well adapted to the study of networks (fluids, electrical..), i.e. systems in which importance is functionally given to a flux. The analysis is based on modeling which privileges these fluxes (skeleton representation of the system for a network, functional diagram for a non single-flux system) and on the representation of components support systems. Qualitative analyses are based on the research for possible flux ways and on the technical domain knowledge. The results obtained correspond to a simplified failure mode analysis, to fault-trees relative to the events expected by the user and to minimum sections. The possible calculations on these models are: tree calculations, Markov diagram calculations of the system reliability, and probabilistic calculation of a section viewed as a tree, as a well-ordered sequence of failures, or as the absorbing state of a Markov diagram. (J.S.). 6 refs

  9. TQ-bifurcations in discrete dynamical systems: Analysis of qualitative rearrangements of the oscillation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, A. V., E-mail: avm.science@mail.ru [Constructive Cybernetics Research Group (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    A new class of bifurcations is defined in discrete dynamical systems, and methods for their diagnostics and the analysis of their properties are presented. The TQ-bifurcations considered are implemented in discrete mappings and are related to the qualitative rearrangement of the shape of trajectories in an extended space of states. Within the demonstration of the main capabilities of the toolkit, an analysis is carried out of a logistic mapping in a domain to the right of the period-doubling limit point. Five critical values of the parameter are found for which the geometric structure of the trajectories of the mapping experiences a qualitative rearrangement. In addition, an analysis is carried out of the so-called “trace map,” which arises in the problems of quantum-mechanical description of various properties of discrete crystalline and quasicrystalline lattices.

  10. Monitoring system for an experimental facility using GMDH methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Moraes, Davi Almeida [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno, Elaine Inacio, E-mail: martinez@ipen.br, E-mail: dmoraes@dk8.com.br, E-mail: ebueno@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This work presents a Monitoring System developed based on the GMDH - Group Method of Data Handling methodology to be used in an Experimental Test Facility. GMDH is a combinatorial multi-layer algorithm in which a network of layers and nodes is generated using a number of inputs from the data stream being evaluated. The GMDH network topology has been traditionally determined using a layer by layer pruning process based on a pre-selected criterion of what constitutes the best nodes at each level. The traditional GMDH method is based on an underlying assumption that the data can be modeled by using an approximation of the Volterra Series or Kolmorgorov-Gabor polynomial. The Fault Test Experimental Facility was designed to simulate a PWR nuclear power plant and is composed by elements that correspond to the pressure vessel, steam generator, pumps of the primary and secondary reactor loops. The nuclear reactor core is represented by an electrical heater with different values of power. The experimental plant will be fully instrumented with sensors and actuators, and the data acquisition system will be constructed in order to enable the details of the temporal analysis of process variables. The Fault Test Experimental Facility can be operated to generate normal and fault data. These failures can be added initially with small magnitude, and their magnitude being increasing gradually in a controlled way. The database will interface with the plant supervisory system SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) that provides the data through standard interface. (author)

  11. Monitoring system for an experimental facility using GMDH methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Moraes, Davi Almeida; Bueno, Elaine Inacio

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a Monitoring System developed based on the GMDH - Group Method of Data Handling methodology to be used in an Experimental Test Facility. GMDH is a combinatorial multi-layer algorithm in which a network of layers and nodes is generated using a number of inputs from the data stream being evaluated. The GMDH network topology has been traditionally determined using a layer by layer pruning process based on a pre-selected criterion of what constitutes the best nodes at each level. The traditional GMDH method is based on an underlying assumption that the data can be modeled by using an approximation of the Volterra Series or Kolmorgorov-Gabor polynomial. The Fault Test Experimental Facility was designed to simulate a PWR nuclear power plant and is composed by elements that correspond to the pressure vessel, steam generator, pumps of the primary and secondary reactor loops. The nuclear reactor core is represented by an electrical heater with different values of power. The experimental plant will be fully instrumented with sensors and actuators, and the data acquisition system will be constructed in order to enable the details of the temporal analysis of process variables. The Fault Test Experimental Facility can be operated to generate normal and fault data. These failures can be added initially with small magnitude, and their magnitude being increasing gradually in a controlled way. The database will interface with the plant supervisory system SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) that provides the data through standard interface. (author)

  12. Experimental evaluation of a modal parameter based system identification procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minli; Feng, Ningsheng; Hahn, Eric J.

    2016-02-01

    Correct modelling of the foundation of a rotor bearing foundation system (RBFS) is an invaluable asset for the balancing and efficient running of turbomachinery. Numerical experiments have shown that a modal parameter based identification approach could be feasible for this purpose but there is a lack of experimental verification of the suitability of such a modal approach for even the simplest systems. In this paper the approach is tested on a simple experimental rig comprising a clamped horizontal bar with lumped masses. It is shown that apart from damping, the proposed approach can identify reasonably accurately the relevant modal parameters of the rig; and that the resulting equivalent system can predict reasonably well the frequency response of the rig. Hence, the proposed approach shows promise but further testing is required, since application to identifying the foundation of an RBFS involves the additional problem of accurately obtaining the force excitation from motion measurements.

  13. Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Integrated Tri-generation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Eda

    Energy demand in the world is increasing with population growth and higher living standards. Today, the need for energy requires a focus on renewable sources without abandoning fossil fuels. Efficient use of energy is one of the most important tasks in modern energy systems to achieve. In addition to the energy need, growing environmental concerns are linked with energy is emerged. Multi-purpose energy generation allows a higher efficiency by generating more outputs with the same input in the same system. Tri-generation systems are expected to provide at least three commodities, such as heating, cooling, desalination, storable fuel production and some other useful outputs, in addition to power generation. In this study, an experimental investigation of gasification is presented and two integrated tri-generation systems are proposed. The first integrated tri-generation system (System 1) utilizes solar energy as input and the outputs are power, fresh water and hot water. It consists of four sub-systems, namely solar power tower system, desalination system, Rankine cycle and organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The second integrated tri-generation system (System 2) utilizes coal and biomass as input and the outputs are power, fuel and hot water. It consists of five sub-systems: gasification plant, Brayton cycle, Rankine cycle, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis plant and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Experimental investigation includes coal and biomass gasification, where the experimental results of synthesis gas compositions are utilized in the analysis of the second systems. To maximize efficiency, heat losses from the system should be minimized through a recovery system to make the heat a useful commodity for other systems, such as ORCs which can utilize the low-grade heat. In this respect, ORCs are first analyzed for three different configurations in terms of energy and exergy efficiencies altering working fluids to increase the power output. Among two types of coal and one type

  14. An Experimental Metagenome Data Management and AnalysisSystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Korzeniewski, Frank; Palaniappan, Krishna; Szeto, Ernest; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2006-03-01

    The application of shotgun sequencing to environmental samples has revealed a new universe of microbial community genomes (metagenomes) involving previously uncultured organisms. Metagenome analysis, which is expected to provide a comprehensive picture of the gene functions and metabolic capacity of microbial community, needs to be conducted in the context of a comprehensive data management and analysis system. We present in this paper IMG/M, an experimental metagenome data management and analysis system that is based on the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system. IMG/M provides tools and viewers for analyzing both metagenomes and isolate genomes individually or in a comparative context.

  15. The 30/20 GHz experimental communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, J. N.

    NASA is continuing to pursue an agressive satellite communications technology development program focused on the 30/20 GHz frequency band. A review of the program progress to date is presented. Included is a discussion of the technology program status as well as a description of the experimental system concept under study. Expected system performance characteristics together with spacecraft and payload configuration details including weight and power budget is presented. Overall program schedules of both the technology development and the flight system development are included.

  16. Qualitative review of usability problems in health information systems for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Camila Rodrigues; Pereira, Marluce Rodrigues; Freire, André Pimenta

    2017-12-01

    Radiology processes are commonly supported by Radiology Information System (RIS), Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and other software for radiology. However, these information technologies can present usability problems that affect the performance of radiologists and physicians, especially considering the complexity of the tasks involved. The purpose of this study was to extract, classify and analyze qualitatively the usability problems in PACS, RIS and other software for radiology. A systematic review was performed to extract usability problems reported in empirical usability studies in the literature. The usability problems were categorized as violations of Nielsen and Molich's usability heuristics. The qualitative analysis indicated the causes and the effects of the identified usability problems. From the 431 papers initially identified, 10 met the study criteria. The analysis of the papers identified 90 instances of usability problems, classified into categories corresponding to established usability heuristics. The five heuristics with the highest number of instances of usability problems were "Flexibility and efficiency of use", "Consistency and standards", "Match between system and the real world", "Recognition rather than recall" and "Help and documentation", respectively. These problems can make the interaction time consuming, causing delays in tasks, dissatisfaction, frustration, preventing users from enjoying all the benefits and functionalities of the system, as well as leading to more errors and difficulties in carrying out clinical analyses. Furthermore, the present paper showed a lack of studies performed on systems for radiology, especially usability evaluations using formal methods of evaluation involving the final users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental evaluation of human-system interaction on alarm design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.-H.; Lee, Y.-L.; Hwang, S.-L.; Yenn, T.-C.; Yu, Y.-C.; Hsu, C.-C.; Huang, H.-W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the practicability of automatic reset alarm system in Fourth Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) of Taiwan. The features of auto-reset alarm system include dynamic prioritization of all alarm signals and fast system reset. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of automatic/manual reset on operation time, situational awareness (SA), task load index (TLX), and subjective ratings. All participants, including Experts and Novices, took part in the experiment on the alarm system simulator with Load Rejection procedure. The experimental results imply that the auto-reset alarm system may be applied in an advanced control room under Load Rejection procedure, because all participants' operation time were reduced as well as Novice's SA were raised up. Nevertheless, to ensure operating safety in FNPP, the effects of the auto-reset alarm system in other procedures/special situations still need to be tested in the near future

  18. Qualitative dosimetric system for radiation processing. Technology for pilot scale preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraru, R.

    1998-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice for radiation processing requires a very strictly tracking of the processed products. A method of labelling and identification of the irradiated and nonirradiated products is required. The qualitative dosimetric system provides a fast method for monitoring the product flow. Such dosimeters are attached on each product box, usually as labels, and offer a YES/NO information about the passing of products through the radiation field. Usually, this information consists in a change of colour. The qualitative dosimetric system that we realised is based on the degradation of polyvinylchloride (PVC) under radiation field. An amount of hydrochloric acid is released in this reaction. A pH indicator, included in the system, changes its colour at different absorbed dose. The changes of colour happened in a certain pH interval called turning range. We used as pH indicator the RED CONGO colorant with turning range of pH = 3 to 5 (from blue to red). A schematic view of the qualitative dosimeter is given. The initial colour is red and it continuously changes to brown, at 1 kGy absorbed dose, and to blue-green, for 5-100 kGy. The main features of this qualitative dosimetric system are: - Quick and easy to read information about product passing through radiation field; - Absorbed dose range, 1-300 kGy; - Independence of absorbed dose rate in the interval 5-100 kGy/h; - Stability, 3 year in the dark and 1 year in sun light; - Good reproducibility. The preparation technology consists in the following steps: 1. Preparation of the solutions: a) PVC in cyclohexanone solution b) RED CONGO in water solution; 2. Preparation of the system support consisting in dropping the PVC solution on adhesive labels; 3. Sample preparation consists in dropping the colorant solution on the system support; 4. Batch trial tests. The trial test was performed at IETI 10000 irradiation plant belonging to IFIN-HH and the reference absorbed dose was determined by Fricke dosimetry. The

  19. Experimental evaluation of an expert system for nuclear reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1984-10-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) is supporting a program for the experimental evaluation of an expert system for nuclear reactor operators. A prototype expert system, called the Response Tree System, has been developed and implemented at INEL. The Response Tree System is designed to assess the status of a reactor system following an accident and recommend corrective actions to reactor operators. The system is implemented using color graphic displays and is driven by a computer simulation of the reactor system. Control of the system is accomplished using a transparent touch panel. Controlled experiments are being conducted to measure performance differences between operators using the Response Tree System and those not using it to respond to simulated accident situations. This paper summarizes the methodology and results of the evaluation of the Response Tree System, including the quantitative results obtained in the experiments thus far. Design features of the Response Tree System are discussed, and general conclusions regarding the applicability of expert systems in reactor control rooms are presented

  20. Local and Systemic Inflammatory Responses to Experimentally Induced Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Shaneen J.; Seymour, Gregory J.; Ford, Pauline J.

    2013-01-01

    This study profiled the local and systemic inflammatory responses to experimentally induced gingivitis. Eight females participated in a 21-day experimental gingivitis model followed by a 14-day resolution phase. Bleeding on probing and plaque index scores were assessed before, during, and after resolution of gingival inflammation, and samples of saliva, GCF, and plasma were collected. Samples were assessed for biomarkers of inflammation using the BioPlex platform and ELISA. There were no significant changes in GCF levels of cytokines during the experimental phase; however, individual variability in cytokine profiles was noted. During resolution, mean GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased and were significantly lower than baseline levels (P = 0.003, P = 0.025, and P = 0.007, resp.). Furthermore, changes in GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α during resolution correlated with changes in plaque index scores (r = 0.88, P = 0.004; r = 0.72, P = 0.042; r = 0.79, P = 0.019, resp.). Plasma levels of sICAM-1 increased significantly during the experimental phase (P = 0.002) and remained elevated and significantly higher than baseline levels during resolution (P gingivitis adds to the systemic inflammatory burden of an individual. PMID:24227893

  1. Experimental evaluation of an active solar thermoelectric radiant wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, ZhongBing; Zhang, Ling; Gong, GuangCai; Han, TianHe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active solar thermoelectric radiant wall are proposed and tested. • The novel wall can control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy. • The novel wall can eliminate building envelop thermal loads and provide cooling capacity for space cooling. • Typical application issues including connection strategies, coupling with PV system etc. are discussed. - Abstract: Active solar thermoelectric radiant wall (ASTRW) system is a new solar wall technology which integrates thermoelectric radiant cooling and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In ASTRW system, a PV system transfers solar energy directly into electrical energy to power thermoelectric cooling modes. Both the thermoelectric cooling modes and PV system are integrated into one enclosure surface as radiant panel for space cooling and heating. Hence, ASTRW system presents fundamental shift from minimizing building envelope energy losses by optimizing the insulation thickness to a new regime where active solar envelop is designed to eliminate thermal loads and increase the building’s solar gains while providing occupant comfort in all seasons. This article presents an experimental study of an ASTRW system with a dimension of 1580 × 810 mm. Experimental results showed that the inner surface temperature of the ASTRW is 3–8 °C lower than the indoor temperature of the test room, which indicated that the ASTRW system has the ability to control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy and reduce the air conditioning system requirements. Based on the optimal operating current of TE modules and the analysis based upon PV modeling theories, the number and type of the electrical connections for the TE modules in ASTRW system are discussed in order to get an excellent performance in the operation of the ASTRW system

  2. Health systems research training enhances workplace research skills: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jolene; Schaffer, Angela; Lewin, Simon; Zwarenstein, Merrick; van der Walt, Hester

    2003-01-01

    In-service education is a widely used means of enhancing the skills of health service providers, for example, in undertaking research. However, the transfer of skills acquired during an education course to the workplace is seldom evaluated. The objectives of this study were to assess learner, teacher, and health service manager perceptions of the usefulness, in the work setting, of skills taught on a health systems research education course in South Africa and to assess the extent to which the course stimulated awareness and development of health systems research in the work setting. The education course was evaluated using a qualitative approach. Respondents were selected for interview using purposive sampling. Interviews were conducted with 39 respondents, including all of the major stakeholders. The interviews lasted between 20 and 60 minutes and were conducted either face to face or over the telephone. Thematic analysis was applied to the data, and key themes were identified. The course demystified health systems research and stimulated interest in reading and applying research findings. The course also changed participants' attitudes to routine data collection and was reported to have facilitated the application of informal research or problem-solving methods to everyday work situations. However, inadequate support within the workplace was a significant obstacle to applying the skills learned. A 2-week intensive, experiential course in health systems research methods can provide a mechanism for introducing basic research skills to a wide range of learners. Qualitative evaluation is a useful approach for assessing the impacts of education courses.

  3. ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM - QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AT TRADE ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIMAN ADRIAN-COSMIN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial and accounting information systems, today, no longer are the traditional ones, they are subject to the normalisation and harmonisation, in the idea of globalization, and as a natural consequence of this situation, the users of accounting information require more and more diverse information from these systems. The economic entities in general, and those in the trade, in particular, performance management, management of the current situation, with multiple phenomena of crisis, require substantiation of decisions on the basis of a system of real information, pertinent, relevant and provided in a timely manner (Radu, 2011 [7]. Apart from users and goals of information provided by entities of the accounting information system of trade entities, they must have certain qualitative characteristics that facilitate the process of interpretation and use of accounting information. At the same time they are needed because their accounting information through its better goal, to represent the support base for the elaboration of certain decisions by those interested. In this article I propose to introduce qualitative characteristics of accounting information provided by IASB (International Accounting Standards Board, which, incidentally, have been taken up initially by the Romanian accounting regulations, with their subsequent amendments and additions, so far, because, in the end, as a conclusion, I consider that I should be noted that these qualities cannot be effective unlessin turn, the users themselves have the quality to have the knowledge required to understand the information that is intended for them.

  4. Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

  5. Plasma density remote control system of experimental advanced superconductive tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingxin; Luo Jiarong; Li Guiming; Wang Hua; Zhao Dazheng; Xu Congdong

    2007-01-01

    In Tokamak experiments, experimental data and information on the density control are stored in the local computer system. Therefore, the researchers have to be in the control room for getting the data. Plasma Density Remote Control System (DRCS), which is implemented by encapsulating the business logic on the client in the B/S module, conducts the complicated science computation and realizes the synchronization with the experimental process on the client. At the same time, Web Services and Data File Services are deployed for the data exchange. It is proved in the experiments that DRCS not only meets the requirements for the remote control, but also shows an enhanced capability on the data transmission. (authors)

  6. Conceptual design of neutron diagnostic systems for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, T.; Kaneko, J.; Nakazawa, M.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron measurement in fusion experimental reactors is very important for burning plasma diagnostics and control, monitoring of irradiation effects on device components, neutron source characterization for in-situ engineering tests, etc. A conceptual design of neutron diagnostic systems for an ITER-like fusion experimental reactor has been made, which consists of a neutron yield monitor, a neutron emission profile monitor and a 14-MeV spectrometer. Each of them is based on a unique idea to meet the required performances for full power conditions assumed at ITER operation. Micro-fission chambers of 235 U (and 238 U) placed at several poloidal angles near the first wall are adopted as a promising neutron yield monitor. A collimated long counter system using a 235 U fission chamber and graphite neutron moderators is also proposed to improve the calibration accuracy of absolute neutron yield determination

  7. Sequences by Metastable Attractors: Interweaving Dynamical Systems and Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Hutt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastable attractors and heteroclinic orbits are present in the dynamics of various complex systems. Although their occurrence is well-known, their identification and modeling is a challenging task. The present work reviews briefly the literature and proposes a novel combination of their identification in experimental data and their modeling by dynamical systems. This combination applies recurrence structure analysis permitting the derivation of an optimal symbolic representation of metastable states and their dynamical transitions. To derive heteroclinic sequences of metastable attractors in various experimental conditions, the work introduces a Hausdorff clustering algorithm for symbolic dynamics. The application to brain signals (event-related potentials utilizing neural field models illustrates the methodology.

  8. Power supply control system for experimental physical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelepukin, S.A.; Osipov, Eh.V.; Petrov, V.S.; Sergeev, V.A.; Uglekov, V.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    A multichannel (to 1024 channels) system for control of power supply voltage is descrited. The system consists of an analog commulator, a digital voltmeter and a special controller. The controller serves at the same time as an interface for connecting the system as a ''unit'' of the VECTOR and SUMMA unified electronic systems. The system has been realized for control of the photomultiplier power supply voltage of the MARK multipurpose experimental device (256 channels, the measurement accuracy is 0.2%, the measuring time is 500 ms per point). Software devised for the HP-2100 computer permits automatical comparison of photomultiplier power supply voltages with sample ones in the mode of continuous control of a single voltage or in the mode of programmed selection of voltages to provide the control in arbitrary order or automatic scanning

  9. Containment atmosphere cooling system for experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Mikio; Hoshi, Akio; Sato, Morihiko; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    1979-01-01

    The experimental fast reactor ''JOYO'', the first sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan, achieved the initially licensed full power operation (50 MW) in July 1978 and is now under steady operation. Toshiba has participated in the construction of this reactor as a leading manufacturer and supplied various systems. This article outlines the design philosophy, system concepts and the operating experience of the containment atmosphere cooling system which has many design interfaces throughout the whole plant and requires especially high reliability. The successful performance of this system during the reactor full-power operation owes to the spot cooling design philosophy and to the preoperational adjustment of heat load during the preheating period of reactor cooling system peculiar to FBR. (author)

  10. Monitoring system for automation of experimental researches in cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzinovski, Mikolaj; Trajchevski, Neven; Filipovski, Velimir; Tomov, Mite; Cichosz, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    This study presents procedures being performed when projecting and realizing experimental scientific researches by application of the automated measurement system with a computer support in all experiment stages. A special accent is placed on the measurement system integration and mathematical processing of data from experiments. Automation processes are described through the realized own automated monitoring system for research of physical phenomena in the cutting process with computer-aided data acquisition. The monitoring system is intended for determining the tangential, axial and radial component of the cutting force, as well as average temperature in the cutting process. The hardware acquisition art consists of amplifiers and A/D converters, while as for analysis and visualization software for P C is developed by using M S Visual C++. For mathematical description researched physical phenomena CADEX software is made, which in connection with MATLAB is intended for projecting processing and analysis of experimental scientific researches against the theory for planning multi-factorial experiments. The design and construction of the interface and the computerized measurement system were done by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Skopje in collaboration with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies in Skopje and the Institute of Production Engineering and Automation, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland. Gaining own scientific research measurement system with free access to hardware and software parts provides conditions for a complete control of the research process and reduction of interval of the measuring uncertainty of gained results from performed researches.

  11. Incipient Transient Detection in Reactor Systems: Experimental and Theoretical Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefteri H. Tsoukalas; S.T. Revankar; X Wang; R. Sattuluri

    2005-09-27

    The main goal of this research was to develop a method for detecting reactor system transients at the earliest possible time through a comprehensive experimental, testing and benchmarking program. This approach holds strong promise for developing new diagnostic technologies that are non-intrusive, generic and highly portable across different systems. It will help in the design of new generation nuclear power reactors, which utilize passive safety systems with a reliable and non-intrusive multiphase flow diagnostic system to monitor the function of the passive safety systems. The main objective of this research was to develop an improved fuzzy logic based detection method based on a comprehensive experimental testing program to detect reactor transients at the earliest possible time, practically at their birth moment. A fuzzy logic and neural network based transient identification methodology and implemented in a computer code called PROTREN was considered in this research and was compared with SPRT (Sequentially Probability Ratio Testing) decision and Bayesian inference. The project involved experiment, theoretical modeling and a thermal-hydraulic code assessment. It involved graduate and undergraduate students participation providing them with exposure and training in advanced reactor concepts and safety systems. In this final report, main tasks performed during the project period are summarized and the selected results are presented. Detailed descriptions for the tasks and the results are presented in previous yearly reports (Revankar et al 2003 and Revankar et al 2004).

  12. Calculation and experimental investigation of multi-component ceramic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rother, M.

    1994-12-01

    This work shows a way to combine thermodynamic calculations and experiments in order to get useful information on the constitution of metal/non-metal systems. Many data from literature are critically evaluated and used as a basis for experiments and calculations. The following multi-component systems are treated: 1. Multi-component systems of 'ceramic' materials with partially metallic bonding (carbides, nitrides, oxides, borides, carbonitrides, borocarbides, oxinitrides of the 4-8th transition group metals) 2. multi-component systems of non-metallic materials with dominant covalent bonding (SiC, Si 3 N 4 , SiB 6 , BN, Al 4 C 3 , Be 2 C) 3. multi-component systems of non-metallic materials with dominant heteropolar bonding (Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , BeO, SiO 2 , ZrO 2 ). The interactions between 1. and 2., 2. and 3., 1. and 3. are also considered. The latest commercially available programmes for the calculation of thermodynamical equilibria and phase diagrams are evaluated and compared considering their facilities and limits. New phase diagrams are presented for many presently unknown multi-component systems; partly known systems are completed on the basis of selected thermodynamic data. The calculations are verified by experimental investigations (metallurgical and powder technology methods). Altogether 690 systems are evaluated, 126 are calculated for the first time and 52 systems are experimentally verified. New data for 60 ternary phases are elaborated by estimating the data limits for the Gibbs energy values. A synthesis of critical evaluation of literature, calculations and experiments leads to new important information about equilibria and reaction behaviour in multi-component systems. This information is necessary to develop new stable and metastable materials. (orig./MM) [de

  13. Experimental overview on small colliding systems at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankus, Paul

    2016-12-15

    Beginning with the observation of ridge/flow-like features in pair correlations measurements in p+Pb, d+Au and high-density p+p events at RHIC and LHC, the last few years have seen a great surge of interest in the question of whether anything like a hot, locally-equilibrated QCD medium is formed in the small systems at collider energies. Many intriguing and suggestive results have been presented, but conclusions about medium formation must be approached with care. This presentation will attempt to summarize the experimental results from small colliding systems measured at RHIC, as part of a careful and objective evaluation of this question.

  14. Trust, temporality and systems: how do patients understand patient safety in primary care? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Campbell, Stephen; Sanders, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Patient safety research has tended to focus on hospital settings, although most clinical encounters occur in primary care, and to emphasize practitioner errors, rather than patients' own understandings of safety. To explore patients' understandings of safety in primary care. Qualitative interviews were conducted with patients recruited from general practices in northwest England. Participants were asked basic socio-demographic information; thereafter, topics were largely introduced by interviewees themselves. Transcripts were coded and analysed using NVivo10 (qualitative data software), following a process of constant comparison. Thirty-eight people (14 men, 24 women) from 19 general practices in rural, small town and city locations were interviewed. Many of their concerns (about access, length of consultation, relationship continuity) have been discussed in terms of quality, but, in the interviews, were raised as matters of safety. Three broad themes were identified: (i) trust and psycho-social aspects of professional-patient relationships; (ii) choice, continuity, access, and the temporal underpinnings of safety; and (iii) organizational and systems-level tensions constraining safety. Conceptualizations of safety included common reliance on a bureaucratic framework of accreditation, accountability, procedural rules and regulation, but were also individual and context-dependent. For patients, safety is not just a property of systems, but personal and contingent and is realized in the interaction between doctor and patient. However, it is the systems approach that has dominated safety thinking, and patients' individualistic and relational conceptualizations are poorly accommodated within current service organization. © 2015 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Railgun pellet injection system for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Satake, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Kasai, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan); Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A railgun pellet injection system has been developed for fusion experimental devices. Using a low electric energy railgun system, hydrogen pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. Under the same operational conditions, the energy conversion coefficient for the dummy pellets was around 0.4%, while that for the hydrogen pellets was around 0.12%. The highest hydrogen pellet velocity was 1.4 km s{sup -1} using a 1 m long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km s{sup -1} using a 3 m long railgun. (orig.).

  16. Railgun pellet injection system for fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Hasegawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    A railgun pellet injection system has been developed for fusion experimental devices. Using a low electric energy railgun system, hydrogen pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. Under the same operational conditions, the energy conversion coefficient for the dummy pellets was around 0.4%, while that for the hydrogen pellets was around 0.12%. The highest hydrogen pellet velocity was 1.4 km s -1 using a 1 m long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km s -1 using a 3 m long railgun. (orig.)

  17. Startup of the experimental physics industrial control system at NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichta, P.; Dong, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a set of software which is being used as the basis of the National Spherical Torus Experiment's (NSTX) Process Control System, a major element of the NSTX's Central Instrumentation and Control System. EPICS is a result of a co-development effort started by several US Department of Energy National Laboratories. EPICS is actively supported through an international collaboration made up of government and industrial users. EPICS' good points include portability, scalability, and extensibility. A drawback for small experiments is that a wide range of software skills are necessary to get the software tools running for the process engineers. The authors' experience in designing, developing, operating, and maintaining NSTX's EPICS (system) will be reviewed

  18. Experimental Tritium Cleanup System availability analysis from 1984 to 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Taylor, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    This report gives the availability percentage of the Experimental Tritium Cleanup System (ETC) at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The component failure reports, the numbers of components, and operating times or demands are all given in this report. Sample calculations of the failure rates obtained from these data are given in the appendices. While future fusion experiments might use different or more advanced means to detritiate room air, the analysis of this system gives a data point for an actual detritiation system. Such a data point can be extrapolated for comparison with fault tree results on system designs, or can be used in a Bayesian failure rate analysis for estimating reliability of a new type of system. The nine years of testing operations on TSTA's ETC result in a reasonable average availability value of 92% for the maximal tritium release event. The failure rates for new systems are expected to be lower than for the TSTA ETC, since improvements will be made in the design of the room air detritiation system based on the TSTA system experiences. Nonetheless, these TSTA data should be useful for future fusion reactor design work and safety assessment tasks

  19. A global qualitative view of bifurcations and dynamics in the Roessler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genesio, R.; Innocenti, G.; Gualdani, F.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the Letter is a global study of the well-known Roessler system to point out the main complex dynamics that it can exhibit. The structural analysis is based on the periodic solutions of the system investigated by a harmonic balance technique. Simplified expressions of such limit cycles are first derived and characterized, then their local bifurcations are denoted, also giving indications to predict possible homoclinic orbits with the same unifying approach. These analytical results give a general picture of the system behaviours in the parameter space and numerical analysis and simulations confirm the qualitative accuracy of the whole. Such predictions have also an important role in applying efficiently the above numerical procedures

  20. Quantitative and qualitative hydrologic balance for a suburban watershed with a separate sewer system (Nantes, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, V; Larrarte, F; Berthier, M; Favreau, L; Sauvourel, Y; Letellier, L; Mosisni, M L; Raimbault, G

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative budget at the outlet of the storm-water runoff system of a small suburban watershed is presented together with some data regarding waste-water. 445,000 m3 (34% of the rain-water volume) were drained by the storm-water runoff system and 40,879 m3 by the waste-water system from September 2002 to March 2004. Storm-water runoff is generally not heavily polluted with regard to trace metals but concentrations occasionally exceed the standards for surface water of good quality. On the contrary, pesticides (diuron and glyphosate) have very high concentrations especially in spring and autumn when their use is maximum. As the St Joseph storm-water runoff is finally discharged into the Erdre River, measures to reduce the use of these pollutants should be considered.

  1. Challenges in Evaluating Clinical Governance Systems in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Elaheh; Tourani, Sogand; Ravaghi, Hamid; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: In spite of the pivotal role of clinical governance in enhancing quality of services provided by hospitals across the country, a scientific framework with specific criteria for evaluating hospitals has not been developed so far. Objectives: This study was conducted with the aim to identify the challenges involved in evaluating systems of clinical governance in Iran. Materials and Methods: For the purposes of this qualitative study, 15 semi-structured interviews with experts in the field were conducted in 2011 and the data were analyzed using framework analysis method. Results: Five major challenges in evaluating clinical governance include managing human resources, improving clinical quality, managing development, organizing clinical governance, and providing patient-oriented healthcare system. Conclusions: Healthcare system in Iran requires a clinical governance program which has a patient-oriented approach in philosophy, operation, and effectiveness in order to meet the challenges ahead. PMID:24910799

  2. Integrated decision-making about housing, energy and wellbeing: a qualitative system dynamics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Alexandra; Davies, Michael; Shrubsole, Clive; Luxford, Naomi; May, Neil; Chiu, Lai Fong; Trutnevyte, Evelina; Bobrova, Yekatherina; Chalabi, Zaid

    2016-03-08

    The UK government has an ambitious goal to reduce carbon emissions from the housing stock through energy efficiency improvements. This single policy goal is a strong driver for change in the housing system, but comes with positive and negative "unintended consequences" across a broad range of outcomes for health, equity and environmental sustainability. The resulting policies are also already experiencing under-performance through a failure to consider housing as a complex system. This research aimed to move from considering disparate objectives of housing policies in isolation to mapping the links between environmental, economic, social and health outcomes as a complex system. We aimed to support a broad range of housing policy stakeholders to improve their understanding of housing as a complex system through a collaborative learning process. We used participatory system dynamics modelling to develop a qualitative causal theory linking housing, energy and wellbeing. Qualitative interviews were followed by two interactive workshops to develop the model, involving representatives from national and local government, housing industries, non-government organisations, communities and academia. More than 50 stakeholders from 37 organisations participated. The process resulted in a shared understanding of wellbeing as it relates to housing; an agreed set of criteria against which to assess to future policy options; and a comprehensive set of causal loop diagrams describing the housing, energy and wellbeing system. The causal loop diagrams cover seven interconnected themes: community connection and quality of neighbourhoods; energy efficiency and climate change; fuel poverty and indoor temperature; household crowding; housing affordability; land ownership, value and development patterns; and ventilation and indoor air pollution. The collaborative learning process and the model have been useful for shifting the thinking of a wide range of housing stakeholders towards a more

  3. Systemic barriers accessing HIV treatment among people who inject drugs in Russia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    Achieving 'universal access' to antiretroviral HIV treatment (ART) in lower income and transitional settings is a global target. Yet, access to ART is shaped by local social condition and is by no means universal. Qualitative studies are ideally suited to describing how access to ART is socially situated. We explored systemic barriers to accessing ART among people who inject drugs (PWID) in a Russian city (Ekaterinburg) with a large burden of HIV treatment demand. We undertook 42 in-depth qualitative interviews with people living with HIV with current or recent experience of injecting drug use. Accounts were analysed thematically, and supplemented here with an illustrative case study. Three core themes were identified: 'labyrinthine bureaucracy' governing access to ART; a 'system Catch 22' created by an expectation that access to ART was conditional upon treated drug use in a setting of limited drug treatment opportunity; and 'system verticalization', where a lack of integration across HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and drug treatment compromised access to ART. Taken together, we find that systemic factors play a key role in shaping access to ART with the potential adverse effects of reproducing treatment initiation delay and disengagement from treatment. We argue that meso-level systemic factors affecting access to ART for PWID interact with wider macro-level structural forces, including those related to drug treatment policy and the social marginalization of PWID. We note the urgent need for systemic and structural changes to improve access to ART for PWID in this setting, including to simplify bureaucratic procedures, foster integrated HIV, TB and drug treatment services, and advocate for drug treatment policy reform.

  4. Experimental investigation of leak detection using mobile distributed monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Zheng, Junli; Xiong, Feng; Ge, Qi; Yan, Qixiang; Cheng, Fei

    2018-01-01

    The leak detection of rockfill dams is currently hindered by spatial and temporal randomness and wide monitoring range. The spatial resolution of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensing technology is related to the distance between measuring points. As a result, the number of measuring points should be increased to ensure that the precise location of the leak is detected. However, this leads to a higher monitoring cost. Consequently, it is difficult to promote and apply this technology to effectively monitor rockfill dam leakage. In this paper, a practical mobile distributed monitoring system with dual-tubes is used by combining the FBG sensing system and hydrothermal cycling system. This dual-tube structure is composed of an outer polyethylene of raised temperature resistance heating pipe, an inner polytetrafluoroethylene tube, and a FBG sensor string, among which, the FBG sensor string can be dragged freely in the internal tube to change the position of the measuring points and improve the spatial resolution. In order to test the effectiveness of the system, the large-scale model test of concentrated leakage in 13 working conditions is carried out by identifying the location, quantity, and leakage rate of leakage passage. Based on Newton’s law of cooling, the leakage state is identified using the seepage identification index ζ v that was confirmed according to the cooling curve. Results suggested that the monitoring system shows high sensitivity and can improve the spatial resolution with limited measuring points, and thus better locate the leakage area. In addition, the seepage identification index ζ v correlated well with the leakage rate qualitatively.

  5. Web based system architecture for long pulse remote experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, E. de las; Lastra, D.; Vega, J.; Castro, R.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.

    2010-01-01

    Remote experimentation (RE) methods will be essential in next generation fusion devices. Requirements for long pulse RE will be: on-line data visualization, on-line data acquisition processes monitoring and on-line data acquisition systems interactions (start, stop or set-up modifications). Note that these methods are not oriented to real-time control of fusion plant devices. INDRA Sistemas S.A., CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas) and UPM (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid) have designed a specific software architecture for these purposes. The architecture can be supported on the BeansNet platform, whose integration with an application server provides an adequate solution to the requirements. BeansNet is a JINI based framework developed by INDRA, which makes easy the implementation of a remote experimentation model based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The new software architecture has been designed on the basis of the experience acquired in the development of an upgrade of the TJ-II remote experimentation system.

  6. Parameter and state estimation of experimental chaotic systems using synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, John C.; Bryant, Paul H.; Creveling, Daniel R.; Klein, Sallee R.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2009-07-01

    We examine the use of synchronization as a mechanism for extracting parameter and state information from experimental systems. We focus on important aspects of this problem that have received little attention previously and we explore them using experiments and simulations with the chaotic Colpitts oscillator as an example system. We explore the impact of model imperfection on the ability to extract valid information from an experimental system. We compare two optimization methods: an initial value method and a constrained method. Each of these involves coupling the model equations to the experimental data in order to regularize the chaotic motions on the synchronization manifold. We explore both time-dependent and time-independent coupling and discuss the use of periodic impulse coupling. We also examine both optimized and fixed (or manually adjusted) coupling. For the case of an optimized time-dependent coupling function u(t) we find a robust structure which includes sharp peaks and intervals where it is zero. This structure shows a strong correlation with the location in phase space and appears to depend on noise, imperfections of the model, and the Lyapunov direction vectors. For time-independent coupling we find the counterintuitive result that often the optimal rms error in fitting the model to the data initially increases with coupling strength. Comparison of this result with that obtained using simulated data may provide one measure of model imperfection. The constrained method with time-dependent coupling appears to have benefits in synchronizing long data sets with minimal impact, while the initial value method with time-independent coupling tends to be substantially faster, more flexible, and easier to use. We also describe a method of coupling which is useful for sparse experimental data sets. Our use of the Colpitts oscillator allows us to explore in detail the case of a system with one positive Lyapunov exponent. The methods we explored are easily

  7. Experimental non-classicality of an indivisible quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapkiewicz, Radek; Li, Peizhe; Schaeff, Christoph; Langford, Nathan K; Ramelow, Sven; Wieśniak, Marcin; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-06-22

    In contrast to classical physics, quantum theory demands that not all properties can be simultaneously well defined; the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a manifestation of this fact. Alternatives have been explored--notably theories relying on joint probability distributions or non-contextual hidden-variable models, in which the properties of a system are defined independently of their own measurement and any other measurements that are made. Various deep theoretical results imply that such theories are in conflict with quantum mechanics. Simpler cases demonstrating this conflict have been found and tested experimentally with pairs of quantum bits (qubits). Recently, an inequality satisfied by non-contextual hidden-variable models and violated by quantum mechanics for all states of two qubits was introduced and tested experimentally. A single three-state system (a qutrit) is the simplest system in which such a contradiction is possible; moreover, the contradiction cannot result from entanglement between subsystems, because such a three-state system is indivisible. Here we report an experiment with single photonic qutrits which provides evidence that no joint probability distribution describing the outcomes of all possible measurements--and, therefore, no non-contextual theory--can exist. Specifically, we observe a violation of the Bell-type inequality found by Klyachko, Can, Binicioğlu and Shumovsky. Our results illustrate a deep incompatibility between quantum mechanics and classical physics that cannot in any way result from entanglement.

  8. Discrete event simulation tool for analysis of qualitative models of continuous processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Basham, Bryan D. (Inventor); Harris, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial intelligence design and qualitative modeling tool is disclosed for creating computer models and simulating continuous activities, functions, and/or behavior using developed discrete event techniques. Conveniently, the tool is organized in four modules: library design module, model construction module, simulation module, and experimentation and analysis. The library design module supports the building of library knowledge including component classes and elements pertinent to a particular domain of continuous activities, functions, and behavior being modeled. The continuous behavior is defined discretely with respect to invocation statements, effect statements, and time delays. The functionality of the components is defined in terms of variable cluster instances, independent processes, and modes, further defined in terms of mode transition processes and mode dependent processes. Model construction utilizes the hierarchy of libraries and connects them with appropriate relations. The simulation executes a specialized initialization routine and executes events in a manner that includes selective inherency of characteristics through a time and event schema until the event queue in the simulator is emptied. The experimentation and analysis module supports analysis through the generation of appropriate log files and graphics developments and includes the ability of log file comparisons.

  9. An Efficient Expert System Generator for Qualitative Feed-Back Loop Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Quite often the variables used in system analysis are qualitative in nature. They cannot be defined precisely, whereas software development for system analysis needs a mathematical framework with precise computations. It is not trivial to capture the uncertainty in the system.
    Fuzzy sets provide us the facility to capture the uncertainty in the system. In normal crisp set where the membership of an element is always certain in a sense that it would be member or not of the given set. In contrast to this a membership functions or possibility (ranging from 0 to 1, including both values is assigned with each member. System analysis is done through system dynamics which is not very efficient. We present an efficient technique to generate expert system using fuzzy set. In our proposed approach five linguistic qualifiers are used for each variable, namely, Very Low (VL, Low (L, Medium (M, High (H, and Very High
    (VH. We capture the influence or feedback in the system with the help of if then else rules and matrices are generated for them which are used for analysis. Complete methodology and its applicability are presented here.

  10. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  11. Experimental study of flame stability in biogas premix system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz G, Carlos A; Amell A Andres; Cardona Luis F

    2008-01-01

    Utilization of new renewable energy sources have had a special interest in last years looking for decrease the dependence of fossil fuels and the environmental impact generated for them. This work studies experimentally the flame stability of a simulated biogas with a volumetric composition of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. The objective of this study is to obtain information about design and interchangeability of gases in premixed combustion systems that operate with different fuel gases. The critical velocity gradient was the stability criteria used. Utilization of this criteria and the experimental method followed, using a partial premixed burner, stability flame diagram of biogas studied had been obtained. Presence of carbon dioxide has a negative effect in flame stability, decreasing significantly the laminar flame speed and consequently, the stability range of biogas burners because of apparition of blow off.

  12. Experimental study on beam for composite CES structural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tomoya

    2017-10-01

    Development study on Concrete Encase Steel (CES) composite structure system has been continuously conducted toward the practical use. CES structure is composed of steel and fiber reinforced concrete. In previous study, it was found that CES structure has good seismic performance from experimental study of columns, beam - column joints, shear walls and a two story two span frame. However, as fundamental study on CES beam could be lacking, it is necessary to understand the structural performance of CES beam. In this study, static loading tests of CES beams were conducted with experimental valuable of steel size, the presence or absence of slab and thickness of slab. And restoring characteristics, failure behavior, deformation behavior, and strength evaluation method of CES beam were investigated. As the results, it was found that CES beam showed stable hysteresis behavior. Furthermore it was found that the flexural strength of the CES beam could be evaluated by superposition strength theory.

  13. Experimental probes of emergent symmetries in the quantum Hall system

    CERN Document Server

    Lutken, C A

    2011-01-01

    Experiments studying renormalization group flows in the quantum Hall system provide significant evidence for the existence of an emergent holomorphic modular symmetry Gamma(0)(2). We briefly review this evidence and show that, for the lowest temperatures, the experimental determination of the position of the quantum critical points agrees to the parts per mille level with the prediction from Gamma(0)(2). We present evidence that experiments giving results that deviate substantially from the symmetry predictions are not cold enough to be in the quantum critical domain. We show how the modular symmetry extended by a non-holomorphic particle hole duality leads to an extensive web of dualities related to those in plateau insulator transitions, and we derive a formula relating dual pairs (B, B(d)) of magnetic field strengths across any transition. The experimental data obtained for the transition studied so far is in excellent agreement with the duality relations following from this emergent symmetry, and rule out...

  14. A qualitative evaluation of medication management services in six Minnesota health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Todd D; Pestka, Deborah; Sorge, Lindsay A; Wallace, Margaret L; Schommer, Jon

    2016-03-01

    The initiation, establishment, and sustainability of medication management programs in six Minnesota health systems are described. Six Minnesota health systems with well-established medication management programs were invited to participate in this study: Essentia Health, Fairview Health Services, HealthPartners, Hennepin County Medical Center, Mayo Clinic, and Park Nicollet Health Services. Qualitative methods were employed by conducting group interviews with key staff from each institution who were influential in the development of medication management services within their organization. Kotter's theory of eight steps for leading organizational change served as the framework for the question guide. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for recurring and emergent themes. A total of 13 distinct themes were associated with the successful integration of medication management services across the six healthcare systems. Identified themes clustered within three stages of Kotter's model for leading organizational change: creating a climate for change, engaging and enabling the whole organization, and implementing and sustaining change. The 13 themes included (1) external influences, (2) pharmacists as an untapped resource, (3) principles and professionalism, (4) organizational culture, (5) momentum champions, (6) collaborative relationships, (7) service promotion, (8) team-based care, (9) implementation strategies, (10) overcoming challenges, (11) supportive care model process, (12) measuring and reporting results, and (13) sustainability strategies. A qualitative survey of six health systems that successfully implemented medication management services in ambulatory care clinics revealed that a supportive culture and team-based collaborative care are among the themes identified as necessary for service sustainability. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sustainability of health information systems: a three-country qualitative study in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucheraud, Corrina; Schwitters, Amee; Boudreaux, Chantelle; Giles, Denise; Kilmarx, Peter H; Ntolo, Ntolo; Bangani, Zwashe; St Louis, Michael E; Bossert, Thomas J

    2017-01-10

    Health information systems are central to strong health systems. They assist with patient and program management, quality improvement, disease surveillance, and strategic use of information. Many donors have worked to improve health information systems, particularly by supporting the introduction of electronic health information systems (EHIS), which are considered more responsive and more efficient than older, paper-based systems. As many donor-driven programs are increasing their focus on country ownership, sustainability of these investments is a key concern. This analysis explores the potential sustainability of EHIS investments in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, originally supported by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Using a framework based on sustainability theories from the health systems literature, this analysis employs a qualitative case study methodology to highlight factors that may increase the likelihood that donor-supported initiatives will continue after the original support is modified or ends. Findings highlight commonalities around possible determinants of sustainability. The study found that there is great optimism about the potential for EHIS, but the perceived risks may result in hesitancy to transition completely and parallel use of paper-based systems. Full stakeholder engagement is likely to be crucial for sustainability, as well as integration with other activities within the health system and those funded by development partners. The literature suggests that a sustainable system has clearly-defined goals around which stakeholders can rally, but this has not been achieved in the systems studied. The study also found that technical resource constraints - affecting system usage, maintenance, upgrades and repairs - may limit EHIS sustainability even if these other pillars were addressed. The sustainability of EHIS faces many challenges, which could be addressed through systems' technical design, stakeholder

  16. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  17. Manipulator system for remote maintenance of fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Munakata, Tadashi; Murakami, Shin; Kondoh, Mitsunori.

    1991-01-01

    We have completed the conceptual design for a rail-mounted vehicle type remote maintenance system for the fusion experimental reactor (FER), which will be the first D-T burning reactor in Japan. We have fabricated a 1/5-scale model and confirmed the feasibility of the design. In this system, a rail is deployed into the vessel and supported at four horizontal ports. A vehicle then moves along the rail and handles in-vessel components with manipulators. The advantages of this concept are the high stiffness and high reliability of the rail, and the high mobility of the vehicle for efficient maintenance operations. In the FER, this concept is considered to be the first option for in-vessel maintenance. This paper describes the conceptual design of the system and the feasibility study using the 1/5-scale model. (author)

  18. EXPERIMENTAL SENSOR OF THE BENZOETHANOL COMPOSITION FOR ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bgantsev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the economy of internal combustion engine on benzoethanol is the accuracy of regulation of the fuel-air mixture composition. This task is complicated by fluctuations in the composition of benzoethanol, depending on the refueling of the vehicle at various filling stations. In this connection, there is a need to control the composition of benzoethanol in the fuel system of the engine and adjust the fuel supply system. With this purpose, fuel systems are equipped with special sensors that generate a signal, depending on the alcohol content of the mixed fuel. In the article one of the design solutions of the experimental sensor of the benzoethanol composition and the results of its testing with fuels of various composition are given.

  19. Europhysics conference on control systems for experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuiper, B.

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference dealing with computer control of particle accelerators and other larger experimental-physics installations. This conference in Villars was the second in a now-established biennial series starting in 1985 in Los Alamos and continuing in 1989 in Vancouver. It included 9 invited papers, presented orally, 61 contributed papers displayed as posters, 6 topical workshops, and 7 tutorials. With few exceptions, all papers appear in the proceedings. Topics include functioning or proposed control systems of several large accelerators (LEP, SSC, GSI, INP, IHEP) and the UA1 experiment at CERN, overviews and current status of control systems for other accelerators and associated equipment, software, modelling, use of expert systems, maintenance, interfaces, network procedures and communications, and timing. Transcripts of the workshops have been reproduced in full, each followed by a summary. (orig.)

  20. Tritium system design studies of fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Baiquan; Huang Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    A summary of the tritium system design studies for the engineering outline design of a fusion experimental breeder (FEB-E) is presented. This paper is divided into three sections. In first section, the geometry, loading features and tritium concentrations in liquid lithium of tritium breeding zones of blanket are described. The tritium flow chart corresponding to the tritium fuel cycle system has been constructed, and the inventories in ten subsystems are calculated using SWITRIM code in section 2. Results show that the necessary initial tritium storage to start up FEB-E with fusion power of 143 MW is about 319 g. In final section, the tritium leakage issues under different operation circumstances have been analyzed. It was found that the potential danger of tritium leakage could be resulted from the exhausted gas of the diverter system. It is important to elevate the tritium burnup fraction and reduce the tritium throughput. (authors)

  1. Experimental System of Solar Adsorption Refrigeration with Concentrated Collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z X; Li, Y X; Du, C X

    2017-10-18

    To improve the performance of solar adsorption refrigeration, an experimental system with a solar concentration collector was set up and investigated. The main components of the system were the adsorbent bed, the condenser, the evaporator, the cooling sub-system, and the solar collector. In the first step of the experiment, the vapor-saturated bed was heated by the solar radiation under closed conditions, which caused the bed temperature and pressure to increase. When the bed pressure became high enough, the bed was switched to connect to the condenser, thus water vapor flowed continually from the bed to the condenser to be liquefied. Next, the bed needed to cool down after the desorption. In the solar-shielded condition, achieved by aluminum foil, the circulating water loop was opened to the bed. With the water continually circulating in the bed, the stored heat in the bed was took out and the bed pressure decreased accordingly. When the bed pressure dropped below the saturation pressure at the evaporation temperature, the valve to the evaporator was opened. A mass of water vapor rushed into the bed and was adsorbed by the zeolite material. With the massive vaporization of the water in the evaporator, the refrigeration effect was generated finally. The experimental result has revealed that both the COP (coefficient of the performance of the system) and the SCP (specific cooling power of the system) of the SAPO-34 zeolite was greater than that of the ZSM-5 zeolite, no matter whether the adsorption time was longer or shorter. The system of the SAPO-34 zeolite generated a maximum COP of 0.169.

  2. Qualitative analysis of the man-organization system in accident conditions for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, Mita; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a model of the human performance investigation of accident conditions in the operation of the nuclear installation is developed. A framework for analyses of the human action in the man-organization system context is achieved. The goal of this model is to identify the possible roots causing human errors which could occur during the evolution of the accident by the qualitative analysis of the interfaces in man-organization system. These interfaces represent the main elements which characterize the implication of the organization in human performance. The results of this paper are the interfaces of the man-organization and their circumstances in which human performance could fail. Also, another result is a pre-designed framework which could help in the investigation of an accident. (authors)

  3. Experimental demonstration of subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, José; Ruiz-Alba, Antonio; Amaya, Waldimar; Martínez, Alfonso; García-Muñoz, Víctor; Calvo, David; Capmany, José

    2012-06-01

    We provide, to our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of the feasibility of sending several parallel keys by exploiting the technique of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) widely employed in microwave photonics. This approach brings several advantages such as high spectral efficiency compatible with the actual secure key rates, the sharing of the optical fainted pulse by all the quantum multiplexed channels reducing the system complexity, and the possibility of upgrading with wavelength division multiplexing in a two-tier scheme, to increase the number of parallel keys. Two independent quantum SCM channels featuring a sifted key rate of 10 Kb/s/channel over a link with quantum bit error rate <2% is reported.

  4. From experimental systems to evolutionary biology: an impossible journey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to the sciences has undergone a sea change during recent decades. Maybe the major contribution of Hans-Jörg Rheinberger to this movement was his demonstration of the importance of experimental systems, and of their transformations, in the development of the sciences. To describe these transformations, Hans-Jörg borrows metaphors from evolutionary biology. I want to argue that evolutionary biologists can find in these recent historical studies plenty of models and concepts to address unresolved issues in their discipline. At a time when transdisciplinarity is highly praised, it is useful to provide a precise description of the obstacles that have so far prevented this exchange.

  5. Experimental investigation of processes in primary circuit relief system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, Z.; Simo, T.; Konecny, A.

    1989-01-01

    The protective condenser (direct contact condenser) is one of the basic components of the primary circuit relief system of WWER power plants. The steam flowing from the surge tank through relief valves into the subcooled water condensates in the protective condenser vessel. Two simple physical models were designed and constructed for investigation of bubbling through (contact condensation). An experimental program was performed with the aim of determining the distribution of temperatures in the axis of the steam jet and its vicinity, determining the velocity field of water into vicinity of steam jets, observing the geometrical shape of jets and their interaction and determining important values for mathematical model. (orig.)

  6. Fuzzy Controllers for a Gantry Crane System with Experimental Verifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif B. Almutairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The control problem of gantry cranes has attracted the attention of many researchers because of the various applications of these cranes in the industry. In this paper we propose two fuzzy controllers to control the position of the cart of a gantry crane while suppressing the swing angle of the payload. Firstly, we propose a dual PD fuzzy controller where the parameters of each PD controller change as the cart moves toward its desired position, while maintaining a small swing angle of the payload. This controller uses two fuzzy subsystems. Then, we propose a fuzzy controller which is based on heuristics. The rules of this controller are obtained taking into account the knowledge of an experienced crane operator. This controller is unique in that it uses only one fuzzy system to achieve the control objective. The validity of the designed controllers is tested through extensive MATLAB simulations as well as experimental results on a laboratory gantry crane apparatus. The simulation results as well as the experimental results indicate that the proposed fuzzy controllers work well. Moreover, the simulation and the experimental results demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control schemes against output disturbances as well as against uncertainty in some of the parameters of the crane.

  7. Speech-driven environmental control systems--a qualitative analysis of users' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Simon; Robertson, Zoë; Hawley, Mark; Enderby, Pam

    2009-05-01

    To explore users' experiences and perceptions of speech-driven environmental control systems (SPECS) as part of a larger project aiming to develop a new SPECS. The motivation for this part of the project was to add to the evidence base for the use of SPECS and to determine the key design specifications for a new speech-driven system from a user's perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 users of SPECS from around the United Kingdom. These interviews were transcribed and analysed using a qualitative method based on framework analysis. Reliability is the main influence on the use of SPECS. All the participants gave examples of occasions when their speech-driven system was unreliable; in some instances, this unreliability was reported as not being a problem (e.g., for changing television channels); however, it was perceived as a problem for more safety critical functions (e.g., opening a door). Reliability was cited by participants as the reason for using a switch-operated system as back up. Benefits of speech-driven systems focused on speech operation enabling access when other methods were not possible; quicker operation and better aesthetic considerations. Overall, there was a perception of increased independence from the use of speech-driven environmental control. In general, speech was considered a useful method of operating environmental controls by the participants interviewed; however, their perceptions regarding reliability often influenced their decision to have backup or alternative systems for certain functions.

  8. Modeling and experimental studies of the DIII-D neutral beam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, B., E-mail: crowleyb@fusion.gat.com; Rauch, J.; Scoville, J.T.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The issues surrounding proposals to increase neutral beam power are evaluated. • A tetrode version of the DIII-D ion source is modeled. • A neutralization efficiency of the DIII-D neutral beam is measured. • A power loading model of the neutral beam line is presented. - Abstract: In this paper, we present the results of beam physics experimental and modeling efforts aimed at learning from and building on the experience of the DIII-D off-axis neutral beam upgrade and other neutral beam system upgrades such as those at JET. The modeling effort includes electrostatic accelerator modeling (using a Poisson solver), gas dynamics modeling for the neutralizer and beam transport models for the beamline. Experimentally, spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques are used to evaluate the system performance. We seek to understand and ameliorate problems such as anomalous power deposition, originating from misdirected or excessively divergent beam particles, on a number of beamline components. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate possible project risks such as neutralization efficiency deficit and high voltage hold off associated with increasing the beam energy up to 105 keV.

  9. Review of Research Projects on Qualitative and Quantitative Effects of Radiation on Haematopoietic Tissue in Man and Experimental Animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilberg, A. W. [Division of Radiological Health, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1967-07-15

    By way of introduction to a review of Research Projects of the Division of Radiological Health concerned with effects of radiation on the haematopoietic tissue in man and the experimental animal, I should like first to discuss briefly the organization of research. Our research is organized into three major disciplines: (1) Epidemiology, (2) Radiation biology, and (3) Environmental sciences. Briefly, epidemiology is concerned with studies, of populations and effects of radiation in.man; radiation biology is concerned with effects in the experimental animal under controlled situations and also concerned with basic research in cellular and sub-cellular effects; and environmental science is concerned with transport mechanisms in the biosphere and how these mechanisms may operate and be interrupted to reduce radiation hazard to man.

  10. Ambulatory oxygen: why do COPD patients not use their portable systems as prescribed? A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenwick Angela

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with COPD on long term oxygen therapy frequently do not adhere to their prescription, and they frequently do not use their ambulatory oxygen systems as intended. Reasons for this lack of adherence are not known. The aim of this study was to obtain in-depth information about perceptions and use of prescribed ambulatory oxygen systems from patients with COPD to inform ambulatory oxygen design, prescription and management. Methods A qualitative design was used, involving semi-structured face-to-face interviews informed by a grounded theory approach. Twenty-seven UK community-dwelling COPD patients using NHS prescribed ambulatory systems were recruited. Ambulatory oxygen systems comprised cylinders weighing 3.4 kg, a shoulder bag and nasal cannulae. Results Participants reported that they: received no instruction on how to use ambulatory oxygen; were uncertain of the benefits; were afraid the system would run out while they were using it (due to lack of confidence in the cylinder gauge; were embarrassed at being seen with the system in public; and were unable to carry the system because of the cylinder weight. The essential role of carers was also highlighted, as participants with no immediate carers did not use ambulatory oxygen outside the house. Conclusions These participants highlighted previously unreported problems that prevented them from using ambulatory oxygen as prescribed. Our novel findings point to: concerns with the lack of specific information provision; the perceived unreliability of the oxygen system; important carer issues surrounding managing and using ambulatory oxygen equipment. All of these issues, as well as previously reported problems with system weight and patient embarrassment, should be addressed to improve adherence to ambulatory oxygen prescription and enhance the physical and social benefits of maintaining mobility in this patient group. Increased user involvement in both system development

  11. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  12. Experimental Approach of Fault Movement on an Engineered Barrier System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Heuna

    2012-01-01

    Safety evaluation of an engineered barrier system against fault movement at underground disposal region for high level waste (HLW) is tried using a miniature bore-shear apparatus. For the purpose, a miniature bore-shear apparatus simulating an EBS (engineered barrier system) was manufactured in 1/30 scale. And using the developed apparatus, bore-shear tests were performed twice. During the tests, pressure variations were checked at 6 points around buffer zone, and then a rotational angle of the test vessel was checked. The achieved pressure data were compared with those from analytical modeling, which is based on Drucker-Prager model. At initial shearing step, high pressure was recorded at some point but it decreased rapidly. For the better understanding of fault movement, the modification of an analytical model and the accumulation of experimental experience were required

  13. Experimental Approach of Fault Movement on an Engineered Barrier System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Heuna [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Safety evaluation of an engineered barrier system against fault movement at underground disposal region for high level waste (HLW) is tried using a miniature bore-shear apparatus. For the purpose, a miniature bore-shear apparatus simulating an EBS (engineered barrier system) was manufactured in 1/30 scale. And using the developed apparatus, bore-shear tests were performed twice. During the tests, pressure variations were checked at 6 points around buffer zone, and then a rotational angle of the test vessel was checked. The achieved pressure data were compared with those from analytical modeling, which is based on Drucker-Prager model. At initial shearing step, high pressure was recorded at some point but it decreased rapidly. For the better understanding of fault movement, the modification of an analytical model and the accumulation of experimental experience were required.

  14. Simulator for candu600 fuel handling system. the experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, N.; Predescu, D.; Valeca, S.

    2013-01-01

    A main way to increase the nuclear plant safety is related to selection and continuous training of the operation staff. In this order, the computer programs for training, testing and evaluation of the knowledge get, or training simulators including the advanced analytical models of the technological systems are using. The Institute for Nuclear Research from Pitesti, Romania intend to design and build an Fuel Handling Simulator at his F/M Head Test Rig facility, that will be used for training of operating personnel. This paper presents simulated system, advantages to use the simulator, and the experimental model of simulator, that has been built to allows setting of the requirements and fabrication details, especially for the software kit that will be designed and implement on main simulator. (authors)

  15. Experimental platforms for behavioral experiments on social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Janssen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an increased interest in using behavioral experiments to study hypotheses on the governance of social-ecological systems. A diversity of software tools are used to implement such experiments. We evaluated various publicly available platforms that could be used in research and education on the governance of social-ecological systems. The aims of the various platforms are distinct, and this is noticeable in the differences in their user-friendliness and their adaptability to novel research questions. The more easily accessible platforms are useful for prototyping experiments and for educational purposes to illustrate theoretical concepts. To advance novel research aims, more elaborate programming experience is required to either implement an experiment from scratch or adjust existing experimental software. There is no ideal platform best suited for all possible use cases, but we have provided a menu of options and their associated trade-offs.

  16. Experimental Validation of the LHC Helium Relief System Flow Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Fydrych, J; Riddone, G

    2006-01-01

    In case of simultaneous resistive transitions in a whole sector of magnets in the Large Hadron Collider, the helium would be vented from the cold masses to a dedicated recovery system. During the discharge the cold helium will eventually enter a pipe at room temperature. During the first period of the flow the helium will be heated intensely due to the pipe heat capacity. To study the changes of the helium thermodynamic and flow parameters we have simulated numerically the most critical flow cases. To verify and validate numerical results, a dedicated laboratory test rig representing the helium relief system has been designed and commissioned. Both numerical and experimental results allow us to determine the distributions of the helium parameters along the pipes as well as mechanical strains and stresses.

  17. Experimentation and evaluation of advanced integrated system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M.; Garrigus, K.; Gottschalck, J.; Rinearson, L.; Longee, E.

    1980-09-01

    This final report examines the implementation of a time-phased test bed for experimentation and evaluation of advanced system concepts relative to the future Defense Switched Network (DSN). After identifying issues pertinent to the DSN, a set of experiments which address these issues are developed. Experiments are ordered based on their immediacy and relative importance to DSN development. The set of experiments thus defined allows requirements for a time phased implementation of a test bed to be identified, and several generic test bed architectures which meet these requirements are examined. Specific architecture implementations are costed and cost/schedule profiles are generated as a function of experimental capability. The final recommended system consists of two separate test beds: a circuit switch test bed, configured around an off-the-shelf commercial switch, and directed toward the examination of nearer term and transitional issues raised by the evolving DSN; and a packet/hybrid test bed, featuring a discrete buildup of new hardware and software modules, and directed toward examination of the more advanced integrated voice and data telecommunications issues and concepts.

  18. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  19. Biofouling in forward osmosis systems: An experimental and numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucs, Szilárd S; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluates with numerical simulations supported by experimental data the impact of biofouling on membrane performance in a cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) system. The two-dimensional numerical model couples liquid flow with solute transport in the FO feed and draw channels, in the FO membrane support layer and in the biofilm developed on one or both sides of the membrane. The developed model was tested against experimental measurements at various osmotic pressure differences and in batch operation without and with the presence of biofilm on the membrane active layer. Numerical studies explored the effect of biofilm properties (thickness, hydraulic permeability and porosity), biofilm membrane surface coverage, and biofilm location on salt external concentration polarization and on the permeation flux. The numerical simulations revealed that (i) when biofouling occurs, external concentration polarization became important, (ii) the biofilm hydraulic permeability and membrane surface coverage have the highest impact on water flux, and (iii) the biofilm formed in the draw channel impacts the process performance more than when formed in the feed channel. The proposed mathematical model helps to understand the impact of biofouling in FO membrane systems and to develop possible strategies to reduce and control biofouling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biofouling in forward osmosis systems: An experimental and numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2016-09-20

    This study evaluates with numerical simulations supported by experimental data the impact of biofouling on membrane performance in a cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) system. The two-dimensional numerical model couples liquid flow with solute transport in the FO feed and draw channels, in the FO membrane support layer and in the biofilm developed on one or both sides of the membrane. The developed model was tested against experimental measurements at various osmotic pressure differences and in batch operation without and with the presence of biofilm on the membrane active layer. Numerical studies explored the effect of biofilm properties (thickness, hydraulic permeability and porosity), biofilm membrane surface coverage, and biofilm location on salt external concentration polarization and on the permeation flux. The numerical simulations revealed that (i) when biofouling occurs, external concentration polarization became important, (ii) the biofilm hydraulic permeability and membrane surface coverage have the highest impact on water flux, and (iii) the biofilm formed in the draw channel impacts the process performance more than when formed in the feed channel. The proposed mathematical model helps to understand the impact of biofouling in FO membrane systems and to develop possible strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Data taking and processing system for nuclear experimental physics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Y.; Kimura, H.; Katori, K.; Kuriyama, K.

    1979-01-01

    A multi input, multi mode, multi user data taking and processing system was developed. This system has following special features. 1) It is multi computer system which is constitute with two special processors and two mini computers. 2) The pseudo devices are introduced to make operating procedurs simply and easily. Especially, the selection or modification of 1 - 8 coincidence mode can be done very easily and quickly. 3) A 16 Kch spectrum storage has 8 partitions. Every partitions having floating size are handled automatically by the data taking software SHINE. 4) On line real time data processing can be done. Useing the FORTRAN language, user may prepare the processing software apart from the data taking software. Under the RSX-11D system software, this software runs concurrently with the data taking software by a multi programming mode. 5) The data communication between arbitraly external devices and this system can be done. With this communication procedures, not only the data transfer between computers, but also the control of the experimental devices are realized. Like the real time processing software, this software can be prepared by users and be ran concurrently with other softwares. 6) For data monitoring, two different graphic displays are used complementally. One is a refresh typed high speed display. The other is a storage typed large screen display. Raw datas are displayed on the former. Processed datas or multi parametric large volume datas are displayed on the later one. (author)

  2. Learning to navigate the healthcare system in a new country: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straiton, Melanie L; Myhre, Sonja

    2017-12-01

    Learning to navigate a healthcare system in a new country is a barrier to health care. Understanding more about the specific navigation challenges immigrants experience may be the first step towards improving health information and thus access to care. This study considers the challenges that Thai and Filipino immigrant women encounter when learning to navigate the Norwegian primary healthcare system and the strategies they use. A qualitative interview study using thematic analysis. Norway. Fifteen Thai and 15 Filipino immigrant women over the age of 18 who had been living in Norway at least one year. The women took time to understand the role of the general practitioner and some were unaware of their right to an interpreter during consultations. In addition to reliance on family members and friends in their social networks, voluntary and cultural organisations provided valuable tips and advice on how to navigate the Norwegian health system. While some women actively engaged in learning more about the system, they noted a lack of information available in multiple languages. Informal sources play an important role in learning about the health care system. Formal information should be available in different languages in order to better empower immigrant women.

  3. Fault Tree Analysis with Temporal Gates and Model Checking Technique for Qualitative System Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kwang Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) has suffered from several drawbacks such that it uses only static gates and hence can not capture dynamic behaviors of the complex system precisely, and it is in lack of rigorous semantics, and reasoning process which is to check whether basic events really cause top events is done manually and hence very labor-intensive and time-consuming for the complex systems while it has been one of the most widely used safety analysis technique in nuclear industry. Although several attempts have been made to overcome this problem, they can not still do absolute or actual time modeling because they adapt relative time concept and can capture only sequential behaviors of the system. In this work, to resolve the problems, FTA and model checking are integrated to provide formal, automated and qualitative assistance to informal and/or quantitative safety analysis. Our approach proposes to build a formal model of the system together with fault trees. We introduce several temporal gates based on timed computational tree logic (TCTL) to capture absolute time behaviors of the system and to give concrete semantics to fault tree gates to reduce errors during the analysis, and use model checking technique to automate the reasoning process of FTA

  4. Learning to navigate the healthcare system in a new country: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straiton, Melanie L.; Myhre, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Objective Learning to navigate a healthcare system in a new country is a barrier to health care. Understanding more about the specific navigation challenges immigrants experience may be the first step towards improving health information and thus access to care. This study considers the challenges that Thai and Filipino immigrant women encounter when learning to navigate the Norwegian primary healthcare system and the strategies they use. Design A qualitative interview study using thematic analysis. Setting Norway. Participants Fifteen Thai and 15 Filipino immigrant women over the age of 18 who had been living in Norway at least one year. Results The women took time to understand the role of the general practitioner and some were unaware of their right to an interpreter during consultations. In addition to reliance on family members and friends in their social networks, voluntary and cultural organisations provided valuable tips and advice on how to navigate the Norwegian health system. While some women actively engaged in learning more about the system, they noted a lack of information available in multiple languages. Conclusions Informal sources play an important role in learning about the health care system. Formal information should be available in different languages in order to better empower immigrant women. PMID:29087232

  5. A method to identify energy efficiency measures for factory systems based on qualitative modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Krones, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Manuela Krones develops a method that supports factory planners in generating energy-efficient planning solutions. The method provides qualitative description concepts for factory planning tasks and energy efficiency knowledge as well as an algorithm-based linkage between these measures and the respective planning tasks. Its application is guided by a procedure model which allows a general applicability in the manufacturing sector. The results contain energy efficiency measures that are suitable for a specific planning task and reveal the roles of various actors for the measures’ implementation. Contents Driving Concerns for and Barriers against Energy Efficiency Approaches to Increase Energy Efficiency in Factories Socio-Technical Description of Factory Planning Tasks Description of Energy Efficiency Measures Case Studies on Welding Processes and Logistics Systems Target Groups Lecturers and Students of Industrial Engineering, Production Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Practi...

  6. Optimization of Experimental Model Parameter Identification for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Morello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid approach is envisioned to take advantage of all available modern technologies in transforming the current power system to provide benefits to all stakeholders in the fields of efficient energy utilisation and of wide integration of renewable sources. Energy storage systems could help to solve some issues that stem from renewable energy usage in terms of stabilizing the intermittent energy production, power quality and power peak mitigation. With the integration of energy storage systems into the smart grids, their accurate modeling becomes a necessity, in order to gain robust real-time control on the network, in terms of stability and energy supply forecasting. In this framework, this paper proposes a procedure to identify the values of the battery model parameters in order to best fit experimental data and integrate it, along with models of energy sources and electrical loads, in a complete framework which represents a real time smart grid management system. The proposed method is based on a hybrid optimisation technique, which makes combined use of a stochastic and a deterministic algorithm, with low computational burden and can therefore be repeated over time in order to account for parameter variations due to the battery’s age and usage.

  7. Experimental studies of plasma confinement in toroidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, H.A.B.; Keen, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    In this article the closed-line magnetic field approach to the plasma isolation and confinement problem in toroidal systems is reviewed. The theoretical aspects of closed-line magnetic field systems, indicating that topologically such systems are toroidal, are surveyed under the headings; topology of closed-line systems, equilibrium in different configurations and classification of toroidal devices, MHD stability, non-ideal effects in MHD stability, microscopic stability, and plasma energy loss. A section covering the experimental results of plasma confinement in toroidal geometry considers Stellerators, Tokamaks, toroidal pinch -the reversed-field pinch, screw pinches and high-β Tokamaks, Levitrons and multipoles (internal-ring devices), and miscellaneous toroidal containment devices. Recent achievements and the present position are discussed with reference to the status of Tokamak research, low-β stellerator research and high-β research. It is concluded from the continuing progress made in this research that the criteria for the magnetic containment of plasmas can be met. Further, it is concluded that the construction of a successful and economic fusion reactor is within the scope of advancing science and technology. 250 references. (U.K.)

  8. Experimental studies of plasma confinement in toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, H A.B.; Keen, B E [UKAEA, Abingdon. Culham Lab.

    1977-12-01

    In this article the closed-line magnetic field approach to the plasma isolation and confinement problem in toroidal systems is reviewed. The theoretical aspects of closed-line magnetic field systems, indicating that topologically such systems are toroidal, are surveyed under the headings; topology of closed-line systems, equilibrium in different configurations and classification of toroidal devices, MHD stability, non-ideal effects in MHD stability, microscopic stability, and plasma energy loss. A section covering the experimental results of plasma confinement in toroidal geometry considers Stellerators, Tokamaks, toroidal pinch -the reversed-field pinch, screw pinches and high-..beta.. Tokamaks, Levitrons and multipoles (internal-ring devices), and miscellaneous toroidal containment devices. Recent achievements and the present position are discussed with reference to the status of Tokamak research, low-..beta.. stellerator research and high-..beta.. research. It is concluded from the continuing progress made in this research that the criteria for the magnetic containment of plasmas can be met. Further, it is concluded that the construction of a successful and economic fusion reactor is within the scope of advancing science and technology. 250 references.

  9. MYRRHA/XT-ADS primary system design and experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, D.

    2009-01-01

    The EUROTRANS project is an integrated project in the Sixth European Framework Program in the context of Partitioning and Transmutation. The objective of this project is to work towards an ETD (European Transmutation Demonstration) in a step-wise manner. The first step is to carry out an advanced design of a small-scale XT-ADS (eXperimental Transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System) for realisation in a short-term (about 10 years) as well as to accomplish a generic conceptual design of EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) for realisation in the long-term. The MYRRHA-2005 design served as a starting basis for the XT-ADS. Many options have been revisited and the framework is now set up. While the MYRRHA-2005 design was still a conceptual design, the intention is to get at the end of the EUROTRANS project (March 2009) an advanced design of the XT-ADS, albeit a first advanced design. While the design work performed during the first years of the project (2005-2006) was mainly devoted to optimise and enhance the primary and secondary system configuration according to the suggestions and contributions of our industrial partners (Ansaldo Nucleare, Areva, Suez-Tractebel) within the DM1 (Domain 1 D ESIGN ) , the last year work objectives mainly consisted of (1) the release of the Remote Handling Design Catalogue for XT-ADS and (2) the formulation of the specification of the experimental devices according to the XT-ADS objectives and adapted to the actual XT-ADS core and core support structure design; (3) the detailed calculations of the main XT-ADS primary and secondary system components

  10. Neutrino--proton interactions at Fermilab energies: Experimental arrangement, analysis procedures, and qualitative features of the data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.W.; Coffin, C.T.; Diamond, R.N.; French, H.; Louis, W.; Roe, B.P.; Seidl, A.A.; Vander Velde, J.C.; Berge, J.P.; Bogert, D.; DiBianca, F.A.; Dunaitsev, A.; Efremenko, V.; Ermolov, P.; Fowler, W.; Hanft, R.; Harigel, G.; Huson, F.R.; Kolganov, V.; Mukhin, A.; Nezrick, F.A.; Rjabov, Y.; Scott, W.G.; Smart, W.; Truxton, R.

    1976-01-01

    The Fermilab 15-ft bubble chamber filled with hydrogen was exposed to a broad-momentum-band horn-focused neutrino beam produced by 300-GeV interacting protons. The selection procedure to choose a charged-current neutrino event sample is discussed. Fewer than three percent of the events are due to neutral hadron interactions. We present and experimentally test a method that can be used to identify the muon, estimate the incident neutrino energy, and eliminate most neutral-current interactions from the charged-current sample. Above 10 GeV the method produces an approximately 86% pure sample of charged-current events with an error in energy estimation of the order of 8% over a broad region of the data. In addition we establish experimentally several important properties of high-energy charged-current neutrino interactions. The hadrons are produced in a jet, the individual particles having sharply limited momenta perpendicular to the hadronic axis. The jet structure is maintained with constant properties to very high values of Q 2 and hadronic mass. The fraction of energy going into invisible particles is moderate, consistent with that expected. The average number of neutral pions rises linearly with the average number of charged particles

  11. Health Information Management System for Elderly Health Sector: A Qualitative Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Shahi, Mehraban; Ahmadi, Maryam; Davaridolatabadi, Nasrin

    2016-02-01

    There are increasing change and development of information in healthcare systems. Given the increase in aging population, managers are in need of true and timely information when making decision. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of the health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. This qualitative study was conducted in two steps. In the first step, required documents for administrative managers were collected using the data gathering form and observed and reviewed by the researcher. In the second step, using an interview guide, the required information was gathered through interviewing experts and faculty members. The convenience, purposeful and snowball sampling methods were applied to select interviewees and the sampling continued until reaching the data saturation point. Finally, notes and interviews were transcribed and content analysis was used to analyze them. The results of the study showed that there was a health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. However, in all primary health care centers the documentation of data was done manually; the data flow was not automated; and the analysis and reporting of data are also manually. Eventually, decision makers are provided with delayed information. It is suggested that the steward of health in Iran, the ministry of health, develops an appropriate infrastructure and finally puts a high priority on the implementation of the health information management system for elderly health sector in Iran.

  12. Experimental chaotic quantification in bistable vortex induced vibration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.

    2017-02-01

    The study of energy harvesting by means of vortex induced vibration systems has been initiated a few years ago and it is considered to be potential as a low water current energy source. The energy harvester is realized by exposing an elastically supported blunt structure under water flow. However, it is realized that the system will only perform at a limited operating range (water flow) that is attributed to the resonance phenomenon that occurs only at a frequency that corresponds to the fluid flow. An introduction of nonlinear elements seems to be a prominent solution to overcome the problem. Among many nonlinear elements, a bistable spring is known to be able to improve the harvested power by a vortex induced vibrations (VIV) based energy converter at the low velocity water flows. However, it is also observed that chaotic vibrations will occur at different operating ranges that will erratically diminish the harvested power and cause a difficulty in controlling the system that is due to the unpredictability in motions of the VIV structure. In order to design a bistable VIV energy converter with improved harvested power and minimum negative effect of chaotic vibrations, the bifurcation map of the system for varying governing parameters is highly on demand. In this study, chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter enhanced by a bistable stiffness element are quantified in a wide range of the governing parameters, i.e. damping and bistable gap. Chaotic vibrations of the bistable VIV energy converter are simulated by utilization of a wake oscillator model and quantified based on the calculation of the Lyapunov exponent. Ultimately, a series of experiments of the system in a water tunnel, facilitated by a computer-based force-feedback testing platform, is carried out to validate the existence of chaotic responses. The main challenge in dealing with experimental data is in distinguishing chaotic response from noise-contaminated periodic responses as noise will smear

  13. Approaches, techniques, and information technology systems in the restaurants and foodservice industry: a qualitative study in sales forecasting.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Yvette N. J.; Weaver, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of the approaches, techniques, and information technology systems utilized for restaurant sales forecasting in the full-service restaurant segment. Companies were examined using a qualitative research methods design and long interviews to gather information on approaches, techniques, and technology systems utilized in the sales forecasting process. The results of the interviews were presented along with ensuing discussion.

  14. Workarounds to hospital electronic prescribing systems: a qualitative study in English hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin M; Mozaffar, Hajar; Lee, Lisa; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-07-01

    Concerns with the usability of electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) systems can lead to the development of workarounds by users. To investigate the types of workarounds users employed, the underlying reasons offered and implications for care provision and patient safety. We collected a large qualitative data set, comprising interviews, observations and project documents, as part of an evaluation of ePrescribing systems in five English hospitals, which we conceptualised as case studies. Data were collected at up to three different time points throughout implementation and adoption. Thematic analysis involving deductive and inductive approaches was facilitated by NVivo 10. Our data set consisted of 173 interviews, 24 rounds of observation and 17 documents. Participating hospitals were at various stages of implementing a range of systems with differing functionalities. We identified two types of workarounds: informal and formal. The former were informal practices employed by users not approved by management, which were introduced because of perceived changes to professional roles, issues with system usability and performance and challenges relating to the inaccessibility of hardware. The latter were formalised practices that were promoted by management and occurred when systems posed threats to patient safety and organisational functioning. Both types of workarounds involved using paper and other software systems as intermediaries, which often created new risks relating to a lack of efficient transfer of real-time information between different users. Assessing formal and informal workarounds employed by users should be part of routine organisational implementation strategies of major health information technology initiatives. Workarounds can create new risks and present new opportunities for improvement in system design and integration. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Endotoxemia and the host systemic response during experimental gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaidi, Vivian Y.; Kowolik, Michael J.; Eckert, George J.; Galli, Dominique M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess endotoxemia episodes and subsequent changes in serum inflammatory biomarkers using the experimental gingivitis model Materials and Methods Data from 50 healthy black and white adult males and females were compared for serum concentrations of endotoxin, and serum biomarkers [neutrophil oxidative activity, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen] at baseline, at 3 weeks of experimental gingivitis, and after 2 weeks of recovery. Means were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Results Endotoxemia was reported in 56% of the serum samples at three weeks of induced gingivitis. At two weeks of recovery, endotoxin levels decreased to levels similar to those reported at baseline. Neutrophil oxidative activity increased significantly following three weeks of gingivitis versus baseline (pgingivitis was associated with endotoxemia and hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils, but not with changes in systemic levels of cytokines and acute phase proteins. This may be attributed to the mild nature and the short duration of the induced gingivitis. PMID:21320151

  16. Interpretation of PISCES -- A RF antenna system experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothweil, D.A.; Phelps, D.A.; Doerner, R.

    1995-10-01

    The paper describes experimental data from rf coupling experiments using one to four coil antenna arrays that encircle a linear magnetized plasma column. Experimental results using single turn coil that produce symmetric (i.e. m = 0), dipole (m = 1), and radial rf magnetic fields for coupling to ion waves are compared. By operating without a Faraday shield, it was observed for the first time that the plasma resistive load seen by these different antenna types tends to increase with the number of turns to at least the second power. A four-turn m = 0 coil experienced a record 3--5 Ω loading, corresponding to over 90% power coupling to the plasma. A four-turn m = 1 coil experienced up to 1--1.5 Ω loading, also higher than previous observations. First time observations using a two coil array of m = 0 coil are also reported. As predicted, the loading decreases with increasing phase between coil from 0 degree to 180 degree. Experiments using four coil arrays were difficult to optimize and interpret primarily due to complexity of the manual tuning. To facilitate this optimization in the future, a proposed feedback control system that automatically matches load variations between 0.2 and 10 Ω is described

  17. Experimental study of mixed ferromagnetic spin glass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirebeau, I.

    1987-01-01

    The mixed ferromagnetic spin glass systems are characterized by a distribution of positive and negative exchange interactions whose maximum occurs at a positive value. We have undertaken an experimental study of amorphous (Fe 1-x Mn x ) .75 PBA1, polycrystalline and monocrystalline Ni 1-x Mn x and Au 1-x Fe x alloys. By Moessbauer effect, magnetization and neutron scattering, we show that below a ''canting'' temperature T K , spin components transverse to the mean magnetization become frozen. Small angle neutron scattering studies with an applied field show a magnetic ''structure'' i.e. the intensity exhibits a maximum at a finite q value for temperatures below T K . This structure has been studied as a function of temperature, applied field and concentration using both small angle neutron scattering and 3 axis spectrometry where we separate the elastic from the inelastic components. Possible interpretations of this new structure will be given [fr

  18. Magnet systems for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Miller, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The definition phase for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been nearly completed, thus beginning a three-year design effort by teams from the European Community (EC), Japan, US, and USSR. Preliminary parameters for the superconducting magnet system have been established to guide more detailed design work. Radiation tolerance of the superconductors and insulators has been important because it sets requirements for the neutron-shield dimension and sensitively influences reactor size. Major levels of mechanical stress appear in the structural cases of the inboard legs of the toroidal-field (TF) coils. The winding packs of the TF coils include significant fractions of steel that provide support against in-plane separating loads, but they offer little support against out-of-plane loads unless shear-bonding of the conductors can be maintained. Heat removal from nuclear and ac loads has not limited the fundamental design, but it has nonnegligible economic consequences. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Web Based System Architecture for Long Pulse Remote Experimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Las Heras, E.; Lastra, D. [INDRA Sistemas, S.A., Unidad de Sistemas de Control, Madrid (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Association Euratom CIEMAT for Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    INDRA is the first Information Technology company in Spain and it presents here, through a series of transparencies, its own approach for the remote experimentation architecture for long pulses (REAL). All the architecture is based on Java-2 platform standards and REAL is a totally open architecture. By itself REAL offers significant advantages: -) access authentication and authorization under multiple security implementations, -) local or remote network access: LAN, WAN, VPN..., -) on-line access to acquisition systems for monitoring and configuration, -) scalability, flexibility, robustness, platform independence,.... The BeansNet implementation of REAL gives additional good things such as: -) easy implementation, -) graphical tool for service composition and configuration, -) availability and hot-swap (no need of stopping or restarting services after update or remodeling, and -) INDRA support. The implementation of BeansNet at the TJ-2 stellarator at Ciemat is presented. This document is made of the presentation transparencies. (A.C.)

  20. Experimental system model of a primary active fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deseigne, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Collective motion, such as flocks of birds or shoals of fish, is ubiquitous in nature. Such fundamentally out-of-equilibrium phenomena may be described with the new conceptual background of polar active matter, a system of polar particles which enables to use provided energy in order to move in their own directions. A 2D experimental system of vibrated polar disks that interact only by contact has been set up. These disks behave as random walkers, whose trajectories are characterized by a persistence length greater than their size and controlled by the angular fluctuations of their polarity. The interplay between the hard-core repulsion and the persistence of the motion leads to complex alignment modes. For instance, only 10 pc of the binary collisions correspond to an effective ferromagnetic alignment. Yet, spontaneous collective motion inside the system characterized by giant fluctuations of density have been observed. These results reveal the robustness of the polar order observed in theoretical and numerical models of 2D polar active matter on substrate

  1. An experimental system for flood risk forecasting at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, L.; Dottori, F.; Kalas, M.; Lorini, V.; Bianchi, A.; Hirpa, F. A.; Feyen, L.; Salamon, P.

    2016-12-01

    Global flood forecasting and monitoring systems are nowadays a reality and are being applied by an increasing range of users and practitioners in disaster risk management. Furthermore, there is an increasing demand from users to integrate flood early warning systems with risk based forecasts, combining streamflow estimations with expected inundated areas and flood impacts. To this end, we have developed an experimental procedure for near-real time flood mapping and impact assessment based on the daily forecasts issued by the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The methodology translates GloFAS streamflow forecasts into event-based flood hazard maps based on the predicted flow magnitude and the forecast lead time and a database of flood hazard maps with global coverage. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information to derive flood risk. Impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, and affected population, infrastructures and cities. To further increase the reliability of the proposed methodology we integrated model-based estimations with an innovative methodology for social media monitoring, which allows for real-time verification of impact forecasts. The preliminary tests provided good results and showed the potential of the developed real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management. In particular, the link with social media is crucial for improving the accuracy of impact predictions.

  2. Beliefs and expectations of rural hospital practitioners towards a developing trauma system: A qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan D F; Cole, Elaine; Brundage, Susan I; Morrison, Zoe; Jansen, Jan O

    2018-03-22

    An understanding of stakeholders' views is key to the successful development and operation of a rural trauma system. Scotland, which has large remote and rural areas, is currently implementing a national trauma system. The aim of this study was to identify key barriers and enablers to the development of an effective trauma system from the perspective of rural healthcare professionals. This is a qualitative study, which was conducted in rural general hospitals (RGH) in Scotland, from April to June 2017. We used an opportunistic sampling strategy to include hospital providers of rural trauma care across the region. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, recorded, and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify and group participant perspectives on key barriers and enablers to the development of the new trauma system. We conducted 15 interviews with 18 participants in six RGHs. Study participants described barriers and enablers across three themes: 1) quality of care, 2) interfaces within the system and 3) interfaces with the wider healthcare system. For quality of care, enablers included confidence in basic trauma management, whilst a perceived lack of change from current management was seen as a barrier. The theme of interfaces within the system identified good interaction with other services and a single point of contact for referral as enablers. Perceived barriers included challenges in referring to tertiary care. The final theme of interfaces with the wider healthcare system included an improved transport system, increased audit resource and coordinated clinical training as enablers. Perceived barriers included a rural staffing crisis and problematic patient transfer to further care. This study provides insight into rural professionals' perceptions regarding the implementation of a trauma system in rural Scotland. Barriers included practical issues, such as retrieval, transfer and referral processes. Importantly, there is a degree of uncertainty

  3. Lived Experiences of Educational Leaders in Iranian Medical Education System: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Zohreh; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Arabshahi, Kamran Soltani; Farshad, Mohammad Mahdi; Farshad, Fatemeh; Farahani, Mansoureh Ashgale

    2015-12-18

    High quality educational systems are necessary for sustainable development and responding to the needs of society. In the recent decades, concerns have increased on the quality of education and competency of graduates. Since graduates of medical education are directly involved with the health of society, the quality of this system is of high importance. Investigation in the lived experience of educational leaders in the medical education systems can help to promote its quality. The present research examines this issue in Iran. The study was done using content-analysis qualitative approach and semi-structured interviews. The participants included 26 authorities including university chancellors and vice-chancellors, ministry heads and deputies, deans of medical and basic sciences departments, education expert, graduates, and students of medical fields. Sampling was done using purposive snowball method. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Five main categories and 14 sub-categories were extracted from data analysis including: quantity-orientation, ambiguity in the trainings, unsuitable educational environment, personalization of the educational management, and ineffective interpersonal relationship. The final theme was identified as "Education in shadow". Personalization and inclusion of personal preferences in management styles, lack of suitable grounds, ambiguity in the structure and process of education has pushed medical education toward shadows and it is not the first priority; this can lead to incompetency of medical science graduates.

  4. Health systems reforms in Singapore: A qualitative study of key stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Suan Ee; Tyagi, Shilpa; Lim, Jane Mingjie; Chia, Kee Seng; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2018-02-19

    In response to a growing chronic disease burden and ageing population, Singapore implemented Regional Health Systems (RHS) in 2008. In January 2017, the MOH announced that the six RHS clusters would be reorganised into three in 2018. This qualitative study sought to identify the health system challenges, opportunities, and ways forward for the implementation of the RHS. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 35 key informants from RHS clusters, government, academia, and private and voluntary sectors. Integration, innovation, and people-centeredness were identified as the key principles of the RHS. The RHS was described as an opportunity to holistically care for a person across the care continuum, address social determinants of health, develop new models of care, and work with social and community partners. Challenges to RHS implementation included difficulties aligning the goals, values, and priorities of multiple actors, the need for better integration across clusters, differing care capabilities and capacities across partners, healthcare financing structures that may not reflect RHS goals, scalability and evaluation of pilot programmes, and disease-centricity, provider-centricity, and medicalisation in health and healthcare. Suggested ways forward included building relationships between actors to facilitate integration; exploring innovative new models of care; clear long-term/scale-up plans for successful pilots; healthcare financing reforms to meet changing patient and population needs; and developing evaluation systems reflective of RHS principles and priorities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Evaluation of the equilibrium system in patients with multiple sclerosis based on qualitative assessment with videonystagmography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenig, Dagmara; Kantor, Ireneusz; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2005-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (SM) is the most frequent inflammatory-demyelinating disease of central nervous system. The character of SM disease provokes that its most frequent symptoms are vertigo, equilibrium disorders and ataxia. Objective method of vertigo estimation is evaluation of the nystagmus via videonystagmography registration (VNG). This examination allows to simultaneously assess the vertical and horizontal component of the nystagmus. It is considered that mainly the vertical nystagmus is characteristic to equilibrium system impairments of the central nervous system, caused also by SM. The study was carried out on 40 patients (28 women, 12 men) with SM diagnosed as a result of neurological examination. 7 patients (17.5%) suffered from sham - movement vertigo, while 33 patients (82.5%) suffered from instability of posture and walking deviation. The videonystagmography examination resulted in the following: deviation of the eye movement was recorded in 26 patients (65%) during either in saccadic test and in smooth pursuit test, optokinetic nystagmus recorded: dissymetric and variable amplitude result in 24 patients (60%), presence of vertical nystagmus component in 30 patients (75%), positional test: directional-changable nystagmus in 8 patients (20%), pendular nystagmus in 4 patients (10%), presence of vertical nystagmus component in 31 patients (77.5%), caloric test: impairments of one of the labyrinth recorded in 12 patients (30%). SM is still the diagnostic and therapeutic problem. During the mentioned tests we have found the quantitative and qualitative changes in VNG recordings. This may be helpful in SM diagnosis, mainly during its early stages.

  6. A qualitative study of systemic influences on paramedic decision making: care transitions and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Rachel; Johnson, Maxine; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Weyman, Andrew; Turner, Janette; Shaw, Deborah; Mortimer, Peter; Newman, Chris; Hirst, Enid; Storey, Matthew; Mason, Suzanne; Quinn, Tom; Shewan, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Paramedics routinely make critical decisions about the most appropriate care to deliver in a complex system characterized by significant variation in patient case-mix, care pathways and linked service providers. There has been little research carried out in the ambulance service to identify areas of risk associated with decisions about patient care. The aim of this study was to explore systemic influences on decision making by paramedics relating to care transitions to identify potential risk factors. An exploratory multi-method qualitative study was conducted in three English National Health Service (NHS) Ambulance Service Trusts, focusing on decision making by paramedic and specialist paramedic staff. Researchers observed 57 staff across 34 shifts. Ten staff completed digital diaries and three focus groups were conducted with 21 staff. Nine types of decision were identified, ranging from emergency department conveyance and specialist emergency pathways to non-conveyance. Seven overarching systemic influences and risk factors potentially influencing decision making were identified: demand; performance priorities; access to care options; risk tolerance; training and development; communication and feedback and resources. Use of multiple methods provided a consistent picture of key systemic influences and potential risk factors. The study highlighted the increased complexity of paramedic decisions and multi-level system influences that may exacerbate risk. The findings have implications at the level of individual NHS Ambulance Service Trusts (e.g. ensuring an appropriately skilled workforce to manage diverse patient needs and reduce emergency department conveyance) and at the wider prehospital emergency care system level (e.g. ensuring access to appropriate patient care options as alternatives to the emergency department). © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Water system hardware and management rehabilitation: Qualitative evidence from Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Tori; Shields, Katherine F; Cronk, Ryan; Kelly, Emma; Behnke, Nikki; Lee, Kristen; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-05-01

    Sufficient, safe, continuously available drinking water is important for human health and development, yet one in three handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa are non-functional at any given time. Community management, coupled with access to external technical expertise and spare parts, is a widely promoted model for rural water supply management. However, there is limited evidence describing how community management can address common hardware and management failures of rural water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. We identified hardware and management rehabilitation pathways using qualitative data from 267 interviews and 57 focus group discussions in Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia. Study participants were water committee members, community members, and local leaders in 18 communities (six in each study country) with water systems managed by a water committee and supported by World Vision (WV), an international non-governmental organization (NGO). Government, WV or private sector employees engaged in supporting the water systems were also interviewed. Inductive analysis was used to allow for pathways to emerge from the data, based on the perspectives and experiences of study participants. Four hardware rehabilitation pathways were identified, based on the types of support used in rehabilitation. Types of support were differentiated as community or external. External support includes financial and/or technical support from government or WV employees. Community actor understanding of who to contact when a hardware breakdown occurs and easy access to technical experts were consistent reasons for rapid rehabilitation for all hardware rehabilitation pathways. Three management rehabilitation pathways were identified. All require the involvement of community leaders and were best carried out when the action was participatory. The rehabilitation pathways show how available resources can be leveraged to restore hardware breakdowns and management failures for rural water systems in sub

  8. Concerns of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and adherence to therapy – a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinha F

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Filipa Farinha,1 Francisco Freitas,2 Ana Águeda,1 Inês Cunha,1 Anabela Barcelos1 1Rheumatology Department, Centro Hospitalar do Baixo Vouga EPE, Aveiro, Portugal; 2Centre for Social Studies, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal Purpose: The objectives of this study were 1 to identify the impact of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE on patients’ lives and their reactions to this, as well as their main concerns and expectations regarding their disease and treatments; and 2 to assess the relationship between these concerns and the adherence to treatments, medical visits, and diagnostic tests.Patients and methods: Qualitative study, using a convenient sample of SLE patients attending an outpatient rheumatology clinic. Semistructured interviews were conducted and audiotaped. The full transcripts were analyzed by two different coders using content analysis methodology.Results: Fifteen participants were included. SLE had a major impact on these patients’ lives. Their main concerns were fear of disease worsening and becoming dependent on other people, fear of not being able to take care of their children or provide for the family, and the possibility of transmitting SLE to their offspring. The main reasons for adherence to therapy were the wish to avoid manifestations of SLE and trust in the rheumatologist and routine. Nonadherence was more common in the beginning of the treatment because of the difficulty in accepting a chronic disease that requires lifelong therapy.Conclusion: Our data underlined the important interplay between adherence to medication and the possibility to gather accurate information and proper support during the treatment process. Good communication and efficient patient education strategies, focused on improving their knowledge about the disease and its treatments, may be important to improve adherence to therapy in SLE. Keywords: illness perception, adherence, communication, patients’ perspectives, qualitative

  9. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR EXPERIMENTATION IN AC ELECTROGRAVIMETRY II: IMPLEMENTED DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Torres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of the electronic system designed to improve the measurements in an experimental AC electrogravimetry setup is presented. This system is committed to acquire appropriated data for determining the Electrogravimetric Transfer Function (EGTF and provide information regarding the mass transfer in an electrochemical cell in the AC Electrogravimetry Technique, but maintaining a good trade-off between the locking frequency bandwidth and the resolution in the frequency tracking, that is, enlarging the bandwidth of the system to follow signals with frequency as higher as 1 kHz, but maintaining an accurate and continuous tracking of this signal. The enlarged bandwidth allows the study of fast kinetic process in electrochemical applications and the continuous tracking let to achieve a precise measurement with good resolution rather than average frequency records obtained by conventional frequency meters. The system is based on an Analogue-Digital Phase Locked Loop (A-D PLL.En este artículo se presenta una descripción detallada del sistema electrónico diseñado para mejorar las medidas en un sistema experimental de electrogravimetría AC. El sistema diseñado se encarga de adquirir los datos adecuados para determinar la función de transferencia electrogravimétrica (EGTF y proveer información relacionada con la transferencia de masa en una celda electroquímica en la técnica de electrogravimetría AC, pero manteniendo un buen compromiso entre el ancho de banda de enganche y la resolución en el seguimiento de la frecuencia, es decir, el sistema incrementa el ancho de banda para permitir el seguimiento de señales con frecuencias hasta de 1 kHz, pero conservando un exacto y continuo seguimiento de esta señal. El aumento del ancho de banda permite el estudio de procesos con una cinética rápida en aplicaciones electroquímicas y el seguimiento continuo de la señal permite la obtención de medidas precisas con buena resoluci

  10. Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  11. 'Only systems thinking can improve family planning program in Pakistan': A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Saira; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2014-12-01

    Family Planning (FP) program in Pakistan has been struggling to achieve the desired indicators. Despite a well-timed initiation of the program in late 50s, fertility decline has been sparingly slow. As a result, rapid population growth is impeding economic development in the country. A high population growth rate, the current fertility rate, a stagnant contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need remain challenging targets for population policies and FP programs. To accelerate the pace of FP programs and targets concerned, it is imperative to develop and adopt a holistic approach and strategy for plugging the gaps in various components of the health system: service delivery, information systems, drugs-supplies, technology and logistics, Human Resources (HRs), financing, and governance. Hence, World Health Organization (WHO) health systems building blocks present a practical framework for overall health system strengthening. This descriptive qualitative study, through 23 in-depth interviews, explored the factors related to the health system, and those responsible for a disappointing FP program in Pakistan. Provincial representatives from Population Welfare and Health departments, donor agencies and non-governmental organizations involved with FP programs were included in the study to document the perspective of all stakeholders. Content analysis was done manually to generate nodes, sub-nodes and themes. Performance of FP programs is not satisfactory as shown by the indicators, and these programs have not been able to deliver the desired outcomes. Interviewees agreed that inadequate prioritization given to the FP program by successive governments has led to this situation. There are issues with all health system areas, including governance, strategies, funding, financial management, service delivery systems, HRs, technology and logistic systems, and Management Information System (MIS); these have encumbered the pace of success of the program. All stakeholders

  12. ‘Only Systems Thinking Can Improve Family Planning Program in Pakistan’: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira Zafar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Family Planning (FP program in Pakistan has been struggling to achieve the desired indicators. Despite a well-timed initiation of the program in late 50s, fertility decline has been sparingly slow. As a result, rapid population growth is impeding economic development in the country. A high population growth rate, the current fertility rate, a stagnant contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need remain challenging targets for population policies and FP programs. To accelerate the pace of FP programs and targets concerned, it is imperative to develop and adopt a holistic approach and strategy for plugging the gaps in various components of the health system: service delivery, information systems, drugs-supplies, technology and logistics, Human Resources (HRs, financing, and governance. Hence, World Health Organization (WHO health systems building blocks present a practical framework for overall health system strengthening. Methods This descriptive qualitative study, through 23 in-depth interviews, explored the factors related to the health system, and those responsible for a disappointing FP program in Pakistan. Provincial representatives from Population Welfare and Health departments, donor agencies and non-governmental organizations involved with FP programs were included in the study to document the perspective of all stakeholders. Content analysis was done manually to generate nodes, sub-nodes and themes. Results Performance of FP programs is not satisfactory as shown by the indicators, and these programs have not been able to deliver the desired outcomes. Interviewees agreed that inadequate prioritization given to the FP program by successive governments has led to this situation. There are issues with all health system areas, including governance, strategies, funding, financial management, service delivery systems, HRs, technology and logistic systems, and Management Information System (MIS; these have encumbered the pace of

  13. Multi-window dialogue system of data processing for experimental setup VASSILISSA in PAW environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A.N.; Vakatov, D.V.; Veselski, M.; Eremin, A.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Khasanov, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Multi-window dialogue system for processing data acquired from experimental setup VASSILISSA is presented. The system provides friendly user's interface for experimental data conversion, selection and preparing for graphic analysis with PAW. 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  14. An integrated real-time diagnostic concept using expert systems, qualitative reasoning and quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Lee, K.Y.; Kumara, S.; Levine, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    An approach for an integrated real-time diagnostic system is being developed for inclusion as an integral part of a power plant automatic control system. In order to participate in control decisions and automatic closed loop operation, the diagnostic system must operate in real-time. Thus far, an expert system with real-time capabilities has been developed and installed on a subsystem at the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) in Idaho, USA. Real-time simulation testing of advanced power plant concepts at the Pennsylvania State University has been developed and was used to support the expert system development and installation at EBR-II. Recently, the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have funded a Penn State research program to further enhance application of real-time diagnostic systems by pursuing implementation in a distributed power plant computer system including microprocessor based controllers. This paper summarizes past, current, planned, and possible future approaches to power plant diagnostic systems research at Penn State. 34 refs., 9 figs

  15. Experimental model of a wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasar, C.; Rat, C. L.; Prostean, O.

    2018-01-01

    The renewable energy domain represents an important issue for the sustainable development of the mankind in the actual context of increasing demand for energy along with the increasing pollution that affect the environment. A significant quota of the clean energy is represented by the wind energy. As a consequence, the developing of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) in order to achieve high energetic performances (efficiency, stability, availability, competitive cost etc) represents a topic of permanent actuality. Testing and developing of an optimized control strategy for a WECS direct implemented on a real energetic site is quite difficult and not cost efficient. Thus a more convenient solution consists in a flexible laboratory setup which requires an experimental model of a WECS. Such approach would allow the simulation of various real conditions very similar with existing energetic sites. This paper presents a grid-connected wind turbine emulator. The wind turbine is implemented through a real-time Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) emulator, which will be analyzed extensively in the paper. The HIL system uses software implemented in the LabVIEW programming environment to control an ABB ACS800 electric drive. ACS800 has the task of driving an induction machine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The power obtained from the synchronous generator is rectified, filtered and sent to the main grid through a controlled inverter. The control strategy is implemented on a NI CompactRIO (cRIO) platform.

  16. An experimental platform for systemic drug delivery to the retina.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Campbell, Matthew

    2009-10-20

    Degenerative retinopathies, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and hereditary retinal disorders--major causes of world blindness--are potentially treatable by using low-molecular weight neuroprotective, antiapoptotic, or antineovascular drugs. These agents are, however, not in current systemic use owing to, among other factors, their inability to passively diffuse across the microvasculature of the retina because of the presence of the inner blood-retina barrier (iBRB). Moreover, preclinical assessment of the efficacies of new formulations in the treatment of such conditions is similarly compromised. We describe here an experimental process for RNAi-mediated, size-selective, transient, and reversible modulation of the iBRB in mice to molecules up to 800 Da by suppression of transcripts encoding claudin-5, a protein component of the tight junctions of the inner retinal vasculature. MRI produced no evidence indicative of brain or retinal edema, and the process resulted in minimal disturbance of global transcriptional patterns analyzed in neuronal tissue. We show that visual function can be improved in IMPDH1(-\\/-) mice, a model of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa, and that the rate of photoreceptor cell death can be reduced in a model of light-induced retinal degeneration by systemic drug delivery after reversible barrier opening. These findings provide a platform for high-throughput drug screening in models of retinal degeneration, and they ultimately could result in the development of a novel "humanized" approach to therapy for conditions with little or no current forms of treatment.

  17. Experimental study of an aircraft fuel tank inerting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Yan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simulated aircraft fuel tank inerting system has been successfully established based on a model tank. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of different operating parameters on the inerting effectiveness of the system, including flow rate of the inert gas (nitrogen-enriched air, inert gas concentration, fuel load of the tank and different inerting approaches. The experimental results show that under the same operating conditions, the time span of a complete inerting process decreased as the flow rate of inert gas was increased; the time span using the inert gas with 5% oxygen concentration was much longer than that using pure nitrogen; when the fuel tank was inerted using the ullage washing approach, the time span increased as the fuel load was decreased; the ullage washing approach showed the best inerting performance when the time span of a complete inerting process was the evaluation criterion, but when the decrease of dissolved oxygen concentration in the fuel was also considered to characterize the inerting effectiveness, the approach of ullage washing and fuel scrubbing at the same time was the most effective.

  18. Spectral Mixing in Nervous Systems: Experimental Evidenceand Biologically Plausible Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinfeld, D.; Mehta, S. B.

    The ability to compute the difference frequency for two periodic signals depends on a nonlinear operation that mixes those signals. Behavioral and psychophysical evidence suggest that such mixing is likely to occur in the vertebrate nervous system as a means to compare rhythmic sensory signals, such as occurs in human audition, and as a means to lock an intrinsic rhythm to a sensory input. Electrophysiological data from electroreceptors in the immobilized electric fish and somatosensory cortex in the anesthetized rat yield direct evidence for such mixing, providing a neurological substrate for the modulation and demodulation of rhythmic neuronal signals. We consider an analytical model of spectral mixing that makes use of the threshold characteristics of neuronal firing and which has features consistent with the experimental observations. This model serves as a guide for constructing circuits that isolate given mixture components. In particular, such circuits can generate nearly pure difference tones from sinusoidal inputs without the use of band-pass filters, in analogy to an image-reject mixer in communications engineering. We speculate that such computations may play a role in coding of sensory input and feedback stabilization of motor output in nervous systems.

  19. A fuzzy-logic-based approach to qualitative safety modelling for marine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sii, H.S.; Ruxton, Tom; Wang Jin

    2001-01-01

    Safety assessment based on conventional tools (e.g. probability risk assessment (PRA)) may not be well suited for dealing with systems having a high level of uncertainty, particularly in the feasibility and concept design stages of a maritime or offshore system. By contrast, a safety model using fuzzy logic approach employing fuzzy IF-THEN rules can model the qualitative aspects of human knowledge and reasoning processes without employing precise quantitative analyses. A fuzzy-logic-based approach may be more appropriately used to carry out risk analysis in the initial design stages. This provides a tool for working directly with the linguistic terms commonly used in carrying out safety assessment. This research focuses on the development and representation of linguistic variables to model risk levels subjectively. These variables are then quantified using fuzzy sets. In this paper, the development of a safety model using fuzzy logic approach for modelling various design variables for maritime and offshore safety based decision making in the concept design stage is presented. An example is used to illustrate the proposed approach

  20. Pre–Service Teachers’ Lived Experiences with Taking Courses through Learning Management Systems: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra ERGUL SONMEZ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning management systems (LMS are web–based platforms used for enhancing and supporting classroom teaching or delivering online instruction. Much of the earlier research has focused on their technological features and implementations into instruction. However, investigating what and how teachers and students think about and experience with LMS based on their actual usage is needed to realize educational potential of these systems. This study aimed to investigate pre–service teachers’ lived experiences about taking courses through Moodle LMS. The research was designed as a qualitative study. Data were collected through semi–structured interviews and analyzed through content analysis technique via Nvivo 7.0 software. The sample included 25 college students majoring in Computer and Instructional Technology Education at a state university in Turkey. Majority of the participants indicated that Moodle was user–friendly, beneficial and enhancer for interaction with both instructor and course content. Participants identified “assignments”, “resources”, and “forum” as the most effective instructional modules. On the other hand, some argued that Moodle could not provide face–to–face interaction like in the classrooms and thus it was not suitable for certain math and non–math courses requiring such interaction. They also found registration to course website as the biggest technical challenge.

  1. Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lüdecke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness. Theory and methods: Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care. Results: The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making. Conclusion and discussion: Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended.

  2. Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lüdecke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness.Theory and methods: Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care.Results: The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making.Conclusion and discussion: Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended.

  3. The spectrum of ethical issues in a Learning Health Care System: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Kahrass, Hannes; Wieschowski, Susanne; Strech, Daniel; Langhof, Holger

    2018-04-01

    To determine systematically the spectrum of ethical issues that is raised for stakeholders in a 'Learning Health Care System' (LHCS). The systematic review was conducted in PubMed and Google Books between the years 2007 and 2015. The literature search retrieved 1258 publications. Each publication was independently screened by two reviewers for eligibility for inclusion. Ethical issues were defined as arising when a relevant normative principle is not adequately considered or two principles come into conflict. A total of 65 publications were included in the final analysis and were analysed using an adapted version of qualitative content analysis. A coding frame was developed inductively from the data, only the highest-level categories were generated deductively for a life-cycle perspective. A total of 67 distinct ethical issues could be categorized under different phases of the LHCS life-cycle. An overarching theme that was repeatedly raised was the conflict between the current regulatory system and learning health care. The implementation of a LHCS can help realize the ethical imperative to continuously improve the quality of health care. However, the implementation of a LHCS can also raise a number of important ethical issues itself. This review highlights the importance for health care leaders and policy makers to balance the need to protect and respect individual participants involved in learning health care activities with the social value of improving health care.

  4. Experimental system design for the integration of trapped-ion and superconducting qubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Motte, D.; Grounds, A. R.; Rehák, M.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Lekitsch, B.; Giri, G. S.; Neilinger, P.; Oelsner, G.; Il'ichev, E.; Grajcar, M.; Hensinger, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    We present a design for the experimental integration of ion trapping and superconducting qubit systems as a step towards the realization of a quantum hybrid system. The scheme addresses two key difficulties in realizing such a system: a combined microfabricated ion trap and superconducting qubit architecture, and the experimental infrastructure to facilitate both technologies. Developing upon work by Kielpinski et al. (Phys Rev Lett 108(13):130504, 2012. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.130504), we describe the design, simulation and fabrication process for a microfabricated ion trap capable of coupling an ion to a superconducting microwave LC circuit with a coupling strength in the tens of kHz. We also describe existing difficulties in combining the experimental infrastructure of an ion trapping set-up into a dilution refrigerator with superconducting qubits and present solutions that can be immediately implemented using current technology.

  5. Qualitative analysis of governance trends after health system reforms in Latin America: lessons from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, A; Orozco, E; Recaman, A L

    2018-03-01

    Health policies in Latin America are centered on the democratization of health. Since 2003, during the last generation of reforms, health systems in this region have promoted governance strategies for better agreements between governments, institutions, and civil society. In this context, we develop an evaluative research to identify trends and evidence of governance after health care reforms in six regions of Mexico. Evaluative research was developed with a retrospective design based on qualitative analysis. Primary data were obtained from 189 semi-structured interviews with purposively selected health care professionals and key informants. Secondary data were extracted from a selection of 95 official documents on results of the reform project at the national level, national health policies, and lines of action for good governance. Data processing and analysis were performed using ATLAS.ti and PolicyMaker. A list of main strengths and weaknesses is presented as evidence of health system governance. Accountability at the federal level remains prescriptive; in the regions, a system of accountability and transparency in the allocation of resources and in terms of health democratization strategies is still absent. Social protection and decentralization schemes are strategies that have allowed for improvements with a proactive role of users and civil society. Regarding challenges, there are still low levels of governance and difficulties in the effective conduct of programs and reform strategies together with a lack of precision in the rules and roles of the different actors of the health system. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New experimental approaches to the biology of flight control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graham K; Bacic, Marko; Bomphrey, Richard J; Carruthers, Anna C; Gillies, James; Walker, Simon M; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2008-01-01

    Here we consider how new experimental approaches in biomechanics can be used to attain a systems-level understanding of the dynamics of animal flight control. Our aim in this paper is not to provide detailed results and analysis, but rather to tackle several conceptual and methodological issues that have stood in the way of experimentalists in achieving this goal, and to offer tools for overcoming these. We begin by discussing the interplay between analytical and empirical methods, emphasizing that the structure of the models we use to analyse flight control dictates the empirical measurements we must make in order to parameterize them. We then provide a conceptual overview of tethered-flight paradigms, comparing classical ;open-loop' and ;closed-loop' setups, and describe a flight simulator that we have recently developed for making flight dynamics measurements on tethered insects. Next, we provide a conceptual overview of free-flight paradigms, focusing on the need to use system identification techniques in order to analyse the data they provide, and describe two new techniques that we have developed for making flight dynamics measurements on freely flying birds. First, we describe a technique for obtaining inertial measurements of the orientation, angular velocity and acceleration of a steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis in wide-ranging free flight, together with synchronized measurements of wing and tail kinematics using onboard instrumentation and video cameras. Second, we describe a photogrammetric method to measure the 3D wing kinematics of the eagle during take-off and landing. In each case, we provide demonstration data to illustrate the kinds of information available from each method. We conclude by discussing the prospects for systems-level analyses of flight control using these techniques and others like them.

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Microturbine-Based BCHP System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    On-site and near-site distributed power generation (DG), as part of a Buildings Cooling, Heating and Power (BCHP) system, brings both electricity and waste heat from the DG sources closer to the end user's electric and thermal loads. Consequently, the waste heat can be used as input power for heat-activated air conditioners, chillers, and desiccant dehumidification systems; to generate steam for space heating; or to provide hot water for laundry, kitchen, cleaning services and/or rest rooms. By making use of what is normally waste heat, BCHP systems meet a building's electrical and thermal loads with a lower input of fossil fuel, yielding resource efficiencies of 40 to 70% or more. To ensure the success of BCHP systems, interactions of a DG system-such as a microturbine and thermal heat recovery units under steady-state modes of operation with various exhaust back pressures-must be considered. This article studies the performance and emissions of a 30-kW microturbine over a range of design and off-design conditions in steady-state operating mode with various back pressures. In parallel with the experimental part of the project, a BCHP mathematical model was developed describing basic thermodynamic and hydraulic processes in the system, heat and material balances, and the relationship of the balances. to the system configuration. The model can determine the efficiency of energy conversion both for an individual microturbine unit and for the entire BCHP system for various system configurations and external loads. Based on actual data Tom a 30-kW microturbine, linear analysis was used to obtain an analytical relationship between the changes in the thermodynamic and hydraulic parameters of the system. The actual data show that, when the backpressure at the microturbine exhaust outlet is increased to the maximum of 7 in. WC (0.017 atm), the microturbine's useful power output decreases by from 3.5% at a full power setting of 30 kW to 5.5% at a one-third power setting (10

  8. Experimental study on a hybrid photovoltaic/heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongbing; Riffat, Saffa B.; Fu Yu

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found that the decrease of photovoltaic (PV) cell temperature would increase the solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency. Different working fluids such as air and water have been used for the cooling of PV modules, but the improvement in energy performance has been found to be small. In this paper, R134a refrigerant was employed to cool the PV modules. With its low evaporating temperature, it was expected to achieve better cooling effect and electrical performance of the PV modules than using air and water working fluids. An experimental rig of a hybrid micro PV panel-based heat pump system was constructed for the performance testing in a laboratory at University of Nottingham. A small PV panel was made of 6 glass vacuum tube - PV module - aluminium sheet - cooper tube (GPAC) sandwiches connected in series, acting as the evaporator. This was coupled with a small heat pump system. The glass vacuum tubes reduced the heat loss from the PV panel to the ambient, resulting in the improvement of thermal performance. Three testing modes were proposed to investigate the effect of solar radiation, condenser water flow rate and condenser water supply temperature on energy performance. The testing results showed that an averaged COP reached 3.8, 4.3 and 4.0 under the three testing modes with variable radiation, condenser water supply water temperature and water flow rate, respectively, but this could be much higher for a large capacity heat pump system using large PV panels on building roofs. The COP increased with the increasing solar radiation, but decreased with the increasing condenser water supply temperature and water flow rate. The electrical efficiency of PV panel was improved by up to 1.9% based on a reference PV efficiency of 3.9%, compared with that without cooling. The condenser water supply temperature and water flow rate had little effect on the electrical performance. - Highlights: → R134a refrigerant was used for cooling of PV modules

  9. Assessing Online Textual Feedback to Support Student Intrinsic Motivation Using a Collaborative Text-Based Dialogue System: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Deneen, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses textual feedback to support student intrinsic motivation using a collaborative text-based dialogue system. A research model is presented based on research into intrinsic motivation, and the specific construct of feedback provides a framework for the model. A qualitative research methodology is used to validate the model.…

  10. Experimental performance of an E×B chopper system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wiesner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Beam operation of a novel E×B chopper system has started in the low-energy beam transport (LEBT section of the accelerator-driven neutron source FRANZ. The chopper is designed for low-energy high-perveance beams and high repetition rates, and will finally operate with 120 keV protons. It combines a static magnetic deflection field with a pulsed electric compensation field in a Wien filter-type E×B configuration. The chopper was designed, manufactured and successfully commissioned at the required repetition rate of 257 kHz using a 14 keV helium beam with up to 3.5 mA of beam current. Beam pulses with rise times of (120±10  ns, flat-top lengths of (85±10  ns to (120±10  ns and full width at half maximum (FWHM between (295±10  ns and (370±10  ns were experimentally achieved.

  11. Experimental study on a parabolic concentrator assisted solar desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunkumar, T.; Denkenberger, David; Velraj, R.; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Vinothkumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We optimized the augmentation of condense by enhanced desalination methodology. • Parabolic concentrator has been integrated with solar distillation systems. • We measured ambient together with solar radiation intensity. - Abstract: This paper presents a modification of parabolic concentrator (PC) – solar still with continuous water circulation using a storage tank to enhance the productivity. Four modes of operation were studied experimentally: (i) PC-solar still without top cover cooling; (ii) PC-solar still with top cover cooling, PC-solar still integrated with phase change material (PCM) without top cover cooling and PC-solar still integrated PCM with cooling. The experiments were carried out for the cooling water flow rates of 40 ml/min; 50 ml/min, 60 ml/min, 80 ml/min and 100 ml/min. Diurnal variations of water temperature (T_w), ambient air temperature (T_a), top cover temperature (T_o_c) and production rate are measured with frequent time intervals. Water cooling was not cost effective, but adding PCM was.

  12. Homologous Recombination—Experimental Systems, Analysis and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is the most complex of all recombination events that shape genomes and produce material for evolution. Homologous recombination events are exchanges between DNA molecules in the lengthy regions of shared identity, catalyzed by a group of dedicated enzymes. There is a variety of experimental systems in E. coli and Salmonella to detect homologous recombination events of several different kinds. Genetic analysis of homologous recombination reveals three separate phases of this process: pre-synapsis (the early phase), synapsis (homologous strand exchange) and post-synapsis (the late phase). In E. coli, there are at least two independent pathway of the early phase and at least two independent pathways of the late phase. All this complexity is incongruent with the originally ascribed role of homologous recombination as accelerator of genome evolution: there is simply not enough duplication and repetition in enterobacterial genomes for homologous recombination to have a detectable evolutionary role, and therefore not enough selection to maintain such a complexity. At the same time, the mechanisms of homologous recombination are uniquely suited for repair of complex DNA lesions called chromosomal lesions. In fact, the two major classes of chromosomal lesions are recognized and processed by the two individual pathways at the early phase of homologous recombination. It follows, therefore, that homologous recombination events are occasional reflections of the continual recombinational repair, made possible in cases of natural or artificial genome redundancy. PMID:26442506

  13. Experimental teaching and training system based on volume holographic storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhuqing; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Chan; Cui, Yutong; Wan, Yuhong; Zou, Rufei

    2017-08-01

    The experiment of volume holographic storage for teaching and training the practical ability of senior students in Applied Physics is introduced. The students can learn to use advanced optoelectronic devices and the automatic control means via this experiment, and further understand the theoretical knowledge of optical information processing and photonics disciplines that have been studied in some courses. In the experiment, multiplexing holographic recording and readout is based on Bragg selectivity of volume holographic grating, in which Bragg diffraction angle is dependent on grating-recording angel. By using different interference angle between reference and object beams, the holograms can be recorded into photorefractive crystal, and then the object images can be read out from these holograms via angular addressing by using the original reference beam. In this system, the experimental data acquisition and the control of the optoelectronic devices, such as the shutter on-off, image loaded in SLM and image acquisition of a CCD sensor, are automatically realized by using LabVIEW programming.

  14. Design considerations for ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Miller, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is now completing a definition phase as a beginning of a three-year design effort. Preliminary parameters for the superconducting magnet system have been established to guide further and more detailed design work. Radiation tolerance of the superconductors and insulators has been of prime importance, since it sets requirements for the neutron-shield dimension and sensitively influences reactor size. The major levels of mechanical stress in the structure appear in the cases of the inboard legs of the toroidal-field (TF) coils. The cases of the poloidal-field (PF) coils must be made thin or segmented to minimize eddy current heating during inductive plasma operation. As a result, the winding packs of both the TF and PF coils includes significant fractions of steel. The TF winding pack provides support against in-plane separating loads but offers little support against out-of-plane loads, unless shear-bonding of the conductors can be maintained. The removal of heat due to nuclear and ac loads has not been a fundamental limit to design, but certainly has non-negligible economic consequences. We present here preliminary ITER magnetic systems design parameters taken from trade studies, designs, and analyses performed by the Home Teams of the four ITER participants, by the ITER Magnet Design Unit in Garching, and by other participants at workshops organized by the Magnet Design Unit. The work presented here reflects the efforts of many, but the responsibility for the opinions expressed is the authors'. 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  15. A university system-wide qualitative investigation into student physical activity promotion conducted on college campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Jeffrey J; Wyrick, David L; Bibeau, Daniel L; Strack, Robert W; Davis, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine college student physical activity promotion. A cross-sectional approach to qualitative research was used. Southeastern state university system. Fourteen of 15 (93%) universities recruited were included in this study; 22 university employees participated in a semistructured interview. Nonprobabilistic purposive and snowball sampling strategies were used to recruit individuals who were likely to be engaged in physical activity promotion efforts on their respective campuses. Thematic analyses lead to the identification of emerging themes that were coded and analyzed using NVivo software. Themes informed three main areas: key personnel responsible for promoting physical activity to students, actual physical activity promotion efforts implemented, and factors that influence student physical activity promotion. Results suggest that ecological approaches to promote physical activity on college campuses are underused, the targeting of mediators of physical activity in college students is limited, and values held by university administration influence campus physical activity promotion. Findings support recommendations for future research and practice. Practitioners should attempt to implement social ecological approaches that target scientifically established mediators of physical activity in college students. Replication of this study is needed to compare these findings with other types of universities, and to investigate the relationship between promotion activities (type and exposure) and physical activity behaviors of college students.

  16. Iranian Nurses' Status in Policymaking for Nursing in Health System: A Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Aarabi, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Presence of nurses in policy making will result improvement of nursing practice, and increase qualification of patients' care, but still few nurses are involved in policy debates and health reforms and their status in policy making for nursing is not clear. The aim of this study was to elucidate Iranian nurses' status in policy making for nursing in health system. This is a qualitative study. Using purposive sampling 22 participants were interviewed to gain deep understanding from the phenomenon of status of nurses in policy making. Of these 2 were not nurses but the members of Iran's council for health policy making. Data were analyzed by employing conventional content analysis. Nurses' status in policy making declared base on the implications of three main themes including "the policy making framework", "perceived status of nurses in policy making", and "the manner of nurses' participation in policy making". The conclusion of the present study is that Policy making for nursing is a subcategory of Iran's macro health policies. What made the status of nurses more efficient in policy making for nursing was their practice and rate of participation in the appointed positions and the society. Results of this study represented major points of weakness in nursing policies and some recommendations for modifications.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TREATMENT OF QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL AND IN VARIOUS NATIONAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cristina Breahna Pravat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative characteristics of accounting information presented by financial-accounting reports represent a concept which was subsequently introduced in the national legal accounting framework and, as a rule, the national conceptual frameworks represent the documents by means of which these quality criteria are established. At a worldwide level, there are more international or national organisms that have an important role in the elaboration of accounting standards in general and more specifically in the formulation of qualitative characteristics of financial reporting. We find two important ones among them, and these are: International Accounting Standards Board, which creates and promotes International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, and Financial Accounting Standards Board, which elaborates Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP. However, at the level of each country a standardizing authority decides the rules for producing the financial reports and the qualitative characteristics that must be respected by the information contained in these documents. In this context, this paper aims to present a few general considerations concerning the treatment of the qualitative characteristics of the financial-accounting information in different accounting systems, such as the American one, or the British, French, German, Romanian ones, with insistence on the international approach to qualitative characteristics.

  18. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Toshio; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the construction of a practical liquid-hydrogen moderator system of the Mega-Watt scale target system. (author)

  19. Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities in traffic accident information management: a qualitative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Valinejadi, Ali; Goodarzi, Afshin; Safari, Ameneh; Hemmat, Morteza; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari; Mohammadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background Traffic accidents are one of the more important national and international issues, and their consequences are important for the political, economical, and social level in a country. Management of traffic accident information requires information systems with analytical and accessibility capabilities to spatial and descriptive data. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in management of traffic accident information. Methods This qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in 2016. In the first step, GIS capabilities were identified via literature retrieved from the Internet and based on the included criteria. Review of the literature was performed until data saturation was reached; a form was used to extract the capabilities. In the second step, study population were hospital managers, police, emergency, statisticians, and IT experts in trauma, emergency and police centers. Sampling was purposive. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the first step data; validity and reliability were determined by content validity and Cronbach’s alpha of 75%. Data was analyzed using the decision Delphi technique. Results GIS capabilities were identified in ten categories and 64 sub-categories. Import and process of spatial and descriptive data and so, analysis of this data were the most important capabilities of GIS in traffic accident information management. Conclusion Storing and retrieving of descriptive and spatial data, providing statistical analysis in table, chart and zoning format, management of bad structure issues, determining the cost effectiveness of the decisions and prioritizing their implementation were the most important capabilities of GIS which can be efficient in the management of traffic accident information. PMID:28848627

  20. Reaching an entrepreneurial management system of amoebas. A qualitative insight into the European experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Wiesław

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is an assessment of the Amoeba Management System (AMS introduction advancements in some European companies. The study takes the practically focused research approach. The approaches, achievements and phases whilst introducing the AMS principles by companies are observed and critically assessed. First insight into the challenges of AMS introduction is taken basing on critical study of the literature output. The scientific studies and managerial publications are taken into consideration. The empirical part of the study is based on the qualitative approach. A multiple case study methodology is employed. The research objects are three companies, one of them operates in Sweden, the next two in Poland. Each of them have different experiences in AMS implementation, they also manifest different management styles and habits. The study demonstrates that AMS is a very prospective management methodology which can support companies in employees commitment during their journey towards operational excellence. The analysis results show different motivations for AMS introduction as well as different development paths, these are harmonized with different management styles in companies and culture occurring in countries. The study is particularly valuable because this is one of the first empirical investigations of AMS implementation in European companies. In the field of theory the study proposes the four level scale for amoebas system maturity. This scale allows to classify companies following AMS principles and, at the same time, this scale is also the kind of path of AMS implementation. The study points out basic tools for companies which support AMS implementation. These tools are already known in management literature, but experience of investigated companies shows that they are fundamental for successful AMS implementation.

  1. Orthopedic surgeons’ and neurologists’ attitudes towards second opinions in the Israeli healthcare system: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenfield Geva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second opinion is a treatment ratification tool that may critically influence diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Second opinions constitute one of the largest expenditures of the supplementary health insurance programs provided by the Israeli health funds. The scarcity of data on physicians’ attitudes toward second opinion motivated this study to explore those attitudes within the Israeli healthcare system. Methods We interviewed 35 orthopedic surgeons and neurologists in Israel and qualitatively analyzed the data using the Grounded Theory approach. Results As a common tool, second opinion reflects the broader context of the Israeli healthcare system, specifically tensions associated with health inequalities. We identified four issues: (1 inequalities between central and peripheral regions of Israel; (2 inequalities between private and public settings; (3 implementation gap between the right to a second opinion and whether it is covered by the National Health Insurance Law; and (4 tension between the authorities of physicians and religious leaders. The physicians mentioned that better mechanisms should be implemented for guiding patients to an appropriate consultant for a second opinion and for making an informed choice between the two opinions. Conclusions While all the physicians agreed on the importance of the second opinion as a tool, they raised concerns about the way it is provided and utilized. To be optimally implemented, second opinion should be institutionalized and regulated. The National Health Insurance Law should strive to provide the mechanisms to access second opinion as stipulated in the Patient’s Rights Law. Further studies are needed to assess the patients' perspectives.

  2. Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities in traffic accident information management: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Valinejadi, Ali; Goodarzi, Afshin; Safari, Ameneh; Hemmat, Morteza; Majdabadi, Hesamedin Askari; Mohammadi, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the more important national and international issues, and their consequences are important for the political, economical, and social level in a country. Management of traffic accident information requires information systems with analytical and accessibility capabilities to spatial and descriptive data. The aim of this study was to determine the capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in management of traffic accident information. This qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in 2016. In the first step, GIS capabilities were identified via literature retrieved from the Internet and based on the included criteria. Review of the literature was performed until data saturation was reached; a form was used to extract the capabilities. In the second step, study population were hospital managers, police, emergency, statisticians, and IT experts in trauma, emergency and police centers. Sampling was purposive. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on the first step data; validity and reliability were determined by content validity and Cronbach's alpha of 75%. Data was analyzed using the decision Delphi technique. GIS capabilities were identified in ten categories and 64 sub-categories. Import and process of spatial and descriptive data and so, analysis of this data were the most important capabilities of GIS in traffic accident information management. Storing and retrieving of descriptive and spatial data, providing statistical analysis in table, chart and zoning format, management of bad structure issues, determining the cost effectiveness of the decisions and prioritizing their implementation were the most important capabilities of GIS which can be efficient in the management of traffic accident information.

  3. Patients' views and needs about systemic sclerosis and its management: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, Luc; Alami, Sophie; Boisard, Anne-Sophie; Chaigne, Benjamin; Hachulla, Eric; Poiraudeau, Serge

    2017-05-30

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic connective-tissue disease responsible for reduced life expectancy, disability and a decreased quality of life. In order to optimize patients-physicians relationship and care strategy we aimed to survey views of patients on SSc and its management to reveal potential hurdles and improve health care strategies. A qualitative study combined semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and a direct observation of an information session was performed between November 2008 and January 2009. Twenty-five patients with SSc were included. They encounter difficulties to have a clear representation of their disease. Physical, psychological, and social repercussions of SSc may lead to a psychological distress and different coping strategies, which widely differ among interviewed patients. Patients' views on their therapeutic journey and the management of their disease highlighted strong expectations about patient-physician relationship. These expectations were numerous, complex and sometimes ambivalent. Patients expected physicians to be human and attentive but also involved in research in the field and to provide psychological and affective support to help them to accept the uncertainty of disease evolution and lack of curative treatment. They also expected more individualized management, improvements in diagnosis and follow-up organization, more efforts in education and information, comprehensive behaviors and support from working colleagues and relatives, and increased funding from the health care system. Our results suggest that SSc management could be optimized, particularly with more attention to the patient-practitioner relationship. Patient profiles should be more precisely defined in terms of coping strategies and treatment preferences to propose more individualized options.

  4. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-09-04

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach.

  5. Prescriber and staff perceptions of an electronic prescribing system in primary care: a qualitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittig Dean F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States (US Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 has spurred adoption of electronic health records. The corresponding meaningful use criteria proposed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services mandates use of computerized provider order entry (CPOE systems. Yet, adoption in the US and other Western countries is low and descriptions of successful implementations are primarily from the inpatient setting; less frequently the ambulatory setting. We describe prescriber and staff perceptions of implementation of a CPOE system for medications (electronic- or e-prescribing system in the ambulatory setting. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we conducted eight focus groups at three primary care sites in an independent medical group. Each site represented a unique stage of e-prescribing implementation - pre/transition/post. We used a theoretically based, semi-structured questionnaire to elicit physician (n = 17 and staff (n = 53 perceptions of implementation of the e-prescribing system. We conducted a thematic analysis of focus group discussions using formal qualitative analytic techniques (i.e. deductive framework and grounded theory. Two coders independently coded to theoretical saturation and resolved discrepancies through discussions. Results Ten themes emerged that describe perceptions of e-prescribing implementation: 1 improved availability of clinical information resulted in prescribing efficiencies and more coordinated care; 2 improved documentation resulted in safer care; 3 efficiencies were gained by using fewer paper charts; 4 organizational support facilitated adoption; 5 transition required time; resulted in workload shift to staff; 6 hardware configurations and network stability were important in facilitating workflow; 7 e-prescribing was time-neutral or time-saving; 8 changes in patient interactions enhanced patient care but required education; 9 pharmacy

  6. Evaluation of online accessed systems: example of qualitative research of Fast Addresses of GeaBios System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Klemen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient online information service user interface enables independent use of these online. Designers of the GeaBios Internet information system intended to evaluate the user-friendliness of their service »Fast adresses« (»Hitri naslovi«. In December 2003, as a research project for a graduation thesis, an evaluation of »Fast adresses« was conducted. The study consisted of 10 study participants performing assigned tasks and a survey of the same individuals. During the study research questions were developed as well as list of tasks to be assigned to the participants for the observations. Each observation was performed using a qualitative research paradigm. This paradigm was enhanced with an adaptation of Shneiderman’s (1998 questionnaire. Identified difficulties participants had in using »Fast adresses« fell into four types: (1 formulation of queries, (2 display of results, (3 the influence of the operating system, Windows, and, (4 the color and design of the display background and elements of the Web page. Results indicate that the difficulties encountered were not limited to the inappropriate design of the user interface, but also are attributable to user error.

  7. System design overview of JAXA small supersonic experimental airplane (NEXST-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Takami, Hikaru; 高見 光

    2007-01-01

    The system of JAXA small supersonic experimental airplane (NEXST-1: National EXperimental Supersonic Transport-1) has been briefly explained. Some design problems that the designers have encountered have also been briefly explained.

  8. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, T; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M; Kinoshita, H; Takahashi, T

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the co...

  9. Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun; Marzouk, Youssef M.

    2013-01-01

    The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical

  10. Development of the Digestive System-Experimental Challenges and Approaches of Infant Lipid Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Evan; Minekus, Mans; van Aken, George A; van de Heijning, Bert; Knol, Jan; Bartke, Nana; Oozeer, Raish; van der Beek, Eline M; Ludwig, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    At least during the first 6 months after birth, the nutrition of infants should ideally consist of human milk which provides 40-60 % of energy from lipids. Beyond energy, human milk also delivers lipids with a specific functionality, such as essential fatty acids (FA), phospholipids, and cholesterol. Healthy development, especially of the nervous and digestive systems, depends fundamentally on these. Epidemiological data suggest that human milk provides unique health benefits during early infancy that extend to long-lasting benefits. Preclinical findings show that qualitative changes in dietary lipids, i.e., lipid structure and FA composition, during early life may contribute to the reported long-term effects. Little is known in this respect about the development of digestive function and the digestion and absorption of lipids by the newborn. This review gives a detailed overview of the distinct functionalities that dietary lipids from human milk and infant formula provide and the profound differences in the physiology and biochemistry of lipid digestion between infants and adults. Fundamental mechanisms of infant lipid digestion can, however, almost exclusively be elucidated in vitro. Experimental approaches and their challenges are reviewed in depth.

  11. Use of quality measurement across US dental delivery systems: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrqiq, Hosam M; Edelstein, Burton L

    2016-03-01

    Dentistry is increasingly challenged by payers and the public to demonstrate quality measurement (QM) activities that substantiate value. Unknown is how various components of the US oral health-care financing and delivery systems have adopted QM. The objective of this study is to explore QM activities by US dental delivery, management, financing, and related organizations. Using a structured interview guide based on a novel conceptual framework that incorporates factors influencing QM intention, adoption, and implementation, 19 key informant interviews were conducted. Informants represented safety net delivery programs (health center, nonprofit mobile, hospital-based, Veterans Administration, and tribal dental programs), private delivery organizations (private practice, closed panel HMO, and for-profit mobile dental programs), training programs that deliver care (dental and dental therapy programs), management organizations (private and Medicaid group practice management companies), care financing organizations (Medicaid managed care plan, state Medicaid program, dental benefits companies), and dental quality organizations (institute and dental professional organization). Interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively. Informants report wide variation in the intensity of QM efforts with organizational leadership cited as most influential. Motivation to adopt QM efforts is more often internal than imposed. Data management and information technology both facilitate and limit QM activities. QM activities are associated with operational improvements including use of guidelines and refinements of mission. Organizational type and size appear to influence QM programs. The current status of QM is highly variable across dental organizations because organizational leadership, needs, and requirements vary according to mission and structure. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  12. Experiences and perspectives of adults living with systemic lupus erythematosus: thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, Bernadet; Singh-Grewal, Davinder; McNeil, H Patrick; O'Neill, Sean; Craig, Jonathan C; Jones, Julie; Tong, Allison

    2013-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that significantly impairs patients’ quality of life and can be life threatening. This study aimed to describe the experiences and perspectives of adults living with SLE. We conducted a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies that explored the experiences of adults living with SLE. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL (to November week 1, 2012), Google Scholar, a thesis database, and reference lists of relevant articles. Forty-six studies involving 1,385 participants were included. Five themes were identified: restricted lifestyle(including subthemes of pervasive pain, debilitating fatigue, mental deterioration, disruptive episodic symptoms, and postponing parenthood), disrupted identity (gaining diagnostic closure, prognostic uncertainty, being a burden, hopelessness, heightened self-consciousness, fearing rejection, and guilt and punishment), societal stigma and indifference(illness trivialization, socially ostracized, and averse to differential treatment), gaining resilience (optimism, control and empowerment, being informed and involved, and valuing mutual understanding), and treatment adherence (preserving health, rapport with clinicians, negotiating medication regimens, and financial burden). SLE has a severe and pervasive impact on patients’ self-esteem and independence. Their physical and social functioning is limited and they feel anxious about their future. Patients perceive that SLE is trivialized, misunderstood,and stigmatized by their family, friends, and physicians, which intensifies their sense of isolation. Educational, psychosocial, and self-care interventions are needed to promote mental resilience, positive coping strategies, self-advocacy, and capacities for social participation, and thereby to achieve better treatment and health outcomes in patients with SLE.

  13. Qualitative exploration into the application of Systems Engineering within a South African science council

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malik, HH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available qualitative tool. This research shows that the Integrative Competency Area (ICA) knows the processes and use them well. In the Technical Competency Areas (TCA) some people use it implicitly, while others do not know about it. There is a general request...

  14. Experimental investigation of the thermal hydraulics in lead bismuth eutectic-helium experimental loop of an accelerator-driven system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Wenxuan; Wang, Yong Wei; Li, Xun Feng; Huai, Xiulan; Cal, Jun [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    The heat transfer characteristics between liquid lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) and helium are of great significance for the two-loop cooling system based on an accelerator-driven system (ADS). This paper presents an experimental study on the resistance characteristics and heat transfer performance in a LBE-helium experimental loop of ADS. Pressure drops in the LBE loop, the main heat transfer, and the coupled heat transfer characteristics between LBE and helium are investigated experimentally. The temperature of LBE has a significant effect on the LBE thermo-physical properties, and is therefore considered in the prediction of pressure drops. The results show that the overall heat transfer coefficient increases with the increasing helium flow rate and the decreasing inlet temperature of helium. Increasing the LBE Reynolds number and LBE inlet temperature promotes the heat transfer performance of main heat transfer and thus the overall heat transfer coefficient. The experimental results give an insight into the flow and heat transfer properties in a LBE-helium heat exchanger and are helpful for the optimization of an ADS system design.

  15. Exploring the effectiveness of obstetrics and gynecology information systems in hospitals of a developing country: A qualitative content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Babamohamadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obstetrics and gynecology information systems are designed to replace paper charts, interact with other clinical wards of hospital, and to better care for patients. This qualitative study was performed to explore the perception of midwives about the effectiveness of information systems. In this qualitative study, data were collected through semistructured and in-depth interviews and analyzed by content analysis and constant comparison method. Participants were 15 midwives from obstetrics and gynecology units of affiliated hospitals of Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Purposeful sampling method was used and continued until data saturation. The several themes that emerged from the interviews were divided into strength and weak points. Strength points included the facilitating the recording of information, reduction of costs and time, and the weakness points were repetition of tasks, low computer literacy of the staff, system restrictions on recording and editing, the unavailability of system and reduced the role of midwives in patient care. Midwives were faced with challenges in the use of information systems indicating the lack of quality of the information system. It seems that reinforcing strength points and resolving hardware and software problems can increase obstetrics and gynecology staff’s acceptance of this information system and reduce their cultural resistance toward it.

  16. Experimental and Analytical Studies of Solar System Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    The cosmochemistry research funded by this grant resulted in the publications given in the attached Publication List. The research focused in three areas: (1) Experimental studies of trace element partitioning. (2) Studies of the minor element chemistry and O isotopic compositions of MgAlO4 spinels from Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and (3) The abundances and chemical fractionations of Th and U in chondritic meteorites.

  17. Computational and experimental model of transdermal iontophorethic drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Nenad; Saveljic, Igor; Rac, Vladislav; Graells, Beatriz Olalde; Bijelic, Goran

    2017-11-30

    The concept of iontophoresis is often applied to increase the transdermal transport of drugs and other bioactive agents into the skin or other tissues. It is a non-invasive drug delivery method which involves electromigration and electroosmosis in addition to diffusion and is shown to be a viable alternative to conventional administration routs such as oral, hypodermic and intravenous injection. In this study we investigated, experimentally and numerically, in vitro drug delivery of dexamethasone sodium phosphate to porcine skin. Different current densities, delivery durations and drug loads were investigated experimentally and introduced as boundary conditions for numerical simulations. Nernst-Planck equation was used for calculation of active substance flux through equivalent model of homogeneous hydrogel and skin layers. The obtained numerical results were in good agreement with experimental observations. A comprehensive in-silico platform, which includes appropriate numerical tools for fitting, could contribute to iontophoretic drug-delivery devices design and correct dosage and drug clearance profiles as well as to perform much faster in-silico experiments to better determine parameters and performance criteria of iontophoretic drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vanadium supersaturated silicon system: a theoretical and experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hemme, Eric; García, Gregorio; Palacios, Pablo; Montero, Daniel; García-Hernansanz, Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Diaz, Germán; Wahnon, Perla

    2017-12-01

    The effect of high dose vanadium ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing on the crystal structure and sub-bandgap optical absorption features of V-supersaturated silicon samples has been studied through the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. Interest in V-supersaturated Si focusses on its potential as a material having a new band within the Si bandgap. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements and formation energies computed through quantum calculations provide evidence that V atoms are mainly located at interstitial positions. The response of sub-bandgap spectral photoconductance is extended far into the infrared region of the spectrum. Theoretical simulations (based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation in GW approximation) bring to light that, in addition to V atoms at interstitial positions, Si defects should also be taken into account in explaining the experimental profile of the spectral photoconductance. The combination of experimental and theoretical methods provides evidence that the improved spectral photoconductance up to 6.2 µm (0.2 eV) is due to new sub-bandgap transitions, for which the new band due to V atoms within the Si bandgap plays an essential role. This enables the use of V-supersaturated silicon in the third generation of photovoltaic devices.

  19. Experimental studies of water hammer in propellant feed system of reaction control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanish Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer pressure transient produces large dynamic forces which can damage the pipes and other assemblies in the feed line of a reaction control system (RCS. It has led to the failure of pressure transducers monitoring the manifold pressure in the feed line of RCS. Therefore, water hammer studies have been carried out to understand its effect in feed line. Feedline system has been simplified to develop a mathematical model and experiments have been carried out at extensive levels. The mathematical model was developed considering pipe of uniform c/s and moving liquid-gas interface. The experimental studies have been done using water as working medium instead of actual propellant. The studies showed that rate of pressurization have a very critical role on the water hammer amplitude. Sensitivity studies have been also carried out to study the effect of density, friction and initial liquid column length on water hammer amplitude. Keywords: Water hammer, Reaction control system (RCS, Propellant feed system, Experimental study, Testing

  20. Towards the experimental realization of hybrid quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, C.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main interests of quantum physics in this new millennium is the exploitation of quantum mechanical principles in technical applications. One approach here is to use entanglement and superpositions of states to realize powerful algorithms capable of solving challenging computational tasks on a much faster time scale than a classical computer ever could. To find the quantum analogue of a classical bit one needs a quantum mechanical two level system that can be used to store and process quantum information. Most of the current approaches to find such a 'qubit' have the intention to find a single system that is able to fulfill all desirable tasks. But actually most quantum systems are only favorable for very specific tasks (e.g storage, processing, data exchange,..), similar as it is in classical computing. For some qubits the main disadvantages is that their quantum state is very fragile. Those systems loose their 'quantum information' (that is the possibility to store superpositions of their states coherently) easily. They 'decohere' on a timescale that is much shorter then any more involving algorithm. Other systems can keep those superposition states for quite a while, but are so difficult to address that the number of operations that can be made is very limited. The task of a so called hybrid quantum system is now to combine the strengths of these different systems, using e.g. one for manipulation and an other system for storage. Similar to a processor/memory architecture in conventional computers these systems could use a kind of bus system to couple between them. The main task of this thesis was to make steps towards the realization of such a system using two different combinations of quantum systems. Both are planned to use superconducting qubits (transmons) as processor qubit and either atoms (ultra cold rubidium 87 ensembles) or solid state spin systems (Nitrogen Vacancies in diamonds - NV centers) as memory. (author)

  1. Experimental investigation of thermal storage integrated micro trigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johar, Dheeraj Kishor; Sharma, Dilip; Soni, Shyam Lal; Goyal, Rahul; Gupta, Pradeep K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy Storage System is integrated with Micro trigeneration system. • Erythritol is used as Phase Change Material. • Maximum energy saved is 15.30%. • Combined systems are feasible to increase energy efficiency. - Abstract: In this study a 4.4 kW stationary compression ignition engine is coupled with a double pipe heat exchanger, vapour absorption refrigeration system and thermal energy storage system to achieve Trigeneration i.e. power, heating and cooling. A shell and tube type heat exchanger filled with erythritol is used to store thermal energy of engine exhaust. Various combinations of thermal energy storage system integrated micro-trigeneration were investigated and results related to performance and emissions are reported in this paper. The test results show that micro capacity (4.4 kW) stationary single cylinder diesel engine can be successfully modified to simultaneously produce power, heating and cooling and also store thermal energy.

  2. Magnet system of the ''AMBAL'' experimental trap with ambipolar mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, G.I.; Lysyanskij, P.B.; Tadber, M.V.; Timoshin, I.Ya.; Shrajner, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    A magnet system of the ''AMBAL'' ambipolar trap under construction is described. The trap magnetic field configuration, geometry of the main coils and diagram of the whole device magnet system are outlined. Drift surface cross sections in the equatorial plane of the ring mirror device, in the median plane and at different distances from the trap median plane are presented. The magnet system design is described in brief

  3. Holostrain system: a powerful tool for experimental mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1992-09-01

    A portable holographic interferometer that can be used to measure displacements and strains in all kinds of mechanical components and structures is described. The holostrain system captures images on a TV camera that detects interference patterns produced by laser illumination. The video signals are digitized. The digitized interferograms are processed by a fast processing system. The output of the system are the strains or the stresses of the observed mechanical component or structure.

  4. Shock induced response of structural systems analytical and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangenberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution refers to the behaviour of reinforced concrete structures impacted by deformable missiles. The difference with hard missile impact problems, about which generally more knowledge exists, are point out. Structural response effects beyond the immediate contact face vicinity, beyond the local load introduction zone - i.e. effects of punching shear, of bending, of vibration transmission etc. - are emphasized. Two- and three-dimensional analytical approaches verified by experimental evaluations are discussed, and typical phenomena of the behaviour of reinforced concrete structures subjected to impact loads are demonstrated. (Author) [pt

  5. Experimental research of "microcable in a microconduct" system stability to effect of freezing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Nikulina, Tatiana G.; Alekhin, Ivan N.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.; Nikulin, Aleksey G.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.

    2011-12-01

    Results of experimental researches of "optical microcable in a microduct" system stability to effect of freezing water are presented. It is shown this system is steadier to water freezing in comparison to lighten optical cable in protective polymer tube.

  6. An Experimental Seismic Data and Parameter Exchange System for Tsunami Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Hanka, W.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; Becker, J.; Heinloo, A.; Hoffmann, M.

    2009-12-01

    For several years GFZ Potsdam is operating a global earthquake monitoring system. Since the beginning of 2008, this system is also used as an experimental seismic background data center for two different regional Tsunami Warning Systems (TWS), the IOTWS (Indian Ocean) and the interim NEAMTWS (NE Atlantic and Mediterranean). The SeisComP3 (SC3) software, developed within the GITEWS (German Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System) project, capable to acquire, archive and process real-time data feeds, was extended for export and import of individual processing results within the two clusters of connected SC3 systems. Therefore not only real-time waveform data are routed to the attached warning centers through GFZ but also processing results. While the current experimental NEAMTWS cluster consists of SC3 systems in six designated national warning centers in Europe, the IOTWS cluster presently includes seven centers, with another three likely to join in 2009/10. For NEAMTWS purposes, the GFZ virtual real-time seismic network (GEOFON Extended Virtual Network -GEVN) in Europe was substantially extended by adding many stations from Western European countries optimizing the station distribution. In parallel to the data collection over the Internet, a GFZ VSAT hub for secured data collection of the EuroMED GEOFON and NEAMTWS backbone network stations became operational and first data links were established through this backbone. For the Southeast Asia region, a VSAT hub has been established in Jakarta already in 2006, with some other partner networks connecting to this backbone via the Internet. Since its establishment, the experimental system has had the opportunity to prove its performance in a number of relevant earthquakes. Reliable solutions derived from a minimum of 25 stations were very promising in terms of speed. For important events, automatic alerts were released and disseminated by emails and SMS. Manually verified solutions are added as soon as they become

  7. Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily…

  8. Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2013-01-01

    The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical framework and an algorithmic approach for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models; in particular, we focus on finding sets of experiments that provide the most information about targeted sets of parameters.Our framework employs a Bayesian statistical setting, which provides a foundation for inference from noisy, indirect, and incomplete data, and a natural mechanism for incorporating heterogeneous sources of information. An objective function is constructed from information theoretic measures, reflecting expected information gain from proposed combinations of experiments. Polynomial chaos approximations and a two-stage Monte Carlo sampling method are used to evaluate the expected information gain. Stochastic approximation algorithms are then used to make optimization feasible in computationally intensive and high-dimensional settings. These algorithms are demonstrated on model problems and on nonlinear parameter inference problems arising in detailed combustion kinetics. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Experimental results of the ATF in-line injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Batchelor, K.

    1995-01-01

    The initial experimental results of the Brookhaven accelerator test facility (ATF) in-line injector is presented. The ATF in-line injector employed a full copper RF gun with a pair of solenoid magnets for emittance compensation. The maximum acceleration field of the RF gun was measured to be 130 MV/m. The electron yield from the copper cathode was maximized using p- polarized laser and the Schottky effect. The quantum efficiency under optimum conditions was measured to be 0.04%. The measured electron bunch length was less than 11 ps, which agreed with the laser pulse length measurement using a streak camera. The normalized rms. emittance for 0.25 nC charge is 0.9 ± 0.1 mm-mrad, which is almost four times smaller than the emittance predicted by the space-charge effect for a non-emittance compensation photocathode RF gun. The normalized rms for 0.6 nC charge was measured range from 1 to 3 mm-mrad. This measurement was first experimental demonstration of emittance compensation in a high-gradient, S-band photocathode RF gun

  10. Development and Experimental Investigations of Motion Detection Module for Smart Lighting System

    OpenAIRE

    Matveev, I.; Siemens, E.; Yurchenko, Aleksey Vasilievich; Kuznetsov, D.

    2016-01-01

    This work considers motion sensors as parts of the smart lighting system on basis of Beaglebone microcomputer. Detection system is designed for the smart lighting system. Experimental investigations of the detection system were made with different motion sensors. Based on the results comparative analysis was performed and optimal conditions for the detection system operation were found.

  11. The skeletal endocannabinoid system: clinical and experimental insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Bitya; Gabet, Yankel

    2016-05-01

    Recently, there has been a rapidly growing interest in the role of cannabinoids in the regulation of skeletal remodeling and bone mass, addressed in basic, translational and clinical research. Since the first publications in 2005, there are more than 1000 publications addressing the skeletal endocannabinoid system. This review focuses on the roles of the endocannabinoid system in skeletal biology via the cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2 and others. Endocannabinoids play important roles in bone formation, bone resorption and skeletal growth, and are sometimes age, gender, species and strain dependent. Controversies in the literature and potential therapeutic approaches targeting the endocannabinoid system in skeletal disorders are also discussed.

  12. 134Cs-transport in an experimental ecological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocsy, Ildiko; Uray, Ildiko; Salagean, Stefania

    1986-01-01

    An experimental aquatic ecosystem was developed consisting of river water, slurry, algae and crustaceans. The change of the cesium concentration factor (F c ) of two alga species were measured using 20 Bq/ml of 134 CsCl. Measurements were performed in the 6th, 12th, 24th, 48th and 72nd hour after irradiation. F c in crustaceans was found to be 1300 in the 12th hr, then decreased rapidly down to 275. The temporal dependence of cesium accumulation in slurry increased consistently. It was found that algae accumulated cesium variously. Owing to its high accumulation, Cladophora glomerata can be used as a biological indicator of cesium concentration in surface waters. (K.I.)

  13. Experimental investigation of an accelerometer controlled automatic braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, R. C.; Sleeper, R. K.; Nayadley, J. R., Sr.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of an automatic braking system for arresting the motion of an airplane by sensing and controlling braked wheel decelerations. The system was tested on a rotating drum dynamometer by using an automotive tire, wheel, and disk-brake assembly under conditions which included two tire loadings, wet and dry surfaces, and a range of ground speeds up to 70 knots. The controlling parameters were the rates at which brake pressure was applied and released and the Command Deceleration Level which governed the wheel deceleration by controlling the brake operation. Limited tests were also made with the automatic braking system installed on a ground vehicle in an effort to provide a more realistic proof of its feasibility. The results of this investigation indicate that a braking system which utilizes wheel decelerations as the control variable to restrict tire slip is feasible and capable of adapting to rapidly changing surface conditions.

  14. ASR performance analysis of an experimental call routing system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modipa, T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Call routing is an important application of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology. In this paper the authors discuss the main issues affecting the performance of a call routing system and describe the ASR component of the "Auto...

  15. Experimental Hamiltonian identification for controlled two-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Kolli, A.; Oi, D.K.L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a strategy to empirically determine the internal and control Hamiltonians for an unknown two-level system (black box) subject to various (piecewise constant) control fields when direct readout by measurement is limited to a single, fixed observable

  16. An experimental study of the emergence of human communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2005-09-10

    The emergence of human communication systems is typically investigated via 2 approaches with complementary strengths and weaknesses: naturalistic studies and computer simulations. This study was conducted with a method that combines these approaches. Pairs of participants played video games requiring communication. Members of a pair were physically separated but exchanged graphic signals through a medium that prevented the use of standard symbols (e.g., letters). Communication systems emerged and developed rapidly during the games, integrating the use of explicit signs with information implicitly available to players and silent behavior-coordinating procedures. The systems that emerged suggest 3 conclusions: (a) signs originate from different mappings; (b) sign systems develop parsimoniously; (c) sign forms are perceptually distinct, easy to produce, and tolerant to variations. 2005 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  17. Experimental demonstrations of organic Rankine cycle waste heat rejection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Timothy J.; Lacey, P. Douglas

    Two phase fluid management is an important factor in the successful design of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power conversion systems for space applications. The evolution of the heat rejection system approach from a jet condenser, through a rotary jet condenser, to a rotary fluid management device (RFMD) with a surface condenser has been described in a previous paper. Some of the test programs that were used to prove the validity of the selected approach are described.

  18. Theoretical and Experimental Impact Analysis of Decision Support Systems for Advanced MCR Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Human error is recognized as one of the main causes of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents, and there have been efforts to reduce and prevent human errors by developing various operator support systems. Before adapting these support systems to actual NPPs, it is necessary to validate their reliability and to evaluate their effect on operator performance. Particularly for safety-critical systems such as NPPs, the validation and evaluation of support systems is as important as the design of good systems. Such evaluations may be carried out through a theoretical modelling or experimentation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of decision support systems on operator performance by both theoretical and experimental methods. The target system is an integrated decision support system including four decision support sub-systems. In the results of both the theoretical and experimental evaluations, the decision support systems revealed positive effects, and several trends were observed. (authors)

  19. Theoretical and Experimental Impact Analysis of Decision Support Systems for Advanced MCR Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Human error is recognized as one of the main causes of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents, and there have been efforts to reduce and prevent human errors by developing various operator support systems. Before adapting these support systems to actual NPPs, it is necessary to validate their reliability and to evaluate their effect on operator performance. Particularly for safety-critical systems such as NPPs, the validation and evaluation of support systems is as important as the design of good systems. Such evaluations may be carried out through a theoretical modelling or experimentation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of decision support systems on operator performance by both theoretical and experimental methods. The target system is an integrated decision support system including four decision support sub-systems. In the results of both the theoretical and experimental evaluations, the decision support systems revealed positive effects, and several trends were observed. (authors)

  20. Technical Meeting on Existing and Proposed Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Existing and proposed experimental facilities for fast neutron systems” was threefold: 1) presenting and exchanging information about existing and planned experimental facilities in support of the development of innovative fast neutron systems; 2) allow creating a catalogue of existing and planned experimental facilities currently operated/developed within national or international fast reactors programmes; 3) once a clear picture of the existing experimental infrastructures is defined, new experimental facilities are discussed and proposed, on the basis of the identified R&D needs

  1. Technical Meeting on Existing and Proposed Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Existing and proposed experimental facilities for fast neutron systems” is threefold: first, it is intended for presenting and exchanging information about existing and planned experimental facilities in support of the development of innovative fast neutron systems; second, it will allow to create a catalogue of existing and planned experimental facilities currently operated/developed within national or international fast reactors programmes; third, once a clear picture of the existing experimental infrastructures is defined, new experimental facilities will be discussed and proposed, on the basis of the identified R&D needs

  2. Central nervous system antiretroviral efficacy in HIV infection: a qualitative and quantitative review and implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A; Waters, Edward K; Brew, Bruce J

    2011-11-22

    There is conflicting information as to whether antiretroviral drugs with better central nervous system (CNS) penetration (neuroHAART) assist in improving neurocognitive function and suppressing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV RNA. The current review aims to better synthesise existing literature by using an innovative two-phase review approach (qualitative and quantitative) to overcome methodological differences between studies. Sixteen studies, all observational, were identified using a standard citation search. They fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: conducted in the HAART era; sample size > 10; treatment effect involved more than one antiretroviral and none had a retrospective design. The qualitative phase of review of these studies consisted of (i) a blind assessment rating studies on features such as sample size, statistical methods and definitions of neuroHAART, and (ii) a non-blind assessment of the sensitivity of the neuropsychological methods to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). During quantitative evaluation we assessed the statistical power of studies, which achieved a high rating in the qualitative analysis. The objective of the power analysis was to determine the studies ability to assess their proposed research aims. After studies with at least three limitations were excluded in the qualitative phase, six studies remained. All six found a positive effect of neuroHAART on neurocognitive function or CSF HIV suppression. Of these six studies, only two had statistical power of at least 80%. Studies assessed as using more rigorous methods found that neuroHAART was effective in improving neurocognitive function and decreasing CSF viral load, but only two of those studies were adequately statistically powered. Because all of these studies were observational, they represent a less compelling evidence base than randomised control trials for assessing treatment effect. Therefore, large randomised trials are needed to determine the robustness

  3. Experimental analysis of Hybridised Energy Storage Systems for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Wasim; Engstrom, Timothy; Marinescu, Monica; Green, Nick; Taylor, Nigel; Offer, Gregory J.

    2016-08-01

    The requirements of the Energy Storage System (ESS) for an electrified vehicle portfolio consisting of a range of vehicles from micro Hybrid Electric Vehicle (mHEV) to a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) vary considerably. To reduce development cost of an electrified powertrain portfolio, a modular system would ideally be scaled across each vehicle; however, the conflicting requirements of a mHEV and BEV prevent this. This study investigates whether it is possible to combine supercapacitors suitable for an mHEV with high-energy batteries suitable for use in a BEV to create a Hybridised Energy Storage System (HESS) suitable for use in a HEV. A passive HESS is found to be capable of meeting the electrical demands of a HEV drive cycle; the operating principles of HESSs are discussed and factors limiting system performance are explored. The performance of the HESS is found to be significantly less temperature dependent than battery-only systems, however the heat generated suggests a requirement for thermal management. As the HESS degrades (at a similar rate to a specialised high-power-battery), battery resistance rises faster than supercapacitor resistance; as a result, the supercapacitor provides a greater current contribution, therefore the energy throughput, temperature rise and degradation of the batteries is reduced.

  4. Qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-25

    Qualitative research has an important role in helping nurses and other healthcare professionals understand patient experiences of health and illness. Qualitative researchers have a large number of methodological options and therefore should take care in planning and conducting their research. This article offers a brief overview of some of the key issues qualitative researchers should consider.

  5. Experimental Study of Nuclear Security System Components for Achieving the Intrusion Process via Sensor's Network System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Kafas, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cluster sensors are one of nuclear security system components which are used to detect any intrusion process of the nuclear sites. In this work, an experimental measuring test for sensor performance and procedures are presented. Sensor performance testing performed to determine whether a particular sensor will be acceptable in a proposed design. We have access to a sensors test field in which the sensor of interest is already properly installed and the parameters have been set to optimal levels by preliminary testing. The glass-breakage (G.B) and open door (O.D) sensors construction, operation and design for the investigated nuclear site are explained. Intrusion tests were carried out inside the field areas of the sensors to evaluate the sensor performance during the intrusion process. Experimental trials were performed for achieving the intrusion process via sensor network system. The performance and intrusion senses of cluster sensors inside the internal zones was recorded and evaluated. The obtained results explained that the tested and experimented G.B sensors have a probability of detection P (D) value 65% founded, and 80% P (D) of Open-door sensor

  6. Social capital calculations in economic systems: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurov, E. G.; Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Nazarova, Yu. Yu.; Chekmarev, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes the social capital study for a system where actors are engaged in an economic activity. The focus is on the analysis of communications structural parameters (transactions) between the actors. Comparison between transaction network graph structure and the structure of a random Bernoulli graph of the same dimension and density allows revealing specific structural features of the economic system under study. Structural analysis is based on SNA-methodology (SNA - Social Network Analysis). It is shown that structural parameter values of the graph formed by agent relationship links may well characterize different aspects of the social capital structure. The research advocates that it is useful to distinguish the difference between each agent social capital and the whole system social capital.

  7. Microgrids research: A review of experimental microgrids and test systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidula, N.W.A.; Rajapakse, A.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 75A Chancellor' s Circle, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 5V6 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    A microgrid is particularly a portion of the power distribution system that comprises distributed generation, energy storage and loads. To be capable of operating in parallel to the grid, as an autonomous power island and in transition modes, microgrids must be robust in controlling the local voltage and frequency, and protecting the network and equipment connected to the microgrid. It also needs to facilitate demand side management and resynchronization. This paper presents a review of existing microgrid test networks around the world (North America, Europe and Asia) and some significantly different microgrid simulation networks present in the literature. Paper is focused on the test systems and available microgrid control options. A summary table comparing and contrasting the existing test systems is presented. The paper is concluded highlighting the worthy findings and possible areas of research that would enhance practical use of microgrid facilities. (author)

  8. On identification of dynamic system parameters from experimental data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available -linear differen- tial equations frequently used to describe the dynamics of biological systems in which two species interact. They were proposed independently by Alfred J. Lotka [1] and Vito Volterra in 1926 [2]. This system can be written in the form x′1(t...) = x1 (a11 − a12x2) x′2(t) = x2 (ηa12x1 − a22) When solved for x1 and x2 the above system of equations yields x1 = 0, x1 = 0 and 1 x1 = a22 ηa12 , x1 = a11 a12 hence there are two equilibria. The solution in the neighborhood of the first...

  9. Experimental benchmark for piping system dynamic response analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, G.A.; Mallett, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The scope and status of a piping system dynamics test program are described. A 0.20-m nominal diameter test piping specimen is designed to be representative of main heat transport system piping of LMFBR plants. Attention is given to representing piping restraints. Applied loadings consider component-induced vibration as well as seismic excitation. The principal objective of the program is to provide a benchmark for verification of piping design methods by correlation of predicted and measured responses. Pre-test analysis results and correlation methods are discussed. 3 refs

  10. Experimental benchmark for piping system dynamic-response analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the scope and status of a piping system dynamics test program. A 0.20 m(8 in.) nominal diameter test piping specimen is designed to be representative of main heat transport system piping of LMFBR plants. Particular attention is given to representing piping restraints. Applied loadings consider component-induced vibration as well as seismic excitation. The principal objective of the program is to provide a benchmark for verification of piping design methods by correlation of predicted and measured responses. Pre-test analysis results and correlation methods are discussed

  11. GSETT-3: testing the experimental international seismic monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringdal, Frode

    1995-01-01

    Global seismic monitoring system has been developed by the Conference on Disarmaments (CDs) ad hoc group of scientific experts to consider international cooperative measures to detect and identify seismic events (the GSE), based in Geneva. In the course of its work, the GSE has conducted two large-scale global technical tests, Global Seismic Events Technical Test-1 (GSETT-1) in 1984 and GSETT-2 in 1991. The GSE has now embarked upon its third and most ambitious technical test, GSETT-3, which will encompass the development, testing and evaluation of a working prototype of the eventual Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) seismic monitoring system

  12. Experimental model for neutron scattering in disordered systems: static structure factor determination of mode-softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, E.

    1982-01-01

    The generalized-disorder collective-boson mode-softening universality-principle (GDCBMSUP) for collective-boson mode dispersion in disordered systems (liquids, quantum liquids, glasses, powders, disordered magnets, plasmas...), a unified qualitative and semi-qualitative and semi-quantitative descriptive prescription for treating the properties of very differently disordered systems, is directly dependent upon a measurement (or calculation) of the static structure factor S(k) determined from a frequency average of the dynamic structure factor S(k,w), a multiple of the inelastic differential neutron scattering cross section d 2 sigma/dwdOMEGA. The prescription for this principle is given and, because of its universal applicability to disordered systems of any type with any type and/or degree of disorder, the neutron scattering determination of S(k) takes on renewed importance

  13. Experimental study of a staged combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Warren G.

    Two optically accessible experimental test rigs were designed and constructed to investigate a staged or distributed combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications. The test rigs were fuelled with natural gas and featured two combustion zones: the main combustion zone (MCZ) and the secondary combustion zone (SCZ). The MCZ is a swirl stabilized dump combustor and the SCZ, which is axially downstream from the MCZ, is formed by a transverse jet injecting a premixed fuel/air mixture into the vitiated stream. After installing and commissioning the test rig, an emission survey was conducted to investigate the SCZ conditions, equivalence ratio and momentum ratio, that produce low NOx emissions and give a higher temperature rise before a simulated high pressure turbine than firing only the MCZ. The emission survey found several operating conditions that show the benefit of combustion staging. These beneficial conditions had an SCZ equivalence ratio between 0.41 and 1.12. The data from the emission survey was then used to create an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN used a multi-layer feed-forward network architecture and was trained with experimental data using the backpropagation training algorithm. The ANN was then used to create performance maps and optimum operational regions were sought. Lastly, optical diagnostics were used to obtain information on the nature of the SCZ reactive jet. The diagnostics included high speed CH* chemiluminescence, OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The chemiluminescence and PLIF were used to qualitatively determine the size and shape of the transverse jet reaction zone. Dual-pump CARS was used to quantitatively determine the temperature and H2/N2 concentration ratio profile at the mid-plane of the transverse jet. Dual-pump CARS data was collected for four operating conditions but only one is presented in this dissertation. For the condition presented, the

  14. Experimental determination of sorption in fractured flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mitchell D.; Bennett, Philip C.; Sharp, John M.; Choi, Wan-Joo

    2002-09-01

    Fracture "skins" are alteration zones on fracture surfaces created by a variety of biological, chemical, and physical processes. Skins increase surface area, where sorption occurs, compared to the unaltered rock matrix. This study examines the sorption of organic solutes on altered fracture surfaces in an experimental fracture-flow apparatus. Fracture skins containing abundant metal oxides, clays, and organic material from the Breathitt Formation (Kentucky, USA) were collected in a manner such that skin surface integrity was maintained. The samples were reassembled in the lab in a flow-through apparatus that simulated ˜2.7 m of a linear fracture "conduit." A dual-tracer injection scheme was utilized with the sorbing or reactive tracer compared to a non-reactive tracer (chloride) injected simultaneously. Sorption was assessed from the ratio of the first temporal moments of the breakthrough curves and from the loss of reactive tracer mass and evaluated as a function of flow velocity and solute type. The breakthrough curves suggest dual-flow regimes in the fracture with both sorbing and non-sorbing flow fields. Significant sorption occurs for the reactive components, and sorption increased with decreasing flow rate and decreasing compound solubility. Based on moment analysis, however, there was little retardation of the center of solute mass. These data suggest that non-equilibrium sorption processes dominate and that slow desorption and boundary layer diffusion cause extensive tailing in the breakthrough curves.

  15. Multi-actuators vehicle collision avoidance system - Experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Umar Zakir Abdul; Zakuan, Fakhrul Razi Ahmad; Akmal Zulkepli, Khairul; Zulfaqar Azmi, Muhammad; Zamzuri, Hairi; Rahman, Mohd Azizi Abdul; Aizzat Zakaria, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) of the United States of America in their reports has mentioned that a significant amount of the road mishaps would be preventable if more automated active safety applications are adopted into the vehicle. This includes the incorporation of collision avoidance system. The autonomous intervention by the active steering and braking systems in the hazardous scenario can aid the driver in mitigating the collisions. In this work, a real-time platform of a multi-actuators vehicle collision avoidance system is developed. It is a continuous research scheme to develop a fully autonomous vehicle in Malaysia. The vehicle is a modular platform which can be utilized for different research purposes and is denominated as Intelligent Drive Project (iDrive). The vehicle collision avoidance proposed design is validated in a controlled environment, where the coupled longitudinal and lateral motion control system is expected to provide desired braking and steering actuation in the occurrence of a frontal static obstacle. Results indicate the ability of the platform to yield multi-actuators collision avoidance navigation in the hazardous scenario, thus avoiding the obstacle. The findings of this work are beneficial for the development of a more complex and nonlinear real-time collision avoidance work in the future.

  16. Experimental Results of Integrated Refrigeration and Storage System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Jumper, K.

    2009-01-01

    Launch operations engineers at the Kennedy Space Center have identified an Integrated Refrigeration and Storage system as a promising technology to reduce launch costs and enable advanced cryogenic operations. This system uses a close cycle Brayton refrigerator to remove energy from the stored cryogenic propellant. This allows for the potential of a zero loss storage and transfer system, as well and control of the state of the propellant through densification or re-liquefaction. However, the behavior of the fluid in this type of system is different than typical cryogenic behavior, and there will be a learning curve associated with its use. A 400 liter research cryostat has been designed, fabricated and delivered to KSC to test the thermo fluid behavior of liquid oxygen as energy is removed from the cryogen by a simulated DC cycle cryocooler. Results of the initial testing phase focusing on heat exchanger characterization and zero loss storage operations using liquid oxygen are presented in this paper. Future plans for testing of oxygen densification tests and oxygen liquefaction tests will also be discussed. KEYWORDS: Liquid Oxygen, Refrigeration, Storage

  17. Access systems strategy in the accelerator complex and experimental areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, R.; Ninin, P.; Sanchez-Corral, E.; Ladzinski, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the main features of the new PS Personnel Protection System (PSPSS) as well as the main milestones for its deployment during the Long Shutdown of 2013-2014. Access conditions in the PS, SPS and LHC complexes during this period shall be described as well as the upgrades and improvements that are under preparation. (authors)

  18. Nuclear fusion experimental study on 16 O + 60 Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.P. da.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear fusion cross section measurements were performed in the energy range near The Coulomb Barrier (E Lab -> 40-72 MeV), for the system 16 O + 60 Ni, aiming the study of Fusion Process involving heavy ions. (L.C.J.A.)

  19. Experimental Study of the Sb-Sn-Zn Alloy System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zobač, O.; Sopoušek, J.; Buršík, Jiří; Zemanová, Adéla; Roupcová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2014), s. 1181-1188 ISSN 1073-5623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Sb-Sn-Zn system * thermal analysis * CALPHAD method Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2014

  20. Experimental Study on Position Control System Using Encoderless Magnetic Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Youn; Heo, Hoon [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Young Min; Shim, Ho Keun; Kwon, Young Mok [TPC Mechatronics, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    A position control system composed of the PMLSM(Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor), unlike conventional linear permanent magnet synchronous motor is fixed to the permanent magnet moving coil rails (permanent magnet = stator, coil = mover), the coil is fixed, moving the permanent magnet, we propose a position control system (permanent magnet = mover, coil = stator) structure. Position is measured not using conventional encoder or resolver but by adopting vector control method using 2 hall sensors generating rectangular signal. This method estimate the velocity and position of mover by using the quadruple of two hall sensor signal instead of encoder signal. Vector control of PMLSM using 2 hall sensor generating rectangular wave is proved to control the system stable and efficiently through simulation. Also hardware experiment reveals that the position control performance is measured within the range of 30-50μ in the accuracy of 10-20μ, which is improved twice to the conventional method. The proposed method exhibits its economical efficiency and practical usefulness. The vector control technique using two hall sensors can be installed in narrow place, accordingly it can be implemented on the system where the conventional encoder or resolver cannot operate.

  1. An Experimental Study of the Emergence of Human Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of human communication systems is typically investigated via 2 approaches with complementary strengths and weaknesses: naturalistic studies and computer simulations. This study was conducted with a method that combines these approaches. Pairs of participants played video games requiring communication. Members of a pair were…

  2. Mathematical modeling of control system for the experimental steam generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlasek, Szymon; Lalik, Krzysztof; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Sornek, Krzysztof; Kupski, Robert; Raś, Anita

    2016-03-01

    A steam generator is an essential unit of each cogeneration system using steam machines. Currently one of the cheapest ways of the steam generation can be application of old steam generators came from army surplus store. They have relatively simple construction and in case of not so exploited units - quite good general conditions, and functionality of mechanical components. By contrast, electrical components and control systems (mostly based on relay automatics) are definitely obsolete. It is not possible to use such units with cooperation of steam bus or with steam engines. In particular, there is no possibility for automatically adjustment of the pressure and the temperature of the generated steam supplying steam engines. Such adjustment is necessary in case of variation of a generator load. The paper is devoted to description of improvement of an exemplary unit together with construction of the measurement-control system based on a PLC. The aim was to enable for communication between the steam generator and controllers of the steam bus and steam engines in order to construction of a complete, fully autonomic and maintenance-free microcogeneration system.

  3. Mathematical modeling of control system for the experimental steam generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podlasek Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A steam generator is an essential unit of each cogeneration system using steam machines. Currently one of the cheapest ways of the steam generation can be application of old steam generators came from army surplus store. They have relatively simple construction and in case of not so exploited units – quite good general conditions, and functionality of mechanical components. By contrast, electrical components and control systems (mostly based on relay automatics are definitely obsolete. It is not possible to use such units with cooperation of steam bus or with steam engines. In particular, there is no possibility for automatically adjustment of the pressure and the temperature of the generated steam supplying steam engines. Such adjustment is necessary in case of variation of a generator load. The paper is devoted to description of improvement of an exemplary unit together with construction of the measurement-control system based on a PLC. The aim was to enable for communication between the steam generator and controllers of the steam bus and steam engines in order to construction of a complete, fully autonomic and maintenance-free microcogeneration system.

  4. Model-Based Optimal Experimental Design for Complex Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    choose the belief state to be the posterior xk,b = θ|d0, y0, . . . , dk−1, yk−1, system dynamics to be Bayes’ theorem , and terminal reward to be the...Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence from the final posterior to the initial prior—an information- measuring criterion. 5 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution

  5. An Experimental System for Research on Dynamic Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Bogey to be intercepted. The student enters B1 . The system then displays a recommended intercept heading, say 270 degrees. The student must now send this...DRIVE LRDC OTTAWA, CANADA K1A 0K2 UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH 3939 O’HARA STREET ERIC Facility-Acquisitions PITTSBURGH, PA 15213 4833 Rugby Avenue Bethesda

  6. Biliary System Architecture: Experimental Models and Visualization Techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarnová, Lenka; Gregor, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2017), s. 383-390 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA ČR GA15-23858S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Biliary system * Mouse model * Cholestasis * Visualisation * Morphology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  7. Qualitative and quantitative outcomes of audience response systems as an educational tool in a plastic surgery residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneja, Jugpal S; Narasimhan, Kailash; Bouwman, David; Bridge, Patrick D

    2009-12-01

    In-training evaluations in graduate medical education have typically been challenging. Although the majority of standardized examination delivery methods have become computer-based, in-training examinations generally remain pencil-paper-based, if they are performed at all. Audience response systems present a novel way to stimulate and evaluate the resident-learner. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes of audience response systems testing as compared with traditional testing in a plastic surgery residency program. A prospective 1-year pilot study of 10 plastic surgery residents was performed using audience response systems-delivered testing for the first half of the academic year and traditional pencil-paper testing for the second half. Examination content was based on monthly "Core Quest" curriculum conferences. Quantitative outcome measures included comparison of pretest and posttest and cumulative test scores of both formats. Qualitative outcomes from the individual participants were obtained by questionnaire. When using the audience response systems format, pretest and posttest mean scores were 67.5 and 82.5 percent, respectively; using traditional pencil-paper format, scores were 56.5 percent and 79.5 percent. A comparison of the cumulative mean audience response systems score (85.0 percent) and traditional pencil-paper score (75.0 percent) revealed statistically significantly higher scores with audience response systems (p = 0.01). Qualitative outcomes revealed increased conference enthusiasm, greater enjoyment of testing, and no user difficulties with the audience response systems technology. The audience response systems modality of in-training evaluation captures participant interest and reinforces material more effectively than traditional pencil-paper testing does. The advantages include a more interactive learning environment, stimulation of class participation, immediate feedback to residents, and immediate tabulation of results for the

  8. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  9. Developing Model Benchtop Systems for Microbial Experimental Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Wang, J.; Arismendi, D.; Alvarez, J.; Ouandji, C.; Blaich, J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how microbes impact an ecosystem has improved through advances of molecular and genetic tools, but creating complex systems that emulate natural biology goes beyond current technology. In fact, many chemical, biological, and metabolic pathways of even model organisms are still poorly characterized. Even then, standard laboratory techniques for testing microbial impact on environmental change can have many drawbacks; they are time-consuming, labor intensive, and are at risk of contamination. By having an automated process, many of these problems can be reduced or even eliminated. We are developing a benchtop system that can run for long periods of time without the need for human intervention, involve multiple environmental stressors at once, perform real-time adjustments of stressor exposure based on current state of the population, and minimize contamination risks. Our prototype device allows operators to generate an analogue of real world micro-scale ecosystems that can be used to model the effects of disruptive environmental change on microbial ecosystems. It comprises of electronics, mechatronics, and fluidics based systems to control, measure, and evaluate the before and after state of microbial cultures from exposure to environmental stressors. Currently, it uses four parallel growth chambers to perform tests on liquid cultures. To measure the population state, optical sensors (LED/photodiode) are used. Its primary selection pressure is UV-C radiation, a well-studied stressor known for its cell- and DNA- damaging effects and as a mutagen. Future work will involve improving the current growth chambers, as well as implementing additional sensors and environmental stressors into the system. Full integration of multiple culture testing will allow inter-culture comparisons. Besides the temperature and OD sensors, other types of sensors can be integrated such as conductivity, biomass, pH, and dissolved gasses such as CO2 and O2. Additional

  10. Experimental quantum computing to solve systems of linear equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X-D; Weedbrook, C; Su, Z-E; Chen, M-C; Gu, Mile; Zhu, M-J; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-06-07

    Solving linear systems of equations is ubiquitous in all areas of science and engineering. With rapidly growing data sets, such a task can be intractable for classical computers, as the best known classical algorithms require a time proportional to the number of variables N. A recently proposed quantum algorithm shows that quantum computers could solve linear systems in a time scale of order log(N), giving an exponential speedup over classical computers. Here we realize the simplest instance of this algorithm, solving 2×2 linear equations for various input vectors on a quantum computer. We use four quantum bits and four controlled logic gates to implement every subroutine required, demonstrating the working principle of this algorithm.

  11. Experimental ultrasound system for real-time synthetic imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Holm, Ole; Jensen, Lars Joost

    1999-01-01

    Digital signal processing is being employed more and more in modern ultrasound scanners. This has made it possible to do dynamic receive focusing for each sample and implement other advanced imaging methods. The processing, however, has to be very fast and cost-effective at the same time. Dedicated...... for synthetic aperture imaging, 2D and 3D B-mode and velocity imaging. The system can be used with 128 element transducers and can excite 128 channels and receive and sample data from 64 channels simultaneously at 40 MHz with 12 bits precision. Data can be processed in real time using the system's 80 signal...... chips are used in order to do real time processing. This often makes it difficult to implement radically different imaging strategies on one platform and makes the scanners less accessible for research purposes. Here flexibility is the prime concern, and the storage of data from all transducer elements...

  12. Somatic embryogenesis in ferns: a new experimental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuła, Anna; Pożoga, Mariusz; Tomiczak, Karolina; Rybczyński, Jan J

    2015-05-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has never been reported in ferns. The study showed that it is much easier to evoke the acquisition and expression of embryogenic competence in ferns than in spermatophytes. We discovered that the tree fern Cyathea delgadii offers an effective model for the reproducible and rapid formation of somatic embryos on hormone-free medium. Our study provides cyto-morphological evidence for the single cell origin and development of somatic embryos. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) in both primary and secondary explants was induced on half-strength micro- and macro-nutrients Murashige and Skoog medium without the application of exogenous plant growth regulators, in darkness. The early stage of SE was characterized by sequential perpendicular cell divisions of an individual epidermal cell of etiolated stipe explant. These resulted in the formation of a linear pro-embryo. Later their development resembled that of the zygotic embryo. We defined three morphogenetic stages of fern somatic embryo development: linear, early and late embryonic leaf stage. The transition from somatic embryo to juvenile sporophyte was quick and proceeded without interruption caused by dormancy. Following 9 weeks of culture the efficiency of somatic embryogenesis reached 12-13 embryos per responding explant. Spontaneous formation of somatic embryos and callus production, which improved the effectiveness of the process sevenfold in 10-month-long culture, occurred without subculturing. The tendency for C. delgadii to propagate by SE in vitro makes this species an excellent model for studies relating to asexual embryogenesis and the endogenous hormonal regulation of that process and opens new avenues of experimentation.

  13. Experimental Highlights upon Tangential Percussions in Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alaci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a proposed method for underlying the presence of tangential percussions occurring in multibody systems. Tangential percussions define a relatively newly introduced concept required by the necessity of explaining the sudden change in the state of motion for two bodies interacting only on a direction from the common tangent plane. In robotics domain, normal and tangential percussions are widely met in the case of robotic hands in the moment of contacting the manipulated object.

  14. Boston Community Information System 1987-1988 Experimental Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    magazines, and newspapers for casual and convenient reading." --1038 "Very true. Maybe by 2000 we’ll start to see major shifts to online reading...8217) --1126 academics researchers/journalists --1127 business education --1130 introverts iconoclasts --1134 computer enthusiasts financial professionals...in a background forum while other activities would take place, it would make this source invaluable. The availability of a two-way system is

  15. An experimental study of a solar humidifier for HDD systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazal, M.T.; Atikol, U.; Egelioglu, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar water and air heating and humidification processes have been merged in one unit. • The effectiveness of the solar humidifier was improved. • Bubbles regeneration enhanced the mass and heat transfer to air. • Reflector mirror enhanced the productivity of the system. - Abstract: This paper investigates the performance of a solar humidification prototype suitable for using in humidification dehumidification desalination (HDD) systems. This unit replaces the solar air heater, solar water heater and the evaporator of the traditional HDD plants, facilitating compact system designs. The prototype is composed of a solar collector, filled with water, through which air is forced to travel upwards in the form of bubbles. Experiments are conducted under the weather conditions of North Cyprus. It is discovered that the air temperature is found to approach the hot water temperature in the collector (thus increasing the vapor carrying capacity) and the relative humidity is raised to almost 100% at the exit. The collector inlet and outlet temperatures and relative humidity values are recorded for different flow rates in the period between the 1st and the 14th of December, 2012. It was found that for an average intensity of solar radiation of 700 W/m 2 and a mass flow rate of 12.6 kg/h of air; the amount of water evaporated was 0.75 kg/h on a square meter basis. Introduction of a reflector mirror at the bottom side of the humidifier increased the average absolute humidity by 32%

  16. Experimental analysis of chaos in under actuated electromechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Hernandez, H. G. [Universidad la Salle, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez Gallegos, Jaime [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico); Alvarez Gallegos Joaquin [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2001-10-01

    An under actuated system is a kind of non-autonomous robotic system in which there are more links than actuators. The complexity of the dynamical behavior of these systems allows a wide variety of steady-state responses. The reconstruction of attractors based on time series obtained from measurements of one of the variables of a two-link, planar, under actuated robot called Pendubot, is developed. Time-delay coordinates, average mutual information, and percentage of false nearest neighbors' methods are used to reconstruct the invariant sets. It is shown that, under the action of a periodic torque, the Pendubot can display a variety of steady-state dynamics, including strange attractors. [Spanish] Un sistema electromecanico subactuado es un tipo de sistema robotico no autonomo que cuenta con mas eslabones que actuadores. La complejidad del comportamiento dinamico de estos sistemas permite una gran variedad de respuestas en estado estacionario. En este trabajo se desarrolla la reconstruccion de atractores basada en series de tiempo obtenidas a partir de mediciones de una de las variables de un robot planar de dos grados de libertad subactuado llamado Pendubot. A fin de reconstruir los conjuntos invariantes, se utilizan tecnica como retraso de coordenadas, promedio de informacion mutua y porcentaje de falsos vecinos cercanos. Se muestra que bajo la accion de un torque periodico, el Pendubot puede desplegar una variedad de comportamientos dinamicos en estado estacionario incluyendo atractores extranos.

  17. An open microcomputer-based laboratory system for perceptional experimentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Ari

    A computer, equipped with hardware for acquiring data about the properties of a physical system and programs for processing that data, is a powerful tool for physics research and instruction. There is strong evidence that utilizing microcomputer-based laboratories (MBLs) in instruction can lead to significantly improved learning. The perceptional approach is a method for physics instruction, developed at the Department of Physics, University of Helsinki. Its main arguments are that the meanings of the concepts must be learnt before their formal definitions and adoption, and that learning and research are fundamentally similar concept formation processes. Applying the perceptional approach requires the ability to perform quantitative experiments, either as students' laboratory exercises or as lecture demonstrations, and to process their results. MBL tools are essential for this. In student's laboratory exercises, they reduce the routine work and leave more time for the actual learning. In lecture demonstrations, they make it possible to perform the experiments in the tight time limits. At a previous stage of the research, a set of requirements was found that the perceptional approach places on MBL systems. The primary goal of this thesis is to build a prototype of a MBL system that would fulfil these requirements. A secondary goal is to describe technical aspects of a computerized measurement system from the standpoint of educational use. The prototype was built using mostly commercial sensors and data acquisition units. The software was written with a visual programming language, designed for instrumentation applications. The prototype system was developed and tested with a set of demonstrations of various topics in the Finnish high school physics curriculum, which were implemented according to the perceptional approach. Limited usability tests were also performed. The prototype was improved, until it could perform the test demonstrations. It was found to meet the

  18. Experimental Study of RF Energy Transfer System in Indoor Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, S-E; Proynov, P P; Stark, B H; Hilton, G S; Craddock, I J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-transmitter, 2.43 GHz Radio-Frequency (RF) wireless power transfer (WPT) system for powering on-body devices. It is shown that under typical indoor conditions, the received power range spans several orders of magnitude from microwatts to milliwatts. A body-worn dual-polarised rectenna (rectifying antenna) is presented, designed for situations where the dominant polarization is unpredictable, as is the case for the on-body sensors. Power management circuitry is demonstrated that optimally loads the rectenna even under highly intermittent conditions, and boosts the voltage to charge an on-board storage capacitor

  19. Experimental Study of RF Energy Transfer System in Indoor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, S.-E.; Proynov, P. P.; Stark, B. H.; Hilton, G. S.; Craddock, I. J.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a multi-transmitter, 2.43 GHz Radio-Frequency (RF) wireless power transfer (WPT) system for powering on-body devices. It is shown that under typical indoor conditions, the received power range spans several orders of magnitude from microwatts to milliwatts. A body-worn dual-polarised rectenna (rectifying antenna) is presented, designed for situations where the dominant polarization is unpredictable, as is the case for the on-body sensors. Power management circuitry is demonstrated that optimally loads the rectenna even under highly intermittent conditions, and boosts the voltage to charge an on-board storage capacitor.

  20. The experimental evaluation of the success path monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.C.; Marshall, E.C.; Reiersen, C.S.; Owre, F.; Gaudio, P.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Success Path Monitoring System (SPMS) is an advanced computer-based operator aid which is intended to enhance the operator's ability to handle plant disturbances effectively. It achieves this by providing an on-line assessment of both the status of critical safety functions and the status of appropriate success paths. A prototype version of SPMS has been implemented on the OECD Halden Project's PWR simulator, the objective being to test the SPMS in a realistic situation and to assess whether it performed in accordance with design expectations. 16 reactor operators were observed coping with complex transient scenarios both with, and without SPMS being available

  1. "Calibration" system for spectral measurements and its experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchkouskaya, Sviatlana I.; Katkovsky, Leonid V.; Belyaev, Boris I.; Malyshev, Vladislav B.

    2017-04-01

    "Calibration" system has been developed at A. N. Sevchenko Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems of the Belarusian State University. It was designed for measuring the characteristics of spectral reflectance of all types of natural surfaces (test sites) in ground conditions or on board of aircraft carriers and has the following components: - Photospectroradiometr (PhSR) of high resolution with a range of 400-900 nm, equipped with a digital time-lapse video system; - Two-channel modular spectroradiometer (TMS) with a range of 400-900 nm, designed for simultaneous measurements of reflected light brightness of the underlying surface and the incident radiation from the upper hemisphere; - Two portable spectroradiometers (PSR-700 and PSR-1300) with a spectral range 800-1500 nm; 1200-2500 nm; - Scanning solar spectropolarimeter (SSP-600) with a range of 350-950 nm for measurements of direct sunlight and scattered by the atmosphere at different angles; "Calibration" system provides spectral resolution of 5.2 nm in a range of 400-900 nm, 10 nm in a range of 800-1500 nm and 15 nm in a range of 1200-2500 nm. Measurements of the optical characteristics of solar radiation (for determining parameters of the atmosphere) and that of underlying surface are synchronous. There is also a set of special nozzles for measurements of spectral brightness coefficients, polarization characteristics and spectral albedo. Spectra and images are geotagged to the navigation data (time, GPS). For the measurements of spectral reflection dependencies within "Monitoring-SG" framework expeditions to the Kuril Islands, Kursk aerospace test site and Kamchatka Peninsula were conducted in 2015 and 2016. The spectra of different underlying surfaces have been obtained: soils, plants and water objects, sedimentary and volcanic rocks. These surveys are a valuable material for further researches and selection of test facilities for flight calibration of space imaging systems. Information obtained

  2. Observations on algal populations in an experimental maturation pond system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shillinglaw, SN

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available ?) of influent (HTE) and secondary pond. The arrows indicate the beginning of the noled algal concentration declines. 190 Water SA Vol. 3 No. 4 October 1977 intermittent presence of some factor which suppresses algal growth and/or removes algal cells from... the system at a very rapid rate. Another possibility is that an algal growth suppres sor is almost continuously present and only when the suppres sing factor is intermittently ahsent, do the algal concentrations exhihit a peak. Based on the results...

  3. Qualitative cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatnikov, I.M.; Belinskij, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    Application of the qualitative theory of dynamic systems to analysis of homogeneous cosmological models is described. Together with the well-known cases, requiring ideal liquid, the properties of cosmological evolution of matter with dissipative processes due to viscosity are considered. New cosmological effects occur, when viscosity terms being one and the same order with the rest terms in the equations of gravitation or even exceeding them. In these cases the description of the dissipative process by means of only two viscosity coefficients (volume and shift) may become inapplicable because all the rest decomposition terms of dissipative addition to the energy-momentum in velocity gradient can be large application of equations with hydrodynamic viscosty should be considered as a model of dissipative effects in cosmology

  4. Impact of experimentation in thermodynamic studies of some metallic and oxidic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aune R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of experimentation as an ingredient to CALPHAD assessments is brought out in the present paper and is illustrated in the case of a number of metallic and oxidic systems. Two types of experimental techniques have been used in the present laboratory for thermodynamic studies, and the details are presented. The results obtained together with the assessed phase diagram in the case of a few selected systems are presented. It was shown that careful experimentation has brought new features in the case of carbide systems involving Mn, and a new 4-phase equilibrium in the case of Ni-W-O system. New data with regard to the thermodynamic activities of FeO-containing slag systems and sulphide capacities of multicomponent slags, obtained by gas equilibration method, are also presented. A thermodynamic software, THERMOSLAG© based on the experimental data has been found to be extremely useful by the steel industries is also discussed.

  5. Experimental evaluation of the Skylab orbital workshop ventilation system concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allums, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Ralston, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive testing was conducted to evaluate the Orbital Workshop ventilation concept. Component tests were utilized to determine the relationship between operating characteristics at 1 and 0.34 atm. System tests were conducted at 1 atm within the Orbital Workshop full-scale mockup to assess delivered volumetric flow rate and compartment air velocities. Component tests with the Anemostat circular diffusers (plenum- and duct-mounted) demonstrated that the diffuser produced essentially equivalent airflow patterns and velocities in 1- and 0.34-atm environments. The tests also showed that the pressure drop across the diffuser could be scaled from 1 to 0.34 atm using the atmosphere pressure ratio. Fan tests indicated that the performance of a multiple, parallel-mounted fan cluster could be predicted by summing the single-fan flow rates at a given delta P.

  6. Experimental Study for Automatic Colony Counting System Based Onimage Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Junlong; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Guoxin

    Colony counting in many colony experiments is detected by manual method at present, therefore it is difficult for man to execute the method quickly and accurately .A new automatic colony counting system was developed. Making use of image-processing technology, a study was made on the feasibility of distinguishing objectively white bacterial colonies from clear plates according to the RGB color theory. An optimal chromatic value was obtained based upon a lot of experiments on the distribution of the chromatic value. It has been proved that the method greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency of the colony counting and the counting result is not affected by using inoculation, shape or size of the colony. It is revealed that automatic detection of colony quantity using image-processing technology could be an effective way.

  7. Online Energy Management Systems for Microgrids: Experimental Validation and Assessment Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Meng, Lexuan; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz

    2018-01-01

    operating costs and load disconnections. The whole energy management system has been tested experimentally in a test bench under both grid-connected and islanded mode. Also, its performance has been proved considering severe mismatches in forecast generation and load. Several experimental results have...

  8. Study and development of retinal dopamine nervous system in experimental myopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Juan; Liu Xingdang

    2007-01-01

    Myopia is the most familiar ametropia. Animal experimental models include form deprivation myopia and defocus myopia. Experimental animals we often use are chicken and mammals. The retinal dopamine system and vision experience have close relations with the regulation of eyeball's growth after birth, while the change of dopamine transporter may reflect the change of dopamine in the synaptic cleft more directly. (authors)

  9. Experimental Evaluation of the Training Structure of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Anne R.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based alternative communication method that is widely accepted and utilized with individuals with disabilities. Although prior studies have examined the clinical efficacy of PECS, none have experimentally evaluated its manualized training structure. We experimentally evaluated the…

  10. Applying a Qualitative Modeling Shell to Process Diagnosis: The Caster System. ONR Technical Report #16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Timothy F.; Clancey, William J.

    This report describes the application of a shell expert system from the medical diagnostic system, Neomycin, to Caster, a diagnostic system for malfunctions in industrial sandcasting. This system was developed to test the hypothesis that starting with a well-developed classification procedure and a relational language for stating the…

  11. Iso-uncertainty control in an experimental fluoroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, S.; Fiume, E.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray fluoroscopy remains an important imaging modality in a number of image-guided procedures due to its real-time nature and excellent spatial detail. However, the radiation dose delivered raises concerns about its use particularly in lengthy treatment procedures (>0.5 h). The authors have previously presented an algorithm that employs feedback of geometric uncertainty to control dose while maintaining a desired targeting uncertainty during fluoroscopic tracking of fiducials. The method was tested using simulations of motion against controlled noise fields. In this paper, the authors embody the previously reported method in a physical prototype and present changes to the controller required to function in a practical setting. Methods: The metric for feedback used in this study is based on the trace of the covariance of the state of the system, tr(C). The state is defined here as the 2D location of a fiducial on a plane parallel to the detector. A relationship between this metric and the tube current is first developed empirically. This relationship is extended to create a manifold that incorporates a latent variable representing the estimated background attenuation. The manifold is then used within the controller to dynamically adjust the tube current and maintain a specified targeting uncertainty. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, an acrylic sphere (1.6 mm in diameter) was tracked at tube currents ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 mA (0.033 s) at a fixed energy of 80 kVp. The images were acquired on a Varian Paxscan 4030A (2048 × 1536 pixels, ∼100 cm source-to-axis distance, ∼160 cm source-to-detector distance). The sphere was tracked using a particle filter under two background conditions: (1) uniform sheets of acrylic and (2) an acrylic wedge. The measured tr(C) was used in conjunction with a learned manifold to modulate the tube current in order to maintain a specified uncertainty as the sphere traversed regions of varying thickness

  12. Challenges of the health research system in a medical research institute in Iran: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Momeni, Khalil; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammazdeh, Khalil; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali

    2014-08-14

    Medical research institute is the main basis for knowledge production through conducting research, and paying attention to the research is one of the most important things in the scientific communities. At present, there is a large gap between knowledge production in Iran compared to that in other countries. This study aimed to identify the challenge of research system in a research institute of medical sciences in Iran. This was a descriptive and qualitative study conducted in the first 6 months of 2013. A qualitative content analysis was conducted on 16 heads of research centers in a research institute of medical sciences. The required data were gathered using semi-structured interviews. The collected data were analyzed using MAXQDA 10.0 software. Six themes identified as challenges of research system. The themes included barriers related to the design and development, and approval of research projects, the implementation of research projects, the administrative and managerial issues in the field of research, the personal problems, publishing articles, and guidelines and recommendations. Based on the results of the present study, the following suggestions can be offered: pushing the research towards solving the problems of society, employing the strong executive and scientific research directors in the field of research, providing training courses for researchers on how to write proposals, implementing administrative reforms in the Deputy of Research and Technology, accelerating the approval of the projects through automating the administrative and peer-reviewing processes.

  13. Experimental tests on a new harvesting system for Burley tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Faugno

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the tobacco production has led to a drop in competitiveness of the Italian tobacco on the world market. Burley is the main variety of tobacco cropped in Campania region of Southern Italy. Its leaves have to be sewn, in the curing phase. Aim of this work is to show the results of the implementation of a new harvest machine prototype. Basically, the machine used for Bright tobacco, totally mechanical harvested, which doesn’t need to be sewn because it requires an indirect-fire treatment into the curing furnaces. The machine was modified in order to mechanize harvesting of Burley tobacco, and tested on four cultivars of Burley tobacco under three different planting layouts. The Burley tobacco leaves can be harvested mechanically by pulling individual leaves off the stalk; leaves are then sorted and tied in bundles prior to sewing. A mechanical burley tobacco harvesting system was evaluated. This machine consists in realizing a leaves orientation system based on the different weight between the leaf blade and the stalk enhanced by an air flow. The measurements taken were harvest timing, work capacity, and quality standards of the work carried out. The results, in terms of user time, range from 6.67 h/ha to 7.80 h/ha while in terms of operational efficiency are between 88% and 89%. The average user capacity recorded for the four cultivars is equal to 0.14 ha/h, a value far from the one recorded for the same harvesting machine used for Bright tobacco (0.25 ha/h. The harvest timing capacity, range from 0.51 t/h to 0.99 t/h. The work productivity goes from 0.17 t to 0.33 t per hour of human unit respectively. The average number of detached leaves, depending on the cultivar, has been between 523 and 744. Concerning the leaf orientation, a general percentage of 73% was achieved.

  14. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Experimental Operations & Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and base heating results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high heating are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. Base pressure and radiometer results are also reported.

  15. Operation and management manual of JT-60 experimental data analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takashi; Morishima, Soichi

    2014-03-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency Naka Fusion Institute, a lot of experiments have been conducted by using the large tokamak device JT-60 aiming to realize fusion power plant. In order to optimize the JT-60 experiment and to investigate complex characteristics of plasma, JT-60 experimental data analysis system was developed and used for collecting, referring and analyzing the JT-60 experimental data. Main components of the system are a data analysis server and a database server for the analyses and accumulation of the experimental data respectively. Other peripheral devices of the system are magnetic disk units, NAS (Network Attached Storage) device, and a backup tape drive. This is an operation and management manual the JT-60 experimental data analysis system. (author)

  16. COAWST Forecast System : USGS : US East Coast and Gulf of Mexico (Experimental)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Experimental forecast model product from the USGS Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment-Transport (COAWST) modeling system. Data required to drive the modeling...

  17. A high intensity beam handling system at the KEK-PS new experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.H.; Minakawa, M.; Yamanoi, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We would like to summarize newly developed technology for handling high-intensity beams. This was practically employed in the beam-handling system of primary protons at the KEK-PS new experimental hall. (author)

  18. An experimental Dutch keyboard-to-speech system for the speech impaired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliege, R.J.H.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental Dutch keyboard-to-speech system has been developed to explor the possibilities and limitations of Dutch speech synthesis in a communication aid for the speech impaired. The system uses diphones and a formant synthesizer chip for speech synthesis. Input to the system is in

  19. Status of the Melbourne experimental particle physics DAQ, silicon hodoscope and readout systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    This talk will present a brief review of the current status of the Melbourne Experimental Particle Physics group's primary data acquisition system (DAQ), the associated silicon hodoscope and trigger systems, and of the tests currently underway and foreseen. Simulations of the propagation of 106-Ru β particles through the system will also be shown

  20. Health system challenges for the management of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: an empirical qualitative study from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Balsam; Fouad, Fouad M; Elias, Madonna; Zaman, Shahaduz; Phillimore, Peter; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    To explore through empirical qualitative data health system barriers to effective management of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Syria before the crisis, and how such analysis can inform the building of a post-crisis system. Data were collected through document review, semi-structured key informant interviews, and fieldwork in clinics. Institutional commitment to address the increasing burden of CVD and diabetes in Syria was limited and uncoordinated. Challenges included an increasingly split healthcare system, with private provision for those who could afford it, and a residual state health sector for the majority. Public trust in the system had been declining. We conclude that lack of effective management of CVD and diabetes indicated weaknesses of the state and its retracting role in providing effective healthcare. Such weaknesses that existed before the crisis are now compounded by new challenges resulting from wide destruction of the health system due to the ongoing war. The rebuilding of post-conflict heath care system may benefit from insights into the structural problems of the pre-crisis system.

  1. Real-time numerical simulation with high efficiency for an experimental reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shuling; Li Fu; Li Sifeng; Chu Xinyuan

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a systematic and efficient method for numerical real-time simulation of an experimental reactor. The reactor models were built based on the physical characteristics of the experimental reactor, and several real-time simulation approaches were discussed and compared in the paper. How to implement the real-time reactor simulation system in Windows platform for the sake of hardware-in-loop experiment for the reactor power control system was discussed. (authors)

  2. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of a Mechanical Lever System Driven by a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, B.; Fautso Kuiate, G.; Yamgoué, S. B.

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental results on the investigation of the dynamics of a nonlinear electromechanical system made of a lever arm actuated by a DC motor and controlled through a repulsive magnetic force. We use the method of harmonic balance to derive oscillatory solutions. Theoretical tools such as, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, phase portraits, are used to unveil the rich nonlinear behavior of the system including chaos and hysteresis. The experimental results are in close accordance with the theoretical predictions.

  3. Experimental StudyHigh Altitude Forced Convective Cooling of Electromechanical Actuation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    34 Massachusetts Institute of Technology , 1989. [3] FedBizOps.Gov, " Integrated Vehicle Energy Technology (INVENT) Development Program for the 6th...AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2016-0043 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY—HIGH ALTITUDE FORCED CONVECTIVE COOLING OF ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTUATION SYSTEMS Evan M. Racine...TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY—HIGH ALTITUDE FORCED CONVECTIVE COOLING OF ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTUATION SYSTEMS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house

  4. The use of qualitative methodologies in health services/systems research in low and middle income settings: a narrative literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Judith Maureen; Pereyaslov, Dmitriy; Ahmedov, Mohir; Balabanoa, Dina

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARYAimsThe aims of this review are to:i) Use a case study of published literature on quality of care in the Former Soviet Union to identify current issues in the use if qualitative methods in health services/systems (HSR) research;ii) Summarise what is known from the wider literature about the challenges and possibilities of transferring qualitative methodologies for (HSR) to low and middle-income countries;iii) Identify the implications for the design of cross-national qualitative HSR st...

  5. Challenges to Cognitive Systems Engineering:Understanding Qualitative Aspects of Control Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the future role of Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) in contributing to integrated design of process, automation and human machine systems. Existing concepts and methods of Cognitive Systems Engineering do not integrate well with control theory and industrial automation tools...

  6. The Effect of Online Systems Analysis Training on Aerospace Industry Business Performance: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Erlan

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace companies needed additional research on technology-based training to verify expectations when enhancing human capital through online systems analysis training. The research for online systems analysis training provided aerospace companies a means to verify expectations for systems analysis technology-based training on business…

  7. A new experimental system for study on adaptive mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü; Zhong; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Luria, S. E., Delbrück, M., Mutation of bacteria from virus sensitivity to virus resistance, Genetics, 1943, 28: 491.[2]Lederberg, J., Lederberg, E. M., Replica plating and indirect selection of bacteria mutants, J. Bacteriol., 1952, 63: 399.[3]Carins, J., Overbaugh, J., Miller, S., The origin of mutants, Nature, 1988, 355: 142.[4]Foster, P. L., Adaptive mutation: the uses of adversity, Annu. Rev. Microbiol., 1993, 47: 467.[5]Hall, B. G., Adaptive mutagenesis: a process that generates almost exclusively beneficient mutations, Genetica, 1998, 102/103: 109.[6]Kasak, L., Horak, R., Kivisaar, M., Promotor-creating mutations in Psuedmonas putida: A model system for the study of mutation in starving bacteria, PNAS, 1997, 94: 3134.[7]Steele, D. F., Jinks-Robertson, An examination of adaptive reversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Genetics, 1992, 132: 9.[8]Davis, R. W., Botstein, Roth, J. R., Advanced Bacterial Genetics--A Manual for Genetic Engineering, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1980, 13.[9]Miller, J. H., Experiments in Molecular Genetics, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1972, 352.[10] Lea, D. E., Coulson, C. A., The distribution of the numbers of mutants in bacterial populations, J. Genetics, 1949, 49: 264.[11] Hughes, K. T., Roth, J. R., Transitory cis complementation: a method for provided transposition function to defective transposons, Genetics, 1988, 119: 9.[12] Sanderson, K. E., Roth J., Linkage map of Salmonella typhimurium, Microbiol. Rev., 1988, 52: 485.[13] He, B., Shiau, A., Choi, K. Y., Genes of the E. coli pur region are negatively controlled by a repressor-operator interaction, J. Bacteriol., 1990, 172: 4555.[14] Liu, B., Huang, Y., Wang, A. Q., Regulation of purine biosynthetic genes expression in Salmonella typhimurium (IV)--Oc mutation site of purG and its function analysis, Science in China, Ser. C, 1997, 40(3): 238.[15] Tang, H., Qin, J. C., Wang, A. Q

  8. Challenges of Interdisciplinary Research: Reconciling Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Understanding Human-Landscape Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Denise

    2014-01-01

    While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.

  9. Triangulation of Qualitative Methods for the Exploration of Activity Systems in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hackel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Research concerning ergonomic issues in interdisciplinary projects often raises several very specific questions depending on project objectives. To answer these questions the application of research methods should be thoroughly considered, regarding both the expenditure and the options within the scope of the given resources. The project AQUIMO develops an adaptable modelling tool for mechatronical engineering and creates a related qualification program. The task of social scientific research within this project is to identify requirements viewed from the perspective of the subsequent users. This formative evaluation is based on the approach of "developmental work research" as set forth by ENGESTRÖM and, thus, is a form of "action research". This paper discusses the triangulation of several qualitative methods addressing the examination of difficulties in interdisciplinary collaboration in mechatronical engineering. After a description of both background and analytic approach within the project AQUIMO, the methods are briefly described concerning their advantages and critical points. Their application within the research project AQUIMO is explained from an activity theoretical perspective. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803158

  10. Instability of automotive air conditioning system with a variable displacement compressor. Part 1. Experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Changqing; Dou, Chunpeng; Yang, Xinjiang; Li, Xianting [Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (People' s Republic of China)

    2005-11-01

    A test system is built first in order to investigate the instability of the automotive air conditioning (AAC) system with a variable displacement compressor (VDC), and hunting phenomena caused by the large external disturbance in the AAC system with a VDC and a thermal expansion valve, and in the AAC system with a VDC and a fixed-area throttling device are investigated experimentally in part 1 of this paper. The experimental results indicate that there also exist the hunting phenomena in the AAC system with a fixed-area throttling device. The system stability is found to be dependent on the direction of the external disturbance, and the system is apt to cause hunting when the condensing pressure decreases excessively since it may cause two-phase state at the throttling device inlet and make a large disturbance to the system. The piston stroke length will oscillate only when the oscillation amplitudes of forces acting on the wobble plate are great enough, otherwise the piston stroke length will be kept invariable, and then the system instability rule is also suitable for the AAC system with a fixed displacement compressor. From the experimental results, it is concluded that the two-phase flow at the throttling device inlet or at the evaporator outlet is the necessary condition but not sufficient condition for system hunting. Finally, a new concept, conservative stable region, is proposed based on the experimental results and theoretical analysis. (author)

  11. Design of experimental system for supercritical CO2 fracturing under confining pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Lu, Q.; Li, X.; Yang, B.; Zheng, Y.; Shi, L.; Shi, X.

    2018-03-01

    Supercritical CO2 has the characteristics of low viscosity, high diffusion and zero surface tension, and it is considered as a new fluid for non-polluting and non-aqueous fracturing which can be used for shale gas development. Fracturing refers to a method of utilizing the high-pressure fluid to generate fractures in the rock formation so as to improve the oil and gas flow conditions and increase the oil and gas production. In this article, a new type of experimental system for supercritical CO2 fracturing under confining pressure conditions is designed, which is based on characteristics of supercritical CO2, shale reservoir and down-hole environment. The experimental system consists of three sub-systems, including supercritical CO2 generation system, supercritical CO2 fracturing system and data analysis system. It can be used to simulate supercritical CO2 fracturing under geo-stress conditions, thus to study the rock initiation pressure, the formation of the rock fractures, fractured surface morphology and so on. The experimental system has successfully carried out a series of supercritical CO2 fracturing experiments. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of the experimental system and the high efficiency of supercritical CO2 in fracturing tight rocks.

  12. Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of air kerma rate on threshold contrast in diagnostic fluoroscopy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, R M; Day, M J [Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). Newcastle General Hospital

    1983-11-01

    Experimental measurements of threshold contrast (Csub(T)) as a function of air kerma rate at the input plane of the image intensifier have been made for several diagnostic fluoroscopy units in clinical use. Threshold contrasts are determined by viewing a test object containing holes of fixed diameter and various depths under defined irradiation conditions. Kerma rate variations are effected by introducing aluminum sheets into the x-ray beam at fixed values of tube potential and current. At low kerma rates where quantum noise dominates, low tube potentials (60 kVsub(p)) usually yield lower values of Csub(T) than do higher potentials (100 kVsub(p)). At higher kerma rates the opposite is often true. A simple theoretical model for noise propagation in fluoroscopic imaging systems using models of diagnostic x-ray spectra lends qualitative support to the experimental findings. The often-quoted suggested upper limit of 100 ..mu..R s/sup -1/ (0.87 ..mu..Gy s/sup -1/) at the input phosphor would seem to be justified under the test conditions since little improvement in Csub(T) is usually observed at higher kerma rates. However, application to clinical practice would ideally require the use of more realistic phantom studies.

  13. Orthotic management of instability of the knee related to neuromuscular and central nervous system disorders: systematic review, qualitative study, survey and costing analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Joanne; McCaughan, Dorothy; McDaid, Catriona; Booth, Alison; Fayter, Debra; Rodriguez-Lopez, Roccio; Bowers, Roy; Dyson, Lisa; Iglesias, Cynthia P; Lalor, Simon; O'Connor, Rory J; Phillips, Margaret; Ramdharry, Gita

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: \\ud \\ud Patients who have knee instability that is associated with neuromuscular disease (NMD) and central nervous system (CNS) conditions can be treated using orthoses, such as knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs).\\ud \\ud OBJECTIVES: \\ud \\ud To assess existing evidence on the effectiveness of orthoses; patient perspectives; types of orthotic devices prescribed in the UK NHS; and associated costs.\\ud \\ud METHODS: \\ud \\ud Qualitative study of views of orthoses users - a qualitative in-...

  14. Design and experimental investigation of an oxy-fuel combustion system for magnetohydrodynamic power extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Manuel Johannes

    design concepts. Therefore, numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were developed to design and optimize the combustion flow fields of oxy-fuel combustion systems. These models were analyzed to understand the boundary layer and heat transfer profile and qualitative behaviors in the product designs. Advanced materials for high-temperature applications were assessed for their possible implementation in the product design. A trade-off analysis indicated that this scheme may incur elevated product cost and a difficulty in manufacturing. Active cooling strategies were considered for product development. A rocket-based cooling scheme, regenerative cooling, was implemented to provide active cooling. In the hot gas path (HGP) cooling design, CFD models were developed to predict the variation of heat removal along the oxy-combustion wall for various operating conditions. The oxy-combustion technology was manufactured using electrical discharge machining (EDM). The product development lifecycle in this dissertation encompassed preliminary design, detailed design, and demonstration and validation of the product. Towards the final stages of the product development, Fuel-rich oxy combustion experiments were carried out to demonstrate and observe flame characteristics from the designed technology and to predict heat transfer loads. The demonstration findings of oxy-combustion flames are presented in this work to contribute the developing field of MHD direct power extraction, which lacks oxy-combustion design data and qualitative combustion datasets. The findings show that this oxy-combustion concept is capable of providing a high-enthalpy MHD environment for seeding, in order to render the flow to be conductive. Based on previous findings, temperatures in the range of 2800-3000 K may enable magnetohydrodynamic power extraction. The combustor hardware design was developed to contribute to engineered systems rated less than 100 kW for demonstration. The product hardware was

  15. A lottery incentive system to facilitate dialogue and social support for workplace HIV counselling and testing: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite South African mid-sized companies' efforts to offer HIV counselling and testing (HCT) in the workplace, companies report relatively poor uptake rates. An urgent need for a range of different interventions aimed at increasing participation in workplace HCT has been identified. The aim of this study was to explore qualitatively the influence of a lottery incentive system (LIS) as an intervention to influence shop-floor workers' workplace HIV testing behaviour. A qualitative study was conducted among 17 shop-floor workers via convenience sampling in two mid-sized South African automotive manufacturing companies in which an LIS for HCT was implemented. The in-depth interviews employed a semi-structured interview schedule and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The interviews revealed that the LIS created excitement in the companies and renewed employees' personal interest in HCT. The excitement facilitated social interactions that resulted in a strong group cohesion pertaining to HCT that mitigated the burden of HIV stigma in the workplace. Open discussions allowed for the development of supportive social group pressure to seek HCT as a collective in anticipation of a reward. Lotteries were perceived as a supportive and innovative company approach to workplace HCT. The study identified important aspects for consideration by companies when using an LIS to enhance workplace HIV testing. The significance of inter- and intra-player dialogue in activating supportive social norms for HIV testing in collectivist African contexts was highlighted.

  16. Balancing the Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects of Social Network Analysis to Study Complex Social Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, Danny; Spekkink, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Social Network Analysis (SNA) can be used to investigate complex social systems. SNA is typically applied as a quantitative method, which has important limitations. First, quantitative methods are capable of capturing the form of relationships (e.g. strength and frequency), but they are less suitable for capturing the content of relationships (e.g. interests and motivations). Second, while complex social systems are highly dynamic, the representations that SNA creates of such systems are ofte...

  17. Computer aided approach to qualitative and quantitative common cause failure analysis for complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cate, C.L.; Wagner, D.P.; Fussell, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Common cause failure analysis, also called common mode failure analysis, is an integral part of a complete system reliability analysis. Existing methods of computer aided common cause failure analysis are extended by allowing analysis of the complex systems often encountered in practice. The methods aid in identifying potential common cause failures and also address quantitative common cause failure analysis

  18. Efficiency and Equity within European Education Systems and School Choice Policy: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Kerem, Kaie; Lauri, Triin

    2013-01-01

    We seek out the good institutional features of the European choice policies that can enhance both equity and efficiency at the system level. For causality analysis we construct the typology of 28 European educational systems by using fuzzy-set analysis. We combine five independent variables to indicate institutional features of school choice…

  19. Visual Servoing Tracking Control of a Ball and Plate System: Design, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzu Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of real-time visual servoing tracking control for a ball and plate system. The position of the ball is measured with a machine vision system. The image processing algorithms of the machine vision system are pipelined and implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device to meet real-time constraints. A detailed dynamic model of the system is derived for the simulation study. By neglecting the high-order coupling terms, the ball and plate system model is simplified into two decoupled ball and beam systems, and an approximate input-output feedback linearization approach is then used to design the controller for trajectory tracking. The designed control law is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP. The validity of the performance of the developed control system is investigated through simulation and experimental studies. Experimental results show that the designed system functions well with reasonable agreement with simulations.

  20. Developing a Health Information Technology Systems Matrix: A Qualitative Participatory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Jolie N; Chavez, Margeaux; Nazi, Kim M; Antinori, Nicole

    2016-10-06

    The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed various health information technology (HIT) resources to provide accessible veteran-centered health care. Currently, the VA is undergoing a major reorganization of VA HIT to develop a fully integrated system to meet consumer needs. Although extensive system documentation exists for various VA HIT systems, a more centralized and integrated perspective with clear documentation is needed in order to support effective analysis, strategy, planning, and use. Such a tool would enable a novel view of what is currently available and support identifying and effectively capturing the consumer's vision for the future. The objective of this study was to develop the VA HIT Systems Matrix, a novel tool designed to describe the existing VA HIT system and identify consumers' vision for the future of an integrated VA HIT system. This study utilized an expert panel and veteran informant focus groups with self-administered surveys. The study employed participatory research methods to define the current system and understand how stakeholders and veterans envision the future of VA HIT and interface design (eg, look, feel, and function). Directed content analysis was used to analyze focus group data. The HIT Systems Matrix was developed with input from 47 veterans, an informal caregiver, and an expert panel to provide a descriptive inventory of existing and emerging VA HIT in four worksheets: (1) access and function, (2) benefits and barriers, (3) system preferences, and (4) tasks. Within each worksheet is a two-axis inventory. The VA's existing and emerging HIT platforms (eg, My HealtheVet, Mobile Health, VetLink Kiosks, Telehealth), My HealtheVet features (eg, Blue Button, secure messaging, appointment reminders, prescription refill, vet library, spotlight, vitals tracker), and non-VA platforms (eg, phone/mobile phone, texting, non-VA mobile apps, non-VA mobile electronic devices, non-VA websites) are organized by row. Columns

  1. Developing a Health Information Technology Systems Matrix: A Qualitative Participatory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Margeaux; Nazi, Kim M; Antinori, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed various health information technology (HIT) resources to provide accessible veteran-centered health care. Currently, the VA is undergoing a major reorganization of VA HIT to develop a fully integrated system to meet consumer needs. Although extensive system documentation exists for various VA HIT systems, a more centralized and integrated perspective with clear documentation is needed in order to support effective analysis, strategy, planning, and use. Such a tool would enable a novel view of what is currently available and support identifying and effectively capturing the consumer’s vision for the future. Objective The objective of this study was to develop the VA HIT Systems Matrix, a novel tool designed to describe the existing VA HIT system and identify consumers’ vision for the future of an integrated VA HIT system. Methods This study utilized an expert panel and veteran informant focus groups with self-administered surveys. The study employed participatory research methods to define the current system and understand how stakeholders and veterans envision the future of VA HIT and interface design (eg, look, feel, and function). Directed content analysis was used to analyze focus group data. Results The HIT Systems Matrix was developed with input from 47 veterans, an informal caregiver, and an expert panel to provide a descriptive inventory of existing and emerging VA HIT in four worksheets: (1) access and function, (2) benefits and barriers, (3) system preferences, and (4) tasks. Within each worksheet is a two-axis inventory. The VA’s existing and emerging HIT platforms (eg, My HealtheVet, Mobile Health, VetLink Kiosks, Telehealth), My HealtheVet features (eg, Blue Button, secure messaging, appointment reminders, prescription refill, vet library, spotlight, vitals tracker), and non-VA platforms (eg, phone/mobile phone, texting, non-VA mobile apps, non-VA mobile electronic devices, non

  2. Finding the loopholes: a cross-sectional qualitative study of systemic barriers to treatment access for women drug court participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Diane S; Silverstein, Jennifer; Thomas, Katherine; Bedel, Precious; Cerulli, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic diversion courts seek to address justice-involved participants' underlying problems leading to their legal system involvement, including substance use disorder, psychiatric illness, and intimate partner violence. The courts have not addressed systemic hurdles, which can contribute to a cycle of substance use disorder and recidivism, which in turn hinder health and wellness. The study purpose is to explore the systemic issues faced by women participants in drug treatment court from multiple perspectives to understand how these issues may relate to health and wellness in their lives. Qualitative thematic framework analysis of five separate focus groups consisting of female drug treatment court participants, community providers, and court staff ( n = 25). Themes were mapped across the socio-ecological framework and contextualized according to social determinants of health. Numerous systemic factors impacted women's access to treatment. Laws and legal policies (governance) excluded those who could potentially have benefitted from therapeutic court and did not allow consideration of parenting issues. Macroeconomic policies limit housing options for those with convictions. Social policies limited transportation, education, and employment options. Public policies limited healthcare and social protection and ability to access available resources. Culture and societal values, including stigma, limited treatment options. By understanding the social determinant of health for women in drug treatment court and stakeholder's perceptions, the legal system can implement public policy to better address the health needs of women drug court participants.

  3. Physical factors that influence patients’ privacy perception toward a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nasriah; Ramli, Rusyaizila

    2018-01-01

    Background Psychiatric patients have privacy concerns when it comes to technology intervention in the hospital setting. In this paper, we present scenarios for psychiatric behavioral monitoring systems to be placed in psychiatric wards to understand patients’ perception regarding privacy. Psychiatric behavioral monitoring refers to systems that are deemed useful in measuring clinical outcomes, but little research has been done on how these systems will impact patients’ privacy. Methods We conducted a case study in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. We investigated the physical factors that influence patients’ perceived privacy with respect to a psychiatric monitoring system. The eight physical factors identified from the information system development privacy model, a comprehensive model for designing a privacy-sensitive information system, were adapted in this research. Scenario-based interviews were conducted with 25 patients in a psychiatric ward for 3 months. Results Psychiatric patients were able to share how physical factors influence their perception of privacy. Results show how patients responded to each of these dimensions in the context of a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system. Conclusion Some subfactors under physical privacy are modified to reflect the data obtained in the interviews. We were able to capture the different physical factors that influence patient privacy. PMID:29343963

  4. Physical factors that influence patients' privacy perception toward a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nasriah; Ramli, Rusyaizila

    2018-01-01

    Psychiatric patients have privacy concerns when it comes to technology intervention in the hospital setting. In this paper, we present scenarios for psychiatric behavioral monitoring systems to be placed in psychiatric wards to understand patients' perception regarding privacy. Psychiatric behavioral monitoring refers to systems that are deemed useful in measuring clinical outcomes, but little research has been done on how these systems will impact patients' privacy. We conducted a case study in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. We investigated the physical factors that influence patients' perceived privacy with respect to a psychiatric monitoring system. The eight physical factors identified from the information system development privacy model, a comprehensive model for designing a privacy-sensitive information system, were adapted in this research. Scenario-based interviews were conducted with 25 patients in a psychiatric ward for 3 months. Psychiatric patients were able to share how physical factors influence their perception of privacy. Results show how patients responded to each of these dimensions in the context of a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system. Some subfactors under physical privacy are modified to reflect the data obtained in the interviews. We were able to capture the different physical factors that influence patient privacy.

  5. Physical factors that influence patients’ privacy perception toward a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria N

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasriah Zakaria,1,2 Rusyaizila Ramli3 1Research Chair of Health Informatics and Promotion, 2Medical Informatics and E-learning Unit, Medical Education Department, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Advanced Military Maintenance Repair and Overhaul Center (AMMROC, Abu Dhabi, UAE Background: Psychiatric patients have privacy concerns when it comes to technology intervention in the hospital setting. In this paper, we present scenarios for psychiatric behavioral monitoring systems to be placed in psychiatric wards to understand patients’ perception regarding privacy. Psychiatric behavioral monitoring refers to systems that are deemed useful in measuring clinical outcomes, but little research has been done on how these systems will impact patients’ privacy. Methods: We conducted a case study in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. We investigated the physical factors that influence patients’ perceived privacy with respect to a psychiatric monitoring system. The eight physical factors identified from the information system development privacy model, a comprehensive model for designing a privacy-sensitive information system, were adapted in this research. Scenario-based interviews were conducted with 25 patients in a psychiatric ward for 3 months. Results: Psychiatric patients were able to share how physical factors influence their perception of privacy. Results show how patients responded to each of these dimensions in the context of a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system. Conclusion: Some subfactors under physical privacy are modified to reflect the data obtained in the interviews. We were able to capture the different physical factors that influence patient privacy. Keywords: information system development (ISD, physical factor, privacy, psychiatric monitoring system

  6. Experimental study of a novel capacity control algorithm for a multi-evaporator air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiangguo; Pan Yan; Deng Shiming; Xia Liang; Chan Mingyin

    2013-01-01

    The use of a multi-evaporator air conditioning (MEAC) system is advantageous in terms of installation convenience, high design flexibility, being easy to maintain and commission, better indoor thermal comfort control and higher energy efficiency. While MEAC units worth billions of dollars are sold worldwide, the detailed accounts on compressor capacity control and refrigeration flow distribution amongst evaporators remain unavailable in public domain, mainly due to commercial confidentiality. Limited control algorithms for MEAC systems have been developed based on system simulation, and no experimental-based capacity controller developments and their controllability tests may be identified in open literature. In the study reported in this paper, a novel capacity control algorithm, which imitated On–Off control of a single evaporator air conditioning (A/C) system in each indoor unit of a MEAC system by using variable speed compressor and electronic expansion valves (EEVs), was developed. Controllability tests under various settings for experimentally validating the novel capacity control algorithm were carried out and the control algorithm was further improved based on the experimental results. - Highlights: ► A capacity control algorithm for a multi-evaporator air conditioning system was developed. ► Experimental controllability tests under various settings were carried out. ► The control algorithm was further improved based on the experimental results.

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis of the combustor for a cogeneration system based on the aluminum/water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Paltrinieri, Fabrizio; Stefani, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aluminum reaction with water is studied as a technology for hydrogen production. • A test rig is developed for the analysis of aluminum/water reaction. • The system is the core component of a cogeneration plant for hydrogen/power production. • The interaction of liquid aluminum jet and water steam stream is investigated. • The main capabilities of the injection system are assessed. - Abstract: The paper focuses on the design of the experimental apparatus aimed at analyzing the performance of the combustion chamber of a cogeneration system based on the reaction of liquid aluminum and water steam. The cogeneration system exploits the heat released by the oxidation of aluminum with water for super-heating the vapor of a steam cycle and simultaneously producing hydrogen. The only by-product is alumina, which in a closed loop can be recycled back and transformed again into aluminum. Therefore, aluminum is used as an energy carrier to transport the energy from the alumina reduction plant to the location of the proposed system. The water is also used in a closed loop since the amount of water produced employing the hydrogen obtained by the proposed system corresponds to the oxidizing water for the Al/H 2 O reaction. This study investigates the combustor where the liquid aluminum–steam reaction takes place. In particular, the design of the combustion chamber and the interaction between the liquid aluminum jet and the water steam flow are evaluated using a numerical and an experimental approach. The test rig is specifically designed for the analysis of the liquid aluminum injection in a slightly super-heated steam stream. The first experiments are carried out to verify the correct behavior of the test rig. Thermography is employed to qualitatively assess the steam entrainment of the liquid aluminum jet. Finally, the experimental measurements are compared with the multi-dimension multi-phase flow simulations in order to estimate the influence of

  8. Supporting conceptual modelling of dynamic systems: A knowledge engineering perspective on qualitative reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, J.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that even students educated in science at prestigious universities have misconceptions about the systems underlying climate change, sustainability and government spending. Interactive conceptual modelling and simulation tools, which are based on Artificial Intelligence techniques,

  9. Shape memory alloys applied to improve rotor-bearing system dynamics - an experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar; Savi, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    passing through critical speeds. In this work, the feasibility of applying shape memory alloys to a rotating system is experimentally investigated. Shape memory alloys can change their stiffness with temperature variations and thus they may change system dynamics. Shape memory alloys also exhibit...... perturbations and mass imbalance responses of the rotor-bearing system at different temperatures and excitation frequencies are carried out to determine the dynamic behaviour of the system. The behaviour and the performance in terms of vibration reduction and system adaptability are compared against a benchmark...... configuration comprised by the same system having steel springs instead of shape memory alloy springs. The experimental results clearly show that the stiffness changes and hysteretic behaviour of the shape memory alloys springs alter system dynamics both in terms of critical speeds and mode shapes. Vibration...

  10. Methodology to estimate parameters of an excitation system based on experimental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra-Montes, A.J. [Carrera 80 No 65-223, Bloque M8 oficina 113, Escuela de Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Calle 13 No 100-00, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Valle (Colombia); Ramirez-Scarpetta, J.M. [Calle 13 No 100-00, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Valle (Colombia); Malik, O.P. [2500 University Drive N.W., Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    A methodology to estimate the parameters of a potential-source controlled rectifier excitation system model is presented in this paper. The proposed parameter estimation methodology is based on the characteristics of the excitation system. A comparison of two pseudo random binary signals, two sampling periods for each one, and three estimation algorithms is also presented. Simulation results from an excitation control system model and experimental results from an excitation system of a power laboratory setup are obtained. To apply the proposed methodology, the excitation system parameters are identified at two different levels of the generator saturation curve. The results show that it is possible to estimate the parameters of the standard model of an excitation system, recording two signals and the system operating in closed loop with the generator. The normalized sum of squared error obtained with experimental data is below 10%, and with simulation data is below 5%. (author)

  11. Parametric model of servo-hydraulic actuator coupled with a nonlinear system: Experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghareh, Amin; Silva, Christian E.; Dyke, Shirley J.

    2018-05-01

    Hydraulic actuators play a key role in experimental structural dynamics. In a previous study, a physics-based model for a servo-hydraulic actuator coupled with a nonlinear physical system was developed. Later, this dynamical model was transformed into controllable canonical form for position tracking control purposes. For this study, a nonlinear device is designed and fabricated to exhibit various nonlinear force-displacement profiles depending on the initial condition and the type of materials used as replaceable coupons. Using this nonlinear system, the controllable canonical dynamical model is experimentally validated for a servo-hydraulic actuator coupled with a nonlinear physical system.

  12. Experimental evaluation of improved dual temperature hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Yamato; Uchida, Shunsuke

    1984-01-01

    A proposed dual temperature hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction system between water and hydrogen gas is evaluated experimentally. The proposed system is composed of low temperature co-current reactors for reaction between water mists and hydrogen gas and high temperature co-current reactors for reaction between water vapor and hydrogen gas. Thus, operation is possible under atmospheric pressure with high reaction efficiency. Using the pilot test system which is composed of ten low temperature (30 0 C) reaction units and ten high temperature (200 0 C) reaction units, an experimental separation of deuterium from light water is carried out. The enrichment factor under steady state conditions, its dependency on operating time, and the reaction period necessary to obtain the steady state enrichment factor are determined experimentally and compared with calculations. It is shown that separation ability in a multistage reaction system can be estimated by numerical calculation using actual reaction efficiency in a unit reactor. (author)

  13. Enhancing Information Systems Auditing Knowledge with Role-Playing Game: An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpinunwatana, Nitaya

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use and effect of a role-playing game on learners' ability in information systems audit. The study is based on experimental research. Information systems control and audit case study and video had been developed. A total of 75 graduate students undertaking a Master's degree in accounting participated in the experiment. The…

  14. Physics-based mathematical models for quantum devices via experimental system identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, S G; Oi, D K L; Devitt, S J [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Rd, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan)], E-mail: sgs29@cam.ac.uk

    2008-03-15

    We consider the task of intrinsic control system identification for quantum devices. The problem of experimental determination of subspace confinement is considered, and simple general strategies for full Hamiltonian identification and decoherence characterization of a controlled two-level system are presented.

  15. Experimental study on the updated PTO system of the WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of an experimental study that was performed on a test model, which was mainly composed out of 3 Weptos rotors and a new power take off (PTO) system. During these tests, various variables related to the design of the PTO system, rotor and overall design of the device...

  16. Analysis of friction-induced limit cycling in an experimental drill-string system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, N.; Veggel, van A.A.; Wouw, van de N.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we aim for an improved understanding of the causes for torsional vibrations that appear in rotary drilling systems used for the exploration of oil and gas. For this purpose, an experimental drill-string setup is considered. In that system, torsional vibrations with and without

  17. An experimental system for the study of ultrasound exposure of isolated blood vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokarczyk, Anna; Rivens, Ian; van Bavel, E.; Symonds-Tayler, Richard; ter Haar, Gail

    2013-01-01

    An experimental system designed for the study of the effects of diagnostic or therapeutic ultrasound exposure on isolated blood vessels in the presence or absence of intraluminal contrast agent is described. The system comprised several components. A microscope was used to monitor vessel size (and

  18. Qualitative alteration of peripheral motor system begins prior to appearance of typical sarcopenia syndrome in middle-aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro eTamaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative changes in the peripheral motor system were examined using Young, Adult, Middle-aged and Old-aged rats in order to assess before and after the appearance of sarcopenia symptoms. Significant loss of muscle mass and strength, and slow-type fiber grouping with a loss of innervated nerve fibers were used as typical markers of sarcopenia. Dynamic twitch and tetanus tension and evoked electromyogram (EEMG were measured via electrical stimulation through the sciatic nerve under anesthesia using our force-distance transducer system before and after sciatectomy. Digital and analogue data sampling was performed and shortening and relaxing velocity of serial twitches was calculated with tension force. Muscle tenderness in passive stretching was also measured as stretch absorption ability, associated with histological quantitation of muscle connective tissues. The results indicated the validity of the present model, in which Old-aged rats clearly showed the typical signs of sarcopenia, specifically in the fast-type plantaris muscles, while the slow-type soleus showed relatively mild syndromes. These observations suggest the following qualitative alterations as the pathophysiological mechanism of sarcopenia: 1 reduction of shortening and relaxing velocity of twitch; 2 decline of muscle tenderness following an increase in the connective tissue component; 3 impaired recruitment of motor units (sudden depression of tetanic force and EEMG in higher stimulation frequencies over 50-60 Hz; and 4 easy fatigability in the neuromuscular junctions. These findings are likely to be closely related to significant losses in fast-type motor units, muscle strength and contraction velocity, which could be a causative factor in falls in the elderly. Importantly, some of these symptoms began in Middle-aged rats that showed no other signs of sarcopenia. Thus, prevention should be started in middle age that could be retained relatively higher movement ability.

  19. Exploring the Barriers: A Qualitative Study about the Experiences of Mid-SES Roma Navigating the Spanish Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Emilia; Flecha, Ainhoa; Serradell, Olga

    2018-02-22

    Whereas the topic of the 'cultural sensitivity' of healthcare systems has been addressed extensively in the US and the UK, literature on the subject in most European countries, specifically looking at the situation of Roma, is still scarce. Drawing on qualitative research conducted mainly in the city of Barcelona under the communicative approach with Roma subjects who have stable socioeconomic positions and higher cultural capitals (end-users, professionals of the healthcare system, and key informants of a regional policy oriented to the improvement of Roma living conditions), the present study aims to fill this gap. We explore the barriers that the Roma face in accessing the healthcare system, reflecting on how these barriers are accentuated by the existing anti-Roma prejudices and institutional arrangements that do not account for minority cultures. Our results point out a series of obstacles at two levels, in the interaction with healthcare professionals, and in relation to existing institutional arrangements, which prevent Roma families from having equal access to the healthcare system. Education stands up as a mechanism to contest anti-Roma sentiments among healthcare professionals.

  20. Consistency from the perspective of an experimental systems approach to the sciences and their epistemic objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jörg Rheinberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the development of the modern sciences is rooted in experiment. Yet for a long time, experimentation did not occupy a prominent role, neither in philosophy nor in history of science. With the 'practical turn' in studying the sciences and their history, this has begun to change. This paper is concerned with systems and cultures of experimentation and the consistencies that are generated within such systems and cultures. The first part of the paper exposes the forms of historical and structural coherence that characterize the experimental exploration of epistemic objects. In the second part, a particular experimental culture in the life sciences is briefly described as an example. A survey will be given of what it means and what it takes to analyze biological functions in the test tube.

  1. A scoring system for appraising mixed methods research, and concomitantly appraising qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods primary studies in Mixed Studies Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Griffiths, Frances; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique

    2009-04-01

    A new form of literature review has emerged, Mixed Studies Review (MSR). These reviews include qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In the present paper, we examine MSRs in health sciences, and provide guidance on processes that should be included and reported. However, there are no valid and usable criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of the qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. To propose criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies or study components. A three-step critical review was conducted. 2322 references were identified in MEDLINE, and their titles and abstracts were screened; 149 potentially relevant references were selected and the full-text papers were examined; 59 MSRs were retained and scrutinized using a deductive-inductive qualitative thematic data analysis. This revealed three types of MSR: convenience, reproducible, and systematic. Guided by a proposal, we conducted a qualitative thematic data analysis of the quality appraisal procedures used in the 17 systematic MSRs (SMSRs). Of 17 SMSRs, 12 showed clear quality appraisal procedures with explicit criteria but no SMSR used valid checklists to concomitantly appraise qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In two SMSRs, criteria were developed following a specific procedure. Checklists usually contained more criteria than needed. In four SMSRs, a reliability assessment was described or mentioned. While criteria for quality appraisal were usually based on descriptors that require specific methodological expertise (e.g., appropriateness), no SMSR described the fit between reviewers' expertise and appraised studies. Quality appraisal usually resulted in studies being ranked by methodological quality. A scoring system is proposed for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies for SMSRs. This

  2. Method of modelization assistance with bond graphs and application to qualitative diagnosis of physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, B.

    1994-05-01

    After having recalled the usual diagnosis techniques (failure index, decision tree) and those based on an artificial intelligence approach, the author reports a research aimed at exploring the knowledge and model generation technique. He focuses on the design of an aid to model generation tool and aid-to-diagnosis tool. The bond graph technique is shown to be adapted to the aid to model generation, and is then adapted to the aid to diagnosis. The developed tool is applied to three projects: DIADEME (a diagnosis system based on physical model), the improvement of the SEXTANT diagnosis system (an expert system for transient analysis), and the investigation on an Ariane 5 launcher component. Notably, the author uses the Reiter and Greiner algorithm

  3. Residual Heat Removal System qualitative probabilistic safety analysis before and after auto closure interlock removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulicic, V.; Simic, Z.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis evaluates the consequences of the removal of the auto closure interlock (ACI) on the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) suction/isolation valves at the nuclear power plant. The deletion of the RHRS ACI is in part based on a probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) which justifies the removal based on a criterion of increased availability and reliability. Three different areas to be examined in PSA: the likelihood of an interfacing system LOCA; RHRS availability and reliability; and low temperature overpressurization control. The paper emphasizes particularly the RHRS unavailability and reliability evaluation utilizing the current control circuitry configuration and then with the proposed modification to the control circuitry. (author)

  4. Extension of operational systems in computers of common use for application in systems for experimental equipment control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidov, M.A.; Makarov, V.V.; Solov'ev, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    The problems of constructing specialized software for large complexes of experimental equipment and its functioning with serial operating systems (OS) are discussed. The main concepts being the base of dispatching software construction (an applied program package) extending the ES OS potentialities being used in the IHEP system for automatic data acquisition and accelerator control are considered

  5. Application of the dynamically allocated virtual clustering management system to emulated tactical network experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Kelvin

    2014-06-01

    The U.S Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has built a "Network Science Research Lab" to support research that aims to improve their ability to analyze, predict, design, and govern complex systems that interweave the social/cognitive, information, and communication network genres. Researchers at ARL and the Network Science Collaborative Technology Alliance (NS-CTA), a collaborative research alliance funded by ARL, conducted experimentation to determine if automated network monitoring tools and task-aware agents deployed within an emulated tactical wireless network could potentially increase the retrieval of relevant data from heterogeneous distributed information nodes. ARL and NS-CTA required the capability to perform this experimentation over clusters of heterogeneous nodes with emulated wireless tactical networks where each node could contain different operating systems, application sets, and physical hardware attributes. Researchers utilized the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering Management System (DAVC) to address each of the infrastructure support requirements necessary in conducting their experimentation. The DAVC is an experimentation infrastructure that provides the means to dynamically create, deploy, and manage virtual clusters of heterogeneous nodes within a cloud computing environment based upon resource utilization such as CPU load, available RAM and hard disk space. The DAVC uses 802.1Q Virtual LANs (VLANs) to prevent experimentation crosstalk and to allow for complex private networks. Clusters created by the DAVC system can be utilized for software development, experimentation, and integration with existing hardware and software. The goal of this paper is to explore how ARL and the NS-CTA leveraged the DAVC to create, deploy and manage multiple experimentation clusters to support their experimentation goals.

  6. Quantum Mechanics and locality in the K0 K-bar0 system experimental verification possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, A.

    1994-11-01

    It is shown that elementary Quantum Mechanics, applied to the K 0 K-bar 0 system, predicts peculiar long range EPR correlations. Possible experimental verifications are discussed, and a concrete experiment with anti-protons annihilations at rest is proposed. A pedestrian approach to local models shows that K 0 K-bar 0 experimentation could provide arguments to the local realism versus quantum theory controversy. (author). 17 refs., 23 figs

  7. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF COMPUTER MODEL OF COOLING SYSTEM FOR POWERFUL SEMI- CONDUCTOR DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Khorunzhii

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A cooling system for powerful semi-conductor device (power -1 kW consisting of a pin-type radiator and a body is considered in the paper. Cooling is carried out by forced convection of a coolant. Calculated values of temperatures on the radiator surface and experimentally measured values of temperatures in the same surface points have been compared in the paper. It has been shown that the difference between calculated and experimentally measured temperatures does not exceed 0,1-0,2 °C and it is comparable with experimental error value. The given results confirm correctness of a computer model.

  8. Qualitative aspects of Volterra integro-dynamic system on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Lupulescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the resolvent, asymptotic stability and boundedness of the solution of time-varying Volterra integro-dynamic system on time scales in which the coefficient matrix is not necessarily stable. We generalize at time scale some known properties about asymptotic behavior and boundedness from the continuous case. Some new results for discrete case are obtained.

  9. Qualitative analysis on a cubic predator-prey system with diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunyi Bie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a cubic predator-prey model with diffusion. We first establish the global stability of the trivial and nontrivial constant steady states for the reaction diffusion system, and then prove the existence and non-existence results concerning non-constant positive stationary solutions by using topological argument and the energy method, respectively.

  10. A qualitative content analysis of knowledge storage in nursing education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ahanchian, Mohammad Reza; Hassanian, Zahra Marzieh

    2014-10-01

    The need for effective management of intellectual and academic assets is constantly growing. The nursing educational system should be considered as a storage of knowledge since it is deposited in the nursing educational system in the form of intellectual investment. The purpose of the present study was to explore nursing knowledge storage in the nursing educational system. The participants of this study consisted of eight nursing educators and five students. The inductive content analysis method was used in this research. Participants were interviewed through the semi-structured method. Data analysis was done by five stage framework approaches. The trustworthiness of the study was ensured through validity and acceptability criteria. Data analysis showed that nursing educators and students were involve in teaching and learning activities by storing knowledge in subjective and objective forms. Knowledge was gained through the different educational activities of the nursing educators and through contact with their peers. Moreover, the nursing students gained knowledge for better learning and a more knowledgeable and advanced performance with the help of the educators. This study revealed the main components of knowledge storage. An enhanced preservation of explicit knowledge is recommended in the nursing educational system so that in the future, students and educators can easily access the same knowledge from storage sources and not from individuals who might be carrying only a single experience of the subject.

  11. Fingering in unsaturated zone flow: a qualitative review with laboratory experiments on heterogeneous systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sililo, OTN

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available of flow will be greatest where the fine-grained layer is thinnest; (5) surface depressions in an upper fine-grained layer will concentrate flow, with fingers forming below such areas; and (6) in systems where an upper fine-grained layer has macro pores...

  12. Experimental Study of Heat Energy Absorber with Porous Medium for Thermoelectric Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric conversion system usually consists of the heat absorber, the thermoelectric generator (TEG and the heat sink, while the heat absorber collects the heat to increase the temperature on the hot surface of TEG and enhances the generating electricity. This study experimentally investigated the performance of the brass-beads packed-bed heat absorber for the thermoelectric conversion system. The packed-bed heat absorber is installed in a square channel with the various flow orientation systems and the small ratio of channel width to bead diameter. The flow orientation systems included the straight flow and jet flow systems. This study showed the local and average heat transfer characteristics for various parameters. The experimental results can be the base of designs for the novel porous heat absorber of the thermoelectric conversion system.

  13. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, Barbara C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buhrmann, Jan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  14. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  15. Evaporator Superheat Control With One Temperature Sensor Using Qualitative System Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Hillerup Lyhne, Casper; Baasch Sørensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat control using only a single temperature sensor at the outlet of the evaporator, while eliminating the need for a pressure sensor. An inner loop controls the outlet temperature and an outer control loop provides a reference set point, which is based...... filling of the evaporator, with only one temperature sensor. No a priori model knowledge was used and it is anticipated that the method is applicable on a wide variety of refrigeration systems....

  16. A qualitative study of health information technology in the Canadian public health system

    OpenAIRE

    Zinszer, Kate; Tamblyn, Robyn; Bates, David W; Buckeridge, David L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although the adoption of health information technology (HIT) has advanced in Canada over the past decade, considerable challenges remain in supporting the development, broad adoption, and effective use of HIT in the public health system. Policy makers and practitioners have long recognized that improvements in HIT infrastructure are necessary to support effective and efficient public health practice. The objective of this study was to identify aspects of health information technol...

  17. Patterns of structural - qualitative changes in the development of complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    S Holtier

    1992-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to outline, in an emancipatory fashion, a framework of thinking to deal with the general patterns of development. As decision problems in society are increasingly of a developmental nature compared with simple performance in equilibrium systems, the author pleads in favour of an operational approach centred on 'the algebra' of structural change. It is argued that for describing and understanding development patterns better we need a proper 'structural' and 'ontologica...

  18. Experimental study of hydrodynamics of target system construction with liquid metallic coolant on water models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.; Davidov, D.; Khokhlov, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is about experimental study of hydrodynamics of target system construction with a spherical beam window (membrane). The visualization of current and current velocity fields in energy release area was considered. The findings are used to optimize the geometrical characteristics of target system. Also report contains the information about functioning accelerator-driven system, description it principle circuit and description of basic requirements what the target design should satisfy. (authors)

  19. The development of an x-ray computerized tomography (CT) experimental system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G N; Kijek, M M; Millar, J J [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a prototype experimental CT system that has been recently developed at Applied Physics, RMIT/ Physics, La Trobe UCNV. The system incorporates the scanning mode of the first generation CAT-scanner and is designed to perform the scanning of small objects. A microcomputer is used to control the scanning motions and data collection. The performance of the system was examined by scanning a ball-point pen. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  20. The development of an x-ray computerized tomography (CT) experimental system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G.N.; Kijek, M.M.; Millar, J.J. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes a prototype experimental CT system that has been recently developed at Applied Physics, RMIT/ Physics, La Trobe UCNV. The system incorporates the scanning mode of the first generation CAT-scanner and is designed to perform the scanning of small objects. A microcomputer is used to control the scanning motions and data collection. The performance of the system was examined by scanning a ball-point pen. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Experimental study of the passive flooding system in the WWER-1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, A.B.; Efanov, A.D.; Kalyakin, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    The design solution of the passive flooding system in the WWER-1000 reactor core with the V-392 reactor facility and the scheme of the GE-2 large-scale thermohydraulic stand for substantiation of its functions are presented. The proposals, improving the efficiency of the system are developed on the basis of the experimental studies on the equipment input-output operational characteristics and the recommendations on the substantiation of the function of the reactor core flooding system are given [ru

  2. Perioperative and ICU Healthcare Analytics within a Veterans Integrated System Network: a Qualitative Gap Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumbai, Seshadri; Ayer, Ferenc; Stefanko, Jerry

    2017-08-01

    Health care facilities are implementing analytics platforms as a way to document quality of care. However, few gap analyses exist on platforms specifically designed for patients treated in the Operating Room, Post-Anesthesia Care Unit, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU). As part of a quality improvement effort, we undertook a gap analysis of an existing analytics platform within the Veterans Healthcare Administration. The objectives were to identify themes associated with 1) current clinical use cases and stakeholder needs; 2) information flow and pain points; and 3) recommendations for future analytics development. Methods consisted of semi-structured interviews in 2 phases with a diverse set (n = 9) of support personnel and end users from five facilities across a Veterans Integrated Service Network. Phase 1 identified underlying needs and previous experiences with the analytics platform across various roles and operational responsibilities. Phase 2 validated preliminary feedback, lessons learned, and recommendations for improvement. Emerging themes suggested that the existing system met a small pool of national reporting requirements. However, pain points were identified with accessing data in several information system silos and performing multiple manual validation steps of data content. Notable recommendations included enhancing systems integration to create "one-stop shopping" for data, and developing a capability to perform trends analysis. Our gap analysis suggests that analytics platforms designed for surgical and ICU patients should employ approaches similar to those being used for primary care patients.

  3. A framework to assess management performance in district health systems: a qualitative and quantitative case study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Gholipour, Kamal; Iezadi, Shabnam; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Ghiasi, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to design a district health management performance framework for Iran's healthcare system. The mixed-method study was conducted between September 2015 and May 2016 in Tabriz, Iran. In this study, the indicators of district health management performance were obtained by analyzing the 45 semi-structured surveys of experts in the public health system. Content validity of performance indicators which were generated in qualitative part were reviewed and confirmed based on content validity index (CVI). Also content validity ratio (CVR) was calculated using data acquired from a survey of 21 experts in quantitative part. The result of this study indicated that, initially, 81 indicators were considered in framework of district health management performance and, at the end, 53 indicators were validated and confirmed. These indicators were classified in 11 categories which include: human resources and organizational creativity, management and leadership, rules and ethics, planning and evaluation, district managing, health resources management and economics, community participation, quality improvement, research in health system, health information management, epidemiology and situation analysis. The designed framework model can be used to assess the district health management and facilitates performance improvement at the district level.

  4. A framework to assess management performance in district health systems: a qualitative and quantitative case study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to design a district health management performance framework for Iran’s healthcare system. The mixed-method study was conducted between September 2015 and May 2016 in Tabriz, Iran. In this study, the indicators of district health management performance were obtained by analyzing the 45 semi-structured surveys of experts in the public health system. Content validity of performance indicators which were generated in qualitative part were reviewed and confirmed based on content validity index (CVI. Also content validity ratio (CVR was calculated using data acquired from a survey of 21 experts in quantitative part. The result of this study indicated that, initially, 81 indicators were considered in framework of district health management performance and, at the end, 53 indicators were validated and confirmed. These indicators were classified in 11 categories which include: human resources and organizational creativity, management and leadership, rules and ethics, planning and evaluation, district managing, health resources management and economics, community participation, quality improvement, research in health system, health information management, epidemiology and situation analysis. The designed framework model can be used to assess the district health management and facilitates performance improvement at the district level.

  5. NGOs and government partnership for health systems strengthening: A qualitative study presenting viewpoints of government, NGOs and donors in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizvi Narjis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems are expected to serve the population needs in an effective, efficient and equitable manner. Therefore, the importance of strengthening of public, private and community health systems has been emphasized time and again. In most of the developing countries, certain weaknesses and gaps in the government health systems have been hampering the achievement of improved health outcomes. Public sector in Pakistan has been deficient in the capacity to deliver equitable and quality health services and thus has been grossly underutilized. Methods A qualitative study comprising in-depth interviews was conducted capturing the perceptions of the government functionaries, NGO representatives and donor community about the role and position of NGOs in health systems strengthening in Pakistan's context. Analysis of the data was done manually to generate nodes, sub-nodes and themes. Results Since many years, international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs have endeavored to fill the gaps in health service delivery, research and advocacy. NGOs have relatively performed better and achieved the results because of the flexible planning and the ability to design population based projects on health education, health promotion, social marketing, community development and advocacy. This paper captures the need and the opportunity of public private partnership in Pakistan and presents a framework for a meaningful engagement of the government and the private and nonprofit NGOs. Conclusion Involving the NGOs for health system strengthening may eventually contribute to create a healthcare system reflecting an increased efficiency, more equity and good governance in the wake of the Millennium Development Goals. Nevertheless, few questions need to be answered and pre-requisites have to be fulfilled before moving on.

  6. Seasonality, water use and community management of water systems in rural settings: Qualitative evidence from Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Emma; Shields, Katherine F; Cronk, Ryan; Lee, Kristen; Behnke, Nikki; Klug, Tori; Bartram, Jamie

    2018-07-01

    The sustainability of rural, community-managed water systems in sub-Saharan Africa depends in part on the ability of local water committees to repair breakdowns and carry out the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the system. Much of sub-Saharan Africa has two distinct seasons that affect the availability of water sources and how people use water. Little is known about how seasonality affects water system management. This qualitative study is based on 320 interviews and focus group discussions and examines the effects of season on community water use and management in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia. Participants revealed that seasonality affects water availability, water system breakdowns, resource mobilization, committee activity, and external support availability. In the rainy season, participants typically reported spending less time and money on water collection because rainwater harvesting and seasonal streams, ponds, wells and reservoirs are available. In the dry season, people used improved groundwater sources more often and spent more money and time collecting water. Although seasonal changes in household water demand and use have been examined previously, our data suggest that seasonality also influences community management through differential water system use, system breakdowns and management characteristics. We found that water committees generally have less money, time and access to external support during the rainy season, making them less able to carry out O&M. Our results suggest that community engagement should take place over a long period of time so that seasonal patterns in management can be understood and incorporated into water committee training. External support actors should make a more targeted effort to understand the cultural and economic patterns in a community in order to train committees with appropriate management strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulation and experimental study of a solar heat pump desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawlader, M.N.A.; Tjandra, Tobias Bestari [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-07-01

    With the rising price of oil and gas, the energy cost of desalination process increases significantly. Also, the consumption of fuel to provide thermal and electrical energy in a desalination process will pollute the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to find a new source of energy which is clean and renewable. Solar energy fulfills this challenge to a great extent. An experimental rig was constructed in order to investigate the use of solar energy in desalination. A series of experiments were performed under the meteorological conditions of Singapore. A simulation study was then performed for the system, and comparisons of the predicted and experimental results showed good agreement. The experimental system is capable of producing 1 liter of water per hour. The system has a coefficient of performance that varies from 5 to 9, and a performance ratio of 0.6 to 1.38. (orig.)

  8. Experimental analysis and dynamic simulation of a novel high-temperature solar cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, Annamaria; Calise, Francesco; D’Accadia, Massimo Dentice; Ferruzzi, Gabriele; Frascogna, Sabrina; Palombo, Adolfo; Russo, Roberto; Scarpellino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents an innovative high temperature solar cooling system. • The system is based on novel flat-plate evacuated solar thermal collectors. • Results of an experimental campaign in Saudi Arabia are reported. • A dynamic simulation model and a detailed economic analyses are developed. • Results show that the collector and the system as a whole exhibit excellent performance. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental and numerical analyses of a novel high-temperature solar cooling system based on innovative flat-plate evacuated solar thermal collectors (SC). This is the first solar cooling system, including a double-effect absorption chiller, which is based on non-concentrating solar thermal collectors. The aim of the paper is prove the technical and economic feasibility of the system, also presenting a comparison with a conventional technology, based on concentrating solar thermal collectors. To this scope, an experimental setup has been installed in Saudi Arabia. Here, several measurement devices are installed in order to monitor and control all the thermodynamic parameters of the system. The paper presents some of the main results of this experimental campaign, showing temperatures, powers, energies and efficiencies for a selected period. Experimental results showed that collector peak efficiency is higher than 60%, whereas daily average efficiency is around 40%. This prototypal solar cooling system has been numerically analysed, developing a dynamic simulation model aiming at predicting system performance. For a representative operating period, numerical data were compared with the experimental one, showing an excellent accuracy of the model. A similar system, equipped with Parabolic Trough solar thermal collectors (PTC) was also simulated in order to compare the novel solar collectors with such reference technology. For both systems a detailed thermo-economic model has been implemented in order to perform such comparison also

  9. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of an indirect-fired GAX cycle cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, V.H.; Vidal, A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria, Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco Morelos (Mexico); Best, R.; Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco Morelos (Mexico); Velazquez, N. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Calle de la Normal S/N, Insurgentes Este, 21280 Mexicali, BC (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    A theoretical and experimental evaluation of an indirect-fired GAX-Prototype Cooling System (GAX-PCS), using ammonia-water as the working fluid, is presented. The GAX-PCS was designed for a cooling capacity of 10.6 kW (3 tons). A simulation model was developed, calibrated and validated with experimental values in order to predict the performance of the system outside the design parameters. Experimental results were obtained using thermal oil, at temperatures from 180 to 195 C, as heating source. An internal heat recovery in the system of {proportional_to}55% with respect to the total heat supplied in the generator was obtained. Also the performance of the GAX absorption system, integrated to a micro gas turbine (MGT) as a cogeneration system was simulated. Overall efficiencies for the cogeneration system from 29% to 49% were obtained for cooling loads from 5 kW to 20 kW, respectively. With the theoretical and experimental study of the proposed cycle, it is concluded that the GAX-PCS presents potential to compete technically in the Mexican air conditioning market. (author)

  10. Control System Design for Active Lubrication with Theoretical and Experimental Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Scalabrin, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work focuses on the theoretical and experimental behavior of rigid rotors controlled by tilting-pad journal bearings with active oil injection. Initially the mathematical model of the active bearing is presented: The equations that describe the dynamics of hydraulic actuators are introduced...... system of the active bearing based on root locus curves. The active system stability is analyzed by calculating its eigenvalues and frequency response curves. The theoretical and experimental results show that this kind of bearing can significantly reduce the vibration level of rotating machinery....

  11. Investigation of analytical and experimental behavior of nuclear facility ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Ricketts, C.I.; Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Horak, H.L.; Martin, R.A.; Tang, P.K.; Gregory, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of nuclear facility ventilation systems subjected to both natural and man-caused accidents is being investigated. The purpose of the paper is to present a program overview and highlight recent results of the investigations. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting accident-induced gas dynamics and test facilities to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. A unique test facility and recently obtained structural limits for high efficiency particulate air filters are reported

  12. Inter-cooler in solar-assisted refrigeration system: Theory and experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An inter-cooler in the solar-assisted refrigeration system was investigated experimentally and theoretically, and the theoretical prediction was fairly in good agreement with the experimental data. The influence of pipe diameter, tooth depth, and spiral angle of inter-cooler on the performance of the refrigerant system was analyzed. It was concluded that heat transfer is influenced deeply by the structure parameters of inter-cooler, and the heat transfer capacity increases with tooth depth and spiral angle increasing, and decreases with tooth apex angle increasing.

  13. Control and monitoring system design study for the UNK experimental setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekimov, A.; Ermolin, Yu.; Matveev, M.; Ovcharov, S.; Petrov, V.; Vaniev, V.

    1992-01-01

    At present a number of experimental setups for the new UNK project are under construction. A common approach to the architecture of control/DAQ/trigger systems will be used in the development of electronics for all these detectors. The system analysis and design group has been formed for this purpose. The group activity is aimed at the development of such unified system. The group has started with control and monitoring system as one of the most important parts and the environment for the DAQ/trigger systems. The group activity status report is presented. (author)

  14. High-pressure fluid-phase equilibria: Experimental methods and systems investigated (2005-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, José; Dohrn, Ralf; Peper, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    %) have carbon dioxide as one of the components. Information on 206 pure components, 535 ternary systems of which 355 (66%) contain carbon dioxide, 163 multicomponent and complex systems, and 207 systems with hydrates is given. A continuation of the review series is planned, covering the years from 2009...... points, the solubility of high-boiling substances in supercritical fluids, the solubility of gases in liquids and the solubility (sorption) of volatile components in polymers are included. Most of experimental data in the literature has been given for binary systems. Of the 1469 binary systems, 796 (54...

  15. Experimental and simulation study on the plate absorber for hybrid heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seung Sun; Jung, Chung Woo; Kang, Yong Tae [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Sung; Park, Seong Ryong [KIER, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chae Dong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This research conducts an experiment for a hybrid heat pump system, using ammonia-water as a working fluid, to obtain a hot water of about 80 .deg. C. The hybrid heat pump system is the combination of vapor compression cycle and absorption cycle to improve the performance of the heat pump system. The hybrid heat pump system uses a low temperature heat source of about 50 .deg. C from the industrial waste heat. The system consists of absorber, desorber, solution heat exchanger, oil heat exchanger, rectifier, compressor and a solution pump. Parametric analysis is carried out experimentally and numerically for the key parameters such as the capacity of the absorber, the internal pressure change. From the present experimental study, it is found that the maximum hot water temperature is obtained to be 79.33 .deg. C.

  16. Service user involvement in mental health system strengthening in a rural African setting: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayneh, Sisay; Lempp, Heidi; Alem, Atalay; Alemayehu, Daniel; Eshetu, Tigist; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2017-05-18

    It is essential to involve service users in efforts to expand access to mental health care in integrated primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is little evidence from LMICs to guide this process. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to, and facilitators of, service user/caregiver involvement in rural Ethiopia to inform the development of a scalable approach. Thirty nine semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected mental health service users (n = 13), caregivers (n = 10), heads of primary care facilities (n = 8) and policy makers/planners/service developers (n = 8). The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed in Amharic, and translated into English. Thematic analysis was applied. All groups of participants supported service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening. Potential benefits were identified as (i) improved appropriateness and quality of services, and (ii) greater protection against mistreatment and promotion of respect for service users. However, hardly any respondents had prior experience of service user involvement. Stigma was considered to be a pervasive barrier, operating within the health system, the local community and individuals. Competing priorities of service users included the need to obtain adequate individual care and to work for survival. Low recognition of the potential contribution of service users seemed linked to limited empowerment and mobilization of service users. Potential health system facilitators included a culture of community oversight of primary care services. All groups of respondents identified a need for awareness-raising and training to equip service users, caregivers, service providers and local community for involvement. Empowerment at the level of individual service users (information about mental health conditions, care and rights) and the group level (for advocacy and representation) were considered

  17. Scaling Qualitative Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There are different approaches to qualitative probability, which includes subjective probability. We developed a representation of qualitative probability based on relational systems, which allows modeling uncertainty by probability structures and is more coherent than existing approaches. This setting makes it possible proving that any comparative probability is induced by some probability structure (Theorem 2.1), that classical probability is a probability structure (Theorem 2.2) and that i...

  18. Organizing principles as tools for bridging the gap between system theory and biological experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekios, Constantinos

    2016-04-01

    Twentieth-century theoretical efforts towards the articulation of general system properties came short of having the significant impact on biological practice that their proponents envisioned. Although the latter did arrive at preliminary mathematical formulations of such properties, they had little success in showing how these could be productively incorporated into the research agenda of biologists. Consequently, the gap that kept system-theoretic principles cut-off from biological experimentation persisted. More recently, however, simple theoretical tools have proved readily applicable within the context of systems biology. In particular, examples reviewed in this paper suggest that rigorous mathematical expressions of design principles, imported primarily from engineering, could produce experimentally confirmable predictions of the regulatory properties of small biological networks. But this is not enough for contemporary systems biologists who adopt the holistic aspirations of early systemologists, seeking high-level organizing principles that could provide insights into problems of biological complexity at the whole-system level. While the presented evidence is not conclusive about whether this strategy could lead to the realization of the lofty goal of a comprehensive explanatory integration, it suggests that the ongoing quest for organizing principles is pragmatically advantageous for systems biologists. The formalisms postulated in the course of this process can serve as bridges between system-theoretic concepts and the results of molecular experimentation: they constitute theoretical tools for generalizing molecular data, thus producing increasingly accurate explanations of system-wide phenomena.

  19. Q2 - a very low level quantitative and qualitative waste assay and release certification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, F.L.

    1990-01-01

    Low level radioactive waste disposal is very expensive, especially when all of the handling transportation and documentation costs are included. However for most generators, a large fraction of this low level waste is not contaminated at all, or only slightly so. The paper describes the development and performance of a low level counter that is convenient to use, and that can accurately identify and quantify the radioactivity of any gamma emitter thing that can be placed in a 55 gallon (200 liter) container. These measurement results can be used to verify the absence of radioactivity at a very low levels (10 nCi (370 Bq)/sample), and to identify the nuclides and quantities present, while differentiating against natural radioactivity (Radium, Thorium, Potassium). These results can be used as part of a 10CFR20.302 waste stream exemption program, and thus allow significant savings and a less than 1 year payback at a typical nuclear power plant. The Q1 system is fully shielded to allow it's use in the low level radwaste storage area. The detectors are either 3 Intrinsic Germanium detectors or 2 large NaI detectors. The software is fully automated for simple operation. Correlation factors can be entered to estimate non-gamma emitters from pre-established correlations to other nuclides. Typical Ge detector sensitivities are 8 nCi (300 Bq) LLD for Cs-137 at 0.8 g/cc for a 10 minute count time. NaI detector systems can achieve the same LLD in a 1 minute count. 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Strengthening the Referral System through Social Capital: A Qualitative Inquiry in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Padmore Adusei; Phillips, David R

    2017-10-25

    The referral system in health care has been noted as very influential in determining which services are accessed and when. Nonetheless, existing studies have relied on specific measurable factors relating to health personnel, transportation and communication infrastructure, and finance to explain the challenges facing the referral policy in developing countries. While this is understandable, the role of social capital remains mostly uncharted even though it is implicit in the well-known lay referral system. Using various facets of the social capital concept, this paper empirically examines how the resources embedded in both structural and cognitive aspects of social relationships influence knowledge of, and adherence to, referral policy. This study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with 79 adults in the Ashanti Region of Ghana in 2015. Of the 79 participants, 28 lived in urban areas and 51 in rural localities. Eight health personnel and eight community leaders also contributed to the study. Additionally, six focus group discussions were held. The findings indicated that both cognitive and structural forms of social capital considerably underpinned the ability and willingness of people to adhere to the referral process. Moreover, the role of social capital was double-barrelled. It contributed in a significant way to encouraging or dissuading potential patients from rightly embracing the policy. In addition, precepts of social capital reinforced both positive and adverse effects of the other determinants of the policy such as finance and transportation. However, the magnitude of such impact was linked to how 'resourceful' and 'trustworthy' one's available social acquaintances were. The paper suggests that a cautious engagement with social capital will make it a potentially powerful tool for understanding the gaps in and improving the effectiveness of referral policy.

  1. Implementation of surgical debriefing programs in large health systems: an exploratory qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Mary E; Henrich, Natalie; Foster, Andrew; Marks, Stanley; Rose, Michael; Welsh, Robert; Berry, William

    2018-03-27

    The role of the "debrief" to address issues related to patient safety and systematic flaws in care is frequently overlooked. In our study, we interview surgical leaders who have developed successful strategies of debriefing within a comprehensive program of quality improvement. Semi-structured interviews of four implementation leaders were performed. The observations, beliefs and strategies of surgical leaders are compared and contrasted. Common themes are identified related to program success and failure. Quality and safety researchers performed, coded and categorized the interviews and coordinated the analysis and interpretation of the results. The authors from the four institutions aided in interpretation and framing of the results. The debriefing programs evaluated were part of comprehensive quality improvement projects. Seven high-level themes and 24 subthemes were identified from the interviews. Themes related to leadership included early engagement, visible ongoing commitment and enforcement. Success appeared to depend upon meaningful and early debriefing feedback. The culture of safety that promoted success included a commitment to open and fair communication and continuous improvement. There were many challenges to the success of debriefing programs. The loss of institutional commitment of resources and personnel was the instigating factor behind the collapse of the program at Michigan. Other areas of potential failure included communication issues and loss of early and meaningful feedback. Leaders of four surgical systems with strong debriefing programs report success using debriefing to improve system performance. These findings are consistent with previously published studies. Success requires commitment of resources, and leadership engagement. The greatest gains may be best achieved by programs that provide meaningful debriefing feedback in an atmosphere dedicated to open communication.

  2. Geothermal source heat pump performance for a greenhouse heating system: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sotirios Anifantis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouses play a significant function in the modern agriculture economy even if require great amount of energy for heating systems. An interesting solution to alleviate the energy costs and environmental problems may be represented by the use of geothermal energy. The aim of this paper, based on measured experimental data, such as the inside greenhouse temperature and the heat pump performance (input and output temperatures of the working fluid, electric consumption, was the evaluation of the suitability of low enthalpy geothermal heat sources for agricultural needs such as greenhouses heating. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Bari, where a greenhouse was arranged with a heating system connected to a ground-source heat pump (GSHP, which had to cover the thermal energy request. The experimental results of this survey highlight the capability of the geothermal heat source to ensue thermal conditions suitable for cultivation in greenhouses even if the compressor inside the heat pump have operated continuously in a fluctuating state without ever reaching the steady condition. Probably, to increase the performance of the heat pump and then its coefficient of performance within GSHP systems for heating greenhouses, it is important to analyse and maximise the power conductivity of the greenhouse heating system, before to design an expensive borehole ground exchanger. Nevertheless, according to the experimental data obtained, the GSHP systems are effective, efficient and environmental friendly and may be useful to supply the heating energy demand of greenhouses.

  3. Design and experimental investigation of a Multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic solar energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Zeshao; Hu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic solar energy system was proposed. • A prototype of this new concentrator was developed for experimental investigation. • Experimental investigation results showed a good concentrating uniformity. - Abstract: Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energies and meaningful for the sustainable development of energy source. A multi-segment plate concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) solar power system was proposed in this paper, the design principle of the multi-segment plate concentrator of this solar power system was given, which could provide uniform solar radiation flux density distribution on solar cells. A prototype of this multi-segment plate CPV solar power system was developed for the experimental study, aiming at the investigations of solar radiation flux density distribution and PV performances under this concentrator design. The experimental results showed that the solar radiation flux density distribution provided by the multi-segment plate concentrator had a good uniformity, and the number and temperature of solar cells both influence the photoelectric transformation efficiency of the CPV solar power system.

  4. Experimental and simulation validation of ABHE for disinfection of Legionella in hot water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altorkmany, Lobna; Kharseh, Mohamad; Ljung, Anna-Lena; Staffan Lundström, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ABHE system can supply a continues thermal treatment of water with saving energy. • Mathematical and experimental validation of ABHE performance are presented. • EES-based model is developed to simulate ABHE system. • Energy saving by ABHE is proved for different initial working parameters. - Abstract: The work refers to an innovative system inspired by nature that mimics the thermoregulation system that exists in animals. This method, which is called Anti Bacteria Heat Exchanger (ABHE), is proposed to achieve continuous thermal disinfection of bacteria in hot water systems with high energy efficiency. In particular, this study aims to demonstrate the opportunity to gain energy by means of recovering heat over a plate heat exchanger. Firstly, the thermodynamics of the ABHE is clarified to define the ABHE specification. Secondly, a first prototype of an ABHE is built with a specific configuration based on simplicity regarding design and construction. Thirdly, an experimental test is carried out. Finally, a computer model is built to simulate the ABHE system and the experimental data is used to validate the model. The experimental results indicate that the performance of the ABHE system is strongly dependent on the flow rate, while the supplied temperature has less effect. Experimental and simulation data show a large potential for saving energy of this thermal disinfection method by recovering heat. To exemplify, when supplying water at a flow rate of 5 kg/min and at a temperature of 50 °C, the heat recovery is about 1.5 kW while the required pumping power is 1 W. This means that the pressure drop is very small compared to the energy recovered and consequently high saving in total cost is promising.

  5. Experts’ analysis of the improvement spaces of the first phase of reform in health system financial management: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bastani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health financial reforms began in 2005 through four phases in order to achieve the maximum efficiency and effectiveness in this sector. The first phase was accrual accounting implementation instead of cash method. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the most important improvement spaces of the first phase of reform in financial management (accrual accounting in the viewpoints of financial experts employed in middle and operational levels of Universities of Medical Sciences. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in Universities of Medical Sciences in 2013 using non-probability sampling method (snowball. Saturation was achieved only after 25 semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using content analysis by Kruger model. Findings: Seven areas of improvement including staffs, managers, information system, organizational culture, structure, process, and financial were identified as main themes. Each theme contained several sub-themes. Conclusion: Attempts and planning should be considered by decision makers in order to improve modifiable determinants through practical mechanisms in the first phase of health system financial management.

  6. Prospective comparison of PI-RADS version 2 and qualitative in-house categorization system in detection of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Sonia; Harmon, Stephanie; Mehralivand, Sherif; Bednarova, Sandra; Calio, Brian P; Sugano, Dordaneh; Sidana, Abhinav; Merino, Maria J; Pinto, Peter A; Wood, Bradford J; Shih, Joanna H; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2018-03-31

    Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System v. 2 (PI-RADSv2) provides standardized nomenclature for interpretation of prostate multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). Inclusion of additional features for categorization may provide benefit to stratification of disease. To prospectively compare PI-RADSv2 to a qualitative in-house system for detecting prostate cancer on mpMRI. Prospective. In all, 338 patients who underwent mpMRI May 2015-May 2016, with subsequent MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy. 3T mpMRI (T 2 W, diffusion-weighted [DW], apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] map, b-2000 DWI acquisition, and dynamic contrast-enhanced [DCE] MRI). One genitourinary radiologist prospectively read mpMRIs using both in-house and PI-RADSv2 5-category systems. In lesion-based analysis, overall and clinically significant (CS) tumor detection rates (TDR) were calculated for all PI-RADSv2 and in-house categories. The ability of each scoring system to detect cancer was assessed by area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Within each PI-RADSv2 category, lesions were further stratified by their in-house categories to determine if TDRs can be increased by combining features of both systems. In 338 patients (median prostate-specific antigen [PSA] 6.5 [0.6-113.6] ng/mL; age 64 [44-84] years), 733 lesions were identified (47% tumor-positive). Predictive abilities of both systems were comparable for all (AUC 76-78%) and CS cancers (AUCs 79%). The in-house system had higher overall and CS TDRs than PI-RADSv2 for categories 3 and 4 (P house 65%, PI-RADSv2 22.1%). For lesions categorized as PI-RADSv2 = 4, characterization of suspicious/indeterminate extraprostatic extension (EPE) and equivocal findings across all mpMRI sequences contributed to significantly different TDRs for both systems (TDR range 19-75%, P < 0.05). PI-RADSv2 behaves similarly to an existing validated system that relies on the number of sequences on which a lesion is seen. This prospective

  7. Design, Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Solar System Based on PV Panels and PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Buonomano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical and experimental analyses aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collectors. An experimental setup was purposely designed and constructed in order to compare the electrical performance of a PVT solar field with the one achieved by an identical solar field consisting of conventional photovoltaic (PV panels. The experimental analysis also aims at evaluating the potential advantages of PVT vs. PV in terms of enhancement of electrical efficiency and thermal energy production. The installed experimental set-up includes four flat polycrystalline silicon PV panels and four flat unglazed polycrystalline silicon PVT collectors. The total electrical power and area of the solar field are 2 kWe and 13 m2, respectively. The experimental set-up is currently installed at the company AV Project Ltd., located in Avellino (Italy. This study also analyzes the system from a numerical point of view, including a thermo-economic dynamic simulation model for the design and the assessment of energy performance and economic profitability of the solar systems consisting of glazed PVT and PV collectors. The experimental setup was modelled and partly simulated in TRNSYS environment. The simulation model was useful to analyze efficiencies and temperatures reached by such solar technologies, by taking into account the reference technology of PVTs (consisting of glazed collectors as well as to compare the numerical data obtained by dynamic simulations with the gathered experimental results for the PV technology. The numerical analysis shows that the PVT global efficiency is about 26%. Conversely, from the experimental point of view, the average thermal efficiency of PVT collectors is around 13% and the electrical efficiencies of both technologies are almost coincident and equal to 15%.

  8. Leadership and transformational change in healthcare organisations: a qualitative analysis of the North East Transformation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Jonathan; Hunter, David J; Small, Adrian; Hicks, Chris; McGovern, Tom; Lugsden, Ed; Whitty, Paula; Steen, Nick; Eccles, Martin Paul

    2013-02-01

    The research project 'An Evaluation of Transformational Change in NHS North East' examines the progress and success of National Health Service (NHS) organisations in north east England in implementing and embedding the North East Transformation System (NETS), a region-wide programme to improve healthcare quality and safety, and to reduce waste, using a combination of Vision, Compact, and Lean-based Method. This paper concentrates on findings concerning the role of leadership in enabling tranformational change, based on semi-structured interviews with a mix of senior NHS managers and quality improvement staff in 14 study sites. Most interviewees felt that implementing the NETS requires committed, stable leadership, attention to team-building across disciplines and leadership development at many levels. We conclude that without senior leader commitment to continuous improvement over a long time scale and serious efforts to distribute leadership tasks to all levels, healthcare organisations are less likely to achieve positive changes in managerial-clinical relations, sustainable improvements to organisational culture and, ultimately, the region-wide step change in quality, safety and efficiency that the NETS was designed to deliver. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. A qualitative study of patient involvement in medicines management after hospital discharge: an under-recognised source of systems resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fylan, Beth; Armitage, Gerry; Naylor, Deirdre; Blenkinsopp, Alison

    2017-11-16

    There are risks to the safety of medicines management when patient care is transferred between healthcare organisations, for example, when a patient is discharged from hospital. Using the theoretical concept of resilience in healthcare, this study aimed to better understand the proactive role that patients can play in creating safer, resilient medicines management at a common transition of care. Qualitative interviews with 60 cardiology patients 6 weeks after their discharge from 2 UK hospitals explored patients' experiences with their discharge medicines. Data were initially subjected to an inductive thematic analysis and a subsequent theory-guided deductive analysis. During interviews 23 patients described medicines management resilience strategies in two main themes: identifying system vulnerabilities; and establishing self-management strategies. Patients could anticipate problems in the system that supplied them with medicines and took specific actions to prevent them. They also identified when errors had occurred both before and after medicines had been supplied and took corrective action to avoid harm. Some reported how they had not foreseen problems or experienced patient safety incidents. Patients recounted how they ensured information about medicines changes was correctly communicated and acted upon, and described their strategies to enhance their own reliability in adherence and resource management. Patients experience the impact of vulnerabilities in the medicines management system across the secondary-primary care transition but many are able to enhance system resilience through developing strategies to reduce the risk of medicines errors occurring. Consequently, there are opportunities-with caveats-to elicit, develop and formalise patients' capabilities which would contribute to safer patient care and more effective medicines management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  10. Effective teamwork in primary healthcare through a structured patient-sorting system - a qualitative study on staff members' conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maun, Andy; Engström, Miriam; Frantz, Anna; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Thorn, Jörgen

    2014-11-28

    Primary healthcare meets increased demands from an aging population concerning quality and availability while concurrently dealing with a growing shortage of general practitioners and imperfect efficiency in healthcare processes. Reorganization and team development can improve quality and performance but projects in primary care frequently do not attain the targeted results. By developing and introducing a structured patient-sorting system a primary healthcare centre in Western Sweden increased its access rate significantly and employed its medical professionals more efficiently. The aim of this study was to explore staff members' conceptions of the structured patient-sorting system in order to gain an inside perspective on this project. In this qualitative study 16 interviews were conducted over a period of two years and data was analysed using a phenomenographic approach to identify the various conceptions of the eleven participants. Three categories of description were identified: The system was conceptualized as 1) a framework for the development of patient-centred processes that were clear and consistent, 2) a promotor of professional development and a shared ideal of cooperative practice and 3) a common denominator and catalyst in conflict management. This study demonstrates that the introduction of a structured patient-sorting system makes it possible for several important change processes to take place concurrently: improvement of healthcare processes, empowerment of professionals and team development. It therefore indicates the importance of an appropriate, contextualized framework to support multiple concomitant quality improvement processes. Knowledge from this study can be used to assist and improve future implementations in primary healthcare centres.

  11. Experimental results of a direct air-cooled ammonia–lithium nitrate absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas-Guillén, S.U.; Cuevas, R.; Best, R.; Gómez, V.H.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption thermal cooling systems driven by renewable energy are a viable option in order to reduce fossil fuel consumption and the associated emissions. This work shows the results of an air cooled absorption cooling prototype working with an ammonia–lithium nitrate mixture at high ambient temperatures. An absorption refrigeration system was designed and built. The prototype is a one stage ammonia–lithium nitrate air cooled chiller. The experimental system was instrumented to evaluate each component. This paper shows the operation conditions in the experimental unit as well as some of the heat loads encountered at different operating conditions. The system was operated successfully at ambient temperatures in the range of 25–35 °C. A series of test showed that even at ambient temperatures it can be operated at evaporator temperatures below 10 °C producing chilled water for air conditioning applications such as radiative cooling panels. The system proved to stabilize very quickly and no risk of crystallization was encountered so the first results are promising in order to continue with the development of a more advanced prototype. - Highlights: •Experimental results of a direct air-cooled ammonia–lithium nitrate system. •The prototype is a one stage ammonia–lithium nitrate air cooled chiller. •The absorption system was operated successfully at ambient temperatures. •Cooling loads of 4.5 kW were reached in the chilled water side

  12. Experimental Investigations of a Precision Sensor for an Automatic Weapons Stabilizer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Korobiichuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of a precision sensor for an automatic weapons stabilizer system. It also describes the experimental equipment used and the structure of the developed sensor. A weapons stabilizer is designed for automatic guidance of an armament unit in the horizontal and vertical planes when firing at ground and air targets that are quickly maneuvering, and at lower speeds when firing anti-tank missiles, as well as the bypass of construction elements by the armament unit, and the automatic tracking of moving targets when interacting with a fire control system. The results of experimental investigations have shown that the error of the precision sensor developed on the basis of a piezoelectric element is 6 × 10−10 m/s2 under quasi-static conditions, and ~10−5 m/s2 for mobile use. This paper defines metrological and calibration properties of the developed sensor.

  13. Dual use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and smoked tobacco: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Hoek, Janet; Blank, Mei-Ling; Richards, Rosalina; Ling, Pamela; Popova, Lucy

    2018-02-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) arguably pose fewer health risks than smoking, yet many smokers adopt ENDS without fully relinquishing smoking. Known as 'dual use', this practice is widespread and compromises the health benefits that ENDS may offer. To date, few studies have explored how dual use practices arise and manifest. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 20 current ENDS users from New Zealand who reported smoking tobacco at least once a month. We explored participants' smoking history, their recent and current smoking, trial, uptake and patterns of ENDS use, and future smoking and vaping intentions. We managed the data using NVivo V.11 and used a thematic analysis approach to interpret the transcripts. Dual use practices among participants evolved in four ways. First, as an attempt to manage the 'inauthenticity' of vaping relative to smoking and to retain meaningful rituals. Second, as complex rationalisations that framed decreased tobacco use, rather than smoking cessation, as 'success'. Third, as a means of alleviating the financial burden smoking imposed and to circumvent smoke-free policies. Lastly, dual use reflected attempts to comply with social group norms and manage stigma. Dual use reflects both social and physical cues. It assisted participants to navigate smoking restrictions and allowed them to manage divergent norms. Policies that discourage smoking, particularly excise tax increases on smoked tobacco and smoke-free space restrictions, appear important in prompting ENDS use. Future research could explore whether these policies also help foster complete transition from smoking to exclusive ENDS use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Design and Experimental Study of an Over-Under TBCC Exhaust System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianwei; Xu, Jinglei; Zhang, Liuhuan

    2014-01-01

    Turbine-based combined-cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems have been a topic of research as a means for more efficient flight at supersonic and hypersonic speeds. The present study focuses on the fundamental physics of the complex flow in the TBCC exhaust system during the transition mode as the turbine exhaust is shut off and the ramjet exhaust is increased. A TBCC exhaust system was designed using methods of characteristics (MOC) and subjected to experimental and computational study. The main objectives of the study were: (1) to identify the interactions between the two exhaust jet streams during the transition mode phase and their effects on the whole flow-field structure; (2) to determine and verify the aerodynamic performance of the over-under TBCC exhaust nozzle; and (3) to validate the simulation ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software according to the experimental conditions. Static pressure taps and Schlieren apparatus were employed to obtain the wall pressure distributions and flow-field structures. Steady-state tests were performed with the ramjet nozzle cowl at six different positions at which the turbine flow path were half closed and fully opened, respectively. Methods of CFD were used to simulate the exhaust flow and they complemented the experimental study by providing greater insight into the details of the flow field and a means of verifying the experimental results. Results indicated that the flow structure was complicated because the two exhaust jet streams interacted with each other during the exhaust system mode transition. The exhaust system thrust coefficient varied from 0.9288 to 0.9657 during the process. The CFD simulation results agree well with the experimental data, which demonstrated that the CFD methods were effective in evaluating the aerodynamic performance of the TBCC exhaust system during the mode transition.

  15. Numerical and experimental analysis of a vibration isolator equipped with a negative stiffness system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, E.; Nieto, A. J.; Morales, A. L.; Chicharro, J. M.; Pintado, P.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a Negative Stiffness System (NSS) based on a set of two double-acting pneumatic linear actuators (PLA). The NSS is added to a system with a single degree of freedom, which consists of a sprung mass and a pneumatic spring. One end of each PLA is jointed to the sprung mass while the other end is jointed to the vibrating frame. In addition, the PLAs are symmetrically arranged so that they remain horizontal while the sprung mass is in static conditions. When the rear chamber is pressurised, the vertical component of the force applied by the PLAs will work against the pneumatic spring reducing the dynamic resonance frequency of the overall system. Experimental tests and simulations showed improvements regarding sprung mass isolation in comparison to the passive system without NSS, decreasing the resonance frequency by up to 58 % and improving the vibration attenuation for different experimental excitations.

  16. Experimental demonstration of polar coded IM/DD optical OFDM for short reach system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiafei; Xiao, Shilin; Liu, Ling; Bi, Meihua; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yunhao; Hu, Weisheng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel polar coded intensity modulation direct detection (IM/DD) optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system for short reach system. A method of evaluating the channel signal noise ratio (SNR) is proposed for soft-demodulation. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared to the conventional case, ∼9.5 dB net coding gain (NCG) at the bit error rate (BER) of 1E-3 can be achieved after 40-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission. Based on the experimental result, (512,256) polar code with low complexity and satisfactory BER performance meets the requirement of low latency in short reach system, which is a promising candidate for latency-stringent short reach optical system.

  17. Experimental and numerical analysis of vibration stability for a high-Tc superconducting levitation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zheng; Liu Yu; Yang Wenjiang; Qiu Ming

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of the quasi-static and dynamic behaviour of high-T c superconductors (HTS hereafter) using a model suspension vibration testing system based on the magnetic launch assistance concept. The stiffness and damping of the levitation system under specified vibration circumstances was calculated by drawing on harmonic response analysis and half-power points method. Also, the equation of motion of the suspension system was presented in this paper, and with an attempt to analyse and predict mechanical characteristics of HTS in dynamic conditions. The obtained results of the suspending motion behaviour by numerical calculation are compared with experimental analytical results. Experimental technique combined with a numerical simulation method is a useful tool for measuring and analysing motion-dependent magnetic forces for the prediction and control of suspension systems

  18. Experimental investigations on solar heating/heat pump systems for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Perers, Bengt

    In the period 2013-2017 the project “Experimental investigations on solar heat pump systems for single family houses” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The aim of this project is to increase the knowledge of the heat and mass transfer in the combi...

  19. Theoretical-experimental comparison of vitrified glass container behavior using the Castem system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncouyoux, J.P.; Jamet, P.; Combescure, A.; Millard, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares theoretical predictions of vitrified nuclear waste glass package collapse with experimental values in order to qualify the mathematical models describing canister deformation under external pressure loads. After briefly outlining the program and describing the experiments performed, the paper discusses the theoretical predictions based on the INCA code from the CEA's CASTEM system

  20. On the use of fuzzy logics in the operator support system of an experimental facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhaev, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Problems of consrtuction of the computerized operator support system of the experimental device are considered on the basis of the imitation decision-making model which uses the fuzzy logic apparatus for a formal description of the decision-making process. 22 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Experimental Study of Nonlinear Phase Noise and its Impact on WDM Systems with DP-256QAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic method for mitigating the phase noise component of the non-linear interference in WDM systems with Raman amplification is experimentally demonstrated. The achieved gains increase with distance and are comparable to the gains of single-channel digital back-propagation....

  2. Impact-friction vibrations of tubular systems. Numerical simulation and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquart, G.

    1993-05-01

    This note presents a summary on the numerical developments made to simulate impact-friction vibrations of tubular systems, detailing the algorithms used and the expression of impact and friction forces. A synthesis of the experimental results obtained on MASSIF workbench is also presented, as well as their comparison with numerical computations in order to validate the numerical approach. (author). 5 refs

  3. Developing a new experimental system for an undergraduate laboratory exercise to teach theories of visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Shoko; Ushiba, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a flexible motor ability to adapt their movements to changes in the internal/external environment. For example, using arm-reaching tasks, a number of studies experimentally showed that participants adapt to a novel visuomotor environment. These results helped develop computational models of motor learning implemented in the central nervous system. Despite the importance of such experimental paradigms for exploring the mechanisms of motor learning, because of the cost and preparation time, most students are unable to participate in such experiments. Therefore, in the current study, to help students better understand motor learning theories, we developed a simple finger-reaching experimental system using commonly used laptop PC components with an open-source programming language (Processing Motor Learning Toolkit: PMLT). We found that compared to a commercially available robotic arm-reaching device, our PMLT accomplished similar learning goals (difference in the error reduction between the devices, P = 0.10). In addition, consistent with previous reports from visuomotor learning studies, the participants showed after-effects indicating an adaptation of the motor learning system. The results suggest that PMLT can serve as a new experimental system for an undergraduate laboratory exercise of motor learning theories with minimal time and cost for instructors.

  4. Experimental research on passive residual heat remove system for advanced PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yanping; Zhuo Wenbin; Yang Zumao; Xiao Zejun; Chen Bingde

    2003-01-01

    The experimental and qualified results of MISAP in the research of passive residual heat remove system of advanced PWR performed in the Bubble physics and natural circulation laboratory in Nuclear Power Institute of China in the past ten years is overviewed. Further researches for engineering research and design are also suggested

  5. Experimental Methods Related to Coupled Fast-Thermal Systems at the RB Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the review of RB reactor characteristics this presentation is focused on the coupled fast-thermal systems achieved at the reactor. The following experimental methods are presented: neutron spectra measurements; steady state experiments and kinetic measurements ( β eff ) related to the coupled fast-thermal cores

  6. Experimental demonstration of variable weight SAC-OCDMA system for QoS differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    In this paper the experimental and simulation results of variable-weight spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (VW-SAC-OCDMA) system is demonstrated. In the proposed system, three users with weights of 6, 4 and 2 each operating at data rate of 1.25 Gb/s represent video, data and voice services, respectively. Results show that for back-to-back system minimum average power of -20 dBm per chip is required to maintain the acceptable performance. Transmission up to 60 km of fiber is demonstrated. Using mathematical approximation the capacity of VW-SAC-OCDMA system is demonstrated.

  7. An Effective Experimental Optimization Method for Wireless Power Transfer System Design Using Frequency Domain Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyeong Jeong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an experimental optimization method for a wireless power transfer (WPT system. The power transfer characteristics of a WPT system with arbitrary loads and various types of coupling and compensation networks can be extracted by frequency domain measurements. The various performance parameters of the WPT system, such as input real/imaginary/apparent power, power factor, efficiency, output power and voltage gain, can be accurately extracted in a frequency domain by a single passive measurement. Subsequently, the design parameters can be efficiently tuned by separating the overall design steps into two parts. The extracted performance parameters of the WPT system were validated with time-domain experiments.

  8. Experimental applications of an expert system to operator problem solving in process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Jenkins, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored a program to assess the effectiveness of expert systems for nuclear reactor operators. The project has included two human factors experimental evaluations of the Response Tree expert system, a prototype expert system for helping nuclear reactor operators respond to emergency conditions. This paper discusses the Response Tree expert system, the experiments which have been performed to test its effectiveness, and the results of the experiments. Reference is made to the accident at TMI. 12 refs

  9. Substitutional Reality System: A Novel Experimental Platform for Experiencing Alternative Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Wakisaka, Sohei; Fujii, Naotaka

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel experimental platform, referred to as a substitutional reality (SR) system, for studying the conviction of the perception of live reality and related metacognitive functions. The SR system was designed to manipulate people's reality by allowing them to experience live scenes (in which they were physically present) and recorded scenes (which were recorded and edited in advance) in an alternating manner without noticing a reality gap. All of the naïve participants (n =...

  10. Experimental characterization of a concentrating photovoltaic system varying the light concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renno, C.; Petito, F.; Landi, G.; Neitzert, H.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental characterization of a concentrating photovoltaic system. • Analysis of the point-focus concentrating system performances. • Photovoltaic system parameters as function of the concentration factor. - Abstract: The concentrating photovoltaic system represents one of the most promising solar technologies because it allows a more efficient energy conversion. When a CPV system is designed, the main parameter which has to be considered is the concentration factor that affects both the system energy performances and its configuration. An experimental characterization of a CPV system previously realized at the University of Salerno, is presented in this paper considering several aspects related to the optical configuration, the concentration factor and the solar cell used. In particular, the parameters of an Indium Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Arsenide/Germanium triple-junction solar cell are investigated as function of the concentration factor determined by means of an experimental procedure that uses different optical configurations. The maximum concentration factor reached by the CPV system is 310 suns. The cell parameters dependence on the concentration is reported together with an electroluminescence analysis of the Indium Gallium Phosphide/Gallium Arsenide/Germanium cell. A monitoring of the electrical power provided by the system during its working is also presented corresponding to different direct irradiance values. A mean power of 2.95 W with an average efficiency of 32.8% is obtained referring to a mean irradiance of 930 W/m"2; lower values are obtained when the irradiance is highly fluctuating. The concentrating photovoltaic system electric energy output is estimated considering different concentration levels; the maximal obtained value is 23.5 W h on a sunny day at 310×. Finally, the temperature of the triple-junction solar cell is evaluated for different months in order to evaluate the potential annual thermal energy production

  11. An experimental system for coiled tubing partial underbalanced drilling (CT-PUBD) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H. Z.; Ji, Z. S.; Zhao, H. Q.; Chen, Z. L.; Zhang, H. Z.

    2018-05-01

    To improve the rate of penetration (ROP) in hard formations, a new high-speed drilling technique called Coiled Tubing Partial Underbalanced Drilling (CT-PUBD) is proposed. This method uses a rotary packer to realize an underbalanced condition near the bit by creating a micro-annulus and an overbalanced condition at the main part of the annulus. A new full-scale laboratory experimental system is designed and set up to study the hydraulic characteristics and drilling performance of this method. The system is composed of a drilling system, circulation system, and monitor system, including three key devices, namely, cuttings discharge device, rotary packer, and backflow device. The experimental results showed that the pressure loss increased linearly with the flow rate of the drilling fluid. The high drilling speed of CT-PUBD proved it a better drilling method than the conventional drilling. The experimental system may provide a fundamental basis for the research of CT-PUBD, and the results proved that this new method is feasible in enhancing ROP and guaranteeing the drilling safety.

  12. Defining Dynamic Characteristics of Multilink Pendulum System with Comparison of the Calculated and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gribkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the multilink pendulum system consisting of six physical pendulums. A pendulum (carrier has inertia parameters, which significantly exceed the remaining (carried ones placed on the carrier. In addition to the system under analysis, in particular, the paper presents a design scheme for a two-stage liquid fuel rocket using pendulums as the analogues of fluctuating fuel. Pendulum models also find application to solve problems of stabilization of space tether systems. The objective of the study is to determine dynamic characteristics of the said sixmembered pendulum system, as well as to identify specific dynamic properties inherent in objects of this kind. Dynamic characteristics of the system are determined by calculations. A physical model of the pendulum allowed us to compare the calculated and experimental results. To conduct the frequency tests of the pendulum model three pilot units have been created. The first two units turned out to be inappropriate for fulfilling the experimental tasks for various reasons. The third unit enabled us to obtain desirable experimental results. The "calculation–experiment” discrepancy on the natural frequencies of the pendulum model for the majority of frequencies was less than 5%. We analyzed the dynamic features of multilink pendulum systems "carried by the carrier unit links". The analysis results are applicable to the above-noted object classes of rocket and space technology.

  13. Using the Systems-Practice Framework to Understand Food Allergen Management Practices at College Catering Operations: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstappen, Jennie; Mirosa, Miranda; Thomson, Carla

    2018-03-01

    The number of individuals with food allergies or intolerances attending catered university residential colleges is increasing, and safe dining options are required to minimize the risk of allergic reactions and food-induced death. This qualitative research study sought to advance professional knowledge of the factors affecting allergen management practices, particularly pertaining to college foodservices. Three catered residential colleges affiliated with a major university in New Zealand were selected as research sites. The study used an ethnographic approach and systems-practice theory as a framework for data collection and organizing results. Data collection techniques included document analyses (3 hours per site), observations (6 to 8 hours per site), focus groups with foodservice workers (30 to 45 minutes per site, n=16), and interviews with foodservice managers (45 to 90 minutes per interview, n=5). Notes and transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using NVivo for Mac software, version 11.1.1, to identify factors affecting allergen management practices. The main factors affecting allergen management practices at college foodservices included information provided by residents about dietary requirements; communication between residents and foodservice staff; systems for allergen management; attitude of foodservice staff; and college size. Detailed dietary information, effective communication with residents, sufficient resources, clarification of responsibilities, and thorough systems are required for staff to perform safe allergen management practices. Ultimately, successful implementation was predominantly determined by staff attitude. Foodservice managers are advised to identify motivators and address barriers of staff attitudes toward allergen management practices to promote successful implementation. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative assessment of key parameters in qualitative vulnerability methods applied in karst systems based on an integrated numerical modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, Joanna; Kassem, Assaad

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of a three-year PEER (USAID/NSF) funded project, flow in a Karst system in Lebanon (Assal) dominated by snow and semi arid conditions was simulated and successfully calibrated using an integrated numerical model (MIKE-She 2016) based on high resolution input data and detailed catchment characterization. Point source infiltration and fast flow pathways were simulated by a bypass function and a high conductive lens respectively. The approach consisted of identifying all the factors used in qualitative vulnerability methods (COP, EPIK, PI, DRASTIC, GOD) applied in karst systems and to assess their influence on recharge signals in the different hydrological karst compartments (Atmosphere, Unsaturated zone and Saturated zone) based on the integrated numerical model. These parameters are usually attributed different weights according to their estimated impact on Groundwater vulnerability. The aim of this work is to quantify the importance of each of these parameters and outline parameters that are not accounted for in standard methods, but that might play a role in the vulnerability of a system. The spatial distribution of the detailed evapotranspiration, infiltration, and recharge signals from atmosphere to unsaturated zone to saturated zone was compared and contrasted among different surface settings and under varying flow conditions (e.g., in varying slopes, land cover, precipitation intensity, and soil properties as well point source infiltration). Furthermore a sensitivity analysis of individual or coupled major parameters allows quantifying their impact on recharge and indirectly on vulnerability. The preliminary analysis yields a new methodology that accounts for most of the factors influencing vulnerability while refining the weights attributed to each one of them, based on a quantitative approach.

  15. Experimental study on a new solar boiling water system with holistic track solar funnel concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodi, Xue; Hongfei, Zheng; Kaiyan, He; Zhili, Chen; Tao, Tao; Guo, Xie

    2010-01-01

    A new solar boiling water system with conventional vacuum-tube solar collector as primary heater and the holistic solar funnel concentrator as secondary heater had been designed. In this paper, the system was measured out door and its performance was analyzed. The configuration and operation principle of the system are described. Variations of the boiled water yield, the temperature of the stove and the solar irradiance with local time have been measured. Main factors affecting the system performance have been analyzed. The experimental results indicate that the system produced large amount of boiled water. And the performance of the system has been found closely related to the solar radiance. When the solar radiance is above 600 W/m 2 , the boiled water yield rate of the system has reached 20 kg/h and its total energy efficiency has exceeded 40%.

  16. Data acquisition system and performance based on Apple II for using in experimental physics - Applications to spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.F.; Castro, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer based system oriented to experimental physics is described. The system was developed to achieve versatility, low cost, reliability and easy utilization. An application to this system to a dispersive spectrophotometer is also included. (author) [pt

  17. The Barriers to Achieve Financial Protection in Iranian Health System: A Qualitative Study in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Seyran; Moradi, Tayebeh; Tavangar, Fateh; Bahrami, Giti; Shahboulaghi, Mohammadi; Ghiasvand, Hesam

    2017-09-01

    The move to universal health coverage and consequently health promotion is influenced by political, socio-economic and other contextual factors in a country. Iran, as a developing country with an upper-middle national income, has developed policies to achieve universal health coverage through financial protection. This study aims to investigate barriers to develop financial protection as a requirement to achieve universal health coverage. This qualitative study was conducted using 20 in-depth interviews with experts in social welfare, health insurance and financing. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the data. The results have been categorized in three major themes that were extracted from ten sub-themes. The major themes included the political, social and economic context of the country, the context and structure of healthcare system and dimensions of UHC. Achieving financial protection as a long-term objective should be considered as a priority among Iranian policy makers that requires an inter-sectoral collaboration with a defined in-charge body. Health policy makers in Iran should develop a more comprehensive benefits package for diseases and health conditions with catastrophic consequences. They also should develop a plan to cover the poor people.

  18. Patients' experiences with routine outcome monitoring and clinical feedback systems: A systematic review and synthesis of qualitative empirical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solstad, Stig Magne; Castonguay, Louis Georges; Moltu, Christian

    2017-05-19

    Routine outcome monitoring (ROM) and clinical feedback (CF) systems have become important tools for psychological therapies, but there are challenges for their successful implementation. To overcome these challenges, a greater understanding is needed about how patients experience the use of ROM/CF. We conducted a systematic literature search of qualitative studies on patient experiences with the use of ROM/CF in mental health services. The findings from 16 studies were synthesized, resulting in four meta-themes: (1) Suspicion towards service providers, (2) Flexibility and support to capture complexity, (3) Empowering patients, and (4) Developing collaborative practice. We discuss the implications of these meta-themes for further development and implementation of ROM/CF into clinical practice, acknowledging the limitations of our review and suggesting avenues for further research. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: This article provides useful and actionable knowledge about the patient perspective on ROM/CF, an important discussion on the current state of research in this area, and useful and concrete suggestions for further avenues of research.

  19. Referral Systems to Integrate Health and Economic Strengthening Services for People with HIV: A Qualitative Assessment in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Clinton; Andersson, Zach; Cann, Meredith

    2016-12-23

    Supporting the diverse needs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can help reduce the individual and structural barriers they face in adhering to antiretroviral treatment (ART). The Livelihoods and Food Security Technical Assistance II (LIFT) project sought to improve adherence in Malawi by establishing 2 referral systems linking community-based economic strengthening and livelihoods services to clinical health facilities. One referral system in Balaka district, started in October 2013, connected clients to more than 20 types of services while the other simplified approach in Kasungu and Lilongwe districts, started in July 2014, connected PLHIV attending HIV and nutrition support facilities directly to community savings groups. From June to July 2015, LIFT visited referral sites in Balaka, Kasungu, and Lilongwe districts to collect qualitative data on referral utility, the perceived association of referrals with client and household health and vulnerability, and the added value of the referral system as perceived by network member providers. We interviewed a random sample of 152 adult clients (60 from Balaka, 57 from Kasungu, and 35 from Lilongwe) who had completed their referral. We also conducted 2 focus group discussions per district with network providers. Clients in all 3 districts indicated their ability to save money had improved after receiving a referral, although the percentage was higher among clients in the simplified Kasungu and Lilongwe model than the more complex Balaka model (85.6% vs. 56.0%, respectively). Nearly 70% of all clients interviewed had HIV infection; 72.7% of PLHIV in Balaka and 95.7% of PLHIV in Kasungu and Lilongwe credited referrals for helping them stay on their ART. After the referral, 76.0% of clients in Balaka and 92.3% of clients in Kasungu and Lilongwe indicated they would be willing to spend their savings on health costs. The more diverse referral network and use of an mHealth app to manage data in Balaka hindered provider uptake

  20. Beneficiaries of conflict: a qualitative study of people’s trust in the private health care system in Mogadishu, Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Ahmed, Mohamed Yusuf; Kour, Prabhjot; Moallim, Sadiyo Ali; Salad, Abdulwahab Moallim; Kumar, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2005, the World Health Conference called for all nations to move toward universal health coverage, which is defined as “access to adequate health care for all at an affordable price”. Despite this, an estimated 90% of Somalia’s largely impoverished population use private health care. Therefore, considering that the private health care system is the dominant health care system in Mogadishu, Somalia, exploring the accessibility to, as well as people’s trust in, the private sector is essential to help contribute an equitable and affordable health care system in the country. Methods A qualitative study using unstructured interviews was conducted in Mogadishu from August to November of 2016. A purposive sampling approach was used to recruit 23 participants, including seven medical doctors who own private health centers, eight patients, five medical students and three senior officials who work for the Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Results Our findings show that the private health care system in Mogadishu is not only unregulated but also expensive, with the cost of health care often unaffordable for the majority of the country’s citizens. There is evidence of prescription of inappropriate treatment, tendency to conduct unnecessary laboratory tests, excessive use of higher diagnostic technologies and overcharging – including the widespread practice of further appointments for follow-up – which inflates the costs. The study also found poor patient–provider relationship and widespread distrust of the private health care system. Conclusion The study findings underline the need for the Somali government to develop regulatory mechanisms and guidelines with the potential to guide the private health care sector to provide equitable and affordable health care to people in Mogadishu. The doctor–patient relationship has been – and remains – a keystone of care; thus, there is an urgent need for guidelines for

  1. Beneficiaries of conflict: a qualitative study of people's trust in the private health care system in Mogadishu, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Ahmed, Mohamed Yusuf; Kour, Prabhjot; Moallim, Sadiyo Ali; Salad, Abdulwahab Moallim; Kumar, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    In 2005, the World Health Conference called for all nations to move toward universal health coverage, which is defined as "access to adequate health care for all at an affordable price". Despite this, an estimated 90% of Somalia's largely impoverished population use private health care. Therefore, considering that the private health care system is the dominant health care system in Mogadishu, Somalia, exploring the accessibility to, as well as people's trust in, the private sector is essential to help contribute an equitable and affordable health care system in the country. A qualitative study using unstructured interviews was conducted in Mogadishu from August to November of 2016. A purposive sampling approach was used to recruit 23 participants, including seven medical doctors who own private health centers, eight patients, five medical students and three senior officials who work for the Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Our findings show that the private health care system in Mogadishu is not only unregulated but also expensive, with the cost of health care often unaffordable for the majority of the country's citizens. There is evidence of prescription of inappropriate treatment, tendency to conduct unnecessary laboratory tests, excessive use of higher diagnostic technologies and overcharging - including the widespread practice of further appointments for follow-up - which inflates the costs. The study also found poor patient-provider relationship and widespread distrust of the private health care system. The study findings underline the need for the Somali government to develop regulatory mechanisms and guidelines with the potential to guide the private health care sector to provide equitable and affordable health care to people in Mogadishu. The doctor-patient relationship has been - and remains - a keystone of care; thus, there is an urgent need for guidelines for private health care providers to treat their patients with

  2. Beneficiaries of conflict: a qualitative study of people’s trust in the private health care system in Mogadishu, Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele AA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abdi A Gele,1–3 Mohamed Yusuf Ahmed,4 Prabhjot Kour,2 Sadiyo Ali Moallim,5 Abdulwahab Moallim Salad,3 Bernadette Kumar2 1Institute of Nursing and Health Promotion, Department of Health, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Science, 2Department for Research, Norwegian Centre for Minority Health Research, Oslo, Norway; 3Center for Health Research, Somali National University, 4Department of Business Management, Simad University, 5Faculty of Medicine, Benadir University, Mogadishu, Somalia Background: In 2005, the World Health Conference called for all nations to move toward universal health coverage, which is defined as “access to adequate health care for all at an affordable price”. Despite this, an estimated 90% of Somalia’s largely impoverished population use private health care. Therefore, considering that the private health care system is the dominant health care system in Mogadishu, Somalia, exploring the accessibility to, as well as people’s trust in, the private sector is essential to help contribute an equitable and affordable health care system in the country.Methods: A qualitative study using unstructured interviews was conducted in Mogadishu from August to November of 2016. A purposive sampling approach was used to recruit 23 participants, including seven medical doctors who own private health centers, eight patients, five medical students and three senior officials who work for the Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis.Results: Our findings show that the private health care system in Mogadishu is not only unregulated but also expensive, with the cost of health care often unaffordable for the majority of the country’s citizens. There is evidence of prescription of inappropriate treatment, tendency to conduct unnecessary laboratory tests, excessive use of higher diagnostic technologies and overcharging – including the widespread practice of further appointments for follow-up – which

  3. Perceptions of general practitioners towards the use of a new system for treating back pain: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tom; Foster, Nadine E; Ong, Bie Nio

    2011-05-09

    Changing clinicians' behaviour is recognised as a major challenge. It is clear that behaviour change not only depends on demonstrating the proven effectiveness of clinical interventions; contextual and occupational factors, such as 'change readiness', may be central to their implementation. This paper highlights the context of behaviour change in relation to a healthcare innovation introduced within primary care, highlighting the importance of organisational and interpersonal factors that may help explain the dynamics of implementation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with general practitioners (GPs) before (n = 32) and after (n = 9) the introduction of a subgrouping for targeted treatment system. GPs were offered an electronic six-item subgrouping tool, to identify patients according to their risk of poor outcome ('high', 'low') in order to help inform their decision making about treatment approaches. Recruitment was based on a 'maximum diversification sample', to obtain a wide representation of views across all five practices. A coding scheme was developed based on the emergent findings, and the data were analysed using 'constant comparison', drawing upon insights and developing connections between themes. We adopted the normalisation process theory (NPT) to explain the uptake of the new system and to examine the relevance of coherence for the implementation of innovations in organisations. GPs perceived back pain as a low clinical priority, and highlighted the importance of 'practical' and 'relational' coherence in decisions to adopt and engage with the new subgrouping for targeted treatment system. Health professionals often engage in 'sense making' about new innovations to 'road test' their applicability or relevance to daily clinical routines. Low back pain was generally perceived as an 'uninteresting' and clinically unchallenging health problem by GPs, which may partly explain their lack of engagement with the new subgrouping for targeted treatment

  4. Perceptions of general practitioners towards the use of a new system for treating back pain: a qualitative interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Nadine E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changing clinicians' behaviour is recognised as a major challenge. It is clear that behaviour change not only depends on demonstrating the proven effectiveness of clinical interventions; contextual and occupational factors, such as 'change readiness', may be central to their implementation. This paper highlights the context of behaviour change in relation to a healthcare innovation introduced within primary care, highlighting the importance of organisational and interpersonal factors that may help explain the dynamics of implementation. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with general practitioners (GPs before (n = 32 and after (n = 9 the introduction of a subgrouping for targeted treatment system. GPs were offered an electronic six-item subgrouping tool, to identify patients according to their risk of poor outcome ('high', 'low' in order to help inform their decision making about treatment approaches. Recruitment was based on a 'maximum diversification sample', to obtain a wide representation of views across all five practices. A coding scheme was developed based on the emergent findings, and the data were analysed using 'constant comparison', drawing upon insights and developing connections between themes. We adopted the normalisation process theory (NPT to explain the uptake of the new system and to examine the relevance of coherence for the implementation of innovations in organisations. Results GPs perceived back pain as a low clinical priority, and highlighted the importance of 'practical' and 'relational' coherence in decisions to adopt and engage with the new subgrouping for targeted treatment system. Health professionals often engage in 'sense making' about new innovations to 'road test' their applicability or relevance to daily clinical routines. Low back pain was generally perceived as an 'uninteresting' and clinically unchallenging health problem by GPs, which may partly explain their lack of engagement

  5. Systemic steroid reduces long-term hearing loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common complication of pneumococcal meningitis. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces inflammatory response and may thereby reduce hearing loss. However, both experimental studies and clinical trials investigating the effect of corticosteroids on hearing loss have...... generated conflicting results. The objective of the present study was to determine whether systemic steroid treatment had an effect on hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis.......Sensorineural hearing loss is a common complication of pneumococcal meningitis. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces inflammatory response and may thereby reduce hearing loss. However, both experimental studies and clinical trials investigating the effect of corticosteroids on hearing loss have...

  6. Flexible prototype of modular multilevel converters for experimental verification of DC transmission and multiterminal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konstantinou, Georgios; Ceballos, Salvador; Gabiola, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Testing and verification of high-level and low-level control, modulation, fault handling and converter co-ordination for modular multilevel converters (MMCs) requires development of experimental prototype converters. In this paper, we provide a a complete overview of the MMC-based experimental...... prototype at UNSW Sydney (The University of New South Wales) including the structure of the sub-modules, communication, control and protection functions as well as the possible configurations of the system. The prototype, rated at a dc voltage of up to 800 V and power of 20 kVA and can be used to study...

  7. Experimental evaluation of high speed impulse radio UWB interference on WiMAX narrowband systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Yin, Xiaoli; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2010-01-01

    Interference of high speed impulse radio ultrawideband (IR-UWB) on 5.735GHz single carrier 64/256-QAM WiMAX narrowband signals is experimentally investigated. The experimental results indicate that the coexistence of 625Mbps and 2Gbps IR-UWB signals causes penalties of 3dB and 0.5dB respectively...... to the WiMAX channel. At higher bit rates, IR-UWB technology is therefore expected to reduce its interference on WiMAX signals. This work serves as further motivation for the exploration of IR-UWB systems with higher speed and higher capacity....

  8. Electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use during smoking cessation: a qualitative study of 40 Oklahoma quitline callers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Katrina A; Beebe, Laura A; Schauer, Gillian L; Magnusson, Brooke; King, Brian A

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 10% (40 000) of US quitline enrollees who smoke cigarettes report current use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS); however, little is known about callers' ENDS use. Our aim was to describe why and how quitline callers use ENDS, their beliefs about ENDS and the impact of ENDS use on callers' quit processes and use of FDA-approved cessation medications. Qualitative interviews conducted 1-month postregistration. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, double-coded and analysed to identify themes. Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline. 40 callers aged ≥18 who were seeking help to quit smoking were using ENDS at registration and completed ≥1 programme calls. At 1-month postregistration interview, 80% of callers had smoked cigarettes in the last 7 days, almost two-thirds were using ENDS, and half were using cessation medications. Nearly all believed ENDS helped them quit or cut down on smoking; however, participants were split on whether they would recommend cessation medications, ENDS or both together for quitting. Confusion and misinformation about potential harms of ENDS and cessation medications were reported. Participants reported using ENDS in potentially adaptive ways (eg, using ENDS to cut down and nicotine replacement therapy to quit, and stepping down nicotine in ENDS to wean off ENDS after quitting) and maladaptive ways (eg, frequent automatic ENDS use, using ENDS in situations they did not previously smoke, cutting down on smoking using ENDS without a schedule or plan to quit), which could impact the likelihood of quitting smoking or continuing ENDS use. These qualitative findings suggest quitline callers who use ENDS experience confusion and misinformation about ENDS and FDA-approved cessation medications. Callers also use ENDS in ways that may not facilitate quitting smoking. Opportunities exist for quitlines to educate ENDS users and help them create a coordinated plan most likely to result in completely quitting combustible tobacco

  9. Absorber and regenerator models for liquid desiccant air conditioning systems. Validation and comparison using experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, M.; Heinzen, R.; Jordan, U.; Vajen, K. [Kassel Univ., Inst. of Thermal Engineering, Kassel (Germany); Saman, W.; Halawa, E. [Sustainable Energy Centre, Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Solar assisted air conditioning systems using liquid desiccants represent a promising option to decrease high summer energy demand caused by electrically driven vapor compression machines. The main components of liquid desiccant systems are absorbers for dehumidifying and cooling of supply air and regenerators for concentrating the desiccant. However, high efficient and validated reliable components are required and the design and operation have to be adjusted to each respective building design, location, and user demand. Simulation tools can help to optimize component and system design. The present paper presents new developed numerical models for absorbers and regenerators, as well as experimental data of a regenerator prototype. The models have been compared with a finite-difference method model as well as experimental data. The data are gained from the regenerator prototype presented and an absorber presented in the literature. (orig.)

  10. Numerical and experimental analysis of a horizontal ground-coupled heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esen, Hikmet; Esen, Mehmet [Department of Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, University of Firat, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Inalli, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Firat, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-03-15

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate a heat pump system using the ground as a source of heat. A ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system has been installed and tested at the test room, University of Firat, Elazig, Turkey. Results obtained during experimental testing are presented and discussed here. The coefficient of performance (COP{sub sys}) of the GCHP system is determined from the measured data. A numerical model of heat transfer in the ground was developed for determining the temperature distribution in the vicinity of the pipe. The finite difference approximation is used for numerical analysis. It is observed that the numerical results agree with the experimental results. (author) (author)

  11. Testing devices or experimental systems? Cancer clinical trials take the genomic turn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole C; Keating, Peter; Cambrosio, Alberto; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana; Basik, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Clinical trials are often described as machine-like systems for generating specific information concerning drug safety and efficacy, and are understood as a component of the industrial drug development processes. This paper argues that contemporary clinical trials in oncology are not reducible to mere drug testing. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with researchers in the field of oncology from 2010 to 2013, we introduce a conceptual contrast between trials as testing machines and trials as clinical experimental systems to draw attention to the ways trials are increasingly being used to ask open-ended scientific questions. When viewed as testing machines, clinical trials are seen as a means to produce answers to straightforward questions and deviations from the protocol are seen as bugs in the system; but practitioners can also treat trials as clinical experimental systems to investigate as yet undefined problems and where heterogeneity becomes a means to produce novel biological or clinical insights. The rise of "biomarker-driven" clinical trials in oncology, which link measurable biological characteristics such as genetic mutations to clinical features such as a patient's response to a particular drug, exemplifies a trend towards more experimental styles of clinical work. These transformations are congruent with changes in the institutional structure of clinical research in oncology, including a movement towards more flexible, networked research arrangements, and towards using individual patients as model systems for asking biological questions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Summary: Experimental validation of real-time fault-tolerant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R. K.; Choi, G. S.

    1992-01-01

    Testing and validation of real-time systems is always difficult to perform since neither the error generation process nor the fault propagation problem is easy to comprehend. There is no better substitute to results based on actual measurements and experimentation. Such results are essential for developing a rational basis for evaluation and validation of real-time systems. However, with physical experimentation, controllability and observability are limited to external instrumentation that can be hooked-up to the system under test. And this process is quite a difficult, if not impossible, task for a complex system. Also, to set up such experiments for measurements, physical hardware must exist. On the other hand, a simulation approach allows flexibility that is unequaled by any other existing method for system evaluation. A simulation methodology for system evaluation was successfully developed and implemented and the environment was demonstrated using existing real-time avionic systems. The research was oriented toward evaluating the impact of permanent and transient faults in aircraft control computers. Results were obtained for the Bendix BDX 930 system and Hamilton Standard EEC131 jet engine controller. The studies showed that simulated fault injection is valuable, in the design stage, to evaluate the susceptibility of computing sytems to different types of failures.

  13. Experimental and economic study of a greenhouse thermal control system using aquifer water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 008, Punjab (India)]. E-mail: vpsethi68@yahoo.co.in; Sharma, S.K. [Energy Research Centre, Punjab University, Chandigarh 160 017, Punjab (India)

    2007-01-15

    Underground aquifer water is used for thermal control (heating as well as cooling) of a greenhouse in which chilli and capsicum are grown. Year round performance of the designed system is experimentally evaluated and presented. The designed system utilizes the constant temperature aquifer water available on the ground surface at around 24 deg. C (year round) in the agricultural field through deep tubewell used for irrigation purposes for heating a greenhouse in winter nights and cooling in summer days. Experimental performance of the designed system is tested during a full winter as well as for summer conditions. To enhance the efficiency of the system and to improve relative humidity during extreme summer conditions, a simple evaporative cooling process is also added within the same designed system. The experimental results show that the average greenhouse room air temperature is maintained 7-9 deg. C above ambient during winter nights and 6-7 deg. C below ambient in summer days besides decreasing the daily temperature fluctuations inside the greenhouse. Improvement in the average relative humidity during extreme summer conditions is also observed. Technoeconomic analysis of the greenhouse integrated to the designed aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system (ACCFHES) is also conducted based on the yield of capsicum and chilli crops and compared with those of the greenhouse without any thermal control system and the open field condition yields. An economic comparison of the ACCFHES has also been made with other existing thermal control technologies such as the earth air heat exchanger system, ground air collector, evaporative cooling using foggers and a fan and pad system.

  14. Interlaboratory study of DNA extraction from multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR for individual kernel detection system of genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Makiyma, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Teshima, Reiko; Nakashima, Akie; Ogawa, Asako; Yamagishi, Toru; Futo, Satoshi; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, the labeling of grains, feed, and foodstuff is mandatory if the genetically modified (GM) organism content exceeds a certain level of approved GM varieties. We previously developed an individual kernel detection system consisting of grinding individual kernels, DNA extraction from the individually ground kernels, GM detection using multiplex real-time PCR, and GM event detection using multiplex qualitative PCR to analyze the precise commingling level and varieties of GM maize in real sample grains. We performed the interlaboratory study of the DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR detection, and multiplex qualitative PCR detection to evaluate its applicability, practicality, and ruggedness for the individual kernel detection system of GM maize. DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR were evaluated by five laboratories in Japan, and all results from these laboratories were consistent with the expected results in terms of the commingling level and event analysis. Thus, the DNA extraction with multiple ground samples, multiplex real-time PCR, and multiplex qualitative PCR for the individual kernel detection system is applicable and practicable in a laboratory to regulate the commingling level of GM maize grain for GM samples, including stacked GM maize.

  15. Experimental and thermodynamic study of the erbium-oxygen-zirconium and gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdan, J.

    2009-11-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of innovative concepts for fuel cladding in pressurized water nuclear reactors. This concept implies the insertion of rare earth (erbium and gadolinium) in the zirconium fuel cladding. The determination of phase equilibria in the systems is essential prior to the implementation of such a promising solution. This study consisted in an experimental determination of the erbium-zirconium phase diagram. For this, we used many different techniques in order to obtain diagram data such as solubility limits, solidus, liquidus or invariant temperatures. These data allowed us to present a new diagram, very different from the previous one available in the literature. We also assessed the diagram using the CALPHAD approach. In the gadolinium-zirconium system, we determined experimentally the solubility limits. Those limits had never been determined before, and the values we obtained showed a very good agreement with the experimental and assessed versions of the diagram. Because these alloys are subjected to oxygen diffusion throughout their life, we focused our attention on the erbium-oxygen-zirconium and gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium systems. The first system has been investigated experimentally. The alloys fabrication has been performed using powder metallurgy. In order to obtain pure raw materials, we fabricated powder from erbium and zirconium bulk metals using hydrogen absorption/desorption. The characterisation of the ternary pellets allowed the determination of two ternary isothermal sections at 800 and 1100 C. For the gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium system, we calculated the phase equilibria at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100 C, using a homemade database compiled from literature assessments of the oxygen-zirconium, gadolinium-zirconium and gadolinia-zirconia systems. Finally, we determined the mechanical properties, in connexion with the microstructure, of industrial quality alloys in order to identify the influence of

  16. Experimental study of a cascade solar still coupled with a humidification–dehumidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farshchi Tabrizi, Farshad; Khosravi, Meisam; Shirzaei Sani, Iman

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this study, coupling of a cascade solar still with a humidification–dehumidification system investigated experimentally. In addition, the effects of different operating conditions and configurations on thermal performance and productivity of the under investigation solar system were studied. - Highlights: • We investigate coupling of a cascade solar still with a humidification–dehumidification system. • The effects of different operating conditions on thermal performance were studied. • Temperature and flow rate of feed water as well as air process flow rate had undeniable effects on the productivity. • Coupling several CSS systems with just one HD system to maximize the productivity. • Enhancing daily productivity of coupling system from 28% to 141% for 40–150 ml/min flow rates, respectively. - Abstract: In this study, coupling of a cascade solar still with a humidification–dehumidification system was investigated experimentally under the climatological conditions of Zahedan (Latitude: 29.49, Longitude: 60.87), Iran. The inclined solar stills produce distillated and hot water simultaneously. In addition, the effects of different operating conditions and configurations on thermal performance and productivity of the solar system were studied. The effect of feed water and air flow rates on the daily productivity of HD system in different conditions such as feed water temperature has been investigated. The daily productivity of cascade solar still with and without HD system at different flow rates is investigated. Moreover, the end result of assembling the HD system with a cascade solar still was studied. The daily productivity of the system increases from 28% to 141% in the presence of humidification–dehumidification system. It also improves the thermal efficiency from 9% to 20% after using 40–150 ml/min of flow rate, respectively. The maximum productivity and efficiency were 5.4 kg/m"2 day and 39% for minimum flow rate.

  17. Experimental research progress on passive safety systems of Chinese advanced PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zejun; Zhuo Wenbin; Zheng Hua; Chen Bingde; Zong Guifang; Jia Dounan

    2003-01-01

    TMI and Chernobyl accidents, having pronounced impact on nuclear industries, triggered the governments as well as interested institutions to devote much attention to the safety of nuclear power plant and public's requirements on nuclear power plant safety were also going to be stricter and stricter. It is obvious that safety level of an ordinary light water reactor is no longer satisfactory to these requirements. Recently, the safety authorities have recommended the implementation of passive system to improve the safety of nuclear reactors. Passive safety system is one of the main differences between Chinese advanced PWR and other conventional PWR. The working principle of passive safety system is to utilize the gravity, natural convection (natural circulation) and stored energy to implement the system's safety function. Reactors with passive safety systems are not only safer, but also more economical. The passive safety system of Chinese advanced PWR is composed of three independent systems, i.e. passive containment cooling system, passive residual heat removal system and passive core makeup tank injection system. This paper is a summary of experimental research progress on passive containment cooling system, passive residual heat removal system and passive core makeup tank injection system

  18. Health workers' experiences of coping with the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone's health system: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Joanna; Wurie, Haja; Witter, Sophie

    2018-04-05

    The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease epidemic evolved in alarming ways in Sierra Leone spreading to all districts. The country struggled to control it against a backdrop of a health system that was already over-burdened. Health workers play an important role during epidemics but there is limited research on how they cope during health epidemics in fragile states. This paper explores the challenges faced by health workers and their coping strategies during the Ebola outbreak in four districts - Bonthe, Kenema, Koinadugu and Western Area - of Sierra Leone. We used a qualitative study design: key informant interviews (n = 19) with members of the District Health Management Teams and local councils, health facility managers and international partners; and in depth interviews with health workers (n = 25) working in public health facilities and international health workers involved with the treatment of Ebola patients. There were several important coping strategies including those that drew upon existing mechanisms: being sustained by religion, a sense of serving their country and community, and peer and family support. Externally derived strategies included: training which built health worker confidence in providing care; provision of equipment to do their job safely; a social media platform which helped health workers deal with challenges; workshops that provided ways to deal with the stigma associated with being a health worker; and the risk allowance, which motivated staff to work in facilities and provided an additional income source. Supportive supervision, peer support networks and better use of communication technology should be pursued, alongside a programme for rebuilding trusting relations with community structures. The challenge is building these mechanisms into routine systems, pre-empting shocks, rather than waiting to respond belatedly to crises.

  19. Applying a food processing-based classification system to a food guide: a qualitative analysis of the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Vanessa Fernandes; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Medeiros, Kharla Janinny; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2018-01-01

    The present paper aimed to identify the stakeholders, as well as their arguments and recommendations, in the debate on the application of a food processing-based classification system to the new Brazilian Food Guide. Qualitative approach; an analysis was made of documents resulting from the consultation conducted for the development of the new Brazilian Food Guide, which uses the NOVA classification for its dietary recommendations. A thematic matrix was constructed and the resulting themes represented the main points for discussion raised during the consultation. Brazil. Actors from academia, government and associations/unions/professional bodies/organizations related to the area of nutrition and food security; non-profit institutions linked to consumer interests and civil society organizations; organizations, associations and food unions linked to the food industry; and individuals. Four themes were identified: (i) conflicting paradigms; (ii) different perceptions about the role and need of individuals; (iii) we want more from the new food guide; and (iv) a sustainable guide. There was extensive participation from different sectors of society. The debate generated by the consultation revealed two main conflicting opinions: a view aligned with the interests of the food industry and a view of healthy eating which serves the interests of the population. The first group was against the adoption of a food processing-based classification system in a public policy such as the new Brazilian Food Guide. The second group, although mostly agreeing with the new food guide, argued that it failed to address some important issues related to the food and nutrition agenda in Brazil.

  20. What supports do health system organizations have in place to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Moriah E; Léon, Gregory; Bouchard, Gisèle; Lavis, John N; Ouimet, Mathieu; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2013-08-06

    Decisions regarding health systems are sometimes made without the input of timely and reliable evidence, leading to less than optimal health outcomes. Healthcare organizations can implement tools and infrastructures to support the use of research evidence to inform decision-making. The purpose of this study was to profile the supports and instruments (i.e., programs, interventions, instruments or tools) that healthcare organizations currently have in place and which ones were perceived to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making. In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with individuals in three different types of positions (i.e., a senior management team member, a library manager, and a 'knowledge broker') in three types of healthcare organizations (i.e., regional health authorities, hospitals and primary care practices) in two Canadian provinces (i.e., Ontario and Quebec). The interviews were taped, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. A total of 57 interviews were conducted in 25 organizations in Ontario and Quebec. The main findings suggest that, for the healthcare organizations that participated in this study, the following supports facilitate evidence-informed decision-making: facilitating roles that actively promote research use within the organization; establishing ties to researchers and opinion leaders outside the organization; a technical infrastructure that provides access to research evidence, such as databases; and provision and participation in training programs to enhance staff's capacity building. This study identified the need for having a receptive climate, which laid the foundation for the implementation of other tangible initiatives and supported the use of research in decision-making. This study adds to the literature on organizational efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in decision-making. Some of the identified supports may increase the use of