Sample records for experimental results obtained

  1. JFIT: a framework to obtain combined experimental results through joint fits

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080561; Echenard, Bertrand; Latham, Thomas E


    A framework is presented for obtaining combined experimental results through joint fits of datasets from several experiments. The JFIT framework allows such fits to be performed keeping the data separated, in its original format, and using independent fitting environments, thus simplifying the process with respect to data access policies. It is based on a master-server architecture, using the network communication classes from ROOT. The framework provides an optimal way to exploit data from several experiments: it ensures that correlations are correctly taken into account and results in a better determination of nuisance parameters. Its advantages are discussed and illustrated by two examples from the domain of high energy physics.

  2. Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System CERN LHC and SNS Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Delcayre, F; Hamber, F; Hilbert, B; Monneret, E; Toia, J L


    Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high‐capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC wil...

  3. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, T; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M; Kinoshita, H; Takahashi, T


    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the co...

  4. Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System: CERN LHC and SNS Projects (United States)

    Delcayre, F.; Courty, J.-C.; Hamber, F.; Hilbert, B.; Monneret, E.; Toia, J.-L.


    Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high-capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC will be detailed. The principles of control for the CCC in series will be detailed.

  5. Strain localization in sand: an overview of the experimental results obtained in Grenoble using stereophotogrammetry (United States)

    Desrues, Jacques; Viggiani, Gioacchino


    Experimental results are presented from the extensive program of drained plane strain compression tests on sand carried out in Grenoble over the last two decades. Systematic analysis of photographs of the deforming specimen allowed for measuring deformations and determining strain fields throughout the test, that is: prior to, at, and after the onset of strain localization. The principles, details and accuracy of the procedure are described, as well as its suitability to properly depict the patterns of deformation. Findings concerning the occurrence and progression of strain localization are discussed. The issues of shear band orientation and thickness are addressed, as well as temporary and persistent complex localization patterns, and the volumetric behaviour inside a band after its formation. The influence of such variables as initial state of the sand (effective stress and relative density), specimen size and slenderness, as well as grain size, is discussed. Copyright

  6. First results obtained from the soft x-ray pulse height analyzer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. (United States)

    Xu, P; Lin, S Y; Hu, L Q; Duan, Y M; Zhang, J Z; Chen, K Y; Zhong, G Q


    An assembly of soft x-ray pulse height analyzer system, based on silicon drift detector (SDD), has been successfully established on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) to measure the spectrum of soft x-ray emission (E=1-20 keV). The system, including one 15-channel SDD linear array, is installed on EAST horizontal port C. The time-resolved radial profiles of electron temperature and K(alpha) intensities of metallic impurities have been obtained with a spatial resolution of around 7 cm during a single discharge. It was found that the electron temperatures derived from the system are in good agreement with the values from Thomson scattering measurements. The system can also be applied to the measurement of the long pulse discharge for EAST. The diagnostic system is introduced and some typical experimental results obtained from the system are also presented.

  7. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M


    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  8. The role of testing realism on experimentally obtained stereotype strength. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Whitfield, Richard C


    It has been shown (Hoffmann 2009) that pencil-and-paper tests, when used to determine stereotype strength, may yield data quite different to that obtained from hardware tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of realism required in order to have stereotypes that are consistent with real-world values. It is surprising that there does not appear to be any published research addressing this problem; all previous researches have considered either paper/pencil or hardware tests or sometimes both, but no level of simulation in between these techniques. In order to determine the effect of level of testing realism, a specific example was chosen to test, that of water tap operation stereotypes. Tests used verbal questioning, photographs of tap arrangements, a partial hardware arrangement and finally a full hardware setup. The results of these four levels of realism were very different and illustrated that, only with a full realistic simulation, did participants respond as might be expected in a real-world environment, illustrating the importance of testing realism when determining population stereotypes. This result has strong implications for product designers when selecting appropriate layouts of displays and controls and the linkages relating these. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OTAVOVÁ, Miroslava


    Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses the results of statistical analysis of differences among scores obtained by students of different faculties of the University of Economics in Prague. The analysed dataset contains the scores for 2256 students that took basic mathematics course during the academic year 2013/2014. A two way analysis of variance was performed with semester and faculty as main factors. The interaction between these two factors was also considered. Students have to take two tests. At first, the sum of the scores obtained from both tests is analysed and then, the two tests are analysed separately. It turns out that the significance of factors is the same in the three analyses. The assumptions of linear models are verified. Due to problem of heteroscedasticity, weighted least squares are used and the possibility of using Box-Cox transformation is also discussed, as the errors are not normally distributed. Finally, the differences between the faculties are described.

  10. CSCM: Experimental and Simulation Results

    CERN Document Server

    Rowan, S; Brodzinski, K; Charifoulline, Z; Denz, R; Romera, I; Roger, V; Siemko, A; Schmidt, R; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H; Verweij, A; Willering, G; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M; Pfeffer, H


    The Copper-Stabilizer Continuity Measurement (CSCM) was devised to obtain a direct and complete qualification of the continuity in the 13 kA bypass circuits of the LHC, especially in the copper-stabilizer of the busbar joints and the bolted connections in the diodeleads, as well as in lyra connections. The circuit under test is brought to about 20 K, a voltage is applied to open the diodes by-passing the magnets, and the low-inductance circuit is powered according to a pre-defined series of current profiles. The profiles are designed to successively increase the thermal load on the busbar joints up to a level that corresponds to worst-case operating conditions at nominal energy. In this way, the circuit is tested for thermal runaways in the joints - the very process that could prove catastrophic if it occurred under nominal conditions with the full stored energy of the circuit. A type test of the CSCM was successfully carried out in April 2013 on one main dipole and one main quadrupole circuit of the LHC. Thi...

  11. Experimental results from the small isochronous ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduard Pozdeyev


    The Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) is a compact, low-energy storage ring designed to investigate the beam dynamics of high-intensity isochronous cyclotrons and synchrotrons at the transition energy. The ring was developed at Michigan State University (MSU) and has been operational since December 2003. It stores 20 keV hydrogen beams with a peak current of 10-20 microamps for up to 200 turns. The transverse and longitudinal profiles of extracted bunches are measured with an accuracy of approximately 1 mm. The high accuracy of the measurements makes the experimental data attractive for validation of multi-particle space charge codes. The results obtained in the ring show a fast growth of the energy spread induced by the space charge forces. The energy spread growth is accompanied by a breakup of the beam bunches into separated clusters that are involved in the vortex motion specific to the isochronous regime. The experimental results presented in the paper show a remarkable agreement with simulations performed with the code CYCO. In this paper, we discuss specifics of space charge effects in the isochronous regime, present results of experiments in SIR, and conduct a detailed comparison of the experimental data with results of simulations.

  12. First results obtained by the Cluster STAFF experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin

    Full Text Available The Spatio Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF experiment is one of the five experiments, which constitute the Cluster Wave Experiment Consortium (WEC. STAFF consists of a three-axis search coil magnetometer to measure magnetic fluctuations at frequencies up to 4 kHz, a waveform unit (up to either 10 Hz or 180 Hz and a Spectrum Analyser (up to 4 kHz. The Spectrum Analyser combines the 3 magnetic components of the waves with the two electric components measured by the Electric Fields and Waves experiment (EFW to calculate in real time the 5 × 5 Hermitian cross-spectral matrix at 27 frequencies distributed logarithmically in the frequency range 8 Hz to 4 kHz. The time resolution varies between 0.125 s and 4 s. The first results show the capabilities of the experiment, with examples in different regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system that were encountered by Cluster at the beginning of its operational phase. First results obtained by the use of some of the tools that have been prepared specifically for the Cluster mission are described. The characterisation of the motion of the bow shock between successive crossings, using the reciprocal vector method, is given. The full characterisation of the waves analysed by the Spectrum Analyser, thanks to a dedicated program called PRASSADCO, is applied to some events; in particular a case of very confined electromagnetic waves in the vicinity of the equatorial region is presented and discussed.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layer – Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities; shock waves

  13. Experimental results from a stepped frequency GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Signore


    Full Text Available In the framework of a nationally funded project, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR has been developed by the Italian Consortium for Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems (CO.RI.S.T.A.. The system was described in a previous paper (Alberti et al., 2002. As new aspects, the system is a stepped frequency GPR that can work both in gated and ungated mode, and the antennas can be moved automatically in a controlled fashion. As aspects of geophysical interest, the system is exploitable in situations wherein a high resolution and a shallow penetration in the soil (a few meters are required. Possibly, this is an example of probing a landscape. This paper completes the results of Alberti et al. (2002, wherein laboratory tests where described, by providing the main results obtained during an outdoor experimental campaign, performed fi rst in a controlled site and then in an archaeological site.

  14. Material response mechanisms are needed to obtain highly accurate experimental shock wave data (United States)

    Forbes, Jerry W.


    The field of shock wave compression of matter has provided a simple set of equations relating thermodynamic and kinematic parameters that describe the conservation of mass, momentum and energy across a steady plane shock wave with one-dimensional flow. Well-known condensed matter shock wave experimental results will be reviewed to see whether the assumptions required for deriving these simple R-H equations are satisfied. Note that the material compression model is not required for deriving the 1-D conservation flow equations across a steady plane shock front. However, this statement is misleading from a practical experimental viewpoint since obtaining small systematic errors in shock wave measured parameters requires the material compression and release mechanisms to be known. A review will be presented on errors in shock wave data from common experimental techniques for elastic-plastic solids. Issues related to time scales of experiments, steady waves with long rise times and detonations will also be discussed

  15. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R. [Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection, Cracow (Poland)


    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  16. Understanding AlN Obtaining Through Computational Thermodynamics Combined with Experimental Investigation (United States)

    Florea, R. M.


    Basic material concept, technology and some results of studies on aluminum matrix composite with dispersive aluminum nitride reinforcement was shown. Studied composites were manufactured by „in situ” technique. Aluminum nitride (AlN) has attracted large interest recently, because of its high thermal conductivity, good dielectric properties, high flexural strength, thermal expansion coefficient matches that of Si and its non-toxic nature, as a suitable material for hybrid integrated circuit substrates. AlMg alloys are the best matrix for AlN obtaining. Al2O3-AlMg, AlN-Al2O3, and AlN-AlMg binary diagrams were thermodynamically modelled. The obtained Gibbs free energies of components, solution parameters and stoichiometric phases were used to build a thermodynamic database of AlN- Al2O3-AlMg system. Obtaining of AlN with Liquid-phase of AlMg as matrix has been studied and compared with the thermodynamic results. The secondary phase microstructure has a significant effect on the final thermal conductivity of the obtained AlN. Thermodynamic modelling of AlN-Al2O3-AlMg system provided an important basis for understanding the obtaining behavior and interpreting the experimental results.

  17. Magnetic Guarding: Experimental and Numerical Results (United States)

    Heinrich, Jonathon; Font, Gabriel; Garrett, Michael; Rose, D.; Genoni, T.; Welch, D.; McGuire, Thomas


    The magnetic field topology of Lockheed Martin's Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) concept requires internal magnetic field coils. Internal coils for similar devices have leveraged levitating coils or coils with magnetically guarded supports. Magnetic guarding of supports has been investigated for multipole devices (theoretically and experimentally) without conclusive results. One outstanding question regarding magnetic guarding of supports is the magnitude and behavior of secondary plasma drifts resulting from magnetic guard fields (grad-B drifts, etc). We present magnetic-implicit PIC modeling results and preliminary proof of concept experimental results on magnetic guarding of internal-supports and the subsequent reduction in total plasma losses.

  18. Methods for obtaining and reducing experimental droplet impingement data on arbitrary bodies (United States)

    Papadakis, Michael; Elangovan, R.; Freund, George A., Jr.; Breer, Marlin D.


    Experimental water droplet impingement data are used to validate particle trajectory computer codes used in the analysis and certification of aircraft de-icing/anti-icing systems. Water droplet impingement characteristics of aerodynamic surfaces are usually obtained from wind-tunnel dye tracer experiments. This paper presents a dye tracer method for measuring water droplet impingement characteristics on arbitrary geometries and a new data reduction method, based on laser reflectance measurements, for extracting impingement data. Extraction of impingement data has been a very time-consuming process in the past. The new data reduction method developed is at least an order of magnitude more efficient than the method previously used. The accuracy of the method is discussed and results obtained are presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramchuk, F.


    Full Text Available The results of experimental study of automotive ICE running using biogas with different volume content of CO2 are presented. Recommendations for choosing the values of air-fuel ratios and ignition timings for different operating modes of the automotive biogas engine depending on fuel chemical composition are given.

  20. Experimental Results in DIS from Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian Kuhn


    We are summarizing the experimental program of Jefferson Lab (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, VA) in deep inelastic electron scattering. We show recent results and discuss future plans for both the present 6 GeV era and the 12 GeV energy-upgraded facility.

  1. Experimentally obtaining on-line FRA in transformers by injecting controlled pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gómez-Luna


    Full Text Available Transformer monitoring based on the operating condition (on-line test has boomed in recent years because it allows early detection of risk situations or limitations regarding use to make appropriate decisions before a failure occurs. Frequency response analysis (FRA is one of the most heavily researched techniques for on-line development; it is based on obtaining a transformer’s frequency response (admittance, impedance or transfer function in a given bandwidth. This paper presents an experimental method for obtaining the frequency response with the transformer in service by injecting controlled pulses of the voltage signal using an external electronic circuit. Once the voltage and current signals had been recorded, the wavelet transform was used via multi-resolution analysis (MRA for filtering. This led to results being obtained without noise interference from the electrical system. The transfer function was obtained in terms of impedance, using the fast Fourier transform (FFT. The proposed method represented an alternative in solving some problems arising from the on-line FRA technique such as filtering and results’ repeatability. The tests involved a 5-kVA 1150/345 V three-phase transformer and a 3-kVA, 7620/240 V single-phase transformer in the Universidad del Valle’s High Voltage Laboratory.

  2. Results of the 2013 UT modeling benchmark obtained with models implemented in CIVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toullelan, Gwénaël; Raillon, Raphaële; Chatillon, Sylvain [CEA, LIST, 91191Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lonne, Sébastien [EXTENDE, Le Bergson, 15 Avenue Emile Baudot, 91300 MASSY (France)


    The 2013 Ultrasonic Testing (UT) modeling benchmark concerns direct echoes from side drilled holes (SDH), flat bottom holes (FBH) and corner echoes from backwall breaking artificial notches inspected with a matrix phased array probe. This communication presents the results obtained with the models implemented in the CIVA software: the pencilmodel is used to compute the field radiated by the probe, the Kirchhoff approximation is applied to predict the response of FBH and notches and the SOV (Separation Of Variables) model is used for the SDH responses. The comparison between simulated and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  3. The EOS choice effect on the simulated results obtained for an underwater electrical explosion of conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey I. Ryakhovskiy


    Full Text Available In the paper, the effect of the choice of equations of state (EOSs depicting the states of metal plasma and water on the simulated results obtained for an underwater electrical explosion of conductors has been analyzed. In order to compare various EOSs, a one-dimensional, cylindrically symmetrical, magnetohydrodynamic model of an underwater wire explosion was employed. The simulated results were compared with the experimental data on both micro- and nanosecond explosions of aluminum and copper wires. The right choice of EOSs and the model of transportation coefficients allowed us to improve the agreement between the experimental and simulated data and to replicate the thermodynamic evolution of the system more closely. The comparison revealed the most appropriate EOSs for application to simulation of an electrical explosion.

  4. Multibeam scanning electron microscope : Experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi-Gheidari, A.; Hagen, C.W.; Kruit, P.


    The authors present the first results obtained with their multibeam scanning electron microscope. For the first time, they were able to image 196 (array of 14×14) focused beams of a multielectron beam source on a specimen using single beam scanning electron microscope (SEM) optics. The system

  5. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.


    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the $Sigma ^+$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  6. Summary of recent experimental results on strangeness production (United States)

    Kalweit, Alexander


    This article summarises the highlights of the recent experimental findings on strangeness production presented at the 16th edition of the International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter in Berkeley. Results obtained by eight large experimental collaborations (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, HADES, LHCb, NA-61, PHENIX, STAR) spanning a large range in centre-of-mass energy and a variety of collision systems were presented at the conference. The article does not aim at being a complete review, but rather at connecting the experimental highlights of the different collaborations and at pointing towards questions which should be addressed by these experiments in future.

  7. Summary of recent experimental results on strangeness production

    CERN Document Server

    Kalweit, Alexander


    This article summarises the highlights of the recent experimental findings on strangeness production presented at the 16th edition of the {\\it International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter} in Berkeley. Results obtained by eight large experimental collaborations (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, HADES, LHCb, NA-61, PHENIX, STAR) spanning a large range in centre-of-mass energy and a variety of collision systems were presented at the conference. The article does not aim at being a complete review, but rather at connecting the experimental highlights of the different collaborations and at pointing towards questions which should be addressed by these experiments in future.

  8. Experimental and Computational Method for Determining Parameters of Stress-Strain State from the Data Obtainable by Interference Optical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razumovsky I.


    Full Text Available Experimental and computational method for determining parameters of stress-strain state is proposed which is based on estimation of compliance between the data sets obtained experimentally and the results of numerical calculations of the boundary problems in formulation of which all distinctive features of area geometry, character of the loads being considered and deformation characteristics of materials are taken into account. The procedure proposed was checked at a number of practically important problems.

  9. Detailed experimental results for laser acceleration staging

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    W. D. Kimura


    Full Text Available Detailed experimental results of staging two laser-driven, relativistic electron accelerators are presented. During the experiment called STELLA (staged electron laser acceleration, an inverse free-electron laser (IFEL is used to modulate the electron energy, thereby, causing ∼3 fs microbunches to form separated by the laser wavelength at 10.6 μm (equivalent to a 35 fs period. A second IFEL accelerates the electrons depending upon the phase of the microbunches entering the second IFEL with respect to the laser beam driving the second IFEL. The data presented includes electron energy spectra as a function of the phase delay and laser power driving the first IFEL. Also shown is a comparison with the computer model, which includes space charge and misalignment effects.

  10. A regenerative elastocaloric device: experimental results (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Tušek, Jaka; Eriksen, Dan; Lei, Tian; Lee, Chong-Yi; Tušek, Janez; Pryds, Nini


    Elastocaloric cooling and heating is an alternative cooling technology that has the potential to be highly efficient and environmentally friendly. Experimental results are reported for two elastocaloric regenerators made of Ni-Ti alloys in the form of parallel plates in two plate thicknesses. For the regenerator made of 0.2 mm plates, a maximum no-load temperature span of 17.6 K was achieved for an applied strain of 4.3%. For the regenerator with 0.35 mm plates, a maximum temperature span of 19.9 K was reached for a strain of 3.5%. The 0.2 mm regenerator failed after approximately 5200 cycles and the 0.35 mm regenerator failed after approximately 5500 cycles.

  11. Description and preliminary results of the PACEM 2 experimental program (United States)

    Gole, P.; Lavergnat, J.; Sylvain, M.

    The CNET experimental PACEM program, which is aimed at obtaining a better understanding of multipath propagation on microwave line-of-sight channels, is considered. The results of a previous experiment on channel modeling is summarized, and an experiment investigating the seasonal variations on a space diversity channel is described. To monitor the experiment remotely, an efficient data compression technique that involved Hadamard transforming was used. It is shown that the number of significant transform coefficients allows a quick evaluation of the propagation channel behavior without decompressing the data. First results obtained using the method are presented for a one-year period.

  12. Sound propagation over ground: Analytical approximations and experimental results (United States)

    Habault, D.


    Approximations of the sound field emitted by a point source in the presence of the ground have recently been developed [1]. In this paper, these analytical expressions, slightly improved for computation, are compared with an exact representation of the sound pressure and two kinds of experimental results. The approximations, easy to compute, provide a reasonable accuracy for predictions of the sound levels in the asymptotic and intermediate (preceding the asymptotic) regions. Furthermore, numerical techniques (an optimization method) are presented for obtaining the "best value" of the ground normal impedance, from data obtained in Kundt's tube and far field measurements.

  13. Artificial neural network simulations and experimental results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of Odorata to extract TCP from water was tested using equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of TCP by the new adsorbent is thermally feasible and is governed by a chemical adsorption mechanism. It was established that the experimental data fit the ...

  14. Dual effects of crude extracts obtained from Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) on experimental anxiety in mice. (United States)

    Blainski, Andressa; Piccolo, Vanessa K; Mello, João Carlos P; de Oliveira, Rúbia M W


    Different preparations obtained from P. alliacea have been traditionally used in South America and Brazil for many medical conditions. To investigate the effects of fresh whole plant (WP) extract, aerial part (AP) extract, and root (R) extract obtained from Petiveria alliacea using the elevated plus maze (EPM) model of anxiety in mice. Total flavonoid content present in Petiveria alliacea extracts was also determined. WP, AP, or R (300-900 mg/kg) extracts were orally administered to mice 30 min before they were subjected to the EPM and open field test. Total flavonoid content present in the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry. The WP extract (300 and 900 mg/kg) caused anxiolytic-like effects, and the AP extract (300 mg/kg) induced anxiogenic-like effects in mice subjected to the EPM. No effect on anxiety-like behavior was observed with acute administration of the R extract. The content of flavonoids present in the AP extract (1.34%) was almost threefold higher than the flavonoid content present in the WP extract (0.52%). Preparations using different fresh parts of Petiveria alliacea caused opposite effects on experimental anxiety in mice. However, predicting the extent to which flavonoid content present in Petiveria alliacea extracts differentially induces anxiolysis or anxiogenesis in mice was not possible. Further studies will be necessary to elucidate the effects of flavonoids or other substances present in Petiveria alliacea extracts on experimental anxiety. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental Facility for Checking the Possibility to Obtain Super-High Temperature Due to Acoustic Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M B; Sobolev, Yu G; Kostenko, B F


    An experimental facility developed for checking the possibility to obtain super-high temperature sufficient for thermonuclear reaction D($d, n$)$^{3}$He in an acoustic cavitation is described. The acoustic part of the instrumentation consists of a resonator and a system exciting high amplitude of the acoustic field within the resonator. The cavitation process is controlled with the use of fast neutron pulses. The instrument includes a system of pumping out solute gases from the liquid (acetone enriched with deuterium up to 99{\\%}) without losses of matter. Measuring of the field is based on the calibration procedure including observation of sonoluminescence. The system of detection and identification of D($d, n$)$^{3}$He reaction is based on a scintillation detector of fast neutrons and a system of measuring multiparameter events by the correlation technique with separation of the neutrons from the $\\gamma $-radiation background (pulse shape discrimination).

  16. Experimental Results and Technical Results and Development at CTFII

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans Heinrich


    The second phase of the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF II) has demonstrated the feasibility of two key ingredients of the Compact Linear Collider scheme (CLIC) [1], namely the acceleration with a 30 GHz normal conducting linac and the 30 GHz RF power production by a tightly-bunched, high-charge drive beam running parallel to the main beam. This beam is produced and accelerated with a 3 GHz linac using an RF-photo-injector and two travelling-wave sections, all specially developed for handling very high charges. A magnetic chicane compresses the micro-bunches to their nominal length. A mm-wave spectrometer, coupled to the beam pipe, allows non-destructive measurements of bunch length. So far a total acceleration of 60 MeV has been obtained using a string of five accelerating structures with a total active length of 1.4 m. The corresponding drive-beam deceleration is 6 MeV. The flexibility and extensive beam instrumentation allows a variety of other experiments, such as measurements of emittance grow...

  17. Experimental results on the electroweak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Quast, G


    Recent results from the four experiments ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL at the Large Electron-Positron collider, LEP at CERN, and by the SLD collaboration at the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC, are reviewed. Analyses from an integrated luminosity of about 150 pb/sup -1/ recorded by each experiment at LEP, taken at different centre-of-mass energies within +or-3 GeV around the peak of the Z resonance during the years 1989 to 1995 are available now. Repeated accurate calibrations of the beam energy lead to precise measurements of the mass and of the total width of the Z boson. These results are complemented by measurements at the Z resonance with polarised beams at Stanford. First results from an integrated luminosity of close to 100 pb/sup -1/ per experiment above the threshold for W boson pair production were also presented recently by the LEP collaborations. Together with measurements of the top quark and W boson masses at the Tevatron pp collider at Fermilab these results provide tests of the Standard Model of th...

  18. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni


    Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

  19. ANOVA parameters influence in LCF experimental data and simulation results (United States)

    Delprete, C.; Sesanaa, R.; Vercelli, A.


    The virtual design of components undergoing thermo mechanical fatigue (TMF) and plastic strains is usually run in many phases. The numerical finite element method gives a useful instrument which becomes increasingly effective as the geometrical and numerical modelling gets more accurate. The constitutive model definition plays an important role in the effectiveness of the numerical simulation [1, 2] as, for example, shown in Figure 1. In this picture it is shown how a good cyclic plasticity constitutive model can simulate a cyclic load experiment. The component life estimation is the subsequent phase and it needs complex damage and life estimation models [3-5] which take into account of several parameters and phenomena contributing to damage and life duration. The calibration of these constitutive and damage models requires an accurate testing activity. In the present paper the main topic of the research activity is to investigate whether the parameters, which result to be influent in the experimental activity, influence the numerical simulations, thus defining the effectiveness of the models in taking into account of all the phenomena actually influencing the life of the component. To obtain this aim a procedure to tune the parameters needed to estimate the life of mechanical components undergoing TMF and plastic strains is presented for commercial steel. This procedure aims to be easy and to allow calibrating both material constitutive model (for the numerical structural simulation) and the damage and life model (for life assessment). The procedure has been applied to specimens. The experimental activity has been developed on three sets of tests run at several temperatures: static tests, high cycle fatigue (HCF) tests, low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests. The numerical structural FEM simulations have been run on a commercial non linear solver, ABAQUS®6.8. The simulations replied the experimental tests. The stress, strain, thermal results from the thermo structural FEM

  20. ANOVA parameters influence in LCF experimental data and simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vercelli A.


    Full Text Available The virtual design of components undergoing thermo mechanical fatigue (TMF and plastic strains is usually run in many phases. The numerical finite element method gives a useful instrument which becomes increasingly effective as the geometrical and numerical modelling gets more accurate. The constitutive model definition plays an important role in the effectiveness of the numerical simulation [1, 2] as, for example, shown in Figure 1. In this picture it is shown how a good cyclic plasticity constitutive model can simulate a cyclic load experiment. The component life estimation is the subsequent phase and it needs complex damage and life estimation models [3-5] which take into account of several parameters and phenomena contributing to damage and life duration. The calibration of these constitutive and damage models requires an accurate testing activity. In the present paper the main topic of the research activity is to investigate whether the parameters, which result to be influent in the experimental activity, influence the numerical simulations, thus defining the effectiveness of the models in taking into account of all the phenomena actually influencing the life of the component. To obtain this aim a procedure to tune the parameters needed to estimate the life of mechanical components undergoing TMF and plastic strains is presented for commercial steel. This procedure aims to be easy and to allow calibrating both material constitutive model (for the numerical structural simulation and the damage and life model (for life assessment. The procedure has been applied to specimens. The experimental activity has been developed on three sets of tests run at several temperatures: static tests, high cycle fatigue (HCF tests, low cycle fatigue (LCF tests. The numerical structural FEM simulations have been run on a commercial non linear solver, ABAQUS®6.8. The simulations replied the experimental tests. The stress, strain, thermal results from the thermo

  1. Experimental Study of Residual Stresses in Metal Parts Obtained by Selective Laser Melting (United States)

    Protasov, C. E.; Safronov, V. A.; Kotoban, D. V.; Gusarov, A. V.

    High local temperature gradients occur at additive manufacturing by selective laser melting of powder. This gives rise to undesirable residual stresses, deformations, and cracks. To understand how to control the formation of the residual stresses, a reliable method is necessary for measuring their distribution in the fabricated part. It is proposed to cut the part into thin plates and to reconstruct the residual stresses from the measured deformation of the plates. This method is tested on beams with square cross-section built from stainless steel. The beams were cut by electrical discharge machining and chemically etched. The obtained stress profile in vertical transversal direction slightly increases from the top to the bottom of the beam. This dependency is confirmed by numerical modeling. The measured stress profile agrees with the known results by other authors.

  2. Two-channel analysis of QUELL experimental results

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Rosso, C


    We have improved the model presently used in the thermo-hydraulic code Gandalf, adapting it to cable-in-conduit conductors with central cooling channel such as those developed for the model coils of ITER. In particular the helium flow in an arbitrary number of parallel channels have now independent velocity and thermodynamic state (pressure and temperature). We demonstrate the capability of the new model by means of comparison to measurements taken during the QUELL experiment in SULTAN. We compare in particular data on heat slug at zero current and field in a broad range of energy inputs, as well as data on quench propagation, to simulation results obtained with the single channel approximation and the newly implemented two-channel model. The latter achieves significantly better agreement with experimental data, in particular in the case of slow heating transients such as in heat slug propagation tests. (10 refs).

  3. Harmonic Analysis of Currents and Voltages Obtained in the Result of Computational Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Novash


    Full Text Available The paper considers a methodology for execution of a harmonic analysis of current and voltage numerical values obtained in the result of a computational experiment and saved in an external data file. The harmonic analysis has been carried out in the Mathcad mathematical packet environment.

  4. Preliminary Results from Duplex Procedure for Obtain of Fe Based Materials for Automotive Applications (United States)

    Crăciun, R. C.; Stanciu, S.; Geantă, V.; Voiculescu, I.; Manole, V.; Gârneţ, I. A.; Alexandru, A.; Cimpoesu, N.; Săndulache, F.


    Abstract Iron based materials still represent a high percentage from metallic materials used in industry, in general, and in automotive industry, in particular. In this case we used a duplex process in order to obtain the FeMnSiAl experimental alloy for a more efficient use of various units. In the first stage iron, manganese, silicon and aluminum were melted and mixed together using arc melting technology and for the second stage the alloy was re-melt for homogeneity in an induction furnace. Chemical composition, after each melting step, was analyzed using EDS Bruker detector for various areas and microstructural characterization using SEM, VegaTescan LMH II with SE detector, equipment. This alloy is proposed as a metallic approach of mechanical dumpers used in automotive industry for low and medium impact contacts.

  5. Experimental and simulation studies of parabolic trough collector design for obtaining solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ameen Murtuza


    Full Text Available Concentrated solar power has great potential for large scale renewable energy sources, and is currently an eye catching one for its utilization with wide area of improvement. Especially, parabolic trough solar collectors (PTSCs are gaining popularity due to their increased efficiency as compared to photovoltaics. In this work, an effort has been made to evaluate the performance of a designed 5-m length PTSC model. Heat collecting element was made of stainless steel with water as working fluid. The authentication of the proposed model is justified based on the results obtained on a yearly scale with respect to average inlet and outlet temperatures, surface temperatures and thermal efficiency for the climatic conditions of Ramanagaram. It was observed that March to May yielded better outlet temperatures ranging from 93 °C to 103 °C. Experiments were carried out at different flow rates of 0.4 LPM, 0.8 LPM and 1.2 LPM and corresponding Reynolds number was calculated. It was seen that February to May gave good surface and outlet temperatures as compared with other months while the liquid flow is laminar. Simulation studies were carried out using ANSYS software on receiver tube to ensure the robustness and design effectiveness under static loading conditions. Keywords: Parabolic trough solar collector, Receiver tube, Solar thermal, Static structural analysis

  6. Results of Investigative Tests of Gas Turbine Engine Compressor Blades Obtained by Electrochemical Machining (United States)

    Kozhina, T. D.; Kurochkin, A. V.


    The paper highlights results of the investigative tests of GTE compressor Ti-alloy blades obtained by the method of electrochemical machining with oscillating tool-electrodes, carried out in order to define the optimal parameters of the ECM process providing attainment of specified blade quality parameters given in the design documentation, while providing maximal performance. The new technological methods suggested based on the results of the tests; in particular application of vibrating tool-electrodes and employment of locating elements made of high-strength materials, significantly extend the capabilities of this method.

  7. Experimentally obtainable energy from mixing river water, seawater or brines with reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniilidis, Alexander; Vermaas, David; Herber, Rien; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.


    Energy is released when feed waters with different salinity mix. This energy can be captured in reverse electrodialysis (RED). This paper examines experimentally the effect of varying feed water concentrations on a RED system in terms of permselectivity of the membrane, energy efficiency, power

  8. Experimentally obtainable energy from mixing river water, seawater or brines with reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniilidis, Alexandros; Vermaas, David A.; Herber, Rien; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    Energy is released when feed waters with different salinity mix. This energy can be captured in reverse electrodialysis (RED). This paper examines experimentally the effect of varying feed water concentrations on a RED system in terms of permselectivity of the membrane, energy efficiency, power

  9. Determination of the meniscus shape of a negative ion beam from an experimentally obtained beam profile (United States)

    Ichikawa, M.; Kojima, A.; Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Baltador, C.; Barbisan, M.; Delogu, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Marconato, N.; Nishikiori, R.; Pimazzoni, A.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Tobari, H.; Umeda, N.; Veltri, P.; Watanabe, K.; Yoshida, M.; Antoni, V.; Kashiwagi, M.


    In order to understand the physics mechanism of a negative ion extraction in negative ion sources, an emission surface of the negative ions around an aperture at a plasma grid, so-called a meniscus, has been analyzed by an inverse calculation of the negative ion trajectory in a two dimensional beam analysis code. In this method, the meniscus is defined as the final position of the negative ion trajectories which are inversely calculated from the measured beam profile to the plasma grid. In a case of the volume-produced negative ions, the calculated meniscus by the inverse calculation was similar to that obtained in conventional beam simulation codes for positive ion extractions such as BEAMORBT and SLACCAD. The negative ion current density was uniform along the meniscus. This indicates that the negative ions produced in the plasma are transported to the plasma grid uniformly as considered in the transportation of the positive ions. However, in a surface production case of negative ions, where the negative ions are generated near the plasma grid with lower work function by seeding cesium, the current density in the peripheral region of the meniscus close to the plasma grid surface was estimated to be 2 times larger than the center region, which suggested that the extraction process of the surface-produced negative ions was much different with that for the positive ions. Because this non-uniform profile of the current density made the meniscus shape strongly concave, the beam extracted from the peripheral region could have a large divergence angle, which might be one of origins of so-called beam halo. This is the first results of the determination of the meniscus based on the experiment, which is useful to improve the prediction of the meniscus shape and heat loads based on the beam trajectories including beam halo.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Spivakovsky


    Full Text Available This article presents the research results of the experience of information service KSU Feedback using in HEI to assess the quality of faculty staff teaching through students' vision. Actual national and international scientific works and achievements that relate to our research are analyzed. Key theoretical and practical aspects of building a feedback circuit in high school are showcased. The principles, technical characteristics and requirements for effective feedback are considered. The results of the survey questions ranking is given by using simplified method of hierarchies' analysis. The calculation example of the quantitative indicator of teacher's activity effectiveness, which is based on results of an anonymous electronic targeting survey with taking into account the weights of each question, is given. The article includes a detailed analysis of the experience of information service's KSU Feedback implementation in Kherson State University and in Zaporizhzhya National University. Phased concept of results interpretation which were obtained through the asessment of teacher's activity quality by information service KSU Feedback using is disclosed. An overview analysis of the conflicts typology and approach of conflict situations solving with the help of conflict mapping method are given. The primary consistent patterns and trends whuch were obtained through experiment's results and emerge in the process of feedback's circuit building are hilighted.

  11. An Investigation of Experimental Techniques for Obtaining Particulate Behavior in Metallized Solid Propellant Combustion (United States)


    can help improve the latter. Other disadvantages of high speed cinematography include the image reso- lutions due to the optics employed and the film ...experimental techniques have been used: a. High speed cinematography for the observation of strand burners within a combustion bomb and a 2-D slab...with a depth of field at f/4 of about 4mn. Movie film types included 7724 41 negative (ASA 400), 7222 2x negative (ASA 250), 7250 Ektachrome (ASA 250

  12. Insulator-based dielectrophoresis of microorganisms: theoretical and experimental results. (United States)

    Moncada-Hernandez, Hector; Baylon-Cardiel, Javier L; Pérez-González, Victor H; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H


    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is the motion of particles due to polarization effects in nonuniform electric fields. DEP has great potential for handling cells and is a non-destructive phenomenon. It has been utilized for different cell analysis, from viability assessments to concentration enrichment and separation. Insulator-based DEP (iDEP) provides an attractive alternative to conventional electrode-based systems; in iDEP, insulating structures are used to generate nonuniform electric fields, resulting in simpler and more robust devices. Despite the rapid development of iDEP microdevices for applications with cells, the fundamentals behind the dielectrophoretic behavior of cells has not been fully elucidated. Understanding the theory behind iDEP is necessary to continue the progress in this field. This work presents the manipulation and separation of bacterial and yeast cells with iDEP. A computational model in COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to predict the effect of direct current-iDEP on cells suspended in a microchannel containing an array of insulating structures. The model allowed predicting particle behavior, pathlines and the regions where dielectrophoretic immobilization should occur. Experimental work was performed at the same operating conditions employed with the model and results were compared, obtaining good agreement. This is the first report on the mathematical modeling of the dielectrophoretic response of yeast and bacterial cells in a DC-iDEP microdevice. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Comparison of the semen analysis results obtained from two branded computer-aided sperm analysis systems. (United States)

    Hu, Y A; Lu, J C; Shao, Y; Huang, Y F; Lü, N Q


    The study evaluated the comparability of two branded computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) systems commonly used in andrology laboratories in China. The same semen sample was analysed using two branded CASA systems (WLJY-9000 and CFT-9200) by one well-trained technician. Results of semen analysis obtained from two branded CASA systems were then compared. The accuracy of counting results of CASA systems was evaluated using latex bead solutions with known concentrations of (35 ± 5) × 10⁶ ml⁻¹ and (18 ± 2.5) × 10⁶ ml⁻¹. There were significant differences in all parameters (P semen analysis with CASA. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: Experimental results (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara


    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. .

  15. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results. (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara


    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria.

  16. Randomization in laboratory procedure is key to obtaining reproducible microarray results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuna Yang

    Full Text Available The quality of gene expression microarray data has improved dramatically since the first arrays were introduced in the late 1990s. However, the reproducibility of data generated at multiple laboratory sites remains a matter of concern, especially for scientists who are attempting to combine and analyze data from public repositories. We have carried out a study in which a common set of RNA samples was assayed five times in four different laboratories using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. We observed dramatic differences in the results across laboratories and identified batch effects in array processing as one of the primary causes for these differences. When batch processing of samples is confounded with experimental factors of interest it is not possible to separate their effects, and lists of differentially expressed genes may include many artifacts. This study demonstrates the substantial impact of sample processing on microarray analysis results and underscores the need for randomization in the laboratory as a means to avoid confounding of biological factors with procedural effects.

  17. Preliminary results obtained with the ZEUS phasing sensor within the APE experiment (United States)

    Surdej, I.; Luong, B.; Vigan, A.; Araujo, C.; Bourtembourg, R.; Brast, R.; Duhoux, P.; Dupuy, C.; Frank, C.; Gonte, F.; Karban, R.; Mazzoleni, R.; Noethe, L.; Yaitskova, N.; Dohlen, K.


    In the framework of the Active Phasing Experiment (APE), four different phasing techniques are tested. The ZErnike Unit for Segment phasing sensor (ZEUS) is integrated on the APE bench. APE has been tested in the laboratory before it will be installed on one of the Nasmyth platform of a Very Large Telescope (VLT) Unit Telescope to perform on sky tests. The ZEUS phasing sensor concept has its origins in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer equipped with a spatial filter in its focal plane. In this paper, the ZEUS phasing sensor is described together with its theoretical background and deployment within the APE experiment. The algorithms and its elements used to reconstruct the wavefront are described. Finally, the preliminary results obtained in the laboratory are presented.

  18. IAOOS Microlidar Development and First Results Obtained During 2014 and 2015 Arctic Drifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariage Vincent


    Full Text Available The development of a first ever autonomous aerosol and cloud backscatter lidar system for on-buoy arctic observations has been achieved in 2014, within the French EQUIPEX IAOOS project developed in collaboration with LOCEAN at UPMC. This development is part of a larger set-up designed for integrated ocean-ice-atmosphere observations. First results have been obtained from spring to autumn 2014 after the system was installed at the North Pole at the Barneo Russian camp, and in winter-spring 2015 during the Norwegian campaign N-ICE 2015. The buoys were taking observations as drifting in the high arctic region where very few measurements have been made so far. This project required the design and the conception of an all-new lidar system to fit with the numerous constraints of such a deployment. We describe here the prototype and its performance. First analyzes are presented.

  19. Experimental murine chromoblastomycosis obtained from Fonsecaea pedrosoi isolate cultured for a long periodt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AP Machado


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe F. pedrosoi propagules capable of causing chronic murine disease. Several changes in F. pedrosoi hyphae were identified in fungal cells cultured for a long period. Optical microscopy found many rounded cells with double-rigid melanin-rich walls. Terminal and intercalary chlamydoconidia were also frequently observed. Analyses of images from transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed several cells with walls composed of at least three layers and an outer layer enriched with melanin. Two groups of twenty BALB/c mice were subcutaneously infected in their footpads with F. pedrosoi cells at an inoculum concentration of approximately 1 x 10(4 cells/mL. In one group, long-term cultured F. pedrosoi cells were inoculated in one footpad, whereas in the other group, both footpads were infected. Active lesions were observed up to seven months post-infection, particularly in mice inoculated at two sites. After this period, animals were killed. Histological sections revealed characteristics bearing a strong resemblance to the human form of the disease such as tissue hyperplasia, granulomas with microabscesses and sclerotic cells. Based on this study, we identified fungal cells from old cultures capable of provoking chronic chromoblastomycosis under experimental conditions, especially when more than one site is infected.

  20. Summary of Experimental Results: Photons, Leptons and Heavy Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Seto, Richard


    This is a summary of experimental results on photons, leptons, and heavy quarks presented at Quark Matter 2008. A first measurement of the bottom to charm contribution to the lepton spectrum has given experimental indication for the suppression of charm and bottom. Excess dileptons have been observed and studied by both NA60 and PHENIX, which may arise from the early production of thermal dileptons and/or the modification of mesons.

  1. Development of a non-premixed radiant burner. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.; Myken, A.N.; Rasmussen, N.B.


    The objective was to develop and test a non-premixed radiant burner. A burner concept, pro-type 1, was developed with special attention to minimise emissions and foam peak-temperatures. During the test of the prototype it became evident that the construction was not feasible, because the ceramic gas distribution tubes eventually were blocked by soot. Experiments to investigate if the gas would crack conducted prior to the construction of the burner did not indicate that any problems would occur. It can therefore be concluded that the experiments did not simulate burner conditions adequately. Alternative prototypes in which the gas is not heated prior to injection into the combustion chamber have been established. The concept operated satisfactorily without preheating of the combustion air, although NO{sub x}-emissions were high. The measured process efficiencies were superior to previous results for different kinds of surface burners. When the combustion air was preheated to 400 deg. C, the foam sections broke down. The experimental results can be summarised in the following conclusions: The developed prototypes can not be operated with combustion air preheated to 400 deg. C or higher; A relative improvement of the process efficiency by 22% has been observed when the combustion air is preheated to 400 deg. C; The NO{sub x}-emissions increase significantly and much more than the process efficiency when the combustion air is preheated; The process efficiency obtained with prototype 5 is better than previously investigated surface burners, especially at high loads. Possible means to improve durability, efficiency and emission level for both burner concepts are suggested. These include cooling of the gas in prototype 1, coating of the downstream side of the foam section to improve the radiant efficiency and multistep combustion. (EHS)

  2. Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility Calibration and Aircraft Results Obtained by LIULIN-3M Instrument (United States)

    Dachev, T. P.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Matviichuk, Y. N.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Petrov, V. M.


    The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, which has been used on the NffR space station in the 1988-1994 time period, The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and 1 cm(exp 2) area is used in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used for measurement of the energy losses in the detector. The final data sets from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposition time and 256 channels of LET spectra if a non-nal coincidence of the particles to the detector is considered. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and was used for space radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. Obtained calibration and flight results are analyzed in the paper.

  3. Comparative analysis of different methods and obtained results for delineation of functional urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajović Vojkan


    Full Text Available European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON recognizes Potential Urban Strategic Horizons (PUSH and Potential Polycentric Integration Areas (PIA as territory of one or more neighboring Functional Urban Areas (FUA. Delineation of FUA territory can be done by using general ESPON methodology, based on a 45-minute car travel time from the center of respective FUAs. This approach is based on network proximity by using shortest path in road network between two nodes. Later, results are approximated on administrative or statistical territorial units, so that PUSH areas are determined. However, other methods for delineation of FUA territory can be used. This paper deals with other methods that can be used for delineation of FUA territory. Some of those methods are based on machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence which develops algorithms that take as input empirical data, such as that from sensors or databases. Created algorithms identify complex relationships thought to be features of the underlying mechanism that generated the data, and engage these identified patterns to make predictions based on new data. Clustering and artificial neural networks are some of approaches that can be undoubtedly used for delineation of FUAs territory, based on unsupervised learning and statistical data analysis. This is statistical approach, which clusters administrative or statistical territorial units based on statistical data, and not by network proximity. Such methods involve usage of Self Organizing Maps (SOM which implies usage of neighborhood function to preserve the topological properties, or using k-means clustering, which partition observations into clusters by dividing space into Voronoi cells. Results obtained from both approaches will be analyzed in order to define the most appropriate method for FUAs territory delineation in Serbia.

  4. Molecular structures of fluid phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers obtained from simulation-to-experiment comparisons and experimental scattering density profiles. (United States)

    Kučerka, Norbert; van Oosten, Brad; Pan, Jianjun; Heberle, Frederick A; Harroun, Thad A; Katsaras, John


    Following our previous efforts in determining the structures of commonly used PC, PG, and PS bilayers, we continue our studies of fully hydrated, fluid phase PE bilayers. The newly designed parsing scheme for PE bilayers was based on extensive MD simulations, and is utilized in the SDP analysis of both X-ray and neutron (contrast varied) scattering measurements. Obtained experimental scattering form factors are directly compared to our simulation results, and can serve as a benchmark for future developed force fields. Among the evaluated structural parameters, namely, area per lipid A, overall bilayer thickness DB, and hydrocarbon region thickness 2DC, the PE bilayer response to changing temperature is similar to previously studied bilayers with different headgroups. On the other hand, the reduced hydration of PE headgroups, as well as the strong hydrogen bonding between PE headgroups, dramatically affects lateral packing within the bilayer. Despite sharing the same glycerol backbone, a markedly smaller area per lipid distinguishes PE from other bilayers (i.e., PC, PG, and PS) studied to date. Overall, our data are consistent with the notion that lipid headgroups govern bilayer packing, while hydrocarbon chains dominate the bilayer's response to temperature changes.

  5. Ignition and Growth Modeling of Detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% VITON) Using New and Previously Obtained Experimental Data (United States)

    Tarver, Craig


    An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% Viton) was developed using new and previously obtained experimental data on: cylinder test expansion; wave curvature; failure diameter; and laser interferometric copper and tantalum foil free surface velocities and LiF interface particle velocity histories. A reaction product JWL EOS generated by the CHEETAH code compared favorably with the existing, well normalized LX-04 product JWL when both were used with the Ignition and Growth model. Good agreement with all existing experimental data was obtained. Keywords: LX-04, HMX, detonation, Ignition and Growth PACS:82.33.Vx, 82.40.Fp This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Experimental results for a novel rotary active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian


    in a solid refrigerant rather than the temperature change that occurs when a gas is compressed/expanded. This paper presents the general considerations for the design and construction of a high frequency rotary AMR device. Experimental results are presented at various cooling powers for a range of operating...

  7. CSI sensing and control: Analytical and experimental results (United States)

    Junkins, J. L.; Pollock, T. C.; Rahman, Z. H.


    Recent work on structural identification and large-angle maneuvers with vibration suppression was presented. The recent work has sought to balance structural and controls analysis activities by involving the analysts directly in the validation and experimental aspects of the research. Some new sensing, actuation, system identification, and control concepts were successfully implemented. An overview of these results is given.

  8. Experimental summary talk. A summary of the experimental results presented at Moriond QCD 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzyk, B


    A summary of the experimental results presented at Moriond QCD 2001 are given. The author reviews results concerning the expected mass of the Higgs boson, the discovery of new particles, heavy-ion collision physics, structure functions, diffractive J/{psi} production, WW physics, heavy flavours and the first results given by BaBar and Belle installations.

  9. Experimental and modelling results of a parallel-plate based active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, A.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Rowe, A.


    The performance of a permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator (PMMR) using gadolinium parallel plates is described. The configuration and operating parameters are described in detail. Experimental results are compared to simulations using an established twodimensional model of an active magnetic re...... plates and channels are needed in order to obtain both temperature spans and cooling powers comparable to those obtained with packed spheres.......The performance of a permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator (PMMR) using gadolinium parallel plates is described. The configuration and operating parameters are described in detail. Experimental results are compared to simulations using an established twodimensional model of an active magnetic...

  10. First experimental results on CMOS Integrated Nickel Electroplated Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Hansen, Ole


    This paper presents experimental results on MEMS metallic add-on post-fabrication effects on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. Two versions of add-on processing, that use either e-beam evaporation or magnetron sputtering, are compared through investigation of the electri...... of the electrical parameters of n-channel and p-channel transistors. The magnetron sputtering technique is shown to be compatible with standard CMOS electronics without any restriction of the metal types and annealing requirements.......This paper presents experimental results on MEMS metallic add-on post-fabrication effects on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. Two versions of add-on processing, that use either e-beam evaporation or magnetron sputtering, are compared through investigation...

  11. LIFT on Keck: analysis of performance and first experimental results (United States)

    Plantet, C.; Wizinowich, P.; Fusco, T.; Neichel, B.; Ragland, S.; Femenia, B.; Rampy, R.


    Wavefront sensing in the near infrared has become an attractive option with the advent of new low-noise infrared detectors, such as the SAPHIRA (Selex) and RAPID (CEA/Sofradir) APD arrays. The performance improvements obtained with the H2RG-based Keck I near-infrared tip-tilt sensor is motivating the implementation of a near-infrared low-order sensor for Keck II. The recently proposed focal plane sensor algorithm LIFT could fulfill this role. We show here an analysis of performance, demonstrating that LIFT would provide a significant gain ( 1 magnitude) over the current tip/tilt sensor at low flux, as well as the first experimental validation of LIFT on Keck with a calibration source.

  12. Experimental verification of approximate solution of the inverse Stefan problem obtained by applying the invasive weed optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetmaniok Edyta


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a procedure for solving the inverse Stefan problem consisted in reconstruction of the function describing the heat transfer coefficient on the basis of temperature measurements. Elaborated method is based on two procedures: solution of the appropriate direct Stefan problem by using the finite difference method combined with the alternating phase truncation method and minimization of some functional with the aid of invasive weed optimization algorithm. For verifying the effectiveness of investigated algorithm the experimental data obtained in the solidification of aluminum are used.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushnikov Sergey V.


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of experimental work during 2004-2005 on oil decontamination of bottom sediments of Lake Schuchye, situated in the Komi Republic (Northern Russia. The cause of thecontamination were huge oil spills occurred after a series of accidental ruptures on the Harjaga-Usinsk and Vozej-Usinsk oil-pipe lines in 1994. Flotation technology was used for the cleaning of bottom sediments.157 tons of crude oil were removed during the course of 2-year experimental work from an area of 4,1 ha.The content of aliphatic and alicyclic oil hydrocarbons was reduced from 53,3 g/kg to 2,2 g/kg, on average.Hydrobiological investigations revealed that bottom sediments started to be inhabited by benthos organisms, dominantly Oligochaeta. Besides Oligochaeta, Chironomidae maggots and Bivalvia were detected. Theappearance of Macrozoobenthos organisms can serve as a bioindicator of water quality.

  14. Comparing Papanicolaou test results obtained during pregnancy and post-partum. (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Furuhashi, Madoka; Kawamura, Takuya; Kubo, Michiko; Osato, Kazuhiro; Yamawaki, Takaharu


    Cervical cancer onset initially occurs during youth. Papanicolaou tests performed in early pregnancy can detect cervical cancer; however, Papanicolaou tests during pregnancy have been noted to be inaccurate, reflecting changes associated with pregnancy. Therefore, we assessed the effect of pregnancy on Papanicolaou test results. Of 1351 pregnant women who delivered at Ise Red Cross Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014, 1213 underwent Papanicolaou tests at early pregnancy and post-partum. We compared the Papanicolaou test results. The results of the Papanicolaou test were different in 32 patients. Of the 1191 patients negative for intraepithelial lesions or malignancy in early pregnancy, 16 had other cytological abnormalities post-partum. We performed therapeutic conization post-partum in four patients. The Papanicolaou test results in early pregnancy of the four patients were negative for intraepithelial lesions or malignancy in one patient, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in one and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in two. The results of the Papanicolaou test during pregnancy may not be accurate because of the influence of hormones associated with pregnancy. Taking advantage of the one-month post-partum screening visit can lead to early detection and treatment of cervical cancer in young people. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. [Bad results obtained from the current public health policies and recommendations of hydration]. (United States)

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael; Romo Orozco, Denisse Aracely; Mendive Dubourdieu, Paula; Garicano Vilar, Elena; Valente, Ana; Betancor, Fabiana; Morales Hurtado, Alexis Daniel; Garagarza, Cristina


    Achieving an adequate intake of water is crucial within a balanced diet. For that purpose, dietary guidelines for healthy eating and drinking are an important consideration and need to be updated and disseminated to the population. We aimed to evaluate the liquid intake habits of a Mediterranean and Latin American population (Spain-Portugal and Mexico-Uruguay) and if they support the current recommendations of hydration by the EFSA. A record of fluid intake was obtained from 1168 participants from 4 countries above; and then compared with current consensus about hydration 1600 mL/day (female) and 2000 mL/day (male). The average fluid intake slightly surpassed the recommended: mean of 2049 mL/day (2,223 mL in males, 1,938 mL in females). Portugal stood out due to its lower intake (mean of 1,365 mL/day). Water contributed the largest part to total fluid intake (37%) in all countries (mean of 1365 mL/day). Hot beverages (18%) and milk and derivates (17%) follow water in highest consumption. The 20% of males and only 0.3% of females knew recommendations of hydration, while 63.3% of males and 62% of females followed them. Only 8.4% of people who follow the recommendations know them. The people studied surpassed the recommendation, although majority they didn´t know it. Future research should examine actual beverage consumption patterns and evaluate if the current consensuses are correctly adapted to the population needs. Hydration's policies should be transmitted to the population for their knowledge and adequate compliance.

  16. Results of the 2008 UT Modeling Benchmark Obtained with 2 Semi-Analytical Models: Responses of Flat Bottom Holes at Various Depths Under Interfaces of Different Curvatures (United States)

    Raillon, R.; Mahaut, S.; Leymarie, N.; Lonne, S.; Spies, M.


    This paper presents the results of the 2008 UT modeling benchmark with the ultrasonic simulation code for predicting echo-responses from flaws integrated into the Civa software platform and with the code developed by M. Spies. UT configurations addressed are similar to 2007 ones, to better understand some responses obtained last year. Experimental results proposed concern the responses of flat bottom holes at different depths inside surface curved blocks inspected by an immersion probe in normal incidence. They investigate the influence of surface curvature upon the amplitude and shape of flaw responses. Comparison of the simulated and experimental results is discussed.

  17. Comparison of the results obtained by CALUX bioassay and GC-HRMS for different matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonnelle, S.; Loco, J. van; Overmeire, I. van; Windal, I.; Wouwe, N. van; Goeyens, L. [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Cleuvenbergen, R. van [VITO, Mol (Belgium); Leeuwen, S. van [Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research, Ijmuiden (Netherlands). Animal Science Group


    The reference method used to analyse polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) is chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). It is interesting to check the suitability of screening methods that are faster and less expensive. Different matrices (milk, fish oil, chicken compound feed, pork tissue, chicken tissue, sepiolitic clay, whole egg and herring tissue) were analysed in the frame of the European project DIFFERENCE1. One of the aims of this project is to optimise screening methods. The CALUX bio-assay was one of the screening techniques used. This paper presents the extraction and purification methods used for the analyses. The CALUX results for dioxins and for dl-PCBs were compared to the corresponding GC-HRMS results.

  18. Recent astronomical results obtained with the AFGL ten micron array spectrometer (United States)

    Levan, Paul D.; Tandy, Peter C.


    The detector array used is the 58x62 Si:Ga with the switched-MOSFET readout. Support electronics include the clocked address circuitry, 12 bit AD conversion boards for each of the two output lines, and 20 bit RAM coaddition blocks for both telescope chop positions. In operation, the data are coadded over several chops, differences are taken between the two chop positions, and these differences are subsequently output to a PDP 11/34 minicomputer. The mosaic array was characterized for high speed operation (5 msec frame periodicity) and linearity in a test bed dewar, and found for proper bias voltages to be sufficiently fast to permit the signal electron rate from sky and telescope backgrounds. The optics are a NaCl prism slit spectrometer for operation in the 8 to 14 micron region. The ratio of collimator and camera focal lengths is 3.6, resulting in arcsec pixel sizes for the Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO) 2.3 meter telescope. We report here on the recent observing run at WIRO, the second for the Array Spectrometer. The latest observing run resulted successfully in measurements of IRC + 10216 with the mosaic array in full scanning operation. Results include spectral and spatial scans for IRC + 10216 and evaluations of instrumental performance.

  19. New experimental results on double beta decay of 130Te (United States)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Vanzini, M.; Zanotti, L.; Bucci, C.; Pobes, C.


    New results are presented of a search for double beta decay of Te isotopes carried out, using the bolometric technique, with an array of 20 natural tellurite crystals with a total cryogenic mass of /~6.8 kilograms. The array has been run at a temperature around 10 mK in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. No evidence has been found for neutrinoless double beta decay of 128Te and 130Te and upper limits of 8.6 /× 1022 and 1.44 /× 1023 years, respectively, have been achieved at the 90% confidence level. From the latter we obtain limits on the lepton non-conserving parameters which are the most restrictive ones in direct experiments after those on 76Ge according to theoretical calculations. Results on two neutrino and majoron mediated decays are also presented and discussed with respect to those obtained for the same nuclei in geochemical experiments.

  20. Students' Progression in Monitoring Anomalous Results Obtained in Inquiry-Based Laboratory Tasks (United States)

    Crujeiras-Pérez, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar


    This paper examines students' engagement in monitoring anomalous results across a 2-year longitudinal study with 9th and 10th graders (14-15 and 15-16 years of age). The context is a set of five inquiry-based laboratory tasks, requiring students to plan and carry out investigations. The study seeks to examine students' interpretation of data, in particular anomalous results generated by them during the process of solving the tasks, and their ability to monitor them. Data collected include video and audio recordings as well as students' written products. For the analysis, two rubrics were developed drawing on Chinn and Brewer (Cognition and Instruction, 19, 323-393, 2001) and Hmelo-Silver et al. (Science Education, 86, 219-243, 2002). The findings point to a pattern of progress in students' responses across the 2 years: (a) responses revealing a low capacity of monitoring due to not recognizing the data as anomalous or recognizing it as anomalous but being unable to explain their causes are more frequent in the first tasks and (b) responses revealing an improved capacity of monitoring are more frequent in the last tasks. The factors influencing students' regulation of their performances, as the requirement of planning, and specific scaffolding based on activity theory are discussed.

  1. Results from CrIS/ATMS Obtained Using an AIRS "Version-6 like" Retrieval Algorithm (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena


    We tested and evaluated Version-6.22 AIRS and Version-6.22 CrIS products on a single day, December 4, 2013, and compared results to those derived using AIRS Version-6. AIRS and CrIS Version-6.22 O3(p) and q(p) products are both superior to those of AIRS Version-6All AIRS and CrIS products agree reasonably well with each other. CrIS Version-6.22 T(p) and q(p) results are slightly poorer than AIRS over land, especially under very cloudy conditions. Both AIRS and CrIS Version-6.22 run now at JPL. Our short term plans are to analyze many common months at JPL in the near future using Version-6.22 or a further improved algorithm to assess the compatibility of AIRS and CrIS monthly mean products and their interannual differences. Updates to the calibration of both CrIS and ATMS are still being finalized. JPL plans, in collaboration with the Goddard DISC, to reprocess all AIRS data using a still to be finalized Version-7 retrieval algorithm, and to reprocess all recalibrated CrISATMS data using Version-7 as well.

  2. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

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    Torben Schüler


    Full Text Available Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1, the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate.

  3. Rotational properties of ten main belt asteroids - Analysis of the results obtained by photoelectric photometry (United States)

    Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Burchi, R.; D'Ambrosio, V.


    The results of photoelectric light curve observations of 10 asteroids are reported. The observations were carried out using the 50-cm telescope of the Teramo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) and the 91-cm telescope of the Catania Astronomical Observatory during the 1983-1984 oppositions. The reduced data indicate the following main belt asteroids: 11 Partenope; 129 Antigone; and 20 Massalia. The asteroids 41 Daphne, 344 Desiderata, and 31 Euphrosyne were also identified. The rotation period of 11 Partenope was P = 7.83 hours, and that of 34 Desiderata P = 10,53 hours. The shape and the pole coordinates of 20 Massalia, 31 Euphrosyne, and 29 Antigone were derived, and those of 41 Daphne were confirmed. The lightcurves of the remaining asteroids are given, and some of their rotational properties and morphological features are discussed.

  4. First results obtained in France with the latest model of the Fresenius cell separator: AS 104. (United States)

    Coffe, C; Couteret, Y; Devillers, M; Fest, T; Hervé, P; Kieffer, Y; Lamy, B; Masse, M; Morel, P; Pouthier-Stein, F


    In Besançon, we carried out 40 plateletphereses with the latest model of the Fresenius cell separator AS 104 to check this new system against the new generation of cell separators, according to the following criteria: less than 2x10 6 leukocytes (before filtration) and more than 5x10 11 platelets. The results show that platelet concentrates contained 5.04+/-0.88x10 11 platelets in a total volume of 435+/-113 mL. The mean platelet recovery was 40.95+/-4.86% (from 31.7 to 51.6). The leukocyte content was 2.28+/-5.48x10 6 and the red blood cell contamination was 3.48+/-2.38x10 8. The quality of the platelets was very satisfactory. There was no problem with donor biocompatibility or procedure safety, few adverse donor reactions (0.6%) and good therapeutic efficiency of platelet concentrates.

  5. Comparison of NDT techniques to evaluate CFRP. Results obtained in a MAIzfp round robin test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Christian U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Chair of Non-destructive Testing; Goldammer, Matthias; Grager, Jan-Carl [Siemens AG Corporate Technology, Muenchen (Germany); and others


    Fiber reinforced polymeric materials are used for lightweight constructions and are an integral part of cars, airplanes or rotor blades of wind turbines. Nondestructive testing (NDT) methods play an increasing role concerning the manufacturing process and the inspection during lifetime. The selection of the best NDT technique for a certain application depends - of course - on many factors including the type, position and size of the defect to be detected but also on secondary issues like accessibility, automation, testing costs, reliability and resolution to mention only some. For the more technical-scientific part of these issues, the determination of the probability of detection (PoD) plays a significant role. Early in the design process questions should be raised concerning the probability with which certain attribute of interest (a defect that has an effect on the structural behavior) can be detected (and localized) in a certain construction. Several defect types have been identified to be critical like impact damages, undulations and porosity. Test samples out of differently processed Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) as used in the automotive or aeronautical industry have been produced including defects of different type and size. In order to determine the PoD and to check whether a technique is applicable the different partners applied a broad variety of selected NDT techniques including Micro CT, Ultrasound (including phased-array and air-coupled UT), Active Thermography, Eddy Current, Vibration and Visual Analysis and Local Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (LARS). The presentation will summarize some of the results of the experiments and ongoing data analysis.

  6. Replicating an established open skills curriculum: are the same results obtained in a different setting? (United States)

    Brunsvold, Melissa E; Schmitz, Connie C


    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the University of Texas, Southwestern (UTSW) open skills curriculum (Goova et al.(13)) could be successfully implemented in the University of Minnesota (UMN) multisite training program. We posed 4 questions: (1) Is the curriculum feasible? (2) Did residents' skills improve? (3) Did UMN residents achieve the same level as UTSW residents? (4) What factors were associated with posttest success? Postgraduate year-1 residents (n = 22) were enrolled in the curriculum, which included orientation, access to video instruction, 3 months of independent practice using portable kits and practice logbooks, presurveys and postsurveys, and pretesting and posttesting. Evaluation was based on UTSW proficiency measures (time, errors, and total proficiency score). Descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests, analysis of variance, and bivariate correlations were calculated. Results were compared with Goova. Startup costs at UMN were $9804 vs $776 at UTSW. Our curriculum required 51 direct faculty hours vs 376 at UTSW. UMN trainees' skills improved significantly (mean score = 973 [standard deviation = 267] at baseline vs 1325 [standard deviation = 215] at posttest), but they achieved proficiency in only 38.6% of tasks at posttest, compared with 88.7% by UTSW trainees. Best predictors of UMN posttest proficiency score were (1) categorical vs preliminary resident status (p skills laboratories during clerkship or fourth year medical school, estimated number of cases (surgeon or first assistant), and number of practice repetitions recorded in booklets were not predictive of the posttest score. The UTSW open skills curriculum is feasible and effective in a new setting. Differences from UTSW-published success rates may be related to their superior onsite monitoring of practice and a policy requiring residents to achieve proficiency for each task before posttesting. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by

  7. Results obtained from patients referred for the investigation of complaints related to oral galvanism. (United States)

    Hugoson, A


    One hundred consecutive patients, 74 women and 26 men, aged between 18 and 83 years (mean = 54.8 years), referred with complaints related to oral galvanism were investigated and treated and the treatment results were evaluated after 2-3 years. Forty of the patients reported facial pain, pain from the teeth, temporomandibular joints (TMJ) and masticatory muscles and TMJ clicking and locking and 26 reported headache. Smarting in the oral mucosa, smarting of the tongue and xerostomia were reported by 26, 21 and 24 patients, respectively, and 30 patients reported an unpleasant taste, a metallic taste or a battery taste. The same patient often reported several symptoms. The patients also reported various general symptoms, above all joint symptoms, pain in the back, neck and shoulders and general muscular pain but also tiredness, weakness, difficulty in concentrating, depression and insomnia. After clinical and radiological examination, salivary tests, determination of the maximum galvanic current at metallic contacts and screening for contact allergy to dental materials, various oral diagnoses could be established. Most of the patients exhibited functional disturbances of the masticatory system, periodontitis, smarting of the oral mucosa, xerostomia, pulpitis and pulpal necrosis and mucosal lesions. The medical illnesses the patients reported themselves to be suffering from or had been treated for included cardiovascular disorders, high and low blood pressure, asthma, rheumatic disorders, diabetes, pernicious anaemia, gastritis and peptic ulcer. Seventy-six patients took drugs regularly. In most cases there were several oral, dental and medical explanations for the symptoms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Shumanova


    Full Text Available To the salting process of fish many studies are devoted, both in experimental and in theoretical terms. Study of features of fish salting in historical terms can be divided into 3 groups. One group of researchers believes that osmotic pressure has a major influence during the salting process. Another group attributed this process to the influence of molecular diffusion. The third group considers that during this process takes place both osmosis and diffusion. Determination of the main characteristics (salinity, diffusion coefficients, time of salting, etc. is a very time-consuming task. This leads to the idea of searching for innovative research methods. Current state of science, in addition to theoretical solutions points to the possibility to determine the basic characteristics of salting and applying methods associated with the interaction of ultrasound and electromagnetic radiation with matter. In our studies, we have been producing laser beam scanning of salt solution and fish meat thickness. Scattered radiation is determined by the salt concentration, diffusion coefficients, the size of the diffusing particles. This method is called a photon correlation spectroscopy. It has been applied in our work. The dependence of the scattered light intensity on the concentration of sodium chloride solution (brine has been investigated. According to diffusion coefficient a diffusion in solution to herring skin a conclusion was made that salt solution obtains fractal structure and its size was determined. Also we determined diffusion coefficients depending on the temperature in the layers. The layers are brine-leather, leather, and herring meat thickness. The process of diffusion-osmotic equilibrium revealed at temperatures of 10-12 ° C. Suggested the possibility of higher quality of fish salting at low temperatures. On the basis of the selfsimilar solution of the differential diffusion equation, a formula for calculating time salting fish was obtained

  9. Implantation of peritoneal catheters by laparotomy: nephrologists obtained similar results to general surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo CA


    Full Text Available Cesar A Restrepo, Carlos Alberto Buitrago, Cielo Holguin Division of Nephrology, Department of Health Sciences, Caldas University, Caldas, ColombiaPurpose: To analyze the complications and costs of minilaparotomies performed by a nephrologist (group A compared with conventional laparotomies performed by a surgeon (group B for peritoneal catheter implantation.Setting: Two university hospitals (Santa Sofia and Caldas in Manizales, Caldas, Colombia.Methods: The study included stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients, with indication of renal replacement therapy, who were candidates for peritoneal dialysis and gave informed consent for a peritoneal catheter implant. Minilaparotomies were performed by a nephrologist in a minor surgery room under local anesthesia. Conventional laparotomies were performed by a surgeon in an operating room under general anesthesia.Results: Two nephrologists inserted 157 peritoneal catheters, and seven general surgeons inserted 185 peritoneal catheters. The groups had similar characteristics: the mean age was 55 years, 49.5% were men, and the primary diagnoses were diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, and unknown etiology. The implant was successful for 98.09% of group A and 99.46% of group B. There was no procedure-related mortality. The most frequent complications in the first 30 days postsurgery in group A versus group B, respectively, were: peritonitis (6.37% versus 3.78%, exit-site infection (3.82% versus 2.16%, tunnel infection (0% versus 0.54%, catheter entrapment by omentum (1.27% versus 3.24%, peritoneal effluent spillover (1.91% versus 2.16%, draining failure (4.46% versus 6.49%, hematoma (0% versus 1.08%, catheter migration with kinking (3.18% versus 2.70%, hemoperitoneum (1.27% versus 0%, and hollow viscera accidental puncture (1.91% versus 0.54%. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of complications between groups. In 2013, the cost of a surgeon-implanted peritoneal

  10. Psychoneuroimmunology: an interpretation of experimental and case study evidence towards a paradigm for predictable results. (United States)

    Kalt, H W


    This paper surveys a number of key experiments and case studies relating to psychoneuroimmunology. It finds that most techniques to influence or even direct the immune system via the mind fall into a series of theoretical categories called passive, active and targeted effects. By examining the results of experiments and studies in the light of these categories a number of important conclusions are drawn. These conclusions explain differences in experimental results, describe those variables that appear to be central to obtaining results, and describe in detail where experimentation should be concentrated to further knowledge of psychoneuroimmunology.

  11. Results from CrIS-ATMS Obtained Using the AIRS Science Team Retrieval Methodology (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.; Iredell, Lena


    which significantly improved results of AIRS Version-6. Version-5.70 CrIS/ATMS temperature profile and surface skin temperature retrievals are of very good quality, and are better than AIRS Version-5 retrievals, but are still significantly poorer than those of AIRS Version-6. CrIS/ATMS retrievals should improve when a Neural-Net start-up system is ready for use. We also examined CrIS/ATMS retrievals generated by NOAA using their NUCAPS retrieval algorithm, which is based on earlier versions of the AIRS Science Team retrieval algorithms. We show that the NUCAPS algorithm as currently configured is not well suited for climate monitoring purposes.

  12. Experimental results of astrophysical collisionless shock experiments from NIF (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Higginson, D.; Huntington, C.; Pollock, B.; Remington, B.; Rinderknecht, H.; Ross, J.; Ryutov, D.; Swadling, G.; Wilks, S.; Fiuza, F.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.; Petrasso, R.; Li, C.; Zylstra, A.; Lamb, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Gregori, G.; Meinecke, J.; Manuel, M.


    We discuss our laboratory experiments using the Omega and NIF lasers to investigate the dynamics of high Mach number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. It is believed that in astrophysical environments such shocks are the sites where seed magnetic fields are generated on a cosmologically fast timescale via the Weibel instability. Particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical simulations generate magnetic fields whose magnitude and scale are consistent with this concept. We will present recent experimental results as well as simulations and theoretical interpretations of these observations. The NIF experiments were able to observe the counter-streaming flow interactions through the transition from collisional to collisionless regimes. The latest proton radiography results will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Comparison of ATHENA/RELAP results against ice experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Moore-Richard, L


    In order to demonstrate the adequacy of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design from a safety stand point as well as investigating the behavior of two-phase flow phenomena during an ingress of coolant event, an integrated ICE test facility was constructed in Japan. The data generated from the ICE facility offers a valuable means to validate computer codes such as ATHENA /RELAP5, which is one of the codes used at the Idaho National Engineering And Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to evaluate the safety of various fusion reactor concepts. In this paper we compared numerical results generated by the ATHENA code with corresponding test data from the ICE facility. Overall we found good agreement between the test data and the predicted results.

  14. Comparison of ATHENA/RELAP results against ice experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Richard L. E-mail:; Merrill, Brad J


    In order to demonstrate the adequacy of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design from a safety stand point as well as investigating the behavior of two-phase flow phenomena during an ingress of coolant event, an integrated ICE test facility was constructed in Japan. The data generated from the ICE facility offers a valuable means to validate computer codes such as ATHENA/RELAP5, which is one of the codes used at the Idaho National Engineering And Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to evaluate the safety of various fusion reactor concepts. In this paper we compared numerical results generated by the ATHENA code with corresponding test data from the ICE facility. Overall we found good agreement between the test data and the predicted results.

  15. Experimental results on air permeability of agricultural nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castellano


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the influence of the texture characteristics of agricultural nets on the air flow passing through them, a micro wind tunnel was designed and built in the testing and engineering laboratory of Sachim s.r.l., an Italian high-density polyethylene (HDPE technical textiles manufacturer. The micro wind tunnel (0.1345 m diameter allowed the simultaneous measurement of the air flowrate and the pressure drop through a net sample. The equipment was designed to set up the inclination of the net samples with respect of the airflow at fixed angles (90°, 60°, 45°, 30°. The variation of the pressure drop with the air velocity on four different flat woven round monofilament HDPE nets perpendicular to the air flow are here reported. In all cases the air velocity measured into the micro wind tunnel was above 4 m s–1 hence reported results do not consider low wind speed. Preliminarily, the loss coefficient was assumed as a function of porosity and Reynolds number, calculated with reference to the equivalent diameter of the pores, FS(Rel,ε and showed percent deviations form experimental results in the range 14.6%÷25.3%. Hence a simplified expression of the loss coefficient, depending only on the porosity was proposed, FS(ε which highlighted differences with experimental results in the range 3.5%÷20.3%. Finally, results were compared with those based on the Bernoulli’s principle found in the literature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The technological process for obtaining plant protection bioproducts contains 2 main phases: (i biomass biosynthesis of microorganisms in a culture medium, available for industrialization and (ii biomass conditioning of microorganism, the antagonistic micromycetes, respectively. For this type of activities it is essential to establish biological development parameters: (i the optimum composition of the liquid culture medium for development of the fungus under aerobiotic conditions and (ii the optimal parameters of biosynthesis in the studied medium. The biomass biosynthesis technology is discontinuous, of cascade type, and develops several phases: (1 preparing of the laboratory inoculum, (2 preparing of the fungal pure culture in Erlenmeyer bottles, (3 industrial (simulated multiplication in the aired and agitated liquid medium.This paper presents some experimental aspects referring to: 1 – Characterization of the biologically active T. viride isolates, establishing and verifying of their biological thresholds; 2 – Evaluation and experimental verifying of the mass multiplication ability of antagonistic T. viride fungi on the culture media in order to select the optimum industrial culture substrate (medium; 3 – Biochimical characterization of T. viride isolates by electrophoretic analysis of their protein profile; 4 – Evaluation of the T. viride biological activity of T. viride isolates against phytopathogenic fungi with high practical importance: Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (T. Gibberella zeae (Schwein. Petch, F. culmorum (W. G. Sm. Sacc., Pythium ultimum Trow, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Alternaria spp. [A. alternata (Fr. Keissl., Alternaria radicina Meier, Drechsler and E. D. Eddy (Stemphylium radicinum (Meier, Drechsler and E. D. Eddy Neerg.] etc.; 5 – Processing of technological scheme for obtaining plant protection preparates based on biologically active isolates of T. viride.

  17. Molecular identification of Heterakis spumosa obtained from brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Japan and its infectivity in experimental mice. (United States)

    Šnábel, Viliam; Utsuki, Daisuke; Kato, Takehiro; Sunaga, Fujiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean; Gambetta, Barbara; Taira, Kensuke


    Heterakis spumosa is a nematode of invasive rodents, mainly affiliated with Rattus spp. of Asian origin. Despite the ecological importance and cosmopolitan distribution, little information is available on the genetic characteristics and infectivity to experimental animals of this roundworm. Heterakis isolates obtained from naturally infected brown rats caught in 2007 in the city of Sagamihara, east central Honshu, Japan, and maintained by laboratory passages were subjected to mitochondrial sequence analysis and experimental infection in mice. Sequencing of the cox1 gene revealed that nucleotides of H. spumosa and previously examined Heterakis isolonche isolates from gallinaceous birds in Japan differed by 11.2-12.2% that conforms to the range expected for interspecific differences. The two H. spumosa isolates differed by a single 138T/C non-synonymous substitution in the 393-bp mt sequence. In a dendrogram, the H. spumosa samples formed a subcluster with members of the nematode superfamily Heterakoidea, H. isolonche and Ascaridia galli. In an experimental infection study, ICR, AKR, B10.BR and C57BL/6 mice strains were inoculated with 200 H. spumosa eggs/head and necropsied at 14 and 90 days post-inoculation (DPI) when the number of worms was recorded. Eggs were initially detected in faeces from 32-35 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice and the highest mean number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was 4,800 at 38 DPI, 2,200 at 58 DPI and 800 at 44 and 72 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice, respectively. No eggs were observed in faeces of the C57BL/6 mouse strain during the experiment. A similar number of juvenile worms were isolated from all mouse strains at 14 DPI, whereas no adult worms were detected in C57BL/6 mice at 90 DPI.

  18. Self-organization scenario grounded on new experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozneanu, E. [Complex System Laboratory, Al. I. Cuza University, Blvd Carol I, No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Sanduloviciu, M. [Complex System Laboratory, Al. I. Cuza University, Blvd Carol I, No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania)], E-mail:


    Recently published experimental results proving that well-located plasma created in air by quick injection of energy naturally evolves into a coherent, apparently stable and luminous gaseous body, dubbed fireball, are explained considering a new scenario of self-organization. Bordered by a functional double layer emerged by direct conversion of thermal energy into electric field energy through a mechanism exploiting collective effects of quantum processes, the fireball survives for durations that depend on the environmental conditions. Based on this scenario of self-organization that evolves in a time span in which the second law of thermodynamics ceases to work, enigmas as the ball lightning and the origin of life becomes potentially explainable.

  19. Experimental Results of Rover-Based Coring and Caching (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Younse, Paulo; DiCicco, Matthew; Hudson, Nicolas; Collins, Curtis; Allwood, Abigail; Paolini, Robert; Male, Cason; Ma, Jeremy; Steele, Andrew; hide


    Experimental results are presented for experiments performed using a prototype rover-based sample coring and caching system. The system consists of a rotary percussive coring tool on a five degree-of-freedom manipulator arm mounted on a FIDO-class rover and a sample caching subsystem mounted on the rover. Coring and caching experiments were performed in a laboratory setting and in a field test at Mono Lake, California. Rock abrasion experiments using an abrading bit on the coring tool were also performed. The experiments indicate that the sample acquisition and caching architecture is viable for use in a 2018 timeframe Mars caching mission and that rock abrasion using an abrading bit may be feasible in place of a dedicated rock abrasion tool.

  20. Dynamic Coefficients of a Tilting Pad With Active Lubrication: Comparison Between Theoretical and Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar


    experimental results from the literature for industrial grade passive tilting pad bearings. This initial validation is followed by a comparison with experimental identification results obtained from a test rig featuring the active bearing design. Good overall agreement is observed in both configurations......This paper deals with the validation of the mathematical model for predicting the equivalent stiffness and damping of an active tilting-pad bearing. The active bearing design includes an injection nozzle in the pad and a hydraulic supply system featuring a servovalve, which enables to modify...

  1. FRVT 2006 and ICE 2006 large-scale experimental results. (United States)

    Phillips, P Jonathon; Scruggs, W Todd; O'Toole, Alice J; Flynn, Patrick J; Bowyer, Kevin W; Schott, Cathy L; Sharpe, Matthew


    This paper describes the large-scale experimental results from the Face Recognition Vendor Test (FRVT) 2006 and the Iris Challenge Evaluation (ICE) 2006. The FRVT 2006 looked at recognition from high-resolution still frontal face images and 3D face images, and measured performance for still frontal face images taken under controlled and uncontrolled illumination. The ICE 2006 evaluation reported verification performance for both left and right irises. The images in the ICE 2006 intentionally represent a broader range of quality than the ICE 2006 sensor would normally acquire. This includes images that did not pass the quality control software embedded in the sensor. The FRVT 2006 results from controlled still and 3D images document at least an order-of-magnitude improvement in recognition performance over the FRVT 2002. The FRVT 2006 and the ICE 2006 compared recognition performance from high-resolution still frontal face images, 3D face images, and the single-iris images. On the FRVT 2006 and the ICE 2006 data sets, recognition performance was comparable for high-resolution frontal face, 3D face, and the iris images. In an experiment comparing human and algorithms on matching face identity across changes in illumination on frontal face images, the best performing algorithms were more accurate than humans on unfamiliar faces.

  2. Experimental results for an experimental condensation heat exchanger with a spiral minichanel tube. Comparison to numerical imulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrubý J.


    Full Text Available The paper describes new results for an experimental heat exchanger equipped with a single corrugated capillary tube, basic information about the measurements and the experimental setup. Some of the results were compared with numerical simulations.

  3. Exact results for chaotic scattering and experimental validation (United States)

    Guhr, Thomas


    As scattering experiments are the key tool to obtain information on nuclei and other quantum systems, the foundations of scattering theory were laid already a long time ago. Compound nucleus scattering prompted the study of generic statistical features. In the Heidelberg approach, those are taken into account by assuming that the reaction zone is fully quantum chaotic. Later on, this approach turned out to be applicable to a large variety of systems on different scales, including classical wave systems. For a long time, the distribution of the off-diagonal scattering-matrix elements resisted analytical treatment. In two recent studies [1, 2], we fully solved this problem and we also carried out a comparison with data from microwave experiments. Some comment are made on our very recent results for the cross-section distributions.

  4. Cross-Network Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs): Experimental Results from a Smartphone-Based Testbed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stefano Busanelli; Filippo Rebecchi; Marco Picone; Nicola Iotti; Gianluigi Ferrari


    .... The proposed communication architecture has been implemented on Android smartphones. The obtained experimental results show that an effective cross-network information dissemination service can entirely rely on smartphone-based communications...

  5. Evaluation of radiographic magnification in lateral cephalograms obtained with different X-ray devices: experimental study in human dry skull. (United States)

    Rino Neto, José; de Paiva, João Batista; Queiroz, Gilberto Vilanova; Attizzani, Miguel Ferragut; Miasiro Junior, Hiroshi


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the magnification factor of the radiographic image in angular, linear and proportional measurements. From a dried human skull where metallic spheres with predetermined size were fixed (1.0 mm), 14 radiographs were obtained in devices from three different manufacturers: Panoura, Instrumentarium and Tomeceph. The Pearson correlation test was used to investigate the relationship between the rate of radiographic magnification and the cephalometric measurements assessed. According to the results, the linear measurements showed a high positive correlation, pointing out great influence of the magnification factor, while the angular and proportional measurements did not correlate. Comparisons between linear cephalometric measurements obtained with different devices from the same manufacturer showed maximum rates of expansion of 0.6%, 1.25% and 2.3%, respectively, for the devices from Instrumentarium (OP-100, Instrumentarium, Finland), Panoura (10CSU, Yoshida, Japan) and Satelec/Tomeceph (XMind, Satelec/Tomeceph Orion Corporation, Finland).

  6. Technical note: Determination of acidity in whole raw milk: comparison of results obtained by two different analytical methods. (United States)

    Fabro, M A; Milanesio, H V; Robert, L M; Speranza, J L; Murphy, M; Rodríguez, G; Castañeda, R


    In Argentina, one analytical method is usually carried out to determine acidity in whole raw milk: the Instituto Nacional de Racionalización de Materiales standard (no. 14005), based on the Dornic method of French origin. In a national and international regulation, the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International method (no. 947.05) is proposed as the standard method of analysis. Although these methods have the same foundation, there is no evidence that results obtained using the 2 methods are equivalent. The presence of some trends and discordant data lead us to perform a statistical study to verify the equivalency of the obtained results. We analyzed 266 samples and the existence of significant differences between the results obtained by both methods was determined.

  7. Evaluation of radiographic magnification in lateral cephalograms obtained with different X-ray devices: experimental study in human dry skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rino Neto


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the magnification factor of the radiographic image in angular, linear and proportional measurements. METHODS: From a dried human skull where metallic spheres with predetermined size were fixed (1.0 mm, 14 radiographs were obtained in devices of three different manufacturers: Panoura, Instrumentarium and Tomeceph. The Pearson correlation test was used to investigate the relationship between the rate of radiographic magnification and the cephalometric measurements assessed. RESULTS: According to the results, the linear measurements showed a high positive correlation, pointing out great influence of the magnification factor, while the angular and proportional measurements did not correlate. CONCLUSIONS: Comparisons between linear cephalometric measurements obtained with different devices from the same manufacturer showed maximum rates of expansion of 0.6%, 1.25% and 2.3%, respectively, for the devices from Instrumentarium (OP-100, Instrumentarium, Finland, Panoura (10CSU, Yoshida, Japan and Satelec/Tomeceph (XMind, Satelec/Tomeceph Orion Corporation, Finland.

  8. Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results (United States)

    Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.


    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  9. Pipeline inspection - failures selection and results obtained; Inspeccion interna de ductos - seleccion de fallas y resultados obtenidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motylicki, Juan Enrique [Oleoductos del Valle S.A. (OLDEVAL S.A.), (Argentina)


    The main objective of the pipelines maintenance is to assure the integrity of them in order to have a reliable operation and with an acceptable level of risk that minimizes the impact to people, to the environment and the business. The objective of this work is to expose the experiences obtained before by Oldelval and after the passages of the intelligent pig, carried out in the years 1999/2000. In the same one they will be described: How the flaws were selected to verify / to repair. Results obtained in digs. Laboratory studies to determine like they affect to the integrity of the pipeline, the different types of opposing plane defects. Conclusions. (author)

  10. Combined experimental powder X-ray diffraction and DFT data to obtain the lowest energy molecular conformation of friedelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Djalma Menezes de; Mussel, Wagner da Nova; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima; Duarte, Helio Anderson; Gomes, Elionai Cassiana de Lima [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Guimaraes, Luciana [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del-Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Vieira Filho, Sidney A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia


    Friedelin molecular conformers were obtained by Density Functional Theory (DFT) and by ab initio structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction. Their conformers with the five rings in chair-chair-chair-boat-boat, and with all rings in chair, are energy degenerated in gas-phase according to DFT results. The powder diffraction data reveals that rings A, B and C of friedelin are in chair, and rings D and E in boat-boat, conformation. The high correlation values among powder diffraction data, DFT and reported single crystal data indicate that the use of conventional X-ray diffractometer can be applied in routine laboratory analysis in the absence of a single-crystal diffractometer. (author)

  11. Combined experimental powder X-ray diffraction and DFT data to obtain the lowest energy molecular conformation of friedelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Menezes de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Friedelin molecular conformers were obtained by Density Functional Theory (DFT and by ab initio structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction. Their conformers with the five rings in chair-chair-chair-boat-boat, and with all rings in chair, are energy degenerated in gas-phase according to DFT results. The powder diffraction data reveals that rings A, B and C of friedelin are in chair, and rings D and E in boat-boat, conformation. The high correlation values among powder diffraction data, DFT and reported single-crystal data indicate that the use of conventional X-ray diffractometer can be applied in routine laboratory analysis in the absence of a single-crystal diffractometer.

  12. CP Violation in B Meson Decays: Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanceri, Livio; /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste


    CP violation is intimately connected with the puzzle of matter-antimatter asymmetry and baryogenesis. In the Standard Model of particle physics, the observed CP violation phenomena are accounted for by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism involving a phase in the quark mixing matrix. This paper is devoted to a review of the experimental status of CP violation in the decays of B mesons.

  13. Experimental results using active control of traveling wave power flow (United States)

    Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.


    Active structural control experiments conducted on a 24-ft pinned-free beam derived feedback compensators on the basis of a traveling-wave approach. A compensator is thus obtained which eliminates resonant behavior by absorbing all impinging power. A causal solution is derived for this noncausal compensator which mimics its behavior in a given frequency range, using the Wiener-Hopf. This optimal Wiener-Hopf compensator's structure-damping performance is found to exceed any obtainable by means of rate feedback. Performance limitations encompassed the discovery of frequencies above which the sensor and actuator were no longer dual and an inadvertent coupling of the control hardware to unmodeled structure torsion modes.

  14. Observer Based Sliding Mode Attitude Control: Theoretical and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Jørgensen


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the design of a sliding mode controller for attitude control of spacecraft actuated by three orthogonal reaction wheels. The equilibrium of the closed loop system is proved to be asymptotically stable in the sense of Lyapunov. Due to cases where spacecraft do not have angular velocity measurements, an estimator for the generalized velocity is derived and asymptotic stability is proven for the observer. The approach is tested on an experimental platform with a sphere shaped Autonomous Underwater Vehicle SATellite: AUVSAT, developed at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

  15. Characterization and experimental results in PEM fuel cell electrical behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunusch, Cristian; Puleston, Paul F.; More, Jeronimo J. [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, calle 48 y 116 s/n (CC 91), La Plata B1900TAG (Argentina); CONICET, Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires C1033AAJ (Argentina); Mayosky, Miguel A. [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, calle 48 y 116 s/n (CC 91), La Plata B1900TAG (Argentina); CICpBA, Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Calle 526 entre 10 y 11, La Plata 1900 (Argentina)


    A control oriented electrochemical static model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack is developed in this paper. Even though its validation is performed on a specific 7-cell PEMFC stack fed by humidified air and pure hydrogen, the methodology and fit parameters can be applied to different fuel cell systems with minor changes. The fuel cell model was developed combining theoretical considerations and semi-empirical analysis based on the experimental data. The proposed model can be successfully included into a larger dynamic subsystem to complete the power generation system. (author)

  16. Preliminary Results of Nb Thin Film Coating for HIE-ISOLDE SRF Cavities Obtained by Magnetron Sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Sublet, A; Calatroni, S; D'Elia, A; Jecklin, N; Mondino, I; Prunet, S; Therasse, M; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Zhang, P


    In the context of the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade at CERN, several new facilities for the niobium sputter coating of QWR-type superconducting RF accelerating cavities have been developed, built, and successfully operated. In order to further optimize the production process of these cavities the magnetron sputtering technique has been further investigated and continued as an alternative to the already successfully operational DC bias diode sputtering method. The purpose of this poster is to present the results obtained with this technique. The Nb thickness profile along the cavity and its correlation with the electro-magnetic field distribution inside the cavity are discussed. Film structure, morphology and Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) will be considered as well and compared with films obtained by DC bias diode sputtering. Finally these results will be compared with RF measurement of a production-like magnetron-coated cavity.

  17. Characterization of High-Power Turbomachinery Tilting Pad Journal Bearings: First Results Obtained on a Novel Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Ciulli


    Full Text Available Tilting pad journal bearings are usually employed in turbomachines for their stable behavior at high rotational speeds. Devoted test rigs have been realized to validate the predictions of theoretical models. However, the design of new high-performance and large-size bearings needs to be supported by experimental investigations on high-performance large test rigs. The main characteristics of a recently built facility for testing large tilting pad journal bearings with diameters from 150 to 300 mm are described in this work. The test rig is versatile and can be used to test bearings of different size, configurations and to investigate the influence of many parameters, even the effect of misalignment. Sample results of the static characterization of a four-pad high-performance tilting pad journal bearing are reported evidencing some transient effects. A few sample dynamic results are also reported. The presented experimental results demonstrated the capabilities of the rig for investigating the static and the dynamic characteristics of the bearings accurately measuring slow and fast variables.

  18. New experimental limits on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle obtained with the Borexino Counting Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, H.O. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Physics Dept., Blacksburg (United States); Balata, M.; Credico, A. di [I.N.F.N Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Bari, A. de; Cecchet, G. [Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Univ. and I.N.F.N., Pavia (Italy); Bellefon, A. de; Dadoun, O. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire et Cosmologie, Paris (France); Bellini, G.; Bonetti, S.; Caccianiga, B. [Dipt. di Fisica Univ. and I.N.F.N., Milano (Italy); Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F. [Princeton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Princeton (United States); Buck, C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Chen, M. [Queen' s Univ. Stirling Hall, Dept. of Physics, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); D' Angelo, D.; Feilitzsch, F. von [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Derbin, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Deutsch, M. [Dept. of Physics, Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States); Etenko, A. [RRC Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Franco, D.; Freudiger, B.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Giammarchi, M.G.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grieb, C.; Hampel, W.; Harding, E.; Hartmann, F.X.; Heusser, G.; Ianni, A.; Ianni, A.M.; Kerret, H. de; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Kobychev, V.V.; Korga, G.; Korschinek, G.; Kozlov, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lendvai, C.; Leung, M.; Itvinovich, E.L.; Lombardi, P.; Machulin, I.; Malvezzi, S.; Maneira, J.; Manno, I.; Manuzio, D.; Manuzio, G.; Masetti, F.; Martemianov, A.; Mazzucato, U.; McCarty, K.; Meroni, E.; Mention, G.; Miramonti, L.; Monzani, M.E.; Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Niedermeier, L.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Peiffer, P.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R.S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Salvo, C.; Scardaoni, R.; Schimizzi, D.; Schoenert, S.; Simgen, H.; Shutt, T.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sonnenschein, A.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S. [and others


    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) has been tested for nucleons (n,p) in {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei, using the results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector, the Counting Test Facility (CTF). The approach consisted of a search for {gamma}, n, p and/or {alpha}'s emitted in a non-Paulian transition of 1P- shell nucleons to the filled 1S{sub 1/2} shell in nuclei. Similarly, the Pauli-forbidden {beta}{sup {+-}} decay processes were searched for. Due to the extremely low background and the large mass (4.2 tons) of the CTF detector, the following most stringent up-to-date experimental bounds on PEP violating transitions of nucleons have been established: {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}C+{gamma})>2.1.10{sup 27}y, {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 11}B+p)>5.0.10{sup 26}y, {tau}({sup 12}C({sup 16}O){yields}{sup 11}C({sup 15}O)+n)>3.7.10{sup 26}y, {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 8}Be+{alpha})>6.1.10{sup 23}y, {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}N+e{sup -}+{nu}{sub e})>7.6.10{sup 27}y and {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}B+e{sup +}+{nu}{sub e})>7.7.10{sup 27}y, all at 90 % C.L. (orig.)

  19. A comparison of results obtained with two subsurface non-isothermal multiphase reactive transport simulators, FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juncosa Rivera, Ricardo; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten


    FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT are codes used to model the non-isothermal multiphase flow with multicomponent reactive transport in porous media. Different flow and reactive transport problems were used to compare the FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT codes. These problems take into account the different cases of multiphase flow with and without heat transport, conservative transport, and reactive transport. Consistent results were obtained from both codes, which use different numerical methods to solve the differential equations resulting from the various physicochemical processes. Here we present the results obtained from both codes for various cases. Some results are slightly different with minor discrepancies, which have been remedied, so that both codes would be able to reproduce the same processes using the same parameters. One of the discrepancies found is related to the different calculation for thermal conductivity in heat transport, which affects the calculation of the temperatures, as well as the pH of the reaction of calcite dissolution problem modeled. Therefore it is possible to affirm that the pH is highly sensitive to temperature. Generally speaking, the comparison was concluded to be highly satisfactory, leading to the complete verification of the FADES-CORE code. However, we must keep in mind that, as there are no analytical solutions available with which to verify the codes, the TOUGHREACT code has been thoroughly corroborated, given that the only possible way to prove that the code simulation is correct, is by comparing the results obtained with both codes for the identical problems, or to validate the simulation results with actual measured data.

  20. Experimental data on adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using nanosized cellulose fibers obtained from rice husk. (United States)

    Pourfadakari, Sudabeh; Jorfi, Sahand; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Takdastan, Afshin


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of nano-sized cellulose obtained from rice husk for Cr(VI) adsorption. The effect of operational parameters including initial pH (3-10), contact time (0-120 min), adsorbent dosage (0.2-1.5 g/L), and initial Cr(VI) concentration (5-50 mg/L) were investigated according to one factor at time method. The results showed, in pH=6, contact time=100 min, adsorbent dose=1.5 g/L and 30 mg/L initial chromium concentration, the adsorption efficiency reached to 92.99%. Also Langmuir isotherm with (R2=0.998 at 303 °K) and pseudo-first-order kinetic model (R2=0.993) were the best models for describing the Cr(VI) adsorption reactions. The negative values of [Formula: see text] and positive value of [Formula: see text] showed that, the Cr(VI) adsorption on NCFs was endothermic and spontaneously process. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application this method is recommended for removing Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.

  1. Pathological changes in acute experimental toxoplasmosis with Toxoplasma gondii strains obtained from human cases of congenital disease. (United States)

    Pinheiro, Breno Veloso; Noviello, Maria de Lourdes Meirelles; Cunha, Mariana Maciel; Tavares, Alice Thomaz; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida


    There is a lack of studies using Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from human patients. Here, we present a pathological study of three strains obtained from human cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil using inbred mice after oral infection with 10 tissue cysts. Multiplex-nested PCR-RFLP of eleven loci revealed atypical genotypes commonly found in Brazil: toxodb #8 for TgCTBr5 and TgCTBr16 strains and toxodb #11 for the TgCTBr9 strain. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were evaluated for survival and histological changes during the acute phase of the disease. All mice inoculated with the non-virulent TgCTBR5 strain survived after 30 days, although irreversible tissue damage was found. In contrast, no mice were resistant to infection with the highly virulent TgCTBR9 strain. The TgCTBr16 strain resulted in 80% survival in mice. However, this strain presented low infectivity, especially by the oral route of infection. Despite being identified with the same genotype, TgCTBr5 and TgCTBr16 strains showed biological differences. Histopathologic analysis revealed liver and lungs to be the most affected organs, and the pattern of tissue injury was similar to that found in mice inoculated perorally with strains belonging to clonal genotypes. However, there was a variation in the intensity of ileum lesions according to T. gondii strain and mouse lineage. C57BL/6 mice showed higher susceptibility than BALB/c for histological lesions. Taken together, these results revealed that the pathogenesis of T. gondii strains belonging to atypical genotypes can induce similar tissue damage to those from clonal genotypes, although intrinsic aspects of the strains seem critical to the induction of ileitis in the infected host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CSI Flight Computer System and experimental test results (United States)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Peri, F., Jr.; Schuler, P.


    This paper describes the CSI Computer System (CCS) and the experimental tests performed to validate its functionality. This system is comprised of two major components: the space flight qualified Excitation and Damping Subsystem (EDS) which performs controls calculations; and the Remote Interface Unit (RIU) which is used for data acquisition, transmission, and filtering. The flight-like RIU is the interface between the EDS and the sensors and actuators positioned on the particular structure under control. The EDS and RIU communicate over the MIL-STD-1553B, a space flight qualified bus. To test the CCS under realistic conditions, it was connected to the Phase-0 CSI Evolutionary Model (CEM) at NASA Langley Research Center. The following schematic shows how the CCS is connected to the CEM. Various tests were performed which validated the ability of the system to perform control/structures experiments.

  3. Pregnancy does not affect HIV incidence test results obtained using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay or an antibody avidity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Laeyendecker


    Full Text Available Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing.We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later. Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent.During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (% when women were pregnant (n = 20 results compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum. In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test.These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.

  4. Pregnancy does not affect HIV incidence test results obtained using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay or an antibody avidity assay. (United States)

    Laeyendecker, Oliver; Church, Jessica D; Oliver, Amy E; Mwatha, Anthony; Owen, S Michele; Donnell, Deborah; Brookmeyer, Ron; Musoke, Philippa; Jackson, J Brooks; Guay, Laura; Nakabiito, Clemesia; Quinn, Thomas C; Eshleman, Susan H


    Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing. We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED) and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later). Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent. During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n) obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (%) when women were pregnant (n = 20 results) compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum). In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test). These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.

  5. Construction of a WMR for Trajectory Tracking Control: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva-Ortigoza


    Full Text Available This paper reports a solution for trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR based on a hierarchical approach. The general design and construction of the WMR are described. The hierarchical controller proposed has two components: a high-level control and a low-level control. The high-level control law is based on an input-output linearization scheme for the robot kinematic model, which provides the desired angular velocity profiles that the WMR has to track in order to achieve the desired position (x*,y* and orientation (φ*. Then, a low-level control law, based on a proportional integral (PI approach, is designed to control the velocity of the WMR wheels to ensure those tracking features. Regarding the trajectories, this paper provides the solution or the following cases: (1 time-varying parametric trajectories such as straight lines and parabolas and (2 smooth curves fitted by cubic splines which are generated by the desired data points x1*,y1*,…,xn*,yn*. A straightforward algorithm is developed for constructing the cubic splines. Finally, this paper includes an experimental validation of the proposed technique by employing a DS1104 dSPACE electronic board along with MATLAB/Simulink software.

  6. Colon interposition for esophageal replacement: isoperistaltic or antiperistaltic? Experimental results. (United States)

    Dreuw, B; Fass, J; Titkova, S; Anurov, M; Polivoda, M; Ottinger, A P; Schumpelick, V


    Isoperistaltic colon is preferred to antiperistaltic colon for esophageal replacement, but experimental data do not exist to support this practice. In 7 dogs a 20 cm long colon loop was interposed between the skin and the small bowel, isoperistaltically in 3 dogs and antiperistaltically in 4 dogs. Three months later five strain-gauges were implanted and evacuation was investigated by motility testing, barium studies, and scintigraphy. Motility recording showed normal colon motility in the excluded loops. Quiescent states (duration 40.2 +/- 13.6 minutes) were followed by contractile states (duration 7.5 +/- 2.4 minutes, frequency 3.3 +/- 0.6 per minute). The main peristaltic direction of isoperistaltic loops was isoperistaltic, and the main peristaltic direction of antiperistaltic loops was antiperistaltic. Evacuation took place exclusively during the contractile status. Half time emptying was more rapid in isoperistaltic loops (35 +/- 11 vs 69 +/- 16 minutes). The content of antiperistaltic loops was held back by antiperistaltic activity. Application of oatmeal porridge into the loops shortened the quiescent status from 40.2 to 13.2 +/- 4.8 minutes. The colon graft for esophageal replacement is an active system. Food is stored during the quiescent states and evacuated during the contractile states. The original peristaltic direction is preserved so that retroperistalsis in antiperistaltic loops may lead to patient discomfort and pulmonary complications.

  7. Experimental results with hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines (United States)

    De Boer, P. C. T.; Mclean, W. J.; Homan, H. S.


    The paper focuses on the most important experimental findings for hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines, with particular reference to the application of these findings to the assessment of the potential of hydrogen engines. Emphasis is on the various tradeoffs that can be made, such as between maximum efficiency, maximum power, and minimum NO emissions. The various possibilities for induction and ignition are described. Some projections are made about areas in which hydrogen engines may find their initial application and about optimum ways to design such engines. It is shown that hydrogen-fueled reciprocal internal combustion engines offer important advantages with respect to thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. Problems arising from preignition can suitably be avoided by restricting the fuel-air equivalence ratio to values below about 0.5. The direct cylinder injection appears to be a very attractive way to operate the engine, because it combines a wide range of possible power outputs with a high thermal efficiency and very low NO emissions at part loads.

  8. Vaporization inside a mini microfin tube: experimental results and modeling (United States)

    Diani, A.; Rossetto, L.


    This paper proposes a comparison among the common R134a and the extremely low GWP refrigerant R1234yf during vaporization inside a mini microfin tube. This microfin tube has an internal diameter of 2.4 mm, it has 40 fins, with a fin height of 0.12 mm. Due to the high heat transfer coefficients shown by this tube, this technology can lead to a refrigerant charge reduction. Tests were run in the Heat Transfer in Micro Geometries Lab of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale of the Università di Padova. Mass velocities range between 375 and 940 kg m-2 s-1, heat fluxes from 10 to 50 kW m-2, vapour qualities from 0.10 to 0.99, at a saturation temperature of 30°C. The comparison among the two fluids is proposed at the same operating conditions, in order to highlight the heat transfer and pressure drop differences among the two refrigerants. In addition, two correlations are proposed to estimate the heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop during refrigerant flow boiling inside mini microfin tubes. These correlations well predict the experimental values, and thus they can be used as a useful tool to design evaporators based on these mini microfin tubes.

  9. Experimental results and modeling of a dynamic hohlraum on SATURN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzon, M.S.; Allshouse, G.O.; Deeney, C.; Leeper, R.J.; Nash, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matuska, W.; Peterson, D.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); MacFarlane, J.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ryutov, D.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Experiments were performed at SATURN, a high current z-pinch, to explore the feasibility of creating a hohlraum by imploding a tungsten wire array onto a low-density foam. Emission measurements in the 200--280 eV energy band were consistent with a 110--135 eV Planckian before the target shock heated, or stagnated, on-axis. Peak pinch radiation temperatures of nominally 160 eV were obtained. Measured early time x-ray emission histories and temperature estimates agree well with modeled performance in the 200--280 eV band using a 2D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics code. However, significant differences are observed in comparisons of the x-ray images and 2D simulations.

  10. Recent experimental results in sub- and near-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagnoli, Giovanna [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Stefanini, Alberto M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy)


    Recent advances obtained in the field of near and sub-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the results obtained in the last decade, and focus is mainly on the experimental work performed concerning the influence of transfer channels on fusion cross sections and the hindrance phenomenon far below the barrier. Indeed, early data of sub-barrier fusion taught us that cross sections may strongly depend on the low-energy collective modes of the colliding nuclei, and, possibly, on couplings to transfer channels. The coupled-channels (CC) model has been quite successful in the interpretation of the experimental evidences. Fusion barrier distributions often yield the fingerprint of the relevant coupled channels. Recent results obtained by using radioactive beams are reported. At deep sub-barrier energies, the slope of the excitation function in a semi-logarithmic plot keeps increasing in many cases and standard CC calculations overpredict the cross sections. This was named a hindrance phenomenon, and its physical origin is still a matter of debate. Recent theoretical developments suggest that this effect, at least partially, may be a consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. The hindrance may have far-reaching consequences in astrophysics where fusion of light systems determines stellar evolution during the carbon and oxygen burning stages, and yields important information for exotic reactions that take place in the inner crust of accreting neutron stars. (orig.)

  11. Collision induced dissociation study of azobenzene and its derivatives: computational and experimental results (United States)

    Rezaee, Mohammadreza; Compton, Robert


    Experimental and computational investigation have been performed in order to study the bond dissociation energy of azobenzene and its derivatives using collision induced dissociation method as well as other energy and structural characteristics. The results have been verified by comparing with results obtained from computational quantum chemistry. We used different density functional methods as well as the Möller-Plesset perturbation theory and the coupled cluster methods to explore geometric, electronic and the spectral properties of the sample molecules. Geometries were calculated and optimized using the 6-311 + + G(2d,2p) basis set and the B3LYP level of theory and these optimized structures have been subjected to the frequency calculations to obtain thermochemical properties by means of different density functional, Möller-Plesset, and coupled cluster theories to obtain a high accuracy estimation of the bond dissociation energy value. The results from experiments and the results obtained from computational thermochemistry are in close agreement. Physics and Astronomy Department

  12. A large scale fullerenes synthesis solar reactor modelling and first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillard, T.; Flamand, G.; Robert, J.F.; Rivoire, B.; Olalde, G.; Alvarez, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-IMP), 66 - Font-Romeu (France); Laplaze, D. [Universite de Montpellier, GDPC, 34 (France)


    After the promising results obtained with a 2 kW solar furnace for fullerenes and nano-tubes synthesis, a large scale production project using the 1 MW Odeillo solar furnace started in 1997. This paper presents the first experimental results obtained with a concept-validation vessel and the comparison with a numerical simulation of the target thermal behavior. It is shown that a 6 mm i.d. graphite rod heated by a 500 W/cm{sup 2} incident solar flux density (I{sub s}) reaches a front temperature of 2800 K, in agreement with the thermal model. On this basis, accurate prediction of maximum working temperature of the 1 MW reactor is proposed: 3400 K for I{sub s} = 900 W/cm{sup 2}. (authors)

  13. Comparison of results of experimental research with numerical calculations of a model one-sided seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Damian


    Full Text Available Paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research of a model segment of a labyrinth seal for a different wear level. The analysis covers the extent of leakage and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers and the planes upstream and downstream of the segment. The measurement data have been compared with the results of numerical calculations obtained using commercial software. Based on the flow conditions occurring in the area subjected to calculations, the size of the mesh defined by parameter y+ has been analyzed and the selection of the turbulence model has been described. The numerical calculations were based on the measurable thermodynamic parameters in the seal segments of steam turbines. The work contains a comparison of the mass flow and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers obtained during the measurement and calculated numerically in a model segment of the seal of different level of wear.

  14. Quantitative assessment of the impact of biomedical image acquisition on the results obtained from image analysis and processing. (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert


    Dedicated, automatic algorithms for image analysis and processing are becoming more and more common in medical diagnosis. When creating dedicated algorithms, many factors must be taken into consideration. They are associated with selecting the appropriate algorithm parameters and taking into account the impact of data acquisition on the results obtained. An important feature of algorithms is the possibility of their use in other medical units by other operators. This problem, namely operator's (acquisition) impact on the results obtained from image analysis and processing, has been shown on a few examples. The analysed images were obtained from a variety of medical devices such as thermal imaging, tomography devices and those working in visible light. The objects of imaging were cellular elements, the anterior segment and fundus of the eye, postural defects and others. In total, almost 200'000 images coming from 8 different medical units were analysed. All image analysis algorithms were implemented in C and Matlab. For various algorithms and methods of medical imaging, the impact of image acquisition on the results obtained is different. There are different levels of algorithm sensitivity to changes in the parameters, for example: (1) for microscope settings and the brightness assessment of cellular elements there is a difference of 8%; (2) for the thyroid ultrasound images there is a difference in marking the thyroid lobe area which results in a brightness assessment difference of 2%. The method of image acquisition in image analysis and processing also affects: (3) the accuracy of determining the temperature in the characteristic areas on the patient's back for the thermal method - error of 31%; (4) the accuracy of finding characteristic points in photogrammetric images when evaluating postural defects - error of 11%; (5) the accuracy of performing ablative and non-ablative treatments in cosmetology - error of 18% for the nose, 10% for the cheeks, and 7% for the

  15. Automated detection of discourse segment and experimental types from the text of cancer pathway results sections. (United States)

    Burns, Gully A P C; Dasigi, Pradeep; de Waard, Anita; Hovy, Eduard H


    Automated machine-reading biocuration systems typically use sentence-by-sentence information extraction to construct meaning representations for use by curators. This does not directly reflect the typical discourse structure used by scientists to construct an argument from the experimental data available within a article, and is therefore less likely to correspond to representations typically used in biomedical informatics systems (let alone to the mental models that scientists have). In this study, we develop Natural Language Processing methods to locate, extract, and classify the individual passages of text from articles' Results sections that refer to experimental data. In our domain of interest (molecular biology studies of cancer signal transduction pathways), individual articles may contain as many as 30 small-scale individual experiments describing a variety of findings, upon which authors base their overall research conclusions. Our system automatically classifies discourse segments in these texts into seven categories (fact, hypothesis, problem, goal, method, result, implication) with an F-score of 0.68. These segments describe the essential building blocks of scientific discourse to (i) provide context for each experiment, (ii) report experimental details and (iii) explain the data's meaning in context. We evaluate our system on text passages from articles that were curated in molecular biology databases (the Pathway Logic Datum repository, the Molecular Interaction MINT and INTACT databases) linking individual experiments in articles to the type of assay used (coprecipitation, phosphorylation, translocation etc.). We use supervised machine learning techniques on text passages containing unambiguous references to experiments to obtain baseline F1 scores of 0.59 for MINT, 0.71 for INTACT and 0.63 for Pathway Logic. Although preliminary, these results support the notion that targeting information extraction methods to experimental results could provide

  16. "Calibration" system for spectral measurements and its experimental results (United States)

    Bruchkouskaya, Sviatlana I.; Katkovsky, Leonid V.; Belyaev, Boris I.; Malyshev, Vladislav B.


    "Calibration" system has been developed at A. N. Sevchenko Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems of the Belarusian State University. It was designed for measuring the characteristics of spectral reflectance of all types of natural surfaces (test sites) in ground conditions or on board of aircraft carriers and has the following components: - Photospectroradiometr (PhSR) of high resolution with a range of 400-900 nm, equipped with a digital time-lapse video system; - Two-channel modular spectroradiometer (TMS) with a range of 400-900 nm, designed for simultaneous measurements of reflected light brightness of the underlying surface and the incident radiation from the upper hemisphere; - Two portable spectroradiometers (PSR-700 and PSR-1300) with a spectral range 800-1500 nm; 1200-2500 nm; - Scanning solar spectropolarimeter (SSP-600) with a range of 350-950 nm for measurements of direct sunlight and scattered by the atmosphere at different angles; "Calibration" system provides spectral resolution of 5.2 nm in a range of 400-900 nm, 10 nm in a range of 800-1500 nm and 15 nm in a range of 1200-2500 nm. Measurements of the optical characteristics of solar radiation (for determining parameters of the atmosphere) and that of underlying surface are synchronous. There is also a set of special nozzles for measurements of spectral brightness coefficients, polarization characteristics and spectral albedo. Spectra and images are geotagged to the navigation data (time, GPS). For the measurements of spectral reflection dependencies within "Monitoring-SG" framework expeditions to the Kuril Islands, Kursk aerospace test site and Kamchatka Peninsula were conducted in 2015 and 2016. The spectra of different underlying surfaces have been obtained: soils, plants and water objects, sedimentary and volcanic rocks. These surveys are a valuable material for further researches and selection of test facilities for flight calibration of space imaging systems. Information obtained

  17. Experimental Results of Heavy Flavor Production and Correlation at RHIC (United States)

    Xie, Wei


    Heavy flavor probes are essential tools to study the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions. The experiments at RHIC pioneered the measurements of production and correlation of heavy flavor probes. This paper presents highlights of these measurements and focus on the recent results.

  18. The behavior of delaminations in composite materials - experimental results (United States)

    Chermoshentseva, A. S.; Pokrovskiy, A. M.; Bokhoeva, L. A.


    Delamination is one of the most common failure modes of composite materials. It may occur as a consequence of imperfections in the production process or the effects of external factors during the operational life of the composite laminates, such as the impact by foreign objects. This paper presents the results of mechanical tests and the optimum degrees of filling the composite materials (CM) with hydrophobic powder (Tarkosil T-20) depending on the latter mass concentration. The results present test samples of the CM with the underlying interlayer defects. The samples were fabricated of twenty-ply pre-preg (fiberglass or carbon fiber). The industrial grade glass is T-25 (VM) specification 6-11-380-76. The composite materials have nanosized additives in structure. The volume concentration of nanopowders is varying from 0.1% to 0.5%. This kind of research has been done for the first time.

  19. Experimental test accelerator: description and results of initial experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.; Birx, D.; Briggs, R.


    The ETA is a high current (10,000 Amp) linear induction accelerator that produces short (30 ns) pulses of electrons at 5 MeV twice per second or in bursts of 5 pulses separated by as little as one millisecond. At this time the machine has operated at 65% of its design current and 90% of the design voltage. This report contains a description of the accelerator and its diagnostics; the results of the initial year of operation; a comparison of design codes with experiments on beam transport; and a discussion of some of the special problems and their status.

  20. Impact mechanics of ship collisions and validations with experimental results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shengming; Villavicencio, R.; Zhu, L.


    Closed-form analytical solutions for the energy released for deforming and crushing ofstructures and the impact impulse during ship collisions were developed and published inMarine Structures in 1998 [1]. The proposed mathematical models have been used bymany engineers and researchers although...... a reasonable agreement with theexperimental results. The paper also introduces a simple concept to account for theeffective mass of liquids with free surface carried on board of a ship and it is shown howthe analytical analysis procedure can be expanded to take into account the effect of shiproll on the energy...

  1. Defining Dynamic Characteristics of Multilink Pendulum System with Comparison of the Calculated and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gribkov


    Full Text Available We consider the multilink pendulum system consisting of six physical pendulums. A pendulum (carrier has inertia parameters, which significantly exceed the remaining (carried ones placed on the carrier. In addition to the system under analysis, in particular, the paper presents a design scheme for a two-stage liquid fuel rocket using pendulums as the analogues of fluctuating fuel. Pendulum models also find application to solve problems of stabilization of space tether systems. The objective of the study is to determine dynamic characteristics of the said sixmembered pendulum system, as well as to identify specific dynamic properties inherent in objects of this kind. Dynamic characteristics of the system are determined by calculations. A physical model of the pendulum allowed us to compare the calculated and experimental results. To conduct the frequency tests of the pendulum model three pilot units have been created. The first two units turned out to be inappropriate for fulfilling the experimental tasks for various reasons. The third unit enabled us to obtain desirable experimental results. The "calculation–experiment” discrepancy on the natural frequencies of the pendulum model for the majority of frequencies was less than 5%. We analyzed the dynamic features of multilink pendulum systems "carried by the carrier unit links". The analysis results are applicable to the above-noted object classes of rocket and space technology.

  2. A new experimental procedure to obtain titania powders as anatase phase by a sol-gel process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fernandes de Farias


    Full Text Available Titania powders were synthesized by a sol-gel process using titanium tetrabutoxide as precursor. The syntheses were performed in water or in solutions of dimethylformamide (dmf or dimethylsulfoxide (dmso. It is demonstrated, by X-ray diffraction patterns of the synthesized powders, that the samples obtained in dmf or dmso solutions are crystalline (anatase phase with some minor amount of brookite phase, whereas the sample synthesized in water is amorphous. The anatase phase can be obtained independently of any previous or further treatment of the synthesized powder, such as hydrothermal or heat treatment, providing a new, simple, quick and inexpensive route to synthesize anatase powders. From the peak broadening of the anatase (101 diffraction, the crystallite sizes were calculated as 6 nm.

  3. IP voice over ATM satellite: experimental results over satellite channels (United States)

    Saraf, Koroush A.; Butts, Norman P.


    IP telephony, a new technology to provide voice communication over traditional data networks, has the potential to revolutionize telephone communication within the modern enterprise. This innovation uses packetization techniques to carry voice conversations over IP networks. This packet switched technology promises new integrated services, and lower cost long-distance communication compared to traditional circuit switched telephone networks. Future satellites will need to carry IP traffic efficiently in order to stay competitive in servicing the global data- networking and global telephony infrastructure. However, the effects of Voice over IP over switched satellite channels have not been investigated in detail. To fully understand the effects of satellite channels on Voice over IP quality; several experiments were conducted at Lockheed Martin Telecommunications' Satellite Integration Lab. The result of those experiments along with suggested improvements for voice communication over satellite are presented in this document. First, a detailed introduction of IP telephony as a suitable technology for voice communication over future satellites is presented. This is followed by procedures for the experiments, along with results and strategies. In conclusion we hope that these capability demonstrations will alleviate any uncertainty regarding the applicability of this technology to satellite networks.

  4. Evaluation of radiographic magnification in lateral cephalograms obtained with different X-ray devices: experimental study in human dry skull


    José Rino Neto; João Batista de Paiva; Gilberto Vilanova Queiroz; Miguel Ferragut Attizzani; Hiroshi Miasiro Junior


    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the magnification factor of the radiographic image in angular, linear and proportional measurements. METHODS: From a dried human skull where metallic spheres with predetermined size were fixed (1.0 mm), 14 radiographs were obtained in devices of three different manufacturers: Panoura, Instrumentarium and Tomeceph. The Pearson correlation test was used to investigate the relationship between the rate of radiographic magnific...

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Coprecipitation Method: An Approach to Obtain Magnetite and Maghemite Nanoparticles with Improved Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sacchi Peternele


    Full Text Available Iron oxides that exhibit magnetic properties have been widely studied not only from an academic standpoint, but also for numerous applications in different fields of knowledge, such as biomedical and technological research. In this work, magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation of FeCl2·4H2O and FeCl3·6H2O (proportion of 1 : 2 in three different cases using two bases (sodium hydroxide and hydroxide ammonium as precipitants. The chemical coprecipitation method was selected for its simplicity, convenience, reproducibility, and low cost in the use of glassware. The nanostructured materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and magnetometry (VSM. The objective of this work is to study the variation in the morphological characteristics and physical properties of nanoparticles magnetic as a function of the different production processes. As observed by TEM, the materials obtained from the precipitating agent NH4OH are more uniform than those obtained with NaOH. From XRD pattern analysis, it appears that the obtained materials correspond to magnetite and maghemite and, from magnetometry VSM analysis, show high magnetization as a function of the magnetic field at room temperature, indicating that these materials are superparamagnetic.

  6. Silicon drift detector with reduced lateral diffusion: experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonsky, J. E-mail:; Valk, H.; Huizenga, J.; Hollander, R.W.; Eijk, C.W.E. van; Sarro, P.M


    In a standard multi-anode silicon drift detector electron cloud broadening during the drifting towards the anode pixels deteriorates the energy and position resolution. This makes the detector less applicable for detection of low-energy X-rays. The signal charge sharing between several anodes can be eliminated by introducing sawtooth-shaped p{sup +} field strips. The sawtooth structure results in small electric fields directed parallel to the sensor surface and perpendicular to the drift direction which produce gutters. The drifting electrons are confined in these gutters of one saw tooth period wide. For a detector with a sawtooth period of 500 {mu}m, we have measured the maximum number of fully confined electrons as a function of the potential gutter depth induced by different sawtooth angles.

  7. Silicon drift detector with reduced lateral diffusion: experimental results

    CERN Document Server

    Sonsky, J; Huizenga, John R; Hollander, R W; Eijk, C W E; Sarro, P M


    In a standard multi-anode silicon drift detector electron cloud broadening during the drifting towards the anode pixels deteriorates the energy and position resolution. This makes the detector less applicable for detection of low-energy X-rays. The signal charge sharing between several anodes can be eliminated by introducing sawtooth-shaped p sup + field strips. The sawtooth structure results in small electric fields directed parallel to the sensor surface and perpendicular to the drift direction which produce gutters. The drifting electrons are confined in these gutters of one saw tooth period wide. For a detector with a sawtooth period of 500 mu m, we have measured the maximum number of fully confined electrons as a function of the potential gutter depth induced by different sawtooth angles.

  8. [Arrest of spermatogenesis by various antibiotics: preliminary experimental results]. (United States)

    Dokov, V K; Timmermans, L


    9 antibiotics used in urology were injected for 8 days into male rats, and their effects observed on testicular histochemistry and histology. The antibiotics were: spiramycin 25 mg/kg, N-(5-nitro-furfurylidene)-1-amino 2 mg/kg, gentamycin sulfate 1.2 mg/kg, sodium chloramphenicol succinate 30 mg/kg, colimycin methane sulfonate 20,000 U/kg, framycetin sulfate 10 mg/kg, 7-(thiophene-2-acetamido-cephalosporanate sodium 30 mg/kg, crystalline potassium penicillin G 40,000 U/kg and oxytetracycline 10 mg/kg (injection routes not specified). The results were classified into 3 categories: first, gentamycin nitrofurfurlidine-aminohydantoine and oxytetracycline arrested cell division in spermatogonia and partially or totally blocked meiosis in primary spermatocytes. The Feulgen reaction (a stain for DNA) was faint in the germinal epithelium. In the second category were spiramycin, thiophene-acetamido-cephalosporanate, colimycin and framycetin, which inhibited mitosis in spermatogonia, therefore permitting few primary spermatocytes to reach metaphase. In the third group were penicillin G and chloramphenicol which partly or completely blocked mitotsis in spermatogonia. In all cases interstitial capillaries were congested. The severity of effect was least with penic illin, moderate with oxytetracycline, and generalized and severe with the others. Histochemical stains showed strong activity of glucose-6-phosphate and isocitric dehydrogenase in the interstitial cells, and in the spermatogonia, but lower than normal in the spermatids and spermatozoa. Glutamate dehydrogenase was low in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes. Classification of these antibiotics according to these results did not resemble any known chemical or antibacterial class ification.

  9. Overview of experimental results on the HL-2A tokamak (United States)

    Yan, L. W.; Duan, X. R.; Ding, X. T.; Dong, J. Q.; Yang, Q. W.; Liu, Yi; Zou, X. L.; Liu, D. Q.; Xuan, W. M.; Chen, L. Y.; Rao, J.; Song, X. M.; Huang, Y.; Mao, W. C.; Wang, Q. M.; Li, Q.; Cao, Z.; Li, B.; Cao, J. Y.; Lei, G. J.; Zhang, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Chen, W.; Cheng, J.; Cui, C. H.; Cui, Z. Y.; Deng, Z. C.; Dong, Y. B.; Feng, B. B.; Gao, Q. D.; Han, X. Y.; Hong, W. Y.; Huang, M.; Ji, X. Q.; Kang, Z. H.; Kong, D. F.; Lan, T.; Li, G. S.; Li, H. J.; Li, Qing; Li, W.; Li, Y. G.; Liu, A. D.; Liu, Z. T.; Luo, C. W.; Mao, X. H.; Pan, Y. D.; Peng, J. F.; Shi, Z. B.; Song, S. D.; Song, X. Y.; Sun, H. J.; Wang, A. K.; Wang, M. X.; Wang, Y. Q.; Xiao, W. W.; Xie, Y. F.; Yao, L. H.; Yao, L. Y.; Yu, D. L.; Yuan, B. S.; Zhao, K. J.; Zhong, G. W.; Zhou, J.; Zhou, Y.; Yan, J. C.; Yu, C. X.; Pan, C. H.; Liu, Yong; HL-2A Team


    The physics experiments on the HL-2A tokamak have been focused on confinement improvement, particle and thermal transport, zonal flow and turbulence, filament characteristics, energetic particle induced modes and plasma fuelling efficiency since 2008. ELMy H-mode discharges are achieved in a lower density regime using a combination of NBI heating with ECRH. The power threshold is found to increase with a decrease in density, almost independent of the launching order of the ECRH and NBI heating power. The pedestal density profiles in the H-mode discharges are measured. The particle outward convection is observed during the pump-out transient phase with ECRH. The negative density perturbation (pump-out) is observed to propagate much faster than the positive one caused by out-gassing. The core electron thermal transport reduction triggered by far off-axis ECRH switch-off is investigated. The coexistence of low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) and geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is observed. The dependence of the intensities of LFZFs and GAMs on the safety factor and ECRH power is identified. The 3D spatial structures of plasma filaments are measured in the boundary plasma and large-scale structures along a magnetic field line analysed for the first time. The beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAEs), excited by large magnetic islands (m-BAE) and by energetic electrons (e-BAE), are observed. The results for the study of fuelling efficiency and penetration characteristics of supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) are described.

  10. Impact ejecta dynamics in an atmosphere - Experimental results and extrapolations (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.


    It is noted that the impacts of 0.635-cm aluminum projectiles at 6 km/sec into fine pumice dust, at 1 atm, generate a ball of ionized gas behind an expanding curtain of upward moving ejecta. The gas ball forms a toroid which dissolves as it is driven along the interior of the ejecta curtain, by contrast to near-surface explosions in which a fireball envelops early-time crater growth. High frame rate Schlieren photographs show that the atmosphere at the base of the ejecta curtain is initially turbulent, but later forms a vortex. These experiments suggest that although small size ejecta may be decelerated by air drag, they are not simply lofted and suspended but become incorporated in an ejecta cloud that is controlled by air flow which is produced by the response of the atmosphere to the impact. The extrapolation of these results to large body impacts on the earth suggests such contrasts with laboratory experiments as a large quantity of impact-generated vapor, the supersonic advance of the ejecta curtain, the lessened effect of air drag due to the tenuous upper atmosphere, and the role of secondary cratering.

  11. Analysis and interpretation of Viking labeled release experimental results (United States)

    Levin, G. V.


    The Viking Labeled Release (LR) life detection experiment on the surface of Mars produced data consistent with a biological interpretation. In considering the plausibility of this interpretation, terrestrial life forms were identified which could serve as models for Martian microbial life. Prominent among these models are lichens which are known to survive for years in a state of cryptobiosis, to grow in hostile polar environments, to exist on atmospheric nitrogen as sole nitrogen source, and to survive without liquid water by absorbing water directly from the atmosphere. Another model is derived from the endolithic bacteria found in the dry Antarctic valleys; preliminary experiments conducted with samples of these bacteria indicate that they produce positive LR responses approximating the Mars results. However, because of the hositility of the Martian environment to life, and the failure to find organics on the surface of Mars, a number of nonbiological explanations were advanced to account for the Viking LR data. A reaction of the LR nutrient with putative surface hydrogen peroxide is the leading candidate. Other possibilities raised include reactions caused by or with ultraviolet irradiation, gamma-Fe2O3, metalloperoxides or superoxides.

  12. Crystalline and Spectroscopic Experimental Study of the Dinitromesithylen (DNM) Compared with the Theoretical Results (United States)

    Brihi, O.; Medjroubi, M. L.; Hamdouni, N.; Meinnel, J.; Boucekkine, A.; Boudjada, A.

    The aim by our group is to understand the behaviour of the grouping methyl starting from the study of molecules having a great symmetry. In this part of work, it is had the crystalline structure of the dinitromesitylen (DNM) who is solved starting from the diffraction of x-rays starting from a monocrystal at the ambient temperature. Parallel to the experimental study, we undertook theoretical calculations conformation of the insulated molecule of DNM by using the methods of the DFT (Density Functional Theory).Calculations of optimization of the molecular conformation of the DNM by using the chain of program GAUSSIAN03 and functional MPW1PW91, B3LYP level with the 6-311G and LANL2DZ bases gave a conformation Cs with results very close to the experiment for the lengths and the angles of bond. The computation results obtained starting from the base set (6-311G) and functional MPW1PW91 give for the conformation of Dinitromesitylen (DNM) a good agreement of about a 1.9% for the lengths of bond and 1.2% for the angles of bond compared with the results of the diffraction of x-rays. Calculations of Raman and infra-red spectroscopy undertaken starting from the results of optimization by using same functional MPW1PW91 and B3LYP and the sets of bases 6-311G LanL2DZ led to the values of frequencies very close to the experimental results.

  13. How many replicate tests do I need?$-$ Variability of cookstove performance and emissions has implications for obtaining useful results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yungang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Gadgil, Ashok J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wang, Yilun [ISO Innovative Analytics San Francisco, CA (United States); Lask, Kathleen M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). College of Engineering Applied Science and Technology Program; Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division


    Almost half of the world’s population still cooks on biomass cookstoves of poor efficiency and primitive design, such as three stone fires (TSF). Emissions from biomass cookstoves contribute to adverse health effects and climate change. A number of “improved cookstoves” with higher energy efficiency and lower emissions have been designed and promoted across the world. During the design development, and for selection of a stove for dissemination, the stove performance and emissions are commonly evaluated, communicated and compared using the arithmetic average of replicate tests made using a standardized laboratory-based test, commonly the water boiling test (WBT). However, published literature shows different WBT results reported from different laboratories for the same stove technology. Also, there is no agreement in the literature on how many replicate tests should be performed to ensure “significance” in the reported average performance. This matter has not received attention in the rapidly growing literature on stoves, and yet is crucial for estimating and communicating the performance of a stove, and for comparing the performance between stoves. We present results of statistical analyses using data from a number of replicate tests of performance and emission of the Berkeley-Darfur Stove (BDS) and the TSF under well-controlled laboratory conditions. We observed moderate variability in the test results for the TSF and BDS when measuring several characteristics. Here we focus on two as illustrative: time-to-boil and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers in diameter) emissions. We demonstrate that interpretation of the results comparing these stoves could be misleading if only a small number of replicates had been conducted. We then describe a practical approach, useful to both stove testers and designers, to assess the number of replicates needed to obtain useful data. Caution should be exercised in attaching high credibility to

  14. Seasonal differences in the subjective assessment of outdoor thermal conditions and the impact of analysis techniques on the obtained results (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes


    Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature ( PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.

  15. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps' fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation. (United States)

    Innocenzi, V; De Michelis, I; Ferella, F; Vegliò, F


    In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. First Experimental Results And Improvements On Profile Measurements With The Vibrating Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Arutunian, S G; Dobrovolski, N M; Mailian, M R; Soghoyan, H E; Vasiniuk, I E


    The paper presents the first experimental results of transverse profile scans using a wire scanner based on a vibrating wire (vibrating wire scanner - VWS). The measurements were performed at the injector electron beam (6 nA) of the Yerevan synchrotron. The beam profile information is obtained by measuring the wire natural oscillations that depend on the wire temperature. This first experiments on weak electron beam proved this new method as a very sensitive tool, even suitable for tail measurements. Additional, improvements were tested to overcome some problems connected with signal conditioning and signal transfer in the presence of electromagnetic noise. As a result the noises were neatly separated and reduced. A mathematical method for rejection of distorted data was developed. Experiments with the scanner at the PETRA accelerator at DESY are planned for measurements of beam tails.

  17. Soil gas and radon entry into a simple test structure: Comparison of experimental and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.


    A radon test structure has been established at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of soil gas entry rates, pressure couplings and radon depletion. The experimental results have been compared with results obtained from measured soil parameters and a two......-dimensional steady-state numerical model of Darcy flow and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. For most probe locations, the calculated values of the pressure couplings and the radon depletion agree well with the measured values, thus verifying important elements of the Darcy flow approximation......, and the ability of the model to treat combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. However, the model gives an underestimation of the soil gas entry rate. Even if it is assumed that the soil has a permeability equal to the highest of the measured values, the model underestimates the soil gas entry rate...

  18. Wave Synchronizing Crane Control during Water Entry in Offshore Moonpool Operations - Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor A. Johansen


    Full Text Available A new strategy for active control in heavy-lift offshore crane operations is suggested, by introducing a new concept referred to as wave synchronization. Wave synchronization reduces the hydrodynamic forces by minimization of variations in the relative vertical velocity between payload and water using a wave amplitude measurement. Wave synchronization is combined with conventional active heave compensation to obtain accurate control. Experimental results using a scale model of a semi-submerged vessel with a moonpool shows that wave synchronization leads to significant improvements in performance. Depending on the sea state and payload, the results indicate that the reduction in the standard deviation of the wire tension may be up to 50

  19. Structures of [001] twist boundaries in gold. II. Results obtained by x-ray diffraction and computer simulation (United States)

    Majid, I.; Bristowe, P. D.; Balluffi, R. W.


    Absolute grain-boundary structure factors, ||Fb||, were measured for a series of [001] twist boundaries in gold by the x-ray-diffraction method described in the preceding paper. The series included the Σ113(θ=7.6°), Σ25(θ=16.3°), Σ13(θ=22.6°), Σ17(θ=28.1°), and Σ5(θ=36.9°) boundaries (θ being the twist angle). The atomistic structures and ||Fb||'s of these boundaries were also calculated by computer simulation using the embedded-atom model. The calculated atomic relaxations in the boundary cores consisted mainly of rotations around the O lattice elements, in agreement with previous work, and became monotonically weaker as θ increased. A considerable degree of consistency between measured and calculated ||Fb||'s was obtained for all five boundaries. The calculated results faithfully tracked large measured decreases in ||Fb|| as θ increased. Considerable consistency was found between measured and calculated sets of ||Fb||'s for individual boundaries, particularly for Σ113 and Σ25, where the scattering was relatively strong. For the weakly scattering Σ5 boundary, the observed ||Fb||'s led to a most probable structure with small displacements which closely resembled the calculated structure. For the intermediate Σ13 and Σ17 boundaries, the limited number of measured ||Fb||'s was reasonably consistent with calculated values. It was therefore concluded that the atomistic boundary structures calculated by the embedded-atom model were essentially correct. The present boundary structures were in quite good agreement with those of Fitzsimmons and Sass for Σ13, but in strong disagreement for Σ5, where their model possessed displacements that were much too large.

  20. Comparison of experimental data with results of some drying models for regularly shaped products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Ahmet [Aksaray University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aksaray (Turkey); Aydin, Orhan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Trabzon (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Oshawa, ON (Canada)


    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying of moist slab, cylinder and spherical products to study dimensionless moisture content distributions and their comparisons. Experimental study includes the measurement of the moisture content distributions of slab and cylindrical carrot, slab and cylindrical pumpkin and spherical blueberry during drying at various temperatures (e.g., 30, 40, 50 and 60 C) at specific constant velocity (U = 1 m/s) and the relative humidity {phi}=30%. In theoretical analysis, two moisture transfer models are used to determine drying process parameters (e.g., drying coefficient and lag factor) and moisture transfer parameters (e.g., moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient), and to calculate the dimensionless moisture content distributions. The calculated results are then compared with the experimental moisture data. A considerably high agreement is obtained between the calculations and experimental measurements for the cases considered. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated between 0.741 x 10{sup -5} and 5.981 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for slab products, 0.818 x 10{sup -5} and 6.287 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for cylindrical products and 1.213 x 10{sup -7} and 7.589 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/h spherical products using the model-I and 0.316 x 10{sup -5}-5.072 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for slab products, 0.580 x 10{sup -5}-9.587 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for cylindrical products and 1.408 x 10{sup -7}-13.913 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/h spherical products using the model-II. (orig.)

  1. Spectra and depth-dose deposition in a polymethylmethacrylate breast phantom obtained by experimental and Monte Carlo method; Espectros e deposicao de dose em profundidade em phantom de mama de polimetilmetacrilato: obtencao experimental e por metodo de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Mariano G.; Pires, Evandro J.; Magalhaes, Luis A.; Almeida, Carlos E. de; Alves, Carlos F.E., E-mail: [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. Ciencias Radiologicas; Albuquerque, Marcos A. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra; Bernal, Mario A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Peixoto, Jose G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This paper focuses on the obtainment, using experimental and Monte Carlo-simulated (MMC) methods, of the photon spectra at various depths and depth-dose deposition curves for x-rays beams used in mammography, obtained on a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) breast phantom. Spectra were obtained for 28 and 30 kV quality-beams and the corresponding average energy values (Emed) were calculated. For the experimental acquisition was used a Si-PIN photodiode spectrometer and for the MMC simulations the PENELOPE code was employed. The simulated and the experimental spectra show a very good agreement, which was corroborated by the low differences found between the Emed values. An increase in the Emed values and a strong attenuation of the beam through the depth of the PMMA phantom was also observed. (author)

  2. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis Results Obtained in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, J.E.; Berglund, J.W.; Davis, F.J.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Miller, J.; O' Brien, D.G.; Ramsey, J.L.; Schreiber, J.D.; Shinta, A.; Smith, L.N.; Stockman, C.; Stoelzel, D.M.; Vaughn, P.


    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) is located in southeastern New Mexico and is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A detailed performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP was carried out in 1996 and supports an application by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. The 1996 WIPP PA uses a computational structure that maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 yr regulatory period that applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from the imprecision with which many of the quantities required in the PA are known. Important parts of this structure are (1) the use of Latin hypercube sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncertainty, (2) the use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncertainty, and (3) the efficient use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to support the analysis. The use of Latin hypercube sampling generates a mapping from imprecisely known analysis inputs to analysis outcomes of interest that provides both a display of the uncertainty in analysis outcomes (i.e., uncertainty analysis) and a basis for investigating the effects of individual inputs on these outcomes (i.e., sensitivity analysis). The sensitivity analysis procedures used in the PA include examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, and partial correlation analysis. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained as part of the 1996 WIPP PA are presented and discussed. Specific topics considered include two phase flow in the vicinity of the repository, radionuclide release from the repository, fluid flow and radionuclide

  3. Structures of (001) twist boundaries in gold. II. Results obtained by x-ray diffraction and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, I.; Bristowe, P.D.; Balluffi, R.W. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (US))


    Absolute grain-boundary structure factors, {vert bar}{ital F}{sub {ital b}}{vert bar}, were measured for a series of (001) twist boundaries in gold by the x-ray-diffraction method described in the preceding paper. The series included the {Sigma}113({theta}=7.6{degree}), {Sigma}25({theta}=16.3{degree}), {Sigma}13({theta}=22.6{degree}), {Sigma}17({theta}=28.1{degree}), and {Sigma}5({theta}=36.9{degree}) boundaries ({theta} being the twist angle). The atomistic structures and {vert bar}{ital F}{sub {ital b}}{vert bar}'s of these boundaries were also calculated by computer simulation using the embedded-atom model. The calculated atomic relaxations in the boundary cores consisted mainly of rotations around the {ital O} lattice elements, in agreement with previous work, and became monotonically weaker as {theta} increased. A considerable degree of consistency between measured and calculated {vert bar}{ital F}{sub {ital b}}{vert bar}'s was obtained for all five boundaries. The calculated results faithfully tracked large measured decreases in {vert bar}{ital F}{sub {ital b}}{vert bar} as {theta} increased. Considerable consistency was found between measured and calculated sets of {vert bar}{ital F}{sub {ital b}}{vert bar}'s for individual boundaries, particularly for {Sigma}113 and {Sigma}25, where the scattering was relatively strong. For the weakly scattering {Sigma}5 boundary, the observed {vert bar}{ital F}{sub {ital b}}{vert bar}'s led to a most probable structure with small displacements which closely resembled the calculated structure. For the intermediate {Sigma}13 and {Sigma}17 boundaries, the limited number of measured {vert bar}{ital F}{sub {ital b}}{vert bar}'s was reasonably consistent with calculated values. It was therefore concluded that the atomistic boundary structures calculated by the embedded-atom model were essentially correct.

  4. First experimental results with the Current Limit Avoidance System at the JET tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Galeani, S. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Jachmich, S. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Koninklijke Militaire School - Ecole Royale Militaire, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Joffrin, E. [IRFM-CEA, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-paul-lez-Durance (France); Lennholm, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Lomas, P.J. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Neto, A.C. [Associazione EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, IST, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Rimini, F.G. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Sips, A.C.C. [European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Varano, G.; Vitelli, R. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Universitè de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)


    The Current Limit Avoidance System (CLA) has been recently deployed at the JET tokamak to avoid current saturations in the poloidal field (PF) coils when the eXtreme Shape Controller is used to control the plasma shape. In order to cope with the current saturation limits, the CLA exploits the redundancy of the PF coils system to automatically obtain almost the same plasma shape using a different combination of currents in the PF coils. In the presence of disturbances it tries to avoid the current saturations by relaxing the constraints on the plasma shape control. The CLA system has been successfully implemented on the JET tokamak and fully commissioned in 2011. This paper presents the first experimental results achieved in 2011–2012 during the restart and the ITER-like wall campaigns at JET.

  5. Deuteron induced reactions on Ho and La: Experimental excitation functions and comparison with code results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A., E-mail: [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel 1090 (Belgium); Adam-Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel 1090 (Belgium); Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S.; Csikai, J. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Takacs, M.P. [Institute of Physics, University of Debrecen, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Ignatyuk, A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk 246020 (Russian Federation)


    Activation products of rare earth elements are gaining importance in medical and technical applications. In stacked foil irradiations, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy, the cross-sections for production of {sup 161,165}Er, {sup 166g}Ho on {sup 165}Ho and {sup 135,137m,137g,139}Ce, {sup 140}La, {sup 133m,133g,cum}Ba and {sup 136}Cs on {sup nat}La targets were measured up to 50 MeV. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the {sup 27}Al(d,x){sup 24,22}Na monitor reactions over the whole energy range. A comparison with experimental literature values and results from updated theoretical codes (ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and the TENDL2012 online library) is discussed.

  6. NACA0012 benchmark model experimental flutter results with unsteady pressure distributions (United States)

    Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Bennett, Robert M.; Durham, Michael H.; Silva, Walter A.


    The Structural Dynamics Division at NASA Langley Research Center has started a wind tunnel activity referred to as the Benchmark Models Program. The primary objective of this program is to acquire measured dynamic instability and corresponding pressure data that will be useful for developing and evaluating aeroelastic type computational fluid dynamics codes currently in use or under development. The program is a multi-year activity that will involve testing of several different models to investigate various aeroelastic phenomena. This paper describes results obtained from a second wind tunnel test of the first model in the Benchmark Models Program. This first model consisted of a rigid semispan wing having a rectangular planform and a NACA 0012 airfoil shape which was mounted on a flexible two degree of freedom mount system. Experimental flutter boundaries and corresponding unsteady pressure distribution data acquired over two model chords located at the 60 and 95 percent span stations are presented.

  7. Results of an outpatient multidisciplinary COPD rehabilitation programme obtained in two settings: primary and secondary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vest, Susanne; Moll, Lill; Petersen, Marelis


    There is limited experience with implementation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rehabilitation in primary care settings. We aimed to evaluate the implementation of a COPD rehabilitation programme in a primary care setting and compare the effects with those obtained in a secondary...

  8. Using text messaging to obtain weekly data on infant feeding in a Danish birth cohort resulted in high participation rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian


    AIM: Our aim was to use text message questions to obtain prospective, real-time data on exclusive and partial breastfeeding and introduction to complementary foods in a Danish birth cohort. We also wanted to identify factors influencing breastfeeding initiation and cessation. METHODS: This study ...

  9. Wind refrigeration : design and results of an experimental facility; Refrigeracion eolica: Diseno y resultados de una instalacion experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, R. G.; Talero, A.


    This article describes the experimental setup used to obtain design parameters for a wind driven refrigeration equipment. The system compressor is directly coupled to the wind mill and will provide refrigeration to a community located in La Guajira in northern Colombia. The testing on the experimental installation assessed the refrigeration capacity that could be provided by an open type commercial compressor coupled to the wind mill axis. Power and torque requirements have been evaluated for different wind mill rotational speeds. An assessment of the local conditions relating to wind speed, frequency and preferred direction for the installation site has been made based on measurements by the Meteorological National Institute and independent data from other sources. (Author)

  10. The influence of a selenium-chromium-lipid complex obtained from Chlorella vulgaris on the energy metabolism in rats with experimental diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Lukashiv


    Full Text Available One of the leading roles in treating diabetes mellitus belongs to chrome ions therapy (III, especially in the complex with selenium (IV. Currently selenium is obtained from unicellular algae, which contain biologically active substances and which are capable of accumulating exogenous microelements. By incubating unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Biej. in the conditions of aquaculture with sodium selenite (IV and chromium (III chloride, we obtained a biologically active lipid substance which contains selenium and chromium. The substance was tested for the impact on energy metabolism of animals exposed to experimentally induced diabetes mellitus. The diabetes was caused by modeling obesity of the animals with further injection of streptozotocin in the amount of 65 mg/kg and nicotinamide at the dose of 230 mg/kg. The rats were intragastrically injected with 1 ml of 1% starch solution which contained a selenium-chrome-lipid complex extracted from the Chlorella containing 0.6 µg of selenium, 1.05 µg of chrome and 0.5 mg of lipids for prophylactic, therapeutic and prophylactic-therapeutic purposes; the other group of rats for therapeutic purposes was injected with starch solution with the same composition of microelements in inorganic form – sodium selenite (IV and chromium chloride (III. This paper presents the results of our study of the impact of organic and inorganic compounds of chrome and selenium on the energetic metabolism of rats exposed to experimental diabetes mellitus. The analysis determined that in the rats’ organism, the selenium-chrome-lipid complex from the Chlorella improved the indicators of the energetic metabolism – in the group of rats which received it for therapeutic purposes, we observed an up to 7.5 fold increase in the activity of succinate dehydrogenase compared to the rats which did not receive therapeutic treatment. The increase in the activity of succinate dehydrogenase corresponded to the increase in the

  11. SSI on the Dynamic Behaviour of a Historical Masonry Building: Experimental versus Numerical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ceroni


    Full Text Available A reliable procedure to identify the dynamic behaviour of existing masonry buildings is described in the paper, referring to a representative case study: a historical masonry palace located in Benevento (Italy. Since the building has been equipped with a permanent dynamic monitoring system by the Department of Civil Protection, some of the recorded data, acquired in various operating conditions, have been analysed with basic instruments of the Operational Modal Analysis in order to identify the main eigenfrequencies and vibration modes of the structure. The obtained experimental results have been compared to the numerical outcomes provided by three detailed Finite Element (FE models of the building. The influence of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI has been also introduced in the FE model by a sub-structure approach where concentrated springs were placed at the base of the building to simulate the effect of soil and foundation on the global dynamic behaviour of the structure. The obtained results evidence that subsoil cannot a priori be disregarded in identifying the dynamic response of the building.

  12. Numerical Predictions and Experimental Results of Air Flow in a Smooth Quarter-Scale Nacelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Fires in aircraft engine nacelles must be rapidly suppressed to avoid loss of life and property. The design of new and retrofit suppression systems has become significantly more challenging due to the ban on production of Halon 1301 for environmental concerns. Since fire dynamics and the transport of suppressants within the nacelle are both largely determined by the available air flow, efforts to define systems using less effective suppressants greatly benefit from characterization of nacelle air flow fields. A combined experimental and computational study of nacelle air flow therefore has been initiated. Calculations have been performed using both CFD-ACE (a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model with a body-fitted coordinate grid) and WLCAN (a CFD-based fire field model with a Cartesian ''brick'' shaped grid). The flow conditions examined in this study correspond to the same Reynolds number as test data from the full-scale nacelle simulator at the 46 Test Wing. Pre-test simulations of a quarter-scale test fixture were performed using CFD-ACE and WLCAN prior to fabrication. Based on these pre-test simulations, a quarter-scale test fixture was designed and fabricated for the purpose of obtaining spatially-resolved measurements of velocity and turbulence intensity in a smooth nacelle. Post-test calculations have been performed for the conditions of the experiment and compared with experimental results obtained from the quarter-scale test fixture. In addition, several different simulations were performed to assess the sensitivity of the predictions to the grid size, to the turbulence models, and to the use of wall functions. In general, the velocity predictions show very good agreement with the data in the center of the channel but deviate near the walls. The turbulence intensity results tend to amplify the differences in velocity, although most of the trends are in agreement. In addition, there were some differences between WLCAN and CFD

  13. Analysis of the calibration results obtained with Liulin-4J spectrometer-dosimeter on protons and heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchihori, Yukio E-mail:; Kitamura, Hisashi; Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Dachev, T.P.Tsvetan P.; Tomov, B.T.Borislav T.; Dimitrov, P.G.Plamen G.; Matviichuk, Yura


    We are developing a portable dosimeter (Liulin-4J) based on a silicon semiconductor detector for use in measuring the absorbed dose from primary or secondary cosmic rays to astronauts and airplane crews. The dosimeter can measure not only the flux and dose rate, but also the deposited energy spectrum for silicon in per unit time. In order to calibrate the dosimeter, we have carried out exposures at the NIRS cyclotron and HIMAC heavy ion synchrotron facilities. We obtained a detector response function for using in measuring energy deposition and LET.

  14. Experimental geothermal well at Bad Schinznach. First results; Geothermiebohrung Bad Schinznach. Erste Resultate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, M.O. [Haering Geo-Project, Steinmaur (Switzerland)


    The spa of Bad Schinznach (Canton Argovia, Switzerland) endeavours to cover its heating requirements with geothermal energy. A recently drilled well to a depth of 890 meters encountered the regional acquifer of thermal water (Oberer Muschelkalk, Triassic) in three levels. Preliminary results indicate a productive aquifer in the uppermost level with a wellhead temperature of 42 C. An additional exploitation of the bottomhole formation temperature of 63 C is envisaged. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bad Schinznach (Kanton Aargau, Schweiz) moechte im Rahmen der wirtschaftlichen Moeglichkeiten seinen Waermebedarf mit der Nutzung des Thermalwassers aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk (Trias) decken. Eine neulich abgeteufte Bohrung bis auf 890 Meter Tiefe hat die Formation auf drei Niveaus angetroffen. Erste Resultate deuten auf ein nutzbares Vorkommen im obersten Horizont mit einer Austrittstemperatur von 42 C. Eine zusaetzliche Nutzung der hohen Formationstemperatur von 63 C auf Endtiefe wird erwogen. (orig.)

  15. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps’ fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocenzi, V., E-mail:; De Michelis, I.; Ferella, F.; Vegliò, F.


    Highlights: • Fluorescent powder of lamps. • Fluorescent powder of cathode ray rubes. • Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powders. • Economic simulation for the processes to recover yttrium from WEEE. - Abstract: In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes.

  16. Commissioning of the catalytic plasma exhaust clean-up facility caprice and first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glugla, M.; Kraemer, R.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Le, T.L.; Simon, K.H.; Guenther, K.; Besserer, U.; Schaefer, P.; Hellriegel, W. [Research Center Karlsruhe (Germany); Geissler, H. [Kraftanlagen Heidelberg (Germany)


    A fuel clean-up process for all plasma exhaust gases from DT fusion machines, based on catalytic conversion reactions combined with permeation of hydrogen isotopes through palladium/silver, has been developed. The complete process has already been proven with relevant concentrations of tritium at laboratory scale. On the basis of the results obtained the technical facility `CAPRICE` was designed, and is now under tritium operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The facility is being used to demonstrate the process on a target throughput of 10 mol/h DT and 1 mol/h tritiated and non-tritiated impurities. Full scale experiments with hydrogen and deuterium have been completed to verify the design parameters of the facility and to gain detailed knowledge on the performance of the different subsystems under a variety of experimental conditions. Decontamination factors were obtained from these experiments as well as from first tritium runs employing about 350 Ci (0.5%) tritium in deuterium. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. An easy way to obtain strong duality results in linear, linear semidefinite and linear semi-infinite programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, P.C.; Still, Georg J.


    In linear programming it is known that an appropriate non-homogeneous Farkas Lemma leads to a short proof of the strong duality results for a pair of primal and dual programs. By using a corresponding generalized Farkas lemma we give a similar proof of the strong duality results for semidefinite

  18. A new warfarin dosing algorithm including VKORC1 3730 G > A polymorphism: comparison with results obtained by other published algorithms. (United States)

    Cini, Michela; Legnani, Cristina; Cosmi, Benilde; Guazzaloca, Giuliana; Valdrè, Lelia; Frascaro, Mirella; Palareti, Gualtiero


    Warfarin dosing is affected by clinical and genetic variants, but the contribution of the genotype associated with warfarin resistance in pharmacogenetic algorithms has not been well assessed yet. We developed a new dosing algorithm including polymorphisms associated both with warfarin sensitivity and resistance in the Italian population, and its performance was compared with those of eight previously published algorithms. Clinical and genetic data (CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, VKORC1 -1639 G > A, and VKORC1 3730 G > A) were used to elaborate the new algorithm. Derivation and validation groups comprised 55 (58.2% men, mean age 69 years) and 40 (57.5% men, mean age 70 years) patients, respectively, who were on stable anticoagulation therapy for at least 3 months with different oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) indications. Performance of the new algorithm, evaluated with mean absolute error (MAE) defined as the absolute value of the difference between observed daily maintenance dose and predicted daily dose, correlation with the observed dose and R(2) value, was comparable with or slightly lower than that obtained using the other algorithms. The new algorithm could correctly assign 53.3%, 50.0%, and 57.1% of patients to the low (≤25 mg/week), intermediate (26-44 mg/week) and high (≥ 45 mg/week) dosing range, respectively. Our data showed a significant increase in predictive accuracy among patients requiring high warfarin dose compared with the other algorithms (ranging from 0% to 28.6%). The algorithm including VKORC1 3730 G > A, associated with warfarin resistance, allowed a more accurate identification of resistant patients who require higher warfarin dosage.

  19. Development of volume equations using data obtained by upper stem dendrometry with Monte Carlo integration: preliminary results for eastern redcedar (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Rodney E. Will; Rider Reynolds


    Preliminary results are given for development of an eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) cubic-volume equation based on measurements of redcedar sample tree stem volume using dendrometry with Monte Carlo integration. Monte Carlo integration techniques can be used to provide unbiased estimates of stem cubic-foot volume based on upper stem diameter...

  20. A comparison of results obtained from foil chaff clouds at 69 deg northern latitude during winter, summer and autumn (United States)

    Widdel, H. U.; Vonzahn, U.


    Results from high resolution foil chaff experiments flown during the campaigns MAP/WINE (December 83 to February 84), MAC/SINE (June to July 1987) and Epsilon (October to November 1987) at Andenes (Northern Norway) are compared to each other and the differences in wind direction and wave activity during the different seasons are worked out.

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for newly-diagnosed glioblastoma: comparison of clinical results obtained with BNCT and conventional treatment. (United States)

    Kageji, Teruyoshi; Nagahiro, Shinji; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Matsuzaki, Kazuhito; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Kumada, Hiroaki


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and conventional treatment in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Since 1998 we treated 23 newly-diagosed GBM patients with BNCT without any additional chemotherapy. Their median survival time was 19.5 months; the 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 31.8%, 22.7%, and 9.1%, respectively. The clinical results of BNCT in patients with GBM are similar to those of recent conventional treatments based on radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide.

  2. Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand (United States)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Ren, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Si-Qun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Guang-Hua; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yi


    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ˜10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132-300 tungsten wires with 5-10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (˜50 TW) and total radiated energy (˜500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed.

  3. Molecular hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull chromophores: A comparison between theoretical and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Centore, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica P. Corradini, Università di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Noce, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Peluso, A., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)


    Highlights: ► Electro-optical determined and MP2/DFT computed NLO properties have been compared. ► Significant dependence of dipole moments of elongated NLO chromophores on conformations has been found. ► A thorough comparison between MP2 and DFT/TD-DFT computational approaches has been carried out. ► The two-state model overestimates hyperpolarizability. - Abstract: Electric dipole moments and static first order hyperpolarizabilities of two push–pull molecules with an extended π electron systems have been evaluated at different computational levels and compared with the results of electro-optical absorption measurements, based on the two state model. Calculations show that: (i) the dipole moments of such elongated systems depend significantly on conformation, a thorough conformational search is necessary for a meaningful comparison between theoretical and experimental results; (ii) DFT methods, in particular CAM-B3LYP and M05-2X, yield dipole moments which compare well with those obtained by post Hartree–Fock methods (MP2) and by EOA measurements; (iii) theoretical first order hyperpolarizabilities are largely underestimated, both by MP2 and DFT methods, possibly because of the failure of two state model used in electro-optical measurements.

  4. Uranium speciation in moorland river water samples: a comparison of experimental results and computer model predictions. (United States)

    Unsworth, Emily R; Jones, Phil; Cook, Jennifer M; Hill, Steve J


    An on-line method has been developed for separating inorganic and organic bound uranium species present in river water samples. The method utilised a small chelating resin (Hyphan) column incorporated into the sample introduction manifold of an ICP-MS instrument. The method was evaluated for samples from rivers on Dartmoor (Devon, UK), an area of granite overlain with peat bogs. The results indicate that organic-uranium species form a major proportion (80%) of the total dissolved uranium present. Further work with synthetic water samples indicated that the level of dissolved organic carbon played a greater role in determining the level of organic-uranium species than did sample pH. Computer models for the water samples were constructed using the WHAM program (incorporating uranium data from the Nuclear Energy Agency Thermochemical Database project) in order to predict the levels of organic-uranium species that would form. By varying the proportion of humic and fulvic acids used in the humic component, predictions within 10% of the experimental results were obtained. The program did exhibit a low bias at higher pH values (7.5) and low organic carbon concentrations (0.5 microg ml(-1)), but under the natural conditions prevalent in the Dartmoor water samples, the model predictions were successful.

  5. Assessment of IgE binding to native and hydrolyzed soy protein in serum obtained from dogs with experimentally induced soy protein hypersensitivity. (United States)

    Serra, Montserrat; Brazís, Pilar; Fondati, Alessandra; Puigdemont, Anna


    To assess binding of IgE to native, whole hydrolyzed, and separated hydrolyzed fractions of soy protein in serum obtained from dogs with experimentally induced soy protein hypersensitivity. 8 naïve Beagles (6 experimentally sensitized to native soy protein and 2 control dogs). 6 dogs were sensitized against soy protein by administration of allergens during a 90-day period. After the sensitization protocol was completed, serum concentrations of soy-specific IgE were measured and intradermal skin tests were performed in all 6 dogs to confirm that the dogs were sensitized against soy protein. Serum samples from each sensitized and control dog underwent western blot analysis to assess the molecular mass band pattern of the different allergenic soy fractions and evaluate reactivities to native and hydrolyzed soy protein. In sera from sensitized dogs, a characteristic band pattern with 2 major bands (approx 75 and 50 kd) and 2 minor bands (approx 31 and 20 kd) was detected, whereas only a diffuse band pattern associated with whole hydrolyzed soy protein was detected in the most reactive dog. Reactivity was evident only for the higher molecular mass peptide fraction. In control dogs, no IgE reaction to native or hydrolyzed soy protein was detected. Data suggest that the binding of soy-specific IgE to the hydrolyzed soy protein used in the study was significantly reduced, compared with binding of soy-specific IgE to the native soy protein, in dogs with experimentally induced soy hypersensitivity.

  6. Short Communication: Testosterone Measured with an Automatic Immunoassay Compares Reasonbly Well to Results Obtained by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Cindy Søndersø; Højskov, Carsten Schriver; Møller, Holger Jon


    Background: Previous studies have reported problems measuring testosterone with immunological assays. Here we explore an automatic second generation immunoassay compared to a LC-MS/MS method. Methods: We collected blood samples from 76 women and measured testosterone, progesterone, gender...... hormonebinding globulin (SHBG), and albumin employing Cobas e601/c501. Testosterone, androstenedione (andro), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentrations were measured employing LC-MS/MS. We evaluated the difference between testosterone measured by the two methods...... and examined the potential interference from the selected steroids and bindings proteins. Results: Testosterone concentrations measured by the two methods yielded: Cobas e601 = 1.240 x (LC-MS/MS) - 0.197, r = 0.84, for testosterone concentrations between 0.22 - 4.9 nmol/L. A positive correlation was observed...

  7. Soft material adhesion characterization for in vivo locomotion of robotic capsule endoscopes: Experimental and modeling results. (United States)

    Kern, Madalyn D; Ortega Alcaide, Joan; Rentschler, Mark E


    The objective of this work is to validate an experimental method and nondimensional model for characterizing the normal adhesive response between a polyvinyl chloride based synthetic biological tissue substrate and a flat, cylindrical probe with a smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. The adhesion response is a critical mobility design parameter of a Robotic Capsule Endoscope (RCE) using PDMS treads to provide mobility to travel through the gastrointestinal tract for diagnostic purposes. Three RCE design characteristics were chosen as input parameters for the normal adhesion testing: pre-load, dwell time and separation rate. These parameters relate to the RCE׳s cross sectional dimension, tread length, and tread speed, respectively. An inscribed central composite design (CCD) prescribed 34 different parameter configurations to be tested. The experimental adhesion response curves were nondimensionalized by the maximum stress and total displacement values for each test configuration and a mean nondimensional curve was defined with a maximum relative error of 5.6%. A mathematical model describing the adhesion behavior as a function of the maximum stress and total displacement was developed and verified. A nonlinear regression analysis was done on the maximum stress and total displacement parameters and equations were defined as a function of the RCE design parameters. The nondimensional adhesion model is able to predict the adhesion curve response of any test configuration with a mean R(2) value of 0.995. Eight additional CCD studies were performed to obtain a qualitative understanding of the impact of tread contact area and synthetic material substrate stiffness on the adhesion response. These results suggest that the nondimensionalization technique for analyzing the adhesion data is sufficient for all values of probe radius and substrate stiffness within the bounds tested. This method can now be used for RCE tread design optimization given a set of

  8. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform. (United States)

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D


    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov


    Full Text Available The experimental hybrid car testing results are presented. The estimation of hybrid car draft-speed characteristics, energy and ecological indicators on urban driving cycle are given.

  10. Acoustic propagation in the Hudson River Estuary: Analysis of experimental measurements and numerical modeling results (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Sreeram

    Underwater intrusion detection is an ongoing security concern in port and harbor areas. Of particular interest is to detect SCUBA divers, unmanned underwater vehicles and small boats from their acoustic signature. A thorough understanding of the effects of the shallow water propagating medium on acoustic signals can help develop new technologies and improve the performance of existing acoustic based surveillance systems. The Hudson River Estuary provides us with such a shallow water medium to conduct research and improve our knowledge of shallow water acoustics. Acoustic propagation in the Hudson River Estuary is highly affected by the temporal and spatial variability of salinity and temperature due to tides, freshwater inflows, winds etc. The primary goal of this research is to help develop methodologies to predict the formation of an acoustic field in the realistic environment of the lower Hudson River Estuary. Shallow water high-frequency acoustic propagation experiments were conducted in the Hudson River near Hoboken, New Jersey. Channel Impulse Response (CIR) measurements were carried out in the frequency band from 10 to 100 kHz for distances up to 200 meters in a water depth of 8-10 meters which formed the basis for experimental Transmission Loss (TL). CIR data was also utilized to demonstrate multi-path propagation in shallow water. Acoustic propagation models based on Ray Theory and Parabolic Equation methods were implemented in the frequency band from 10 to 100 kHz and TL was estimated. The sound velocity profiles required as input by acoustic propagation models were calculated from in-situ measurements of temperature, salinity and depth. Surface reflection loss was obtained from CIR data and incorporated into the acoustic propagation models. Experimentally obtained TL was used to validate the acoustic model predictions. An outcome of this research is an operational acoustic transmission loss (TL) forecast system based on the existing, Stevens New York

  11. Results of combined antiangiogenic activity on corneal neovascularization. Experimental and morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Mamikpnyan


    Full Text Available Results of comparative experimental and morphological study of activity on corneal neovascularization in rabbit’s eye of photodynamic therapy with Photosense and antiangiogenic therapy with Avastin (bevacizumab alone, and in its combination are represented. The treatment was performed in regimens: 1 photodynamic therapy with Photosense (single intravenous injection in dose of 0.3 mg/kg 72 h prior to laser irradiation, power density of irradiation 500 mW/cm2, wavelength 675 nm; 2 drug antiangiogenic therapy with Avastin (single subconjuctival introduction at dose of 1.25 mg; 3 photodynamic therapy with Photosense (in described regimen in combination with subconjuctival introduction of Avastin at dose of 1.25 mg immediately prior to irradiation. Combined photodynamic therapy with antiangiogenic therapy allows to obtain almost complete occlusion in all regions of corneal neovascular bed with shorter time interval comparing with those for monoregimens. In case of blood flow retention in great vessels courses of combined modality treatment may be repeated. The absence of side-effects on surrounding tissues and the recovery of optical characteristics of cornea may allow to use this upcoming method in clinical practice. 

  12. Comparisons of Buckling Capacity Curves of Pressurized Spheres with EDR Provisions and Experimental Results (United States)

    Błażejewski, Paweł; Marcinowski, Jakub


    Existing provisions leading to the assessment of the buckling resistance of pressurised spherical shells were published in the European Design Recommendations (EDR) [1]. This book comprises rules which refer to the stability of steel shells of different shapes. In the first step of the general procedure they require calculation of two reference quantities: the elastic critical buckling reference pRcr and the plastic reference resistance pRpl. These quantities should be determined in the linear buckling analysis (LBA) and in the materially nonlinear analysis (MNA) respectively. Only in the case of spherical shells the existing procedure has exceptional character. It is based on the geometrically nonlinear analysis (GNA) and on the geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis (GMNA), respectively. From this reason, in this particular case there was a need to change the existing approach. The new procedure was presented in the work of Błażejewski & Marcinowski in 2016 (comp. [2]). All steps of the procedure leading to the assessment of buckling resistance of pressurized steel, spherical shells were presented in this work. The elaborated procedure is consistent with provisions of Eurocode EN1993-1-6 (comp. [3]) and with recommendations inserted in Europeans Design Recommendations [1]. The proposed capacity curves were compared with existing proposal published in [1] for three different fabrication quality classes predicted in [3]. In this work also comparisons of author's proposals with experimental results obtained by other authors were presented.

  13. The CABRI fast neutron Hodoscope: Renovation, qualification program and first results following the experimental reactor restart (United States)

    Chevalier, V.; Mirotta, S.; Guillot, J.; Biard, B.


    The CABRI experimental pulse reactor, located at the Cadarache nuclear research center, southern France, is devoted to the study of Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA). For the purpose of the CABRI International Program (CIP), managed and funded by IRSN, in the framework of an OECD/NEA agreement, a huge renovation of the facility has been conducted since 2003. The Cabri Water Loop was then installed to ensure prototypical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) conditions for testing irradiated fuel rods. The hodoscope installed in the CABRI reactor is a unique online fuel motion monitoring system, operated by IRSN and dedicated to the measurement of the fast neutrons emitted by the tested rod during the power pulse. It is one of the distinctive features of the CABRI reactor facility, which is operated by CEA. The system is able to determine the fuel motion, if any, with a time resolution of 1 ms and a spatial resolution of 3 mm. The hodoscope equipment has been upgraded as well during the CABRI facility renovation. This paper presents the main outcomes achieved with the hodoscope since October 2015, date of the first criticality of the CABRI reactor in its new Cabri Water Loop configuration. Results obtained during reactor commissioning phase functioning, either in steady-state mode (at low and high power, up to 23 MW) or in transient mode (start-up, possibly beyond 20 GW), are discussed.

  14. Experimental study of heat pump thermodynamic cycles using CO2 based mixtures - Methodology and first results (United States)

    Bouteiller, Paul; Terrier, Marie-France; Tobaly, Pascal


    The aim of this work is to study heat pump cycles, using CO2 based mixtures as working fluids. Since adding other chemicals to CO2 moves the critical point and generally equilibrium lines, it is expected that lower operating pressures as well as higher global efficiencies may be reached. A simple stage pure CO2 cycle is used as reference, with fixed external conditions. Two scenarios are considered: water is heated from 10 °C to 65 °C for Domestic Hot Water scenario and from 30 °C to 35 °C for Central Heating scenario. In both cases, water at the evaporator inlet is set at 7 °C to account for such outdoor temperature conditions. In order to understand the dynamic behaviour of thermodynamic cycles with mixtures, it is essential to measure the fluid circulating composition. To this end, we have developed a non intrusive method. Online optical flow cells allow the recording of infrared spectra by means of a Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometer. A careful calibration is performed by measuring a statistically significant number of spectra for samples of known composition. Then, a statistical model is constructed to relate spectra to compositions. After calibration, compositions are obtained by recording the spectrum in few seconds, thus allowing for a dynamic analysis. This article will describe the experimental setup and the composition measurement techniques. Then a first account of results with pure CO2, and with the addition of propane or R-1234yf will be given.

  15. Excess molar properties for binary systems of alkylimidazolium-based ionic liquids + nitromethane. Experimental results and ERAS-model calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Miaja, Gonzalo; Troncoso, Jacobo [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Romani, Luis [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain)], E-mail:


    Density, isobaric molar heat capacity, and excess molar enthalpy were experimentally determined at atmospheric pressure for a set of binary systems ionic liquid + nitromethane. The studied ionic liquids were: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate. Density and heat capacity were obtained within the temperature range (293.15 to 318.15) K whereas excess molar enthalpy was measured at 303.15 K; excess molar volume and excess molar isobaric heat capacity were calculated from experimental data. The ERAS-model was applied in order to study the microscopic mechanisms involved in the mixing process. Although the studied compounds are not self-associated, ERAS-model describe adequately the experimental results if cross-association between both compounds is considered.

  16. Monte Carlo calculation of the spatial response (Modulated Transfer Function) of a scintillation flat panel and comparison with experimental results (United States)

    Juste, Belén; Miró, Rafael; Monasor, Paula; Verdú, Gumersindo


    Phosphor screens are commonly used in many X-ray imaging applications. The design and optimization of these detectors can be achieved using Monte Carlo codes to simulate radiation transport in scintillation materials and to improve the spatial response. This work presents an exhaustive procedure to measure the spatial resolution of a scintillation flat panel image and to evaluate the agreement with data obtained by simulation. To evaluate the spatial response we have used the Modulated Transfer Function (MTF) parameter. According to this, we have obtained the Line Spread Function (LSF) of the system since the Fourier Transform (FT) of the LSF gives the MTF. The experimental images were carried out using a medical X-ray tube (Toshiba E7299X) and a flat panel (Hammamatsu C9312SK). Measurements were based on the slit methodology experimental implementation, which measures the response of the system to a line. LSF measurements have been performed using a 0.2 mm wide lead slit superimposed over the flat panel. The detector screen was modelled with MCNP (version 6) Monte Carlo simulation code in order to analyze the effect of the acquisition setup configuration and to compare the response of scintillator screens with the experimental results. MCNP6 offers the possibility of studying the optical physics parameters (optical scattering and absorption coefficients) that occur in the phosphor screen. The study has been tested for different X-ray tube voltages, from 100 to 140 kV. An acceptable convergence between the MTF results obtained with MCNP6 and the experimental measurements have been obtained.

  17. Sample similarity analysis of angles of repose based on experimental results for DEM calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yuan


    Full Text Available As a fundamental material property, particle-particle friction coefficient is usually calculated based on angle of repose which can be obtained experimentally. In the present study, the bottomless cylinder test was carried out to investigate this friction coefficient of a kind of biomass material, i.e. willow chips. Because of its irregular shape and varying particle size distribution, calculation of the angle becomes less applicable and decisive. In the previous studies only one section of those uneven slopes is chosen in most cases, although standard methods in definition of a representable section are barely found. Hence, we presented an efficient and reliable method from the new technology, 3D scan, which was used to digitize the surface of heaps and generate its point cloud. Then, two tangential lines of any selected section were calculated through the linear least-squares regression (LLSR, such that the left and right angle of repose of a pile could be derived. As the next step, a certain sum of sections were stochastic selected, and calculations were repeated correspondingly in order to achieve sample of angles, which was plotted in Cartesian coordinates as spots diagram. Subsequently, different samples were acquired through various selections of sections. By applying similarities and difference analysis of these samples, the reliability of this proposed method was verified. Phased results provides a realistic criterion to reduce the deviation between experiment and simulation as a result of random selection of a single angle, which will be compared with the simulation results in the future.

  18. Analysis and presentation of experimental results with examples, problems and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulides, Costas


    This book is intended as a guide to the analysis and presentation of experimental results. It develops various techniques for the numerical processing of experimental data, using basic statistical methods and the theory of errors. After presenting basic theoretical concepts, the book describes the methods by which the results can be presented, both numerically and graphically. The book is divided into three parts, of roughly equal length, addressing the theory, the analysis of data, and the presentation of results. Examples are given and problems are solved using the Excel, Origin, Python and R software packages. In addition, programs in all four languages are made available to readers, allowing them to use them in analyzing and presenting the results of their own experiments. Subjects are treated at a level appropriate for undergraduate students in the natural sciences, but this book should also appeal to anyone whose work involves dealing with experimental results.

  19. Some Experimental and Simulation Results on the Dynamic Behaviour of Spur and Helical Geared Transmissions with Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fargère


    Full Text Available Some interactions between the dynamic and tribological behaviour of geared transmissions are examined, and a number of experimental and simulation results are compared. A model is introduced which incorporates most of the possible interactions between gears, shafts and hydrodynamic journal bearings. It combines (i a specific element for wide-faced gears that includes the normal contact conditions between actual mating teeth, that is, with tooth shape deviations and mounting errors, (ii shaft finite elements, and (iii the external forces generated by journal bearings determined by directly solving Reynolds' equation. The simulation results are compared with the measurement obtained on a high-precision test rig with single-stage spur and helical gears supported by hydrodynamic journal bearings. The experimental and simulation results compare well thus validating the simulation strategy both at the global and local scales.

  20. Remnant preservation is helpful to obtain good clinical results in posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison of clinical results of three techniques. (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hak; Jung, Young Bok; Lee, Han-Jun; Jung, Ho Joong; Kim, Seong Hwan


    The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical results of 3 posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction techniques according to the time from injury to surgery and remnant PCL status and to evaluate the efficiency of each technique. The records of 89 patients who underwent primary PCL reconstructions with a posterolateral corner sling were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty-four patients were treated by anterolateral bundle (ALB) reconstruction with preservation of the remnant PCL using a transtibial tunnel technique in the acute and subacute stages of injury (group 1). Forty patients were treated with remnant PCL tensioning and an ALB reconstruction using the modified inlay technique in the chronic stage (group 2), and fifteen patients were treated with double-bundle reconstruction using the modified inlay technique (group 3). The double-bundle reconstruction was performed if there was a very weak or no PCL remnant. The mean side-to-side differences in posterior tibial translation on the stress radiographs were reduced from 10.1 ± 2.5 mm in group 1, 10.6 ± 2.4 mm in group 2, and 12.8 ± 3.2 mm in group 3 preoperatively to 2.3 ± 1.4 mm in group 1, 2.3 ± 1.5 mm in group 2, and 4.0 ± 2.5 mm in group 3 at the last follow-up (p good clinical results were achieved with ALB reconstruction preserving the injured remnant PCL in the acute and subacute stages and remnant PCL tensioning with ALB reconstruction in the chronic stage. The PCL injuries could be surgically corrected with different techniques depending on both the remnant PCL status and the interval between the knee trauma and operation.

  1. DoSSiER: Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Wenzel, Hans; Genser, Krzysztof; Elvira, Daniel; Pokorski, Witold; Carminati, Federico; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Ribon, Alberto; Folger, Gunter; Dotti, Andrea


    The Geant4, GeantV and GENIE collaborations regularly perform validation and regression tests for simulation results. DoSSiER (Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results) is being developed as a central repository to store the simulation results as well as the experimental data used for validation. DoSSiER can be easily accessed via a web application. In addition, a web service allows for programmatic access to the repository to extract records in json or xml exchange formats. In this article, we describe the functionality and the current status of various components of DoSSiER as well as the technology choices we made.

  2. Experimental results of controlled PV module for building integrated PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, E.; Alonso, R.; Ibanez, P.; Elorduizapatarietxe, S. [Energy Unit, Robotiker Corporacion Tecnologica Tecnalia, Parque Tecnologico de Zamudio. Edif. 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Martinez, V.; Jimeno, J.C. [EHU/UPV Instituto de Tecnologia Microelectronica, Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)


    Last issues about Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems (BIPV) still show average Performance Ratio (PR) values in the range of 0.75-0.80. The main causes well known: partial shadows, temperature effects, PV inverter losses, thermal losses, etc. and mismatching losses. Ideally, all the modules work in the same conditions, but differences between modules really exist due to differences in the working temperature, the inclination or orientation angles, differences in the I-V characteristic coming from the manufacturing process, etc. The effect is that the output power of the complete PV system is lower than the addition of the power of each PV module. These mismatching losses can be decreased by means of suitable electronics. This paper presents the experimental results obtained over PV systems equipped with controlled PV modules, PV modules with low cost and high efficiency DC-DC converters, including MPPT algorithm and other functions, such as power control and Power Line Communications (PLC). Tests have been divided into two great categories: tests on the electronic performance of the DC-DC converter and tests on grid-connected PV systems with multiple DC-DC converters. Many of these tests have been carried out taking advantage of the PV System Test Platform, a powerful tool especially designed by Robotiker to evaluate all kind of PV systems, especially systems with differences between modules. Aspects of the DC-DC converter performance have been detailed and among the most important experiments, the paper analyses different situations such as partial shadows, different inclined planes, PV systems with different PV modules, and finally a comparison between a conventional system and a system composed by controlled PV modules have been described. To sum up, the importance of a good system dimensioning is analysed, with very interesting results. (author)

  3. Comparative analysis of results from experimental and numerical studies on concrete strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkrtychev Oleg


    Full Text Available Some results of numerical experiments of testing concrete cubes and prisms on unconfined compression, and the comparison of results obtained with experimental and specified data, are presented in the article. When performing calculations of structures in a nonlinear setting, it is very important to choose adequate deformation diagrams or material models. Because of the fact that there are no instructions how to use the diagrams of concrete and armature deformation in collaboration of steel and concrete, the simulation of reinforced concrete structures by finite elements of the same type without any assumptions is impossible. Numerical experiments have been performed in the LS-DYNA software package. This software package allows simulating the collaboration of concrete and steeling with the help of three-dimensional (for concrete and rod (for the reinforcement finite elements. As samples, a cube and a prism with dimensions of 150×150×150 mm and 150×150×600 mm, respectively, have been taken. The samples are simulated by solid finite elements. For the simulation of concrete, the non-linear CSCM (Continuous Surface Cap Model material is used. The tests were carried out with samples of the following classes of concrete as for cylinder compressive strength: C12, C16, C20, C25, C30, C35. This corresponds to the following classes of cube compression strength: B15, B20, B25, B30, B37, B45. The tests have been carried out considering the friction coefficients between the plates of a testing machine, and a sample. The performed researches have shown that the destruction nature of the samples in a numerical experiment corresponds to the failure nature in real tests. The investigated model of CSCM concrete can be used in the calculation of concrete and reinforced concrete structures with acceptable accuracy for main classes of concrete.

  4. Comparison of simulation and experimental results for a model aqueous tert-butanol solution (United States)

    Overduin, S. D.; Patey, G. N.


    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the behavior of aqueous tert-butanol (TBA) solutions for a range of temperatures, using the CHARMM generalized force field (CGenFF) to model TBA and the TIP4P/2005 or TIP4P-Ew water model. Simulation results for the density, isothermal compressibility, constant pressure heat capacity, and self-diffusion coefficients are in good accord with experimental measurements. Agreement with the experiment is particularly good at low TBA concentration, where experiments have revealed anomalies in a number of thermodynamic properties. Importantly, the CGenFF model does not exhibit liquid-liquid demixing at temperatures between 290 and 320 K (for systems of 32 000 molecules), in contrast with the situation for several other common TBA models [R. Gupta and G. N. Patey, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034509 (2012)]. However, whereas real water and TBA are miscible at all temperatures where the liquid is stable, we observe some evidence of demixing at 340 K and above. To evaluate the structural properties at low concentrations, we compare with both neutron scattering and recent spectroscopic measurements. This reveals that while the CGenFF model is a definite improvement over other models that have been considered, the TBA molecules still exhibit a tendency to associate at low concentrations that is somewhat stronger than that indicated by experiments. Finally, we discuss the range and decay times of the long-range correlations, providing an indication of the system size and simulation times that are necessary in order to obtain reliable results for certain properties.

  5. A comparison between numerical predictions and theoretical and experimental results for laminar core-annular flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, J.C.; Ooms, G.; Pourquie, M.J.B.M.; Westerweel, J.


    high-viscosity liquid core surrounded by a laminar low-viscosity liquid annular layer through a vertical pipe. The numerical results are compared with theoretical results from linear stability calculations and with experimental data. The comparison is good and the general conclusion of our study is

  6. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribando, R.J.


    A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for a single-phase natural convection test in an experimental sodium loop. The test was conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium loop at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during the test was typical of decay heat levels. The test chosen for analysis in this paper was one of seven natural convection runs conducted in the facility using a variety of initial conditions and testing parameters. Specifically, in this test the bypass line was open to simulate a parallel heated assembly and the test was begun with a pump coastdown from a small initial forced flow. The computer program used to analyze the test, LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection) is an ORNL-developed, fast-running, one-dimensional, single-phase, finite-difference model used for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop.

  7. Updating Finite Element Model of a Wind Turbine Blade Section Using Experimental Modal Analysis Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luczak, Marcin; Manzato, Simone; Peeters, Bart


    is to validate finite element model of the modified wind turbine blade section mounted in the flexible support structure accordingly to the experimental results. Bend-twist coupling was implemented by adding angled unidirectional layers on the suction and pressure side of the blade. Dynamic test and simulations...... were performed on a section of a full scale wind turbine blade provided by Vestas Wind Systems A/S. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and the discrepancies are assessed by natural frequency difference and modal assurance criterion. Based on sensitivity analysis, set...

  8. Laser induced deflection technique for absolute thin film absorption measurement: optimized concepts and experimental results. (United States)

    Mühlig, Christian; Kufert, Siegfried; Bublitz, Simon; Speck, Uwe


    Using experimental results and numerical simulations, two measuring concepts of the laser induced deflection (LID) technique are introduced and optimized for absolute thin film absorption measurements from deep ultraviolet to IR wavelengths. For transparent optical coatings, a particular probe beam deflection direction allows the absorption measurement with virtually no influence of the substrate absorption, yielding improved accuracy compared to the common techniques of separating bulk and coating absorption. For high-reflection coatings, where substrate absorption contributions are negligible, a different probe beam deflection is chosen to achieve a better signal-to-noise ratio. Various experimental results for the two different measurement concepts are presented.

  9. U-drawing of Fortiform 1050 third generation steels. Numerical and experimental results (United States)

    Saenz de Argandoña, E.; Galdos, L.; Mendiguren, J.; Otero, I.; Mugarra, E.


    Elasto-plastic behavior of the third generation Fortiform 1050 steel has been analysed using cyclic tension-compression tests. At the same time, the pseudo elastic modulus evolution with plastic strain was analysed using cyclic loading and unloading tests. From the experiments, it was found that the cyclic behavior of the steel is strongly kinematic and elastic modulus decrease with plastic strain is relevant for numerical modelling. In order to numerically analyse a U-Drawing process, strip drawing tests have been carried out at different contact pressures and Filzek model has been used to fit the experimental data and implement a pressure dependent friction law in Autoform software. Finally, numerical predictions of springback have been compared with the experimentally ones obtained using a sensorized U-Drawing tooling. Different material and contact models have been examined and most influencing parameters have been identified to model the forming of these new steels.

  10. Electromagnetic Vortex-Based Radar Imaging Using a Single Receiving Antenna: Theory and Experimental Results. (United States)

    Yuan, Tiezhu; Wang, Hongqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Qin, Yuliang


    Radar imaging based on electromagnetic vortex can achieve azimuth resolution without relative motion. The present paper investigates this imaging technique with the use of a single receiving antenna through theoretical analysis and experimental results. Compared with the use of multiple receiving antennas, the echoes from a single receiver cannot be used directly for image reconstruction using Fourier method. The reason is revealed by using the point spread function. An additional phase is compensated for each mode before imaging process based on the array parameters and the elevation of the targets. A proof-of-concept imaging system based on a circular phased array is created, and imaging experiments of corner-reflector targets are performed in an anechoic chamber. The azimuthal image is reconstructed by the use of Fourier transform and spectral estimation methods. The azimuth resolution of the two methods is analyzed and compared through experimental data. The experimental results verify the principle of azimuth resolution and the proposed phase compensation method.

  11. Updating Finite Element Model of a Wind Turbine Blade Section Using Experimental Modal Analysis Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Luczak


    Full Text Available This paper presents selected results and aspects of the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research oriented for the experimental and numerical study of the structural dynamics of a bend-twist coupled full scale section of a wind turbine blade structure. The main goal of the conducted research is to validate finite element model of the modified wind turbine blade section mounted in the flexible support structure accordingly to the experimental results. Bend-twist coupling was implemented by adding angled unidirectional layers on the suction and pressure side of the blade. Dynamic test and simulations were performed on a section of a full scale wind turbine blade provided by Vestas Wind Systems A/S. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and the discrepancies are assessed by natural frequency difference and modal assurance criterion. Based on sensitivity analysis, set of model parameters was selected for the model updating process. Design of experiment and response surface method was implemented to find values of model parameters yielding results closest to the experimental. The updated finite element model is producing results more consistent with the measurement outcomes.

  12. Clean Sampling of an Englacial Conduit at Blood Falls, Antarctica - Some Experimental and Numerical Results (United States)

    Kowalski, Julia; Francke, Gero; Feldmann, Marco; Espe, Clemens; Heinen, Dirk; Digel, Ilya; Clemens, Joachim; Schüller, Kai; Mikucki, Jill; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Pettit, Erin; Berry Lyons, W.; Dachwald, Bernd


    results of its deployment at Blood Falls. In contrast to conventional melting-probe applications, which can only melt vertically, the IceMole realized an oblique melting path to penetrate the englacial conduit. Experimental and numerical results on melting at oblique angles are rare. Besides reporting on the IceMole technology and the field deployment itself, we will compare and discuss the observed melting behavior with re-analysis results in the context of a recently developed numerical model. Finally, we will present our first steps in utilizing the model to infer on the ambient cryo-environment.

  13. Fuzzy logic analysis optimizations for pattern recognition - Implementation and experimental results (United States)

    Hires, Matej; Habiballa, Hashim


    The article presents an practical results of optimization of the fuzzy logic analysis method for pattern recognition. The theoretical background of the proposed theory is shown in the former article extending the original fuzzy logic analysis method. This article shows the implementation and experimental verification of the approach.

  14. Electrical conductivity of skeletal muscle tissue: Experimental results from different musclesin vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, F.L.H.; Wallinga, W.; Boon, K.L.


    For a quantitative EMG analysis reliable and unique values of the electrical conductivities of skeletal muscle tissuein vivo are indispensable. Literature values do not satisfy these criteria. In the paper experimental results of conductivity measurements (four-electrode technique) on musclesin vivo

  15. Shear or bending? Experimental results on large t-shaped prestressed conrete beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensink, S.W.H.; Van der Veen, C.; De Boer, A.


    Experimental results of four shear tests on two large prestressed concrete beams are compared to nonlinear analysis and design code calculations. The beams have a length of 12 m and a depth of 1.3 m and are reinforced with stirrups and pre-tensioning. The four tests consist of a single point load at

  16. Results of an Experimental Study of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Espedal, J.


    This paper presents the results of the first experimental study of the Langlee wave energy converter (WEC), a semi-submerged oscillating wave surge converter. Its design extracts the energy from the surge motion of the waves through two pairs of working flaps, called water wings, which are placed...

  17. Buckling loads for stiffened panels subjected to combined longitudinal compression and shear loadings: Results obtained with PASCO, EAL, and STAGS computer (United States)

    Stroud, W. J.; Greene, W. H.; Anderson, M. S.


    The shear buckling analyses used in PASCO are summarized. The PASCO analyses include the basic VIPASA analysis, which is essentially exact for longitudinal and transverse loads, and a smeared orthotropic solution which was added to alleviate a shortcoming in the VIPASA analysis. Buckling results are presented for six stiffened panels loaded by combinations of longitudinal compression and shear. The buckling results were obtained with the PASCO, EAL, and STAGS computer programs. The EAL and STAGS solutions were obtained with a fine finite element mesh and provide calculations for the entire range of combinations of longitudinal compression and shear loadings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov


    Full Text Available First results of experimental laboratory-scale reproduction of spheroidal low-energy plasmoids of an artificial ball lightning are given. The data obtained indicate a possibility in principle of reliable generation of such plasmoids in the air atmosphere via the discharge circuit of a high-voltage installation comprising a curved arc discharge channel between a graphite electrode and technical water surface. The artificial 0.3m-diameter ball lightning plasmoid lifetime was less than 0.6 s in the experiments conducted.

  19. Kinetics of vinyl acetate emulsion polymerization in a pulsed tubular reactor: comparison between experimental and simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayer C.


    Full Text Available A new reactor, the pulsed sieve plate column (PSPC, was developed to perform continuous emulsion polymerization reactions. This reactor combines the enhanced flexibility of tubular reactors with the mixing behavior provided by sieved plates and by the introduction of pulses that is important to prevent emulsion destabilization. The main objective of this work is to study the kinetics of vinyl acetate (VA emulsion polymerization reactions performed in this PSPC. Therefore, both experimental studies and reaction simulations were performed. Results showed that it is possible to obtain high conversions with rather low residence times in the PSPC.

  20. New experimental results on the pion-nucleon interaction investigation in the resonance region (United States)

    Sumachev, V. V.; Beloglazov, Yu. A.; Kovalev, A. I.; Kozlenko, N. G.; Kruglov, S. P.; Kulbardis, A. A.; Novinsky, D. V.; Trautman, V. Yu.; Alekseev, I. G.; Budkovsky, P. E.; Kanavets, V. P.; Koroleva, L. I.; Morozov, B. V.; Nesterov, V. M.; Ryltsov, V. V.; Sulimov, A. D.; Svirida, D. N.; Bazhanov, N. A.; Bunyatova, E. I.


    The spin rotation parameters A and R were measured for the elastic pion-proton scattering by the PNPI-ITEP collaboration in the D13 (1700), ΔS31(1900), ΔP33(1920) and ΔD33 (1940) resonances region. These resonances were absent in the set of partial wave analysis (PWA) of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute group (VPI), but was included in the tables of the Review of Particle Physics. The main goal of the experimental program was to resolve the current PWA’s disagreement in spin rotation parameters value predictions. Simultaneously with A and R the polarization parameter P was measured with the purpose to improve the experimental data base and estimate the experimental systematic errors. Our results for spin rotation parameters A and | R| are in agreement with PWA VPI predictions.

  1. Experimental Results of Network-Assisted Interference Suppression Scheme Using Adaptive Beam-Tilt Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Murakami


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a network-assisted interference suppression scheme using beam-tilt switching per frame for wireless local area network systems and its effectiveness in an actual indoor environment. In the proposed scheme, two access points simultaneously transmit to their own desired station by adjusting angle of beam-tilt including transmit power assisted from network server for the improvement of system throughput. In the conventional researches, it is widely known that beam-tilt is effective for ICI suppression in the outdoor scenario. However, the indoor effectiveness of beam-tilt for ICI suppression has not yet been indicated from the experimental evaluation. Thus, this paper indicates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme by analyzing multiple-input multiple-output channel matrices from experimental measurements in an office environment. The experimental results clearly show that the proposed scheme offers higher system throughput than the conventional scheme using just transmit power control.

  2. A comparison between numerical predictions and theoretical and experimental results for laminar core-annular flow


    Beerens, J.C.; Ooms, G.; Pourquie, M.J.B.M.; Westerweel, J.


    high-viscosity liquid core surrounded by a laminar low-viscosity liquid annular layer through a vertical pipe. The numerical results are compared with theoretical results from linear stability calculations and with experimental data. The comparison is good and the general conclusion of our study is that it is very well possible to simulate laminar core-annular flow in a pipe using the volume-of-fluid method.

  3. Comparison between theoretical analyses and experimental results of two-phase closed thermosyphons solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayegh, M.A. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. Aleppo (Syrian Arab Republic); Danielewicz, J.; Nowak, B. [Faculty of Heating and Air Conditioning, Techn. Univ. of Wroclaw (Poland)


    The observed experimental results of the heated water temperature runs in the solar collector with TPCT for water heating systems are compared with results of numerical simulation. A compact system for hot water preparation with absorbing and accumulating the heat was analysed. In study the influence of the thermal resistance of TPCT on the heat removal factor F{sub R} and collector thermal efficiency is also presented. (orig.)

  4. Numerical analysis of temperature field during hardfacing process and comparison with experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vukić N.


    Full Text Available The three-dimensional transient nonlinear thermal analysis of the hard facing process is performed by using the finite element method. The simulations were executed on the open source Salome platform using the open source finite element solver Code_Aster. The Gaussian double ellipsoid was selected in order to enable greater possibilities for the calculation of the moving heat source. The numerical results were compared with available experimental results.

  5. Histopathology of experimental myiasis in mice as a result of infestation and experimental implantation of Dermatobia hominis larvae. (United States)

    Leite, A C R; Nascimento, M F A; Leite, L H R; Leite, V H R


    A laboratory model of myiasis as a result of Dermatobia hominis (L.) larvae was developed using mice as hosts. Mice in three groups were each infested with one newly hatched larva and skin biopsies processed for histopathology at 4, 12, and 20 d postinfestation (dpi). Mice in three other groups were each subjected to implantation of one larva collected from an infested (donor) mouse at 4, 12, and 20 dpi. Skin lesions of these receptor mice were then assessed at 10, 14, and 6 d postimplantation (dpimp), respectively. The inflammatory process in infested mice at 4 dpi was discrete, consisting of a thin necrotic layer around the larva, edema, many neutrophils, few eosinophils, mast cells, and proliferation of fibroblasts. At 12 dpi, there was a thicker necrotic layer, edema, many neutrophils and eosinophils, few mast cells, neoformation of capillaries, proliferation of the endothelium and fibroblasts, and early stages of fibrosis. These histopathological characteristics together with fibrosis were observed over a large area of the lesion at 20 dpi. Mice submitted to larval implantations demonstrated similar skin histopathology to that seen in the infested rodents, 10 dpimp corresponding to 12 dpi and 6 or 14 dpimp to 20 dpi. In all mice, the progressive acute inflammatory process followed a sequence linked to factors such as size of larvae and presence of secretory-excretory products. Both infested mice and those implanted experimentally with D. hominis larvae were shown to be suitable models for the study of the parasite-host relationship in this important zoonotic myiasis.

  6. Long-term health and psychosocial outcomes from surgically induced weight loss: results obtained in patients not attending protocolled follow-up visits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.


    OBJECTIVE: Obesity management is focused at weight loss to obtain health, psychological and social benefits. Outcomes from controlled trials, however, do not reflect the everyday routine practice. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the results from surgically induced weight loss in patients devoid

  7. Reducing the item number to obtain the same-length self-assessment scales: a systematic approach using result of graphical loglinear rasch models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Kreiner, Svend


    approach to item reduction based on results of graphical loglinear Rasch modeling (GLLRM) was designed. This approach was then used to reduce the number of items in the subscales of the R-D-LSI which had an item-length of more than seven items, thereby obtaining the Danish Self-Assessment Learning Styles...

  8. Comparison of ATLAS Tilecal MODULE No 8 high-precision metrology measurement results obtained by laser (JINR) and photogrammetric (CERN) methods

    CERN Document Server

    Batusov, V; Gayde, J C; Khubua, J I; Lasseur, C; Lyablin, M V; Miralles-Verge, L; Nessi, Marzio; Rusakovitch, N A; Sissakian, A N; Topilin, N D


    The high-precision assembly of large experimental set-ups is of a principal necessity for the successful execution of the forthcoming LHC research programme in the TeV-beams. The creation of an adequate survey and control metrology method is an essential part of the detector construction scenario. This work contains the dimension measurement data for ATLAS hadron calorimeter MODULE No. 8 (6 m, 22 tons) which were obtained by laser and by photogrammetry methods. The comparative data analysis demonstrates the measurements agreement within +or-70 mu m. It means, these two clearly independent methods can be combined and lead to the rise of a new-generation engineering culture: high-precision metrology when precision assembling of large scale massive objects. (3 refs).

  9. Experimental results for the extraction of essential oil from Lippia sidoides cham. using pressurized carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa EMBD.


    Full Text Available The odoriferous species Lippia sidoides Cham. is abundant in the Brazilian Northeast. Its essential oil possesses antiseptic activity due to the presence of thymol. In this work, thermodynamic and kinetic data were experimentally determined for the CO2 + L. sidoides system. Solubility was determined using the dynamic method at pressures of 66.7 and 78.5 bar and temperatures of 283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 295.15, and 298.15 K. SFE kinetic data were obtained at 288.15 K and 66.7 bar. The composition of the multicomponent solute mixture was determined by GC-MS and compared to the composition of both the volatile oil obtained by steam distillation and the oleoresin obtained using ethanol. The SFE process yield was higher than the yield of either the steam distillation or the ethanol extraction. The solubilities were correlated using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with one binary interaction parameter for the attractive term, considering the essential oil as a pseudo-component. Sovová?s model quantitatively described the overall extraction curve.

  10. Experimental Results for Direction of Arrival Estimation with a Single Acoustic Vector Sensor in Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Bereketli


    Full Text Available We study the performances of several computationally efficient and simple techniques for estimating direction of arrival (DOA of an underwater acoustic source using a single acoustic vector sensor (AVS in shallow water. Underwater AVS is a compact device, which consists of one hydrophone and three accelerometers in a packaged form, measuring scalar pressure and three-dimensional acceleration simultaneously at a single position. A very controlled experimental setup is prepared to test how well-known techniques, namely, arctan-based, intensity-based, time domain beamforming, and frequency domain beamforming methods, perform in estimating DOA of a source in different circumstances. Experimental results reveal that for almost all cases beamforming techniques perform best. Moreover, arctan-based method, which is the simplest of all, provides satisfactory results for practical purposes.

  11. Experimental results from the sounding vehicle Sonda III test campaign in the Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista P. Falcão Filho


    Full Text Available The Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel of the Institute of Aeronautics and Space has conducted the first test campaign of a sounding vehicle, Sonda III. The campaign is part of a project whose activities and final results are presented in this paper. During the test campaign, many activities were performed to increase the productivity and accuracy of the tunnel. These activities included calibration procedures, corrective and preventive trials, development of auxiliary devices, and theoretical and experimental analysis. Two tasks are described in details: the development and tests performed with the static pressure probe and the automatic re-entry flap actuation system. Several tests were carried out with the Sonda III at Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 1.0, at stagnation pressures of 70, 94, and 110 kPa. Experimental results include global aerodynamic coefficients (using internal balance and pressure distribution over essential regions of the test article (using pressure sensitive paint technique.

  12. Development of Si-based electrical biosensors: Simulations and first experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Favetta


    Full Text Available In this work, we simulated and experimentally assessed the possibility to detect, through electrical transduction, hybridization of DNA molecules on MOS-like devices, having different dielectrics: SiO2, Si3N4 and SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2 (ONO. The electrical characterization was performed after the various functionalization steps, consisting of dielectric activation, silanization, DNA spotting and anchoring, and after the hybridization process, to test the devices effectiveness as DNA recognition biosensors. The experimental results were used to validate device simulations. The comparison shows the ability to determine a priori the DNA probe density needed to maximize the response. The results confirm that the structures analyzed are sensitive to the immobilization of DNA and its hybridization.

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Vehicle-Ground Interaction - Experiment Preparation and Preliminary Results (United States)

    Valašková, Veronika; Vlček, Jozef


    Interaction of the moving vehicle and the ground represents the actual engineering, environmental and economic problem. Due to the complexity of the problem, a combination of the experimental measurement and the computational simulation to understand the interaction mechanism is the most beneficial approach. Results of the in-situ observation serve as an input for the numerical analysis and also as a background for the calibration of the model. Presented paper brings the summary of the experiment preparation and preliminary results which are necessary for further analyses and numerical models. Computational simulations will be helpful for understanding the vehicle-ground interaction when inputs will be verified by the experimental way at known boundary conditions.

  14. Overall Buckling and Wringkling of Debonded Sandwich Beams: Finite Element and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang K. Hadi


    Full Text Available Overall buckling and wrinkling of debonded sandwich beams under compressive loads were analyzed by both finite element and experimental methods. In the finite element method, a quarter and a half models of the specimens were analyzed. It shows that a quarter model is not adequate to analyze buckling of debonded sandwich beams, since it will disregard overall buckling mode that may occur in sandwich beams having compressive loads. At least a half model should be used to analyze buckling of sandwich beams. A finite element program UNA was used extensively to analyze the buckling loads. Experimental buckling of sandwich beams was carried out using a compression testing machine. Two LVDTs were used to measure deflections of the specimen during experimental loading. The loads were measured using load cells available in the machine. Specimens having core thickness of 45 and 75 mm were tested to represent overall and wrinkling modes respectively. The delamination lengths were 20, 60 and 80 mm, which represent 10, 30 and 40% of the beam length. The results show that the differences between experimental and finite element methods were less than 10%. Both overall buckling and wrinkling modes were shown in these specimens.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Лемко


    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of the effect of relative curvature of the airfoils on the degreeof change in their characteristics in terms of additional pulse velocity in the boundary layer topsurface profile generated by a rotating cylinder. It was found that the growth profile of the greatercurvature of the lift coefficient in the linear region up to increase the lift coefficient by theapplication of flap - the flap

  16. Conceptual Approach for Precise Relative Positioning with Miniaturized GPS Loggers and Experimental Results (United States)


    Approach for Precise Relative Positioning with Miniaturized GPS Loggers and Experimental Results ( ) min 1 2 =∑ = m j jf (20) jbijbij DDf Φ−Φ...residual based test statistic: ( ) jnnjnnj m j j DDf m f Φ−Φ= − ≈ −− =∑ ˆ~ 1 RMS ,1,1 1 2 f (35) For sampling rates of 1 Hz or higher, ( )fRMS is very

  17. Kinematic Viscosities for Ether + Alkane Mixtures: Experimental Results and UNIFAC-VISCO Parameters (United States)

    Bandrés, I.; Lahuerta, C.; Villares, A.; Martín, S.; Lafuente, Carlos


    Kinematic viscosities for the binary mixtures of diisopropylether, dibutylether or methyl ter-butyl ether with 3-methylpentane, hexane or heptane have been measured at 283.15 K, 298.15 K, and 313.15 K. The experimental values have been correlated by the McAllister equation. Using these results, new UNIFAC-VISCO parameters, Oether-CH2 and Oether-CH3, have been calculated.

  18. Recent experimental results and developments on the resistive plate chambers for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Altieri, S; Bruno, G; Guida, R; Merlo, M; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vitulo, P; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F


    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) have been chosen as dedicated trigger detectors for the CMS experiment at the LHC. The expected severe operating conditions have required an intense research and development activity on these detectors over the past years. Experimental results on overall performance of large chambers, rate capability, ageing and photon sensitivity are reviewed. In all of these tests the detector has proven to achieve good enough performance for successful use at the LHC. (6 refs).

  19. Buckling loads of stiffened panels subjected to combined longitudinal compression and shear: Results obtained with PASCO, EAL, and STAGS computer programs (United States)

    Stroud, W. J.; Greene, W. H.; Anderson, M. S.


    Buckling analyses used in PASCO are summarized with emphasis placed on the shear buckling analyses. The PASCO buckling analyses include the basic VIPASA analysis, which is essentially exact for longitudinal and transverse loads, and a smeared stiffener solution, which treats a stiffened panel as an orthotropic plate. Buckling results are then presented for seven stiffened panels loaded by combinations of longitudinal compression and shear. The buckling results were obtained with the PASCO, EAL, and STAGS computer programs. The EAL and STAGS solutions were obtained with a fine finite element mesh and are very accurate. These finite element solutions together with the PASCO results for pure longitudinal compression provide benchmark calculations to evaluate other analysis procedures.

  20. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch. (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Strąk, Ewelina


    The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol) than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  1. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  2. Comparison between calculations and experimental results on spallation reactions of interest for hybrid systems (United States)

    Volant, C.; Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Wlazlo, W.


    Data on proton induced spallation reactions concerning the production of neutrons obtained at SATURNE and of spallation residues at GSI have been compared with two-step models including different Intra-Nuclear Cascades (INC) followed by different evaporation codes. Results and improvements of the codes are discussed.

  3. Dynamic Positioning System for a Ship on Harbour Manoeuvring with Different Observers. Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomera Mirosław


    Full Text Available In cases when the navigational space of the manoeuvre performed by the ship is severely limited, the procedures making use of the rudder blade, propeller screw, and thrusters are very complicated. Such situations take place when the ship manoeuvres inside the harbour area and in those cases the structure of the control system is very complex. Te article describes the algorithm of multivariable control of ship motion over the water surface, which makes use of the state vector consisting of 6 variables. Tree of them, which are the position coordinates (x, y measured by the DGPS system and the ship heading y measured by gyro-compass, were obtained experimentally. Te three remaining variables, which are the velocities in surge u, sway v, and yaw r directions, were estimated by Kalman filter, Kalman-Bucy filter and extended Kalman flter, respectively.

  4. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul


    August through December. These patterns can also be seen in other daily images recorded at the site since January 2012. Air warming treatments at SPRUCE began in August 2015, and had a substantial influence on autumn senescence of the plant community, as a whole, within each chamber. Generally, vegetation in the warmed chambers stayed green longer than that in the unwarmed chambers. We characterized the seasonality by fitting a sigmoid curve to the Gcc time series data, and we used the autumn half-maximum date of the sigmoid as an indicator of the timing of senescence. We found a strong linear relationship between senescence date and temperature treatment (r2 = 0.71,n = 10). Overall, senescence was delayed by 3.5 ± 0.7 days per 1° C of warming. Thus, although photoperiod is widely believed to be the key trigger for autumn senescence, our results do not indicate that the autumn response to warming is in any way constrained by day length. The SPRUCE experiment is planned to running through 2025. Looking forward, we anticipate that different results may be obtained in year 2 of the SPRUCE experiment if warming treatments result in earlier spring onset, and increased evapotranspiration during spring and early summer, leading to drought conditions by late summer.

  5. Electromagnetic Vortex-Based Radar Imaging Using a Single Receiving Antenna: Theory and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiezhu Yuan


    Full Text Available Radar imaging based on electromagnetic vortex can achieve azimuth resolution without relative motion. The present paper investigates this imaging technique with the use of a single receiving antenna through theoretical analysis and experimental results. Compared with the use of multiple receiving antennas, the echoes from a single receiver cannot be used directly for image reconstruction using Fourier method. The reason is revealed by using the point spread function. An additional phase is compensated for each mode before imaging process based on the array parameters and the elevation of the targets. A proof-of-concept imaging system based on a circular phased array is created, and imaging experiments of corner-reflector targets are performed in an anechoic chamber. The azimuthal image is reconstructed by the use of Fourier transform and spectral estimation methods. The azimuth resolution of the two methods is analyzed and compared through experimental data. The experimental results verify the principle of azimuth resolution and the proposed phase compensation method.

  6. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model (United States)

    Petit, O.; Mulu, B.; Nilsson, H.; Cervantes, M.


    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Älvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  7. Experimental Results of NWCF Run H4 Calcine Dissolution Studies Performed in FY-98 and -99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Sierra, Tracy Laureena


    Dissolution experiments were performed on actual samples of NWCF Run H-4 radioactive calcine in fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Run H-4 is an aluminum/sodium blend calcine. Typical dissolution data indicates that between 90-95 wt% of H-4 calcine can be dissolved using 1gram of calcine per 10 mLs of 5-8M nitric acid at boiling temperature. Two liquid raffinate solutions composed of a WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend and a WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend were converted into calcine at the NWCF. Calcine made from each blend was collected and transferred to RAL for dissolution studies. The WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend calcine was dissolved with resultant solutions used as feed material for separation treatment experimentation. The WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend calcine dissolution testing was performed to determine compositional analyses of the dissolved solution and generate UDS for solid/liquid separation experiments. Analytical fusion techniques were then used to determine compositions of the solid calcine and UDS from dissolution. The results from each of these analyses were used to calculate elemental material balances around the dissolution process, validating the experimental data. This report contains all experimental data from dissolution experiments performed using both calcine blends.

  8. Main Experimental Results of ISTC-1606 for Recycling and Transmutation in Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Feynberg, Olga; Merzlyakov, Aleksandr; Surenkov, Aleksandr [Russian Research Center - Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov sq. 1, Moscow, RF, 123182 (Russian Federation); Subbotin, Vladimir; Zakirov, Raul; Toropov, Andrey; Panov, Aleksandr [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Afonichkin, Valery [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    To examine and demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactors (MSR) to reduce long lived waste toxicity and to produce efficiently electricity in closed fuel cycle, some national and international studies were initiated last years. In this paper main focus is placed on experimental evaluation of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) system fuelled with different compositions of plutonium plus minor actinide trifluoride (AnF{sub 3}) from LWR spent nuclear fuel without U-Th support. This paper summarizes main experimental results of ISTC-1606 related to physical and chemical properties of fuel salt, container materials for fuel circuit, and fuel salt clean up of MOSART system. As result of ISTC-1606 studies claim is made, that the {sup 7}Li,Na,Be/F and {sup 7}Li,Be/F solvents selected for primary system appear to resolve main reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials compatibility, fuel salt clean up and safety problems as applied to the MOSART concept development. The created experimental facilities and the database on properties of fuel salt mixtures and container materials are used for a choice and improvement fuel salts and coolants for new applications of this high temperature technology for sustainable nuclear power development. (authors)

  9. Preliminary Experimental Results for Indirect Vector-Control of Induction Motor Drives with Forced Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek


    Full Text Available The contribution presents an extension of indirect vector control of electric drives employing induction motors to 'Forced Dynamic Control'. This method of control offers an accurate realisation of dynamic response profiles, which can be selected by the user. The developed system can be integrated into a drive with a shaft position encoder or a shaft sensoriess drive, in which only the stator currents are measured. The applied stator voltages are determined by a computed inverter switching algorithm. Simulation results and preliminary experimental results for indirect vector control of an idle running induction motor indicate good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  10. Experimental investigation of the effects of diesel-like fuel obtained from waste lubrication oil on engine performance and exhaust emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpa, Orhan [Dicle University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Diyarbakir (Turkey); Yumrutas, Recep [University of Gaziantep, Mechanical Engineering Department, Gaziantep (Turkey); Argunhan, Zeki [University of Batman, Mechanical Engineering Department, Batman (Turkey)


    In this study, effects of diesel-like fuel (DLF) on engine performance and exhaust emission are investigated experimentally. The DLF is produced from waste engine lubrication oil purified from dust, heavy carbon soot, metal particles, gum-type materials and other impurities. A fuel production system mainly consisting of a waste oil storage tank, filters, a reactor, oil pump, a product storage tank, thermostats and control panel is designed and manufactured. The DLF is produced by using the system and applying pyrolitic distillation method. Characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions tests of the produced DLF are carried out at the end of the production. The characteristic tests such as density, viscosity, flash point, heating value, sulfur content and distillation of the DLF sample are performed utilizing test equipments presented in motor laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Gaziantep, Turkey. Performance and exhaust emission tests for the DLF are performed using diesel test engine. It is observed from the test results that about 60 cc out of each 100 cc of the waste oil are converted into the DLF. Characteristics and distillation temperatures of the DLF are close to those values of a typical diesel fuel sample. It is observed that the produced DLF can be used in diesel engines without any problem in terms of engine performance. The DLF increases torque, brake mean effective pressure, brake thermal efficiency and decreases brake specific fuel consumption of the engine for full power of operation. (author)

  11. Experimental results on the nature of the superconducting-insulating transition in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebard, A.F. [AT& T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)


    Experiments probing the competition between superconductivity and disorder in two-dimensional thin-film systems, although not completely understood, have given fascinating glimpses of subtle and unexpected quantum processes and associated phase transitions. There is a general consensus that a superconducting-insulating transition does occur, although there is some disagreement on details. Much of this disagreement arises from the wide disparity in the physical characteristics of the thin-film systems that have been studied and the number of ways in which parameters can be varied to experimentally traverse the boundary between the superconducting and insulating phases. In this paper, salient experimental results pertaining to the superconducting-insulating transition will be summarized and placed into context with respect to available theoretical prescriptions. Close attention will be paid to the evidence for a boson-dominated transition in which fluctuations in the phase rather than the magnitude of the superconducting order parameter dominate.

  12. LEP and results obtained by DELPHI after four years of operation; LEP i wyniki uzyskane przez DELPHI po czterech latach dzialania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocki, J. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Doswiadczalnej; Brueckman de Renstrom, P.; Budziak, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)] [and others


    We characterize the most important problems of modern elementary particles physics, for the solution of which the LEP (Large Electron Positron) accelerator was built. We present the characteristics of this accelerator. The structure and properties of the DELPHI detector are described with special emphasis on the contribution of Polish groups. The most important results obtained so far in the LEP accelerator are discussed. (author). 12 refs, 17 figs, 1 tab.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef SZALA


    Full Text Available Calculation results are the base for evaluation of fatigue life of structural elements during machine design processes. It results from the fact that there are no material objects in the phase of existence of a product. Reliability of tests results is an essential element in the calculation fatigue life evaluation method and it can be evaluated by comparison of the results with experimental ones. In the paper there was performed an analysis of the chosen factors essentially influencing conformity of calculation results and experimental test ones connected with basic elements of a calculation algorithm including: - elaboration and analysis of service loadings of a structural element, - determination and analysis of cyclic properties of structural elements, - selection of fatigue damage accumulation hypothesis being a description of fatigue life processes. The mentioned analysis was illustrated with examples of fatigue life tests performed in the Machine Design Department of the University of Technology and Agriculture within the research grant no. 2221/B/T02/2010/39 financed by The Ministry of Science and Higher Education and National Science Centre.

  14. Experimental Setup for Determining Ammonia-Salt Adsorption and Desorption Behavior Under Typical Heat Pump Conditions. Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Veldhuis, J.B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)


    For the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the performance of a salt-ammonia sorption reactor/heat exchanger a new test-rig was developed. This test-rig enables the measurement of the performance in adsorption and desorption mode of different sorption reactor designs. It measures the speed of uptake and release of ammonia gas of various salt-ammonia reactions under well-controlled and well-monitored process conditions, similar to the heat pump conditions. The test-rig measures the ammonia uptake and release under controlled pressure and temperature conditions. Temperatures of the salt reactor can be varied from ambient temperature up to 200{sup o}C and the ammonia pressure can be varied between 0.02 to 2 MPa. These conditions can be set independently and repeated at regular time-intervals. Besides NH3-mass-flow meters, pressure and temperature sensors, the setup also contains an endoscope to observe any macroscopic structural changes in the material during uptake and release of ammonia. Measurements so far have shown a liquid phase of LiCl.3NH3 at pressures of 0.5 MPa and temperatures exceeding 90{sup o}C. Voilent foaming is observed at 120{sup o}C resulting in salt losses. A correlation was determined between the reaction rate of MgCl{sub 2}(2-6)NH3 and the relative pressure gradient yielding a reaction time of about 1500 seconds for a relative pressure difference of 1. Multiple sorption cycles of the CaCl{sub 2}(2-4)NH3 reaction, showed a reduced activity from 85% of the theoretical maximum sorbed mass at the first sorption cycle, to 15% after 300+ cycles.

  15. Retained gas sampler extractor mixing and mass transfer rate study: Experimental and simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagle, K.P.; Bates, J.M.; Shekarriz, A.


    Research staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted experimental testing and computer simulations of the impeller-stirred Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) gas extractor system. This work was performed to verify experimentally the effectiveness of the extractor at mixing viscous fluids of both Newtonian and non-Newtonian rheology representative of Hanford single- and double-shell wastes, respectively. Developing the computational models and validating their results by comparing them with experimental results would enable simulations of the mixing process for a range of fluid properties and mixing speeds. Five tests were performed with a full-scale, optically transparent model extractor to provide the data needed to compare mixing times for fluid rheology, mixer rotational direction, and mixing speed variation. The computer model was developed and exercised to simulate the tests. The tests demonstrated that rotational direction of the pitched impeller blades was not as important as fluid rheology in determining mixing time. The Newtonian fluid required at least six hours to mix at the hot cell operating speed of 3 rpm, and the non-Newtonian fluid required at least 46 hours at 3 rpm to become significantly mixed. In the non-Newtonian fluid tests, stagnant regions within the fluid sometimes required days to be fully mixed. Higher-speed (30 rpm) testing showed that the laminar mixing time was correlated to mixing speed. The tests demonstrated that, using the RGS extractor and current procedures, complete mixing of the waste samples in the hot cell should not be expected. The computer simulation of Newtonian fluid mixing gave results comparable to the test while simulation of non-Newtonian fluid mixing would require further development. In light of the laboratory test results, detailed parametric analysis of the mixing process was not performed.

  16. Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Modeling and Characterization Based on Experimental Results. (United States)

    Humada, Ali M; Hojabri, Mojgan; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan Bin; Hamada, Hussein M; Ahmed, Mushtaq N


    A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system operates under fluctuated weather condition has been modeled and characterized based on specific test bed. A mathematical model of a small-scale PV system has been developed mainly for residential usage, and the potential results have been simulated. The proposed PV model based on three PV parameters, which are the photocurrent, IL, the reverse diode saturation current, Io, the ideality factor of diode, n. Accuracy of the proposed model and its parameters evaluated based on different benchmarks. The results showed that the proposed model fitting the experimental results with high accuracy compare to the other models, as well as the I-V characteristic curve. The results of this study can be considered valuable in terms of the installation of a grid-connected PV system in fluctuated climatic conditions.

  17. Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Modeling and Characterization Based on Experimental Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M Humada

    Full Text Available A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system operates under fluctuated weather condition has been modeled and characterized based on specific test bed. A mathematical model of a small-scale PV system has been developed mainly for residential usage, and the potential results have been simulated. The proposed PV model based on three PV parameters, which are the photocurrent, IL, the reverse diode saturation current, Io, the ideality factor of diode, n. Accuracy of the proposed model and its parameters evaluated based on different benchmarks. The results showed that the proposed model fitting the experimental results with high accuracy compare to the other models, as well as the I-V characteristic curve. The results of this study can be considered valuable in terms of the installation of a grid-connected PV system in fluctuated climatic conditions.

  18. Modeled and experimental results of an omnidirectional free-space optical receiver architecture (United States)

    Murshid, Syed H.; Lovell, Gregory L.; Finch, Michael F.


    Free-space optical (FSO) communications provide point-to-point connectivity while offering many advantages in size, weight, and power as compared to radio frequency. It has the potential to provide fiber-optic data rates without the need for lengthy fiber cables. Omnidirectional FSO, also known as O-FSO systems, provide a non-line-of-sight option for data communications. They are gaining popularity in short-distance networks. Most existing O-FSO links range from 1 to 100 m and present experimental/simulated data rates ranging between 5 kb/s and 1 Mb/s. A 2.5-Gb/s O-FSO system was recently reported with a range of 25 cm. This paper employs a fiber bundle as an O-FSO receiver. The energy collected by the receiver is related to the acceptance cone of each fiber. The fiber bundle integrates the optical power gathered by the individual fibers and couples it to the photodetector. Experimental data rates approaching 100 kb/s over a meter long system are presented, whereas simulated results support a data rate up to 52 Mb/s for distances approaching a kilometer. Theoretical and experimental optical power versus range is also presented for the proposed O-FSO architecture, using on-off keying.

  19. LNG fires: A review of experimental results, models and hazard prediction challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Phani K. [Technology and Management Systems, Inc., 102 Drake Road, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States)]. E-mail:


    A number of experimental investigations of LNG fires (of sizes 35 m diameter and smaller) were undertaken, world wide, during the 1970s and 1980s to study their physical and radiative characteristics. This paper reviews the published data from several of these tests including from the largest test to date, the 35 m, Montoir tests. Also reviewed in this paper is the state of the art in modeling LNG pool and vapor fires, including thermal radiation hazard modeling. The review is limited to considering the integral and semi-empirical models (solid flame and point source); CFD models are not reviewed. Several aspects of modeling LNG fires are reviewed including, the physical characteristics, such as the (visible) fire size and shape, tilt and drag in windy conditions, smoke production, radiant thermal output, etc., and the consideration of experimental data in the models. Comparisons of model results with experimental data are indicated and current deficiencies in modeling are discussed. The requirements in the US and European regulations related to LNG fire hazard assessment are reviewed, in brief, in the light of model inaccuracies, criteria for hazards to people and structures, and the effects of mitigating circumstances. The paper identifies: (i) critical parameters for which there exist no data, (ii) uncertainties and unknowns in modeling and (iii) deficiencies and gaps in current regulatory recipes for predicting hazards.

  20. Effect of dactyloscopic powders on DNA profiling from enhanced fingerprints: results from an experimental study. (United States)

    Tozzo, Pamela; Giuliodori, Alice; Rodriguez, Daniele; Caenazzo, Luciana


    We conducted a study on the effect of fingerprint enhancement methods on subsequent short tandem repeat profiling. First, we performed a study typing blood traces deposited on 5 different surfaces, treated with 8 types of dactyloscopic powders. Three different DNA extraction methods were used. Subsequently, we analyzed latent fingerprints on the same 5 surfaces enhanced with the 8 different powders used in the first part of the study. This study has demonstrated that DNA profiling can be performed on fingerprints left on different substrates, and the substrate will affect the amount of DNA that can be recovered for DNA typing. In the first phase of the study, a profile was obtained in 92% of the 120 samples analyzed; in the second part, in 55% of the 80 samples analyzed, we obtained a profile complete in 32.5% of the cases. From the results obtained, it seems that the powders used in latent fingerprints enhancement, rather than having a direct inhibitory effect on extraction and amplification of DNA, may cause partial degradation of DNA, reducing the efficiency of amplification reaction. It should not be forgotten that these results were obtained under laboratory conditions, and in real caseworks, there may still be different problems involved.

  1. Comparison of the audiologic results obtained with the bone-anchored hearing aid attached to the headband, the testband, and to the "snap" abutment. (United States)

    Verstraeten, Nadia; Zarowski, Andrzej J; Somers, Thomas; Riff, Daphna; Offeciers, Erwin F


    1) To quantify the audiometric differences between the preoperative tests with the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) attached to the headband or the testband and the final postoperative result with the BAHA positioned at the implanted abutment. 2) To compare the results obtained with the headband and the testband. 3) To quantify the magnitude of the damping through the skin for the BAHA placed at the testband (important for comparison with the implantable hearing aids). Prospective. Tertiary otological referral centre. Ten adult (> or = 14 yr old) BAHA patients (6 male and 4 female subjects) with bilateral air-bone gaps of minimum 40-dB hearing loss and with more than 6 months of BAHA experience with the BAHA "Compact." Audiometric free-field thresholds and speech audiometry scores (Consonant-Vowel-Consonant lists, phonemic score) have been evaluated for 3 conditions: BAHA attached to the implanted "Snap" abutment, to the headband, or to the testband. For frequencies 1 to 4 kHz, significant differences in the range of 5 to 20 dB were found between the BAHA coupled with the Snap abutment and the preoperative testing conditions with the BAHA positioned at the headband or the testband. These differences were also reflected in the speech audiometry with a difference in speech reception threshold of approximately 4 to 7 dB. 1) Significant differences in the audiometric thresholds and the speech understanding scores were found between the preoperative test conditions and the final postoperative result. 2) Audiometric results obtained with the headband and the testband are comparable; therefore, the more comfortable headband is also suitable for the preoperative audiologic evaluation. 3) The magnitude of the skin damping must be accounted for when referring to the audiometric results obtained with the BAHA attached to the testband or headband.

  2. SWAP Modeling Results of Monitored Soil Water Moisture Data of Irrigation Experimental Study (United States)

    Zeiliger, A.; Garsia-Orenes, F.; van den Elsen, E.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Semenov, V.


    In arid and semiarid zones of the Mediterranean regions a shortage of fresh water resources constitutes some time dramatic problem. In these regions with growing population and the scarce of rainfall irregularity in time during growing season an efficient use of water irrigation became a main challenge for future extensive agriculture development. In the frame of FP6 Water-Reuse project 516731 project a special field experimentation has been carried out in Alicante Region of Spain (Location UTM X: 693.809, Y: 4.279.922, Z: 626) on a Sandy Typic Xerofkuvent (Soil Survey Staff, 1999), Calcaric Fluvisol (WRB, FAO, 1989). with aim to investigate water regime in water repellent soils under irrigation of vine Vitus Labrusca. During field experimentation from 2006 till 2008 on 9 plots, there the same regime of irrigation water application was maintained, a monitoring of weather parameters was done by automatic meteorological station as well as a monitoring of soil water moisture was done by set of data-loggers and TDR-soil moisture sensors ECO-2 installed at different depts. SWAP model was used to simulate water regime of irrigated plots. Empirical coefficients of van Genuchten-Mualem's equations were calculated by pedotransfer functions derived from HYPRES data base using measured values of bulk density, organic matter content and soil texture. Testing of validity of the use of estimated curves was done by comparison with unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters of water retention and hydraulic conductivity measured in vitro by Wind's method on soil samples. Calibration of SWAP model for each plot was done on measured soil moisture data of irrigation events by adjusting a value of saturated hydraulic coefficient. Verification of the SWAP model was done by full range of experimental data. Similarity and non-similarity of the water regime at experimental plots as well as results of verification of SWAP model were analyzed

  3. Influence of a Company’s Social Initiatives on the Consumer Attitude towards It. Results of Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pawlak


    Full Text Available This article constitutes an attempt to answer the question whether social initiatives undertaken by a company influence the consumer attitude towards it. The afore-mentioned aim has been achieved by presenting the results of experimental research. Six scenarios of social initiatives undertaken by a food sector company were used in the research. Research work was conducted using a sample of real consumers. It was shown that information about undertaking a single social initiative by a company does not lead to a more favourable consumer attitude towards it. The results obtained show that when undertaking a social programme, which is not consistent with the company’s actions to date, the attitude towards it can even become worse.

  4. Interobserver agreement of the injury diagnoses obtained by postmortem computed tomography of traffic fatality victims and a comparison with autopsy results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Struckmann, Henrik; Lauritsen, Jens


    The present study investigated the interobserver variation between a radiologist and a forensic pathologist in 994 injury diagnoses obtained by postmortem computed tomography (CT) of 67 traffic fatality victims, and the results were compared with diagnoses obtained by autopsy. The injuries were...... system, but the pathologist diagnosed more organ injuries. We recommend the use of a radiologist as a consultant for the evaluation of postmortem CT images. Training in radiology should be included in forensic medicine postgraduate training. CT was superior to autopsy in detecting abnormal air...... accumulations, but autopsy was superior to CT in the detection of organ injuries and aortic ruptures. We recommend a combination of CT and autopsy for the postmortem investigation of traffic fatality victims....

  5. Evolution of Aggregate Structure in Solutions of Anionic Monorhamnolipids: Experimental and Computational Results. (United States)

    Eismin, Ryan J; Munusamy, Elango; Kegel, Laurel L; Hogan, David E; Maier, Raina M; Schwartz, Steven D; Pemberton, Jeanne E


    The evolution of solution aggregates of the anionic form of the native monorhamnolipid (mRL) mixture produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 is explored at pH 8.0 using both experimental and computational approaches. Experiments utilizing surface tension measurements, dynamic light scattering, and both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy reveal solution aggregation properties. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations on self-assemblies of the most abundant monorhamnolipid molecule, l-rhamnosyl-β-hydroxydecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoate (Rha-C10-C10), in its anionic state explore the formation of aggregates and the role of hydrogen bonding, substantiating the experimental results. At pH 8.0, at concentrations above the critical aggregation concentration of 201 μM but below ∼7.5 mM, small premicelles exist in solution; above ∼7.5 mM, micelles with hydrodynamic radii of ∼2.5 nm dominate, although two discrete populations of larger lamellar aggregates (hydrodynamic radii of ∼10 and 90 nm) are also present in solution in much smaller number densities. The critical aggregation number for the micelles is determined to be ∼26 monomers/micelle using fluorescence quenching measurements, with micelles gradually increasing in size with monorhamnolipid concentration. Molecular dynamics simulations on systems with between 10 and 100 molecules of Rha-C10-C10 indicate the presence of stable premicelles of seven monomers with the most prevalent micelle being ∼25 monomers and relatively spherical. A range of slightly larger micelles of comparable stability can also exist that become increasing elliptical with increasing monomer number. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is shown to play a significant role in stabilization of these aggregates. In total, the computational results are in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Heterogeneous results of serum testosterone obtained in multiple blood samples from women with idiopathic hirsutism in both basal and post-dexamethasone conditions. (United States)

    Scaglia, H E; Aquilano, D; Zylbersztein, C; Spinedi, E; Colombani, M; Simon, J; Encabo, J


    Serum radioimmunoassayable testosterone (T), cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined before and after dexamethasone (DXM) administration in 35 patients with idiopathic hirsutism (IH). Blood samples were taken at 15-min intervals during 1 hour in both basal and post-DXM conditions. Testosterone values obtained in 5 normal women in the same conditions during the early follicular phase were (mean +/- SD): baseline, 2.26 +/- 0.49 nmol/l; post-DXM, 0.80 +/- 0.35 nmol/l. Serum T levels in the whole group of patients with IH were significantly higher than those in the control group (mean +/- SD): baseline, 3.30 +/- 1.80nmol/l; post-DXM, 1.67 +/- 1.49nmol/l. Patients with IH were divided into 4 groups according to T results in the DXM test (mean +/- SD in both basal and post-DXM conditions, respectively): group 1 (n = 13) 1.67 +/- 0.66 and 0.62 +/- 0.35nmol/l; group 2 (n = 11) 3.89 +/- 1.63 and 3.09 +/- 1.49nmol/l; group 3 (n = 6) 3.96 +/- 1.46 and 0.87 +/- 0.73nmol/l; and group 4 (n = 5) 5.45 +/- 1.25 and 2.05 +/- 0.38nmol/l. In all cases, maximal adrenal inhibition, as judged by serum cortisol, was obtained. No LH modifications after DXM were obtained in any of the cases. Our results demonstrate that there is no common androgenic abnormality in IH. It is possible to obtain normal or high circulating T levels. The findings of this study also suggest that the adrenals, to ovary or both may be the sources of high T levels.

  7. Development of X-ray microcalorimeters based on SOI technology and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeflinski, V. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)], E-mail:; Aliane, A.; De Moro, F. [CEA, Irfu, LETI-MINATEC, F-38053 Grenoble (France); Pigot, C.; Sauvageot, J-L. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Agnese, P.; Gasse, A.; Ribot, H. [CEA, Irfu, LETI-MINATEC, F-38053 Grenoble (France); Gremion, E.; De La Broise, X.; Navick, X.F. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' electronique, detecteur et informatique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    We are developing an X-ray spectro-imaging detector at cryogenic temperature (<100 mK) for next space generation missions, using silicon technology. Each pixel of this array detector is made of a tantalum absorber bonded by indium bump hybridization, to an implanted and high-temperature diffused silicon thermistor. The thermo-mechanical link, provided by the indium bump hybridization, is being improved in terms of thermal capacitance. We present the state of development and experimental results on this new generation of X-ray microcalorimeters.

  8. Cacao roasting in rural areas of Peru using concentrated solar thermal energy: experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veynandt François


    Full Text Available Solar food processing is gaining interest for income generation. Our solar cacao roaster, designed for rural areas, consists in a horizontal rotating drum, opened at one end to collect solar radiation from Scheffler concentrators of 2.7 or 8 m2. The experimental results presented bring knowledge on the system's behavior and optimal operation. The influence of the most significant parameters is studied: quantity of cacao, absorptivity of drum's coating, thermal insulation, inclination and rotational speed of the drum. Cacao temperature and direct solar irradiance are monitored to evaluate the performance in roasting time per kilogram of cacao.

  9. Parametric correlations between experimental results and the base isolation, in situ, structural ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polidor Bratu


    Full Text Available The paper addresses the topic of the inconsistency between experimental, laboratory results for antiseismic devices and the dynamic stiffness, internal damping and dissipation parameters through additional devices. The necessary corrections of the stiffness and dissipation (damping parameters will be presented when the antiseismic devices are equipped to satisfy the adequate functions in a complex structural system (buildings, viaducts, bridges under the conditions of seismic motions characteristic to the Romanian territory. In this context, the kinematic excitation method, compared to the dynamic evaluation method of the vibration dissipation capacity, produced by a seismic shock is shown.

  10. Experimental results with a natural gas cogeneration system using a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (United States)

    Radulescu, Mihai; Lottin, Olivier; Feidt, Michel; Lombard, Christophe; Noc, David Le; Doze, Stéphane Le

    This paper reports experimental results of an investigation of five identical CHP (combined heat and power) units using PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) and running on natural gas. The natural gas is reformed locally to produce hydrogen. The net electric power is 4.5 kWe and the installations are designed for low temperature heat recovery (6 kW at 60 °C). The performances of the CHP units are analyzed in terms of electrical, thermal and total efficiencies. The electrical efficiency is low and it is shown that this is due mostly to the reforming process and to electric losses, while fuel cell performances are fully satisfying.

  11. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, Arie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_L$) and transverse ($\\sigma_T$) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= $\\sigma_L / \\sigma_T$ for nuclei ($R_A$) and for deuterium ($R_D$) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, $R_A< R_D$.

  12. Results of experimental research for shear strain of connections of thin-walled elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Ivan Leonidovich


    Full Text Available Bearing capacity for shear of assembly connections of structures made of steel thin-walled cold-formed sections is determined by the bolted connection crush strength. Results of tests of connections with a bearing surface area enlarged due to a bending of the connected element end portions and mounting of fastening elements in a type of bolts and self-drilling screws. Experimental research illustrated that the suggested approach enables to increase the bearing capacity of the connection several times over.

  13. An evaluation of the influence of the experimental cooling rate along with other thermomagnetic effects to explain anomalously low paleointensities obtained for historic lavas of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, L.V.; Mullender, T.A.T.; Dekkers, M.J.


    Methodological aspects in obtaining reliable absolute palaeointensity estimates have attracted renewed attention in recent years. Obtaining a reliable palaeointensity from lavas, however, still is notoriously difficult: in many cases lavas have been shown to be a non-ideal recorder of the

  14. The experimental cascade curves of EAS at E sub 0 10(17) eV obtained by the method of detection of Cherenkov pulse shape (United States)

    Fomin, Y. A.; Kalmykov, G. B.; Khristiansen, M. V.; Motova, M. V.; Nechin, Y. A.; Prosin, V. V.; Zhukov, V. Y.; Efimov, N. N.; Grigoriev, V. M.; Nikiforova, E. S.


    The individual cascade curves of EAS with E sub 0 10 to the 17th power eV/I to 3/ were studied by detection of EAS Cherenkov light pulses. The scintillators located at the center of the Yakutsk EAS array within a 500-m radius circle were used to select the showers and to determine the main EAS parameters. The individual cascade curves N(t) were obtained using the EAS Cherenkov light pulses satisfying the following requirements: (1) the signal-to-noise ratio fm/delta sub n 15, (2) the EAS axis-detector distance tau sub 350 m, (3) the zenith angle theta 30 deg, (4) the probability for EAS to be detected by scintillators W 0.8. Condition (1) arises from the desire to reduce the amplitude distortion of Cherenkov pulses due to noise and determines the range of EAS sizes, N(t). The resolution times of the Cherenkov pulse shape detectors are tau sub 0 approx. 23 ns which results in distortion of a pulse during the process of the detection. The distortion of pulses due to the finiteness of tau sub 0 value was estimated. It is shown that the rise time of pulse becomes greater as tau sub 0.5/tau sub 0 ratio decreases.

  15. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures. (United States)

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël


    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.

  16. Investigation of sonar transponders for offshore wind farms: modeling approach, experimental setup, and results. (United States)

    Fricke, Moritz B; Rolfes, Raimund


    The installation of offshore wind farms in the German Exclusive Economic Zone requires the deployment of sonar transponders to prevent collisions with submarines. The general requirements for these systems have been previously worked out by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Marine Geophysics of the Bundeswehr. In this article, the major results of the research project "Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms" are presented. For theoretical investigations a hybrid approach was implemented using the boundary element method to calculate the source directivity and a three-dimensional ray-tracing algorithm to estimate the transmission loss. The angle-dependence of the sound field as well as the weather-dependence of the transmission loss are compared to experimental results gathered at the offshore wind farm alpha ventus, located 45 km north of the island Borkum. While theoretical and experimental results are in general agreement, the implemented model slightly underestimates scattering at the rough sea surface. It is found that the source level of 200 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m is adequate to satisfy the detectability of the warning sequence at distances up to 2 NM (≈3.7 km) within a horizontal sector of ±60° if realistic assumptions about signal-processing and noise are made. An arrangement to enlarge the angular coverage is discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Filipov


    Full Text Available Photoactivated disinfection is a new antimicrobial method for root canal disinfection, based on photodynamic therapy.Purpose: The goal of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial effect of photoactivated disinfection on experimental biofilm from Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans, through scanning electron microscopy.Material and Methods: Freshly extracted, one root teeth were prepared with a sequence of rotary nickel-titanium files (ProTaper ; Dentsply ; Mailefer , irrigated, the external root canal surfaces isolated with nail polish and autoclaved. After the incubation with the experimental biofilm, the root canals were filled with photosensitizer - Toluidine Blue – 0,01% and irradiated with Foto San(CMS Dental, 630 nm, 2000mW/cm2 for 30 seconds.SEM was performed on the coronal, middle and apical third of the root canal, for evaluation of the results.Results and discussion: In the range of 600 to 8000, SEM showed significant reduction of microorganisms from the canal system. A large increase in microorganisms was observed, showing a disturbance in the cell membrane, as effect from the activation of chromophore with the laser and the penetration of the photosensitizer in dental tubules. In the apical third single microorganisms were observed. This may due to decreased penetration of the photosensitizer, incomplete pervasion of MB in the biofilm or insufficient oxygenation.Conclusion: FAD has the potential to be a good alternative and addition to the conventional root canal disinfection methods.SEM is a precise method for endodontic treatment result evaluation.

  18. Long-term follow-up for bimanual microincision cataract surgery: comparison of results obtained by surgeons in training and experienced surgeons. (United States)

    Cavallini, Gian Maria; Verdina, Tommaso; Forlini, Matteo; Volante, Veronica; De Maria, Michele; Torlai, Giulio; Benatti, Caterina; Delvecchio, Giancarlo


    To determine the efficacy of bimanual microincision cataract surgery (B-MICS) performed by surgeons in training, evaluating clinical results, posterior capsule opacification (PCO) incidence, and clear corneal incision (CCI) architecture in a long-term follow-up and comparing results with those obtained by experienced surgeons. Eighty eyes of 62 patients operated on by three surgeons in training who used B-MICS technique for the first time were included in the study (Group A). Eighty eyes of 59 patients who underwent B-MICS by three experienced surgeons were included as a control group (Group B). Best corrected visual acuity, astigmatism, corneal pachymetry, and endothelial cell count were evaluated before surgery and at 1 month and 18 months after surgery. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images were obtained to study the morphology of CCIs. PCO incidence was evaluated using EPCO2000 software. Out of 160 surgeries included in the study, mean best-corrected visual acuity improvement at 18 months was 0.343±0.246 logMAR for Group A, and 0.388±0.175 logMAR for Group B, respectively. We found no statistically significant induced astigmatism nor corneal pachymetry changes in either group, while we noticed a statistically significant endothelial cell loss postoperatively in both groups (Parchitecture in the 320 CCIs considered, we found posterior wound retractions and endothelial gaps, respectively, 9.8% and 11.6% for Group A and 7.8% and 10.8% for Group B. B-MICS performed by surgeons in training is an effective surgical technique even when assessed after a long-term follow-up. PCO incidence resulted in being higher for less experienced surgeons. Corneal incisions were shorter and less angled in surgeons in training in comparison with results obtained by expert surgeons.

  19. VX hydrolysis by human serum paraoxonase 1: a comparison of experimental and computational results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Peterson

    Full Text Available Human Serum paraoxonase 1 (HuPON1 is an enzyme that has been shown to hydrolyze a variety of chemicals including the nerve agent VX. While wildtype HuPON1 does not exhibit sufficient activity against VX to be used as an in vivo countermeasure, it has been suggested that increasing HuPON1's organophosphorous hydrolase activity by one or two orders of magnitude would make the enzyme suitable for this purpose. The binding interaction between HuPON1 and VX has recently been modeled, but the mechanism for VX hydrolysis is still unknown. In this study, we created a transition state model for VX hydrolysis (VX(ts in water using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, and docked the transition state model to 22 experimentally characterized HuPON1 variants using AutoDock Vina. The HuPON1-VX(ts complexes were grouped by reaction mechanism using a novel clustering procedure. The average Vina interaction energies for different clusters were compared to the experimentally determined activities of HuPON1 variants to determine which computational procedures best predict how well HuPON1 variants will hydrolyze VX. The analysis showed that only conformations which have the attacking hydroxyl group of VX(ts coordinated by the sidechain oxygen of D269 have a significant correlation with experimental results. The results from this study can be used for further characterization of how HuPON1 hydrolyzes VX and design of HuPON1 variants with increased activity against VX.

  20. Comparison of speciation sampler and PC-BOSS fine particulate matter organic material results obtained in Lindon, Utah, during winter 2001-2002. (United States)

    Carter, Cory; Eatough, Norman L; Eatough, Delbert J; Olson, Neal; Long, Russell W


    The Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS) has been previously verified as being capable of measuring total fine particulate matter (PM2.5), including semi-volatile species. The present study was conducted to determine if the simple modification of a commercial speciation sampler with a charcoal denuder followed by a filter pack containing a quartz filter and a charcoal-impregnated glass (CIG) fiber filter would allow for the measurement of total PM2.5, including semi-volatile organic material. Data were collected using an R&P (Rupprecht and Pastasnik Co., Inc.) Partisol Model 2300 speciation sampler; an R&P Partisol speciation sampler modified with a BOSS denuder, followed by a filter pack with a quartz and a CIG filter; a Met One spiral aerosol speciation sampler (SASS); and the PC-BOSS from November 2001 to March 2002 at a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) sampling site in Lindon, UT. Total PM2.5 mass, ammonium nitrate (both nonvolatile and semi-volatile), ammonium sulfate, organic carbon (both non-volatile and semi-volatile), and elemental carbon were determined on a 24-hr basis. Results obtained with the individual samplers were compared to determine the capability of the modified R&P speciation sampler for measuring total PM2.5, including semi-volatile components. Data obtained with the modified speciation sampler agreed with the PC-BOSS results. Data obtained with the two unmodified speciation samplers were low by an average of 26% because of the loss of semi-volatile organic material from the quartz filter during sample collection.

  1. [Chemical risk assessment in the leather goods producers: a comparison of the results obtained by measurements air concentration and algorithm ARChiMEDE]. (United States)

    Montomoli, L; Sarrini, D; Sartorelli, P


    The Italian legislation on chemical agents has undergone significant changes. The aim of the study was to compare the results obatained from an environmental investigation and the use of the ARChi.MEDE model The results of the survey were treated with the UNI EN 689/1997 that showed an acceptable result, while according to the use A.R.Chi.M.E.D.E. a significant risk was obtained. Actually the mathematical model assess workers exposure without considering in the calculation the specific preventive measures (personal protective equipment, training, uptake of pollutants at the source) as contemplated by law. So the mathematical model showed the need of preventive measures in the studied work place.

  2. Warm magnetic measurements of MCBCs: comparison between the results obtained with the Quadrupole Industrial Magnetic Measurement and the Corrector Industrial Magnetic Measurement systems

    CERN Document Server

    Remondino, Vittorio; Catalan-Lasheras, N


    MCBCs modules are first magnetically measured at Tesla using a second-generation Corrector Industrial Magnetic Measurement (CIMM). After assembly into the SSS quadrupoles, measurements are repeated at CERN using the Quadrupole Industrial Magnetic Measurement (QIMM) system. In this note, we compare the measurements provided by the two systems. In all the 18 cases examined, the correlation found is excellent. The consistency of the results obtained indicates that both systems are effective, that modules are correctly measured by the firm personnel and that magnetic characteristics of the modules do not change during their assembly in cold masses.

  3. An analysis of domestic experimental results for soil-to-crops transfer factors of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, In; Choi, Young Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Kang, Hee Seok; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    For more realistic assessment of Korean food chain radiation doses due to the operation of nuclear facilities, it is required to use domestically produced data for radionuclide transfer parameters in crop plants. This paper analyzed results of last about 10 year's studies on radionuclide transfer parameters in major crop plants by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, comparing with the published international data, and consequently suggested the proper parameters to use. The trends of transfer parameter shows normal distributions if we have a lot of experimental data, but some radionuclides showed enormous variations with the environment of experimental, crops and soils. These transfer factors can be used to assess realistic radiation doses or to predict the doses in crops for normal operation or accidental release. Some kinds of parameter can be produced as conservatives or fragmentary results because soil-to-plant transfer factors were measured through greenhouse experiments which sometimes showed improper field situations. But these parameters mentioned in this paper can be representative of the status of Korean food chain than that of foreign country.

  4. Polarimetric Emission of Rain Events: Simulation and Experimental Results at X-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Duffo


    Full Text Available Accurate models are used today for infrared and microwave satellite radiance simulations of the first two Stokes elements in the physical retrieval, data assimilation etc. of surface and atmospheric parameters. Although in the past a number of theoretical and experimental works have studied the polarimetric emission of some natural surfaces, specially the sea surface roughened by the wind (Windsat mission, very limited studies have been conducted on the polarimetric emission of rain cells or other natural surfaces. In this work, the polarimetric emission (four Stokes elements of a rain cell is computed using the polarimetric radiative transfer equation assuming that raindrops are described by Pruppacher-Pitter shapes and that their size distribution follows the Laws-Parsons law. The Boundary Element Method (BEM is used to compute the exact bistatic scattering coefficients for each raindrop shape and different canting angles. Numerical results are compared to the Rayleigh or Mie scattering coefficients, and to Oguchi’s ones, showing that above 1-2 mm raindrop size the exact formulation is required to model properly the scattering. Simulation results using BEM are then compared to the experimental data gathered with a X-band polarimetric radiometer. It is found that the depolarization of the radiation caused by the scattering of non-spherical raindrops induces a non-zero third Stokes parameter, and the differential phase of the scattering coefficients induces a non-zero fourth Stokes parameter.

  5. Numerical Modeling of Local Scouring Around Group Bridge Piers and Compared with Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahjoob


    Full Text Available Bridges are the most important structures in river engineering. One of the most causes in bridges destruction is local scouring around the bridge piers. Many bridges failed in the world because of the extreme scour around piers, which have caused to disappear a lot of investments. Then, it is essential to predict the scour depth around bridge piers. In this research, the Fluent three-dimensional numerical model was used to investigate the scouring around the group cylindrical pier in clear water and uniform sand bed conditions. In this model, sedimentary flow was considered as two-phase flow (water - sand and Eulerian two-phase model was used. To estimate the parameters of flow turbulence in the water phase, the RNG K-ε model was used. To evaluate and verify the numerical model, the computational results were compared with experimental data. The maximum scour depth in front of the first pier on a numerical model equal to 12.5 cm and in experimental model equal to 12 cm have been measured. Also scour depth at the second pier less than that at the first pier and scour depth at the third pier has been less than the values of the first and second pier .The results showed that the two phase model can simulate the scour phenomena around the pier.

  6. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Zwickl


    Full Text Available In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS evaluates students’ epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students’ reflections on their course’s expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  7. Iron ore reduction in a continuously operated multistage lab-scale fluidized bed reactor—Mathematical modeling and experimental results (United States)

    Thurnhofer, A.; Schuster, S.; Löffler, G.; Habermann, A.; Winter, F.; Hofbauer, H.; Schenk, J. L.; Zirngast, J.


    Industrial-scale fluidized bed processes for iron ore reduction ( e.g., FIOR and FINMET) are operated by continuous feeding of ore, while laboratory tests are mostly performed under batchwise operation. The reduction behavior under continuous operation is influenced by both the residence time of the iron ore particles and the reduction kinetics, which is obtained by batch tests. In a mathematical model for such a process, the effect of both phenomena has to be considered. The residence time distribution of iron ore particles in a laboratory fluidized bed reactor was obtained by measuring the response of a step input and described by mathematical models similar to a continuously stirred tank reactor. In the same reactor, reduction tests with continuous feeding of iron ore were performed. Based on batch tests in a fluidized bed reactor, a mathematical model was developed to describe the kinetics of iron ore reduction under fluidized bed conditions. This kinetic model was combined with the fluidized bed reactor model to describe continuous iron ore reduction. In this detailed model, the change of gas composition while rising in the fluidized bed was considered. The degree of reduction and the gas conversion for reactors in series were calculated. The results obtained by the mathematical model were compared with experimental data from the laboratory-scale reactor.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 1—experimental results (United States)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Facchini, Bruno


    The aero-thermal behavior of the flow field inside 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative smooth trailing edge of shaped wedge discharge duct with one row of enlarged pedestals have been investigated in order to determine the effect of rotation, inlet velocity and blowing conditions effects, for Re = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two configurations are presented: with and without open tip configurations. Thermo-chromic liquid crystals technique is used to ensure a local measurement of the heat transfer coefficient on the blade suction side under stationary and rotation conditions. Results are reported in terms of detailed 2D HTC maps on the suction side surface as well as the averaged Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts. Two correlations are proposed, for both closed and open tip configurations, based on the Re, Pr, Ro and a new non-dimensional parameter based on the position along the radial distance, to assess a reliable estimation of the averaged Nusselt number at the inter-pedestal region. A good agreement is found between prediction and experimental data with about ±10 to ±12 % of uncertainty, for the simple form correlation, and about ±16 % using a complex form. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  9. Electrical characterization and experimental results in the SPEED4 plasma focus device (United States)

    Zambra, Marcelo; Soto, Juan Carlos; Silva, Patricio; Sylvester, Gustavo; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, Jose; Soto, Leopoldo


    The pulsed power SPEED4 generator has a capacitor bank system of 1,25 μF in a Marx configuration to produce up to 100 kV, a maximum current up to ~700 kA, and 6,25 kJ of stored energy. In the plasma focus mode, this device has been prepared for the study of the emission of X-rays and neutrons in the Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Plasma Technologies of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The present experimental results report about the electrical characterization as well as preliminary results using Hydrogen like filling gas. Pinch evidences in the high voltage and current derivative electrical signals are presented in this work and preliminary arguments are given in order to achieve an optimal operation.

  10. Experimental test results study future of physical profile of the aviation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlenko N. A.


    Full Text Available He results of studies of the effectiveness of the proposed work program for the training of professional-applied physical training future pilots. Based on the analysis of the data determined by the level of physical fitness, and also revealed the dynamics of the motor characteristics of future pilots. The got results were compared in the control group of students of 1-2 courses of speciality "Aeronavigation" (40 men and to the experimental group of 1-2 of speciality "Exploitation of aircrafts" (40 men. The norms of certifying were analysed for competition physical preparation during all period of education. Conducted experiment gave an opportunity to define the level of general physical preparedness of future pilots. It is proved that in the future pilots of physical fitness are a wide range of knowledge in physical education and professional-applied physical training, which makes the learning process more effective.

  11. Follow-the-leader control for a train-like-vehicle. Implementation and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micaelli, A.; Louveau, F.; Sabourin, D. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Canudas de Wit, C.; Ndoudi-Likoho, A.D. [Laboratoire d`Automatique de Grenoble, 38 - Saint-martin d`Heres (France)


    This paper presents some practical implementation aspects and results of a particular control law dedicated to Train-Like-Vehicles (TLV) for trajectory tracking purpose. The CEA`s demonstrator consists of two modules. It is a partial but representative mockup of a future 4-modules vehicle devoted to maintenance and intervention in nuclear plants, which is now on development within the frame of the Teleman/MESSINA project. The main principles of the control are first recalled; then the reference trajectory and its on line computation, and the robot`s reference configuration are investigated; tuning the control parameters and control saturation are studied. Experimental and successful results of a real implementation on a TLV mockup are given and discussed. 10 figs., 3 refs.

  12. Preliminary results of the large experimental wind turbine phase of the national wind energy program (United States)

    Thomas, R. L.; Sholes, J. E.


    A major phase of the wind energy program is the development of reliable wind turbines for supplying cost-competitive electrical energy. This paper discusses the preliminary results of two projects in this phase of the program. First an experimental 100 kW wind turbine design and its status are reviewed. Also discussed are the results of two parallel design studies for determining the configurations and power levels for wind turbines with minimum energy costs. These studies show wind energy costs of 7 to 1.5 c/kWH for wind turbines produced in quantities of 100 to 1000 a year and located at sites having average winds of 12 to 18 mph.

  13. Electrical characterization and experimental results in the SPEED4 plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambra, Marcelo; Silva, Patricio; Sylvester, Gustavo; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, Jose; Soto, Leopoldo [Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Soto, Juan Carlos [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail:


    The pulsed power SPEED4 generator has a capacitor bank system of 1,25 {mu}F in a Marx configuration to produce up to 100 kV, a maximum current up to {approx}700 kA, and 6,25 kJ of stored energy. In the plasma focus mode, this device has been prepared for the study of the emission of X-rays and neutrons in the Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Plasma Technologies of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The present experimental results report about the electrical characterization as well as preliminary results using Hydrogen like filling gas. Pinch evidences in the high voltage and current derivative electrical signals are presented in this work and preliminary arguments are given in order to achieve an optimal operation.

  14. The 3D structure of the hadrons: recents results and experimental program at Jefferson Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Camacho C.


    Full Text Available The understanding of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD at large distances still remains one of the main outstanding problems of nuclear physics. Studying the internal structure of hadrons provides a way to probe QCD in the non-perturbative domain and can help us unravel the internal structure of the most elementary blocks of matter. Jefferson Lab (JLab has already delivered results on how elementary quarks and gluons create nucleon structure and properties. The upgrade of JLab to 12 GeV will allow the full exploration of the valence-quark structure of nucleons and the extraction of real threedimensional pictures. I will present recent results and review the future experimental program at JLab.

  15. Investigations of a Combustor Using a 9-Point Swirl-Venturi Fuel Injector: Recent Experimental Results (United States)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Heath, Christopher M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Tacina, Kathleen M.


    This paper explores recent results obtained during testing in an optically-accessible, JP8-fueled, flame tube combustor using baseline Lean Direct Injection (LDI) research hardware. The baseline LDI geometry has nine fuel/air mixers arranged in a 3 x 3 array. Results from this nine-element array include images of fuel and OH speciation via Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF), which describe fuel spray pattern and reaction zones. Preliminary combustion temperatures derived from Stokes/Anti-Stokes Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy are also presented. Other results using chemiluminescence from major combustion radicals such as CH* and C2* serve to identify the primary reaction zone, while OH PLIF shows the extent of reaction further downstream. Air and fuel velocities and fuel drop size results are also reported.

  16. [Interactions of DNA bases with individual water molecules. Molecular mechanics and quantum mechanics computation results vs. experimental data]. (United States)

    Gonzalez, E; Lino, J; Deriabina, A; Herrera, J N F; Poltev, V I


    To elucidate details of the DNA-water interactions we performed the calculations and systemaitic search for minima of interaction energy of the systems consisting of one of DNA bases and one or two water molecules. The results of calculations using two force fields of molecular mechanics (MM) and correlated ab initio method MP2/6-31G(d, p) of quantum mechanics (QM) have been compared with one another and with experimental data. The calculations demonstrated a qualitative agreement between geometry characteristics of the most of local energy minima obtained via different methods. The deepest minima revealed by MM and QM methods correspond to water molecule position between two neighbor hydrophilic centers of the base and to the formation by water molecule of hydrogen bonds with them. Nevertheless, the relative depth of some minima and peculiarities of mutual water-base positions in' these minima depend on the method used. The analysis revealed insignificance of some differences in the results of calculations performed via different methods and the importance of other ones for the description of DNA hydration. The calculations via MM methods enable us to reproduce quantitatively all the experimental data on the enthalpies of complex formation of single water molecule with the set of mono-, di-, and trimethylated bases, as well as on water molecule locations near base hydrophilic atoms in the crystals of DNA duplex fragments, while some of these data cannot be rationalized by QM calculations.

  17. Evolution of the Die-Wall Pressure during the Compression of Biconvex Tablets: Experimental Results and Comparison with FEM Simulation. (United States)

    Mazel, Vincent; Diarra, Harona; Busignies, Virginie; Tchoreloff, Pierre


    Capping is a classical manufacturing problem for tablets, which is known to affect more biconvex tablets than flat-faced ones. One reason could be the development of a higher residual die-wall pressure during unloading. Unfortunately, contradictory results were published on the subject. In this work, the evolution of the die-wall pressure during the compaction of biconvex tablets was studied experimentally and using finite element method (FEM) modeling. It was compared with the case of flat-faced tablets. Experimental and numerical results showed that during the compression of biconvex tablet, a lower maximum die-wall pressure and a higher residual die-wall pressure were obtained compared with the case of flat-faced tablet. Moreover, both approaches showed, for biconvex tablets, a temporary increase of the die-wall pressure at the end of the unloading phase. FEM demonstrated that this phenomenon was due to a gradual loss of contact between the punch and the tablet from the side to the center. This complex unloading behavior causes the temporary increase of the die-wall pressure and the development of a shear stress between the convex part and the land of the tablet. This could explain the capping tendency of biconvex tablets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Comparison of visual field test results obtained through Humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry versus standard automated perimetry in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoglu


    Full Text Available Aims : The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA-Standard 24-2 test. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD] were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 ± 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651. MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P < 0.001, and fixation losses and false negative errors were significantly less with SAP (P < 0.05. A weak positive correlation between the two tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008 and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014 was observed. Conclusion: Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.

  19. The influence of experimental conditions on the final result of photoinhibition of Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Decarli, M C; Corrêa, T Q; Vollet-Filho, J D; Bagnato, V S; Souza, C W O


    By and large, phototherapies are a promising approach to promote inactivation of microorganisms using light exposure, providing an effective alternative to control multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Considering this, intercomparison between experiments is vitally important. Most experiments are performed using multiwell plates in which the volume of the culture medium is not standardized. In such cases, light attenuation and the distance it travels, which also depends on the volume and vessel geometry, can lead to different results. This study investigated how the different volumes imply different depths that light will have to travel through in this volume and the relation of this parameter with the result that will be obtained. Staphylococcus aureus was exposed to 460nm light with 50, 100 and 200J/cm 2 , in 100, 200, 500 and 1000μL of inocula in a 24-well plate to investigate pure light inactivation. The literature suggests that fluence is the most important light parameter to obtain a high eradication of microbial cells in phototherapies. Our results show evidence that different geometrical configurations, taking into account the volume of the vessels, clearly affect the in vitro results, risking misinterpretation of dosimetry studies. Effects, such as dose distribution and decantation, are discussed throughout the paper. The outcome strongly depends on the volume and vessel geometry used. This study aims to encourage the standardization of phototherapies in vitro in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-Network Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs: Experimental Results from a Smartphone-Based Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Ferrari


    Full Text Available In this work, we present an innovative approach for effective cross-network information dissemination, with applications to vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs. The proposed approach, denoted as "Cross-Network Effective Traffic Alert Dissemination" (X-NETAD, leverages on the spontaneous formation of local WiFi (IEEE 802.11b VANETs, with direct connections between neighboring vehicles, in order to disseminate, very quickly and inexpensively, traffic alerts received from the cellular network. The proposed communication architecture has been implemented on Android smartphones. The obtained experimental results show that an effective cross-network information dissemination service can entirely rely on smartphone-based communications. This paves the way to future Internet architectures, where vehicles will play a key role as information destinations and sources.

  1. Stimulating Contributions to Public Goods through Information Feedback: Some Experimental Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Janssen

    Full Text Available In traditional public good experiments participants receive an endowment from the experimenter that can be invested in a public good or kept in a private account. In this paper we present an experimental environment where participants can invest time during five days to contribute to a public good. Participants can make contributions to a linear public good by logging into a web application and performing virtual actions. We compared four treatments, with different group sizes and information of (relative performance of other groups. We find that information feedback about performance of other groups has a small positive effect if we control for various attributes of the groups. Moreover, we find a significant effect of the contributions of others in the group in the previous day on the number of points earned in the current day. Our results confirm that people participate more when participants in their group participate more, and are influenced by information about the relative performance of other groups.

  2. RC Beams Strengthened with Mechanically Fastened Composites: Experimental Results and Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Martinelli


    Full Text Available The use of mechanically-fastened fiber-reinforced polymer (MF-FRP systems has recently emerged as a competitive solution for the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC beams and slabs. An overview of the experimental research has proven the effectiveness and the potentiality of the MF-FRP technique which is particularly suitable for emergency repairs or when the speed of installation and immediacy of use are imperative. A finite-element (FE model has been recently developed by the authors with the aim to simulate the behavior of RC beams strengthened in bending by MF-FRP laminates; such a model has also been validated by using a wide experimental database collected from the literature. By following the previous study, the FE model and the assembled database are considered herein with the aim of better exploring the influence of some specific aspects on the structural response of MF-FRP strengthened members, such as the bearing stress-slip relationship assumed for the FRP-concrete interface, the stress-strain law considered for reinforcing steel rebars and the cracking process in RC members resulting in the well-known tension stiffening effect. The considerations drawn from this study will be useful to researchers for the calibration of criteria and design rules for strengthening RC beams through MF-FRP laminates.

  3. Model predictions and experimental results on self-heating prevention of stockpiled coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andres, J.M.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D. [Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain)


    The spontaneous combustion of coal stockpiles is a serious economic and safety problem. This phenomenon is analysed using a TNO-model modified to predict the spontaneous heating behaviour of coal piles built with 'Mezcla', a mixture of low rank coals from Teruel (Spain). The simulation carried out with the mathematical model for this coal showed that the pile porosity or voidage and wind speed play an important role, although voidage is decisive and controls the effect of the wind velocity. To reduce the negative effects of both factors, five test coal piles (2000-3000 t) were built and several measures were applied to four of them: periodic compaction, use of a low angle slope, protection of the stockpiled coal with an artificial wind barrier and covering it with an ash-water slurry. The heat losses were experimentally determined and it was found that the mathematical model gave predictions of the right order of magnitude of time, site of spontaneous combustion and magnitude of calorific losses. All the methods of protection applied to decrease the self-heating of coal were effective, but the experimental results indicate that the most economical way to avoid the heat losses is the use of an ash-water slurry to cover the coal pile. 28 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Theory, simulation and experimental results of the acoustic detection of magnetization changes in superparamagnetic iron oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgert Jörn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic Particle Imaging is a novel method for medical imaging. It can be used to measure the local concentration of a tracer material based on iron oxide nanoparticles. While the resulting images show the distribution of the tracer material in phantoms or anatomic structures of subjects under examination, no information about the tissue is being acquired. To expand Magnetic Particle Imaging into the detection of soft tissue properties, a new method is proposed, which detects acoustic emissions caused by magnetization changes in superparamagnetic iron oxide. Methods Starting from an introduction to the theory of acoustically detected Magnetic Particle Imaging, a comparison to magnetically detected Magnetic Particle Imaging is presented. Furthermore, an experimental setup for the detection of acoustic emissions is described, which consists of the necessary field generating components, i.e. coils and permanent magnets, as well as a calibrated microphone to perform the detection. Results The estimated detection limit of acoustic Magnetic Particle Imaging is comparable to the detection limit of magnetic resonance imaging for iron oxide nanoparticles, whereas both are inferior to the theoretical detection limit for magnetically detected Magnetic Particle Imaging. Sufficient data was acquired to perform a comparison to the simulated data. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulations. The remaining differences can be well explained. Conclusions It was possible to demonstrate the detection of acoustic emissions of magnetic tracer materials in Magnetic Particle Imaging. The processing of acoustic emission in addition to the tracer distribution acquired by magnetic detection might allow for the extraction of mechanical tissue parameters. Such parameters, like for example the velocity of sound and the attenuation caused by the tissue, might also be used to support and improve ultrasound imaging. However, the method

  5. Fuel model Validation in the TASS/SMR-S code by Comparing with Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang Jun; Yang, Soo Hyung; Chung, Young Jong; Lee, Won Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    An advanced integral pressurized water reactor, SMART (System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) has been developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research and Institute). For the purpose of an electric power generation and seawater desalination by using nuclear energy, SMART has been developed by KAERI (KAERI, 2010). For the safety evaluation and performance analysis of the SMART, TASS/SMR-S (Transient And Setpoint Simulation/System- integrated Modular Reactor) code, has been developed. In this paper, the gap conductance model for the calculation of gap conductance has been validated by using experimental results. In the validation, the behaviors of fuel temperature and off-center temperature are selected as the major parameters

  6. Development of OFDM based Secondary Link: Some Experimental Results on USRP N210 Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janjić


    Full Text Available Some experimental results of the concept development and practical implementation of an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM based secondary cognitive link are presented in this paper. The secondary link is realized using Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP N210 platforms. For communication with USRP, we use MATLAB toolbox. Several algorithms are used to overcome transmission problems. Time-synchronization is achieved using a method based on auto-correlation of two sliding windows. Frequency offset estimation is performed using a phase offset between samples in a signal header, comprised of a sinusoid. A channel is estimated using predefined symbols inserted at the beginning of every frame, which enables channel equalization. Also, the cognitive feature of spectrum sensing and changing transmission parameters is implemented. A least-mean-square adaptive filter is introduced to offer time-synchronization error estimation as well as an alternative option for channel equalization.

  7. Knowledge-Aided Multichannel Adaptive SAR/GMTI Processing: Algorithm and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Di


    Full Text Available The multichannel synthetic aperture radar ground moving target indication (SAR/GMTI technique is a simplified implementation of space-time adaptive processing (STAP, which has been proved to be feasible in the past decades. However, its detection performance will be degraded in heterogeneous environments due to the rapidly varying clutter characteristics. Knowledge-aided (KA STAP provides an effective way to deal with the nonstationary problem in real-world clutter environment. Based on the KA STAP methods, this paper proposes a KA algorithm for adaptive SAR/GMTI processing in heterogeneous environments. It reduces sample support by its fast convergence properties and shows robust to non-stationary clutter distribution relative to the traditional adaptive SAR/GMTI scheme. Experimental clutter suppression results are employed to verify the virtue of this algorithm.

  8. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M


    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  9. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Butcher, M; Guinchard, M; Calviani, M; Losito, R; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, V; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, J; O'Dell, J


    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility was carried out to take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several beryllium grades. The test matrix consisted of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. This paper outlines the experimental measurements, as well as findings from Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) work where different imaging techniques were used to analyze and co...

  10. Development and experimental results on a 15 K high frequency pulse tube cold finger (United States)

    Duval, Jean-Marc; Charles, Ivan


    Future space missions such as IXO would benefit from a pulse tube cooler providing several hundreds milliwatts of cooling power at 15 K for the pre cooling of a Joule Thomson loop. Our team, in partnership with Air Liquide and Thales Cryogenics BV, is involved in the development of such a product in the framework of an ESA contract. The goal is the development of an engineering model of a 3 stage pulse tube. Our approach is based on multistage pulse tube thermally linked together. This modular approach allows for more flexibility in the mechanical design while keeping a high thermal efficiency. Our first experimental results with performances below 15 K are described. A preliminary structure for a 3 stage pulse tube reaching 15 K is presented.

  11. Canine hip dysplasia of selected breeds--results obtained by two Polish clinics based on radiological examination conducted in 1997-2006. (United States)

    Aleksiewicz, R; Budzińska, Z; Nowicki, M; Adamiak, Z; Lisiecka, B


    Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) is still a significant health problem among dogs of so called predisposed breeds where this disease is revealed even among 30% individuals of the whole population. The present results were obtained by two clinics and deal with CHD occurrence among the most frequently and predisposed breeds in Olsztyn and Siemianowice Slaskie/Upper Silesia, Poland. Radiographs of hip joints were described using Riser's method. Altogether 2279 dog were examined including 2113 animals which were analysed. The German Shepherd Dog was the prevalent breed found in both clinics, but CHD was not common in this breed. In the Olsztyn Clinic, the most numerous group affected by CHD was Neapolitan Mastiff (60%), while in the Siemianowice Slaskie Clinic, dysplasia dominated in Bernese Mountain Dog (46%).

  12. A feasibility study of prepubertal and over mature aged local goat in relation to results of In Vitro growth culture to obtain additional M-II oocyte resources (United States)

    Ciptadi, Gatot; Ihsan, M. Nur; Rahayu, Sri; Widjaja, D. H. K.; Mudawamah, Mudawamah


    The aims of this research are to study the potential source of mature (M-II) oocytes of domestic animals using follicles isolated from prepubertal and over mature aged Indonesian local goats, resulting from an in vitro growth (IVG) method. This method of IVG could provide a new source of M-II oocytes for embryo production. In Indonesia, a very limited number of a good quality oocytes are available for research purposes, as there is a limited number of reproductive females slaughtered, which is dominated by prepubertal and old mature aged animals. IVG culture systems could be improved as an alternative method to provide a new source of a good quality oocytes for in vitro maturation of M-II oocytes. From a number of prepubertal and mature aged goats slaughtered in a local abattoir, the small oocytes in the preantral follicles were cultured in vitro to normal oocyte growth. The methods used in this research are experimental. Follicles were isolated, cultured in vitro for 14 days individually using a sticky medium containing 4% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone in TCM 199 10% Fetal Bovine Serum supplemented with Follicle Stimulating Hormone, which was then evaluated for their follicle development and oocyte quality. The research results showed that a minimum follicle size and oocyte diameter is needed (>100 um) for early evaluation of maturation to be achieved, meanwhile oocytes recovered from IVG after being cultured in vitro for maturation resulted in a very low rate of maturation. However, in the future, IVG of the preantral follicles of Indonesian local goat could be considered as an alternative source of oocytes for both research purposes and embryo production in vitro.

  13. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics (United States)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J. P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Jennings, C. A.; Bland, S. N.


    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.

  14. Recent Advances in Solid Catalysts Obtained by Metalloporphyrins Immobilization on Layered Anionic Exchangers: A Short Review and Some New Catalytic Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Nakagaki


    Full Text Available Layered materials are a very interesting class of compounds obtained by stacking of two-dimensional layers along the basal axis. A remarkable property of these materials is their capacity to interact with a variety of chemical species, irrespective of their charge (neutral, cationic or anionic. These species can be grafted onto the surface of the layered materials or intercalated between the layers, to expand or contract the interlayer distance. Metalloporphyrins, which are typically soluble oxidation catalysts, are examples of molecules that can interact with layered materials. This work presents a short review of the studies involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on two different anionic exchangers, Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs and Layered Hydroxide Salts (LHSs, published over the past year. After immobilization of anionic porphyrins, the resulting solids behave as reusable catalysts for heterogeneous oxidation processes. Although a large number of publications involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on LDHs exist, only a few papers have dealt with LHSs as supports, so metalloporphyrins immobilized on LHSs represent a new and promising research field. This work also describes new results on an anionic manganese porphyrin (MnP immobilized on Mg/Al-LDH solids with different nominal Mg/Al molar ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 and intercalated with different anions (CO32− or NO3−. The influence of the support composition on the MnP immobilization rates and the catalytic performance of the resulting solid in cyclooctene oxidation reactions will be reported.

  15. CFD approach to modelling, hydrodynamic analysis and motion characteristics of a laboratory underwater glider with experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogang Singh


    Full Text Available Underwater gliders are buoyancy propelled vehicle which make use of buoyancy for vertical movement and wings to propel the glider in forward direction. Autonomous underwater gliders are a patented technology and are manufactured and marketed by corporations. In this study, we validate the experimental lift and drag characteristics of a glider from the literature using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach. This approach is then used for the assessment of the steady state characteristics of a laboratory glider designed at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Madras. Flow behaviour and lift and drag force distribution at different angles of attack are studied for Reynolds numbers varying from 105 to 106 for NACA0012 wing configurations. The state variables of the glider are the velocity, gliding angle and angle of attack which are simulated by making use of the hydrodynamic drag and lift coefficients obtained from CFD. The effect of the variable buoyancy is examined in terms of the gliding angle, velocity and angle of attack. Laboratory model of glider is developed from the final design asserted by CFD. This model is used for determination of static and dynamic properties of an underwater glider which were validated against an equivalent CAD model and simulation results obtained from equations of motion of glider in vertical plane respectively. In the literature, only empirical approach has been adopted to estimate the hydrodynamic coefficients of the AUG that are required for its trajectory simulation. In this work, a CFD approach has been proposed to estimate the hydrodynamic coefficients and validated with experimental data. A two-mass variable buoyancy engine has been designed and implemented. The equations of motion for this two-mass engine have been obtained by modifying the single mass version of the equations described in the literature. The objectives of the present study are to understand the glider dynamics adopting a CFD approach

  16. Dynamics of dual prism adaptation: relating novel experimental results to a minimalistic neural model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Arévalo

    Full Text Available In everyday life, humans interact with a dynamic environment often requiring rapid adaptation of visual perception and motor control. In particular, new visuo-motor mappings must be learned while old skills have to be kept, such that after adaptation, subjects may be able to quickly change between two different modes of generating movements ('dual-adaptation'. A fundamental question is how the adaptation schedule determines the acquisition speed of new skills. Given a fixed number of movements in two different environments, will dual-adaptation be faster if switches ('phase changes' between the environments occur more frequently? We investigated the dynamics of dual-adaptation under different training schedules in a virtual pointing experiment. Surprisingly, we found that acquisition speed of dual visuo-motor mappings in a pointing task is largely independent of the number of phase changes. Next, we studied the neuronal mechanisms underlying this result and other key phenomena of dual-adaptation by relating model simulations to experimental data. We propose a simple and yet biologically plausible neural model consisting of a spatial mapping from an input layer to a pointing angle which is subjected to a global gain modulation. Adaptation is performed by reinforcement learning on the model parameters. Despite its simplicity, the model provides a unifying account for a broad range of experimental data: It quantitatively reproduced the learning rates in dual-adaptation experiments for both direct effect, i.e. adaptation to prisms, and aftereffect, i.e. behavior after removal of prisms, and their independence on the number of phase changes. Several other phenomena, e.g. initial pointing errors that are far smaller than the induced optical shift, were also captured. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms, a local adaptation of a spatial mapping and a global adaptation of a gain factor, explained asymmetric spatial transfer and generalization of prism

  17. Second-order advantage obtained from standard addition first-order instrumental data and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares. Calculation of the feasible bands of results. (United States)

    Mohseni, Naimeh; Bahram, Morteza; Olivieri, Alejandro C


    In order to achieve the second-order advantage, second-order data per sample is usually required, e.g., kinetic-spectrophotometric data. In this study, instead of monitoring the time evolution of spectra (and collecting the kinetic-spectrophotometric data) replicate spectra are used to build a virtual second order data. This data matrix (replicate mode×λ) is rank deficient. Augmentation of these data with standard addition data [or standard sample(s)] will break the rank deficiency, making the quantification of the analyte of interest possible. The MCR-ALS algorithm was applied for the resolution and quantitation of the analyte in both simulated and experimental data sets. In order to evaluate the rotational ambiguity in the retrieved solutions, the MCR-BANDS algorithm was employed. It has been shown that the reliability of the quantitative results significantly depends on the amount of spectral overlap in the spectral region of occurrence of the compound of interest and the remaining constituent(s). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term follow-up for bimanual microincision cataract surgery: comparison of results obtained by surgeons in training and experienced surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallini GM


    Full Text Available Gian Maria Cavallini, Tommaso Verdina, Matteo Forlini, Veronica Volante, Michele De Maria, Giulio Torlai, Caterina Benatti, Giancarlo Delvecchio Institute of Ophthalmology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy Purpose: To determine the efficacy of bimanual microincision cataract surgery (B-MICS performed by surgeons in training, evaluating clinical results, posterior capsule opacification (PCO incidence, and clear corneal incision (CCI architecture in a long-term follow-up and comparing results with those obtained by experienced surgeons. Patients and methods: Eighty eyes of 62 patients operated on by three surgeons in training who used B-MICS technique for the first time were included in the study (Group A. Eighty eyes of 59 patients who underwent B-MICS by three experienced surgeons were included as a control group (Group B. Best corrected visual acuity, astigmatism, corneal pachymetry, and endothelial cell count were evaluated before surgery and at 1 month and 18 months after surgery. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images were obtained to study the morphology of CCIs. PCO incidence was evaluated using EPCO2000 software. Results: Out of 160 surgeries included in the study, mean best-corrected visual acuity improvement at 18 months was 0.343±0.246 logMAR for Group A, and 0.388±0.175 logMAR for Group B, respectively. We found no statistically significant induced astigmatism nor corneal pachymetry changes in either group, while we noticed a statistically significant endothelial cell loss postoperatively in both groups (P<0.05. In Group A, mean PCO score was 0.163±0.196, while for Group B, it was 0.057±0.132 (P=0.0025. Mean length and inclination of the CCIs for Group A and Group B were, respectively, 1,358±175 µm and 1,437±256 µm and 141.8°±6.4° and 148.7°±5.1°. As regards corneal architecture in the 320 CCIs considered, we found posterior wound retractions and endothelial gaps, respectively

  19. Fabrication of a stand-alone polymer microlens: design of molding apparatus, simulation and experimental results (United States)

    Mirkhalaf, M.; Tor, S. B.; Murukeshan, V. M.; Loh, N. H.; Lye, S. W.


    Micron size lenses and microlens arrays are new products that are attracting the attention of the scientific community for their possible outstanding applications. Wide applications of microlens arrays, self-standing microlenses for biomedical applications, arrayed device coupling and parallel optical image processing have been reported in the recent past. Though many techniques have been utilized and well established to fabricate microlens arrays, mass production of polymer self-standing micro imaging lenses is still a challenge. This paper in this context discusses the design and development of a precision compression molding apparatus for the fabrication of stand-alone microlenses. Finite element method (FEM) simulation was used to predict the profile of the lens and the residual stresses, which could influence the optical characteristics. The FEM simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. Different types of characterization equipment were used to determine both the geometrical and the optical properties of the molded lens. It was observed that the geometrical properties of the molded lens match well with the mold inserts and the optical properties are found to be suitable for the intended applications.

  20. Determination of radiative widths of scalar mesons from experimental results on γ γ ->π π (United States)

    Boglione, M.; Pennington, M. R.


    The scalar mesons in the 1 GeV region constitute the Higgs sector of the strong interactions. They are responsible for the masses of all light flavour hadrons. However, the composition of these scalar states is far from clear, despite decades of experimental effort. The two photon couplings of the f0's are a guide to their structure. Two photon results from Mark II, Crystal Ball and CELLO prompt a new Amplitude Analysis of γγtoπ^+π^-, π^0π^0 cross-sections. Despite their currently limited angular coverage and lack of polarized photons, we use a methodology that provides the nearest one can presently achieve to a model-independent partial wave separation. We find two distinct classes of solutions. Both have very similar two photon couplings for the f_0(980) and f_0(400-1200). Hopefully these definitive results will be a spur to dynamical calculations that will bring us a better understanding of these important states.

  1. Female-pitched sound-producing voice prostheses--initial experimental and clinical results. (United States)

    van der Torn, M; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Festen, J M; de Vries, M P; Mahieu, H F


    In order to improve voice quality in female laryngectomees and/or laryngectomees with a hypotonic pharyngo-oesophageal segment, a sound-producing voice prosthesis was designed. The new source of voice consists of either one or two bent silicone lips which perform an oscillatory movement driven by the expired pulmonary air that flows along the outward-striking lips through the tracheo-oesophageal shunt valve. Four different prototypes of this pneumatic sound source were evaluated in vitro and in two female laryngectomees, testing the feasibility and characteristics of this new mechanism for alternative alaryngeal voice production. In vivo evaluation included acoustic analyses of both sustained vowels and read-aloud prose, videofluoroscopy, speech rate, and registration of tracheal phonatory pressure and vocal intensity. The mechanism proved feasible and did not result in unacceptable airflow resistance. The average pitch of voice increased and clarity improved in female laryngectomees. Pitch regulation of this prosthetic voice is possible with sufficient modulation to avoid monotony. The quality of voice attained through the sound-producing voice prostheses depends on a patient's ability to let pulmonary air flow easily through the pharyngo-oesophageal segment without evoking the low-frequency mucosal vibrations that form the regular tracheo-oesophageal shunt voice. These initial experimental and clinical results provide directions for the future development of sound-producing voice prostheses. A single relatively long lip in a container with a rectangular lumen that hardly protrudes from the voice prosthesis may have the most promising characteristics.

  2. Design, simulation, and experimental results of a 110 GHz high-power gyrotron mode converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denison, D.R.; Blank, M.; Chu, T.S.; Hogge, J.P.; Kreischer, K.E.; Temkin, R.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center; Harper, B.; Lorbeck, J.A.; Vernon, R.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center]|[Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    The authors present the design, computer simulation, and experimental results of a quasi-optical mode converter for use in a 110 GHz high-power gyrotron. The particular gyrotron under test generates a right-handed TE{sub 22.6} circular waveguide mode, and is designed to produce megawatt power levels over pulse durations on the order of 5s. This high power level provides a rigorous constraint on the output-beam shape; namely, that the peaking factor be approximately 2.0. Such a peaking factor corresponds to a nearly flat power distribution across the output window to allow for proper cooling of the window. To that end, the mode converter employs a rippled-wall waveguide mode transformer/beam launcher, and a pair of toroidal focusing mirrors to produce a Gaussian-like beam. Two shaping mirrors follow, and convert the Gaussian beam into a quasi-optical beam with a flat power distribution. The rippled-wall launcher was designed using standard coupled mode theory, and the toroidal mirrors derive from Gaussian beam analysis. The shaping mirrors result from a vector diffraction synthesis procedure developed at UW.

  3. Thermodiffusion in concentrated ferrofluids: Experimental and numerical results on magnetic thermodiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, Lisa, E-mail:; Lange, Adrian; Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)


    Ferrofluids consist of magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in a carrier liquid. Their strong thermodiffusive behaviour, characterised by the Soret coefficient, coupled with the dependency of the fluid's parameters on magnetic fields is dealt with in this work. It is known from former experimental investigations on the one hand that the Soret coefficient itself is magnetic field dependent and on the other hand that the accuracy of the coefficient's experimental determination highly depends on the volume concentration of the fluid. The thermally driven separation of particles and carrier liquid is carried out with a concentrated ferrofluid (φ = 0.087) in a horizontal thermodiffusion cell and is compared to equally detected former measurement data. The temperature gradient (1 K/mm) is applied perpendicular to the separation layer. The magnetic field is either applied parallel or perpendicular to the temperature difference. For three different magnetic field strengths (40 kA/m, 100 kA/m, 320 kA/m) the diffusive separation is detected. It reveals a sign change of the Soret coefficient with rising field strength for both field directions which stands for a change in the direction of motion of the particles. This behaviour contradicts former experimental results with a dilute magnetic fluid, in which a change in the coefficient's sign could only be detected for the parallel setup. An anisotropic behaviour in the current data is measured referring to the intensity of the separation being more intense in the perpendicular position of the magnetic field: S{sub T‖} = −0.152 K{sup −1} and S{sub T⊥} = −0.257 K{sup −1} at H = 320 kA/m. The ferrofluiddynamics-theory (FFD-theory) describes the thermodiffusive processes thermodynamically and a numerical simulation of the fluid's separation depending on the two transport parameters ξ{sub ‖} and ξ{sub ⊥} used within the FFD-theory can be implemented. In the case of a parallel aligned magnetic field

  4. Experimental results on rock resistivity and its applications in monitoring and predicting natural disasters (United States)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Zhu, Tao; Tang, Baolin


    There have been many earthquakes occurring in Chinese Mainland. These earthquakes, especially large earthquakes, often cause immeasurable loss. For instance, the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake killed 70, 000 people and caused 17, 000 people missing. It is well known that this earthquake was not predicted. Why? Were there no precursors? After analyzing the geo-electrical resistivity recording at Chengdu station which is only about 36 km to the epicenter, we find that resistivity had changed abnormally very significantly along NE direction but no outstanding abnormal changes had been observed along NW direction before the earthquake. Perhaps this non-consistent changes result in that this earthquake was not predicted. However, in another standpoint, can another observation way be found to supplement the current geo-electrical resistivity observation in Chinese Mainland in order to improve the probability of catching the precursor? This motivates us to conduct experiments in lab and field. Apparent resistivity data are acquired along three common-midpoint measuring lines during the fixed-rate uniaxial compression on two sets of dry man-made samples and a Magnetite sample. We construct the relative resistivity change images (RRCIs). Our results indicate that all RRCIs show a trending change with stress: with the increase of stress, the resistivity-decreased region (RDR) in the RRCIs shrinks/expands, while the resistivity-increased region (RIR) expands/shrinks gradually, which is in agreement with the field experimental results of earthquake monitoring (Feng et al., 2001). Our results encourage us to conclude that the trending changes in RRCI with stress could probably become a useful indicator in monitoring and predicting earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and large-scale geologic movements. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, Grant 41574083).

  5. Experimental research results of solid particle erosion resistance of blade steel with protective coating (United States)

    Kachalin, G. V.; Mednikov, A. F.; Tkhabisimov, A. B.; Seleznev, L. I.


    The paper presents the results of metallographic studies and solid particle erosion tests of uncoated blade steel 20kH13 samples and samples with a protective coating based on chromium carbide (Cr-CrC) at a flow (air) velocity CA = 180 m/s, flow temperature tA = 25 °C, attack angle α = 30° and consumption of solid abrasive particles GP = 5·10-4 kg/s. It was found that the coating has a granular structure, a thickness is about 11 μm, the microhardness of the surface is 1520 ± 50 HV0.05. Processing of the obtained data by statistical analysis methods showed that the protective coating based on Cr-CrC increases the solid particle erosion resistance of the blade steel 20kH13 by the incubation-transitional period duration more than 2.5 times.

  6. Comparison of experimental and computational results for reverse ballistic tests into foundry core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarrington, P.; Norwood, F. R.; Grady, D. E.


    A series of nine laboratory-scale penetration tests was conducted in which impact velocity and geometry of the projectile were varied. In all tests, displacement histories were obtained for the penetrator via displacement interferometric techniques. From the data, accelerations were deduced and compared with numerically-calculated accelerations. For the numerical work, the codes PENAP and WONDY were used to model the penetration events. For penetrators with a conical nose, agreement between calculated and measured accelerations could be brought within 15% for all tests, except for one PENAP/test comparison, by introducing a constant coefficient of Coulomb friction of 0.1 at the penetration target interface. For penetrators with an ogival nose, on the other hand, a greater discrepancy was found between calculated and measured results.

  7. Obtaining land cover changes information from multitemporal analysis of Landsat-TM images: results from a case study in West African dryland (United States)

    Nutini, F.; Boschetti, M.; Brivio, P. A.; Antoninetti, M.


    The Sahelian belt of West Africa is a semiarid region characterized by wide climate variations, which can in turn affect the livelihood of local populations particularly in rangeland areas, as happens during the dramatic food crisis in the 70-80s caused by rainfall scarcity. The monitoring of natural resources and rainfed agricultural activities, with the aim to provide information to support Sahelian food security action, needs the production of detailed thematic maps as emphasized by several scientific papers. In this framework, a study was conducted to develop a method to exploit time series of remote sensed satellite data to 1) provide reliable land cover (LC) map at local scale in a dry region and 2) obtain a LC change (LCC) map that contribute to identify the plausible causes of local environmental instability. Satellite images used for this work consist in a time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) (path row 195-50) acquired in the 2000 (6 scenes) and 2007 (9 scenes) from February (Dry season) to September (end of wet season). The study investigates the different contribution provided by spectra information of a single Landsat TM image and by time series of derived NDVI. Different tests have been conducted with different combination of data set (spectral and temporal)in order to identify the best approach to obtain a LC map in five classes of interest: Shrubland, Cultivated Land, Water body, Herbaceous vegetation and Bare soil. The best classification approach is exposed and applied on two years in the last decade. The comparison between this two LC results in land cover change map, that displays the changes of vegetation patterns that have been characterized the area. The discussed results show a largely stable dryland region, but locally characterized by hot-spot of decreasing in natural vegetation inside the rangelands and an increasing of cultivations along fossil valleys where human activities are slightly intense. The discussion shows that this hot

  8. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitzsch, Lauri


    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet ({approx}45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to

  9. Pathology, Tissue Metalloproteinase Transcription and Haptoglobin Responses in Mice after Experimental Challenge with Different Isolates of Pasteurella multocida Obtained from Cases of Porcine Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, S. E.; Chadfield, M. S.; Sørensen, D. B.


    Pasteurella multocida is a major cause of porcine pneumonia, but the pathogenesis of the disease is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to further understand the host response to infection by use of a mouse model of P. multocida pneumonia. Twenty female mice were divided into four groups (n=5......). Three groups were infected with one of three isolates of P. multocida isolated from clinical cases of chronic porcine pneumonia with necrotizing, suppurative and non-suppurative lesions, respectively. The fourth group served as uninfected controls. Mice were killed 24h postinfection and samples were...... differences in the severity and nature of lesions were seen according to the isolate of P. multocida used for infection. Intranasal infection of mice can therefore be used to evaluate the host response and lesions caused by P. multocida obtained from porcine pneumonic infections. The inflammatory response...

  10. HER2 assessment in locally advanced gastric cancer: comparing the results obtained with the use of two primary tumour blocks versus those obtained with the use of all primary tumour blocks. (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Yalan; Jiang, Dongxian; Ge, Xiaowen; Zhang, Ying; Su, Jieakesu; Zeng, Haiying; Huang, Jie; Ji, Yuan; Hou, Jun; Sun, Yihong; Shen, Kuntang; Liu, Tianshu; Hou, Yingyong; Qin, Jing


    HER2 is currently the only biomarker used to select eligible patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC) for targeted therapy. The aims of this study were to verify the value of dual-block HER2 assessment and to explore whether increasing the block number is more beneficial by carrying out a randomized prospective cohort study in which dual-block and all-block HER2 assessment were compared in resected specimens of GC. Five hundred and forty-nine resected GC specimens were randomly enrolled into two cohorts: a dual-block group (n = 274) with two primary tumour blocks tested, and an all-block group (n = 275) with all primary tumour blocks tested. Immunohistochemical staining of HER2 was performed. For HER2-equivocal (2+) cases, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was performed. As compared with single-block assessment, dual-block assessment increased the HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC)-positive (3+) rate. The rate with dual-block assessment (11.3%) was significantly higher than that with block 1 assessment (8.8%) (P = 0.016) and block 2 assessment (9.1%) (P = 0.031). Similarly, all-block assessment demonstrated a higher HER2 3+ rate (12.4%) than single-block assessment (block 1, 6.5%; block 2, 6.2%; block 3, 7.2%; block 4, 8.7%) (P HER2 3+ rates of all-block and dual-block assessments showed no significant difference (P = 0.703). After IHC and FISH results had been combined, the HER2-positive rate with all-block assessment (13.5%) was slightly higher than that with dual-block assessment (12.0%), although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.62). Dual-block immunohistochemical assessment is an effective, practical and economic approach that is suitable for the preliminary screening of HER2. We recommend that dual-block HER2 assessment be routinely performed on resected specimens of GC. All-block assessment can be a supplement to dual-block assessment if necessary. © 2017 The Authors. Histopathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Behavior of Shape Memory Epoxy Foams in Microgravity: Experimental Results of STS-134 Mission (United States)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Squeo, Erica Anna; Dolce, Ferdinando; Mascetti, Gabriele; Bertolotto, Delfina; Villadei, Walter; Ganga, Pier Luigi; Zolesi, Valfredo


    Shape memory epoxy foams were used for an experiment on the International Space Station to evaluate the feasibility of their use for building multi-functional composite structures. A small equipment was designed and built to simulate the actuation of simple devices in micro-gravity conditions: three different configurations (compression, bending and torsion) were chosen during the memory step of the foams so as to produce their recovery on ISS. Two systems were used for the experimentation to avoid damages of the flight model during laboratory tests; however a single ground experiment was performed also on the flight model before the mission. Micro-gravity does not affect the ability of the foams to recover their shape but it poses strong limits for the heating system design because of the difference in heat transfer on earth and in orbit. A full recovery of the foam samples was not achieved due to some limitations in the maximum allowable temperature on ISS for safety reasons: anyway a 70% recovery was also measured at a temperature of 110°C. Ground laboratory experiments showed that 100% recovery could be reached by increasing the maximum temperature to 120°C. Experiment results have provided many useful information for the designing of a new structural composite actuator by using shape memory foams.

  12. Colloid filtration in surface dense vegetation: experimental results and theoretical predictions. (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Gao, Bin; Yang, Wen; Pachepsky, Yakov A


    Understanding colloid and colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in overland flow through dense vegetation is important to protect water quality in the environment, especially for water bodies receiving agricultural and urban runoff. In previous studies, a single-stem efficiency theory for rigid and clean stem systems was developed to predict colloid filtration by plant stems of vegetation in laminar overland flow. Hence, in order to improve the accuracy of the single-stem efficiency theory to real dense vegetation system, we incorporated the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the filtration of colloids by stems. Laboratory dense vegetation flow chamber experiments and model simulations were used to determine the kinetic deposition (filtration) rate of colloids under various conditions. The results show that, in addition to flow hydrodynamics and solution chemistry, steric repulsion afforded by NOM layer on the plants stem surface also plays a significant role in controlling colloid deposition on vegetation in overland flow. For the first time, a refined single-stem efficiency theory with considerations of the NOM effect is developed that describes the experimental data with good accuracy. This theory can be used to not only help construct and refine mathematical models of colloid transport in real vegetation systems in overland flow, but also inform the development of theories of colloid deposition on NOM-coated surfaces in natural, engineered, and biomedical systems.

  13. Control of Warm Compression Stations Using Model Predictive Control: Simulation and Experimental Results (United States)

    Bonne, F.; Alamir, M.; Bonnay, P.


    This paper deals with multivariable constrained model predictive control for Warm Compression Stations (WCS). WCSs are subject to numerous constraints (limits on pressures, actuators) that need to be satisfied using appropriate algorithms. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to achieve precise control of pressures in normal operation or to avoid reaching stopping criteria (such as excessive pressures) under high disturbances (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors, expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details the simulator used to validate this new control scheme and the associated simulation results on the SBTs WCS. This work is partially supported through the French National Research Agency (ANR), task agreement ANR-13-SEED-0005.

  14. Experimental Results of Site Calibration and Sensitivity Measurements in OTR for UWB Systems (United States)

    Viswanadham, Chandana; Rao, P. Mallikrajuna


    System calibration and parameter accuracy measurement of electronic support measures (ESM) systems is a major activity, carried out by electronic warfare (EW) engineers. These activities are very critical and needs good understanding in the field of microwaves, antennas, wave propagation, digital and communication domains. EW systems are broad band, built with state-of-the art electronic hardware, installed on different varieties of military platforms to guard country's security from time to time. EW systems operate in wide frequency ranges, typically in the order of thousands of MHz, hence these are ultra wide band (UWB) systems. Few calibration activities are carried within the system and in the test sites, to meet the accuracies of final specifications. After calibration, parameters are measured for their accuracies either in feed mode by injecting the RF signals into the front end or in radiation mode by transmitting the RF signals on to system antenna. To carry out these activities in radiation mode, a calibrated open test range (OTR) is necessary in the frequency band of interest. Thus site calibration of OTR is necessary to be carried out before taking up system calibration and parameter measurements. This paper presents the experimental results of OTR site calibration and sensitivity measurements of UWB systems in radiation mode.

  15. The coefficient of restitution of ice particles in glancing collisions: Experimental results for unfrosted surfaces (United States)

    Supulver, Kimberley D.; Bridges, Frank G.; Lin, D. N. C.


    Both Saturn's rings and planetesimal disks are made up of particles in Keplerian orbits. Inelastic collisions between these particles regulate their dynamical evolution and possible aggregation. We present an experiment to simulate glancing collisions in Saturn's rings and in planetesimal disks and thus measure contributions to the energy loss for both normal and tangential velocity components. In this experiment, a spherical iceball mounted on a long-period, two dimensional pendulum is made to impact a flat ice surface in a low-temperature environment. This paper describes the experimental apparatus in detail and presents results for smooth unfrosted surfaces. The energy loss for tangential motion is suprisingly low, indicating that very little friction is present at low impact speeds for relatively smooth ice surfaces and temperatures near 100 K. We have also investigated room-temperature collisions of a rubber ball on a rough surface to understand the energy loss in situations where the tangential friction force is not small. In this analogous case, the energy loss is maximum for impact angles in the range 45 deg-60 deg.

  16. Surface roughness prediction model and experimental results based on multi-wavelength fiber optic sensors. (United States)

    Zhu, Nan-Nan; Zhang, Jun


    The surface roughness prediction model based on a support vector machine was proposed and the multi-wavelength fiber optic sensor was established. The specimens with different surface roughness selected as the test samples were analyzed by using the prediction model when the incident wavelengths were 650 nm and 1310 nm, respectively. The working distance of 2.5 mm ~3.5 mm was chosen as the optimum measurement distance. The experimental results indicate that the error range of surface roughness is 0.74% ~7.56% at 650 nm, and the error range of surface roughness is 1.03% ~5.92% at 1310 nm. The average relative error is about 2.669% at 650 nm, while it is about 2.431% at 1310 nm. The error of roughness measurement is less than 3% by using the model, which is acceptable. The error of surface roughness based on the prediction model is smaller than that by using the characteristic curves between surface roughness and the scattering intensity ratio.

  17. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab; Butcher, M. [CERN; Guinchard, M. [CERN; Calviani, M. [CERN; Losito, R. [CERN; Roberts, S. [Culham Lab; Kuksenko, V. [Oxford U.; Atherton, A. [Rutherford; Caretta, O. [Rutherford; Davenne, T. [Rutherford; Densham, C. [Rutherford; Fitton, M. [Rutherford; Loveridge, J. [Rutherford; O' Dell, J. [Rutherford


    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility was carried out to take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several beryllium grades. The test matrix consisted of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. This paper outlines the experimental measurements, as well as findings from Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) work where different imaging techniques were used to analyze and compare surface evolution and microstructural response of the test matrix specimens.

  18. MHD activity in the ISX-B tokamak: experimental results and theoretical interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, B.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Bell, J.D.; Charlton, L.A.; Cooper, W.A.; Dory, R.A.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.


    The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations in the ISX-B tokamak is clearly dominated by the n=1 mode when the q=1 surface is in the plasma. This fact agrees well with theoretical predictions based on 3-D resistive MHD calculations. They show that the (m=1; n=1) mode is then the dominant instability. It drives other n=1 modes through toroidal coupling and n>1 modes through nonlinear couplings. These theoretically predicted mode structures have been compared in detail with the experimentally measured wave forms (using arrays of soft x-ray detectors). The agreement is excellent. More detailed comparisons between theory and experiment have required careful reconstructions of the ISX-B equilibria. The equilibria so constructed have permitted a precise evaluation of the ideal MHD stability properties of ISX-B. The present results indicate that the high ..beta.. ISX-B equilibria are marginally stable to finite eta ideal MHD modes. The resistive MHD calculations also show that at finite ..beta.. there are unstable resistive pressure driven modes.

  19. Experimental Results From a 2kW Brayton Power Conversion Unit (United States)

    Hervol, David; Mason, Lee; Birchenough, Arthur


    This paper presents experimental test results from operation of a 2 kWe Brayton power conversion unit. The Brayton converter was developed for a solar dynamic power system flight experiment planned for the Mir Space Station in 1997. The flight experiment was cancelled, but the converter was tested at Glenn Research Center as part of the Solar Dynamic Ground Test Demonstration system which included a solar concentrator, heat receiver, and space radiator. In preparation for the current testing, the heat receiver was removed and replaced with an electrical resistance heater, simulating the thermal input of a steady-state nuclear source. The converter was operated over a full range of thermal input power levels and rotor speeds to generate an overall performance map. The converter unit will serve as the centerpiece of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Testbed at Glenn. Future potential uses for the Testbed include high voltage electrical controller development, integrated electric thruster testing and advanced radiator demonstration testing to help guide high power Brayton technology development for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  20. US Geological Survey nutrient preservation experiment : experimental design, statistical analysis, and interpretation of analytical results (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Gilroy, Edward J.


    This report describes the experimental details and interprets results from a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1992 to assess the effect of different sample-processing treatments on the stability of eight nutrient species in samples of surface-, ground-, and municipal-supply water during storage at 4 degrees Celsius for about 30 days. Over a 7-week period, splits of filtered- and whole-water samples from 15 stations in the continental United States were preserved at collection sites with sulfuric acid (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocol), mercury (II) chloride (former U.S. Geological Survey protocol), and ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Type I deionized water (control) and then shipped by overnight express to the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL). At the NWQL, the eight nutrient species were determined in splits from each of the 15 stations, typically, within 24 hours of collection and at intervals of 3, 7, 14, 22, and 35 days thereafter. Ammonium, nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, and orthophosphate were determined only in filtered-water splits. Kjeldahl nitrogen and phosphorus were determined in both filtered-water and whole-water splits.

  1. Contribution to modeling of the reflooding of a severely damaged reactor core using PRELUDE experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachrata, A.; Fichot, F.; Repetto, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, Cadarache (France); Quintard, M. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Fleurot, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, Cadarache (France)


    In case of accident at a nuclear power plant, water sources may not be available for a long period of time and the core heats up due to the residual power. The reflooding (injection of water into core) may be applied if the availability of safety injection is recovered during accident. If the injection becomes available only in the late phase of accident, water will enter a core configuration that will differ significantly from original rod-bundle geometry. Any attempt to inject water after significant core degradation can lead to further fragmentation of core material. The fragmentation of fuel rods may result in the formation of a 'debris bed'. The typical particle size in a debris bed might reach few millimeters (characteristic length-scale: 1 to 5 mm), i.e., a high permeability porous medium. The French 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' is developing experimental programs (PEARL and PRELUDE) and simulation tools (ICARE-CATHARE and ASTEC) to study and optimize the severe accident management strategy and to assess the probabilities to stop the progress of in-vessel core degradation. It is shown that the quench front exhibits either a ID behaviour or a 2D one, depending on injection rate or bed characteristics. The PRELUDE experiment covers a rather large range of variation of parameters, for which the developed model appears to be quite predictive. (authors)

  2. First results from the ionospheric tomography experiment using beacon TEC data obtained by means of a network along a longitude of 136°E over Japan (United States)

    Thampi, Smitha V.; Yamamoto, Mamoru


    A chain of newly designed GNU (GNU is not UNIX) Radio Beacon Receivers (GRBR) has recently been established over Japan, primarily for tomographic imaging of the ionosphere over this region. Receivers installed at Shionomisaki (33.45°N, 135.8°E), Shigaraki (34.8°N, 136.1°E), and Fukui (36°N, 136°E) continuously track low earth orbiting satellites (LEOS), mainly OSCAR, Cosmos, and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC, to obtain simultaneous total electron content (TEC) data from these three locations, which are then used for the tomographic reconstruction of ionospheric electron densities. This is the first GRBR network established for TEC observations, and the first beacon-based tomographic imaging in Japanese longitudes. The first tomographic images revealed the temporal evolution with all of the major features in the ionospheric electron density distribution over Japan. A comparison of the tomographically reconstructed electron densities with the ƒ o F 2 data from Kokubunji (35°N, 139°E) revealed that there was good agreement between the datasets. These first results show the potential of GRBR and its network for making continuous, unattended ionospheric TEC measurements and for tomographic imaging of the ionosphere.

  3. Influence of the microstructure on the resulting 18R martensitic transformation of polycrystalline Cu−Al−Zn thin films obtained by sputtering and reactive annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenichini, P. [Instituto Balseiro, Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Condó, A.M. [Instituto Balseiro, Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Soldera, F. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Sirena, M. [Instituto Balseiro, Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Haberkorn, N., E-mail: [Instituto Balseiro, Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)


    We report the influence of the microstructure on the martensitic transformation in polycrystalline Cu−Zn−Al thin films with 18R structure. The films are grown in two steps. First, Cu−Al thin films are obtained by DC sputtering. Second, the Zn is introduced in the Cu−Al thin films by the annealing them together with a bulk Cu−Zn−Al reference. The crystalline structure of the films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The martensitic transformation temperature was measured by electrical transport using conventional four probe geometry. It was observed that temperatures above 973 K are necessary for zincification of the samples to occur. The resulting martensitic transformation and its hysteresis (barrier for the transformation) depend on the grain size, topology and films thickness. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Cu−Al−Zn thin films with nanometric grain size are sintered. • Influence of thermal annealing process on the microstructure is analyzed. • Martensitic transformation of Cu−Al−Zn thin films is strongly affected by the microstructure.

  4. Comparison of ONIX simulation results with experimental data from the BATMAN testbed for the study of negative ion extraction (United States)

    Mochalskyy, Serhiy; Fantz, Ursel; Wünderlich, Dirk; Minea, Tiberiu


    The development of negative ion (NI) sources for the ITER neutral beam injector is strongly accompanied by modelling activities. The ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) code simulates the formation and extraction of negative hydrogen ions and co-extracted electrons produced in caesiated sources. In this paper the 3D geometry of the BATMAN extraction system, and the source characteristics such as the extraction and bias potential, and the 3D magnetic field were integrated in the model. Calculations were performed using plasma parameters experimentally obtained on BATMAN. The comparison of the ONIX calculated extracted NI density with the experimental results suggests that predictive calculations of the extraction of NIs are possible. The results show that for an ideal status of the Cs conditioning the extracted hydrogen NI current density could reach ~30 mA cm-2 at 10 kV and ~20 mA cm-2 at 5 kV extraction potential, with an electron/NI current density ratio of about 1, as measured in the experiments under the same plasma and source conditions. The dependency of the extracted NI current on the NI density in the bulk plasma region from both the modeling and the experiment was investigated. The separate distributions composing the NI beam originating from the plasma bulk region and the PG surface are presented for different NI plasma volume densities and NI emission rates from the plasma grid (PG) wall, respectively. The extracted current from the NIs produced at the Cs covered PG surface, initially moving towards the bulk plasma and then being bent towards the extraction surfaces, is lower compared to the extracted NI current from directly extracted surface produced ions.

  5. Results of Physical Property Measurements Obtained during the CHIKYU Cruise CK16-01 to Hydrothermal Fields of the Middle Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Tanikawa, W.; Masaki, Y.; Komori, S.; Torimoto, J.; Makio, M.; Ohta, Y.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.; Hamada, Y.


    The middle Okinawa trough, along the Ryukyu-arc on the margin of the western Pacific, fosters several hydrothermal fields. The cruise CK16-01 of D/V CHIKYU targeted the Iheya-North Field and Noho hydrothermal site. More than ten-days extensive coring was carried out with Logging While Drilling (LWD) and deployment of Kuroko cultivation apparatus between February 29th to March 17th2016. Here we present the results of the physical property measurements obtained using Chikyu's on-board laboratory. Cores were sampled among three sites where the seafloor environments were quite different: the Noho site (C9017), a site between the Natsu and Aki sites of the Iheya-North field (C9021), and the Iheya-North Aki site (C9023). Site C9017 was near the center of the hydrothermal activity, and the obtained core was limited 36 m in length and 30 % in the recovery rate. At 70 mbsf (meters below seafloor), the grain density and bulk density of the sediment reached their maxim (3.7 g/m3 and 2.7 g/cm3, respectively), while thermal conductivity reached its lowest value (0.6 W/m·K). Site C9021 yielded a 54 m core, with a core recovery rate of 50 %. Coarse pumiceous layers were found at 68 mbsf, with a hydrothermally altered layer appearing below 68 mbsf. The mean grain density value was 2.4 g/cm3 and was uniform throughout the core. The mean bulk density value of the pumiceous layers was 1.3 g/cm3, and of the hydrothermally altered layer was 2.1 g/cm3. Site C9023 was close to the active hydrothermal chimneys of the Iheya-North Aki site, and yielded 33 m of core with a core recovery rate of 16 %. Massive sulfide layers were found below 48 mbsf with grain density and bulk density values varying between 2.8-4.7 g/cm3 and 1.5-3.9 g/cm3, respectively. Magnetic susceptibility exhibited a high anomaly in a sedimented anhydrite layer found between 95 and 135 mbsf, and a high porosity and low resistivity zone was found below 150 mbsf. Together, these data from drilling cores and onboard


    Pataraia, G; Bagashvili, T; Andronikashvili, G; Gurashvili, T; Gogeshvili, K; Avalishvili, M


    In order to explore the distant results of exposition of little doses of lead, for the objective of the experiment model we have selected 32 mongral rats, of different age, but aged of both sex. Experimental animals were divided in two groups. During first two month from the beginning of the experiment, together with permissible food, animals were given the water, in which was open Pb(NO3)2 - to first group 1.5 mg on kg/weight and to II group 15 mg on kg/weight during the day and night. Before the beginning of the experiment, in the time of process and after it, observation was conducted, description and collection of photo-video materials about the behavior of animals, physiological parameters, possible change of weight, clear-sighted changes in appearance. During the autopsy of the animal, died during the experiment, it turned out that the reason of the death was acute heart failure caused by septicopyemia, the bilateral abscess pneumonia and right sided purulent pleurisy. The reason of the death of second animal was DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation) Syndrome and the polyorganic pathology caused by it. We made the Nembutal injection to third animal because there was detected the 50×40×20 sized subcutaneous formation on the right surface of the chest, that turned out to be the breast adenoma with cystic fibrosis. After the completion of the experiment of distant results of lead exposition, surviving rats before autopsy will be dropped to sleep with high dose of drugs in compliance with the "Guidelines of animal care and ethical behavior", taken material will be processed for histopathological (in case of necessity histochemical and imunomorphological) and electronic microscopic researches.

  7. Experimental test results from an environmental protection agency test method for determination of vapor suppressant effectiveness (United States)

    Tock, Richard W.; Ahern, Daniel W.


    The results obtained from laboratory experiments conducted using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) subpart WWWW of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 63 (1)-test method are discussed in this article. The original test method was developed to measure the effectiveness of wax suppressants used to reduce hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from unsaturated polyester (UP)/vinyl ester resins. Wax additions of ˜1.5% by weight to commercial UP resins suppress HAP emissions through the formation of surface barrier films. However, the tests performed in this study included the use of limestone and an adjunct, organic fiber reinforcement, rather than the wax. The addition of either commercial product to the UP formulations tested in this study was also shown to reduce HAP emissions. Suppression was a combination of absorption and an increased diffusion path barrier for the volatile organic carbon (VOC) components. Based on the limited data obtained, it was shown that the oil absorption characteristics of the two adjunct products could be used to estimate the expected level of vapor suppression for a specific resin formulation. Values reported in the literature for the oil adsorption characteristics of the adjunct limestone and the commercial biomass fiber were used in the laboratory tests. Although the oil adsorption characteristic of any ingredient added to a base resin formulation is indicative of its potential for emissions reduction, the EPA test protocol is still required to be performed for validation. Such screening tests will always be needed due to the variability associated with commercial UP resins and the evolution of customized UP/fiberglass composite formulations developed by custom molding shops.

  8. Real-time PPP with undifferenced integer ambiguity resolution, experimental results (United States)

    Laurichesse, Denis; Mercier, Flavien


    A method to solve the GPS zero-difference measurement equations with integer ambiguities has been recently introduced at CNES. When the method is applied to data from a global network of GPS receivers it provides a consistent set of satellite orbits and clocks, which have an ‘integer' property: phase residuals for any receiver computed using these orbits and clocks easily reveal integer ambiguities. The presentation focuses on the application of this novel approach to the computation of real-time orbits and clocks for the GPS constellation, and the benefit of using these products for real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) with integer ambiguity fixing of user receivers. In this method, real-time corrections to extrapolated IGS IGU orbits are estimated at the same time as all other relevant parameters by a Kalman filter which processes measurements from a world-wide stations network. The filter performs zero-difference ambiguity fixing in real-time. Two results are presented; the first with one month of raw data taken from the IGS, the second with raw data taken from the Internet in real-time using the NTRIP protocol. Relative to IGS final orbits, the 3-D precision of the real-time orbits is about 3 cm RMS. When these constellation orbits and clocks are used to perform real-time PPP for receivers outside of the reference network, the horizontal precision obtained using zero-difference integer ambiguity fixing is close to 1 cm RMS. This is about one order of magnitude better than standard solutions, which rely upon floating ambiguity fixing, close to the precision of RTK. We present several ‘site survey' type real-time experiments conducted at CNES that confirm these results. Advantages and drawbacks of this new integer-PPP method with respect to RTK are outlined. These topics include mainly the time to convergence, the baselines size and the associated precision. Some specific applications of this new method, especially those that cannot be obtained using a

  9. Two-Phase Thermal Transport in Microgap Channels—Theory, Experimental Results, and Predictive Relations (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Avram; Sheehan, Jessica R.; Rahim, Emil


    A comprehensive literature review and analysis of recent microchannel/microgap heat transfer data for two-phase flow of refrigerants and dielectric liquids is presented. The flow regime progression in such a microgap channel is shown to be predicted by the traditional flow regime maps. Moreover, Annular flow is shown to be the dominant regime for this thermal transport configuration and to grow in importance as the channel diameter decreases. The results of heat transfer studies of single miniature channels, as well as the analysis and inverse calculation of IR images of a heated microgap channel wall, are used to identify the existence of a characteristic M-shaped heat transfer coefficient variation with quality (or superficial velocity), with inflection points corresponding to transitions in the two-phase cooling modalities. For the high-quality, Annular flow conditions, the venerable Chen correlation is shown to yield predictive agreement for microgap channels that is comparable to that attained for macrochannels and to provide a mechanistic context for the thermal transport rates attained in microgap channels. Results obtained from infrared imaging, revealing previously undetected, large surface temperature variations in Annular flow, are also reviewed and related to the termination of the favorable thin-film evaporation mode in such channels.

  10. Comparison of neutron capture cross sections obtained from two Hauser-Feshbach statistical models on a short-lived nucleus using experimentally constrained input (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca; Liddick, Sean; Spyrou, Artemis; Crider, Benjamin; Dombos, Alexander; Naqvi, Farheen; Prokop, Christopher; Quinn, Stephen; Larsen, Ann-Cecilie; Crespo Campo, Lucia; Guttormsen, Magne; Renstrom, Therese; Siem, Sunniva; Bleuel, Darren; Couture, Aaron; Mosby, Shea; Perdikakis, George


    A majority of the abundance of the elements above iron are produced by neutron capture reactions, and, in explosive stellar processes, many of these reactions take place on unstable nuclei. Direct neutron capture experiments can only be performed on stable and long-lived nuclei, requiring indirect methods for the remaining isotopes. Statistical neutron capture can be described using the nuclear level density (NLD), the γ strength function (γSF), and an optical model. The NLD and γSF can be obtained using the β-Oslo method. The NLD and γSF were recently determined for 74Zn using the β-Oslo method, and were used in both TALYS and CoH to calculate the 73Zn(n, γ)74Zn neutron capture cross section. The cross sections calculated in TALYS and CoH are expected to be identical if the inputs for both codes are the same, however, after a thorough investigation into the inputs for the 73Zn(n, γ)74Zn reaction there is still a factor of two discrepancy between the two codes.

  11. Monte Carlo calculations and experimental results of Bonner spheres systems with a new cylindrical Helium-3 proportional counter

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Bouassoule, T; Fernández, F; Pochat, J L; Tomas, M; Van Ryckeghem, L


    The experimental results on neutron energy spectra, integral fluences and equivalent dose measurements performed by means of a Bonner sphere system placed inside the containment building of the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant (Tarragona, Spain) are presented. The equivalent dose results obtained with this system are compared to those measured with different neutron area detectors (Berthold, Dineutron, Harwell). A realistic geometry model of the Bonner sphere system with a new cylindrical counter type 'F' (0,5NH1/1KI--Eurisys Mesures) and with a set of eight polyethylene moderating spheres is described in detail. The response function in fluence of this new device, to mono-energetic neutrons from thermal energy to 20 MeV, is calculated by the MCNP-4B code for each moderator sphere. The system has been calibrated at IPSN Cadarache facility for ISO Am-Be calibrated source and thermal neutron field, then the response functions were confirmed by measurements at PTB (Germany) for ISO recommended energies of mono-e...

  12. Experimental study of the tritium distribution in the effluents resulting from the sodium hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassery, A. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); Lorcet, H.; Godlewski, J; Liger, K.; Latge, C. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Joulia, X. [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France)


    Within the framework of the dismantling of fast breeder reactors in France several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them, called ELA (radioactive sodium waste treatment process), is based on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction, in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium. This sodium contains impurities such as sodium hydride, sodium oxide and tritiated sodium hydride. The hydrolysis of these various chemical species leads to the production of a liquid effluent, mainly composed of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, and a gaseous effluent, mainly composed of nitrogen (inert gas), hydrogen and steam. The tritium is distributed between these effluents, and, within the gaseous effluent, according to its forms HT and HTO (tritiated water). HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the phase distribution of tritium is necessary. This paper presents the first experimental results from a parametric study on the tritium distribution between the various effluents generated during hydrolysis operations. A series of experiments have been performed in order to study the influence of water flow rate, argon flow rate, initial mass and specific activity of the hydrolyzed sodium sample. An important influence of the total tritium concentration in the hydrolyzed sample has been highlighted. As for the phenomena suspected to be responsible for the phase change of tritiated water, in the studied range of parameters, vaporization induced by the heat of reactions seems to be dominant over the evaporation induced by the inert gas flow rate.

  13. Primary experimental results of wire-array Z-pinches on PTS (United States)

    Huang, X. B.; Zhou, S. T.; Ren, X. D.; Dan, J. K.; Wang, K. L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Li, J.; Xu, Q.; Cai, H. C.; Duan, S. C.; Ouyang, K.; Chen, G. H.; Ji, C.; Wang, M.; Feng, S. P.; Yang, L. B.; Xie, W. P.; Deng, J. J.


    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a multiterawatt pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ˜10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. In this paper, primary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 14.4-26.4 mm, and consisting of 132˜276 tungsten wires with 5˜10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to determine the characteristics of x-ray radiations and to obtain self-emitting images of imploding plasmas. X-ray power up to 80 TW with ˜3 ns FWMH is achieved by using nested wire arrays. The total x-ray energy exceeds 500 kJ and the peak radiation temperature is about 150 eV. Typical velocity of imploding plasmas goes around 3˜5×107 cm/s and the radial convergence ratio is between 10 and 20.

  14. Our new tornado-compatible aortic valve prosthesis: notable results of hydrodynamic testing and experimental trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo A. Bockeria


    Full Text Available Aims A shortcoming common to all existing designs of mechanical cardiac valve prostheses is an increased trombogenicity caused, among other factors, by the lack of hydrodynamic compatibility between the luminal part of the prosthesis and the patterned blood flow. The aim of the study is to design and test our new mechanical aortic valve prosthesis to exclude life-long anticoagulation treatment. Materials and methods Standard hydrodynamic tests of the new prosthetic valve have been carried out for comparing with the other existing valve designs. A new method for the heart valve prosthesis testing in a tornado-like flow has been developed. The valve function has been verified in a swine excluding the anticoagulation treatment during the period of time exceeding six months. Results The significant advantage of the new prosthesis in the standard hydrodynamic tests has been demonstrated. The tests in the tornado-like flow have shown that only this prosthesis allows maintaining the pattern, the head and flow rate characteristics of the tornado-like jet. Upon implanting the new prosthesis in the aortic position in a swine, the good performance of the valve without anticoagulation therapy has been confirmed in the course of more than six months. Conclusion Obtained has been the evidence of the merits of the new mechanical aortic valve owing to the due consideration of the hydrodynamic peculiarities of the aortic blood flow and the creation of the design providing the proper hydrodynamic compatibility.

  15. Experimental Estimation for Beat-Wave Current Generation in an Unmagnetized Plasma and Preliminary Results (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Horton, Robert; Hwang, David; Zhu, Ben; Evans, Russell


    Beat-wave current generation experiment in a high density compact torus (CT) is being conducted on CTIX using CO2 lasers. Tunability of the CO2 lasers provides many options for the wave-particle interaction experiment at a variety of plasma densities with plasma frequency in THz range. For example strong lines such as 9R(12) and 9R(30) could be chosen for an easily obtainable density of 1.28x10^15cm-3. After restoration, two Lumonics CO2 lasers are expected to produce approximately 100MW output power in a 50ns pulse. The amount of energy transfer from laser to plasma is determined by the laser power intensity, and by the CT density scale length [1]. The desired power density can be achieved by designing a suitable optical focusing system. In addition, the CT density can be matched to the beat-wave frequency by appropriately selecting the plasma operating conditions and timing. Extensive testing of the Marx banks and pre-ionization boards was done under a variety of operating conditions. Other preliminary results and plans for the wave-particle interaction experiment will also be reported. [1] A. N. Kaufman, B. I. Cohen, PRL, 30 1306 (1973)

  16. Numerical and experimental results on the spectral wave transfer in finite depth (United States)

    Benassai, Guido


    Determination of the form of the one-dimensional surface gravity wave spectrum in water of finite depth is important for many scientific and engineering applications. Spectral parameters of deep water and intermediate depth waves serve as input data for the design of all coastal structures and for the description of many coastal processes. Moreover, the wave spectra are given as an input for the response and seakeeping calculations of high speed vessels in extreme sea conditions and for reliable calculations of the amount of energy to be extracted by wave energy converters (WEC). Available data on finite depth spectral form is generally extrapolated from parametric forms applicable in deep water (e.g., JONSWAP) [Hasselmann et al., 1973; Mitsuyasu et al., 1980; Kahma, 1981; Donelan et al., 1992; Zakharov, 2005). The present paper gives a contribution in this field through the validation of the offshore energy spectra transfer from given spectral forms through the measurement of inshore wave heights and spectra. The wave spectra on deep water were recorded offshore Ponza by the Wave Measurement Network (Piscopia et al.,2002). The field regressions between the spectral parameters, fp and the nondimensional energy with the fetch length were evaluated for fetch-limited sea conditions. These regressions gave the values of the spectral parameters for the site of interest. The offshore wave spectra were transfered from the measurement station offshore Ponza to a site located offshore the Gulf of Salerno. The offshore local wave spectra so obtained were transfered on the coastline with the TMA model (Bouws et al., 1985). Finally the numerical results, in terms of significant wave heights, were compared with the wave data recorded by a meteo-oceanographic station owned by Naples Hydrographic Office on the coastline of Salerno in 9m depth. Some considerations about the wave energy to be potentially extracted by Wave Energy Converters were done and the results were discussed.

  17. Go!: results from a quasi-experimental obesity prevention trial with hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J. LaCaille


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worksite obesity prevention interventions using an ecological approach may hold promise for reducing typical weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Go!, an innovative 12-month multi-component worksite obesity prevention intervention. Methods A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was utilized; 407 eligible hospital employees (intervention arm and 93 eligible clinic employees (comparison arm participated. The intervention involved pedometer distribution, labeling of all foods in the worksite cafeteria and vending machines (with calories, step equivalent, and a traffic light based on energy density signaling recommended portion, persuasive messaging throughout the hospital, and the integration of influential employees to reinforce healthy social norms. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and dietary behavior after 6 months and 1 year were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, perceptions of employer commitment to employee health, availability of information about diet, exercise, and weight loss, perceptions of coworker support and frequency of health discussions with coworkers. A process evaluation was conducted as part of the study. Results Repeated measures ANCOVA indicated that neither group showed significant increases in weight, BMI, or waist circumference over 12 months. The intervention group showed a modest increase in physical activity in the form of walking, but decreases in fruit and vegetable servings and fiber intake. They also reported significant increases in knowledge, information, perceptions of employer commitment, and health discussions with peers. Employees expressed positive attitudes towards all components of the Go! intervention. Conclusions This low-intensity intervention was well-received by employees but had little effect on their weight over the course of 12 months. Such results are consistent with

  18. Calculation of Impedance from Multibunch Synchronous Phases: Theory and Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Shyam


    A novel beam-based method for measuring the longitudinal impedance spectrum is demonstrated using experimental data from the PEP-II High Energy Ring (HER). The method uses a digital longitudinal feedback system from which the charge and synchronous phase are measured for every bucket. Calculation of the transfer function from fill shape to synchronous phase yields the impedance seen by the beam at revolution harmonics. The experimentally-derived longitudinal impedance function and lab measurements of the impedance of parked RF cavities are compared to suggest a mechanism for the occasional instability of low-order coupled bunch modes observed in the HER during commissioning in October 1997.

  19. An audit of the contribution to post-mortem examination diagnosis of individual analyte results obtained from biochemical analysis of the vitreous. (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Charlwood, Cheryl; Thomas, Sunethra Devika; Bellis, Maria; Langlois, Neil E I


    Biochemical analysis of the vitreous humor from the eye is an accepted accessory test for post-mortem investigation of cause of death. Modern biochemical analyzers allow testing of a range of analytes from a sample. However, it is not clear which analytes should be requested in order to prevent unnecessary testing (and expense). The means and standard deviation of the values obtained from analysis of the vitreous humor for sodium, potassium, chloride, osmolality, glucose, ketones (β-hydroxybutyrate), creatinine, urea, calcium, lactate, and ammonia were calculated from which the contribution of each analyte was reviewed in the context of post-mortem findings and final cause of death. For sodium 32 cases were regarded as high (more than one standard deviation above the mean), from which 9 contributed to post-mortem diagnosis [drowning (4), heat related death (2), diabetic hyperglycemia (2), and dehydration (1)], but 25 low values (greater than one standard deviation below the mean) made no contribution. For chloride 29 high values contributed to 4 cases--3 drowning and 1 heat-related, but these were all previously identified by a high sodium level. There were 29 high and 35 low potassium values, none of which contributed to determining the final cause of death. Of 22 high values of creatinine, 12 contributed to a diagnosis of renal failure. From 32 high values of urea, 18 contributed to 16 cases of renal failure (2 associated with diabetic hyperglycemia), 1 heat-related death, and one case with dehydration. Osmolarity contributed to 12 cases (5 heat-related, 4 diabetes, 2 renal failure, and 1 dehydration) from 36 high values. There was no contribution from 32 high values and 19 low values of calcium and there was no contribution from 4 high and 2 low values of ammonia. There were 11 high values of glucose, which contributed to the diagnosis of 6 cases of diabetic hyperglycemia and 21 high ketone levels contributed to 8 cases: 4 diabetic ketosis, 3 hypothermia, 3

  20. Optimizing and Interpreting Insular Functional Connectivity Maps Obtained During Acute Experimental Pain: The Effects of Global Signal and Task Paradigm Regression. (United States)

    Ibinson, James W; Vogt, Keith M; Taylor, Kevin B; Dua, Shiv B; Becker, Christopher J; Loggia, Marco; Wasan, Ajay D


    The insula is uniquely located between the temporal and parietal cortices, making it anatomically well-positioned to act as an integrating center between the sensory and affective domains for the processing of painful stimulation. This can be studied through resting-state functional connectivity (fcMRI) imaging; however, the lack of a clear methodology for the analysis of fcMRI complicates the interpretation of these data during acute pain. Detected connectivity changes may reflect actual alterations in low-frequency synchronous neuronal activity related to pain, may be due to changes in global cerebral blood flow or the superimposed task-induced neuronal activity. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of global signal regression (GSR) and task paradigm regression (TPR) on the changes in functional connectivity of the left (contralateral) insula in healthy subjects at rest and during acute painful electric nerve stimulation of the right hand. The use of GSR reduced the size and statistical significance of connectivity clusters and created negative correlation coefficients for some connectivity clusters. TPR with cyclic stimulation gave task versus rest connectivity differences similar to those with a constant task, suggesting that analysis which includes TPR is more accurately reflective of low-frequency neuronal activity. Both GSR and TPR have been inconsistently applied to fcMRI analysis. Based on these results, investigators need to consider the impact GSR and TPR have on connectivity during task performance when attempting to synthesize the literature.

  1. Results of an Experimental Study of the Effects of Class Size. (United States)

    Shapson, Stan M.; And Others

    This study examines experimentally the differences among four class sizes ranging from 16 to 37 pupils. Sixty-two grades 4 and 5 classes in 11 schools in Toronto participated in the study. The study investigated the effects of class size on teachers' expectations about the effects of specific class sizes; the attitudes and opinions of students,…

  2. Results of small woodlot cuttings on Penobscot Experimental Forest, 1953 and 1954 (United States)

    Arthur C. Hart


    In 1951 foresters at the Penobscot Experimental Forest near Bangor, Maine, began a demonstration of the financial returns that can be realized through careful management of small forest properties. Light improvement cuts made in 1951 and 1952 on a moderately stocked 47-acre tract (Compartment 2) yielded gross incomes of $623.74 and $191.81 respectively. Another well-...

  3. Comparison of Breast Health Teaching Methods for Adolescent Females: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study (United States)

    Evans, Retta R.; Horton, Jacqueline A.; Ahmad, Wajih A.; Davies, Susan L.; Snyder, Scott W.; Macrina, David M.


    Purpose: A breast health educational program was administered in two public high school settings in north Alabama to subjects enrolled in health related courses. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if teaching breast health with or without interactive learning would affect the breast health knowledge and beliefs of…

  4. In-medium properties of hadrons – Recent experimental results and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    symmetry in a hadronic environment. In this lecture, an overview of the current status of this field is given. Specific the- oretical predictions, experimental approaches and first evidence for medium modi- fications of hadrons will be presented in the following sections. An outlook on the possible future development of this field ...

  5. Power-Based Setpoint Control : Experimental Results on a Planar Manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksz, D. A.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    In the last years the power-based modeling framework, developed in the sixties to model nonlinear electrical RLC networks, has been extended for modeling and control of a larger class of physical systems. In this brief we apply power-based integral control to a planar manipulator experimental setup.

  6. The Flettner Rotor Ship in the Light of the Kutta-Joukowski Theory and of Experimental Results (United States)

    Rizzo, Frank


    In this paper the fundamental principles of the Flettner rotor ship (Reference I) are discussed in the light of the Kutta-Joukowski theory and available experimental information on the subject. A brief exposition of the Kutta-Joukowski theory is given and the speed of the rotor ship Buckau computed, first by using effective propulsive force obtained by the above theory, and then by direct application of wind tunnel data.

  7. Innovation of the experimental facility for the study of flutter in the Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR and some results obtained from initial experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Václav; Štěpán, M.; Zolotarev, Igor; Kozánek, Jan


    Roč. 821, č. 2016 (2016), s. 144-151 ISSN 1660-9336 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10527S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : aeroelasticity * flutter * interferometry * subsonic flow Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  8. Traditional and experimental floating fish aggregating devices in the Gulf of Castellammare (NW Sicily: results from catches and visual observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'Anna


    Full Text Available Floating fish aggregating devices (FADs have long been used to attract fish in NW Sicily since antiquity. Recently, a number of changes have been made to the type of material employed to construct FADs, with the aim of increasing their effectiveness. In this paper we compare the catches made at eight experimental floating FADs (polypropylene ropes frayed at the ends with those obtained at eight traditional FADs in the Gulf of Castellammare. A total of 672 samples were collected during summer and autumn in 1995 and 1996 at the 16 FADs using a surrounding net. Visual observations of fishes associated with the FADs were also conducted to obtain qualitative information about the spatial distribution of species. A total of 1632 specimens weighing 144 kg and belonging to eight species were caught during the survey. Seriola dumerili, Caranx crysos, C. rhonchus and Coryphaena hippurus were the most frequent and abundant species accounting for 96% of the total catch. Average fish abundance and weight, characterised by high variance, were significantly higher at the sites with experimental FADs than at the sites with traditional FADs. S. dumerili was the only species with higher catches around the experimental FADs. Some spatial and temporal variations in fish abundance and size were also detected. Younger individuals of S. dumerili were observed to show high affinity for the experimental FAD tufts.

  9. Review of JT-60U experimental results from February to October, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 1999, the plasma parameters of reversed shear (RS) plasmas had been extended in (1) DT-equivalent fusion power gain Q{sub DT}{sup eq} - 0.5 (n{sub D}(0){tau}{sub E}T{sub i}(0) - 4x10{sup 20} m{sup -3}{center_dot}keV{center_dot}s) for 0.8 s and (2) full non-inductive current drive with 80% of the bootstrap current fraction. Physics of the internal transport barriers (ITBs) in RS plasmas, including the energy transport and the formation of ITB, were extensively studied. A nearly full current drive (92% non-inductively) was obtained with negative ion based neutral beam (NNB) injection (360 keV, 3.4 MW) in a high {beta}{sub p} H-mode plasma (I{sub p}=1.5 MA, B{sub T}=3.7 T, q{sub 95}=4.2) with high plasma performance ({beta}{sub N}=2.4 and H{sub 89}=2.56). Rise in the central electron temperature (T{sub e} - 9 keV) resulted in the current drive efficiency {eta}{sub CD} of NNB reached 1.3x10{sup 19} A/W/m{sup 2}, the highest for the neutral beam current drive. As for the H-mode plasmas, decrease in the pedestal ion temperature due to strong gas was found cause degradation in core plasma confinement. The operation of an ECRF system of 110 GHz, 0.75 MW (torus injection power) had been started in 1999. Changes in plasma current profiles and suppressions of tearing modes and sawtooth oscillations were observed with ECRF heating. The highest {beta}{sub N} in RS experiments ({beta}{sub N} - 2.8) was obtained in the plasma configuration with a large wall stabilizing effect and resistive wall modes were observed before the disruptions. New real-time feedback control schemes including plasma stored energy, plasma radiation power and so on were used in routine plasma operations. Runaway electron current was terminated when the plasma surface safety factor was forced to drop below 2 or 3. In order to increase pumping efficiency of deuterium and impurity neutrals, the outer pumping slot was opened and the both sides pumping was enabled in the W-shaped divertor in 1999. In the

  10. [Results obtained from more intensive antenatal and intranatal attention to gemini pregnancy at gynaecological hospital of Karl-Marx-Stadt region (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Schmidt, J; Cimutta, B; Müller, K


    Studies undertaken into gemini births between 1968 and 1977 have shown that reduction in perinatal mortality has been obtainable from high-intensity programmes of antenatal and intranatal attention to multiparae. Perinatal mortality had accounted for 13.4 per cent, between 1968 and 1974, and dropped to 7.4 per cent, between 1975 and 1977. This achievement is analysed and discussed. More improvement may best be expected from earlier detection of gemini pregnancy and earlier action of intensive care.

  11. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance. Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Harmon, Anna C. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)


    This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. These data currently span the period from November 10, 2012 through May 31, 2014 and are anticipated to be extended through November 2014. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  12. Family team conferencing: results and implications from an experimental study in Florida. (United States)

    Perry, Robin; Yoo, Jane; Spoliansky, Toni; Edelman, Pebbles


    This article reports the outcome evaluation findings of an experimental study conducted with families in the child welfare system in Florida. Families were randomly assigned to one of three Family Team Conferencing (FTC) models. In Pathway 1, the comparison model, FTCs were facilitated by case-workers. In Pathway 2, one of two experimental models, FTCs were cofacilitated by caseworkers and a designated/trained facilitator, and included expedited family engagement as well as the provision of FTCs throughout the life of a case. Pathway 3, also an experimental model, had the same components of Pathway 2 but also included family alone time. In approximately three years of the project period, 623 families agreed to participate in the study. Study findings showed no statistically significant change observed for families participating in Pathway 1 FTCs in terms of protective factors, achieving family-defined service and plan-of-care goals, and emotional and behavioral symptomology of children. Cases in Pathway 2 demonstrated significant improvement in family functioning and resiliency, nurturing and attachment, and increasing parents' knowledge about "what to do as a parent." Caregivers and teens in Pathway 3 reported significant improvement in expression of emotional symptomology/problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and a measure of total difficulties. However, foster care re-entry rates were significantly higher for Pathway 3 than Pathway 2 (but not Pathway 1). Moreover, Pathway 2 and Pathway 3 FTCs had a significant effect on moving the family toward agreed upon service goals. Taken together, these findings suggest that the experimental FTC models in which facilitators were used and family engagement was expedited and sustained through subsequent FTCs demonstrated moderate, yet mixed benefits to children, youth, and families.

  13. Recent Experimental Results Related to Ejector Mode Studies of Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engines (United States)

    Cramer, J. M.; Pal, S.; Marshall, W. M.; Santoro, R. J.


    Contents include the folloving: 1. Motivation. Support NASA's 3d generation launch vehicle technology program. RBCC is promising candidate for 3d generation propulsion system. 2. Approach. Focus on ejector mode p3erformance (Mach 0-3). Perform testing on established flowpath geometry. Use conventional propulsion measurement techniques. Use advanced optical diagnostic techniques to measure local combustion gas properties. 3. Objectives. Gain physical understanding of detailing mixing and combustion phenomena. Establish an experimental data set for CFD code development and validation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    OAK A271 OVERVIEW OF RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM THE DIII-D ADVANCED TOKAMAK PROGRAM. The DIII-D research program is developing the scientific basis for advanced tokamak (AT) modes of operation in order to enhance the attractiveness of the tokamak as an energy producing system. Since the last International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) meeting, they have made significant progress in developing the building blocks needed for AT operation: (1) they have doubled the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stable tokamak operating space through rotational stabilization of the resistive wall mode; (2) using this rotational stabilization, they have achieved {beta}{sub N}H{sub 89} {ge} 10 for 4 {tau}{sub E} limited by the neoclassical tearing mode; (3) using real-time feedback of the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) location, they have stabilized the (m,n) = (3,2) neoclassical tearing mode and then increased {beta}{sub T} by 60%; (4) they have produced ECCD stabilization of the (2,1) neoclassical tearing mode in initial experiments; (5) they have made the first integrated AT demonstration discharges with current profile control using ECCD; (6) ECCD and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) have been used to control the pressure profile in high performance plasmas; and (7) they have demonstrated stationary tokamak operation for 6.5 s (36 {tau}{sub E}) at the same fusion gain parameter of {beta}{sub N}H{sub 89}/q{sub 95}{sup 2} {approx} 0.4 as ITER but at much higher q{sub 95} = 4.2. The authors have developed general improvements applicable to conventional and advanced tokamak operating modes: (1) they have an existence proof of a mode of tokamak operation, quiescent H-mode, which has no pulsed, ELM heat load to the divertor and which can run for long periods of time (3.8 s or 25 {tau}{sub E}) with constant density and constant radiated power; (2) they have demonstrated real-time disruption detection and mitigation for vertical disruption events using high pressure gas jet

  15. MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality Assessment – Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula


    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

  16. Seismological results from the records obtained by the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX). The analysis of the earthquake of March 20, 2012 and other examples (United States)

    Ramos Perez, S.; Rodriguez Gonzalez, M.; Uribe Carvajal, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Cuellar Martinez, A.


    In this talk we show seismological processes performed with data obtained from the records collected by the strong motion recorders that constitute the seismic alert system of Mexico (SASMEX). The instruments and the triggering algorithms are original design of CIRES, This has allowed that optimal time modifications, improvements and error corrections. Punctual parameters as first time arrivals, S-P times, and maximum acceleration (Amax) for each seismic station can be obtained from the warning record it self, before the earthquake arrives. When the system initiates the alert process the S-P time at least two sites are already known and at this moment common time is set in all the array which allows the synchronization of all the records, these are recovered during field trips after every trigger. The time histories are obtained by A/D converters (12 bits) and MEMS accelerometers. During the March 20, 2012 earthquake nine seismic stations of the SASMEX array detected the event at less than one hundred kilometres of epicentral distance, this allowed to calculate the location of the hypocenter, the maxima displacements associated to each of these sites. The greatest value corresponds to the Llano Grande seismic station, 0.47m on the SW direction, for the NS component. The distributions of Amax and the estimated movement displacement are shown. The foreshock of October 6 is also analysed, The behaviour of the SASMEX during the earthquakes of Tehuacan (June 15, 1999) and of Guatemala (Nov 7, 2012) are shown as examples of the possibility that the nature of the seismic activity it self point the need and probable success of increasing the coverage of SASMEX.

  17. Source spectra of the gravity waves obtained from momentum flux and kinetic energy over Indian region: Comparison between observations and model results (United States)

    Pramitha, M.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.; Vijaya Bhaskar Rao, S.


    Using 8 years (May 2006 to March 2014) of high resolution and high accuracy GPS radiosonde observations available from a tropical station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), India, we have investigated the climatology of gravity wave energy and zonal momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere. We also obtained best fit spectrum model for the gravity waves (GWs) for this tropical station. In general, strong annual variation in the energy and momentum flux with maximum during Indian summer monsoon is observed in the lower stratospheric region (18-25 km). By considering different source spectra, we have applied Gravitywave Regional or Global RAy Tracer (GROGRAT) model run on monthly basis using the source spectrum values at different altitudes on the ERA-Interim background fields to obtain the kinetic energy and zonal momentum fluxes for each of the spectra considered. These simulated fluxes are compared with the observed fluxes to arrive at the best fit spectrum model. It is found that the spectrum which represents the convection transient mountain mechanism that is purely anti-symmetric and anisotropic in nature is the best fit model for Gadanki location. This information would be useful in parameterization of the GWs in numerical models over Indian region.

  18. Preliminary experimental results of gas recycling subsystems except carbon dioxide concentration (United States)

    Otsuji, K.; Sawada, T.; Satoh, S.; Kanda, S.; Matsumura, H.; Kondo, S.; Otsubo, K.


    Oxygen concentration and separation is an essential factor for air recycling in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Furthermore, if the value of the plant assimilatory quotient is not coincident with that of the animal respiratory quotient, the recovery of oxygen from the concentrated CO2 through chemical methods will become necessary to balance the gas contents in a CELSS. Therefore, oxygen concentration and separation equipment using Salcomine and O2 recovery equipment, such as Sabatier and Bosch reactors, were experimentally developed and tested.

  19. Results of experimental tests and calibrations of the surface neutron moisture measurement probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, W.T.; Bussell, J.H., Westinghouse Hanford


    The surface neutron moisture probe has been tested both to demonstrate that is is able to operate in the expected in-tank temperature and gamma-ray fields and to provide detector responses to known moisture concentration materials. The probe will properly function in a simultaneous high temperature (80 degrees C) and high gamma radiation field (210 rad/hr)environment. Comparisons between computer model predicted and experimentally measured detector responses to changes in moisture provide a basis for the probe calibration to in-tank moisture concentrations.

  20. Morphological changes in experimental tuberculosis resulting from treatment with quercetin and polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Butova


    Conclusion: Under the influence of QP, the separation of caseous necrosis of granulomas from unaffected areas begins through connective tissue with fibrotization in the central part and a large number of Langerhans cells and lymphocytes that are not observed in the control groups. The interaction of QP with anti-TB drugs shows more obvious effects: fast tendency of epithelioid cellular tubercles to fibrotization and separation of TB granulomas through connective tissue. In addition, in the control groups of animals infected with TB, in contrast to the experimental groups, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes is observed. Thus, we have shown the hepatoprotective function of QP against TB.

  1. Bioimpedance measurements in dentistry to detect inflammation: numerical modelling and experimental results. (United States)

    Cosoli, G; Scalise, L; Tricarico, G; Russo, P; Cerri, G


    Bioimpedance measurements represent an advantageous method to evaluate the physio-pathological conditions of biological tissues and their use is spreading in different application fields, from the evaluation of body composition to the vital signs monitoring, passing through the individuation of cancer tissues and the detection of different substances (e.g. glucose measurements in people affected by diabetes). In fact, tissues electric properties vary with their conditions; for example, electrical conductivity increases when there is an inflammatory process, because of the presence of oedema, hyperaemia and infiltration. Inflammatory phenomena are frequent in dentistry, in diseases like periodontitis and peri-implantitis; however, at present the diagnosis is mainly done with the naked eye, by observing the gingiva redness and swelling. The aim of this work is to prove the feasibility of the inflammation detection by means of bioimpedance measurements. Both numerical simulations and preliminary experimental measurements provide significant outcomes in differentiating between healthy and inflamed tissues. Percentage differences in the impedance modulus equal to 4-20% (numerical simulations) and 35-56% (experimental measurements), respectively, depending on the considered conditions (e.g. electrodes characteristics and inflammation severity), were found. Such a measure could be integrated in electromedical devices designed, for example, for the therapy of peri-implantitis, in order to personalise the therapeutic dose in terms of intensity and duration and focusing it on the impaired area, minimising the effects on the surrounding tissues.

  2. Energy Transfer with Hydrogen and Superconductivity - The Review of the First Experimental Results (United States)

    Vysotsky, V. S.; Antyukhov, I. V.; Firsov, V. P.; Blagov, E. V.; Kostyuk, V. V.; Nosov, A. A.; Fetisov, S. S.; Zanegin, S. Yu.; Rachuk, V. S.; Katorgin, B. I.

    The transfer of massive amounts of both electrical and chemical power over long distances will present a major challenge for the global energy enterprise in future. Attraction of hydrogen is apparent as a chemical energy agent, possessing among the highest energy density content of various common fuels, whose combustive "waste" is simply water. The usage of "gratis" cold to cool a superconducting cable made of proper superconductor permits to deliver extra electrical power with the same line. This, rather old theoretical idea recently found its experimental realization. The team of Russian institutes and organizations with using Italian-produced MgB2 wire has made and successfully tested two hybrid energy transfer lines with liquid hydrogen as a chemical source of power and superconducting cable as a source of electricity. The first line has been tested in 2011. It has length ∼10 m, maximum liquid hydrogen flow ∼250 g/s and maximum current of MgB2 superconducting cable 2600 A @ 20K. This test was the first experimental proof of conception of the hybrid energy transfer line. The second line has been tested in October 2013. It has length ∼30 m. The new MgB2 cable has critical current at 21 K ∼3500 A and successfully passed high voltage DC test of 50 kV. New hydrogen cryostat has three sections with different types of thermal insulation in each section. The idea of hybrid energy transfer is formulated and details of first experiments are reviewed.

  3. Adaptive wave field synthesis for active sound field reproduction: experimental results. (United States)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain


    Sound field reproduction has applications in music reproduction, spatial audio, sound environment reproduction, and experimental acoustics. Sound field reproduction can be used to artificially reproduce the spatial character of natural hearing. The objective is then to reproduce a sound field in a real reproduction environment. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. The room response thus reduces the quality of the physical sound field reproduction by WFS. In recent research papers, adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) was defined as a potential solution to compensate for these quality reductions from which WFS objective performance suffers. In this paper, AWFS is experimentally investigated as an active sound field reproduction system with a limited number of reproduction error sensors to compensate for the response of the listening environment. Two digital signal processing algorithms for AWFS are used for comparison purposes, one of which is based on independent radiation mode control. AWFS performed propagating sound field reproduction better than WFS in three tested reproduction spaces (hemianechoic chamber, standard laboratory space, and reverberation chamber).

  4. Experimental results from a laboratory-scale molten salt thermocline storage (United States)

    Seubert, Bernhard; Müller, Ralf; Willert, Daniel; Fluri, Thomas


    Single-tank storage presents a valid option for cost reduction in thermal energy storage systems. For low-temperature systems with water as storage medium this concept is widely implemented and tested. For high-temperature systems very limited experimental data are publicly available. To improve this situation a molten salt loop for experimental testing of a single-tank storage prototype was designed and built at Fraunhofer ISE. The storage tank has a volume of 0.4 m3 or a maximum capacity of 72 kWhth. The maximum charging and discharging power is 60 kW, however, a bypass flow control system enables to operate the system also at a very low power. The prototype was designed to withstand temperatures up to 550 °C. A cascaded insulation with embedded heating cables can be used to reduce the effect of heat loss on the storage which is susceptible to edge effects due to its small size. During the first tests the operating temperatures were adapted to the conditions in systems with thermal oil as heat transfer fluid and a smaller temperature difference. A good separation between cold and hot fluid was achieved with temperature gradients of 95 K within 16 cm.

  5. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance: Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Harmon, Anna C. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)


    Thermal and moisture problems in existing basements create a unique challenge because the exterior face of the wall is not easily or inexpensively accessible. This approach addresses thermal and moisture management from the interior face of the wall without disturbing the exterior soil and landscaping. the interior and exterior environments. This approach has the potential for improving durability, comfort, and indoor air quality. This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  6. Wind Turbine Performance in Controlled Conditions: BEM Modeling and Comparison with Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Johnson


    Full Text Available Predictions of the performance of operating wind turbines are challenging for many reasons including the unsteadiness of the wind and uncertainties in blade aerodynamic behaviour. In the current study an extended blade element momentum (BEM program was developed to compute the rotor power of an existing 4.3 m diameter turbine and compare predictions with reported controlled experimental measurements. Beginning with basic blade geometry and the iterative computation of aerodynamic properties, the method integrated the BEM analysis into the program workflow ensuring that the power production by a blade element agreed with its lift and drag data at the same Reynolds number. The parametric study using the extended BEM algorithm revealed the close association of the power curve behaviour with the aerodynamic characteristics of the blade elements, the discretization of the aerodynamic span, and the dependence on Reynolds number when the blades were stalled. Transition prediction also affected overall performance, albeit to a lesser degree. Finally, to capture blade finite area effects, the tip loss model was adjusted depending on stall conditions. The experimental power curve for the HAWT of the current study was closely matched by the extended BEM simulation.

  7. Experimental Tailer like Thermal Lag Engine to obtain pressure and volume diagrams//Motor de Lag Térmico experimental tipo Tailer para obtener diagramas de presión y volumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández-Aballí-Altamirano


    Full Text Available AbstractThe Thermal Lag Engine (TLE patented by Peter Tailer’s is briefly introduced. The discussion about the thermodynamic working principle of this external combustion machine is presented. For this work the claims in literature have been studied by the authors to design and develop an experimental installation with the objective of measuring for the first time the pressure-volume (pV relationship of a TLE asdescribed by Tailer and West. The pV diagrams are presented here and support previous theoretical claims about the TLE. Their triangular form shows the effects described by West in the expansion and compression processes caused by the variation of the cold heat transfer area. Also the relationshipbetween the heat transfer capacity of the engine and its working frequency becomes apparent from the measurements, indicating that larger heater areas and limited cold heat transfer characteristics allow more work production per cycle at higher operating frequencies.Key words: thermal lag engine, pressure-volume diagrams, external combustion engines._______________________________________________________________________________ResumenSe introduce brevemente el Motor de Lag Térmico (MLT patentado por Peter Tailer y se esboza el debate científico sobre la termodinámica de esta máquina de combustión externa. A partir del estudio de los distintos puntos de vista los autores de este trabajo desarrollaron una instalación experimental con elobjetivo de medir por primera vez la relación presión-volumen (pV de un MLT como el descrito por Tailer y West. Los diagramas pV son presentados y apoyan los planteamientos teóricos previos sobre los MLT.Su forma triangular muestra los efectos descritos por West sobre los procesos de compresión y expansión debido a la exposición variable del área fría de intercambio de calor. Las mediciones pV muestran la relación que existe entre la capacidad de intercambio de calor del motor y su frecuencia de

  8. Stress state dependence of in-reactor creep and swelling. Part 2: Experimental results (United States)

    Hall, M. M., Jr.; Flinn, J. E.


    Irradiation creep constitutive equations, which were developed in Part I, are used here to analyze in-reactor creep and swelling data obtained ca. 1977-1979 as part of the US breeder reactor program. The equations were developed according to the principles of incremental continuum plasticity for the purpose of analyzing data obtained from a novel irradiation experiment that was conducted, in part, using Type 304 stainless steel that had been previously irradiated to significant levels of void swelling. Analyses of these data support an earlier observation that all stress states, whether tensile, compressive, shear or mixed, can affect both void swelling and interactions between irradiation creep and swelling. The data were obtained using a set of five unique multiaxial creep-test specimens that were designed and used for the first time in this study. The data analyses demonstrate that the constitutive equations derived in Part I provide an excellent phenomenological representation of the interactive creep and swelling phenomena. These equations provide nuclear power reactor designers and analysts with a first-of-its-kind structural analysis tool for evaluating irradiation damage-dependent distortion of complex structural components having gradients in neutron damage rate, temperature and stress state.

  9. Employers' role in helping Latino workers obtain access to health care services: results of a community-based pilot demonstration project. (United States)

    Dembe, Allard E; Biehl, Jeffrey M; Smith, Alicia D; Garcia de Gutierrez, Teresa


    A coalition of employers in the hotel and restaurant industries collaborated with community-based organizations to undertake a unique demonstration project, called the Employed Latino Health Initiative, aimed at improving access to basic health care services for low-wage Latino workers in Columbus, Ohio. With grant funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the project developed and tested protocols allowing Latino workers from participating companies to obtain basic health care screenings, referrals to medical providers, health education training, and the services of a qualified community health navigator. Data from the pilot project indicated high screening participation rates, extensive referrals to providers for follow-up care, and a substantial need for facilitation services by community health navigators. The project provides a model for how employers can potentially promote their own interests in boosting work productivity through facilitating expanded access to basic medical services among vulnerable workers, despite the absence of conventional health insurance coverage.

  10. From global to local statistical shape priors novel methods to obtain accurate reconstruction results with a limited amount of training shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Last, Carsten


    This book proposes a new approach to handle the problem of limited training data. Common approaches to cope with this problem are to model the shape variability independently across predefined segments or to allow artificial shape variations that cannot be explained through the training data, both of which have their drawbacks. The approach presented uses a local shape prior in each element of the underlying data domain and couples all local shape priors via smoothness constraints. The book provides a sound mathematical foundation in order to embed this new shape prior formulation into the well-known variational image segmentation framework. The new segmentation approach so obtained allows accurate reconstruction of even complex object classes with only a few training shapes at hand.

  11. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah


    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  12. Morphological changes in experimental tuberculosis resulting from treatment with quercetin and polyvinylpyrrolidone. (United States)

    Butova, Tatyana; Zaitseva, Svetlana; Butov, Dmytro; Stepanenko, Ganna


    Morphological study of a mice of tissue necrosis stages in experimental organ-preserving tuberculosis (TB) pharmacotherapy using quercetin and polyvinylpyrrolidone (QP). A total of 32 laboratory mice of C57BL/6JLacSto strain were used in the experiment. The animals were divided into five groups (Group 1-5), with six to seven mice in each group: Group 1, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT)-uninfected mice; Group 2, MBT-infected mice; Group 3, MBT infected and treated with anti-TB preparation (ATP); Group 4, MBT infected and QP treated; and Group 5, MBT infected and treated with ATP and QP. The mice were infected through caudal vein injection with the MTB H37Rv strain. The QP preparation, which belongs to the capillary-stabilizing-remedy group, was used for the research. The ATP included isoniazid and streptomycin. Thus, the drug doses for the mice contained the following drugs: isoniazid (10%, 5mL), 45mg/kg; streptomycin (1g), 90mg/kg; and QP (0.5g), 45mg/kg of the body weight of a mouse. The medicines used in the experimental studies on the mice were applied as follows: isoniazid and streptomycin, administered intramuscularly once a day; and QP, administered intraperitoneally according to a schedule (on the 5th day after the introduction of the infection every 2h, and then every 12h; on the 6th day and 7th day two times a day every 12h). QP produced a strict delineation of caseous necrosis from the unaffected parts of the connective tissue with fibrosis in the center and a large number of Langerhans cells, which was not observed in the control groups without QP. The combination of QP and ATP had more pronounced effects. In MBT-infected mice, where QP was not used, unlike the group where QP was used, adipose dystrophy of hepatocytes was observed. Thus, the hepatoprotective effect of QP against TB can be suggested. Under the influence of QP, the separation of caseous necrosis of granulomas from unaffected areas begins through connective tissue with fibrotization in the

  13. Experimental results for hydrocarbon refrigerant vaporization inside brazed plate heat exchangers at high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desideri, Adriano; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Wronski, Jorrit


    In recent years the interest in small capacity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems for harvesting low qualitywaste thermal energy from industrial processes has been steadily growing. Micro ORC systems are normally equippedwith brazed plate heat exchangers which allows for efficient heat...... transfer with a compact design. An accurate prediction of the heat transfer process characterizing these devices is required from the design phase to the development of modelbased control strategies. The current literature is lacking experimental data and validated correlations for vaporization of organic...... fluids at typical working conditions of ORC systems for low temperature waste heat recovery (WHR) applications. Based on these premises, a novel testrig has been recently designed and built at the Technical University of Denmark to simulate the evaporating condition occurring in a small capacity ORC...

  14. Scaling Factor Estimation Using Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 2: Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Aenlle, Manuel López; Garcia, Luis M. Villa


    of the structure. On the other hand, the aforementioned objectives are difficult to achieve for all modes simultaneously. Thus, a study of the number, magnitude and location of the masses must be performed previously to the modal tests. In this paper, the mass change method was applied to estimate the scaling......The mass change method is used to estimate the scaling factors, the uncertainty is reduced when, for each mode, the frequency shift is maximized and the changes in the mode shapes are minimized, which in turn, depends on the mass change strategy chosen to modify the dynamic behavior...... factors of a steel cantilever beam. The effect of the mass change strategy was experimentally studied by performing several modal tests in which the magnitude, the location and the number of the attached masses were changed....

  15. Corrosion by liquid lead and lead-bismuth: experimental results review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Liquid metal technologies for liquid lead and lead-bismuth alloy are under wide investigation and development for advanced nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation systems. Material corrosion is one of the main issues studied a lot recently in the development of the liquid metal technology. This study reviews corrosion by liquid lead and lead bismuth, including the corrosion mechanisms, corrosion inhibitor and the formation of the protective oxide layer. The available experimental data are analyzed by using a corrosion model in which the oxidation and scale removal are coupled. Based on the model, long-term behaviors of steels in liquid lead and lead-bismuth are predictable. This report provides information for the selection of structural materials for typical nuclear reactor coolant systems when selecting liquid lead or lead bismuth as heat transfer media.

  16. Performance of the Opalinus Clay under thermal loading: experimental results from Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gens, A. [Universitat Politència de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Gaus, I. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); and others


    The paper presents an overview of the behaviour of Opalinus Clay under thermal loading as observed in three in situ heating tests performed in the Mont Terri rock laboratory: HE-B, HE-D and HE-E. The three tests are summarily described; they encompass a broad range of test layouts and experimental conditions. Afterwards, the following topics are examined: determination of thermal conductivity, thermally-induced pore pressure generation and thermally-induced mechanical effects. The mechanisms underlying pore pressure generation and dissipation are discussed in detail and the relationship between rock damage and thermal loading is examined using an additional in situ test: SE-H. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the various thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) interactions identified in the heating tests. (authors)

  17. First results from solid state neutral particle analyzer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. Z.; Zhao, J. L.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhu, Y. B., E-mail:; Heidbrink, W. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)


    Full function integrated, compact solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) based on absolute extreme ultraviolet silicon photodiode have been successfully implemented on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak to measure energetic particle. The ssNPA system has been operated in advanced current mode with fast temporal and spatial resolution capabilities, with both active and passive charge exchange measurements. It is found that the ssNPA flux signals are increased substantially with neutral beam injection (NBI). The horizontal active array responds to modulated NBI beam promptly, while weaker change is presented on passive array. Compared to near-perpendicular beam, near-tangential beam brings more passive ssNPA flux and a broader profile, while no clear difference is observed on active ssNPA flux and its profile. Significantly enhanced intensities on some ssNPA channels have been observed during ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  18. Importance of dose-rate and cell proliferation in the evaluation of biological experimental results (United States)

    Curtis, S. B.


    The nuclei of cells within the bodies of astronauts traveling on extended missions outside the geomagnetosphere will experience single traversals of particles with high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) (e.g., one iron ion per one hundred years, on average) superimposed on a background of tracks with low LET (approximately one proton every two to three days, and one helium ion per month). In addition, some cell populations within the body will be proliferating, thus possibly providing increasing numbers of cells with 'initiated' targets for subsequent radiation hits. These temporal characteristics are not generally reproduced in laboratory experimental protocols. Implications of the differences in the temporal patterns of radiation delivery between conventionally designed radiation biology experiments and the pattern to be experienced in space are examined and the importance of dose-rate and cell proliferation are pointed out in the context of radiation risk assessment on long mission in space.

  19. Overview of experimental results and code validation activities at Alcator C-Mod (United States)

    Greenwald, M.; Bader, A.; Baek, S.; Barnard, H.; Beck, W.; Bergerson, W.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.; Brookman, M.; Brower, D.; Brunner, D.; Burke, W.; Candy, J.; Chilenski, M.; Chung, M.; Churchill, M.; Cziegler, I.; Davis, E.; Dekow, G.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diallo, A.; Ding, W.; Dominguez, A.; Ellis, R.; Ennever, P.; Ernst, D.; Faust, I.; Fiore, C.; Fitzgerald, E.; Fredian, T.; Garcia, O. E.; Gao, C.; Garrett, M.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Granetz, R.; Groebner, R.; Harrison, S.; Harvey, R.; Hartwig, Z.; Hill, K.; Hillairet, J.; Howard, N.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Hutchinson, I.; Irby, J.; James, A. N.; Kanojia, A.; Kasten, C.; Kesner, J.; Kessel, C.; Kube, R.; LaBombard, B.; Lau, C.; Lee, J.; Liao, K.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Ma, Y.; Marmar, E.; McGibbon, P.; Meneghini, O.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miller, D.; Mumgaard, R.; Murray, R.; Ochoukov, R.; Olynyk, G.; Pace, D.; Park, S.; Parker, R.; Podpaly, Y.; Porkolab, M.; Preynas, M.; Pusztai, I.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J.; Rowan, W.; Scott, S.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sierchio, J.; Snyder, P.; Sorbom, B.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stillerman, J.; Sugiyama, L.; Sung, C.; Terry, D.; Terry, J.; Theiler, C.; Tsujii, N.; Vieira, R.; Walk, J.; Wallace, G.; White, A.; Whyte, D.; Wilson, J.; Wolfe, S.; Woller, K.; Wright, G.; Wright, J.; Wukitch, S.; Wurden, G.; Xu, P.; Yang, C.; Zweben, S.


    Recent research on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak has focused on a range of scientific issues with particular emphasis on ITER needs and on detailed comparisons between experimental measurements and predictive models. Research on ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) heating emphasized the origins and mitigation of metallic impurities while work on lower hybrid current drive experiments have focused on linear and nonlinear wave interactions that limit efficiency at high densities in regimes with low single pass absorption. Experiments in core turbulence and transport focused on quantitative, multi-field comparisons between nonlinear gyro-kinetics simulations and experimental measurements of profiles, fluxes and fluctuations. Experiments into self-generated rotation observed spontaneous flow reversal at a critical density identical to the transition density between linear ohmic confinement and saturated ohmic confinement regimes. H-mode studies have measured pedestal widths consistent with kinetic-ballooning-mode-like instabilities, while the pedestal heights quantitatively match the EPED code predictions. Experiments with I-mode have increased the operating window for this promising edge-localized-mode-free regime. Extrapolation of I-mode to ITER suggests that the fusion gain Q ∼ 10 could be possible in ITER. Investigations into the physics and scaling of the power exhaust channel width in attached enhanced D-alpha H-mode and L-mode plasma showed a direct connection between the midplane pressure-folding length and the outer divertor target footprint. The width was found to scale inversely with IP, while being independent of conducted power, BT or q95 and insensitive to the scrape-off layer connection length—a behaviour that suggests critical-gradient physics sets both pressure and heat-flux profiles.

  20. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results


    Veenhuizen, Bram; Bosma, J.C.N.


    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this paper the first experimental results of the testing of the power train are presented, driving a drive cycle designed especially for this automated guided vehicle. Experimental results are compared to r...

  1. Calculating buoy response for a wave energy converter—A comparison of two computational methods and experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Sjökvist


    Full Text Available When designing a wave power plant, reliable and fast simulation tools are required. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD software provides high accuracy but with a very high computational cost, and in operational, moderate sea states, linear potential flow theories may be sufficient to model the hydrodynamics. In this paper, a model is built in COMSOL Multiphysics to solve for the hydrodynamic parameters of a point-absorbing wave energy device. The results are compared with a linear model where the hydrodynamical parameters are computed using WAMIT, and to experimental results from the Lysekil research site. The agreement with experimental data is good for both numerical models.

  2. Toxic Metal Concentrations in Cigarettes Obtained from U.S. Smokers in 2009: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie V. Caruso


    Full Text Available Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, and lead (Pb in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320. The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA and R.J. Reynolds (RJR brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001, PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001, and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006. For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02. Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10. Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced.

  3. Streamflow response and sediment yield after farmland abandonment: results from a small experimental catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano-Muela, M. P.


    Full Text Available A small catchment affected by agricultural practices in the past, then progressively abandoned and naturally re-vegetated was monitored in the central Spanish Pyrenees. The results obtained over a 9-year period revealed the complexity of its hydrological and geomorphological behaviour. Several runoff generation processes can occur at the same time and in different parts of the catchment, depending on the water reserves conditions and rainfall characteristics. Sediment response is mainly controlled by the spatial and temporal dynamics of water and sediment contributing areas within the catchment. The sediment output illustrates the complexity of the geomorphic response of mountain environments modified by past farmland activities.

    Se presenta una síntesis de la investigación realizada en una pequeña cuenca experimental afectada por una intensa actividad agraria en el pasado y sujeta a un proceso de revegetación natural en la actualidad en el Pirineo Central. Los principales resultados obtenidos demuestran su complejo comportamiento hidrogeomorfológico. El análisis de la información hidrológica sugiere que diferentes procesos dominantes de generación de escorrentía pueden ocurrir de manera simultánea en diferentes áreas de la cuenca, en función del estado de humedad de la misma y de las características de la precipitación. La respuesta sedimentológica está principalmente controlada por la dinámica espacio-temporal de las áreas fuente de escorrentía y de sedimento. La exportación de sedimento ilustra la complejidad de la respuesta geomorfológica en los ambientes de montaña afectados por actividades agrarias en el pasado.

  4. Experimental results of near real-time protection system for plasma facing components in Wendelstein 7-X at GLADIS (United States)

    Ali, A.; Jakubowski, M.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Moncada, V.; Sitjes, A. Puig; Neu, R.; Pedersen, T. S.; the W7-X Team


    One of the aims of stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), is to investigate steady state operation, for which power exhaust is an important issue. The predominant fraction of the energy lost from the confined plasma region will be absorbed by an island divertors, which is designed for 10 {{MWm}}-2 steady state operation. In order to protect the divertor targets from overheating, 10 state-of-the-art infrared endoscopes will be installed at W7-X. In this work, we present the experimental results obtained at the high heat flux test facility GLADIS (Garching LArge DIvertor Sample test facility in IPP Garching) [1] during tests of a new plasma facing components (PFCs) protection algorithm designed for W7-X. The GLADIS device is equipped with two ion beams that can generate a heat load in the range from 3 MWm‑2 to 55 MWm‑2. The algorithms developed at W7-X to detect defects and hot spots are based on the analysis of surface temperature evolution and are adapted to work in near real-time. The aim of this work was to test the near real-time algorithms in conditions close to those expected in W7-X. The experiments were performed on W7-X pre-series tiles to detect CFC/Cu delaminations. For detection of surface layers, carbon fiber composite (CFC) blocks from the divertor of the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator were used to observe temporal behavior of fully developed surface layers. These layers of re-deposited materials, like carbon, boron, oxygen and iron, were formed during the W7-AS operation. A detailed analysis of the composition and their thermal response to high heat fluxes (HHF) are described in [2]. The experiments indicate that the automatic detection of critical events works according to W7-X PFC protection requirements.

  5. Ion sheath effects on RF plasma probes - Experimental results in laboratory plasmas (United States)

    Kist, R.


    Laboratory work dealing with the frequency characteristic of the plasma impedance of spherical and cylindrical electrode systems is reported. The influence of the ion sheath on various features of the impedance characteristic is emphasized. Those features are the series and parallel resonance as well as additional resonances due to the excitation of electroacoustic and cyclotron harmonic waves. The dependence of the series and parallel resonances on dc biasing leads to a method of determining the ion sheath capacity for a cylindrical electrode system. The obtained values agree fairly well with those obtained from a theoretical model for the density and potential distribution in the sheath of a cylindrical sensor aligned with a supersonic plasma flow. The amplitude of resonances due to excitation of longitudinal plasma waves (electroacoustic and cyclotron harmonic) is reduced or even vanishes for sufficiently negative dc bias. Positive bias first leads to an increased amplitude up to a certain dc bias value above which, however, the amplitude decreases again due to electron absorption at the sensor surface.

  6. Experimental Equipment and Basic Technological Methods of Obtaining Cavitation Protective Coatings on Working Surfaces of Steam Turbine Blades Made of Titanium Alloy VT6 in Order to Replace Imports of Similar Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilous, V.A.


    Full Text Available The experimental equipment and basic technological methods of obtaining сavitation protective coatings on the working surfaces of blades of steam turbines from titanium alloy VT6 have been created. The selection and the basis of the composition and conditions of synthesis of optimal coating for hardening blades have been justified. The parameters of deposition process of coatings on the blade model have been worked, the experimental technological deposition process of hardening coatings has been created. The tests of titanium alloy VT6 samples with the preferred coatings in simulation conditions close to operational have been conducted. The coatings on the blade model of length up to 130 cm and weight up to 30 kg have been deposited. The velocity of the TiN coating depositing was 10 mkm/h.

  7. Results of bone regenerate study after osteosynthesis with bioinert and calcium phosphate-coated bioactive implants in experimental femoral neck fractures (experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kazanin


    Full Text Available Objective - to analyze the results of X-ray, cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry experimental studies of bone regenerates after osteosynthesis with bioinert and calcium phosphate-coated bioactive implants. Material and methods. The study was conducted on experimental femoral neck fractures in rabbit males. Reparative osteogenesis processes were studied in groups of bioinert titanium implant osteosynthesis and calcium phosphate-coated bioactive titanium implant osteosynthesis. The animals were clinically followed-up during the postoperative period. X-ray, cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry studies of samples extracted from femoral bones were conducted over time on days 1, 7, 14, 30 and 60. The animal experiments were kept and treated according to recommendations of international standards, Helsinki Declaration on animal welfare and approved by the local ethics committee. All surgeries were performed under anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize the suffering of the animals. Results. In the animal group without femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis, femoral neck pseudoarthrosis was observed at the end of the experiment. The results of cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry studies conducted on day 60 of the experiment confirmed that the cellular composition of the bone regenerate in the group of calcium phosphate-coated bioactive titanium implants corresponded to a more mature bone tissue than in the group of bioinert titanium implants. Conclusion. The results of the statistical analysis of cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry data show that the use of calcium phosphate-coated bioactive titanium implants allows to achieve significantly earlier bone tissue regeneration.

  8. A retrospective study of the hearing results obtained after stapedotomy by the implantation of two Teflon pistons with a different diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grolman, W.; Tange, R. A.; de Bruijn, A. J.; Hart, A. A.; Schouwenburg, P. F.


    This study reports the evaluation of hearing results after implantation of a Teflon piston of a different diameter in cases of otosclerosis requiring stapedotomy. By random selection, a Teflon piston with a shaft diameter of 0.3 mm was inserted in 34 cases and a piston with a shaft diameter of 0.4

  9. A comparison of the impact of screen-positive results obtained from ultrasound and biochemical screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinans, M.J.; Kooij, L.; Muller, M.A.; Bilardo, K.M.; van Lith, J.M.; Tymstra, T.


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the experiences of women who received a screen-positive test result for Down syndrome after nuchal translucency screening or after biochemical screening in the first trimester of pregnancy in the Netherlands. METHOD: Semi-quantitative questionnaires were sent to 40 women with a

  10. A comparison of the impact of screen-positive results obtained from ultrasound and biochemical screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinans, Martin J. N.; Kooij, Loes; Müller, Moira A.; Bilardo, Katia M.; van Lith, Jan M. M.; Tymstra, Tjeerd


    Objective To compare the experiences of women who received a screen-positive test result for Down syndrome after nuchal translucency screening or after biochemical screening in the first trimester of pregnancy in the Netherlands. Method Semi-quantitative questionnaires were sent to 40 women with a

  11. Presentation of clinical laboratory results: an experimental comparison of four visualization techniques. (United States)

    Torsvik, Torbjørn; Lillebo, Børge; Mikkelsen, Gustav


    To evaluate how clinical chemistry test results were assessed by volunteers when presented with four different visualization techniques. A total of 20 medical students reviewed quantitative test results from 4 patients using 4 different visualization techniques in a balanced, crossover experiment. The laboratory data represented relevant patient categories, including simple, emergency, chronic and complex patients. Participants answered questions about trend, overall levels and covariation of test results. Answers and assessment times were recorded and participants were interviewed on their preference of visualization technique. Assessment of results and the time used varied between visualization techniques. With sparklines and relative multigraphs participants made faster assessments. With relative multigraphs participants identified more covarying test results. With absolute multigraphs participants found more trends. With sparklines participants more often assessed laboratory results to be within reference ranges. Different visualization techniques were preferred for the four different patient categories. No participant preferred absolute multigraphs for any patient. Assessments of clinical chemistry test results were influenced by how they were presented. Importantly though, this association depended on the complexity of the result sets, and none of the visualization techniques appeared to be ideal in all settings. Sparklines and relative multigraphs seem to be favorable techniques for presenting complex long-term clinical chemistry test results, while tables seem to suffice for simpler result sets.

  12. Prosthetic strap system for simplified ventral hernia repair: results of a porcine experimental model. (United States)

    Amato, G; Romano, G; Agrusa, A; Cassata, G; Salamone, G; Gulotta, G


    Aiming to achieve a simplified ventral hernia repair, a proprietary oval-shaped mesh was experimentally tested in a porcine model. The mesh is structured with a large central body and radiating straps. The friction of the straps passing through the tissues are hypothesized to be adequate to maintain the position of the mesh during tissue ingrowth, avoiding classic point fixation while ensuring a wide coverage of the abdomen. The mesh, having six radial straps, was placed using a sublay preperitoneal technique in four pigs. All straps were passed laterally through the abdominal wall and exteriorized from the skin. The straps were trimmed at the level of the skin, allowing the stumps to recoil into the subcutaneous space. The animals were euthanized at 1 and 4 months to determine the integration of the straps. Macroscopically, all 24 straps were firmly incorporated within the abdominal wall. The tension-free placement of the mesh by using the straps was effective. The friction of the straps passing through the tissues was adequate to keep the mesh well orientated. No dislocation of the implants was observed. The strap system also allowed a broader coverage of the abdominal wall, far beyond the wound opening. The described arm system of the aforementioned implant seems to be effective in eliminating point fixation of the mesh. The fixation arms seemed to have ensured that the mesh stayed orientated in all of the animals. A very wide lateral mesh placement was accomplished, assuring sufficient defect overlap when shrinkage occurs.

  13. Analysis and experimental results of frequency splitting of underwater wireless power transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangqiang Niu


    Full Text Available Underwater wireless power transfer (UWPT is an important technique to power underwater devices while its frequency splitting phenomena are not fully elucidated. In this study, frequency splitting phenomena of a symmetrical planar two-coil wireless power transfer (WPT system resonated at 90 kHz are investigated in seawater and freshwater. A concise frequency splitting analysis of this WPT system in air based on circuit model is given first and then experimental data are reported to show there is little difference between power transfer in air, freshwater and seawater in the range of 40–140 kHz of this WPT system. Consequently, the frequency splitting analysis and observations in air are also applicable in freshwater and seawater. It is found a V-type frequency splitting pattern exists in this WPT system under seawater and freshwater. Frequency shift is observed in this UWPT system in overcoupled region, and no frequency shift is observed in undercoupled region. In undercoupled region, in the low frequency zone of 40–90 kHz the load voltage characteristics in three media are identical; in the high-frequency zone of 90–140 kHz, the load voltage in air is slightly larger than those in freshwater and seawater.

  14. Can formulation affect tryptophan depletion results? Hints from studies in experimental panic. (United States)

    Sobczak, Sjacko; Schruers, Koen


    Acute Tryptophan Depletion (ATD) is a specific serotonergic challenge tool. Central serotonergic effects of different ATD procedures are possibly not those that are usually assumed. In this paper we review data of ATD in an experimental fear model to investigate whether and how methodological differences may affect fear outcomes. Next we point to discrepancies of studies in our laboratory in order to test the hypotheses formulated in the review. Literature was searched in PubMed and MEDLINE and studies of our laboratory were compared. Eight studies were included in the review: five in patients with panic disorder, three in healthy individuals. Methodologically the studies in our laboratory were quite similar except for the applied ATD mixtures. ATD exerts fear-enhancing effects in patients with panic disorders, more than in healthy individuals. However, our findings are inconclusive. The discrepant findings of studies in our laboratory can possibly be explained by differences in the ATD mixtures used. We suggest mechanisms as to how these might have affected the central availability of tryptophan and hence serotonin.

  15. Bioreactor hydrodynamic effect on Escherichia coli physiology: experimental results and stochastic simulations. (United States)

    Delvigne, F; Destain, J; Thonart, P


    A microorganism circulating in a bioreactor can be submitted to hydrodynamic conditions inducing a significant effect on its physiology. The mixing time exhibited by the stirred bioreactor and the circulation of microorganisms are both involved in this reacting system. The mixing component determines the intensity of the concentration gradient and the circulation component determines the way in which the microorganism is exposed to this gradient. These two components linked to the experimental evaluation of microbial physiology can be analysed by a structured stochastic model in the case of a partitioned or "scale-down" reactor (SDR). A stochastic model indeed enables to simulate the mixing process as well as the circulation of microorganisms in SDRs. The superimposition of mixing and circulation processes determines the concentration profile experienced by a microorganism in the reactor. In the present case, the glucose concentration experienced by Escherichia coli has been modelled during a fed-batch culture. In this context, the use of a stochastic hydrodynamic model has permitted to point out an interesting feed pulse retardant effect in the SDRs. Nevertheless, the metabolic response of E. coli is not easy to interpret because of the possible simultaneous developments of overflow metabolism and mixed acid fermentation induced by the strong glucose concentration in the reactor.

  16. Sound absorption of porous substrates covered by foliage: experimental results and numerical predictions. (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick; Horoshenkov, Kirill; Khan, Amir


    The influence of loose plant leaves on the acoustic absorption of a porous substrate is experimentally and numerically studied. Such systems are typical in vegetative walls, where the substrate has strong acoustical absorbing properties. Both experiments in an impedance tube and theoretical predictions show that when a leaf is placed in front of such a porous substrate, its absorption characteristics markedly change (for normal incident sound). Typically, there is an unaffected change in the low frequency absorption coefficient (below 250 Hz), an increase in the middle frequency absorption coefficient (500-2000 Hz) and a decrease in the absorption at higher frequencies. The influence of leaves becomes most pronounced when the substrate has a low mass density. A combination of the Biot's elastic frame porous model, viscous damping in the leaf boundary layers and plate vibration theory is implemented via a finite-difference time-domain model, which is able to predict accurately the absorption spectrum of a leaf above a porous substrate system. The change in the absorption spectrum caused by the leaf vibration can be modeled reasonably well assuming the leaf and porous substrate properties are uniform.

  17. Development and Experimental Results from a 1 kW Prototype AMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan


    A novel rotary magnetic refrigeration device has been designed and constructed following the concepts recently outlined in Bahl et al. (2011). The magnet and flow system design allow for almost continuous usage of both the magnetic field and the magnetocaloric material in 24 cassettes, each...... exchange of the 24 cassettes, allowing the testing of different material amounts and compositions. Operating with 2.8 kg of commercial grade Gd spheres a maximum no-span cooling power of 1010 W and a maximum zero load temperature span of 25.4 K have been achieved. For the purpose of actual operation......, simultaneous high span and high performance is required. At a heat load of 200 W a high temperature span of 18.9 K has been obtained, dropping to a span of 13.8 K at the higher heat load value of 400 W....

  18. A study of the non-electrostatic interaction micelle/charged ligand: A comparison of the results obtained by two different methods (United States)

    Jiménez, R.; García-Fernández, E.; Grueso, E.; Fernández, I.; Marín, I.; Sanz, J. J.; Torrado, L. A.; Villegas, D.; González, L.; Stürekow, H. K.; Leon, M.; Lería, F.; Machuca, E. M.; Martinez, L. M.; Morales, J.; Villa-Bernaldez, I.; Prado-Gotor, R.


    A kinetic study of the reaction between [Fe(CN) 6] 4- (hexacyanoferrate (II)) and [Co(en) 2Cl 2] + ( trans-dichlorobis cobalt(III) bis(ethylenediammine)) has been carried out in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micellar solutions containing NaCl. The results are discussed by using an approach based on the pseudophase model. Trends in the observed reactivity are explained by a change in the degree of association of one of the reactants ([Co(en) 2Cl] + in the present Letter) to the micelles, which depends on the surface potential of the micelles. The electrostatic and non-electrostatic components of the free energy of binding are determined by two different methods and the results of these determinations are compared.

  19. Biological Variation of Chloride and Sodium in Sweat Obtained by Pilocarpine Iontophoresis in Adults: How Sure are You About Sweat Test Results? (United States)

    Willems, Philippe; Weekx, Steven; Meskal, Anissa; Schouwers, Sofie


    The measurement of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat is an important test for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to assess the analytical variation (CV A ) and within-subject (CV I ) and between-subject (CV G ) biological variation of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat, collected by pilocarpine iontophoresis and to determine their effect on the clinical interpretation of sweat test results. Twelve Caucasian adults (six male and six female) without symptoms suggestive for CF and with a mean age of 41 years (range 28-59) were included in the study. At least eight samples of sweat were collected from each individual by pilocarpine iontophoresis. Chloride and sodium concentrations were measured in duplicate for each sample using ion selective electrodes. After the removal of outliers, the CV A , CV I , and CV G of chloride and sodium were determined, and their impact on measurement uncertainty and reference change value were calculated. The CV A , CV I , and CV G of chloride in sweat samples were 6.5, 17.7, and 47.2%, respectively. The CV A , CV I , and CV G of sodium sweat samples were 6.0, 17.5, and 42.6%, respectively. Our study indicates that sweat chloride and sodium concentration results must be interpreted with great care. Different components of variation, particularly the biological variations, have a considerable impact on the interpretation of these results. If no pre-analytical, analytical, or post-analytical errors are suspected, repeated sweat testing to confirm first-measurement results might not be desirable.

  20. Analysis of results obtained using the automatic chemical control of the quality of the water heat carrier in the drum boiler of the Ivanovo CHP-3 power plant (United States)

    Larin, A. B.; Kolegov, A. V.


    Results of industrial tests of the new method used for the automatic chemical control of the quality of boiler water of the drum-type power boiler ( P d = 13.8 MPa) are described. The possibility of using an H-cationite column for measuring the electric conductivity of an H-cationized sample of boiler water over a long period of time is shown.

  1. Laser-induced acoustic landmine detection with experimental results on buried landmines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Putten, F.J.M. van; Koersel, A.C. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.


    Acoustic landmine detection (ALD) is a technique for the detection of buried landmines including non-metal mines. Since it gives complementary results with GPR or metal detection, sensor fusion of these techniques with acoustic detection would give promising results. Two methods are used for the

  2. Experimental Whole-Ecosystem Warming Alters Vegetation Phenology in a Boreal Spruce Bog: Initial Results from the SPRUCE Experiment (United States)

    Richardson, A. D.


    Phenology is one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. However, the response of phenology to future environmental conditions still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9°C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to PhenoCam (, where processed to yield quantitative measures of canopy color. These data are complemented by on-the-ground phenological data collected by human observers. Air warming treatments at SPRUCE began in August 2015. We observed a delay in senescence during autumn 2015 (2-5 days per degree of warming) and an advance in onset during spring 2016 (1-4 days per degree of warming). These patterns are robust across species and methods of phenological observation (i.e. camera-based vs. human observer). And, our results show very little evidence for photoperiod acting as a constraint on the response to warming. Early spring onset and consequent loss of frost hardiness in the warmest chambers proved disadvantageous when a brief period of extreme cold (to -12°C in the control chambers, to -3°C in the +9°C chambers) followed a month of generally mild weather. Foliage mortality for both Larix and Picea was immediate and severe, although both species subsequently re-flushed. These results give support for the hypothesis that warming may enhance the likelihood of spring frost

  3. The flux distribution from a 1.25m2 target aligned heliostat: comparison of ray tracing and experimental results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maliage, M


    Full Text Available model with the experimental flux distribution measured using a calorimeter. Preliminary results show that the near-Gaussian shape and radial extent of the flux distribution in the focal spot of the 1.25m2 heliostat is well predicted by ray...

  4. Steady state characteristics of a tilting pad journal bearing with controllable lubrication: Comparison between theoretical and experimental results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard; Santos, Ilmar


    elastothermohydrodynamic lubrication regime), as well as using a test rig designed and built to this effect. The comparison between experimental and theoretical results provides solid ground to determine the accuracy of the available model for the the prediction of the steady-state behavior of the tilting-pad bearing...

  5. Experimental results of affective valence and arousal to avatar's facial expressions. (United States)

    Ku, Jeonghun; Jang, Hee Jeong; Kim, Kwang Uk; Kim, Jae Hun; Park, Sung Hyouk; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, Jae Jin; Kim, In Y; Kim, Sun I


    The objectives of this study were to propose a method of presenting dynamic facial expressions to experimental subjects, in order to investigate human perception of avatar's facial expressions of different levels of emotional intensity. The investigation concerned how perception varies according to the strength of facial expression, as well as according to an avatar's gender. To accomplish these goals, we generated a male and a female virtual avatar with five levels of intensity of happiness and anger using a morphing technique. We then recruited 16 normal healthy subjects and measured each subject's emotional reaction by scoring affective arousal and valence after showing them the avatar's face. Through this study, we were able to investigate human perceptual characteristics evoked by male and female avatars' graduated facial expressions of happiness and anger. In addition, we were able to identify that a virtual avatar's facial expression could affect human emotion in different ways according to the avatar's gender and the intensity of its facial expressions. However, we could also see that virtual faces have some limitations because they are not real, so subjects recognized the expressions well, but were not influenced to the same extent. Although a virtual avatar has some limitations in conveying its emotion using facial expressions, this study is significant in that it shows that a new potential exists to use or manipulate emotional intensity by controlling a virtual avatar's facial expression linearly using a morphing technique. Therefore, it is predicted that this technique may be used for assessing emotional characteristics of humans, and may be of particular benefit for work with people with emotional disorders through a presentation of dynamic expression of various emotional intensities.

  6. Concept and first experimental results of a new ferromagnetic assist device for extra-aortic counterpulsation. (United States)

    Starck, Christoph T; Becker, Jakob; Fuhrer, Roland; Sündermann, Simon; Stark, Jan Wendelin; Falk, Volkmar


    Based on a ferromagnetic silicone cuff for extra-aortic counterpulsation, a new assist device concept was developed. The driving force is generated by an external magnetic field, which leads to contraction of a soft magnetic cuff. The force generation capacity of the device was tested in a silicone aorta model. Magnetic elastomers can be constructed through dispersion of micro- or nanoparticles in polymer matrices and were designed to act as soft actuators. Two magnetically active silicone cuffs were produced with a nanomagnet loading of 250 wt% (Cuff 1) and a micromagnet loading of 67 wt% (Cuff 2). The magnetic cuffs were applied on a silicone aorta model and contracted against hydrostatic pressure. A full contraction of Cuff 1 was possible against a maximal hydrostatic pressure of 30 cmH₂O (22 mmHg) at a magnetic flux density of 0.4 T (Tesla) and 65 cmH₂O (48 mmHg) at a magnetic flux density of 1.2 T. A 50% contraction of Cuff 2 was possible against a maximal hydrostatic pressure of 80 cmH₂O (59 mmHg) at a magnet-cuff-distance (MCD) of 0 cm. At MCDs of 1 and 2 cm a 50% contraction was possible against 33 cmH₂O (24 mmHg) and 10 cmH₂O (7 mmHg), respectively. Combining the advantages of magnetic elastomers with the principle of extra-aortic counterpulsation in a new assist device concept avoids the need for anticoagulation (no contact with bloodstream). With regard to the magnetic principle of action, no intra- to extracorporeal connection is needed. More experimental work is needed to further increase the force generated by the silicone cuff and to transfer the device concept into an in vivo setting.

  7. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W Cousins

    Full Text Available The neovascular (wet form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV. Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV, laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF, an outcome that requires active virus replication.

  8. Use of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of osteomalacia: preliminary results on experimental osteomalacia in the rat. (United States)

    Luisetto, G; Camozzi, V; De Terlizzi, F; Moschini, G; Ballanti, P


    This study was performed to investigate the ability of ultrasonographic technique to distinguish osteomalacia from normal bone with the same mineral content. Ten rats with experimentally induced osteomalacia (group A) and 12 control rats having similar body size and weight (group B) were studied. Histomorphometric analysis confirmed the presence of osteomalacia in two rats from group A and showed normally mineralized bone in two rats from group B. Whole body bone mineral density, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, was similar in the two groups (86 +/- 6 mg/cm2 in group A and 89 +/- 4 mg/cm2 in group B). The velocity of the ultrasound beam in bone was measured by densitometer at the first caudal vertebra of each rat. The velocity was measured when the first peak of the waveform reached a predetermined minimum amplitude value (amplitude-dependent speed of sound) as well as at the lowest point of this curve before it reaches the predetermined minimum amplitude (first minimum speed of sound). Although the amplitude-dependent speed of sound was similar in the two groups (1381.9 +/- 11.8 m/s in group A and 1390.9 +/- 17.8 m/s in group B), the first minimum speed of sound was clearly different (1446.1 +/- 8.9 m/s in group A and 1503.3 +/- 10.9 m/s in group B; P < 0.001). This study shows that ultrasonography could be used to identify alterations in bone quality, such as osteomalacia, but further studies need to be carried out before this method can be introduced into clinical practice.

  9. Morphological changes in experimental tuberculosis resulting from treatment with quercetin and polyvinylpyrrolidone. (United States)

    Butov, Dmytro O; Zaitseva, Svetlana I; Pitenko, Mykola M; Stepanenko, Ganna L; Butova, Tatyana S


    Morphological study of tissue necrosis stages in experimental organ-preserving tuberculosis pharmacotherapy using Quercetin and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (QP). 32 laboratory mice of C57BL/6JLacSto strain were used in the experiment. The animals were divided into five groups, six to seven mice in each: group 1- Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) uninfected mice; group 2- MBT infected mice; group 3- MBT infected and treated with antituberculosis preparation (ATP); group 4- MBT infected and QP treated; group 5- MBT infected and treated with ATP and QP. The mice were infected through caudal vein injection with MTB H37Rv strain. The preparation QP, which belongs to the capillary-stabilizing-remedy group, was used for the research. The ATP were izoniazid and streptomycin. QP produced a strict delineation of caseous necrosis from the unaffected parts of the connective tissue with fibrosis in the center and a large number of Langerhans cells, which was not observed in the control groups without QP. The combination of QP and ATP had more pronounced effects. In MBT-infected mice, where QP was not used, unlike the group where QP was used, adipose dystrophy of hepatocytes was observed. Thus, the hepatoprotective effect of QP against TB can be suggested. QP produces a clear delineation of caseous necrosis from an uninfected tissue by connective-tissue formation, and by forming fibrotic tissue in the center of epithelioid cells that prevents further TB dissemination by enhancing TB pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Presentation of clinical laboratory results: an experimental comparison of four visualization techniques


    Torsvik, Torbjørn; Lillebo, Børge; Mikkelsen, Gustav


    Objective To evaluate how clinical chemistry test results were assessed by volunteers when presented with four different visualization techniques. Materials and methods A total of 20 medical students reviewed quantitative test results from 4 patients using 4 different visualization techniques in a balanced, crossover experiment. The laboratory data represented relevant patient categories, including simple, emergency, chronic and complex patients. Participants answered questions about trend, o...

  11. Experimental error correction results for optical digital pulse-position modulation (United States)

    Massarella, A. J.; Sibley, M. J. N.


    Original practical and theoretical results are presented for the detection and correction of errors in a direct detection optical digital pulse-position modulation (digital PPM) system. These results show degradation in system performance due to interframe interference, and an original method of correcting this type of error is presented. This error correcting method is then used to enhance the performance of a Reed-Solomon (RS) coded, digital PPM system.

  12. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of water -pipe wall interaction


    Ali Heidari; Poria Ghassemi


    Tube wall analysis on unsteady network flow of pipe shows that the column is separated when it reached to vapor pressure. In this study, we experiment dynamic behavior of fluid distribution pipe system. The model used in is a straight suspended pipe, which is striked by a solid steel bar. Then the results of pressure change in different parts of pipe has been studied and compared with valid results.

  13. Is Nature Standard like the Model? Experimental results on Standard Model and Higgs boson physics

    CERN Document Server

    Massironi, Andrea


    Recent results on Standard Model and Higgs boson measurements performed by ATLAS and CMS collaborations will be reported. The presentation will include results based on LHC Run II data, with particular relevance on most recent ones. Vector boson production, Jets, Photons, Top physics, and different Higgs boson production mechanisms will be overviewed. Precision measurements reachable with Run II data are discussed as well, such as the most updated differential distributions.

  14. Clinical pathology results from cranes with experimental West Nile Virus infection (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.


    Sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated for and then challenged with West Nile virus. Resulting titers demonstrated protection in the vaccinated-challenged cranes as compared to the unvaccinated-challenged cranes. Clinical pathology results showed challenged cranes, whether vaccinated or not, had a decrease in their hematocrits and an elevation of 2.5-fold in their white blood cell counts as compared to unchallenged control sandhill cranes. No differences were apparent in the differential counts of heterophils and lymphocytes.

  15. Preliminary experimental results of radiofrequency-cement-augmented and cannulated pedicle screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goost H


    Full Text Available The risk of cut-out of a pedicle screw is high in the presence of osteoporotic bone. In cadaver studies it was found that cement augmentation of pedicle screws markedly increases pullout forces. However, the use of conventional low viscosity vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty cement is associated with the risk of cement extravasation. The risk might be reduced by using high viscosity, radiofrequency-activated bone cement. After performing DEXA scans, six fresh-frozen vertebral bodies of different bone densities were obtained from cadavers. Two pedicle screws (WSI Expertise-Inject, Peter Brehm, Germany were placed in the pedicles. About 3 ml of radiofrequency-activated, ultra-high viscosity cement (ER2 Bone Cement, DFine Europe GmbH, Germany was injected through the right pedicle. The left pedicle screw was left uncemented and served as control. Axial pullout tests were performed using a material testing device (Zwick/Roell Zmartpro, Ulm, Germany. The tests revealed that cementaugmented pedicle screws were able to withstand markedly higher pullout forces. Extravasation of cement did not occur. The value of the study is limited by the fact that only six samples were investigated. Further cadaver studies and clinical evaluation will be needed in the future. However, this pilot study showed that combining cannulated pedicle screws with ultra-high viscosity bone cement is a successful approach. Revision due to cut-out and complications secondary to cement extravasation can be reduced by this method.

  16. Factors influencing lung density in experimental models: results of studies using CT densitometry. (United States)

    Lehnert, S; Schreiner, L J; el-Khatib, E


    Lung density measurements using computed tomography have been made in mice, rats, and pure-bred beagles and mongrel dogs. Density was found to be dependent on a number of factors including the location of the area scanned, and the age and species of the animal. Lung density was found to decrease by approximately 40% from initial values in a group of rats scanned at intervals between 30 and 800 days old. Age-related density changes were not seen for the lungs of mice or dogs; however measurements were not made over a prolonged period. A gradient of increasing density from the base to apex of the lung was seen for 30 and 175-day-old rats (scanned in the prone position) while an apex to base density gradient was seen for both types of dog studied (scanned in the supine position). In none of the species studied was there a systematic difference in density of the right and left lungs. Differences in average lung density between the mice, rats and dogs reported here are consistent with the relationship between lung morphology, metabolic rate and body size which obtains for a range of mammalian species.

  17. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 2: numerical results (United States)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Carcasci, Carlo; Facchini, Bruno


    This paper presents a numerical validation of the aero-thermal study of a 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative trailing edge with one row of enlarged pedestals under stationary and rotating conditions. A CFD analysis was performed by means of commercial ANSYS-Fluent modeling the isothermal air flow and using k- ω SST turbulence model and an isothermal air flow for both static and rotating conditions (Ro up to 0.23). The used numerical model is validated first by comparing the numerical velocity profiles distribution results to those obtained experimentally by means of PIV technique for Re = 20,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. The second validation is based on the comparison of the numerical results of the 2D HTC maps over the heated plate to those of TLC experimental data, for a smooth surface for a Reynolds number = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two-tip conditions were considered: open tip and closed tip conditions. Results of the average Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts region are presented too. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  18. Experimental studies of toroidal correlations of plasma density fluctuations along the magnetic field lines in the T-10 tokamak and first results of numerical modeling (United States)

    Buldakov, M. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Isaev, M. Yu; Shelukhin, D. A.


    The antenna system of reflectometry diagnostics at the T-10 tokamak allows to study long-range toroidal correlations of plasma density fluctuations along the magnetic field lines. The antenna systems are installed in two poloidal cross-sections of the vacuum chamber separated by a 90° angle in the toroidal direction. The experiments, which were conducted at the low field side, showed that the high level of toroidal correlations is observed only for quasi-coherent fluctuations. However, broadband and stochastic low frequency fluctuations are not correlated. Numerical modeling of the plasma turbulence structure in the T-10 tokamak was conducted to interpret the experimental results and take into account non-locality of reflectometry measurements. In the model used, it was assumed that the magnitudes of density fluctuations are constant along the magnetic field lines. The 2D full-wave Tamic-RTH code was used to model the reflectometry signals. High level of correlations for quasi-coherent fluctuations was obtained during the modeling, which agrees with the experimental observations. However, the performed modeling also predicts high level of correlations for broadband fluctuations, which contradicts the experimental data. The modeling showed that the effective reflection radius, from which the information on quasi-coherent plasma turbulence is obtained, is shifted outwards from the reflection radius by approximately 7 mm.

  19. Variation of pneumococcal Pilus-1 expression results in vaccine escape during Experimental Otitis Media [EOM].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Figueira

    Full Text Available The pneumococcal Pilus-1 enhances attachment to epithelial cells in the respiratory tract and subsequent invasion. Pilus-1 expression is bi-stable and positively regulated by the RlrA transcriptional regulator. To delineate the role of pilus-1 in Experimental Otitis Media (EOM, we evaluated colonization and disease due to a Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP wild type strain (Taiwan19F-14 wt and its otherwise isogenic pilus-1 and pilus-2 deficient mutant (Taiwan19F-14 ΔPI-1/PI-2- as well as potential for a chimeric protein (RrgB321 vaccine candidate for prevention of middle ear (ME disease.Chinchillas were challenged intranasally with either Taiwan19F-14 wt or Taiwan19F-14PI-1/PI-2 deficient mutant. ME status was assessed and direct cultures performed. New cohorts of animals were immunized with RrgB321 or alum. Intranasal challenge with Taiwan19F-14 wt [erythromycin susceptible E(S] was performed. Subsequently, a second cohort of animals was immunized and challenged with either Taiwan19F-14 wt or a Pilus-1 over-expressing mutant [Taiwan19F-14+pMU1328_Pc-rlrA mutant; E resistant (R] strain. Pilus-1 expression was analyzed in SP isolated from nasopharynx (NP and ME fluids by flow cytometry.Culture positive EOM developed following challenge with either wild type SP (Taiwan19F-14 or its pilus-1 deficient mutant. Culture positive EOM developed following challenge with wild type in both RrgB321 immunized and control animals. Pilus-1 expression in ME fluids was significantly higher in controls compared to immunized chinchillas. In second cohort of immunized and control animals challenged with the over-expressing Pilus-1 mutant, delayed development of EOM in the immunized animals was observed. Pneumococci recovered from ME fluid of immunized animals were no longer E(R signifying the loss of the pMU1328_Pc-rlrA plasmid.Pneumococcal pilus-1 was not essential for EOM. Regulation of Pilus-1 expression in ME fluids in the presence of anti RrgB321 antibody was

  20. Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results. (United States)

    Turner, Nancy D; Lloyd, Shannon K


    A role for red and processed meat in the development of colorectal cancer has been proposed based largely on evidence from observational studies in humans, especially in those populations consuming a westernized diet. Determination of causation specifically by red or processed meat is contingent upon identification of plausible mechanisms that lead to colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the availability of plausible mechanistic data linking red and processed meat consumption to colorectal cancer risk. Forty studies using animal models or cell cultures met specified inclusion criteria, most of which were designed to examine the role of heme iron or heterocyclic amines in relation to colon carcinogenesis. Most studies used levels of meat or meat components well in excess of those found in human diets. Although many of the experiments used semi-purified diets designed to mimic the nutrient loads in current westernized diets, most did not include potential biologically active protective compounds present in whole foods. Because of these limitations in the existing literature, there is currently insufficient evidence to confirm a mechanistic link between the intake of red meat as part of a healthy dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. Impact statement Current recommendations to reduce colon cancer include the reduction or elimination of red or processed meats. These recommendations are based on data from epidemiological studies conducted among cultures where meat consumption is elevated and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are reduced. This review evaluated experimental data exploring the putative mechanisms whereby red or processed meats may contribute to colon cancer. Most studies used levels of meat or meat-derived compounds that were in excess of those in human diets, even in cultures where meat intake is elevated. Experiments where protective dietary compounds were used to mitigate the

  1. An experimental search strategy retrieves more precise results than PubMed and Google for questions about medical interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Badgett


    Full Text Available Objective. We compared the precision of a search strategy designed specifically to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs and systematic reviews of RCTs with search strategies designed for broader purposes.Methods. We designed an experimental search strategy that automatically revised searches up to five times by using increasingly restrictive queries as long at least 50 citations were retrieved. We compared the ability of the experimental and alternative strategies to retrieve studies relevant to 312 test questions. The primary outcome, search precision, was defined for each strategy as the proportion of relevant, high quality citations among the first 50 citations retrieved.Results. The experimental strategy had the highest median precision (5.5%; interquartile range [IQR]: 0%–12% followed by the narrow strategy of the PubMed Clinical Queries (4.0%; IQR: 0%–10%. The experimental strategy found the most high quality citations (median 2; IQR: 0–6 and was the strategy most likely to find at least one high quality citation (73% of searches; 95% confidence interval 68%–78%. All comparisons were statistically significant.Conclusions. The experimental strategy performed the best in all outcomes although all strategies had low precision.

  2. Evaluation of Radiographic Results Obtained by Using Modified Dual Pelvic Osteotomy (DPO Plate for the Treatment of Hip Dysplasia in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Hip dysplasia is a developmental orthopedic joint disease that commonly effects many different dog breeds, which are generally observed bilaterally. Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO is one of the most common techniques used to minimize the development of joint subluxation and hip dysplasia in young dogs. However, in the course of time, different ways to reduce the complications of TPO have been described and alternative techniques such as dual pelvic osteotomy (DPO have been developed. Materials of our study consisted of 12 dogs with hip dysplasia at 7-11 months age range. Six of these dogs were selected from the dogs for 7-9 months old while the other six were selected for dogs at the age of 10-11 months old. In operation, pubic osteotomy was performed initially and then modified DPO plates were placed in ilium following ilium osteotomy. In acute postoperative period, patients were evaluated for ischiadic nerve paralysis symptoms. Preoperative Norberg angle measurements were compared with Norberg angle measurements on ventrodorsal pelvis graphs taken at postoperative 2nd month. As a result, it was observed that DPO was effective in slowing the development of hip dysplasia in the older patient population than 4.5-9 months old. No signs of postoperative ischiadic paralysis or paresis were seen in the patients. No complications such as screw loosening and plate breakage like complications related to the modified DPO plate which we used were encountered.

  3. Fluid flow separation in a reactor pressure vessel during an ECC injection. Single phase flow and two phase flow (air-water) experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierry Bichet; Alain Martin [EDF - Research and Development Division - Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfert 6, quai Watier - B.P. 49 - 78401 Chatou CEDEX 01 (France); Frederic Beaud [EDF/ Industry - Basic Design Department., 12-14, Avenue Dutrievoz 69628 Villeurbanne CEDEX (France)


    Full text of publication follows: Within the framework of the nuclear power plant lifetime issue, the assessment of the French 900 MWe (3-loops) series reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity has been performed. A simplified analysis has shown that the most severe loading conditions are given by the small break loss of coolant accidents due to the pressurized injection of cold water (9 deg. C) into the cold leg and down comer of the RPV. During these transient scenarios, single or two-phase (uncovered cold leg) flows have been shown in the cold leg, depending on the crack size and RPV model (900 MWe or 1300 MWe). An experimental study has been carried out, on the one hand, to consolidate the numerical results obtained with CFD home code (Code-Saturne) which mainly showed the stratified flow in the cold leg and the fluid flow separation and its oscillations in the down comer during a single phase scenario. These physical phenomena are important for the thermal RPV loading assessment. On the other hand, the absence of experimental two-phase data necessitated to carry out an experimental study around the mixing area behavior (free surface, stratified flow) during an ECC injection with an uncovered cold leg. The new EDF R and D mock up, called HYBISCUS, is a facility which is made out of Plexiglas (atmosphere pressure) and represents a half scale CP0 geometry with one cold leg and part of the down comer. The mock up modularity allows us to insert representative ECC nozzles and a thermal shield. In reference to the reactor scenarios, the experimental operating conditions are derived from the conservation of the density effects (Froude number). For that, a heated salted water flow is used to represent the ECC injection whereas water represents the cold leg fluid. This mock up has been defined in order to represent single phase flow (cold leg and down comer full of water) or two-phase flow (uncovered cold leg) ECC scenarios. This paper reports experimental results

  4. Prediction of the Individual Wave Overtopping Volumes of a Wave Energy Converter using Experimental Testing and First Numerical Model Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, L.; Troch, P.; Kofoed, Jens Peter


    For overtopping wave energy converters (WECs) a more efficient energy conversion can be achieved when the volumes of water, wave by wave, that enter their reservoir are known and can be predicted. A numerical tool is being developed using a commercial CFD-solver to study and optimize...... nearshore 2Dstructure. First numerical model results are given for a specific test with regular waves, and are compared with the corresponding experimental results in this paper....

  5. Development and the results for the control rods in MKII core of experimental fast reactor Joyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakawa, Shunichi; Soga, Tomonori; Takatsuto, Hiroshi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center


    Since the first control rod design for the Joyo MKII core (about twenty years ago), there have been several challenging improvements; for example, a helium venting mechanism and a flow induced vibration prevention mechanism. Forty-four control rods with these various modifications have been fabricated. To date, thirty-four have been irradiated and the sixteen have been examined. This experience and effort has produced fruitful results: (1) Efficiency and reliability of the diving-bell type Helium venting mechanism. (2) Efficiency of the flow induced vibration prevention mechanism. (3) Efficiency of the improvement for scram damping mechanism. (4) Clarification of absorber-pellet-cladding-mechanical-interaction (ACMI) phenomena and preventive methods. The fourth result listed above has been a subject of investigation for fifteen years in several countries, that is a main phenomena to dominate control rod life time. The results of this investigation of ACMI in absorber elements are discussed. (J.P.N.)

  6. Prophages and growth dynamics confound experimental results with antibiotic-tolerant persister cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Alexander; Fino, Cinzia; Sørensen, Michael Askvad


    Bacterial persisters are phenotypic variants that survive antibiotic treatment in a dormant state and can be formed by multiple pathways. We recently proposed that the second messenger (p)ppGpp drives Escherichia coli persister formation through protease Lon and activation of toxin-antitoxin (TA...... the inconsistencies often observed between results of different laboratories. Our results show that seemingly simple antibiotic killing assays are very sensitive to variations in culture conditions and bacterial growth phase. Additionally, we found that some assay conditions cause the killing of antibiotic...... the validity of our model of persister formation in a refined assay setup that uses robust culture conditions and unravels the dynamics of persister cells through all bacterial growth stages. Our results confirm the importance of (p)ppGpp and Lon but no longer support a role of TA modules in E. coli persister...

  7. Quantity and quality of black carbon molecular markers as obtained by two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-DAD) - How do results compare? (United States)

    Schneider, M. P. W.; Smittenberg, R. H.; Dittmar, T.; Schmidt, M. W. I.


    Chars produced by wildfires are an important source of black carbon (BC) in the environment. After their deposition on the soil surface they can be distributed into rivers, marine waters and sediments. The analysis of benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) as a quantitative measure for black carbon (BC) in soil and sediment samples is a well-established method (Glaser et al., 1998; Brodowski et al., 2005). Briefly, the nitric acid oxidation of fused aromatic ring systems in BC forms eight molecular markers (BPCAs), which can be assigned to BC, and which subsequently can be quantified by GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector). Recently, this method was modified for the quantification of BC in seawater samples using HPLC-DAD (High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector) for the determination of individual BPCAs (Dittmar, 2008). A direct comparison of both analytical techniques is lacking but would be important for future data comparison aimed at the calculation of global BC budgets. Here we present a systematic comparison of the two BPCA quantification methods. We prepared chars under well-defined laboratory conditions. In order to cover a broad spectrum of char properties we used two sources of biomass and a wide range of pyrolysis temperatures. Chestnut hardwood chips (Castanea sativa) and rice straw (Oryza sativa) were pyrolysed at temperatures between 200 and 1000°C under a constant N2 stream. The maximum temperatures were held constant for 5 hours (Hammes et al., 2006). The BC contents of the chars have been analysed using the BPCA extraction method followed by either GC-FID or HPLC-DAD quantification. Preliminary results suggest that both methods yield similar total quantities of BPCA, and also the proportions of the individual markers are similar. Ongoing experiments will allow for a more detailed comparison of the two methods. The BPCA composition of chars formed at different temperatures and from different precursor

  8. A comparison of the results obtained from grinding in a stirred media mill lignite coal samples treated with microwave and untreated samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Samanli [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department


    Various studies have been carried out on the effect of microwave-treatment on grinding different types of coal. However, the effect of microwave treatment on grinding coal samples -3.35 mm in size which can be considered to be fine is still under investigation. The purpose of this paper is to make contributions to these studies conducted. In the study, lignite coal samples with pyritic sulphur and 25% structural moisture were crushed below -3.35 mm particle size using jaw and cone crushers and then classified into three different mono size groups by Russel sieve. For a complete removal of the structural moisture from the lignite coal, a microwave application with 600 W needs approximately 35% more energy consumption than that with 850 W. The untreated coal samples and the ones treated with microwave at 850 W were ground for 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 s in a stirred media mill. The breakage rates of microwave-treated coal increased and accordingly the ground products of microwave-treated coal yielded finer particles than -106 {mu}m as compared to untreated coals. The untreated and microwave-treated feed coals of -3350 {mu}m and -1180 {mu}m particle sizes were ground for 2 min in the stirred media mill. It was found that the increases in the rate of weight percentages for -106 {mu}m particle size fraction after 2 min of grinding of untreated and microwave-treated feed coals of -3350 {mu}m and -1180 {mu}m were found to be 15.81% and 2.69%, respectively. Moreover, Hardgrove Index (HGI) test results of lignite coal showed that the HGI index value increased by approximately 23% after microwave treatment with 850 W. 37 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Routine use of microarray-based gene expression profiling to identify patients with low cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia: accurate results can be obtained even with suboptimal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Blétière Diane Raingeard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has shown its ability to identify with high accuracy low cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia such as acute promyelocytic leukemia and leukemias with t(8;21 or inv(16. The aim of this gene expression profiling study was to evaluate to what extent suboptimal samples with low leukemic blast load (range, 2-59% and/or poor quality control criteria could also be correctly identified. Methods Specific signatures were first defined so that all 71 acute promyelocytic leukemia, leukemia with t(8;21 or inv(16-AML as well as cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia samples with at least 60% blasts and good quality control criteria were correctly classified (training set. The classifiers were then evaluated for their ability to assign to the expected class 111 samples considered as suboptimal because of a low leukemic blast load (n = 101 and/or poor quality control criteria (n = 10 (test set. Results With 10-marker classifiers, all training set samples as well as 97 of the 101 test samples with a low blast load, and all 10 samples with poor quality control criteria were correctly classified. Regarding test set samples, the overall error rate of the class prediction was below 4 percent, even though the leukemic blast load was as low as 2%. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of the class assignments ranged from 91% to 100%. Of note, for acute promyelocytic leukemia and leukemias with t(8;21 or inv(16, the confidence level of the class assignment was influenced by the leukemic blast load. Conclusion Gene expression profiling and a supervised method requiring 10-marker classifiers enable the identification of favorable cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia even when samples contain low leukemic blast loads or display poor quality control criterion.

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Drug-Associated Corrected QT Prolongation in Elderly Hospitalized Patients: Results of a Retrospective Analysis of Data Obtained Over 6 Months. (United States)

    Maison, Ophélie; de la Gastine, Blandine; Dayot, Laurent; Goutelle, Sylvain


    Little information exists on the frequency and determinants of drug-associated long QT syndrome in older adults. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and identify risk factors of drug-associated long QT syndrome in a population of elderly hospitalized patients. This was a retrospective study performed over 6 months in hospital geriatric medicine. Various QT-correction equations were fitted to the individual QT-RR data to evaluate the most appropriate equation. Long QT syndrome was defined as corrected QT ≥450 ms. Available data were compared in patients with and without long QT syndrome. Logistic regression and classification and regression tree analysis were performed to identify determinants of long QT syndrome. Thirty-three of 152 patients (22%) exhibited corrected QT ≥450 ms. The different QT correction equations provided similar results, except the Bazett equation. In patients with long QT syndrome, there was a higher proportion of male subjects (58 vs. 33%, p = 0.009) and a higher number of QT-prolonging drugs than in patients without long QT syndrome. Male sex (odds ratio, 3.25) and the number of prescribed QT-prolonging agents (odds ratio, 1.77) were significantly associated with the probability of long QT syndrome. The number of QT-prolonging drugs had a stronger influence on the risk of long QT syndrome in men than in women. Male sex was found to be a significant risk factor of corrected QT prolongation in elderly hospitalized patients. The risk also increased with the number of QT-prolonging agents, especially in men. Those findings may help to mitigate the risk of long QT syndrome in elderly patients in clinical practice.

  11. Assessment of oncologic control obtained after open versus laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UUT-UCs): results from a large French multicenter collaborative study. (United States)

    Ariane, Mehdi Mokhtar; Colin, Pierre; Ouzzane, Adil; Pignot, Geraldine; Audouin, Marie; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Albouy, Baptiste; Guillotreau, Julien; Neuzillet, Yann; Crouzet, Sébastien; Hurel, Sophie; Arroua, Frederic; Bigot, Pierre; Marchand, Charles; Fais, Pierre Olivier; de la Taille, Alexandre; Saint, Fabien; Ravier, Emmanuel; Matte, Alexandre; Guy, Laurent; Bruyère, Franck; Rouprêt, Morgan


    The purpose of this study was to compare the postsurgical survival of UUT-UC patients treated with ONU and LNU. Using a multi-institutional, national, retrospective database, we identified patients with UUT-UC who underwent radical nephroureterectomy by open access (ONU) or by the minimally invasive alternative (LNU). Survival curves were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariate Cox model was used to evaluate the association between surgical approach and disease recurrence. Overall, 609 patients were included (ONU = 459 and LNU = 150). The median age was 69.8 years (range 61.9-76), and the male-to-female ratio was 2:1. Postoperative complications occurred in 80 patients, with no significant difference between ONU and LNU on the whole (P = 0.64). The median follow-up was 27 months. There was no difference between the 2 procedures in the 5-year CSS or 5-year RFS. Moreover, the 5-year CSS (P = 0.053) and 5-year RFS (P = 0.9) for cases with locally advanced disease (pT3/pT4) were similar between ONU and LNU. In the multivariate analysis, the surgical procedure used was not found to be associated with survival. The main limitation of the study is its retrospective design, which is the result of the rarity of the disease. There is no evidence that oncological outcomes for LNU are inferior to those for open surgery, provided that the appropriate precautionary measures are taken.

  12. On recoil energy dependent void swelling in pure copper: part 1, experimental results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Eldrup, M.; Horsewell, Andy


    In recent years, the problem of void swelling has been treated within the framework of production bias model (PBM). The model considers the intracascade clustering of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), their thermal stability and the resulting asymmetry in the production of free and mo...

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Relationships among Populations Resulting from Intergradation among Cultivars of ZEA MAYS L. (United States)

    Hanson, W D; Moll, R H


    Populations were developed as intergradations among three maize cultivars, two adapted to North Carolina and one to Mexico, with the objective of testing whether diallel information could be used to identify the relationships among populations. The data substantiated theoretical observations that the technique would identify relationships among populations resulting from recent intergradations.

  14. Experimental results and clinical impact of using autologous rectus fascia sheath for vascular replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobori, Laszlo; Nemeth, Tibor; Nagy, Peter; Dallos, Gabor; Sotonyi, Peter; Fehervari, Imre; Nemes, Balazs; Gorog, Denes; Patonai, Attila; Monostory, Katalin; Doros, Attila; Sarvary, Enikoe; Fazakas, Janos; Gerlei, Zsuzsanna; Benkoe, Tamas; Piros, Laszlo; Jaray, Jeno; De Jong, Koert P.

    Vascular complications are major causes of graft failure in liver transplantation. The use of different vascular grafts is common but the results are controversial. The aim of this study was to create an 'ideal' arterial interponate for vascular replacements in the clinical field. An autologous,

  15. Multilevel selection with kin and non-kin groups, experimental results with japanese quail (coturnix japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muir, W.M.; Bijma, P.; schinckel, A.


    An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting

  16. Fluidised bed gasification of South African coals – experimental results and process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, A


    Full Text Available high-ash coal from the Waterberg coalfield was tested in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier at the CSIR using various gasification agents and operating conditions. The results of the tests show that when air and steam are used as the gasification agents...

  17. Intestinal flora imbalance results in altered bacterial translocation and liver function in rats with experimental cirrhosis. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Gu, Yurong; Chen, Youming; Deng, Hong; Chen, Lubiao; Chen, Sui; Zhang, Genglin; Gao, Zhiliang


    The intestinal microflora plays a major role in human health. Intestinal flora imbalances are seen in clinical settings, such as cirrhosis, in which bacterial translocation (BT) results in migration of bacteria or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to extraintestinal sites. In this study, we explored the effect of alterations in gut flora on BT and liver function in cirrhotic rats. In this study, we used a carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhotic rat model to compare the abundance of major aerobic and anaerobic bacterial species in healthy and cirrhotic rats. We used antibiotic (norfloxacin) and different probiotic treatments to change the status of gut flora in the cirrhotic rats and evaluated BT, liver function, and endotoxemia in the different models. We found higher levels of Enterobacteriaceae in cirrhotic rats when compared with healthy rats. Bifidobacteria treatment resulted in lower levels of Enterobacteriaceae along with increased levels of Lactobacillus when compared with the normal saline group. Both Bifidobacteria and Enterococcus treatments resulted in lower endotoxin levels than in the normal saline group. Gut flora imbalances in cirrhotic rats result in significant changes in BT and liver function in cirrhotic rats.

  18. Appraisal on the wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils obtained from the cones and needles of Pinus species by in vivo and in vitro experimental models. (United States)

    Süntar, Ipek; Tumen, Ibrahim; Ustün, Osman; Keleş, Hikmet; Akkol, Esra Küpeli


    According to ethnobotanical data, Pinus species have been used against rheumatic pain and for wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. Essential oils from the cones and needles of five different Pinus species (Pinus brutia Ten., Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus nigra Arn., Pinus pinea L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) were evaluated for their in vivo wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities. In vivo wound healing activity of the ointments prepared from essential oils was evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models subsequently histopathological analysis and hydroxyproline content. Furthermore, the essential oils were screened for anti-hyaluronidase activity. Additionally anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by using the method of Whittle, which is based on the inhibition of acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability. The essential oils obtained from the cones of Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis demonstrated the highest effects on the wound healing activity models. On the other hand, the rest of the essential oils did not show any significant wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities. The experimental study revealed that essential oils obtained from the cones of Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis display remarkable wound healing activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Dyuryagin


    Full Text Available Aim. Through the experiments on animals, mandibular fragments reparative regeneration and osteohistogenesis in the post-resection period using different ways of their optimization by artifi cial nitinol matrices were investigated.Materials and methods. Rabbits (two groups were subjected to similar resections of mandibular right branch fragments with articular head exarticulation. In the fi rst group (n = 10 extrafocal matrix structures placement option towards regeneration foci (sagittal dislocation was used, in the second one (n = 10 intrafocal matrix bone and periosteum nitinol constructions placement option was used.Results. In the fi rst group, the following reconstructive results were received: organ-like osteogenic regenerates fully displaced mandibular defects in 12 months. In the second group reconstructive results were the following: tissue-engineered composites fully displaced mandibular defects in 3 months. Biological, biometric, radiological, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric, statistical methods were used to evaluate the results.Conclusion. Reparative regeneration and osteohistogenesis at extrafocal placement of artifi cial matrix structures are able to reconstruct independently mandibular fragments due to natural regeneration. Reparative regeneration and osteohistogenesis at intrafocal placement of artifi cial matrix structures are able to reconstruct independently mandibular fragments due to bone and periosteum tissue-engineered composites forming. Four-fold advantage of mandibular reconstruction dynamics by tissue-engineered composites being equal in functional effi ciency with natural regeneration results testifi es to their availability for usage in clinical practice.

  20. Experimental Results of Hydrogen Slosh in a 62 Cubic Foot (1750 Liter) Tank (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Mcnelis, Nancy B.; Kudlac, Maureen T.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Satornino, George A.


    Extensive slosh testing with liquid and slush hydrogen was conducted in a 62 cubic foot spherical tank to characterize the thermodynamic response of the system under normal gravity conditions. Slosh frequency and amplitude, pressurant type, ramp pressure, and ullage volume were parametrically varied to assess the effect of each of these parameters on the tank pressure and fluid/wall temperatures. A total of 91 liquid hydrogen and 62 slush hydrogen slosh tests were completed. Both closed tank tests and expulsions during sloshing were performed. This report presents and discusses highlights of the liquid hydrogen closed tank results in detail and introduces some general trends for the slush hydrogen tests. Summary comparisons between liquid and slush hydrogen slosh results are also presented.

  1. Experimental results from magnetized-jet experiments executed at the Jupiter Laser Facility (United States)

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Rasmus, A. M.; Klein, S. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Trantham, M. R.; Fein, J. R.; Belancourt, P. X.; Young, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Hazi, A. U.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.


    Recent experiments at the Jupiter Laser Facility investigated magnetization effects on collimated plasma jets. Laser-irradiated plastic-cone-targets produced collimated, millimeter-scale plasma flows as indicated by optical interferometry. Proton radiography of these jets showed no indication of strong, self-generated magnetic fields, suggesting a dominantly hydrodynamic collimating mechanism. Targets were placed in a custom-designed solenoid capable of generating field strengths up to 5 T. Proton radiographs of the well-characterized B-field, without a plasma jet, suggested an external source of trapped electrons that affects proton trajectories. The background magnetic field was aligned with the jet propagation direction, as is the case in many astrophysical systems. Optical interferometry showed that magnetization of the plasma results in disruption of the collimated flow and instead produces a hollow cavity. This result is a topic of ongoing investigation.

  2. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses


    Ammigan, K.; Hartsell, B.; Hurh, P.; Zwaska, R.; Butcher, M.; Guinchard, M; Calviani, M; Losito, R; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, V.; Atherton, A.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M


    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment ...

  3. Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced Polymeric Nanocomposites. Part 1. Experimental Results (United States)


    epoxy based nanoclay reinforced specimens Finally, epoxy ( EPON 828 ) specimens with 0%, 1%, 3%, 6% and 10% nanoclay reinforcement were subjected to...stress-strain curves of EPON 828 epoxy specimens with various nanoclay reinforcement percentages The average mechanical properties calculated from...the test results are also shown in Table 3. Table 3. Average material properties of EPON 828 epoxy specimens with 0%, 1%, 3%, 6% and 10% nanoclay

  4. Some results of an experimental study of the atmospheric aerosol in Tomsk: A combined approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.V. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    As widely accepted, aerosols strongly contribute to the formation of the earth`s radiation balance through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. In addition, aerosols, being active condensation nuclei, also have a role in the cloud formation process. In this paper, results are presented of aerosol studies undertaken at the field measurement sites of the Institute of Atmospheric Optics in Tomsk and the Tomsk region.

  5. Dimethyl Ether: New Advances in Wear Testing: Theoretical and Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Sorenson, Spencer C; Jakobsen, J.


    The issues addressed in this paper are investigation of the wear mechanisms present in the standard lubricity test for diesel oil: The High frequency reciprocating Rig (HFRR). The HFRR is a laboratory wear test using a ball on disk configuration. The result of a test is the wear scar diameter (WS...... the potential of explaining this phenomenon and, in the near future, a search for optimising this atom inclusion mechanism will be initiated both by experiments in the MFPRR and molecular dynamics calculations....

  6. Experimental results for the rapid determination of the freezing point of fuels (United States)

    Mathiprakasam, B.


    Two methods for the rapid determination of the freezing point of fuels were investigated: an optical method, which detected the change in light transmission from the disappearance of solid particles in the melted fuel; and a differential thermal analysis (DTA) method, which sensed the latent heat of fusion. A laboratory apparatus was fabricated to test the two methods. Cooling was done by thermoelectric modules using an ice-water bath as a heat sink. The DTA method was later modified to eliminate the reference fuel. The data from the sample were digitized and a point of inflection, which corresponds to the ASTM D-2386 freezing point (final melting point), was identified from the derivative. The apparatus was modifified to cool the fuel to -60 C and controls were added for maintaining constant cooling rate, rewarming rate, and hold time at minimum temperature. A parametric series of tests were run for twelve fuels with freezing points from -10 C to -50 C, varying cooling rate, rewarming rate, and hold time. Based on the results, an optimum test procedure was established. The results showed good agreement with ASTM D-2386 freezing point and differential scanning calorimetry results.

  7. Utilização do planejamento experimental em rede simplex no estudo de resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler para obtenção de máxima compacidade Use of simplex lattice experimental design in the study of ornamental rock waste as filler to obtain maximum compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Destefani


    Full Text Available A utilização de agregados industrializados vem crescendo ao longo dos anos para atender a grande demanda da construção civil devido ao crescimento econômico do país. O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar o planejamento experimental em Rede Simplex para avaliar o efeito da adição do resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler na composição de misturas ternárias (brita 0, pó de pedra e resíduo, que levem a máxima compacidade (densidade seca aparente máxima. Foram tomados dezesseis pontos experimentais, cujos teores dos materiais utilizados variaram de 0 a 100%. O modelo em rede simplex cúbico completo apresentou melhor ajuste aos resultados experimentais, o qual resulta em respostas estatisticamente mais adequadas para as composições estudadas. A superfície de resposta gerada indicou que a densidade seca aparente máxima de 2,0 g/cm³ foi obtida para a composição ternária: 63% de brita 0/17% de pó de pedra/20% de resíduo de rocha ornamental. Portanto, o uso de resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler em agregados para a construção civil pode ser uma alternativa viável para deposição final deste abundante resíduo de forma ambientalmente correta.The use of industrial aggregates has grown over the years to meet the great demand of the civil construction due to the country's economical growth. The aim of this work was to use the experimental design in Simplex Lattice to evaluate the effect of the addition of ornamental rock waste as filler in the composition of ternary mixtures (crushed rock 0, stone powder, rock waste, leading to maximum compaction (maximum apparent dry density. Sixteen experimental points were taken, whose contents of the used materials ranged from 0 to 100%. The complete cubic simplex model showed to best fit to the experimental results, which results in more statistically appropriated responses to the studied compositions. The response surface generated indicated that the maximum apparent dry density (2

  8. Experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations of a landmine localization device using the neutron backscattering method

    CERN Document Server

    Datema, C P; Eijk, C W E


    Experiments were carried out to investigate the possible use of neutron backscattering for the detection of landmines buried in the soil. Several landmines, buried in a sand-pit, were positively identified. A series of Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the complexity of the neutron backscattering process and to optimize the geometry of a future prototype. The results of these simulations indicate that this method shows great potential for the detection of non-metallic landmines (with a plastic casing), for which so far no reliable method has been found.

  9. Mineralogical comparisons of experimental results investigating the biological impacts on rock transport processes. (United States)

    Wagner, Doris; Milodowski, Antoni E; West, Julia M; Wragg, Joanna; Yoshikawa, Hideki


    This study investigates the influence of microbes on fluid transport in sedimentary and igneous host rock environments. It particularly focuses on granodiorite rock (Äspö; Sweden) and mudstone (Horonobe; Japan) that were utilised during laboratory-based column experiments. The results showed that biofilms form on both rock types in low nutrient conditions. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology of biofilaments varied from filamentous meshwork (in crushed granodiorite column experiments) to clusters of rod-like cells (fracture surfaces in mudstone). X-ray diffraction analysis of the fine fractions (containment and migration of contaminants.

  10. The effects of pneumoperitoneum and controlled ventilation on peritoneal lymphatic bacterial clearance: experimental results in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Angelo Casaroli


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pneumoperitoneum, both alone and in combination with controlled ventilation, on peritoneal lymphatic bacterial clearance using a rat bacterial peritonitis model. METHOD: A total of 69 male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally inoculated with an Escherichia coli solution (109 colony-forming units (cfu/mL and divided into three groups of 23 animals each: A (control group, B (pneumoperitoneum under 5 mmHg of constant pressure, and C (endotracheal intubation, controlled ventilation, and pneumoperitoneum as in Group B. The animals were sacrificed after 30 min under these conditions, and blood, mediastinal ganglia, lungs, peritoneum, liver, and spleen cultures were performed. RESULTS: Statistical analyses comparing the number of cfu/sample in each of the cultures showed that no differences existed between the three groups. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we concluded that pneumoperitoneum, either alone or in association with mechanical ventilation, did not modify the bacterial clearance through the diaphragmatic lymphatic system of the peritoneal cavity.

  11. Determination of the vertical electron-density profile in ionospheric tomography: experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Mitchell

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the vertical electron-density profile is a fundamental problem in ionospheric tomography. Lack of near-horizontal ray paths limits the information available on the vertical profile, so that the resultant image of electron density is biased in a horizontal sense. The vertical profile is of great importance as it affects the authenticity of the entire tomographic image. A new method is described whereby the vertical profile is selected using relative total-electron-content measurements. The new reconstruction process has been developed from modelling studies. A range of background ionospheres, representing many possible peak heights, scale heights and electron densities are formed from a Chapman profile on the bottomside with a range of topside profiles. The iterative reconstruction process is performed on all of these background ionospheres and a numerical selection criterion employed to select the final image. The resulting tomographic images show excellent agreement in electron density when compared with independent verification provided by the EISCAT radar.

  12. Results from phase 2 of the radioiodine test facility experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.M.; Kupferschmid, W.C.H.; Wren, J.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.


    A series of intermediate-scale experiments were conducted in the Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) in a vinyl-painted, zinc-primer coated, carbon steel vessel in order to assess the effects of vinyl surfaces on iodine volatility in both the presence and absence of radiation. This test series, Phase 2 of a larger, comprehensive program assessing a variety of containment surfaces, also examined the effects of organic (i.e., methyl ethyl ketone) and inorganic (i.e., hydrazine) additives, pH, and venting on the aqueous chemistry and volatility of solutions initially containing cesium iodide. These tests have clearly demonstrated that organics are released to the aqueous phase from the vinyl coating and that, under radiation conditions, these organics can have a significant effect on the formation of volatile iodine species. In particular, the RTF results suggest that radiolytic decomposition of the released organics results in dramatic reductions in pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, which in turn are responsible for increased formation of molecular iodine and organic iodides. When the pH was maintained at 10 (Test 3), much lower iodine volatility was observed; low iodine volatility was also observed in the absence of radiation. This test series also demonstrated that vinyl surfaces, particularly those in contact with the gas phase, were a sink for iodine. (author) 4 figs., 6 tabs., 17 refs.

  13. Diagnosing students' misconceptions in algebra: results from an experimental pilot study. (United States)

    Russell, Michael; O'Dwyer, Laura M; Miranda, Helena


    Computer-based diagnostic assessment systems hold potential to help teachers identify sources of poor performance and to connect teachers and students to learning activities designed to help advance students' conceptual understandings. The present article presents findings from a study that examined how students' performance in algebra and their overcoming of common algebraic misconceptions were affected by the use of a diagnostic assessment system that focused on important algebra concepts. This study used a four-group randomized cluster trial design in which teachers were assigned randomly to one of four groups: a "business as usual" control group, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to diagnostic tests results, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to the learning activities, and a full intervention group that was given access to the test results and learning activities. Data were collected from 905 students (6th-12th grade) nested within 44 teachers. We used hierarchical linear modeling techniques to compare the effects of full, partial, and no (control) intervention on students' algebraic ability and misconceptions. The analyses indicate that full intervention had a net positive effect on ability and misconception measures.

  14. Low power underwater acoustic DPSK detection: Theoretical prediction and experimental results (United States)

    Dunne, Andrew

    This thesis presents two methods of analyzing the effectiveness of a prototype differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) detection circuit. The first method is to make modifications to the existing hardware to reliably output and record the cross-correlation values of the DPSK detection process. The second method is to write a MATLAB detection algorithm which accurately simulates the detection results of the hardware system without the need of any electronics. These two systems were tested and verified with a bench test using computer generated DPSK signals. The hardware system was tested using real acoustic data from shallow and deep water at-sea tests to determine the effectiveness of the DPSK detection circuit in different ocean environments. The hydrophone signals from the tests were recorded so that the cross-correlation values could be verified using the MATLAB detector. As a result of this study, these two systems provided more insight into how well the DPSK detection prototype works and helped to identify ways of improving the detection reliability and overall performance of the prototype DPSK detection circuit.

  15. Experimental Results for the Multipath Performance of Galileo Signals Transmitted by GIOVE-A Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Simsky


    Full Text Available Analysis of GIOVE-A signals is an important part of the in-orbit validation phase of the Galileo program. GIOVE-A transmits the ranging signals using all the code modulations currently foreseen for the future Galileo and provides a foretaste of their performance in real-life applications. Due to the use of advanced code modulations, the ranging signals of Galileo provide significant improvement of the multipath performance as compared to current GPS. In this paper, we summarize the results of about 1.5 years of observations using the data from four antenna sites. The analysis of the elevation dependence of averaged multipath errors and the multipath time series for static data indicate significant suppression of long-range multipath by the best Galileo codes. The E5AltBOC signal is confirmed to be a multipath suppression champion for all the data sets. According to the results of the observations, the Galileo signals can be classified into 3 groups: high-performance (E5AltBOC, L1A, E6A, medium-performance (E6BC, E5a, E5b and an L1BC signal, which has the lowest performance among Galileo signals, but is still better than GPS-CA. The car tests have demonstrated that for kinematic multipath the intersignal differences are a lot less pronounced. The phase multipath performance is also discussed.

  16. Review of JT-60U experimental results from February to October, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Renewed theme group organization started from October 1994 for the upcoming experiments in JT-60U. This regime has three theme groups each of which is composed of two sub-theme groups as; (1) Plasma Operation Theme (Leader Y. Neyatani) with Operation Sub-Theme and Disruption Sub-Theme, (2) High Performance (Leader S. Ishida) with Confinement and MHD Sub-Theme and High Energy Particle Sub-Theme and (3) Steady State Theme (Leader A. Sakasai) with Current Drive Sub-Theme and Divertor Sub-Theme. The main results from the JT-60U experiments in 1995 are summarized in the overviews of the three theme group activities. (J.P.N.).

  17. Comparison of selected theoretical models of bubble formation and experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rząsa Mariusz R.


    Full Text Available Designers of all types of equipment applied in oxygenation and aeration need to get to know the mechanism behind the gas bubble formation. This paper presents a measurement method used for determination of parameters of bubbles forming at jet attachment from which the bubles are displaced upward. The measuring system is based on an optical tomograph containing five projections. An image from the tomograph contains shapes of the forming bubbles and determine their volumes and formation rate. Additionally, this paper presents selected theoretical models known from literature. The measurement results have been compared with simple theoretical models predictions. The paper also contains a study of the potential to apply the presented method for determination of bubble structures and observation of intermediate states.

  18. Optimized Control Strategy for a Medium-Voltage DVR-Theoretical Investigations and Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Christoph; De Doncker, Rik W.; Li, Yun Wei


    Most power quality problems in distribution systems are related to voltage sags. Therefore, different solutions have been examined to compensate these sags to avoid production losses at sensitive loads. Dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) have been proposed to provide higher power quality. Currently......, a system wide integration of DVRs is hampered because of their high cost, in particular, due to the expensive DC-link energy storage devices. The cost of these DC-link capacitors remains high because the DVR requires a minimum DC-link voltage to be able to operate and to compensate a sag. As a result, only...... a small fraction of the energy stored in the DC-link capacitor is used, which makes it impractical for DVRs to compensate relatively long voltage sags. Present control strategies are only able to minimize the distortions at the load or to allow a better utilization of the storage system by minimizing...

  19. Comparison of ISRU Excavation System Model Blade Force Methodology and Experimental Results (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Mueller, Robert P.; Schuler, Jason M.; Nick, Andrew J.


    An Excavation System Model has been written to simulate the collection and transportation of regolith on the Moon. The calculations in this model include an estimation of the forces on the digging tool as a result of excavation into the regolith. Verification testing has been performed and the forces recorded from this testing were compared to the calculated theoretical data. A prototype lunar vehicle built at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tested with a bulldozer type blade developed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) attached to the front. This is the initial correlation of actual field test data to the blade forces calculated by the Excavation System Model and the test data followed similar trends with the predicted values. This testing occurred in soils developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) which are a mixture of different types of sands and whose soil properties have been well characterized. Three separate analytical models are compared to the test data.

  20. Experimental Results and Integrated Modeling of Bacterial Growth on an Insoluble Hydrophobic Substrate (Phenanthrene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Iris K. U.; Rein, Arno; Miltner, Anja


    Metabolism of a low-solubility substrate is limited by dissolution and availability and can hardly be determined. We developed a numerical model for simultaneously calculating dissolution kinetics of such substrates and their metabolism and microbial growth (Monod kinetics with decay) and tested...... it with three aerobic phenanthrene (PHE) degraders: Novosphingobium pentaromativorans US6-1, Sphingomonas sp. EPA505, and Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1. PHE was present as microcrystals, providing non-limiting conditions for growth. Total PHE and protein concentration were tracked over 6-12 days. The model...... shows that (i) retention in crystals or NAPLs or by sequestration competes with biodegradation, (ii) bacterial growth conditions (dissolution flux and resulting chemical activity of substrate) are more relevant for the final state of the system than the initial biomass, and (iii) the desorption flux...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available OBREC is the latest innovation of overtopping wave energy converter (WEC which is coalesced with the rubble mound breakwaters. The acquisition of wave overtopping in a front reservoir and consequently releasing process through turbine is the concept of energy production in OBREC. The physical scale model studies of overtopping discharge of the OBREC have recently been done by previous researcher in wave flume at Aalborg University. This paper demonstrates the overtopping behavior of OBREC device using a VOF method with capabilities to solve RANS equation in the numerical suite Flow3D. The purpose of this research is to validate the overtopping discharge performance of the numerical model against the experiments of the OBREC. Based on the observation, the results have shown a good agreement between the validation and physical experiment.

  2. The experimental result of magnetic filter using permanent magnet for removal of radioactive corrosion product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, M.C.; Kim, S.I.; Lee, K.J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Radioactive corrosion products (CRUD) which are generated by the neutron activation of general corrosion products at the nuclear power plant are the major source of operational radiation exposure (ORE). Most of the CRUD (nickel ferrite, magnetite, etc.) has a characteristic of showing strong ferrimagnetism. Along with the new development of permanent magnet (rare earth magnet) which generates much stronger magnetic field than the conventional magnet, new type of magnetic filter that can separate CRUD efficiently and eventually reduce radiation exposure of personnel at nuclear power plant is suggested. This separator consists of inner and outer magnet assemblies, coolant channel and container surrounding the outer magnet assembly. The rotational motion of the inner and outer permanent magnet assemblies surrounding the coolant channel by driving motor system produces moving alternating magnetic fields in the coolant channel. Then the CRUD can be separated from the coolant by the moving alternating magnetic field. The separation efficiency depends on magnetic properties, particulate size, flow rate and rotational velocity of magnet assemblies. This paper presents the results of preliminary experiment performed with the different flow rates of coolant and rotation velocities of magnet assemblies. The magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) is used as dummy CRUD, and two-tank system (inlet and outlet tank) is applied to this filter system, instead of circulation loop. The experiment is performed at a room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This new magnetic filter shows good performance results of filtering the magnetite well at coolant (water). Flow rates and rotating velocities of magnet assemblies turn out to be very important variable. (authors)

  3. Scientific results obtained by the Busot observatory (United States)

    García-Lozano, R.; Rodes, J. J.; Torrejón, J. M.; Bernabéu, G.; Berná, J. Á.


    We present the discovery of three new W UMa systems by our group as a part of a photometric follow-up of variable stars carried out with the Busot observatory 36 cm robotic telescope in collaboration with the X-ray astronomy group at University of Alicante (Alicante, Spain). Specifically we show the high limiting magnitude to detect moving objects (V˜ 21 mag), and the high stability and accuracy attained in photometry which allow us to measure very shallow planet transits.

  4. Results obtained during wall breaching research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hattingh, S


    Full Text Available During hostage release operations the need exists to breach a single or double brick (masonry) wall. The need prescribes a charge that produces minimum flying debris on the inside of the building and a safety distance as small as possible to protect...

  5. Experimental results of current distribution in Rutherford-type LHC cables

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A P


    Current distribution among the wires of multi-strand superconducting cables is an important item for accelerator magnets. A non-uniform distribution could cause additional field distortions in the magnet bore and can as well be one of the reasons of premature quenching. Since two years electrical measurements on superconducting Rutherford-type cables are performed at CERN as part of the reception tests for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Cable samples of 2.4 m length are tested at currents up to 32 kA, temperatures around 1.9 and 4.3 K, and fields up to 10 T, applied perpendicularly as well as parallel to the broad face of the cable. Last year, an array of 24 Hall probes was installed in the test set-up in order to measure the self-field of the cable samples along one cable pitch. Each of the probes measures the local field generated by the current in the strands close by, and the results of the all probes reflect therefore the distribution of the strand currents. Experiments are done varying the applied fie...

  6. Automated transient thermography for the inspection of CFRP structures: experimental results and developed procedures (United States)

    Theodorakeas, P.; Avdelidis, N. P.; Hrissagis, K.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Koui, M.; Maldague, X.


    In thermography surveys, the inspector uses the camera to acquire images from the examined part. Common problems are the lack of repeatability when trying to repeat the scanning process, the need to carry the equipment during scanning, and long setting-up time. The aim of this paper is to present transient thermography results on CFRP plates for assessing different types of fabricated defects (impact damage, inclusions for delaminations, etc), as well as and to discuss and present a prototype robotic scanner to apply non destructive testing (thermographic scanning) on materials and structures. Currently, the scanning process is not automatic. The equipment to be developed, will be able to perform thermal NDT scanning on structures, create the appropriate scanning conditions (material thermal excitation), and ensure precision and tracking of scanning process. A thermographic camera that will be used for the image acquisition of the non destructive inspection, will be installed on a x, y, z, linear manipulator's end effector and would be surrounded by excitation sources (optical lamps), required for the application of transient thermography. In this work various CFRP samples of different shape, thickness and geometry were investigated using two different thermographic systems in order to compare and evaluate their effectiveness concerning the internal defect detectability under different testing conditions.

  7. Goats are susceptible to Bubaline alphaherpesvirus 1 infection: Results of an experimental study. (United States)

    Camero, M; Larocca, V; Losurdo, M; Lorusso, E; Patruno, G; Staffa, V N; Martella, V; Buonavoglia, C; Tempesta, M


    Herpesvirus infections are generally subjected to strong host species restriction, although virological and serological investigations have revealed the possibility of cross-species infections in closely related animal species. In this study we evaluated susceptibility of goats to infection by Bubaline alphaherpesvirus 1 (BuHV-1). Four goats were inoculated intra-nasally with BuHV-1 and monitored clinically, virologically and serologically for 42days. None of the goats displayed clinical signs although all the animals variably shed the virus by the nasal route during the first 12days after infection. BuHV-1 was also detected in the white blood cells of two animals in the first week post infection. The results suggest that goats are susceptible to BuHV-1 infection and that they could play an epidemiological role in the circulation/transmission of the virus among domestic and wild ruminants and impact to some extent on the control plans for herpesviruses in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Operating Wireless Sensor Nodes without Energy Storage: Experimental Results with Transient Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Ahmed


    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is increasingly used for powering wireless sensor network nodes. Recently, it has been suggested to combine it with the concept of transient computing whereby the wireless sensor nodes operate without energy storage capabilities. This new combined approach brings benefits, for instance ultra-low power nodes and reduced maintenance, but also raises new challenges, foremost dealing with nodes that may be left without power for various time periods. Although transient computing has been demonstrated on microcontrollers, reports on experiments with wireless sensor nodes are still scarce in the literature. In this paper, we describe our experiments with solar, thermal, and RF energy harvesting sources that are used to power sensor nodes (including wireless ones without energy storage, but with transient computing capabilities. The results show that the selected solar and thermal energy sources can operate both the wired and wireless nodes without energy storage, whereas in our specific implementation, the developed RF energy source can only be used for the selected nodes without wireless connectivity.

  9. Global Energy-Optimal Redundancy Resolution of Hydraulic Manipulators: Experimental Results for a Forestry Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmo Nurmi


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the energy-inefficiency problem of four-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF hydraulic manipulators through redundancy resolution in robotic closed-loop controlled applications. Because conventional methods typically are local and have poor performance for resolving redundancy with respect to minimum hydraulic energy consumption, global energy-optimal redundancy resolution is proposed at the valve-controlled actuator and hydraulic power system interaction level. The energy consumption of the widely popular valve-controlled load-sensing (LS and constant-pressure (CP systems is effectively minimised through cost functions formulated in a discrete-time dynamic programming (DP approach with minimum state representation. A prescribed end-effector path and important actuator constraints at the position, velocity and acceleration levels are also satisfied in the solution. Extensive field experiments performed on a forestry hydraulic manipulator demonstrate the performance of the proposed solution. Approximately 15–30% greater hydraulic energy consumption was observed with the conventional methods in the LS and CP systems. These results encourage energy-optimal redundancy resolution in future robotic applications of hydraulic manipulators.

  10. A Novel Camera Calibration Algorithm as Part of an HCI System: Experimental Procedure and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer Kristal


    Full Text Available Camera calibration is an initial step employed in many computer vision applications for the estimation of camera parameters. Along with images of an arbitrary scene, these parameters allow for inference of the scene's metric information. This is a primary reason for camera calibration's significance to computer vision. In this paper, we present a novel approach to solving the camera calibration problem. The method was developed as part of a Human Computer Interaction (HCI System for the NASA Virtual GloveBox (VGX Project. Our algorithm is based on the geometric properties of perspective projections and provides a closed form solution for the camera parameters. Its accuracy is evaluated in the context of the NASA VGX, and the results indicate that our algorithm achieves accuracy similar to other calibration methods which are characterized by greater complexity and computational cost. Because of its reliability and wide variety of potential applications, we are confident that our calibration algorithm will be of interest to many.

  11. Experimental results of an rf gun and the generation of a multibunch beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Deshpande


    Full Text Available At the laser undulator compact x-ray source at KEK, our group has designed and built a new rf gun with a larger mode separation of 8.6 MHz and higher Q value than earlier guns. This paper presents details on the design and fabrication, low-power measurements, and tuning procedures followed in the fabrication of the gun cavity. We also give a detailed account of experiments performed with this gun and present measurement results. We have successfully generated 100 bunches per train with a 50 nC charge at 41 MeV and 300 bunches per train with a 160 nC charge at 5 MeV, with low peak-to-peak energy difference. In the future, we plan to go up to a 0.5 nC charge per bunch in an 8000-bunch train at low energy and a 2 nC charge per bunch in a 100-bunch train at high energy. This will make it possible to have higher charge available for laser-beam collisions, thus enabling the generation of high flux soft x rays using the low-energy electron beam and approximately 30 keV x rays using the high-energy electron beam.

  12. Models and experimental results from the wide aperture Nb-Ti magnets for the LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G.; Bajko, M.; Charrondiere, M.; Bourcey, N.; Datskov, V.I.; Fessia, P.; Feuvrier, J.; Galbraith, P.; Tabares, A. Garcia; Garcia-Perez, J.; Granieri, P.; Hagen, P.; Lorin, C.; Perez, J.C.; Russenschuck, S.; Sahner, T.; Segreti, M.; Todesco, E.; Willering, G.


    MQXC is a Nb-Ti quadrupole designed to meet the accelerator quality requirements needed for the phase-1 LHC upgrade, now superseded by the high luminosity upgrade foreseen in 2021. The 2-m-long model magnet was tested at room temperature and 1.9 K. The technology developed for this magnet is relevant for other magnets currently under development for the high-luminosity upgrade, namely D1 (at KEK) and the large aperture twin quadrupole Q4 (at CEA). In this paper we present MQXC test results, some of the specialized heat extraction features, spot heaters, temperature sensor mounting and voltage tap development for the special open cable insulation. We look at some problem solving with noisy signals, give an overview of electrical testing, look at how we calculate the coil resistance during at quench and show that the heaters are not working We describe the quench signals and its timing, the development of the quench heaters and give an explanation of an Excel quench calculation and its comparison including the ...

  13. The effect of chemotaxis and chemokinesis on leukocyte locomotion: a new interpretation of experimental results. (United States)

    Byrne, H M; Cave, G; McElwain, D L


    A mathematical model is developed to describe the motion of leukocytes through a Boyden chamber. The model is based on the Keller-Segel model of cell motion and comprises three partial differential equations which describe the evolution of the neutrophils, the chemoattractant, and a neutrophil-derived chemokinetic factor. Where other authors have concentrated on chemotaxis, here attention is focused on the manner in which the chemokinetic factor influences neutrophil locomotion. Numerical simulations show how the number of neutrophils initially placed on top of the chamber affects cellular motion through the system and reproduce the qualitative behaviour observed by Takeuchi & Persellin (Am. J. Physiol. 236, C22-C29). In particular, the simulations show how dense packing of the neutrophils increases the levels of the chemokinetic factor. This enhances random cell motion and increases the speed with which the neutrophils reach the source of chemoattractant. For a particular asymptotic limit of the system parameters, the model reduces to a nonlinear partial differential equation for the neutrophils. Similarity solutions of this caricature model yield algebraic expressions relating the speed with which the neutrophil front penetrates into the chamber to the number of neutrophils initially placed on top of it. The implications of the results are also discussed.

  14. Carbon sequestration via reaction with basaltic rocks: geochemical modeling and experimental results (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Thomas, Burt; Bischoff, James L.; Palandri, James


    Basaltic rocks are potential repositories for sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) because of their capacity for trapping CO2 in carbonate minerals. We carried out a series of thermodynamic equilibrium models and high pressure experiments, reacting basalt with CO2-charged fluids over a range of conditions from 50 to 200 °C at 300 bar. Results indicate basalt has a high reactivity to CO2 acidified brine. Carbon dioxide is taken up from solution at all temperatures from 50 to 200 °C, 300 bar, but the maximum extent and rate of reaction occurs at 100 °C, 300 bar. Reaction path simulations utilizing the geochemical modeling program CHILLER predicted an equilibrium carbonate alteration assemblage of calcite, magnesite, and siderite, but the only secondary carbonate identified in the experiments was a ferroan magnesite. The amount of uptake at 100 °C, 300 bar ranged from 8% by weight for a typical tholeite to 26% for a picrite. The actual amount of CO2 uptake and extent of rock alteration coincides directly with the magnesium content of the rock suggesting that overall reaction extent is controlled by bulk basalt Mg content. In terms of sequestering CO2, an average basaltic MgO content of 8% is equivalent to 2.6 × 108 metric ton CO2/km3 basalt.

  15. Alcator C-Mod's Quasi-Coherent Mode Antenna: Experimental Results and Interpretation (United States)

    Golfinopoulos, T.; Labombard, B.; Parker, R. R.; Burke, W.; Davis, E. M.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Marmar, E.; Porkolab, M.; Terry, J. L.; Wolfe, S. M.; Woskov, P. P.; Xu, X.


    A new ``Shoelace'' antenna has been installed on Alcator C-Mod. Its goal is to interact with edge fluctuations, and particularly the quasi-coherent mode (QCM) associated with the steady-state EDA H-mode. With k=1.5 cm-1 and frequency range, 40results from the first operation of the antenna into ohmic, ohmic EDA H-mode, and I-mode plasmas. The antenna response observed on fluctuations diagnostics, including Mirnov coils and a Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) system, is discussed and compared with BOUT++ simulations. The coherent response on Mirnov coils reveals an antenna-driven field perturbation that competes with background turbulence. The edge plasma stability to antenna perturbations is investigated by searching for poles in the coil response. A reciprocating probe scans through the scrape-off layer. Mounting a magnetic coil head on the probe gives the perturbation's radial decay rate, kR 0.3-1.0 cm-1; a Langmuir probe head examines the antenna's effect on radial transport.

  16. Concept of the Cooling System of the ITS for ALICE: Technical Proposals, Theoretical Estimates, Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Godisov, O N; Yudkin, M I; Gerasimov, S F; Feofilov, G A


    Contradictory demands raised by the application of different types of sensitive detectors in 5 layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) for ALICE stipulate the simultaneous use of different schemes of heat drain: gaseous cooling of the 1st layer (uniform heat production over the sensitive surface) and evaporative cooling for the 2nd-5th layers (localised heat production). The last system is also a must for the thermostabilization of Si-drift detectors within 0.1 degree C. Theoretical estimates of gaseous, evaporative and liquid cooling systems are done for all ITS layers. The results of the experiments done for evaporative and liquid heat drain systems are presented and discussed. The major technical problems of the evaporative systems' design are being considered: i) control of liquid supply; ii) vapour pressure control. Two concepts of the evaporative systems are proposed: 1) One channel system for joint transfer of two phases (liquid + gas); 2) Two channels system with separate transfer of phases. Both sy...

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model Program RM1: Experimental Results.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Craig [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gunawan, Budi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guala, Michele [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Sotiropoulos, Fotis [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    The Reference Model Project (RMP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), aims at expediting industry growth and efficiency by providing nonproprietary Reference Models (RM) of MHK technology designs as study objects for opensource research and development (Neary et al. 2014a,b). As part of this program, MHK turbine models were tested in a large open channel facility at the University of Minnesota’s St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (UMN-SAFL). Reference Model 1 (RM1) is a 1:40 geometric scale dual-rotor axial flow horizontal axis device with counter-rotating rotors, each with a rotor diameter dT = 0.5m. Precise blade angular position and torque measurements were synchronized with three acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) aligned with each rotor and the midpoint for RM1. Flow conditions for each case were controlled such that depth, h = 1m, and volumetric flow rate, Qw = 2.425m3s-1, resulting in a hub height velocity of approximately Uhub = 1.05ms-1 and blade chord length Reynolds numbers of Rec ≈ 3.0x105. Vertical velocity profiles collected in the wake of each device from 1 to 10 rotor diameters are used to estimate the velocity recovery and turbulent characteristics in the wake, as well as the interaction of the counter-rotating rotor wakes. The development of this high resolution laboratory investigation provides a robust dataset that enables assessing turbulence performance models and their ability to accurately predict device performance metrics, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that can be used to predict turbulent inflow environments, reproduce wake velocity deficit, recovery and higher order turbulent statistics, as well as device performance metrics.

  18. Initial experimental results from the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility (United States)

    Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Dempster, W.; Nelson, M.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Results from the closure and initial closed ecological system research in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) will be presented. The facility was initially sealed in April 2002; and the first crop experiments with soybeans commenced in May 2002. The Laboratory Biosphere was created by the team which invented, built and operated Biosphere 2 during its years of closed ecological system functioning (1991-94) and is a testbed to build upon the lessons learned. It is an opportunity to continue experiments with a sustainable soil based agriculture system unlike most bioregenerative systems which use hydroponic systems dependent on a supply of nutrient solution. Because of the small volume of the system (34-45 m3), developing mechanisms to keep parameters like carbon dioxide within acceptable limits will be critical. Recycle of nutrients within the system to maintain soil fertility; and the ability of the inherent complex ecology of soils and a soil bed reactor to handle trace gas buildups are primary research goals. Other research goals are determination of short and long-term exchanges between soil, plants and atmosphere, especially for carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, NOX, and methane, impact of cultivation (tillage) on soil/atmospheric exchanges., investigation and development of strategies to return nutrients to the soil to maintain fertility, e.g. shredding biomass vs. composting, impact on soil chemistry of returning leachate water to the soil as irrigation water. The microbiological status of soils prior to experiments and over time will allow measurement of changes in microbial diversity and the determination of the role of soil microbes in biogeochemical cycles. Integration of automated sensor and control in the system with real-time modeling has importance for operation, research and educational outreach programs. The Laboratory Biosphere is intended to test and develop a "cybersphere" (network of shared intelligence) that may be

  19. A Neighborhood-Scale Green Infrastructure Retrofit: Experimental Results, Model Simulations, and Resident Perspectives (United States)

    Jefferson, A.; Avellaneda, P. M.; Jarden, K. M.; Turner, V. K.; Grieser, J.


    Distributed green infrastructure approaches to stormwater management that can be retrofit into existing development are of growing interest, but questions remain about their effectiveness at the watershed-scale. In suburban northeastern Ohio, homeowners on a residential street with 55% impervious surface were given the opportunity for free rain barrels, rain gardens, and bioretention cells. Of 163 parcels, only 22 owners (13.5%) chose to participate, despite intense outreach efforts. After pre-treatment monitoring, 37 rain barrels, 7 rain gardens, and 16 street-side bioretention cells were installed in 2013-2014. Using a paired watershed approach, a reduction in up to 33% of peak flow and 40% of total runoff volume per storm was measured in the storm sewer. Using the monitoring data, a calibrated and validated SWMM model was built to explore the long-term effectiveness of the green infrastructure against a wider range of hydrological conditions. Model results confirm the effectiveness of green infrastructure in reducing surface runoff and increasing infiltration and evaporation. Based on 20 years of historical precipitation data, the model shows that the green infrastructure is capable of reducing flows by >40% at the 1, 2, and 5 year return period, suggesting some resilience to projected increases in precipitation intensity in a changing climate. Further, in this project, more benefit is derived from the street-side bioretention cells than from the rain barrels and gardens that treat rooftop runoff. Substantial hydrological gains were achieved despite low homeowner participation. Surveys indicate that many residents viewed stormwater as the city's problem and had negative perceptions of green infrastructure, despite slightly pro-environment values generally. Overall, this study demonstrates green infrastructure's hydrological effectiveness but raises challenging questions about overcoming social barriers retrofits at the neighborhood scale.

  20. U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model Program RM1: Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Craig [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gunawan, Budi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guala, Michele [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Sotiropoulos, Fotis [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    The Reference Model Project (RMP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), aims at expediting industry growth and efficiency by providing non-proprietary Reference Models (RM) of MHK technology designs as study objects for open-source research and development (Neary et al. 2014a,b). As part of this program, MHK turbine models were tested in a large open channel facility at the University of Minnesota’s St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (UMN-SAFL). Reference Model 1 (RM2) is a 1:40 geometric scale dual-rotor axial flow horizontal axis device with counter-rotating rotors, each with a rotor diameter dT = 0.5m. Precise blade angular position and torque measurements were synchronized with three acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) aligned with each rotor and the midpoint for RM1. Flow conditions for each case were controlled such that depth, h = 1m, and volumetric flow rate, Qw = 2.425m3s-1, resulting in a hub height velocity of approximately Uhub = 1.05ms-1 and blade chord length Reynolds numbers of Rec ≈ 3.0x105. Vertical velocity profiles collected in the wake of each device from 1 to 10 rotor diameters are used to estimate the velocity recovery and turbulent characteristics in the wake, as well as the interaction of the counter-rotating rotor wakes. The development of this high resolution laboratory investigation provides a robust dataset that enables assessing turbulence performance models and their ability to accurately predict device performance metrics, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that can be used to predict turbulent inflow environments, reproduce wake velocity deficit, recovery and higher order turbulent statistics, as well as device performance metrics.