WorldWideScience

Sample records for experimental realization applications

  1. Parallel transmission techniques in magnetic resonance imaging: experimental realization, applications and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, P.

    2007-06-01

    The primary objective of this work was the first experimental realization of parallel RF transmission for accelerating spatially selective excitation in magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, basic aspects regarding the performance of this technique were investigated, potential risks regarding the specific absorption rate (SAR) were considered and feasibility studies under application-oriented conditions as first steps towards a practical utilisation of this technique were undertaken. At first, based on the RF electronics platform of the Bruker Avance MRI systems, the technical foundations were laid to perform simultaneous transmission of individual RF waveforms on different RF channels. Another essential requirement for the realization of Parallel Excitation (PEX) was the design and construction of suitable RF transmit arrays with elements driven by separate transmit channels. In order to image the PEX results two imaging methods were implemented based on a spin-echo and a gradient-echo sequence, in which a parallel spatially selective pulse was included as an excitation pulse. In the course of this work PEX experiments were successfully performed on three different MRI systems, a 4.7 T and a 9.4 T animal system and a 3 T human scanner, using 5 different RF coil setups in total. In the last part of this work investigations regarding possible applications of Parallel Excitation were performed. A first study comprised experiments of slice-selective B1 inhomogeneity correction by using 3D-selective Parallel Excitation. The investigations were performed in a phantom as well as in a rat fixed in paraformaldehyde solution. In conjunction with these experiments a novel method of calculating RF pulses for spatially selective excitation based on a so-called Direct Calibration approach was developed, which is particularly suitable for this type of experiments. In the context of these experiments it was demonstrated how to combine the advantages of parallel transmission

  2. Integrated Microwave Photonic Isolators: Theory, Experimental Realization and Application in a Unidirectional Ring Mode-Locked Laser Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn J.R. Heck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel integrated microwave photonic isolator is presented. It is based on the timed drive of a pair of optical modulators, which transmit a pulsed or oscillating optical signal with low loss, when driven in phase. A signal in the reverse propagation direction will find the modulators out of phase and, hence, will experience high loss. Optical and microwave isolation ratios were simulated to be in the range up to 10 dB and 20 dB, respectively, using parameters representative for the indium phosphide platform. The experimental realization of this device in the hybrid silicon platform showed microwave isolation in the 9 dB–22 dB range. Furthermore, we present a design study on the use of these isolators inside a ring mode-locked laser cavity. Simulations show that unidirectional operation can be achieved, with a 30–50-dB suppression of the counter propagating mode, at limited driving voltages. The potentially low noise and feedback-insensitive operation of such a laser makes it a very promising candidate for use as on-chip microwave or comb generators.

  3. Experimental functional realization of attribute grammar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Attali

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental functional realization of attribute grammar(AG system for personal computers. For AG system functioning only Turbo Prolog compiler is required. The system functioning is based on a specially elaborated metalanguage for AG description, universal syntactic and semantic constructors. The AG system provides automatic generation of target compiler (syntax--oriented software using Turbo Prolog as object language.

  4. Parallel transmission techniques in magnetic resonance imaging: experimental realization, applications and perspectives; Parallele Sendetechniken in der Magnetresonanztomographie: experimentelle Realisierung, Anwendungen und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, P.

    2007-06-15

    The primary objective of this work was the first experimental realization of parallel RF transmission for accelerating spatially selective excitation in magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, basic aspects regarding the performance of this technique were investigated, potential risks regarding the specific absorption rate (SAR) were considered and feasibility studies under application-oriented conditions as first steps towards a practical utilisation of this technique were undertaken. At first, based on the RF electronics platform of the Bruker Avance MRI systems, the technical foundations were laid to perform simultaneous transmission of individual RF waveforms on different RF channels. Another essential requirement for the realization of Parallel Excitation (PEX) was the design and construction of suitable RF transmit arrays with elements driven by separate transmit channels. In order to image the PEX results two imaging methods were implemented based on a spin-echo and a gradient-echo sequence, in which a parallel spatially selective pulse was included as an excitation pulse. In the course of this work PEX experiments were successfully performed on three different MRI systems, a 4.7 T and a 9.4 T animal system and a 3 T human scanner, using 5 different RF coil setups in total. In the last part of this work investigations regarding possible applications of Parallel Excitation were performed. A first study comprised experiments of slice-selective B1 inhomogeneity correction by using 3D-selective Parallel Excitation. The investigations were performed in a phantom as well as in a rat fixed in paraformaldehyde solution. In conjunction with these experiments a novel method of calculating RF pulses for spatially selective excitation based on a so-called Direct Calibration approach was developed, which is particularly suitable for this type of experiments. In the context of these experiments it was demonstrated how to combine the advantages of parallel transmission

  5. Experimental Realization of a Quantum Spin Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Susan; Potok, R.; M. Marcus, C.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin-dependent by the a......We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin......-dependent by the application of an in-plane Zeeman field. Spin currents are measured by placing the pump in a focusing geometry with a spin-selective collector....

  6. APM Best Practices Realizing Application Performance Management

    CERN Document Server

    Sydor, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of APM Best Practices: Realizing Application Performance Management is to establish reliable application performance management (APM) practices - to demonstrate value, to do it quickly, and to adapt to the client circumstances. It's important to balance long-term goals with short-term deliverables, but without compromising usefulness or correctness. The successful strategy is to establish a few reasonable goals, achieve them quickly, and then iterate over the same topics two more times, with each successive iteration expanding the skills and capabilities of the APM team. This str

  7. Optimization and experimental realization of the quantum permutation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçınkaya, I.; Gedik, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The quantum permutation algorithm provides computational speed-up over classical algorithms for determining the parity of a given cyclic permutation. For its n -qubit implementations, the number of required quantum gates scales quadratically with n due to the quantum Fourier transforms included. We show here for the n -qubit case that the algorithm can be simplified so that it requires only O (n ) quantum gates, which theoretically reduces the complexity of the implementation. To test our results experimentally, we utilize IBM's 5-qubit quantum processor to realize the algorithm by using the original and simplified recipes for the 2-qubit case. It turns out that the latter results in a significantly higher success probability which allows us to verify the algorithm more precisely than the previous experimental realizations. We also verify the algorithm for the first time for the 3-qubit case with a considerable success probability by taking the advantage of our simplified scheme.

  8. Experimental Realization of Popper's Experiment: Violation of Uncertainty Principle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Ho; Yu, Rong; Shih, Yanhua

    An entangled pair of photon 1 and 2 are emitted in opposite directions along the positive and negative x-axis. A narrow slit is placed in the path of photon 1 which provides precise knowledge about its position along the y-axis and because of the quantum entanglement this in turn provides precise knowledge of the position y of its twin, photon 2. Does photon 2 experience a greater uncertainty in its momentum, i.e., a greater Δpy, due to the precise knowledge of its position y? This is the historical thought experiment of Sir Karl Popper which was aimed to undermine the Copenhagen interpretation in favor of a realistic viewpoint of quantum mechanics. Thispaper reports an experimental realization of the Popper's experiment. One may not agree with Popper's position on quantum mechanics; however, it calls for a correct understanding and interpretation of the experimental results.

  9. Experimental realization of extraordinary acoustic transmission using Helmholtz resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Crow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of extraordinary acoustic transmission through a solid barrier with an embedded Helmholtz resonator (HR is demonstrated. The Helmholtz resonator consists of an embedded cavity and two necks that protrude, one on each side of the barrier. Extraordinary transmission occurs for a narrow spectral range encompassing the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. We show that an amplitude transmission of 97.5% is achieved through a resonator whose neck creates an open area of 6.25% of the total barrier area. In addition to the enhanced transmission, we show that there is a smooth, continuous phase transition in the transmitted sound as a function of frequency. The frequency dependent phase transition is used to experimentally realize slow wave propagation for a narrow-band Gaussian wave packet centered at the maximum transmission frequency. The use of parallel pairs of Helmholtz resonators tuned to different resonant frequencies is experimentally explored as a means of increasing the transmission bandwidth. These experiments show that because of the phase transition, there is always a frequency between the two Helmholtz resonant frequencies at which destructive interference occurs whether the resonances are close or far apart. Finally, we explain how the phase transition associated with Helmholtz-resonator-mediated extraordinary acoustic transmission can be exploited to produce diffractive acoustic components including sub-wavelength thickness acoustic lenses.

  10. Towards the experimental realization of hybrid quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, C.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main interests of quantum physics in this new millennium is the exploitation of quantum mechanical principles in technical applications. One approach here is to use entanglement and superpositions of states to realize powerful algorithms capable of solving challenging computational tasks on a much faster time scale than a classical computer ever could. To find the quantum analogue of a classical bit one needs a quantum mechanical two level system that can be used to store and process quantum information. Most of the current approaches to find such a 'qubit' have the intention to find a single system that is able to fulfill all desirable tasks. But actually most quantum systems are only favorable for very specific tasks (e.g storage, processing, data exchange,..), similar as it is in classical computing. For some qubits the main disadvantages is that their quantum state is very fragile. Those systems loose their 'quantum information' (that is the possibility to store superpositions of their states coherently) easily. They 'decohere' on a timescale that is much shorter then any more involving algorithm. Other systems can keep those superposition states for quite a while, but are so difficult to address that the number of operations that can be made is very limited. The task of a so called hybrid quantum system is now to combine the strengths of these different systems, using e.g. one for manipulation and an other system for storage. Similar to a processor/memory architecture in conventional computers these systems could use a kind of bus system to couple between them. The main task of this thesis was to make steps towards the realization of such a system using two different combinations of quantum systems. Both are planned to use superconducting qubits (transmons) as processor qubit and either atoms (ultra cold rubidium 87 ensembles) or solid state spin systems (Nitrogen Vacancies in diamonds - NV centers) as memory. (author)

  11. Experimental realization of optical lumped nanocircuits at infrared wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Edwards, Brian; Alù, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2012-01-29

    The integration of radiofrequency electronic methodologies on micro- as well as nanoscale platforms is crucial for information processing and data-storage technologies. In electronics, radiofrequency signals are controlled and manipulated by 'lumped' circuit elements, such as resistors, inductors and capacitors. In earlier work, we theoretically proposed that optical nanostructures, when properly designed and judiciously arranged, could behave as nanoscale lumped circuit elements--but at optical frequencies. Here, for the first time we experimentally demonstrate a two-dimensional optical nanocircuit at mid-infrared wavelengths. With the guidance of circuit theory, we design and fabricate arrays of Si3N4 nanorods with specific deep subwavelength cross-sections, quantitatively evaluate their equivalent impedance as lumped circuit elements in the mid-infrared regime, and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that these nanostructures can indeed function as two-dimensional optical lumped circuit elements. We further show that the connections among nanocircuit elements, in particular whether they are in series or in parallel combination, can be controlled by the polarization of impinging optical signals, realizing the notion of 'stereo-circuitry' in metatronics-metamaterials-inspired optical circuitry.

  12. Experimental realization of the quantum metrological triangle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenaud, B; Devoille, L; Steck, B; Feltin, N; Gonzalez-Cano, A; Poirier, W; Schopfer, F; Spengler, G; Djordjevic, S; Seron, O; Piquemal, F [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais (LNE), Trappes (France); Lotkhov, S [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: laurent.devoille@lne.fr

    2009-02-01

    The quantum metrological triangle experiment (QMTE) consists in realizing Ohm's law with Josephson (JE), quantum Hall (QHE) and single electron tunneling (SET) effects. The aim is to check the consistency of the link among the phenomenological constants K {sub J}, R{sub K} and Q {sub X} involved in these effects and theoretically expressed with the fundamental constants e and h. Such an experiment could be a contribution for a new definition of the systeme international d'unites (SI) base units. In the QMTE, a current generated by a SET device flows through a resistor calibrated against QHE standard and the voltage induced at its terminals is compared to the metrological voltage generated by a Josephson junctions array. At LNE, the studied SET devices are 3 junctions single electron pumps with on chip resistors. The quantized current generated by this pump is theoretically equal to ef (f is the frequency of the driving signals applied on the gates) and is measured through a cryogenic current comparator (CCC), which allows to amplify the low pumping current with a metrological accuracy. We will present and discuss the experimental set-up developed at LNE and the first results. In addition to the main aim of QMTE described above, these preliminary results are also a first step towards a determination of e.

  13. Digital Fractional Order Controllers Realized by PIC Microprocessor: Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, I.; Grega, S.; Dorcak, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the fractional-order controllers and their possible hardware realization based on PIC microprocessor and numerical algorithm coded in PIC Basic. The mathematical description of the digital fractional -order controllers and approximation in the discrete domain are presented. An example of realization of the particular case of digital fractional-order PID controller is shown and described.

  14. Experimental realization of a Szilard engine with a single electron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Jonne V; Maisi, Ville F; Pekola, Jukka P; Averin, Dmitri V

    2014-09-23

    The most succinct manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics is the limitation imposed by the Landauer principle on the amount of heat a Maxwell demon (MD) can convert into free energy per single bit of information obtained in a measurement. We propose and realize an electronic MD based on a single-electron box operated as a Szilard engine, where kBT ln 2 of heat is extracted from the reservoir at temperature T per one bit of created information. The information is encoded in the position of an extra electron in the box.

  15. PROLOG language application for alarm system realization in accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, I.; Vaguine, A.; Abe, I.; Nakahara, K.; Furukawa, K.; Kamikubota, N.

    1994-01-01

    Such PROLOG features as backtracking, matching and recursive data representation are powerful tools for ALARM system realization. Although the main idea is the possibility to describe some technical system in recursive form, backtracking and matching are ideal for processing recursive data structures. This paper represents a technique which would allow PROLOG language application for ALARM system realization using an example of the KEK LINAC magnet system. The technique is based on an object-oriented internal data representation in terms of objects, properties, relations and knowledge conception. In addition, each property value is characterized by a typical 'time life'. (author)

  16. Experimental consideration for realizing image based visual servo control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, N.; Suzuki, K.; Fujii, Y.; Usui, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we consider the experimental aspect of image based visual servo control system. The items considered are the following; 1) Inertial parameter estimation, 2) Focal point estimation, 3) Controller performance for the system with delay. From the experimental result of visual control, it is found that the system is very sensitive to the controller gain because of the computational delay of vision. In order to establish a satisfactory delay compensation, more investigations on controller design are required. (author)

  17. Catalog of Realizations for DXCCII using Commercially Available ICs and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maheshwari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents fifteen distinct practical realizations for dual-X second generation current conveyor (DXCCII using commercially available integrated circuits. Detailed comparisons and results are presented to verify the utility of proposed realizations. The catalog of proposed realizations is a first attempt and is expected to be useful for testing newly developed circuits based on dual-X second generation current conveyor. Each of the first fourteen proposed realizations uses four ICs. One three IC based implementation is further given making the total count fifteen. Some additional features are also explored which further enhance the versatility of DXCCII. The paper further presents a novel and compact quadrature oscillator to verify the applicability of the proposed realizations. Single resistance control of the frequency of oscillation is also demonstrated by employing the new gain-variable DXCCII. Experimental results are also included along with simulation results to validate the proposed theory and its practical significance.

  18. Experimental Realization of a Thermal Squeezed State of Levitated Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muddassar; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Bateman, James; Vovrosh, Jamie; Hempston, David; Kim, M. S.; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally squeeze the thermal motional state of an optically levitated nanosphere by fast switching between two trapping frequencies. The measured phase-space distribution of the center of mass of our particle shows the typical shape of a squeezed thermal state, from which we infer up to 2.7 dB of squeezing along one motional direction. In these experiments the average thermal occupancy is high and, even after squeezing, the motional state remains in the remit of classical statistical mechanics. Nevertheless, we argue that the manipulation scheme described here could be used to achieve squeezing in the quantum regime if preceded by cooling of the levitated mechanical oscillator. Additionally, a higher degree of squeezing could, in principle, be achieved by repeating the frequency-switching protocol multiple times.

  19. Industrial Application of Configurators: From Motivations to Realized Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Shafiee, Sara; Hvam, Lars

    to support companies applying mass customization strategies. This articles analysis the relationship between the initial motivations manufacturing companies have for implementing configurators and the realized benefits from the application of configurators. The results presented in this paper are based......Manufacturing companies are increasingly seeking to gain the benefits from mass customization strategies as a response to increased customers’ demand for customized products. To automate the process of generating products’ specifications and guide the sales process, configurators are commonly used...... on a survey followed with interviews in 22 industrial companies. The findings show that the main motivations can be grouped into seven categories, where the successfulness of achieving the targeted benefits varies between the individual categories. Furthermore, the results highlights that substantial benefits...

  20. Experimental realization of universal geometric quantum gates with solid-state spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, C; Wang, W-B; He, L; Zhang, W-G; Dai, C-Y; Wang, F; Duan, L-M

    2014-10-02

    Experimental realization of a universal set of quantum logic gates is the central requirement for the implementation of a quantum computer. In an 'all-geometric' approach to quantum computation, the quantum gates are implemented using Berry phases and their non-Abelian extensions, holonomies, from geometric transformation of quantum states in the Hilbert space. Apart from its fundamental interest and rich mathematical structure, the geometric approach has some built-in noise-resilience features. On the experimental side, geometric phases and holonomies have been observed in thermal ensembles of liquid molecules using nuclear magnetic resonance; however, such systems are known to be non-scalable for the purposes of quantum computing. There are proposals to implement geometric quantum computation in scalable experimental platforms such as trapped ions, superconducting quantum bits and quantum dots, and a recent experiment has realized geometric single-bit gates in a superconducting system. Here we report the experimental realization of a universal set of geometric quantum gates using the solid-state spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centres. These diamond defects provide a scalable experimental platform with the potential for room-temperature quantum computing, which has attracted strong interest in recent years. Our experiment shows that all-geometric and potentially robust quantum computation can be realized with solid-state spin quantum bits, making use of recent advances in the coherent control of this system.

  1. A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part I – Experimental realization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Sarhadi, Ali; Pryds, Nini

    2016-01-01

    An experimental realization of a heat exchanger with commercial thermoelectric generators (TEGs) is presented. The power producing capabilities as a function of flow rate and temperature span are characterized for two different commercial heat transfer fluids and for three different thermal...

  2. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  3. Experimental realization of the quantum duel game using linear optical circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balthazar, W F; Passos, M H M; Schmidt, A G M; Huguenin, J A O; Caetano, D P

    2015-01-01

    We report on the experimental realization of the quantum duel game for two players, Alice and Bob. Using an all optical approach, we have encoded Alice and Bob states in transverse modes and polarization degrees of freedom of a laser beam, respectively. By setting Alice and Bob input states and considering the possibility of Alice performing two shots, we demonstrated the quantum features of the game as well as we recovered the classical version of the game. (paper)

  4. Application of neural networks in experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel', I.V.; Neskromnyj, V.N.; Ososkov, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The theoretical foundations of numerous models of artificial neural networks (ANN) and their applications to the actual problems of associative memory, optimization and pattern recognition are given. This review contains also numerous using of ANN in the experimental physics both as the hardware realization of fast triggering systems for even selection and for the following software implementation of the trajectory data recognition

  5. Boson realizations of Lie algebras with applications to nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.; Marshalek, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of boson realization (or mapping) of Lie algebras appeared first in nuclear physics in 1962 as the idea of expanding bilinear forms in fermion creation and annihilation operators in Taylor series of boson operators, with the object of converting the study of nuclear vibrational motion into a problem of coupled oscillators. The physical situations of interest are quite diverse, depending, for instance, on whether excitations for fixed- or variable-particle number are being studied, on how total angular momentum is decomposed into orbital and spin parts, and on whether isotopic spin and other intrinsic degrees of freedom enter. As a consequence, all of the semisimple algebras other than the exceptional ones have proved to be of interest at one time or another, and all are studied in this review. Though the salient historical facts are presented in the introduction, in the body of the review the progression is (generally) from the simplest algebras to the more complex ones. With a sufficiently broad view of the physics requirements, the mathematical problem is the realization of an arbitrary representation of a Lie algebra in a subspace of a suitably chosen Hilbert space of bosons (Heisenberg-Weyl algebra). Indeed, if one includes the study of odd nuclei, one is forced to consider the mappings to spaces that are direct-product spaces of bosons and (quasi)fermions. Though all the methods that have been used for these problems are reviewed, emphasis is placed on a relatively new algebraic method that has emerged over the past decade. Many of the classic results are rederived, and some new results are obtained for odd systems

  6. Experimental realization of a highly secure chaos communication under strong channel noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weiping; Dai Qionglin; Wang Shihong; Lu Huaping; Kuang Jinyu; Zhao Zhenfeng; Zhu Xiangqing; Tang Guoning; Huang Ronghuai; Hu Gang

    2004-01-01

    A one-way coupled spatiotemporally chaotic map lattice is used to construct cryptosystem. With the combinatorial applications of both chaotic computations and conventional algebraic operations, our system has optimal cryptographic properties much better than the separative applications of known chaotic and conventional methods. We have realized experiments to practice duplex voice secure communications in realistic Wired Public Switched Telephone Network by applying our chaotic system and the system of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), respectively, for cryptography. Our system can work stably against strong channel noise when AES fails to work

  7. Experimental realization of a highly secure chaos communication under strong channel noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weiping; Dai, Qionglin; Wang, Shihong; Lu, Huaping; Kuang, Jinyu; Zhao, Zhenfeng; Zhu, Xiangqing; Tang, Guoning; Huang, Ronghuai; Hu, Gang

    2004-09-01

    A one-way coupled spatiotemporally chaotic map lattice is used to construct cryptosystem. With the combinatorial applications of both chaotic computations and conventional algebraic operations, our system has optimal cryptographic properties much better than the separative applications of known chaotic and conventional methods. We have realized experiments to practice duplex voice secure communications in realistic Wired Public Switched Telephone Network by applying our chaotic system and the system of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), respectively, for cryptography. Our system can work stably against strong channel noise when AES fails to work.

  8. Experimental realization of synchronization in complex networks with Chua's circuits like nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posadas-Castillo, C.; Cruz-Hernandez, C.; Lopez-Gutierrez, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study on practical realization of synchronization in globally coupled networks with Chua's circuits like nodes is presented. Synchronization of coupled multiple Chua's circuits is achieved by appealing to results from complex systems theory. In particular, we design and implement electronically complex dynamical networks composed by three coupled Chua's circuits, considering two scenarios: (i) without master node, and (ii) with (periodic and chaotic) master node. The interactions in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each Chua's circuit.

  9. Experimental realization of synchronization in complex networks with Chua's circuits like nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadas-Castillo, C. [Engineering Faculty, Baja California Autonomous University (UABC), Km. 103, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Engineering Mechanic and Electric Faculty of Nuevo Leon Autonomous University (UANL), Pedro de Alba, S.N., Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, NL (Mexico); Cruz-Hernandez, C. [Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Scientific Research and Advanced Studies of Ensenada (CICESE), Km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, BC (Mexico)], E-mail: ccruz@cicese.mx; Lopez-Gutierrez, R.M. [Engineering Faculty, Baja California Autonomous University (UABC), Km. 103, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, BC (Mexico)

    2009-05-30

    In this paper, an experimental study on practical realization of synchronization in globally coupled networks with Chua's circuits like nodes is presented. Synchronization of coupled multiple Chua's circuits is achieved by appealing to results from complex systems theory. In particular, we design and implement electronically complex dynamical networks composed by three coupled Chua's circuits, considering two scenarios: (i) without master node, and (ii) with (periodic and chaotic) master node. The interactions in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each Chua's circuit.

  10. Experimental realization of a one-way quantum computer algorithm solving Simon's problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tame, M S; Bell, B A; Di Franco, C; Wadsworth, W J; Rarity, J G

    2014-11-14

    We report an experimental demonstration of a one-way implementation of a quantum algorithm solving Simon's problem-a black-box period-finding problem that has an exponential gap between the classical and quantum runtime. Using an all-optical setup and modifying the bases of single-qubit measurements on a five-qubit cluster state, key representative functions of the logical two-qubit version's black box can be queried and solved. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental realization of the quantum algorithm solving Simon's problem. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical model, demonstrating the successful performance of the algorithm. With a view to scaling up to larger numbers of qubits, we analyze the resource requirements for an n-qubit version. This work helps highlight how one-way quantum computing provides a practical route to experimentally investigating the quantum-classical gap in the query complexity model.

  11. Application of quantum key distribution for mutual identification - experimental realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, M.; Haderka, O.; Hendrych, M.

    1998-01-01

    A secure quantum identification system combining a classical identification procedure and quantum key distribution is proposed. Each identification sequence is always used just once and new sequences are 're fuelled' from a shared secret key transferred over a quantum channel. The question of authentication of information sent over a public channel is discussed. An apparatus using two unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers has been built, and quantum key distribution and 'quantum identification' have been successfully tested through a single-mode optical fibre at 830 nm, employing low intensity coherent states (below 0,1 photons per pulse). (author)

  12. Experimental realization of nondestructive discrimination of Bell states using a five-qubit quantum computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Mitali; Shukla, Abhishek; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-12-01

    A scheme for distributed quantum measurement that allows nondestructive or indirect Bell measurement was proposed by Gupta et al [1]. In the present work, Gupta et al.'s scheme is experimentally realized using the five-qubit super-conductivity-based quantum computer, which has been recently placed in cloud by IBM Corporation. The experiment confirmed that the Bell state can be constructed and measured in a nondestructive manner with a reasonably high fidelity. A comparison of the outcomes of this study and the results obtained earlier in an NMR-based experiment (Samal et al. (2010) [10]) has also been performed. The study indicates that to make a scalable SQUID-based quantum computer, errors introduced by the gates (in the present technology) have to be reduced considerably.

  13. The material realization of science from Habermas to experimentation and referential realism

    CERN Document Server

    Radder, Hans

    2012-01-01

    This book develops a conception of science as a multi-dimensional practice, which includes experimental action and production, conceptual-theoretical interpretation, and formal-mathematical work. On this basis, it addresses the topical issue of scientific realism and expounds a detailed, referentially realist account of the natural sciences. This account is shown to be compatible with the frequent occurrence of conceptual discontinuities in the historical development of the sciences. Referential realism exploits several fruitful ideas of Jürgen Habermas, especially his distinction between objectivity and truth; it builds on a in-depth analysis of scientific experiments, including their material realization; and it is developed through an extensive case study in the history and philosophy of quantum mechanics. The new postscript explains how the book relates to several important issues in recent philosophy of science and science studies.

  14. Berry phase and entangled systems: a proposal for an experimental realization with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.; Durstberger, K.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Hasegawa, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Berry phase - a geometric object - is included into an entangled spin-1/2 system. We discuss the case, where only one part of the Hilbert space is affected by the geometric phase. We are able to cancel the effects of the dynamical phase by using the 'spin-echo' method. With this modified state we establish a CHSH-inequality to test locality and study how the geometry effects the entanglement. We suggest an experimental realization of the proposed set-up using neutron interferometry, which is an almost ideal tool to investigate the evolution of a two-level system, e.g., spin-1/2. We see that the theoretical predictions can be tested within this set-up, where we have to deal with contextuality rather than locality. (author)

  15. Separation of enantiomers by continuous preferential crystallization: Experimental realization using a coupled crystallizer configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaban, Joussef Hussein; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Kiil, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The experimental realization of a continuous preferential crystallization process, consisting of two mixed-flow crystallizers coupled via crystal-free liquid exchange streams and with only the liquid phases operating continuously, is addressed. Experiments in triplicate, using the conglomerate....... Successful enantioseparation by crystal growth, with the repeatability being within ±10% deviation, was obtained. However, slow crystal growth, due to a low surface integration rate, led to a negligible consumption of the desired enantiomer added in the feed solution, resulting in low productivities....... Productivities, yields, and purities of solid products were influenced by the morphological differences in the seed crystals. Due to irregularly shaped seed crystals, increase in the productivities and yields were achieved in the L-Tank. Lower purities of solid products from the L-Tank compared to purities...

  16. High collimated coherent illumination for reconstruction of digitally calculated holograms: design and experimental realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Alexander; Dubinin, German; Dubynin, Sergey; Yanusik, Igor; Kim, Sun Il; Choi, Chil-Sung; Song, Hoon; Lee, Hong-Seok; Putilin, Andrey; Kopenkin, Sergey; Borodin, Yuriy

    2017-06-01

    Future commercialization of glasses-free holographic real 3D displays requires not only appropriate image quality but also slim design of backlight unit and whole display device to match market needs. While a lot of research aimed to solve computational issues of forming Computer Generated Holograms for 3D Holographic displays, less focus on development of backlight units suitable for 3D holographic display applications with form-factor of conventional 2D display systems. Thereby, we report coherent backlight unit for 3D holographic display with thickness comparable to commercially available 2D displays (cell phones, tablets, laptops, etc.). Coherent backlight unit forms uniform, high-collimated and effective illumination of spatial light modulator. Realization of such backlight unit is possible due to holographic optical elements, based on volume gratings, constructing coherent collimated beam to illuminate display plane. Design, recording and measurement of 5.5 inch coherent backlight unit based on two holographic optical elements are presented in this paper.

  17. Assistance for design and realization of real-time safety critical applications according to Oasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussagues, Ch.; Cordonnier, Ch.; Quetueil, I.; David, V.

    1998-01-01

    Assistance for design and realization is all the more essential when safety-critical, real-time and complex applications are considered. When developing such applications, real-time and dependability features should be managed as soon as possible. Then, since the design phase, programmers have to strive even more than with common applications. In the context of the OASIS approach, assistance for design and realization is based on some intrinsic properties of the model, i.e. determinism, behavior independence and timeliness. The assistance, that may be furnished in the OASIS approach, has three complementary components that constitute the focus of this article. (authors)

  18. Experimental Realization of an Epsilon-Near-Zero Graded-Index Metalens at Terahertz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Peña, Victor; Engheta, Nader; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Gentselev, Alexandr; Beruete, Miguel

    2017-09-01

    The terahertz band has been historically hindered by the lack of efficient generators and detectors, but a series of recent breakthroughs have helped to effectively close the "terahertz gap." A rapid development of terahertz technology has been possible thanks to the translation of revolutionary concepts from other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Among them, metamaterials stand out for their unprecedented ability to control wave propagation and manipulate electromagnetic response of matter. They have become a workhorse in the development of terahertz devices such as lenses, polarizers, etc., with fascinating features. In particular, epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials have attracted much attention in the past several years due to their unusual properties such as squeezing, tunneling, and supercoupling where a wave traveling inside an electrically small channel filled with an ENZ medium can be tunneled through it, reducing reflections and coupling most of its energy. Here, we design and experimentally demonstrate an ENZ graded-index (GRIN) metamaterial lens operating at terahertz with a power enhancement of 16.2 dB, using an array of narrow hollow rectangular waveguides working near their cutoff frequencies. This is a demonstration of an ENZ GRIN device at terahertz and can open the path towards other realizations of similar devices enabling full quasioptical processing of terahertz signals.

  19. Using Neural Data to Test A Theory of Investor Behavior: An Application to Realization Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, Cary; Barberis, Nicholas; Camerer, Colin; Bossaerts, Peter; Rangel, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    We use measures of neural activity provided by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the "realization utility" theory of investor behavior, which posits that people derive utility directly from the act of realizing gains and losses. Subjects traded stocks in an experimental market while we measured their brain activity. We find that all subjects exhibit a strong disposition effect in their trading, even though it is suboptimal. Consistent with the realization utility explanation for this behavior, we find that activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area known to encode the value of options during choices, correlates with the capital gains of potential trades; that the neural measures of realization utility correlate across subjects with their individual tendency to exhibit a disposition effect; and that activity in the ventral striatum, an area known to encode information about changes in the present value of experienced utility, exhibits a positive response when subjects realize capital gains. These results provide support for the realization utility model and, more generally, demonstrate how neural data can be helpful in testing models of investor behavior.

  20. Progress towards experimental realization of extreme-velocity flow-dominated magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Adams, C. S.; Welch, D. R.; Kagan, G.; Bean, I. A.; Henderson, B. R.; Klim, A. J.

    2017-10-01

    Interactions of flow-dominated plasmas with other plasmas, neutral gases, magnetic fields, solids etc., take place with sufficient velocity that kinetic energy dominates the dynamics of the interaction (as opposed to magnetic or thermal energy, which dominates in most laboratory plasma experiments). Building upon progress made by the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL, we are developing the experimental and modeling capability to increase our ultimate attainable plasma velocities well in excess of 1000 km/s. Ongoing work includes designing new pulsed power switches, triggering, and inductive adder topologies; development of novel high-speed optical diagnostics; and exploration of new numerical techniques to specifically model the unique physics of translating/stagnating flow-dominated plasmas. Furthering our understanding of the physical mechanisms of energy conversion from kinetic to other forms, such as thermal energy, non-thermal tails/accelerated populations, enhanced magnetic fields, and radiation (both continuum and line), has wide-ranging significance in basic plasma science, astrophysics, and plasma technology applications such as inertial confinement fusion and intense radiation sources. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration. LA-UR-17-25786.

  1. Experimental realization of a quantum game on a one-way quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevedel, Robert; Stefanov, Andre; Walther, Philip; Zeilinger, Anton

    2007-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of a quantum game on an all-optical one-way quantum computer. Following a recent theoretical proposal we implement a quantum version of Prisoner's Dilemma, where the quantum circuit is realized by a four-qubit box-cluster configuration and the player's local strategies by measurements performed on the physical qubits of the cluster. This demonstration underlines the strength and versatility of the one-way model and we expect that this will trigger further interest in designing quantum protocols and algorithms to be tested in state-of-the-art cluster resources

  2. Experimental realization of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettini, Jefferson; Ugarte, Daniel; Sato, Fernando; Galvao, Douglas Soares; Coura, Pablo Zimmerman; Dantas, Socrates de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    We report high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and molecular dynamics results of the first experimental test of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species formed from spontaneous stretching of metallic nanowires. (author)

  3. Deformed fermion realization of the sp(4) algebra and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, A.I.; Sviratcheva, K.D.; Gueorguiev, V.G.; Draayer, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Conclusions The deformed realization of sp_q(4) is based on the specific q-deformation of a two component Clifford algebra, realized in terms of creation and annihilation fermion operators. The deformed generators of Sp_q(4) close different realizations of the compact u_q(2) subalgebra. Each reduction into compact subalgebras of sp_q(4) provides for a description of a different physical model with different dynamical symmetries. While within a particular deformation scheme the basis states may either be deformed or not, the generators are always deformed as is their action on basis states. With a view towards applications, the additional parameter of the deformation gives in a Hamiltonian theory a dependence of the matrix elements on the q−deformation , which does not simply account for one more higher order of a two-body interaction, but it includes all of them through an exponential expansion in parameter κ, q = e"κ. In this way only one parameter, q, can restore the neglected non-linear terms of the residual interaction.

  4. Application of ASP Technology to Realize the Online Administrative License of the earthquake in Hunan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongliang; Kang, Chengxu; Tian, Youping

    2018-01-01

    Realizing the online handling of administrative approval of earthquakes is an important measure to improve work efficiency and facilitate people’s convenience. Based on the analysis of the characteristics and processes of the administrative licensing in the earthquake industry, this paper proposes an online processing model based on ASP technology and an online processing system based on B/S architecture. This paper presents the design and implementation methods. The application of the system shows that the system is simple in design and full in function, and can be used on mobile platforms such as computers and mobile phones, and has good practicability and forward-lookingness.

  5. Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianfan; Sandhu, Sunil; Povinelli, Michelle L; Shakya, Jagat; Fan, Shanhui; Lipson, Michal

    2006-03-31

    We provide the first experimental observation of structure tuning of the electromagnetically induced transparency-like spectrum in integrated on-chip optical resonator systems. The system consists of coupled silicon ring resonators with 10 microm diameter on silicon, where the coherent interference between the two coupled resonators is tuned. We measured a transparency-resonance mode with a quality factor of 11,800.

  6. Evaporative cooling of highly charged ions in EBIT [Electron Beam Ion Trap]: An experimental realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.B.; Levine, M.A.; Bennett, C.L.; Henderson, J.R.; Knapp, D.A.; Marrs, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Both the total number and trapping lifetime of near-neon-like gold ions held in an electron beam ion trap have been greatly increased by a process of 'evaporative cooling'. A continuous flow of low-charge-state ions into the trap cools the high-charge-state ions in the trap. Preliminary experimental results using titanium ions as a coolant are presented. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Experimental realization of quantum cheque using a five-qubit quantum computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Bikash K.; Banerjee, Anindita; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2017-12-01

    Quantum cheques could be a forgery-free way to make transaction in a quantum networked banking system with perfect security against any no-signalling adversary. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of quantum cheque, proposed by Moulick and Panigrahi (Quantum Inf Process 15:2475-2486, 2016), using the five-qubit IBM quantum computer. Appropriate single qubit, CNOT and Fredkin gates are used in an optimized configuration. The accuracy of implementation is checked and verified through quantum state tomography by comparing results from the theoretical and experimental density matrices.

  8. Molten salt reactors. Synthesis of studies realized between 1973 and 1983. Experimental loop file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Four test loops were developed for the experimental study of a molten salt reactor with lead salt direct contact. A molten salt loop, completely in graphite, including the pump, showed that this material is convenient for salt containment and circulation. Reactor components like flowmeters, electromagnetic pumps, pressure gauge, valves developed for liquid sodium, were tested with liquid lead. A water-mercury loop was built for lead-molten salt simulation studies. Finally a lead-salt loop (COMPARSE) was built to study the behaviour of salt particles carried by lead in the heat exchanger. [fr

  9. Experimental realization of millimeter-wave amplification by a sheet beam free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.; Rodgers, J.; Cheng, S.

    1994-01-01

    We report an observation of millimeter-wave (94 GHz) amplification in a sheet beam, short period, planar wiggler, free electron laser amplifier. The observed gain is about 5 dB for a 530 keV, 4 A beam through a 54 cm wiggler. Wave energy absorption was also observed when the beam energy is off-resonance. Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulation. This amplifier configuration has potential for producing equally high output power but at relatively low voltage compared with longer period free electron lasers

  10. Photolithography and micromolding techniques for the realization of 3D polycaprolactone scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania; Schipani, Rossana; Di Vito, Anna; Giugni, Andrea; Francardi, Marco; Torre, Bruno; Allione, Marco; Miele, Ermanno; Malara, Natalia Maria; Alrasheed, Salma; Raimondo, Raffaella; Candeloro, Patrizio; Mollace, Vincenzo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-01-01

    Material science, cell biology, and engineering are all part of the research field of tissue engineering. It is the application of knowledge, methods and instrumentations of engineering and life science to the development of biocompatible solutions for repair and/or replace tissues and damaged organs. Last generation microfabrication technologies utilizing natural and synthetic biomaterials allow the realization of scaffolds resembling tissue-like structures as skin, brain, bones, muscles, cartilage and blood vessels. In this work we describe an effective and simple micromolding fabrication process allowing the realization of 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold for human neural stem cells (hNSC) culture. Scanning Electron Microscopy has been used to investigate the micro and nano features characterizing the surface of the device. Immunofluorescence analysis showed how, after seeding cells onto the substrate, healthy astrocytes grew up in a well-organized 3D network. Thus, we proposed this effective fabrication method for the production of nanopatterned PCL pillared scaffold providing a biomimetic environment for the growth of hNSC, a promising and efficient means for future applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  11. Photolithography and micromolding techniques for the realization of 3D polycaprolactone scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania

    2015-06-01

    Material science, cell biology, and engineering are all part of the research field of tissue engineering. It is the application of knowledge, methods and instrumentations of engineering and life science to the development of biocompatible solutions for repair and/or replace tissues and damaged organs. Last generation microfabrication technologies utilizing natural and synthetic biomaterials allow the realization of scaffolds resembling tissue-like structures as skin, brain, bones, muscles, cartilage and blood vessels. In this work we describe an effective and simple micromolding fabrication process allowing the realization of 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold for human neural stem cells (hNSC) culture. Scanning Electron Microscopy has been used to investigate the micro and nano features characterizing the surface of the device. Immunofluorescence analysis showed how, after seeding cells onto the substrate, healthy astrocytes grew up in a well-organized 3D network. Thus, we proposed this effective fabrication method for the production of nanopatterned PCL pillared scaffold providing a biomimetic environment for the growth of hNSC, a promising and efficient means for future applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  12. Experimental realization of Shor's quantum factoring algorithm using nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersypen, L M; Steffen, M; Breyta, G; Yannoni, C S; Sherwood, M H; Chuang, I L

    The number of steps any classical computer requires in order to find the prime factors of an l-digit integer N increases exponentially with l, at least using algorithms known at present. Factoring large integers is therefore conjectured to be intractable classically, an observation underlying the security of widely used cryptographic codes. Quantum computers, however, could factor integers in only polynomial time, using Shor's quantum factoring algorithm. Although important for the study of quantum computers, experimental demonstration of this algorithm has proved elusive. Here we report an implementation of the simplest instance of Shor's algorithm: factorization of N = 15 (whose prime factors are 3 and 5). We use seven spin-1/2 nuclei in a molecule as quantum bits, which can be manipulated with room temperature liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. This method of using nuclei to store quantum information is in principle scalable to systems containing many quantum bits, but such scalability is not implied by the present work. The significance of our work lies in the demonstration of experimental and theoretical techniques for precise control and modelling of complex quantum computers. In particular, we present a simple, parameter-free but predictive model of decoherence effects in our system.

  13. Design and experimental realization of an optimal scheme for teleportation of an n-qubit quantum state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Mitali; Shukla, Abhishek; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-12-01

    An explicit scheme (quantum circuit) is designed for the teleportation of an n-qubit quantum state. It is established that the proposed scheme requires an optimal amount of quantum resources, whereas larger amount of quantum resources have been used in a large number of recently reported teleportation schemes for the quantum states which can be viewed as special cases of the general n-qubit state considered here. A trade-off between our knowledge about the quantum state to be teleported and the amount of quantum resources required for the same is observed. A proof-of-principle experimental realization of the proposed scheme (for a 2-qubit state) is also performed using 5-qubit superconductivity-based IBM quantum computer. The experimental results show that the state has been teleported with high fidelity. Relevance of the proposed teleportation scheme has also been discussed in the context of controlled, bidirectional, and bidirectional controlled state teleportation.

  14. An Experimental Realization of a Chaos-Based Secure Communication Using Arduino Microcontrollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Zapateiro De la Hoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Security and secrecy are some of the important concerns in the communications world. In the last years, several encryption techniques have been proposed in order to improve the secrecy of the information transmitted. Chaos-based encryption techniques are being widely studied as part of the problem because of the highly unpredictable and random-look nature of the chaotic signals. In this paper we propose a digital-based communication system that uses the logistic map which is a mathematically simple model that is chaotic under certain conditions. The input message signal is modulated using a simple Delta modulator and encrypted using a logistic map. The key signal is also encrypted using the same logistic map with different initial conditions. In the receiver side, the binary-coded message is decrypted using the encrypted key signal that is sent through one of the communication channels. The proposed scheme is experimentally tested using Arduino shields which are simple yet powerful development kits that allows for the implementation of the communication system for testing purposes.

  15. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric system for concentrated solar energy conversion: Experimental realization and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeri, Ofer; Rotem, Oded; Hazan, Eden; Katz, Eugene A.; Braun, Avi; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2015-09-01

    An experimental demonstration of the combined photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric conversion of concentrated sunlight (with concentration factor, X, up to ˜300) into electricity is presented. The hybrid system is based on a multi-junction PV cell and a thermoelectric generator (TEG). The latter increases the electric power of the system and dissipates some of the excessive heat. For X ≤ 200, the system's maximal efficiency, ˜32%, was mostly due to the contribution from the PV cell. With increasing X and system temperature, the PV cell's efficiency decreased while that of the TEG increased. Accordingly, the direct electrical contribution of the TEG started to dominate in the total system power, reaching ˜20% at X ≈ 290. Using a simple steady state finite element modeling, the cooling effect of the TEG on the hybrid system's efficiency was proved to be even more significant than its direct electrical contribution for high solar concentrations. As a result, the total efficiency contribution of the TEG reached ˜40% at X ≈ 200. This suggests a new system optimization concept that takes into account the PV cell's temperature dependence and the trade-off between the direct electrical generation and cooling capabilities of the TEG. It is shown that the hybrid system has a real potential to exceed 50% total efficiency by using more advanced PV cells and TE materials.

  16. An Experimental Realization of a Chaos-Based Secure Communication Using Arduino Microcontrollers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapateiro De la Hoz, Mauricio; Acho, Leonardo; Vidal, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Security and secrecy are some of the important concerns in the communications world. In the last years, several encryption techniques have been proposed in order to improve the secrecy of the information transmitted. Chaos-based encryption techniques are being widely studied as part of the problem because of the highly unpredictable and random-look nature of the chaotic signals. In this paper we propose a digital-based communication system that uses the logistic map which is a mathematically simple model that is chaotic under certain conditions. The input message signal is modulated using a simple Delta modulator and encrypted using a logistic map. The key signal is also encrypted using the same logistic map with different initial conditions. In the receiver side, the binary-coded message is decrypted using the encrypted key signal that is sent through one of the communication channels. The proposed scheme is experimentally tested using Arduino shields which are simple yet powerful development kits that allows for the implementation of the communication system for testing purposes.

  17. Realization of stable and homogenous carbon nanotubes dispersion as ink for radio frequency identification applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougot, M Nicolas; Dung Dang, Thi My; Le, Nguyen Ngan; Dang, Mau Chien

    2013-01-01

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in radio frequency identification (RFID) applications offers a very large range of possibilities to exploit the incredible properties of CNTs. However, due to their entanglement state, their size and the different interacting forces between nanotubes bundles present at nanometric scale, CNTs debundling is very hard to achieve, requiring specific equipment and chemicals. Our purpose was to reduce as small as possible CNTs bundles, in order to realize ink to print on an RFID antenna. The size of the head printer nozzles required very small particles, about a few micrometers, in order to be able to print on the sensitive position of the antenna. To reduce the size of the bundles and stabilize the solution, an ultrasonic horn with an ultrasonic bath were combined as mechanical stress for CNT dispersion, and some chemicals such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)—a surfactant, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)—a solvent, or chitosan were used to meet our requirements. (paper)

  18. Proof-of-principle experimental realization of a qubit-like qudit-based quantum key distribution scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chau, H. F.; Chen, Wei; Wang, Chao; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2018-04-01

    In comparison to qubit-based protocols, qudit-based quantum key distribution ones generally allow two cooperative parties to share unconditionally secure keys under a higher channel noise. However, it is very hard to prepare and measure the required quantum states in qudit-based protocols in general. One exception is the recently proposed highly error tolerant qudit-based protocol known as the Chau15 (Chau 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 062324). Remarkably, the state preparation and measurement in this protocol can be done relatively easily since the required states are phase encoded almost like the diagonal basis states of a qubit. Here we report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of the Chau15 protocol. One highlight of our experiment is that its post-processing is based on practical one-way manner, while the original proposal in Chau (2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 062324) relies on complicated two-way post-processing, which is a great challenge in experiment. In addition, by manipulating time-bin qudit and measurement with a variable delay interferometer, our realization is extensible to qudit with high-dimensionality and confirms the experimental feasibility of the Chau15 protocol.

  19. W-realization of Lie algebras. Application to so(4,2) and Poincare algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarin, F.; Ragoucy, E.; Sorba, P.

    1996-05-01

    The property of some finite W-algebras to appear as the commutant of a particular subalgebra in a simple Lie algebra G is exploited for the obtention of new G-realizations from a 'canonical' differential one. The method is applied to the conformal algebra so(4,2) and therefore yields also results for its Poincare subalgebra. Unitary irreducible representations of these algebras are recognized in this approach, which is naturally compared -or associated to - the induced representation technique. (author)

  20. Specific spheres of application of ionising radiation effects, some realized results and comparative advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderac, R.

    2007-01-01

    The papers discusses some results of ionizing radiation effects in realization of non-destructive methods, achieved progress from the aspect of innovation, comparative results with previously used methods, etc. A review is given of methods based on alpha-radiography, auto-alpha radiography, beta-radiography, X-ray-fluorescent analysis, X- and gamma radiography, and photos of specific samples of neutron radiography [sr

  1. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-01

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  2. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-15

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  3. W-realization of Lie algebras. Application to so(4,2) and Poincare algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbarin, F.; Ragoucy, E.; Sorba, P.

    1996-05-01

    The property of some finite W-algebras to appear as the commutant of a particular subalgebra in a simple Lie algebra G is exploited for the obtention of new G-realizations from a `canonical` differential one. The method is applied to the conformal algebra so(4,2) and therefore yields also results for its Poincare subalgebra. Unitary irreducible representations of these algebras are recognized in this approach, which is naturally compared -or associated to - the induced representation technique. (author). 12 refs.

  4. Design and realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Most typical papers on the Ganil construction have been gathered in this book to somehow notice the success of its realization. Papers concern the accelerator and beam line, excluding experimental areas

  5. Performance evaluation of synthetic diamond to realize ionisation chamber for radiotherapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Waryn, M.J.

    2005-09-01

    This work focuses on the optimisation of synthetic CVD diamond quality to realize ionisation chambers for radiotherapy. Diamonds samples have been synthesized and characterized using thermally stimulated measurement. These measurements showed the presence of trapping levels due to crystalline defects or impurities in material. The study of the response of these samples under irradiation has showed a correlation between the charged state of traps (priming and overshoot phenomena) and the response of the detector (stabilization of the signal). To remove the overshoot phenomenon which prevents from reproducible measurements, we used a specific operating set up controlling the device temperature. This technique enables to neutralize these instable phenomena and to use CVD diamond for ionisation chamber fabrication. (author)

  6. Experimental testing of an ABB Master application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.; Korhonen, J.; Tuulari, E.

    1995-10-01

    A prototype dynamic testing harness for programmable automation systems has been specified and implemented at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). In order to get experience on the methodology and equipment for the testing of systems important to the safety of nuclear power plants, where the safety and reliability requirements often are very high, two different pilot systems have been tested. One system was an ABB Master application, which was loaned for testing from ABB Atom by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Another system, loaned from Siemens AG (SAG) by IVO International Oy (IVO), was an application realized with SAG's digital SILT technology. The report describes the experiences gained in testing an APRM pilot system realized with ABB Master technology. The testing of the pilot application took place in the VTT Automation laboratory in Otaniemi in September-October 1994. The purpose of the testing was not to assess the quality of the pilot system, but to get experience in the testing methodology and find out the further development needs and potentials of the test methodology and equipment. (7 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.)

  7. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 13: realizing the full potential of quasi-experiments for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Tugwell, Peter; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-09-01

    Although the number of quasi-experiments conducted by health researchers has increased in recent years, there clearly remains unrealized potential for using these methods for causal evaluation of health policies and programs globally. This article proposes five prescriptions for capturing the full value of quasi-experiments for health research. First, new funding opportunities targeting proposals that use quasi-experimental methods should be made available to a broad pool of health researchers. Second, administrative data from health programs, often amenable to quasi-experimental analysis, should be made more accessible to researchers. Third, training in quasi-experimental methods should be integrated into existing health science graduate programs to increase global capacity to use these methods. Fourth, clear guidelines for primary research and synthesis of evidence from quasi-experiments should be developed. Fifth, strategic investments should be made to continue to develop new innovations in quasi-experimental methodologies. Tremendous opportunities exist to expand the use of quasi-experimental methods to increase our understanding of which health programs and policies work and which do not. Health researchers should continue to expand their commitment to rigorous causal evaluation with quasi-experimental methods, and international institutions should increase their support for these efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A new combined approach on Hurst exponent estimate and its applications in realized volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Huang, Yirong

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new estimator of Hurst exponent based on the combined information of the conventional rescaled range methods. We demonstrate the superiority of the proposed estimator by Monte Carlo simulations, and the applications in estimating the Hurst exponent of daily volatility series in Chinese stock market. Moreover, we indicate the impact of the type of estimator and structural break on the estimating results of Hurst exponent.

  9. The Evolution of Successful Satellite Science to Air Quality Application Projects: From Inception to Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Teams of scientist have been working for almost a decade with state, local, regional and federal Air Quality regulators and scientists on several projects that have been focused on improving biomass burning emissions within our nation's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Initially, the NEI was based strictly on ground-based information that often used data aggregated from previous years reported at the county-centroid and completely ignored the spatial domain of all fires. This methodology resulted in gross inaccuracies; however it was an ingrained system and the users and organizations were largely comfortable. Improvements were viewed as too costly. Our task was to convince regulators, managers and users of the value that could be added by using satellite data to enhance the NEI. Certainly, there were individuals that understood the value of using satellite data, but they needed support to convince the establishment of the intrinsic, cost-effective value of publically-available satellite data. It was essential to present arguments, as well as requested verification and validation statistics, in the format that most suited the objectives of application organizations. This process incorporated: knowledge of state-of-the-art satellite data, algorithms and science; a working knowledge of the users applications and requirements; interacting with individuals with a variety of skill sets and goals; and perhaps most importantly, listening to the goals and responsibilities of the user community and fully communicating. Today, the Environmental Protection Agency and several state and regional organizations are using satellite data to estimate biomass burnings emissions at daily and annual scales for a number of critical environmental management and policy activities including regulation setting and regional strategy development for attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). We continue to work at the local, state and federal levels to improve the

  10. Realizing the benefits of improved plant monitoring in DCC upgrade applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    The basic design of current CANDU control centres was established in the early 1970's and plants constructed since then have maintained the same basic design. Over the ensuing years AECL and utility owners have implemented an evolutionary approach to ensuing years AECL and utility owners have implemented an evolutionary approach to control centre improvements. This continues to be the approach as refurbishment and retrofits are being considered for aging CANDU plants. The Advanced Control Centre information System (ACCIS), AECL's plant display system product, can be applied in an evolutionary manner within the control centre. ACCIS provides users with the advanced information necessary to meet the key operational goals of safety and production. AECL is presently deploying ACCIS in the Qinshan Unit l and 2 Control Centres and the Training Simulator. In this installation ACCIS provides supplemental display capabilities together with an integrated DCC/ACCIS annunciation function. This solution provides a working example of how ACCIS could be applied in a retrofit situation and provides useful information on its utilization in future retrofits. This paper describes ACCIS functionality, particularly focusing on features and functions critical to providing improved monitoring. The applications of these functions are described within the context of the Qinshan Plant Display System (QPDS) installation. This information is then extended to its application within future retrofits. (author)

  11. Next-generation particle accelerators for frontline research and wide-ranging applications in India - how to realize them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, R.K.; Roy, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Several modern accelerator facilities have been set up in India for basic and applied research during the past 5 decades. Indian scientists have been able to carry out excellent accelerator-based research at these as well as international facilities. Applications of accelerators in healthcare and industry have also grown in recent years. There is a strong realization now, at all levels, that a quantum jump needs to be given to the field of accelerator science and technology in India to fulfil the aspirations of the research community to be at par internationally in our areas of strength. Applications in industry and healthcare also have to grow substantially to benefit the common man. In this article an analysis of the methodology and logic behind the evolution of our accelerator programme has been presented. More importantly, recommendations have been given for gainfully implementing a rather ambitious programme that is proposed to be taken up in the next few decades. (author)

  12. Data mining methods application in reflexive adaptation realization in e-learning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Bozhday

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, e-learning technologies are rapidly gaining momentum in their evolution. In this regard, issues related to improving the quality of software for virtual educational systems are becoming topical: increasing the period of exploitation of programs, increasing their reliability and flexibility. The above characteristics directly depend on the ability of the software system to adapt to changes in the domain, environment and user characteristics. In some cases, this ability is reduced to the timely optimization of the program’s own interfaces and data structure. At present, several approaches to creating mechanisms for self-optimization of software systems are known, but all of them have an insufficient degree of formalization and, as a consequence, weak universality. The purpose of this work is to develop the basics of the technology of self-optimization of software systems in the structure of e-learning. The proposed technology is based on the formulated and formalized principle of reflexive adaptation of software, applicable to a wide class of software systems and based on the discovery of new knowledge in the behavioral products of the system.To solve this problem, methods of data mining were applied. Data mining allows finding regularities in the functioning of software systems, which may not be obvious at the stage of their development. Finding such regularities and their subsequent analysis will make it possible to reorganize the structure of the system in a more optimal way and without human intervention, which will prolong the life cycle of the software and reduce the costs of its maintenance. Achieving this effect is important for e-learning systems, since they are quite expensive.The main results of the work include: the proposed classification of software adaptation mechanisms, taking into account the latest trends in the IT field in general and in the field of e-learning in particular; Formulation and formalization of

  13. Realization of beam polarization at the linear collider and its application to EW processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco-Sollova, F.

    2006-07-15

    The use of beam polarization at the future ILC e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider will benefit the physics program significantly. This thesis explores three aspects of beam polarization: the application of beam polarization to the study of electroweak processes, the precise measurement of the beam polarization, and finally, the production of polarized positrons at a test beam experiment. In the first part of the thesis the importance of beam polarization at the future ILC is exhibited: the benefits of employing transverse beam polarization (in both beams) for the measurement of triple gauge boson couplings (TGCs) in the W-pair production process are studied. The sensitivity to anomalous TGC values is compared for the cases of transverse and longitudinal beam polarization at a center of mass energy of 500 GeV. Due to the suppressed contribution of the t-channel {nu} exchange, the sensitivity is higher for longitudinal polarization. For some physics analyses the usual polarimetry techniques do not provide the required accuracy for the measurement of the beam polarization (around 0.25% with Compton polarimetry). The second part of the thesis deals with a complementary method to measure the beam polarization employing physics data acquired with two polarization modes. The process of single-W production is chosen due to its high cross section. The expected precision for 500 fb{sup -1} and W{yields}{mu}{nu} decays only, is {delta}P{sub e{sup -}}/P{sub e{sup -}}=0.26% and {delta}P{sub e{sup +}}/P{sub e{sup +}}=0.33%, which can be further improved by employing additional W-decay channels. The first results of an attempt to produce polarized positrons at the E-166 experiment are shown in the last part of the thesis. The E-166 experiment, located at the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC's LINAC employs a helical undulator to induce the emission of circularly polarized gamma rays by the beam electrons. These gamma rays are converted into longitudinally polarized electron

  14. Realization of an electromagnetic isotope separator. Application to the isotopes of the mass 93 from the molybdenum and the technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernas, R.

    1954-07-01

    Analysis of focusing properties of a homogeneous magnetic field leads the author to use a magnetic sector of 60 deg, for the realization of an electromagnetic separator. The sources of realized ions provide ionic debits of 10 mA. The currents ionic detached isotopes to the collector vary from 1 to 5 mA. The separation efficiency is of 125 for a current collected of 1 mA. A survey of the neutralization of the space charge permitted to specify the role of the negative ions in this phenomenon. A method of neutralization of the space charge is proposed and gave excellent results. A report will be given of the separations of some elements: mercury, bromine, thorium, etc... The application of the separator to the study of the isomeric transfers in the molybdenum and the technetium permitted to assign definitely for 93 Mo and 93 Tc two radiances γ of respective energies 260 and 390 keV. A new process of fast chemical separation Mo/Tc is described. (author) [fr

  15. In vitro large-scale experimental and theoretical studies for the realization of bi-directional brain-prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Paolo; Difato, Francesco; Massobrio, Paolo; Breschi, Gian L; Pasquale, Valentina; Levi, Timothée; Goldin, Miri; Bornat, Yannick; Tedesco, Mariateresa; Bisio, Marta; Kanner, Sivan; Galron, Ronit; Tessadori, Jacopo; Taverna, Stefano; Chiappalone, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) were born to control "actions from thoughts" in order to recover motor capability of patients with impaired functional connectivity between the central and peripheral nervous system. The final goal of our studies is the development of a new proof-of-concept BMI-a neuromorphic chip for brain repair-to reproduce the functional organization of a damaged part of the central nervous system. To reach this ambitious goal, we implemented a multidisciplinary "bottom-up" approach in which in vitro networks are the paradigm for the development of an in silico model to be incorporated into a neuromorphic device. In this paper we present the overall strategy and focus on the different building blocks of our studies: (i) the experimental characterization and modeling of "finite size networks" which represent the smallest and most general self-organized circuits capable of generating spontaneous collective dynamics; (ii) the induction of lesions in neuronal networks and the whole brain preparation with special attention on the impact on the functional organization of the circuits; (iii) the first production of a neuromorphic chip able to implement a real-time model of neuronal networks. A dynamical characterization of the finite size circuits with single cell resolution is provided. A neural network model based on Izhikevich neurons was able to replicate the experimental observations. Changes in the dynamics of the neuronal circuits induced by optical and ischemic lesions are presented respectively for in vitro neuronal networks and for a whole brain preparation. Finally the implementation of a neuromorphic chip reproducing the network dynamics in quasi-real time (10 ns precision) is presented.

  16. In vitro large-scale experimental and theoretical studies for the realization of bi-directional brain-prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eBonifazi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMI were born to control ‘actions from thoughts’ in order to recover motor capability of patients with impaired functional connectivity between the central and peripheral nervous system. The final goal of our studies is the development of a new proof-of-concept BMI - a neuromorphic chip for brain repair - to reproduce the functional organization of a damaged part of the central nervous system. To reach this ambitious goal, we implemented a multidisciplinary ‘bottom-up’ approach in which in vitro networks are the paradigm for the development of an in silico model to be incorporated into a neuromorphic device. In this paper we present the overall strategy and focus on the different building blocks of our studies: (i the experimental characterization and modeling of ‘finite size networks’ which represent the smallest and most general self-organized circuits capable of generating spontaneous collective dynamics; (ii the induction of lesions in neuronal networks and the whole brain preparation with special attention on the impact on the functional organization of the circuits; (iii the first production of a neuromorphic chip able to implement a real-time model of neuronal networks. A dynamical characterization of the finite size circuits with single cell resolution is provided. A neural network model based on Izhikevich neurons was able to replicate the experimental observations. Changes in the dynamics of the neuronal circuits induced by optical and ischemic lesions are presented respectively for in vitro neuronal networks and for a whole brain preparation. Finally the implementation of a neuromorphic chip reproducing the network dynamics in quasi-real time (10 ns precision is presented.

  17. Phase equilibria basic principles, applications, experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Reisman, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria: Basic Principles, Applications, Experimental Techniques presents an analytical treatment in the study of the theories and principles of phase equilibria. The book is organized to afford a deep and thorough understanding of such subjects as the method of species model systems; condensed phase-vapor phase equilibria and vapor transport reactions; zone refining techniques; and nonstoichiometry. Physicists, physical chemists, engineers, and materials scientists will find the book a good reference material.

  18. Experimental skin carcinoma by UVB application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada Iftode

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND The aim of this research study was to evaluate the harmful effects at skin level induced by concomitant and repeated exposure to three toxic agents: UVB radiation, DMBA and TPA. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental mice were divided in thw following groups (n=5 mice/group: group 1 – healthy mice, group 2 – mice exposed to UVB – radiation and topical administration of acetone and group 3 – mice exposed to UVB – radiation and topical application of DMBA and TPA solutions (phase I - double tumor initiation and phase II - tumor promotion. RESULTS Application of these compounds led to the development of skin papilloma and to significant changes in skin parameters. CONCLUSIONS The barrier function of the skin was degraded in UVB exposed mice. DMBA and TPA depended on carcinogens schedule and corelated with skin carcinoma. Graphical abstract: Schematic protocol of experimental skin carcinoma REFERENCES 1. Lee Ja, Ko Jh, Jung Bg, Kim Th, Hong Ji, Park Ys, Lee Bj. Fermented Prunus mume with Probiotics Inhibits 7,12- Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-OTetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate Induced Skin Carcinogenesis through Alleviation of Oxidative Stress. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:2973-2978. 2. Firooz A, Sadr B, Babakoohi S, Sarraf-Yazdy M, Fanian F, Kazerouni-Timsar A, NassiriKashani M, Naghizadeh MM, Dowlati Y. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region. Scientific World Journal. 2012; doi.org/10.1100/2012/386936 3. Gheorgheosu (Coricovac D, Borcan F, Balasz NI, Soica C, Simu G, Kemeny L, Dehelean CA. Evaluation of skin parameters in C57BL/6J mice exposed to chemical and environmental factors using non-invasive methods. J Agroalim Proc Technol. 2014;20:14-20.

  19. PREFACE: Nanospintronics design and realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

    2004-12-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Nanospintronics Design and Realization (ICNDR 2004), which was held in Kyoto, Japan, 24--28 May 2004. This conference was organized by the Nanospintronics Design and Realization project members: Hideaki Kasai, Osaka (Chair of the Conference) Hisazumi Akai, Osaka Hajime Asahi, Osaka Wilson Agerico Diño, Osaka Hiroshi Harima, Kyoto Tomoyuki Kakeshita, Osaka Junjiro Kanamori, Kyoto Hiroshi Katayama-Yoshida, Osaka Koichi Kusakabe, Osaka Hiroshi Nakanishi, Osaka (Secretary) Tamio Oguchi, Hiroshima Teruo Ono, Osaka Naoshi Suzuki, Osaka Hitoshi Tabata, Osaka under the auspices of the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, and the sponsorship of Osaka University and the International Institute for Advanced Studies (IIAS). The conference is intended to provide an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers, in the rapidly developing field of nanospintronics. It aims to: provide an overview of our current understanding of the physics of spin transport in (magnetic) semiconductors and hybrid magnetic/semiconductor structures; provide a venue to present and discuss the latest developments in using spin-dependent phenomena in nano-(opto-) electronics and computing applications; provide a venue for discussion and assessment of other possible means of exploiting the spin-dependent phenomena in future nano-(opto-) electronic and computing applications; address current (and foreseeable future) problems, of fundamental and applied nature, in an effort to bridge the physics and technology gap between semiconducting and magnetic materials. All of these being geared towards bringing about the realization of a functioning nanospintronics. A total of 127 delegates from 15 countries took part in ICNDR 2004, which was comprised of 62 invited

  20. Porous polymer composite membrane based nanogenerator: A realization of self-powered wireless green energy source for smart electronics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Sinha, Tridib Kumar; Mahanty, Biswajit; Jana, Santanu; Mandal, Dipankar

    2016-11-01

    An efficient, flexible and unvaryingly porous polymer composite membrane based nanogenerator (PPCNG) without any electrical poling treatment has been realised as wireless green energy source to power up smart electronic gadgets. Owing to self-polarized piezo- and ferro-electretic phenomenon of in situ platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) doped porous poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-membrane, a simple, inexpensive and scalable PPCNG fabrication is highlighted. The molecular orientations of the -CH2/-CF2 dipoles that cause self-polarization phenomenon has been realized by angular dependent near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The square-like hysteresis loop with giant remnant polarization, Pr ˜ 68 μC/cm2 and exceptionally high piezoelectric charge coefficient, d33 ˜ - 836 pC/N promises a best suited ferro- and piezo-electretic membrane. The PPCNG exhibits a high electrical throughput such as, ranging from 2.7 V to 23 V of open-circuit voltage (Voc) and 2.9 μA to 24.7 μA of short-circuit current (Isc) under 0.5 MPa to 4.3 MPa of imparted stress amplitude by periodic human finger motion. The harvested mechanical and subsequent electrical energy by PPCNG is shown to transfer wirelessly via visible and infrared transmitter-receiver systems, where 17% and 49% of wireless power transfer efficiency, respectively, has been realized to power up several consumer electronics.

  1. Assistance for design and realization of real-time safety critical applications according to Oasis; Aide a la conception et a la realisation d'applications temps-reel critiques selon OASIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aussagues, Ch.; Cordonnier, Ch.; Quetueil, I.; David, V

    1998-07-01

    Assistance for design and realization is all the more essential when safety-critical, real-time and complex applications are considered. When developing such applications, real-time and dependability features should be managed as soon as possible. Then, since the design phase, programmers have to strive even more than with common applications. In the context of the OASIS approach, assistance for design and realization is based on some intrinsic properties of the model, i.e. determinism, behavior independence and timeliness. The assistance, that may be furnished in the OASIS approach, has three complementary components that constitute the focus of this article. (authors)

  2. Molecular dynamics equation designed for realizing arbitrary density: Application to sampling method utilizing the Tsallis generalized distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    Several molecular dynamics techniques applying the Tsallis generalized distribution are presented. We have developed a deterministic dynamics to generate an arbitrary smooth density function ρ. It creates a measure-preserving flow with respect to the measure ρdω and realizes the density ρ under the assumption of the ergodicity. It can thus be used to investigate physical systems that obey such distribution density. Using this technique, the Tsallis distribution density based on a full energy function form along with the Tsallis index q ≥ 1 can be created. From the fact that an effective support of the Tsallis distribution in the phase space is broad, compared with that of the conventional Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) distribution, and the fact that the corresponding energy-surface deformation does not change energy minimum points, the dynamics enhances the physical state sampling, in particular for a rugged energy surface spanned by a complicated system. Other feature of the Tsallis distribution is that it provides more degree of the nonlinearity, compared with the case of the BG distribution, in the deterministic dynamics equation, which is very useful to effectively gain the ergodicity of the dynamical system constructed according to the scheme. Combining such methods with the reconstruction technique of the BG distribution, we can obtain the information consistent with the BG ensemble and create the corresponding free energy surface. We demonstrate several sampling results obtained from the systems typical for benchmark tests in MD and from biomolecular systems.

  3. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  4. SAW-Based Phononic Crystal Microfluidic Sensor-Microscale Realization of Velocimetry Approaches for Integrated Analytical Platform Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseev, Aleksandr; Lucklum, Ralf; Zubtsov, Mikhail; Schmidt, Marc-Peter; Mukhin, Nikolay V; Hirsch, Soeren

    2017-09-23

    The current work demonstrates a novel surface acoustic wave (SAW) based phononic crystal sensor approach that allows the integration of a velocimetry-based sensor concept into single chip integrated solutions, such as Lab-on-a-Chip devices. The introduced sensor platform merges advantages of ultrasonic velocimetry analytic systems and a microacoustic sensor approach. It is based on the analysis of structural resonances in a periodic composite arrangement of microfluidic channels confined within a liquid analyte. Completed theoretical and experimental investigations show the ability to utilize periodic structure localized modes for the detection of volumetric properties of liquids and prove the efficacy of the proposed sensor concept.

  5. Strategy of VHTR Realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jonghwa

    2015-01-01

    High temperature gas cooled reactor has been developed since 1956. Fundamental idea of a gas cooled reactor is to achieve high temperature which is suitable for high efficiency application such as electricity generation. The core is composed of ceramics, graphite blocks which are mechanical stable up to very high temperature. Fuel is ceramics, TRISO ( tri-isotropic coated micro particle) whose dense coating layers work as small radioactivity containment. Coolant is inert gas, helium, which is stable chemically, neutronically, and thermal hydraulically. Several test reactors such as DRE, PB-1, FSV, AVR, THTR, HTTR, HTR-10 were built and demonstrated their safety. Large GA-HTR, RSA-PBMR projects are canceled and US-NGNP project is idling. Only Chinese HTR-PM demonstrator is under construction. HTGR has long history of development. For realization and market penetration, VHTR community should look at niche market such as carbon free energy supply to industry complex, electric power for small grid, carbon free hydrogen production, power source for space colony. Technology Readiness Level should be advanced to get proper investment from industry. For this, cooperation between international R and D institutions is required. Clearly divided role between universities, research institutions, and industries will reduce complication and shorten VHTR realization day

  6. Strategy of VHTR Realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jonghwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    High temperature gas cooled reactor has been developed since 1956. Fundamental idea of a gas cooled reactor is to achieve high temperature which is suitable for high efficiency application such as electricity generation. The core is composed of ceramics, graphite blocks which are mechanical stable up to very high temperature. Fuel is ceramics, TRISO ( tri-isotropic coated micro particle) whose dense coating layers work as small radioactivity containment. Coolant is inert gas, helium, which is stable chemically, neutronically, and thermal hydraulically. Several test reactors such as DRE, PB-1, FSV, AVR, THTR, HTTR, HTR-10 were built and demonstrated their safety. Large GA-HTR, RSA-PBMR projects are canceled and US-NGNP project is idling. Only Chinese HTR-PM demonstrator is under construction. HTGR has long history of development. For realization and market penetration, VHTR community should look at niche market such as carbon free energy supply to industry complex, electric power for small grid, carbon free hydrogen production, power source for space colony. Technology Readiness Level should be advanced to get proper investment from industry. For this, cooperation between international R and D institutions is required. Clearly divided role between universities, research institutions, and industries will reduce complication and shorten VHTR realization day.

  7. Clinical and experimental applications of sodium phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2011-09-01

    Histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase are enzymes responsible for histone acetylation and deacetylation, respectively, in which the histones are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail and on the surface of the nucleosome core. These processes are considered the most important epigenetic mechanisms for remodeling the chromatin structure and controlling the gene expression. Histone acetylation is associated with gene activation. Sodium phenylbutyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has been approved for treatement of urea cycle disorders and is under investigation in cancer, hemoglobinopathies, motor neuron diseases, and cystic fibrosis clinical trials. Due to its characteristics, not only of histone deacetylase inhibitor, but also of ammonia sink and chemical chaperone, the interest towards this molecule is growing worldwide. This review aims to update the current literature, involving the use of sodium phenylbutyrate in experimental studies and clinical trials.

  8. Duenna-An experimental language teaching application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Balázs Zsigmond; Blaske, Bence; Szabó, Anita

    The presented TTS (text-to-speech) application is an auxiliary tool for language teaching. It utilizes computer-generated voices to simulate dialogs representing different grammatical problems or speech contexts. The software is capable of producing as many examples of dialogs as required to enhance the language learning experience and thus serve curriculum representation, grammar contextualization and pronunciation at the same time. It is designed to be used on a regular basis in the language classroom and students gladly write materials for listening comprehension tasks with it. A pilot study involving 26 students (divided into control and trial groups) practicing for their school-leaving exam, indicates that computer-generated voices are adequate to recreate audio course book materials as well. The voices used were able to involve the students as effectively as if they were listening to recorded human speech.

  9. Radiolabeled peptides: experimental and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.; Pallela, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Radiolabeled receptor specific biomolecules hold unlimited potential in nuclear medicine. During the past few years much attention has been drawn to the development radiolabeled peptides for a variety of diagnostic applications, as well as for therapy of malignant tumors. Although only one peptide, In-111-DTPA-(D)-Phe 1 -octreotide, is available commercially for oncologic imaging, many more have been examined in humans with hematological disorders, and the early results appear to be promising. Impetus generated by these results have prompted investigators to label peptides with such radionuclides as Tc-99m, I-123, F-18, Cu-64, and Y-90. This review is intended to highlight the qualities of peptides, summarize the clinical results, and address some important issues associated with radiolabeling of highly potent peptides. While doing so, various methods of radiolabeling have been described, and their strengths and weaknesses have also been discussed. (author)

  10. Duenna—An experimental language teaching application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Zsigmond Horváth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented TTS (text-to-speech application is an auxiliary tool for language teaching. It utilizes computer-generated voices to simulate dialogs representing different grammatical problems or speech contexts. The software is capable of producing as many examples of dialogs as required to enhance the language learning experience and thus serve curriculum representation, grammar contextualization and pronunciation at the same time. It is designed to be used on a regular basis in the language classroom and students gladly write materials for listening comprehension tasks with it. A pilot study involving 26 students (divided into control and trial groups practicing for their school-leaving exam, indicates that computer-generated voices are adequate to recreate audio course book materials as well. The voices used were able to involve the students as effectively as if they were listening to recorded human speech.

  11. Photoinduced molecular migration process in polymer matrices: application to the realization of optically organized nano-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ch.

    2003-06-01

    This work deals with the study of a new all optical structuration process of azo-polymer films. We show that the irradiation with normal incidence of an azo-polymer film by a uniform laser beam which wavelength is in the absorption band of the azo-molecules, can lead to the formation of a quasi hexagonal surface relief grating at the surface of a polymer film. After a brief review of different methods of micro and nano-structuration as well as the properties of azo-polymer films in the case of the surface relief gratings formation, we study in the first part of this manuscript the influence of several experimental parameters on the spontaneous optically controlled formation of these photoinduced structures, among them the light polarization direction and the irradiation power. The different results obtained in our case are then compared with different photo-assisted structuration processes already proposed and whose physical origins are clearly established, in order to determine the key parameters governing the formation of these hexagonal structures as well as their origins. In the second part, a synthesis of the different experiments performed in order to evaluate the validity of effects so called 'optical feedback effect' observed in liquid crystal light valve systems is performed. The interpretation of the photoinduced hexagonal structuration process appears to be difficult: it is not excluded that an optical feedback phenomenon could be at the origin of the structuration process, but at the present, according to the different experiments performed, a new and original phenomenon of structuration adapted to azo-polymers films cannot be excluded in order to fully explain the different results obtained. (author)

  12. High-quality laser-produced proton beam realized by the application of a synchronous RF electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shu; Ikegami, Masahiro; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Tongu, Hiromu; Souda, Hikaru; Noda, Akira; Daido, Hiroyuki; Mori, Michiaki; Kado, Masataka; Sagisaka, Akito; Ogura, Koichi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Orimo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yukio; Yogo, Akifumi; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur; Nagashima, Akira; Kimura, Toyoaki; Tajima, Toshiki; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Fukumi, Atsushi; Li, Zhong

    2007-01-01

    A short-pulse (∼210fs) high-power (∼1 TW) laser was focused on a tape target 3 and 5 μm in thickness to a size of 11 x 15 μm 2 with an intensity of 3 x 10 17 W/cm 2 . Protons produced by this laser with an energy spread of 100% were found to be improved to create peaks in the energy distribution with a spread of ∼7% by the application of the RF electric field with an amplitude of ±40kV synchronous to the pulsed laser. This scheme combines the conventional RF acceleration technique with laser-produced protons for the first time. It is possible to be operated up to 10 Hz, and is found to have good reproducibility for every laser shot with the capability of adjusting the peak positions by control of the relative phase between the pulsed laser and the RF electric field. (author)

  13. Realizations of the canonical representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Traditionally, the canonical representation is realized on the Hilbert space ... Fix a decomposition R2n = Rn × Rn ..... to an orthonormal basis {ψ1,ψ2,. ..... [7] Vemuri M K, A non-commutative Sobolev inequality and its application to spectral.

  14. Realizability: a historical essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, J. van

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to sketch the development of a few basic topics in the history of Realizability The number of topics is quite limited and reects very much my own personal taste biases and prejudices Realizability has over the past years developed into a subject of such dimensions

  15. Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from highfrequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive.

  16. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); M. Scharth (Marcel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized

  17. Design and Realization of Universal Data Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woo Kim

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available KARI studied data interface of Space Applications for developing Space Experimental Instrument in International Space Station, designed, and manufactured the UDIS (International Sapce Station Universal Data Interface simulator according to requirements of the data interface. This paper explains the design and implementation of UDIS for space application. UDIS is the instrument which simulate to interface the data from ISS to experiment module, payload and habitation module and use the development of a experiment system in the space. This simulator will be used to the GSE (Ground Support Equipment for test of experiment system. By realization of the simulator, we ensure data interface skills for a manned-space data communication system.

  18. Natural gas hydrates. Experimental techniques and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Yuguang; Liu, Changling (eds.) [Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology (China). Gas Hydrate Laboratory

    2013-07-01

    Focuses on gas hydrate experiment in laboratory. Intends to provide practical significant parameters for gas hydrate exploration and exploitation in the oceanic and permafrost environments. Consists of different themes that present up-to-date information on hydrate experiments. ''Natural Gas Hydrates: Experimental Techniques and Their Applications'' attempts to broadly integrate the most recent knowledge in the fields of hydrate experimental techniques in the laboratory. The book examines various experimental techniques in order to provide useful parameters for gas hydrate exploration and exploitation. It provides experimental techniques for gas hydrates, including the detection techniques, the thermo-physical properties, permeability and mechanical properties, geochemical abnormalities, stability and dissociation kinetics, exploitation conditions, as well as modern measurement technologies etc.

  19. Asymmetric Realized Volatility Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we document that realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns reveal a large degree of volatility risk in stock and index returns, where we characterize volatility risk by the extent to which forecasting errors in realized volatility are substantive. Even though returns standardized by ex post quadratic variation measures are nearly Gaussian, this unpredictability brings considerably more uncertainty to the empirically relevant ex ante distribution of returns. Explicitly modeling this volatility risk is fundamental. We propose a dually asymmetric realized volatility model, which incorporates the fact that realized volatility series are systematically more volatile in high volatility periods. Returns in this framework display time varying volatility, skewness and kurtosis. We provide a detailed account of the empirical advantages of the model using data on the S&P 500 index and eight other indexes and stocks.

  20. Realized Cost Savings 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset is provided as a requirement of OMB’s Integrated Data Collection (IDC) and links to VA’s Realized Cost Savings and Avoidances data in JSON format. Cost...

  1. Experimental testing of a SAG digital SILT application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, J.

    1995-10-01

    A prototype dynamic testing harness for programmable automation systems has been specified and implemented at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). In order to get experience on the methodology and equipment for the testing of systems important to the safety of nuclear power plants, where the safety and reliability requirements often are very high, two different pilot systems have been tested. One system was an ABB Master application, which was loaned for testing from ABB Atom by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Another system, loaned from Siemens AG(SAG) by IVO International Oy (IVO), was an application realized with SAG's digital SILT technology. The report describes the testing of the SAG application. The purpose of the testing was not to assess the pilot system, but to get experience in the testing methodology and find out the further development needs and potentials of the test methodology and equipment. The experience show that dynamic testing is one feasible way to get more confidence about the safety and reliability of a programmable system that would be hard to achieve by other means. It also shows that more development of the test harness is still needed, especially concerning the comparison of the obtained test response to the expected response provided by the logical model of the system. Also the user interface of the on-line part of the test harness needs development. Methods for generation of the test cases also need further development eg. for achieving statistical significance for the reliability estimates. (10 refs., 90 figs., 9 tabs.)

  2. Numerical modelling 2 D and 3 D of circulating fluidized bed: application to the realization of regime diagrams; Modelisation numerique 2D et 3D de lit fluidise circulant: application a la realisation du diagramme des regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begis, J.; Balzer, G.

    1997-02-01

    The numerical modelling of internal CFB boilers flows faced with complex phenomenons due to the flows un-stationariness, the heterogeneousness of the particle size distribution, and interactions between the two phases and the walls. Our study consisted in applying numerical models to the experimental configuration of cold circulating fluidized bed studied at the Cerchar. Special attention was given to the analysis of particles - wall interactions models, stemming from Jenkins (1992) and Louge`s (1994) theories, as well as the influence of the particles on fluid turbulence. In order to realize numerical simulations, we have used Eulerian two-phases flow codes developed at NHL medolif(2D), ESTET-ASTRID(3D). From different tests we have deducted that the most appropriate model for the realization of CFB`s prediction is the model taking in account the influence of particles on fluid turbulence. Then, to evaluate the validity limits of this model, we have built the regime diagram, and we have compared it with the experimental diagram. We have concluded that the simulation allows to describe the different CFB`s working regimes, and especially transitions. We have also noticed the importance of the choice of the mean diameter of the simulated particles. In this way, making a correction of the simulated particles` diameter in comparison with Sauter mean particle diameter, we obtained numerical results in good agreement with experimental data. (authors) 13 refs.

  3. Experimental Demonstration of a Self-organized Architecture for Emerging Grid Computing Applications on OBS Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Hong, Xiaobin; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    As Grid computing continues to gain popularity in the industry and research community, it also attracts more attention from the customer level. The large number of users and high frequency of job requests in the consumer market make it challenging. Clearly, all the current Client/Server(C/S)-based architecture will become unfeasible for supporting large-scale Grid applications due to its poor scalability and poor fault-tolerance. In this paper, based on our previous works [1, 2], a novel self-organized architecture to realize a highly scalable and flexible platform for Grids is proposed. Experimental results show that this architecture is suitable and efficient for consumer-oriented Grids.

  4. Economic incentives for additional critical experimentation applicable to fuel dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincey, J.F.; Primm, R.T. III; Waltz, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel dissolution operations involving soluble absorbers for criticality control are among the most difficult to establish economical subcritical limits. The paucity of applicable experimental data can significantly hinder a precise determination of a bias in the method chosen for calculation of the required soluble absorber concentration. Resorting to overly conservative bias estimates can result in excessive concentrations of soluble absorbers. Such conservatism can be costly, especially if soluble absorbers are used in a throw-away fashion. An economic scoping study is presented which demonstrates that additional critical experimentation will likely lead to reductions in the soluble absorber (i.e., gadolinium) purchase costs for dissolution operations. The results indicate that anticipated savings maybe more than enough to pay for the experimental costs

  5. Squids: principles and basic applications in experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocio, M.

    1990-01-01

    The basic principles and the description of the technical aspects of SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) are described. The applications of SQUIDs in experimental researches and low temperature physics experiments are given. The concepts of fluxoid quantization in a superconductor and Josephson tunnelling are reviewed. The principles, the operation, the noise and the different configurations of r.f. and direct current bias SQUIDs are summarized. The principal characteristics of several SQUIDs are reported

  6. Realized kernels in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Hansen, P. Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2009-01-01

    and find a remarkable level of agreement. We identify some features of the high-frequency data, which are challenging for realized kernels. They are when there are local trends in the data, over periods of around 10 minutes, where the prices and quotes are driven up or down. These can be associated......Realized kernels use high-frequency data to estimate daily volatility of individual stock prices. They can be applied to either trade or quote data. Here we provide the details of how we suggest implementing them in practice. We compare the estimates based on trade and quote data for the same stock...

  7. Modeling returns volatility: Realized GARCH incorporating realized risk measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Ruan, Qingsong; Li, Jianfeng; Li, Ye

    2018-06-01

    This study applies realized GARCH models by introducing several risk measures of intraday returns into the measurement equation, to model the daily volatility of E-mini S&P 500 index futures returns. Besides using the conventional realized measures, realized volatility and realized kernel as our benchmarks, we also use generalized realized risk measures, realized absolute deviation, and two realized tail risk measures, realized value-at-risk and realized expected shortfall. The empirical results show that realized GARCH models using the generalized realized risk measures provide better volatility estimation for the in-sample and substantial improvement in volatility forecasting for the out-of-sample. In particular, the realized expected shortfall performs best for all of the alternative realized measures. Our empirical results reveal that future volatility may be more attributable to present losses (risk measures). The results are robust to different sample estimation windows.

  8. Realization of mechanical rotation in superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, E. B.; Kulish, M. I.; Karabulin, A. V.; Matyushenko, V. I.; Dyatlova, E. V.; Gordienko, A. S.; Stepanov, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of using miniaturized low-power electric motors submerged in superfluid helium for organization of rotation inside a cryostat has been investigated. It has been revealed that many of commercial micromotors can operate in liquid helium consuming low power. Turret with 5 sample holders, assembled on the base of stepper motor, has been successfully tested in experiments on the nanowire production in quantized vortices of superfluid helium. Application of the stepper motor made it possible in a single experiment to study the effect of various experimental parameters on the yield and quality of the nanowires. The promises for continuous fast rotation of the bath filled by superfluid helium by using high-speed brushless micromotor were outlined and tested. Being realized, this approach will open new possibility to study the guest particles interaction with the array of parallel linear vortices in He II.

  9. Experimental realization of the quantum box problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resch, K.J.; Lundeen, J.S.; Steinberg, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The three-box problem is a gedankenexperiment designed to elucidate some interesting features of quantum measurement and locality. A particle is prepared in a particular superposition of three boxes, and later found in a different (but nonorthogonal) superposition. It was predicted that appropriate 'weak' measurements of particle position in the interval between preparation and post-selection would find the particle in two different places, each with certainty. We verify these predictions in an optical experiment and address the issues of locality and of negative probability

  10. Realizing the Witch

    OpenAIRE

    Baxstrom, Richard; Meyers, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Benjamin Christensen’s Häxan (The Witch, 1922) stands as a singular film within the history of cinema. Deftly weaving contemporary scientific analysis and powerfully staged historical scenes of satanic initiation, confession under torture, possession, and persecution, Häxan creatively blends spectacle and argument to provoke a humanist re-evaluation of witchcraft in European history as well as the contemporary treatment of female “hysterics” and the mentally ill. In Realizing the Witch, Baxst...

  11. Realizing Controllable Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku

    -- 4. Mesoscopic superconductivity with unconventional superconductor or ferromagnet. Ultraefficient microrefrigerators realized with ferromagnet-superconductor junctions / F. Giazotto et al. Anomalous charge transport in triplet superconductor junctions by the synergy effect of the proximity effect and the mid gap Andreev resonant states / Y. Tanaka and S. Kashiwaya. Paramagnetic and glass states in superconductive YBa[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] ceramics of sub-micron scale grains / H. Deguchi et al. Quantum properties of single-domain triplet superconductors / A. M. Gulian and K. S. Wood. A numerical study of Josephson current in p wave superconducting junctions / Y. Asano et al. Tilted bi-crystal sapphire substrates improve properties of grain boundary YBa[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] junctions and extend their Josephson response to THZ frequencies / E. Stepantsov et al. Circuit theory analysis of AB-plane tunnel junctions of unconventional superconductor Bi[symbol]Sr[symbol]Ca[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] / I. Shigeta et al. Transport properties of normal metal/anisotropic superconductor junctions in the eutectic system Sr[symbol]RuO[symbol]Ru / M. Kawamura et al. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in d-wave superconductor Josephson / S. Kawabata et al. Quasiparticle states of high-T[symbol] oxides observed by a Zeeman magnetic field response / S. Kashiwaya et al. Experimentally realizable devices for controlling the motion of magnetic flux quanta in anisotropic superconductors: vortex lenses, vortex diodes and vortex pumps / S. Savel'ev and F. Nori. Stability of vortex-antivortex "molecules" in mesoscopic superconducting triangles / V. R. Misko et al. Superconducting network with magnetic decoration - Hofstadter butterfly in spatially modulated magnetic field / Y. Iye et al. Observation of paramagnetic supercurrent in mesoscopic superconducting rings and disks using multiple-small-tunnel-junction method / A. Kanda et al. Guidance of vortices in high

  12. Realization theory for rational systems: Minimal rational realizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nemcová (Jana); J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe study of realizations of response maps is a topic of control and system theory. Realization theory is used in system identification and control synthesis. A minimal rational realization of a given response map p is a rational realization of p such that the dimension of its state

  13. Moessbauer effect in lattice dynamics. Experimental techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Long; Yang, De-Ping

    2007-01-01

    This up-to-date review closes an important gap in the existing literature by providing a comprehensive description of the applications of Moessbauer effect in lattice dynamics, along with a collection of applications in metals, alloys, amorphous solids, molecular crystals, thin films, and nanocrystals. It is the first book to systematically compare Moessbauer spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation to conventional Moessbauer spectroscopy, discussing in detail its advantages and capabilities, backed by the latest theoretical developments and experimental examples. Intended as a self-contained volume that may be used as a complete reference or textbook, 'Moessbauer Effect in Lattice Dynamics' adopts new pedagogical approaches with several non-traditional and refreshing theoretical expositions, while all quantitative relations are derived with the necessary details so as to be easily followed by the reader. Two entire chapters are devoted to the study of the dynamics of impurity atoms in solids, while a thorough description of the Mannheim model as a theoretical method is presented and its predictions compared to experimental results. Finally, an in-depth analysis of absorption of Moessbauer radiation is presented, based on recent research by one of the authors, resulting in an exact expression of fractional absorption and a method to determine the optimal thickness of an absorber. Supplemented by elaborate appendices containing constants and parameters. (orig.)

  14. Realization of an optical multi and mono-channel analyzer, associated to a streak camera. Application to metrology of picosecond low intensity luminous pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.M.

    1985-02-01

    An electronic system including a low light level television tube (Nocticon) to digitize images from streak cameras is studied and realized. Performances (sensibility, signal-to-noise ratio) are studied and compared with a multi-channel analyzer using a linear network of photodiodes. It is applied to duration and amplitude measurement of short luminous pulses [fr

  15. Concurrency in product realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    1994-03-01

    Technology per se does not provide a competitive advantage. Timely exploitation of technology is what gives the competitive edge, and this demands a major shift in the product development process and management of the industrial enterprise. `Teaming to win' is more than a management theme; it is the disciplined engineering practice that is essential to success in today's global marketplace. Teaming supports the concurrent engineering practices required to integrate the activities of people responsible for product realization through achievement of shorter development cycles, lower costs, and defect-free products.

  16. Oscillators from nonlinear realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, N.; Krivonos, S.

    2018-02-01

    We construct the systems of the harmonic and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators, which are invariant with respect to arbitrary noncompact Lie algebras. The equations of motion of these systems can be obtained with the help of the formalism of nonlinear realizations. We prove that it is always possible to choose time and the fields within this formalism in such a way that the equations of motion become linear and, therefore, reduce to ones of ordinary harmonic and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators. The first-order actions, that produce these equations, can also be provided. As particular examples of this construction, we discuss the so(2, 3) and G 2(2) algebras.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING LEATHER APPLICATIONS IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of experimental research in design activity. The designer, as a researcher and a project manager, proposes to establish a relationship between functional-aesthetic-constructive-technological-economic,based on the aesthetic possibilities of the materials used for the experiments. With the aim to identify areas for the application of leather waste resulted from the production process, the paper presents experiments conducted with this material in combination with wood, by using different techniques that lead to different aesthetic effects. Identifying the areas to use and creating products from leather and/or wood waste, is based on the properties of these materials. Leather, the subject of these experiments, has the advantage that it can be used on both sides. Tactile differences of the two sides of this material has both aesthetical and functional advantages, which makes it suitable for applications on products that meet the requirements of "design for all". With differentiated tactile characteristics, in combination with other materials, for these experiments wood, easily "read touch" products can be generated to help people with certain disabilities. Thus, experiments presented in this paper allows the establishment of aesthetic schemes applicable to products that are friendly both with the environment (based on the reuse of wood and leather waste and with the users (can be used as applications, accessories and concepts of products for people with certain disabilities. The designer’s choices or decisions can be based on the results of this experiment. The experiment enables the designer to develop creative, innovative and environmentally friendly products.

  18. Design and realization of one-dimensional double hetero-structure photonic crystals for infrared-radar stealth-compatible materials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhixun; Cheng, Yongzhi; Nie, Yan; Wang, Xian; Gong, Rongzhou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new type one-dimensional (1D) double hetero-structure composite photonic crystal (CPC) for infrared-radar stealth-compatible materials applications was proposed and studied numerically and experimentally. First, based on transfer matrix method of thin-film optical theory, the propagation characteristics of the proposed structure comprising a stack of different alternating micrometer-thick layers of germanium and zinc sulfide were investigated numerically. Calculation results exhibit that this 1D single hetero-structure PC could achieve a flat high reflectivity gradually with increasing the number of the alternating media layers in a single broadband range. Then, based on principles of distributed Bragg reflector micro-cavity, a 1D double hetero-structure CPC comprising four PCs with thickness of 0.797 μm, 0.592 μm, 1.480 μm, and 2.114 μm, respectively, was proposed. Calculation results exhibit that this CPC could achieve a high reflectance of greater than 0.99 in the wavelength ranges of 3–5 μm and 8–14 μm and agreed well with experiment. Further experiments exhibit that the infrared emissivity of the proposed CPC is as low as 0.073 and 0.042 in the wavelength ranges of 3–5 μm and 8–12 μm, respectively. In addition, the proposed CPC can be used to construct infrared-radar stealth-compatible materials due to its high transmittance in radar wave band

  19. Design and realization of one-dimensional double hetero-structure photonic crystals for infrared-radar stealth-compatible materials applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhixun; Cheng, Yongzhi, E-mail: cyz0715@126.com; Nie, Yan; Wang, Xian; Gong, Rongzhou, E-mail: rzhgong@mail.hust.edu.cn [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-08-07

    In this paper, a new type one-dimensional (1D) double hetero-structure composite photonic crystal (CPC) for infrared-radar stealth-compatible materials applications was proposed and studied numerically and experimentally. First, based on transfer matrix method of thin-film optical theory, the propagation characteristics of the proposed structure comprising a stack of different alternating micrometer-thick layers of germanium and zinc sulfide were investigated numerically. Calculation results exhibit that this 1D single hetero-structure PC could achieve a flat high reflectivity gradually with increasing the number of the alternating media layers in a single broadband range. Then, based on principles of distributed Bragg reflector micro-cavity, a 1D double hetero-structure CPC comprising four PCs with thickness of 0.797 μm, 0.592 μm, 1.480 μm, and 2.114 μm, respectively, was proposed. Calculation results exhibit that this CPC could achieve a high reflectance of greater than 0.99 in the wavelength ranges of 3–5 μm and 8–14 μm and agreed well with experiment. Further experiments exhibit that the infrared emissivity of the proposed CPC is as low as 0.073 and 0.042 in the wavelength ranges of 3–5 μm and 8–12 μm, respectively. In addition, the proposed CPC can be used to construct infrared-radar stealth-compatible materials due to its high transmittance in radar wave band.

  20. Inference of a random potential from random walk realizations: Formalism and application to the one-dimensional Sinai model with a drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocco, S; Monasson, R

    2009-01-01

    We consider the Sinai model, in which a random walker moves in a random quenched potential V, and ask the following questions: 1. how can the quenched potential V be inferred from the observations of one or more realizations of the random motion? 2. how many observations (walks) are required to make a reliable inference, that is, to be able to distinguish between two similar but distinct potentials, V 1 and V 2 ? We show how question 1 can be easily solved within the Bayesian framework. In addition, we show that the answer to question 2 is, in general, intimately connected to the calculation of the survival probability of a fictitious walker in a potential W defined from V 1 and V 2 , with partial absorption at sites where V 1 and V 2 do not coincide. For the one-dimensional Sinai model, this survival probability can be analytically calculated, in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  1. Realized GARCH: A Complete Model of Returns and Realized Measures of Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Huang, Zhuo (Albert); Shek, Howard Howan

    GARCH models have been successful in modeling financial returns. Still, much is to be gained by incorporating a realized measure of volatility in these models. In this paper we introduce a new framework for the joint modeling of returns and realized measures of volatility. The Realized GARCH...... framework nests most GARCH models as special cases and is, in many ways, a natural extension of standard GARCH models. We pay special attention to linear and log-linear Realized GARCH specifications. This class of models has several attractive features. It retains the simplicity and tractability...... to latent volatility. This equation facilitates a simple modeling of the dependence between returns and future volatility that is commonly referred to as the leverage effect. An empirical application with DJIA stocks and an exchange traded index fund shows that a simple Realized GARCH structure leads...

  2. An efficient sequential strategy for realizing cross-gradient joint inversion: method and its application to 2-D cross borehole seismic traveltime and DC resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ji; Zhang, Haijiang

    2018-05-01

    Cross-gradient joint inversion that enforces structural similarity between different models has been widely utilized in jointly inverting different geophysical data types. However, it is a challenge to combine different geophysical inversion systems with the cross-gradient structural constraint into one joint inversion system because they may differ greatly in the model representation, forward modelling and inversion algorithm. Here we propose a new joint inversion strategy that can avoid this issue. Different models are separately inverted using the existing inversion packages and model structure similarity is only enforced through cross-gradient minimization between two models after each iteration. Although the data fitting and structural similarity enforcing processes are decoupled, our proposed strategy is still able to choose appropriate models to balance the trade-off between geophysical data fitting and structural similarity. This is realized by using model perturbations from separate data inversions to constrain the cross-gradient minimization process. We have tested this new strategy on 2-D cross borehole synthetic seismic traveltime and DC resistivity data sets. Compared to separate geophysical inversions, our proposed joint inversion strategy fits the separate data sets at comparable levels while at the same time resulting in a higher structural similarity between the velocity and resistivity models.

  3. application of covariance analysis to feed/ ration experimental data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    ABSTRACT. The use Analysis of Covariance (ANOCOVA) to feed/ration experimental data for birds was examined. Correlation and Regression analyses were used to adjust for the covariate – initial weight of the experimental birds. The Fisher's F statistic for the straight forward Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed ...

  4. Realistic Realizations Of Threshold Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hassan M.

    1987-08-01

    Threshold logic, in which each input is weighted, has many theoretical advantages over the standard gate realization, such as reducing the number of gates, interconnections, and power dissipation. However, because of the difficult synthesis procedure and complicated circuit implementation, their use in the design of digital systems is almost nonexistant. In this study, three methods of NMOS realizations are discussed, and their advantages and shortcomings are explored. Also, the possibility of using the methods to realize multi-valued logic is examined.

  5. Contemporary methods for realization and estimation of efficiency of 3Daudio technology application for sound interface improvement of an aircraft cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korsun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High information load of crew is one of the main problems of modern piloted aircraft therefore researches on approving data representation form, especially in critical situations are a challenge. The article considers one of opportunities to improve the interface of a modern pilot's cabin i.e. to use a spatial sound (3D - audio technology. The 3D - audio is a technology, which recreates a spatially directed sound in earphones or via loudspeakers. Spatial audio-helps, which together with information on danger will specify also the direction from which it proceeds, can reduce time of response to an event and, therefore, increase situational safety of flight. It is supposed that helps will be provided through pilot's headset therefore technology realization via earphones is discussed.Now the main hypothesis explaining the human ability to recognize the position of a sound source in space, asserts that the human estimates distortion of a sound signal spectrum at interaction with the head and an auricle depending on an arrangement of the sound source. For exact describing the signal spectrum variations there are such concepts as Head Related Impulse Response (HRIR and Head Related Transfer Function (HRTF. HRIR is measured in humans or dummies. At present the most full-scale public HRIR library is CIPIC HRTF Database of CIPIC Interface Laboratory at UC Davis.To have 3D audio effect, it is necessary to simulate a mono-signal conversion through the linear digital filters with anthropodependent pulse characteristics (HRIR for the left and right ear, which correspond to the chosen direction. Results should be united in a stereo file and applied for reproduction to the earphones.This scheme was realized in Matlab, and the received software was used for experiments to estimate the quantitative characteristics of technology. For processing and subsequent experiments the following sound signals were chosen: a fragment of the classical music piece "Polovetsky

  6. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design and its applications

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-01-01

    We summarize our Laplace method and multilevel method of accelerating the computation of the expected information gain in a Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design (OED). Laplace method is a widely-used method to approximate an integration

  7. Scaffold microstructure effects on functional and mechanical performance: Integration of theoretical and experimental approaches for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavo, Marta; Scaglione, Silvia

    2016-11-01

    The really nontrivial goal of tissue engineering is combining all scaffold micro-architectural features, affecting both fluid-dynamical and mechanical performance, to obtain a fully functional implant. In this work we identified an optimal geometrical pattern for bone tissue engineering applications, best balancing several graft needs which correspond to competing design goals. In particular, we investigated the occurred changes in graft behavior by varying pore size (300μm, 600μm, 900μm), interpore distance (equal to pore size or 300μm fixed) and pores interconnection (absent, 45°-oriented, 90°-oriented). Mathematical considerations and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools, here combined in a complete theoretical model, were carried out to this aim. Poly-lactic acid (PLA) based samples were realized by 3D printing, basing on the modeled architectures. A collagen (COL) coating was also realized on grafts surface and the interaction between PLA and COL, besides the protein contribution to graft bioactivity, was evaluated. Scaffolds were extensively characterized; human articular cells were used to test their biocompatibility and to evaluate the theoretical model predictions. Grafts fulfilled both the chemical and physical requirements. Finally, a good agreement was found between the theoretical model predictions and the experimental data, making these prototypes good candidates for bone graft replacements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Taking advantage of HTML5 browsers to realize the concepts of session state and workflow sharing in web-tool applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suftin, I.; Read, J. S.; Walker, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists prefer not having to be tied down to a specific machine or operating system in order to analyze local and remote data sets or publish work. Increasingly, analysis has been migrating to decentralized web services and data sets, using web clients to provide the analysis interface. While simplifying workflow access, analysis, and publishing of data, the move does bring with it its own unique set of issues. Web clients used for analysis typically offer workflows geared towards a single user, with steps and results that are often difficult to recreate and share with others. Furthermore, workflow results often may not be easily used as input for further analysis. Older browsers further complicate things by having no way to maintain larger chunks of information, often offloading the job of storage to the back-end server or trying to squeeze it into a cookie. It has been difficult to provide a concept of "session storage" or "workflow sharing" without a complex orchestration of the back-end for storage depending on either a centralized file system or database. With the advent of HTML5, browsers gained the ability to store more information through the use of the Web Storage API (a browser-cookie holds a maximum of 4 kilobytes). Web Storage gives us the ability to store megabytes of arbitrary data in-browser either with an expiration date or just for a session. This allows scientists to create, update, persist and share their workflow without depending on the backend to store session information, providing the flexibility for new web-based workflows to emerge. In the DSASWeb portal ( http://cida.usgs.gov/DSASweb/ ), using these techniques, the representation of every step in the analyst's workflow is stored as plain-text serialized JSON, which we can generate as a text file and provide to the analyst as an upload. This file may then be shared with others and loaded back into the application, restoring the application to the state it was in when the session file

  9. Physical Realizations of Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kanemitsu, Shigeru; Salomaa, Martti; Takagi, Shin; Are the DiVincenzo Criteria Fulfilled in 2004 ?

    2006-01-01

    The contributors of this volume are working at the forefront of various realizations of quantum computers. They survey the recent developments in each realization, in the context of the DiVincenzo criteria, including nuclear magnetic resonance, Josephson junctions, quantum dots, and trapped ions. There are also some theoretical contributions which have relevance in the physical realizations of a quantum computer. This book fills the gap between elementary introductions to the subject and highly specialized research papers to allow beginning graduate students to understand the cutting-edge of r

  10. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design and its applications

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-01-07

    We summarize our Laplace method and multilevel method of accelerating the computation of the expected information gain in a Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design (OED). Laplace method is a widely-used method to approximate an integration in statistics. We analyze this method in the context of optimal Bayesian experimental design and extend this method from the classical scenario, where a single dominant mode of the parameters can be completely-determined by the experiment, to the scenarios where a non-informative parametric manifold exists. We show that by carrying out this approximation the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence can be significantly accelerated. While Laplace method requires a concentration of measure, multi-level Monte Carlo method can be used to tackle the problem when there is a lack of measure concentration. We show some initial results on this approach. The developed methodologies have been applied to various sensor deployment problems, e.g., impedance tomography and seismic source inversion.

  11. Proposal and realization advertising campaign

    OpenAIRE

    RYCHLÁ, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Paper contains proposal and realization advertising campaign, including make charge for cost amount. The advertising campaign is made for chosen product of firm. Advertising campaign is planning by the medium of broadsheet and advertising on the Internet.

  12. Experimental application of design principles in corrosion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyrl, W.H.; Pohlman, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental design criteria for corrosion investigations are based on established principles for systems that have uniform, or nearly uniform, corrosive attack. Scale-up or scale-down may be accomplished by proper use of dimensionless groups that measure the relative importance of interfacial kinetics, solution conductivity, and mass transfer. These principles have been applied to different fields of corrosion which include materials selection testing and protection; and to a specific corrosion problem involving attack of a substrate through holes in a protective overplate

  13. IVIM: modeling, experimental validation and application to animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournet, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    This PhD thesis is centered on the study of the IVIM ('Intravoxel Incoherent Motion') MRI sequence. This sequence allows for the study of the blood microvasculature such as the capillaries, arterioles and venules. To be sensitive only to moving groups of spins, diffusion gradients are added before and after the 180 degrees pulse of a spin echo (SE) sequence. The signal component corresponding to spins diffusing in the tissue can be separated from the one related to spins travelling in the blood vessels which is called the IVIM signal. These two components are weighted by f IVIM which represents the volume fraction of blood inside the tissue. The IVIM signal is usually modelled by a mono-exponential (ME) function and characterized by a pseudo-diffusion coefficient, D*. We propose instead a bi-exponential IVIM model consisting of a slow pool, characterized by F slow and D* slow corresponding to the capillaries as in the ME model, and a fast pool, characterized by F fast and D* fast, related to larger vessels such as medium-size arterioles and venules. This model was validated experimentally and more information was retrieved by comparing the experimental signals to a dictionary of simulated IVIM signals. The influence of the pulse sequence, the repetition time and the diffusion encoding time was also studied. Finally, the IVIM sequence was applied to the study of an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. (author) [fr

  14. Wireless sensor networks concepts, applications, experimentation and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fahmy, Hossam Mahmoud Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the principles of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), their applications, and their analysis tools, with meticulous attention paid to definitions and terminology. This book presents the adopted technologies and their manufacturers in detail, making WSNs tangible for the reader. In introductory computer networking books, chapter sequencing follows the bottom-up or top-down architecture of the 7-layer protocol. This book addresses subsequent steps in this process, both horizontally and vertically, thus fostering a clearer and deeper understanding through chapters that elaborate on WSN concepts and issues. With such depth, this book is intended for a wide audience; it is meant to be a helper and motivator for senior undergraduates, postgraduates, researchers, and practitioners. It lays out important concepts and WSN-relate applications; uses appropriate literature to back research and practical issues; and focuses on new trends. Senior undergraduate students can use it to familiarize themselves...

  15. An experimental investigation for external RC shear wall applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltakci, M. Y.; Ozturk, M.; Arslan, M. H.

    2010-09-01

    The strength and rigidity of most reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Turkey, which are frequently hit by destructive earthquakes, is not at a sufficient level. Therefore, the result of earthquakes is a significant loss of life and property. The strengthening method most commonly preferred for these type of RC buildings is the application of RC infilled walls (shear walls) in the frame openings of the building. However, since the whole building has to be emptied and additional heavy costs arise during this type of strengthening, users prefer not to strengthen their buildings despite the heavy risk they are exposed to. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easier-to-apply and more effective methods for the rapid strengthening of housing and the heavily-used public buildings which cannot be emptied during the strengthening process (such as hospitals and schools). This study empirically analyses the different methods of a new system which can meet this need. In this new system, named "external shear wall application", RC shear walls are applied on the external surface of the building, along the frame plane rather than in the building. To this end, 7 test samples in 1/2 and 1/3 geometrical scale were designed to analyse the efficiency of the strengthening technique where the shear wall leans on the frame from outside of the building (external shear wall application) and of the strengthening technique where a specific space is left between the frame and the external shear wall by using a coupling beam to connect elements (application of external shear wall with coupling beam). Test results showed that the maximum lateral load capacity, initial rigidity and energy dissipation behaviours of the samples strengthened with external shear wall were much better than those of the bare frames.

  16. An experimental investigation for external RC shear wall applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Kaltakci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The strength and rigidity of most reinforced concrete (RC buildings in Turkey, which are frequently hit by destructive earthquakes, is not at a sufficient level. Therefore, the result of earthquakes is a significant loss of life and property. The strengthening method most commonly preferred for these type of RC buildings is the application of RC infilled walls (shear walls in the frame openings of the building. However, since the whole building has to be emptied and additional heavy costs arise during this type of strengthening, users prefer not to strengthen their buildings despite the heavy risk they are exposed to. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easier-to-apply and more effective methods for the rapid strengthening of housing and the heavily-used public buildings which cannot be emptied during the strengthening process (such as hospitals and schools. This study empirically analyses the different methods of a new system which can meet this need. In this new system, named "external shear wall application", RC shear walls are applied on the external surface of the building, along the frame plane rather than in the building. To this end, 7 test samples in 1/2 and 1/3 geometrical scale were designed to analyse the efficiency of the strengthening technique where the shear wall leans on the frame from outside of the building (external shear wall application and of the strengthening technique where a specific space is left between the frame and the external shear wall by using a coupling beam to connect elements (application of external shear wall with coupling beam. Test results showed that the maximum lateral load capacity, initial rigidity and energy dissipation behaviours of the samples strengthened with external shear wall were much better than those of the bare frames.

  17. Blanking and piercing theory, applications and recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A. I. O.

    2013-01-01

    Blanking and piercing are manufacturing processes by which certain geometrical shapes are sheared off a sheet metal. If the sheared off part is the one required, the processes referred to as blanking and if the remaining part in the sheet is the one required, the process is referred to as piercing. In this paper, the theory and practice of these processes are reviewed and discussed The main parameters affecting these processes are presented and discussed. These include: the radial clearance percentage, punch and die geometrical parameters, for example punch and die profile radii. The above mentioned parameters on the force and energy required to effect blanking together with their effect on the quality of the products are also presented and discussed. Recent experimental results together with photomacrographs and photomicrographs are also included and discussed. Finally, the effect of punch and die wear on the quality of the blanks is also given and discussed. (author)

  18. Blanking and piercing theory, applications and recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, Adnan l O

    2014-01-01

    Blanking and piercing are manufacturing processes by which certain geometrical shapes are sheared off a sheet metal. If the sheared off part is the one required, the processes referred to as blanking and if the remaining part in the sheet is the one required, the process is referred to as piercing. In this paper, the theory and practice of these processes are reviewed and discussed The main parameters affecting these processes are presented and discussed. These include: the radial clearance percentage, punch and die geometrical parameters, for example punch and die profile radii. The abovementioned parameters on the force and energy required to effect blanking together with their effect on the quality of the products are also presented and discussed. Recent experimental results together with photomacrographs and photomicrographs are also included and discussed. Finally, the effect of punch and die wear on the quality of the blanks is alsogiven and discussed

  19. Flowability of granular materials with industrial applications - An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Serra, Joel; Romero, Enrique; Rodríguez-Ferran, Antonio; Caba, Joan; Arderiu, Xavier; Padullés, Josep-Manel; González, Juanjo

    2017-06-01

    Designing bulk material handling equipment requires a thorough understanding of the mechanical behaviour of powders and grains. Experimental characterization of granular materials is introduced focusing on flowability. A new prototype is presented which performs granular column collapse tests. The device consists of a channel whose design accounts for test inspection using visualization techniques and load measurements. A reservoir is attached where packing state of the granular material can be adjusted before run-off to simulate actual handling conditions by fluidisation and deaeration of the pile. Bulk materials on the market, with a wide range of particle sizes, can be tested with the prototype and the results used for classification in terms of flowability to improve industrial equipment selection processes.

  20. Practical application of stereological methods in experimental kidney animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández García, María Teresa; Núñez Martínez, Paula; García de la Fuente, Vanessa; Sánchez Pitiot, Marta; Muñiz Salgueiro, María Del Carmen; Perillán Méndez, Carmen; Argüelles Luis, Juan; Astudillo González, Aurora

    The kidneys are vital organs responsible for excretion, fluid and electrolyte balance and hormone production. The nephrons are the kidney's functional and structural units. The number, size and distribution of the nephron components contain relevant information on renal function. Stereology is a branch of morphometry that applies mathematical principles to obtain three-dimensional information from serial, parallel and equidistant two-dimensional microscopic sections. Because of the complexity of stereological studies and the lack of scientific literature on the subject, the aim of this paper is to clearly explain, through animal models, the basic concepts of stereology and how to calculate the main kidney stereological parameters that can be applied in future experimental studies. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Perfect lensing with phase-conjugating surfaces: toward practical realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslovski, Stanislav; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    It is theoretically known that a pair of phase-conjugating surfaces can function as a perfect lens, focusing propagating waves and enhancing evanescent waves. However, the known experimental approaches based on thin sheets of nonlinear materials cannot fully realize the required phase conjugation boundary condition. In this paper, we show that the ideal phase-conjugating surface is, in principle, physically realizable and investigate the necessary properties of nonlinear and nonreciprocal particles which can be used to build a perfect lens system. The physical principle of the lens operation is discussed in detail and directions of possible experimental realizations are outlined. (paper)

  2. Data driven parallelism in experimental high energy physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, M.

    1987-01-01

    I present global design principles for the implementation of high energy physics data analysis code on sequential and parallel processors with mixed shared and local memory. Potential parallelism in the structure of high energy physics tasks is identified with granularity varying from a few times 10 8 instructions all the way down to a few times 10 4 instructions. It follows the hierarchical structure of detector and data acquisition systems. To take advantage of this - yet preserving the necessary portability of the code - I propose a computational model with purely data driven concurrency in Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) mode. The task granularity is defined by varying the granularity of the central data structure manipulated. Concurrent processes coordiate themselves asynchroneously using simple lock constructs on parts of the data structure. Load balancing among processes occurs naturally. The scheme allows to map the internal layout of the data structure closely onto the layout of local and shared memory in a parallel architecture. It thus allows to optimize the application with respect to synchronization as well as data transport overheads. I present a coarse top level design for a portable implementation of this scheme on sequential machines, multiprocessor mainframes (e.g. IBM 3090), tightly coupled multiprocessors (e.g. RP-3) and loosely coupled processor arrays (e.g. LCAP, Emulating Processor Farms). (orig.)

  3. Data driven parallelism in experimental high energy physics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Martin

    1987-08-01

    I present global design principles for the implementation of High Energy Physics data analysis code on sequential and parallel processors with mixed shared and local memory. Potential parallelism in the structure of High Energy Physics tasks is identified with granularity varying from a few times 10 8 instructions all the way down to a few times 10 4 instructions. It follows the hierarchical structure of detector and data acquisition systems. To take advantage of this - yet preserving the necessary portability of the code - I propose a computational model with purely data driven concurrency in Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) mode. The Task granularity is defined by varying the granularity of the central data structure manipulated. Concurrent processes coordinate themselves asynchroneously using simple lock constructs on parts of the data structure. Load balancing among processes occurs naturally. The scheme allows to map the internal layout of the data structure closely onto the layout of local and shared memory in a parallel architecture. It thus allows to optimize the application with respect to synchronization as well as data transport overheads. I present a coarse top level design for a portable implementation of this scheme on sequential machines, multiprocessor mainframes (e.g. IBM 3090), tightly coupled multiprocessors (e.g. RP-3) and loosely coupled processor arrays (e.g. LCAP, Emulating Processor Farms).

  4. Multiple Realizability and Biological Laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raerinne, Jani P.; Eronen, Markus I.

    2012-01-01

    We critically analyze Alexander Rosenberg's argument based on the multiple realizability of biological properties that there are no biological laws. The argument is intuitive and suggestive. Nevertheless, a closer analysis reveals that the argument rests on dubious assumptions about the nature of

  5. Realization of a Quantum Random Generator Certified with the Kochen-Specker Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Anatoly; Jerger, Markus; Potočnik, Anton; Wallraff, Andreas; Fedorov, Arkady

    2017-12-01

    Random numbers are required for a variety of applications from secure communications to Monte Carlo simulation. Yet randomness is an asymptotic property, and no output string generated by a physical device can be strictly proven to be random. We report an experimental realization of a quantum random number generator (QRNG) with randomness certified by quantum contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem. The certification is not performed in a device-independent way but through a rigorous theoretical proof of each outcome being value indefinite even in the presence of experimental imperfections. The analysis of the generated data confirms the incomputable nature of our QRNG.

  6. PRAGMATIC TRANSFER IN REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the pragmatic transfer in English request realizations made by EFL learners, i.e. the proficient learners. The subjects were students of an English Study Program who obtained TOEFL-like scores of at least 450. The data were collected by means of DCT-questionnaires and Role-plays. The results show that the subjects realize requests in the form of external modifications more frequently. Most of them embed their requests with supportive moves dominantly. They enfold the acts with the moves before, after or in both positions. Of the three positions, they mostly insert the moves initial position, i.e., through inductive patterns. This is due to pragmatic transfer.

  7. Dynamic large eddy simulation: Stability via realizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarpoor, Reza; Heinz, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    The concept of dynamic large eddy simulation (LES) is highly attractive: such methods can dynamically adjust to changing flow conditions, which is known to be highly beneficial. For example, this avoids the use of empirical, case dependent approximations (like damping functions). Ideally, dynamic LES should be local in physical space (without involving artificial clipping parameters), and it should be stable for a wide range of simulation time steps, Reynolds numbers, and numerical schemes. These properties are not trivial, but dynamic LES suffers from such problems over decades. We address these questions by performing dynamic LES of periodic hill flow including separation at a high Reynolds number Re = 37 000. For the case considered, the main result of our studies is that it is possible to design LES that has the desired properties. It requires physical consistency: a PDF-realizable and stress-realizable LES model, which requires the inclusion of the turbulent kinetic energy in the LES calculation. LES models that do not honor such physical consistency can become unstable. We do not find support for the previous assumption that long-term correlations of negative dynamic model parameters are responsible for instability. Instead, we concluded that instability is caused by the stable spatial organization of significant unphysical states, which are represented by wall-type gradient streaks of the standard deviation of the dynamic model parameter. The applicability of our realizability stabilization to other dynamic models (including the dynamic Smagorinsky model) is discussed.

  8. Realization of logical functions by vector programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapkin, L Ya

    1983-03-01

    Recent computing and control applications often require program realization of finite automata in general and of an important particular class of memoryless automata specified by systems of Boolean functions. Logical control and computing machines which receive sequences of discrete signals on the input and convert them into sequences of discrete output signals using finite memory may be described by a finite automation model. However, in distinction from the circuit interpretation of finite automata, the automaton algorithm represents the structure of the automaton program and not the structure of the machine itself. Therefore, the complexity of the computer realization of an automaton is the complexity of the computer program, and not the complexity of the hardware. Two classes of programs currently used to evalute boolean functions are operator programs and binary programs. However, computing machines, including microcomputers, are equipped with additional possibilities for evaluation of Boolean functions, which are not utilized in programs of these two basic classes. In this article, we consider the design of vector programs for program realization of systems of Boolean functions. 3 references.

  9. Experimental analysis and management issues of a hydrogen fuel cell system for stationary and mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbo, Pasquale; Migliardini, Fortunato; Veneri, Ottorino [Istituto Motori of Italian National Research Council, Via Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    A laboratory fuel cell system based on a 20 kW H{sub 2}/air proton exchange membrane stack was designed, realized and characterized with the aim to elucidate specific concerns to be considered for both hydrogen stationary power systems and automotive applications. The overall system characterization permitted the effect of the main operative variables (temperature, pressure and stoichiometric ratio) on stack power and efficiency to be evaluated. Reactant feeding, humidification and cooling problems are discussed, evidencing in particular the roles of air compressor, fuel purge, stack temperature and humidification strategy in system management. The characterization results are analyzed in terms of H{sub 2} consumption and available power, evidencing the energy losses of the individual fuel cell system components. In particular, the data obtained on key components (stack, reactants, heat and water management devices) are used for a critical discussion about their specifications and operation characteristics as demanded by both stationary and mobile applications. (author)

  10. Experimental analysis and management issues of a hydrogen fuel cell system for stationary and mobile application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbo, Pasquale; Migliardini, Fortunato; Veneri, Ottorino

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory fuel cell system based on a 20 kW H 2 /air proton exchange membrane stack was designed, realized and characterized with the aim to elucidate specific concerns to be considered for both hydrogen stationary power systems and automotive applications. The overall system characterization permitted the effect of the main operative variables (temperature, pressure and stoichiometric ratio) on stack power and efficiency to be evaluated. Reactant feeding, humidification and cooling problems are discussed, evidencing in particular the roles of air compressor, fuel purge, stack temperature and humidification strategy in system management. The characterization results are analyzed in terms of H 2 consumption and available power, evidencing the energy losses of the individual fuel cell system components. In particular, the data obtained on key components (stack, reactants, heat and water management devices) are used for a critical discussion about their specifications and operation characteristics as demanded by both stationary and mobile applications

  11. The Biological Effects of Quadripolar Radiofrequency Sequential Application: A Human Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoletti, Giovanni; Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Faga, Angela; Scevola, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of an innovative quadripolar variable electrode configuration radiofrequency device with objective measurements in an ex vivo and in vivo human experimental model. Background data: Nonablative radiofrequency applications are well-established anti-ageing procedures for cosmetic skin tightening. Methods: The study was performed in two steps: ex vivo and in vivo assessments. In the ex vivo assessments the radio...

  12. Design and realization of simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, C.

    1984-01-01

    The two main categories of simulators are training simulators of which aim is the education of the nuclear power plant operators, and the study simulators. The French park of simulators is reviewed, as also their field of utilization. One deals with the simulator design: general description, calculation tools, middleware, and programming, mathematical models and numerical methods. Then, the instructor post of the EDF's simulators are more particularly described. The realization of a simulator includes two main stages: the development of the material and, the development of the software [fr

  13. Beneficial influence of topical extra virgin olive oil application on an experimental model of penile fracture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Mustafa; Ozkol, Halil; Pirincci, Necip; Gecit, Ilhan; Bilici, Salim; Yildirim, Serkan

    2015-08-01

    Penile fracture (PF) is known as a traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea of corpus cavernosum. In this study, we aimed to investigate the healing influence of topical extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on PF through evaluating levels of some oxidative stress biomarkers for the first time. Histopathological evaluation was also realized. A total of 18 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of six rats each as control group, in PF (alone) group, and PF + EVOO group. Experimental PF was formed via incising from the proximal dorsal side of the penis in the rats of all groups except control. While in PF (alone) group, fracture was formed and the incision was primarily closed, in PF + EVOO group in addition to foregoing processes, EVOO was also administrated topically twice a day for 3 weeks. At the end of the experiment, all rats were killed and penectomy was carried out. While malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, lipid hyroperoxide, and total oxidant status significantly (p groups markedly (p group when compared with PF + EVOO group. Levels of these parameters were reversed to nearly normal values by topical EVOO application. Protection by EVOO is further substantiated via the improved histological findings in PF + EVOO group as against degenerative changes in the rats of PF (alone) group. Our data revealed that EVOO has protective effect in penile cavernosal tissue through probably its antioxidant, free radical defusing, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Towards scalable quantum communication and computation: Novel approaches and realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang

    Quantum information science involves exploration of fundamental laws of quantum mechanics for information processing tasks. This thesis presents several new approaches towards scalable quantum information processing. First, we consider a hybrid approach to scalable quantum computation, based on an optically connected network of few-qubit quantum registers. Specifically, we develop a novel scheme for scalable quantum computation that is robust against various imperfections. To justify that nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond can be a promising realization of the few-qubit quantum register, we show how to isolate a few proximal nuclear spins from the rest of the environment and use them for the quantum register. We also demonstrate experimentally that the nuclear spin coherence is only weakly perturbed under optical illumination, which allows us to implement quantum logical operations that use the nuclear spins to assist the repetitive-readout of the electronic spin. Using this technique, we demonstrate more than two-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio. Apart from direct application to enhance the sensitivity of the NV-based nano-magnetometer, this experiment represents an important step towards the realization of robust quantum information processors using electronic and nuclear spin qubits. We then study realizations of quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communication. Specifically, we develop an efficient scheme for quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles. We use dynamic programming to optimize various quantum repeater protocols. In addition, we propose a new protocol of quantum repeater with encoding, which efficiently uses local resources (about 100 qubits) to identify and correct errors, to achieve fast one-way quantum communication over long distances. Finally, we explore quantum systems with topological order. Such systems can exhibit remarkable phenomena such as quasiparticles with anyonic statistics and have been proposed as

  15. The biological effects of quadripolar radiofrequency sequential application: a human experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Giovanni; Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Faga, Angela; Scevola, Silvia

    2014-10-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of an innovative quadripolar variable electrode configuration radiofrequency device with objective measurements in an ex vivo and in vivo human experimental model. Nonablative radiofrequency applications are well-established anti-ageing procedures for cosmetic skin tightening. The study was performed in two steps: ex vivo and in vivo assessments. In the ex vivo assessments the radiofrequency applications were performed on human full-thickness skin and subcutaneous tissue specimens harvested during surgery for body contouring. In the in vivo assessments the applications were performed on two volunteer patients scheduled for body contouring surgery at the end of the study. The assessment methods were: clinical examination and medical photography, temperature measurement with thermal imaging scan, and light microscopy histological examination. The ex vivo assessments allowed for identification of the effective safety range for human application. The in vivo assessments allowed for demonstration of the biological effects of sequential radiofrequency applications. After a course of radiofrequency applications, the collagen fibers underwent an immediate heat-induced rearrangement and were partially denaturated and progressively metabolized by the macrophages. An overall thickening and spatial rearrangement was appreciated both in the collagen and elastic fibers, the latter displaying a juvenile reticular pattern. A late onset in the macrophage activation after sequential radiofrequency applications was appreciated. Our data confirm the effectiveness of sequential radiofrequency applications in obtaining attenuation of the skin wrinkles by an overall skin tightening.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance. Present results and its application to renal pathology. Experimental study of hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of proton nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and relaxation time measurement of experimental hydronephrosis in mice are presented. The study is preceded by a description of the physical principles underlying the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and of its biomedical applications and with a review of the clinical use of NMR imaging in renal pathology [fr

  17. Planning, realization and experimentation of the adaptation of a solid urban waste incineration by means of its integration with a sodium bicarbonate system for the reduction of HCL in flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crippa, G. [Solvay, S.A., Rosignano (Italy); Luciani, R.; Tommasi, A. [Industrial Mechatronics, Trieste (Italy); Tommasi, S. [Univ. Degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    The object of the research was to apply a procedure which takes into account the increasingly stringent limits on incinerator emission, shows that these limits can be met by adjusting existing plants at limited implementation costs, with secure results, and without conspicuous intervention on the plants. It is clear that the most important aspect was the processing of the theoretical and experimental results obtained, i.e. the generalisation, so as to use them for designing similar plants without resorting to long and costly specific analysis. At the same time, it is necessary to interpret the positive results obtained as a further step toward adjusting the pre-existing incinerator plants. This does not imply that it is no longer necessary to project new plants with the best de-acidification systems. Indeed, resort to a new organised and responsible management of the problem of waste disposal by means of stricter monitoring and higher fines, a better re-use of urban waste materials and a co-involvement of a local administrations and individual citizens. The projected plant enables waste disposal by means of incineration, respecting the limits on emissions and obtaining the advantages concomitant with a similar process, which are the possibility of recuperating energy, the reduction, both in volume and in weight, of waste resulting in smaller resort to waste disposal sites, which are at any rate nearly at capacity nowadays. (orig.)

  18. Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaskin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the "openness to experience" described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency (among other things). An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an example of the ways in which cultural differences affect perception, indicative of cognitive diversity; and, given the relationship between dreams and creativity suggested anecdotally and through research, a cultural orientation toward perceptual openness is also likely to have implications for the realization of creativity that occurs through dreams. Such creativity though cannot be separated from the relational context in which such dreamt material is elaborated and understood. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Experimental psychopathology paradigms for alcohol use disorders: Applications for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; Ray, Lara A

    2016-11-01

    In spite of high prevalence and disease burden, scientific consensus on the etiology and treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) has yet to be reached. The development and utilization of experimental psychopathology paradigms in the human laboratory represents a cornerstone of AUD research. In this review, we describe and critically evaluate the major experimental psychopathology paradigms developed for AUD, with an emphasis on their implications, strengths, weaknesses, and methodological considerations. Specifically we review alcohol administration, self-administration, cue-reactivity, and stress-reactivity paradigms. We also provide an introduction to the application of experimental psychopathology methods to translational research including genetics, neuroimaging, pharmacological and behavioral treatment development, and translational science. Through refining and manipulating key phenotypes of interest, these experimental paradigms have the potential to elucidate AUD etiological factors, improve the efficiency of treatment developments, and refine treatment targets thus advancing precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perspectives for a new realization of the pascal by optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousten, Karl; Hendricks, Jay; Barker, Daniel; Douglas, Kevin; Eckel, Steve; Egan, Patrick; Fedchak, James; Flügge, Jens; Gaiser, Christof; Olson, Douglas; Ricker, Jacob; Rubin, Tom; Sabuga, Wladimir; Scherschligt, Julia; Schödel, Rene; Sterr, Uwe; Stone, Jack; Strouse, Gregory

    2017-12-01

    Since the beginning of measurement of pressure in the 17th century, the unit of pressure has been defined by the relationship of force per unit area. The present state of optical technology now offers the possibility of using a thermodynamic definition—specifically the ideal gas law—for the realization of the pressure unit, in the vacuum regime and slightly above, with an accuracy comparable to or better than the traditional methods of force per area. The changes planned for the SI in 2018 support the application of this thermodynamic definition that is based on the ideal gas law with the necessary corrections for real-gas effects. The paper reviews the theoretical and experimental foundations of those optical methods that are considered to be most promising to realize the unit of pressure at the highest level of metrology.

  1. A Realization Approach for Residual Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with state space realization of inherent redundant information in subsystems, which are identified by structural analysis (SA) approach. The identified subsystems are assumed to involve algebraic variables, representing unknown signals. The proposed realization method...

  2. Realization of an integral using anticommuting variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valuev, B.N.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the integral defined by Berezin over anticommuting variables may be realized as a trace on the Clifford algebra. In fact, this realization makes precise the definition of the integral

  3. Experimental Design and Bioinformatics Analysis for the Application of Metagenomics in Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-11-03

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have prompted the widespread application of metagenomics for the investigation of novel bioresources (e.g., industrial enzymes and bioactive molecules) and unknown biohazards (e.g., pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes) in natural and engineered microbial systems across multiple disciplines. This review discusses the rigorous experimental design and sample preparation in the context of applying metagenomics in environmental sciences and biotechnology. Moreover, this review summarizes the principles, methodologies, and state-of-the-art bioinformatics procedures, tools and database resources for metagenomics applications and discusses two popular strategies (analysis of unassembled reads versus assembled contigs/draft genomes) for quantitative or qualitative insights of microbial community structure and functions. Overall, this review aims to facilitate more extensive application of metagenomics in the investigation of uncultured microorganisms, novel enzymes, microbe-environment interactions, and biohazards in biotechnological applications where microbial communities are engineered for bioenergy production, wastewater treatment, and bioremediation.

  4. Challenges in realizing ultraflat materials surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yatsui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultraflat surface substrates are required to achieve an optimal performance of future optical, electronic, or optoelectronic devices for various applications, because such surfaces reduce the scattering loss of photons, electrons, or both at the surfaces and interfaces. In this paper, we review recent progress toward the realization of ultraflat materials surfaces. First, we review the development of surface-flattening techniques. Second, we briefly review the dressed photon–phonon (DPP, a nanometric quasiparticle that describes the coupled state of a photon, an electron, and a multimode-coherent phonon. Then, we review several recent developments based on DPP-photochemical etching and desorption processes, which have resulted in angstrom-scale flat surfaces. To confirm that the superior flatness of these surfaces that originated from the DPP process, we also review a simplified mathematical model that describes the scale-dependent effects of optical near-fields. Finally, we present the future outlook for these technologies.

  5. Application of Lean-Six Sigma Approach in a Laboratory Experimental Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Raza Rizvi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments are a conventional activity performed at academic institutions, government and private organizations. These experimental studies provide the basis for new inventions in the field of science and engineering. Laboratory experiments are conducted on the basis of provided guidelines, already established by different standard organizations like ASTM, AASHTO etc. This article is based on a case study in which the process of an experiment is examined on the basis of Value Stream Maps (VSM and potential improvement possibilities have been identified. After determining the potential waste, appropriate Lean tools are selected to implement and observe the improvements. The process is examined after application of the Lean tools and a comparison is performed. University laboratory environment can be improved considerably by applying Lean Tools. MUDA application reduced the total work time from 90.75 hours and 10-CD to 63.75 hours and 7-CD hence saving, 27 hours and 3-CD for one experiment. This is remarkable achievement of this application. Heijunka application provided the students equal workload and they performed explicitly better than they used to. 5-S tool provided the students the opportunity to manage the laboratory in an effective and clean way. Safety of the students is a very major concern at university laboratory environment. 5-S not only upgraded the laboratory overall performance, but it significantly raised the safety standards of the laboratory. More application of the Lean Tools should be exercised explored to have more effective and efficient university laboratory experimental environment.

  6. Application of the dynamically allocated virtual clustering management system to emulated tactical network experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Kelvin

    2014-06-01

    The U.S Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has built a "Network Science Research Lab" to support research that aims to improve their ability to analyze, predict, design, and govern complex systems that interweave the social/cognitive, information, and communication network genres. Researchers at ARL and the Network Science Collaborative Technology Alliance (NS-CTA), a collaborative research alliance funded by ARL, conducted experimentation to determine if automated network monitoring tools and task-aware agents deployed within an emulated tactical wireless network could potentially increase the retrieval of relevant data from heterogeneous distributed information nodes. ARL and NS-CTA required the capability to perform this experimentation over clusters of heterogeneous nodes with emulated wireless tactical networks where each node could contain different operating systems, application sets, and physical hardware attributes. Researchers utilized the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering Management System (DAVC) to address each of the infrastructure support requirements necessary in conducting their experimentation. The DAVC is an experimentation infrastructure that provides the means to dynamically create, deploy, and manage virtual clusters of heterogeneous nodes within a cloud computing environment based upon resource utilization such as CPU load, available RAM and hard disk space. The DAVC uses 802.1Q Virtual LANs (VLANs) to prevent experimentation crosstalk and to allow for complex private networks. Clusters created by the DAVC system can be utilized for software development, experimentation, and integration with existing hardware and software. The goal of this paper is to explore how ARL and the NS-CTA leveraged the DAVC to create, deploy and manage multiple experimentation clusters to support their experimentation goals.

  7. Primitive recursive realizability and basic propositional logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plisko, Valery

    2007-01-01

    Two notions of primitive recursive realizability for arithmetic sentences are considered. The first one is strictly primitive recursive realizability introduced by Z. Damnjanovic in 1994. We prove that intuitionistic predicate logic is not sound with this kind of realizability. Namely there

  8. Several experimental applications of gamma ray spectrometry on the analysis of uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korob, Ricardo O.; Blasiyh Nuno, Guillermo A.

    2002-01-01

    Several experimental applications of gamma ray spectrometry on the analysis of uranium compounds and materials containing it are studied. Special attention is devoted to the correlation between experimental spectra and the decay chains of 235 U and 238 U contained in the analyzed samples. The following applications are discussed: enrichment determination without using calibration standards, determination of uranium concentration, intensities of the gamma rays emitted by the nuclides present in the decay chains of study and the activity of such nuclides. Because of its importance, detailed discussion about the former one is shown. In addition, preliminary results regarding the emission probabilities of the most important gamma rays of 234m Pa are also informed. (author)

  9. Application of data base management systems for developing experimental data base using ES computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, V.I.; Karpov, V.V.; Mikhajlyuk, D.N.; Ostroumov, Yu.A.; Rumyantsev, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Modern data base measurement systems (DBMS) are widely used for development and operation of different data bases by assignment of data processing systems in economy, planning, management. But up today development and operation of data masses with experimental physical data in ES computer has been based mainly on the traditional technology of consequent or index-consequent files. The principal statements of DBMS technology applicability for compiling and operation of data bases with data on physical experiments are formulated based on the analysis of DBMS opportunities. It is shown that application of DBMS allows to essentially reduce general costs of calculational resources for development and operation of data bases and to decrease the scope of stored experimental data when analyzing information content of data

  10. A soft X-Ray flat field grating spectrograph and its experimental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yuanlong; Mao Chusheng

    2001-01-01

    The principle, structure, and application results of a flat field grating spectrograph for X-ray laser research is presented. There are two kinds of the spectrograph. One uses a varied space grating with nominal line spacing 1200 l/mm, the spectral detection range is 5 - 50 nm, and another uses a 2400 l/mm varied line space grating, detection range is 1 - 10 nm. The experimental results of the former is introduced only. Both experimental results of this instrument using the soft X-ray film and a streak camera as the detecting elements are given. The spectral resolutions are 0.01 nm and 0.05 nm, respectively. The temporal resolution is 30 ps. Finally, the stigmatic structure of the spectrograph is introduced, which uses cylindrical mirror and spherical mirror as a focusing system. The magnification is 5, spatial resolution is 25 μm. The experimental results are given as well

  11. Experimental investigation of the predictive capabilities of data driven modeling techniques in hydrology - Part 2: Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elshorbagy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this second part of the two-part paper, the data driven modeling (DDM experiment, presented and explained in the first part, is implemented. Inputs for the five case studies (half-hourly actual evapotranspiration, daily peat soil moisture, daily till soil moisture, and two daily rainfall-runoff datasets are identified, either based on previous studies or using the mutual information content. Twelve groups (realizations were randomly generated from each dataset by randomly sampling without replacement from the original dataset. Neural networks (ANNs, genetic programming (GP, evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR, Support vector machines (SVM, M5 model trees (M5, K-nearest neighbors (K-nn, and multiple linear regression (MLR techniques are implemented and applied to each of the 12 realizations of each case study. The predictive accuracy and uncertainties of the various techniques are assessed using multiple average overall error measures, scatter plots, frequency distribution of model residuals, and the deterioration rate of prediction performance during the testing phase. Gamma test is used as a guide to assist in selecting the appropriate modeling technique. Unlike two nonlinear soil moisture case studies, the results of the experiment conducted in this research study show that ANNs were a sub-optimal choice for the actual evapotranspiration and the two rainfall-runoff case studies. GP is the most successful technique due to its ability to adapt the model complexity to the modeled data. EPR performance could be close to GP with datasets that are more linear than nonlinear. SVM is sensitive to the kernel choice and if appropriately selected, the performance of SVM can improve. M5 performs very well with linear and semi linear data, which cover wide range of hydrological situations. In highly nonlinear case studies, ANNs, K-nn, and GP could be more successful than other modeling techniques. K-nn is also successful in linear situations, and it

  12. Experimental investigation of the predictive capabilities of data driven modeling techniques in hydrology - Part 2: Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshorbagy, A.; Corzo, G.; Srinivasulu, S.; Solomatine, D. P.

    2010-10-01

    In this second part of the two-part paper, the data driven modeling (DDM) experiment, presented and explained in the first part, is implemented. Inputs for the five case studies (half-hourly actual evapotranspiration, daily peat soil moisture, daily till soil moisture, and two daily rainfall-runoff datasets) are identified, either based on previous studies or using the mutual information content. Twelve groups (realizations) were randomly generated from each dataset by randomly sampling without replacement from the original dataset. Neural networks (ANNs), genetic programming (GP), evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), Support vector machines (SVM), M5 model trees (M5), K-nearest neighbors (K-nn), and multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques are implemented and applied to each of the 12 realizations of each case study. The predictive accuracy and uncertainties of the various techniques are assessed using multiple average overall error measures, scatter plots, frequency distribution of model residuals, and the deterioration rate of prediction performance during the testing phase. Gamma test is used as a guide to assist in selecting the appropriate modeling technique. Unlike two nonlinear soil moisture case studies, the results of the experiment conducted in this research study show that ANNs were a sub-optimal choice for the actual evapotranspiration and the two rainfall-runoff case studies. GP is the most successful technique due to its ability to adapt the model complexity to the modeled data. EPR performance could be close to GP with datasets that are more linear than nonlinear. SVM is sensitive to the kernel choice and if appropriately selected, the performance of SVM can improve. M5 performs very well with linear and semi linear data, which cover wide range of hydrological situations. In highly nonlinear case studies, ANNs, K-nn, and GP could be more successful than other modeling techniques. K-nn is also successful in linear situations, and it should

  13. Feedback Control in Quantum Optics: An Overview of Experimental Breakthroughs and Areas of Application

    OpenAIRE

    Alessio Serafini

    2012-01-01

    We present a broad summary of research involving the application of quantum feedback control techniques to optical set-ups, from the early enhancement of optical amplitude squeezing to the recent stabilisation of photon number states in a microwave cavity, dwelling mostly on the latest experimental advances. Feedback control of quantum optical continuous variables, quantum non-demolition memories, feedback cooling, quantum state control, adaptive quantum measurements and coherent feedback str...

  14. Realism in the Realized Popper's Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Geoffrey

    2002-12-01

    The realization of Karl Popper's EPR-like experiment by Shih and Kim (published 1999) produced the result that Popper hoped for: no ``action at a distance'' on one photon of an entangled pair when a measurement is made on the other photon. This experimental result is interpretable in local realistic terms: each photon has a definite position and transverse momentum most of the time; the position measurement on one photon (localization within a slit) disturbs the transverse momentum of that photon in a non-predictable way in accordance with the uncertainty principle; however, there is no effect on the other photon (the photon that is not in a slit) no action at a distance. The position measurement (localization within a slit) of the one photon destroys the coherence (entanglement) between the photons; i.e. decoherence occurs. This realistic (albeit retrodictive) interpretation of the Shih-Kim realization of what Popper called his ``crucial experiment'' is in accord with Bohr's original concept of the nature of the uncertainty principle, as being an inevitable effect of the disturbance of the measured system by the measuring apparatus. In this experiment the impact parameter of an incident photon with the centerline of the slit is an uncontrollable parameter of each individual photon scattering event; this impact parameter is variable for every incident photon, the variations being a statistical aspect of the beam of photons produced by the experimental arrangement. These experimental results are also in accord with the proposition of Einstein, Podolski and Rosen's 1935 paper: that quantum mechanics provides only a statistical, physically incomplete, theory of microscopic physical processes, for the quantum mechanical description of the experiment does not describe or explain the individual photon scattering events that are actually observed; the angle by which an individual photon is scattered is not predictable, because the photon's impact parameter with the

  15. Combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks in the solid dispersion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medarević, Djordje P; Kleinebudde, Peter; Djuriš, Jelena; Djurić, Zorica; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    This study for the first time demonstrates combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the solid dispersions (SDs) development. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs were prepared by solvent casting method to improve carbamazepine dissolution rate. The influence of the composition of prepared SDs on carbamazepine dissolution rate was evaluated using d-optimal mixture experimental design and multilayer perceptron ANNs. Physicochemical characterization proved the presence of the most stable carbamazepine polymorph III within the SD matrix. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs significantly improved carbamazepine dissolution rate compared to pure drug. Models developed by ANNs and mixture experimental design well described the relationship between proportions of SD components and percentage of carbamazepine released after 10 (Q10) and 20 (Q20) min, wherein ANN model exhibit better predictability on test data set. Proportions of carbamazepine and poloxamer 188 exhibited the highest influence on carbamazepine release rate. The highest carbamazepine release rate was observed for SDs with the lowest proportions of carbamazepine and the highest proportions of poloxamer 188. ANNs and mixture experimental design can be used as powerful data modeling tools in the systematic development of SDs. Taking into account advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, their combined application should be encouraged.

  16. Realization of arbitrarily long focus-depth optical vortices with spiral area-varying zone plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenglong; Zang, Huaping; Du, Yanli; Tian, Yongzhi; Ji, Ziwen; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Quanping; Wang, Chuanke; Cao, Leifeng; Liang, Erjun

    2018-05-01

    We provide a methodology to realize an optical vortex with arbitrarily long focus-depth. With a technique of varying each zone area of a phase spiral zone plate one can obtain optics capable of generating ultra-long focus-depth optical vortex from a plane wave. The focal property of such optics was analysed using the Fresnel diffraction theory, and an experimental demonstration was performed to verify its effectiveness. Such optics may bring new opportunity and benefits for optical vortex application such as optical manipulation and lithography.

  17. Photoinduced molecular migration process in polymer matrices: application to the realization of optically organized nano-structures; Processus de migration moleculaire photo-induite en milieu polymere: application a la realisation de nanostructures organisees optiquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ch

    2003-06-01

    This work deals with the study of a new all optical structuration process of azo-polymer films. We show that the irradiation with normal incidence of an azo-polymer film by a uniform laser beam which wavelength is in the absorption band of the azo-molecules, can lead to the formation of a quasi hexagonal surface relief grating at the surface of a polymer film. After a brief review of different methods of micro and nano-structuration as well as the properties of azo-polymer films in the case of the surface relief gratings formation, we study in the first part of this manuscript the influence of several experimental parameters on the spontaneous optically controlled formation of these photoinduced structures, among them the light polarization direction and the irradiation power. The different results obtained in our case are then compared with different photo-assisted structuration processes already proposed and whose physical origins are clearly established, in order to determine the key parameters governing the formation of these hexagonal structures as well as their origins. In the second part, a synthesis of the different experiments performed in order to evaluate the validity of effects so called 'optical feedback effect' observed in liquid crystal light valve systems is performed. The interpretation of the photoinduced hexagonal structuration process appears to be difficult: it is not excluded that an optical feedback phenomenon could be at the origin of the structuration process, but at the present, according to the different experiments performed, a new and original phenomenon of structuration adapted to azo-polymers films cannot be excluded in order to fully explain the different results obtained. (author)

  18. Classical realizability in the CPS target language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by considerations about Krivine's classical realizability, we introduce a term calculus for an intuitionistic logic with record types, which we call the CPS target language. We give a reformulation of the constructions of classical realizability in this language, using the categorical...... techniques of realizability triposes and toposes. We argue that the presentation of classical realizability in the CPS target language simplifies calculations in realizability toposes, in particular it admits a nice presentation of conjunction as intersection type which is inspired by Girard's ludics....

  19. Explicit field realizations of W algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Ren Jirong; Zhang Lijie

    2009-01-01

    The fact that certain nonlinear W 2,s algebras can be linearized by the inclusion of a spin-1 current can provide a simple way to realize W 2,s algebras from linear W 1,2,s algebras. In this paper, we first construct the explicit field realizations of linear W 1,2,s algebras with double scalar and double spinor, respectively. Then, after a change of basis, the realizations of W 2,s algebras are presented. The results show that all these realizations are Romans-type realizations.

  20. Explicit field realizations of W algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Jie; Ren, Ji-Rong

    2009-01-01

    The fact that certain non-linear $W_{2,s}$ algebras can be linearized by the inclusion of a spin-1 current can provide a simple way to realize $W_{2,s}$ algebras from linear $W_{1,2,s}$ algebras. In this paper, we first construct the explicit field realizations of linear $W_{1,2,s}$ algebras with double-scalar and double-spinor, respectively. Then, after a change of basis, the realizations of $W_{2,s}$ algebras are presented. The results show that all these realizations are Romans-type realiz...

  1. We present an experimental circuit realization of a simple jerk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    dimensional dynamical systems that exhibit chaos. Some of the jerk equations found have simple nonlinear functions that should permit easy electronic implementations. A chaotic jerk equation has been chosen from the list given by. Sprott [8] so that a hardware circuit may be built to observe the chaotic attractor.

  2. Experimental realization of linear-optical partial SWAP gates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Bartůšková, L.; Dušek, M.; Fiurášek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 18 (2008), 180501/1-180501/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : two-qubit gates * Mach-Zehnder interferomeret * quantum information processing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  3. Experimental realization of a silicon spin field-effect transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Biqin; Monsma, Douwe J.; Appelbaum, Ian

    2007-01-01

    A longitudinal electric field is used to control the transit time (through an undoped silicon vertical channel) of spin-polarized electrons precessing in a perpendicular magnetic field. Since an applied voltage determines the final spin direction at the spin detector and hence the output collector current, this comprises a spin field-effect transistor. An improved hot-electron spin injector providing ~115% magnetocurrent, corresponding to at least ~38% electron current spin polarization after...

  4. Online Power Management with Embedded Offline-Optimized Parameters for a Three-Source Hybrid Powertrain with an Experimental Emulation Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedatri Moulik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-time power management in the presence of one or more reversible energy storage systems is a current issue with hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. To evaluate the potentials of rule-based power management, optimization with respect to two conflicting objectives, fuel consumption and state of charge (SoC deviation, is considered in this contribution. A modular structure of power management with decoupled offline and online parts is presented. The online part incorporates look-up tables (LUTs with parameters from the offline optimization part. This permits an inclusion of more LUTs corresponding to different drive patterns. The goal of this contribution is to combine the real-time applicability of rule-based power management and the multi-objective optimization property of genetic algorithms in a single control strategy. Component aging problems are addressed by suitable design. The influence of sizing is investigated. Finally, an experimental setup consisting of components capable of realizing the dynamics of real powertrain components is realized and introduced. A verification/plausibility assessment of modeled dynamics based on the literature is considered. This newly-introduced concept represents a class of power management, which is easy to implement, can tackle different objectives in real time, and adapt itself to unknown driver demands.

  5. Symmetry realization of texture zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Joshipura, A.S.; Lavoura, L.; Tanimoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    We show that it is possible to enforce texture zeros in arbitrary entries of the fermion mass matrices by means of Abelian symmetries; in this way, many popular mass-matrix textures find a symmetry justification. We propose two alternative methods which allow one to place zeros in any number of elements of the mass matrices that one wants. They are applicable simultaneously in the quark and lepton sectors. They are also applicable in grand unified theories. The number of scalar fields required by our methods may be large; still, in many interesting cases this number can be reduced considerably. The larger the desired number of texture zeros is, the simpler are the models which reproduce the texture. (orig.)

  6. Realizing the potential of quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1997-07-01

    I recall the development of quarkonium quantum mechanics after the discovery of Υ. I emphasize the empirical approach to determining the force between quarks from the properties of c anti c and b anti b bound states. I review the application of scaling laws, semiclassical methods, theorems and near-theorems, and inverse- scattering techniques. I look forward to the next quarkonium spectroscopy in the B c system

  7. PRIBIC Application; Aplicacion para la Monitorizacion de una Planta Experimental de Combustion de Biomasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, P.; Barcala Rivas, J. M.

    2002-07-01

    PRIBIC pant (Pollutants Reduction In small Blomass Combustion systems) at CEDER is a facility specifically designed to do biomass combustion tests. In these tests is necessary to known the values of different sensors in real time. With this information the PRIBIC plant is regulated to its optimum point of work and it's possible to follow the operation criteria and get test objectives. Different electronic instruments record information about the plant operation. A software application was developed to let a centralized monitorization of that information. the application communicates with the instrumentation, recovers data, lets operators see data in real time and saves the information in files. An important part of this document describes that application, and some considerations to generalize this kind of developments to other Experimental Plants, including cost estimations. Descriptions of plants, analysis of the problem, result evaluations, and conclusions can also be found in the document. (Author) 13 refs.

  8. Multi-valued and Fuzzy Logic Realization using TaOx Memristive Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Debjyoti; Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas

    2018-01-08

    Among emerging non-volatile storage technologies, redox-based resistive switching Random Access Memory (ReRAM) is a prominent one. The realization of Boolean logic functionalities using ReRAM adds an extra edge to this technology. Recently, 7-state ReRAM devices were used to realize ternary arithmetic circuits, which opens up the computing space beyond traditional binary values. In this manuscript, we report realization of multi-valued and fuzzy logic operators with a representative application using ReRAM devices. Multi-valued logic (MVL), such as Łukasiewicz logic generalizes Boolean logic by allowing more than two truth values. MVL also permits operations on fuzzy sets, where, in contrast to standard crisp logic, an element is permitted to have a degree of membership to a given set. Fuzzy operations generally model human reasoning better than Boolean logic operations, which is predominant in current computing technologies. When the available information for the modelling of a system is imprecise and incomplete, fuzzy logic provides an excellent framework for the system design. Practical applications of fuzzy logic include, industrial control systems, robotics, and in general, design of expert systems through knowledge-based reasoning. Our experimental results show, for the first time, that it is possible to model fuzzy logic natively using multi-state memristive devices.

  9. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  10. Experimental verification of Advanced Collapsed-cone Engine for use with a multichannel vaginal cylinder applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawston-Grant, Brie; Morrison, Hali; Menon, Geetha; Sloboda, Ron S

    2017-05-01

    Model-based dose calculation algorithms have recently been incorporated into brachytherapy treatment planning systems, and their introduction requires critical evaluation before clinical implementation. Here, we present an experimental evaluation of Oncentra ® Brachy Advanced Collapsed-cone Engine (ACE) for a multichannel vaginal cylinder (MCVC) applicator using radiochromic film. A uniform dose of 500 cGy was specified to the surface of the MCVC using the TG-43 dose formalism under two conditions: (a) with only the central channel loaded or (b) only the peripheral channels loaded. Film measurements were made at the applicator surface and compared to the doses calculated using TG-43, standard accuracy ACE (sACE), and high accuracy ACE (hACE). When the central channel of the applicator was used, the film measurements showed a dose increase of (11 ± 8)% (k = 2) above the two outer grooves on the applicator surface. This increase in dose was confirmed with the hACE calculations, but was not confirmed with the sACE calculations at the applicator surface. When the peripheral channels were used, a periodic azimuthal variation in measured dose was observed around the applicator. The sACE and hACE calculations confirmed this variation and agreed within 1% of each other at the applicator surface. Additionally for the film measurements with the central channel used, a baseline dose variation of (10 ± 4)% (k = 2) of the mean dose was observed azimuthally around the applicator surface, which can be explained by offset source positioning in the central channel. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Disorder Prediction Methods, Their Applicability to Different Protein Targets and Their Usefulness for Guiding Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Atkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role and function of a given protein is dependent on its structure. In recent years, however, numerous studies have highlighted the importance of unstructured, or disordered regions in governing a protein’s function. Disordered proteins have been found to play important roles in pivotal cellular functions, such as DNA binding and signalling cascades. Studying proteins with extended disordered regions is often problematic as they can be challenging to express, purify and crystallise. This means that interpretable experimental data on protein disorder is hard to generate. As a result, predictive computational tools have been developed with the aim of predicting the level and location of disorder within a protein. Currently, over 60 prediction servers exist, utilizing different methods for classifying disorder and different training sets. Here we review several good performing, publicly available prediction methods, comparing their application and discussing how disorder prediction servers can be used to aid the experimental solution of protein structure. The use of disorder prediction methods allows us to adopt a more targeted approach to experimental studies by accurately identifying the boundaries of ordered protein domains so that they may be investigated separately, thereby increasing the likelihood of their successful experimental solution.

  12. Ground experimental investigations into an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray cooling has proved its superior heat transfer performance in removing high heat flux for ground applications. However, the dissipation of vapor–liquid mixture from the heat surface and the closed-loop circulation of the coolant are two challenges in reduced or zero gravity space environments. In this paper, an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application was proposed and the negative pressure in the ejected condenser chamber was applied to sucking the two-phase mixture from the spray chamber. Its ground experimental setup was built and experimental investigations on the smooth circle heat surface with a diameter of 5 mm were conducted with distilled water as the coolant spraying from a nozzle of 0.51 mm orifice diameter at the inlet temperatures of 69.2 °C and 78.2 °C under the conditions of heat flux ranging from 69.76 W/cm2 to 311.45 W/cm2, volume flow through the spray nozzle varying from 11.22 L/h to 15.76 L/h. Work performance of the spray nozzle and heat transfer performance of the spray cooling system were analyzed; results show that this ejected spray cooling system has a good heat transfer performance and provides valid foundation for space closed-loop application in the near future.

  13. Application of gas hydrate formation in separation processes: A review of experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslamimanesh, Ali; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review of gas hydrate technology applied to separation processes. ► Gas hydrates have potential to be a future sustainable separation technology. ► More theoretical, simulation, and economic studies needed. - Abstract: There has been a dramatic increase in gas hydrate research over the last decade. Interestingly, the research has not focussed on only the inhibition of gas hydrate formation, which is of particular relevance to the petroleum industry, but has evolved into investigations on the promotion of hydrate formation as a potential novel separation technology. Gas hydrate formation as a separation technology shows tremendous potential, both from a physical feasibility (in terms of effecting difficult separations) as well as an envisaged lower energy utilization criterion. It is therefore a technology that should be considered as a future sustainable technology and will find wide application, possibly replacing a number of current commercial separation processes. In this article, we focus on presenting a brief description of the positive applications of clathrate hydrates and a comprehensive survey of experimental studies performed on separation processes using gas hydrate formation technology. Although many investigations have been undertaken on the positive application of gas hydrates to date, there is a need to perform more theoretical, experimental, and economic studies to clarify various aspects of separation processes using clathrate/semi-clathrate hydrate formation phenomena, and to conclusively prove its sustainability.

  14. Anisotropic Babinet-Invertible Metasurfaces to Realize Transmission-Reflection Switching for Orthogonal Polarizations of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yosuke; Urade, Yoshiro; Okimura, Kunio; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Miyamaru, Fumiaki; Takeda, Mitsuo Wada; Kitano, Masao

    2016-10-01

    The electromagnetic properties of an extremely thin metallic checkerboard drastically change from resonant reflection (transmission) to resonant transmission (reflection) when the local electrical conductivity at the interconnection points of the checkerboard is switched. To date, such critical transitions of metasurfaces have been applied only when they have fourfold rotational symmetry, and their application to polarization control, which requires anisotropy, has been unexplored. To overcome this applicability limitation and open up alternative pathways for dynamic deep-subwavelength polarization control by utilizing critical transitions of checkerboardlike metasurfaces, we introduce a universal class of anisotropic Babinet-invertible metasurfaces enabling transmission-reflection switching for each orthogonally polarized wave. As an application of anisotropic Babinet-invertible metasurfaces, we experimentally realize a reconfigurable terahertz polarizer whose transmitting axis can be dynamically rotated by 90°.

  15. AN APPLICATION OF THE LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpidio Corral-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of intensive properties molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures by experimental densities and tangent method in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory presents the problem of making manually the molar volume curve versus mole fraction and the trace of the tangent line trace. The advantage of using a statistical model the Logistic Regression on a Texas VOYAGE graphing calculator allowed trace the curve and the tangents in situ, and also evaluate the students work during the experimental session. The error percentage between the molar volumes calculated using literature data and those obtained with statistical method is minimal, which validates the model. It is advantageous use the calculator with this application as a teaching support tool, reducing the evaluation time of 3 weeks to 3 hours.

  16. Suggestions for Realization Rather than Professionalization in Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Fred

    1987-01-01

    A literature review shows lack of consensus in defining adult education and rejection of the application of the traditional model of professionalism to adult basic education (ABE). Carl Rogers' concept of substituting realization for professionalization, as well as the literature of staff preservice and inservice training, can help practitioners…

  17. The Realization of Focus in Asturian Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covadonga Sánchez-Alvarado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish was classified as a language that only exploits syntactic mechanisms to mark focus. Recent experimental studies, nonetheless, have shown that speakers of different dialects are also able to use prosody to different degrees. This study aims to provide further understanding on the role played by prosody in the realization of focus in Spanish by looking at Asturian Spanish, a dialect in contact with another Romance language, Asturian. The data from a contextualized sentence completion task revealed that a phonological distinction between specific pitch categories (L+

  18. Application of Plackett-Burman experimental design in the development of muffin using adlay flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmorida, J. S.; Castillo-Israel, K. A. T.

    2018-01-01

    The application of Plackett-Burman experimental design was made to identify significant formulation and process variables in the development of muffin using adlay flour. Out of the seven screened variables, levels of sugar, levels of butter and baking temperature had the most significant influence on the product model in terms of physicochemical and sensory acceptability. Results of the experiment further demonstrate the effectiveness of Plackett-Burman design in choosing the best adlay variety for muffin production. Hence, the statistical method used in the study permits an efficient selection of important variables needed in the development of muffin from adlay which can be optimized using response surface methodology.

  19. Application of mathematical experimental planning in the investigation of thermodynamic properties of three- component alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovskaya, E.M.; Guzej, L.S.; Tikhankin, G.A.; Meshkov, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of solid solutions of niobium and tungsten in nickel have been investigated by the method of electromotive forces with the use of simplex-matrix experiment planning techniques. The planning matrix and the results of investigating the thermodynamic properties of alloys of the nickel-niobium-tungsten system at 1250 deg are presented. The application of experiment planning has made it possible to obtain sufficient information concerning the thermodynamics of solid solutions of niobium and tungsten in nickel from the experimental data for six ternary alloys only

  20. Transformation of colour space dedicated to an experimental analysis fulfilling the applicability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemba, A; Fornalik-Wajs, E

    2014-01-01

    The choice of colour space is very important in the digital image analysis by reason of accuracy and computational time. Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Image Thermometry are the optical methods commonly applied in the fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Especially in PIT method, the analysis of colour images is significant. In this paper, transformation of RGB to HSI colour space dedicated to PIT will be presented. Derivation of formulas together with its graphical representation will be discussed. Fulfilment of applicability criteria will be shown. This theoretical approach to digital image processing supplements the knowledge about the optical experimental methods.

  1. Implementation of multivariable control techniques with application to Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkan, R.C.

    1990-06-01

    After several successful applications to aerospace industry, the modern control theory methods have recently attracted many control engineers from other engineering disciplines. For advanced nuclear reactors, the modern control theory may provide major advantages in safety, availability, and economic aspects. This report is intended to illustrate the feasibility of applying the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) compensator in nuclear reactor applications. The LQG design is compared with the existing classical control schemes. Both approaches are tested using the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) as the system. The experiments are performed using a mathematical model of the EBR-2 plant. Despite the fact that the controller and plant models do not include all known physical constraints, the results are encouraging. This preliminary study provides an informative, introductory picture for future considerations of using modern control theory methods in nuclear industry. 10 refs., 25 figs

  2. Analytical applications of the 12C(d,p) reaction. Treatment of experimental spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerran, J.-A.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear (d,p) reaction induced on carbon and oxygen at medium energies (1 to 4MeV) has been used for the determination of very small quantities (less than a monolayer) as well as of the in-depth distribution. With respect to the first feature of this reaction, chemisorption study has been undertaken for the mixture CO/O 2 at the surface of a polycristalline sample of platinum. An adapted irradiation detection set-up is described. Obtaining the in-depth distribution leads to the more general case of treatment of experimental spectra. Owing to the results given by the classical methods of deconvolution or convolution, a joint procedure was chosen for our application. A trial function is determined by a convolutionprocess, to be used as initial function in an iterative method. Convergence is then easily achieved avoiding Gibbs phenomena. As a main application, carbon profile determination is obtained for a boron matrix [fr

  3. Hardware realization of chaos based block cipher for image encryption

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike stream ciphers, block ciphers are very essential for parallel processing applications. In this paper, the first hardware realization of chaotic-based block cipher is proposed for image encryption applications. The proposed system is tested for known cryptanalysis attacks and for different block sizes. When implemented on Virtex-IV, system performance showed high throughput and utilized small area. Passing successfully in all tests, our system proved to be secure with all block sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Hardware realization of chaos based block cipher for image encryption

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2011-12-01

    Unlike stream ciphers, block ciphers are very essential for parallel processing applications. In this paper, the first hardware realization of chaotic-based block cipher is proposed for image encryption applications. The proposed system is tested for known cryptanalysis attacks and for different block sizes. When implemented on Virtex-IV, system performance showed high throughput and utilized small area. Passing successfully in all tests, our system proved to be secure with all block sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Monitoring healthy and disturbed sleep through smartphone applications: a review of experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, Edita; Mazzetti, Michela

    2018-04-23

    Smartphone applications are considered as the prime candidate for the purposes of large-scale, low-cost and long-term sleep monitoring. How reliable and scientifically grounded is smartphone-based assessment of healthy and disturbed sleep remains a key issue in this direction. Here we offer a review of validation studies of sleep applications to the aim of providing some guidance in terms of their reliability to assess sleep in healthy and clinical populations, and stimulating further examination of their potential for clinical use and improved sleep hygiene. Electronic literature review was conducted on Pubmed. Eleven validation studies published since 2012 were identified, evaluating smartphone applications' performance compared to standard methods of sleep assessment in healthy and clinical samples. Studies with healthy populations show that most sleep applications meet or exceed accuracy levels of wrist-based actigraphy in sleep-wake cycle discrimination, whereas performance levels drop in individuals with low sleep efficiency (SE) and in clinical populations, mirroring actigraphy results. Poor correlation with polysomnography (PSG) sleep sub-stages is reported by most accelerometer-based apps. However, multiple parameter-based applications (i.e., EarlySense, SleepAp) showed good capability in detection of sleep-wake stages and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) like obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) respectively with values similar to PSG. While the reviewed evidence suggests a potential role of smartphone sleep applications in pre-screening of SRBD, more experimental studies are warranted to assess their reliability in sleep-wake detection particularly. Apps' utility in post treatment follow-up at home or as an adjunct to the sleep diary in clinical setting is also stressed.

  6. Experimental analysis of a capillary pumped loop for terrestrial applications with several evaporators in parallel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blet, Nicolas; Bertin, Yves; Ayel, Vincent; Romestant, Cyril; Platel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces experimental studies of a CPLTA with 3 evaporators in parallel. • Operating principles of mono-evaporator CPLTA are reminded. • A reference test with the new bench with only one evaporator is introduced. • Global behavior of the multi-evaporators loop is presented and discussed. • Some additional thermohydraulic couplings are revealed. - Abstract: In the context of high-dissipation electronics cooling for ground transportation, a new design of two-phase loop has been improved in recent years: the capillary pumped loop for terrestrial application (CPLTA). This hybrid system, between the two standard capillary pumped loop (CPL) and loop heat pipe (LHP), has been widely investigated with a single evaporator, and so a single dissipative area, to know its mean operating principles and thermohydraulic couplings between the components. To aim to extend its scope of applications, a new experimental CPLTA with three evaporators in parallel is studied in this paper with methanol as working fluid. Even if the dynamics of the loop in multi-evaporators mode appears on the whole similar to that with a single operating evaporator, additional couplings are highlighted between the several evaporators. A decoupling between vapor generation flow rate and pressure drop in each evaporator is especially revealed. The impact of this phenomenon on the conductance at evaporator is analyzed.

  7. Antibacterial Free Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides: Biological Activities, Experimental Testing, and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bo Kyeong; Jackman, Joshua A.; Valle-González, Elba R.

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial lipids such as fatty acids and monoglycerides are promising antibacterial agents that destabilize bacterial cell membranes, causing a wide range of direct and indirect inhibitory effects. The goal of this review is to introduce the latest experimental approaches for characterizing how antimicrobial lipids destabilize phospholipid membranes within the broader scope of introducing current knowledge about the biological activities of antimicrobial lipids, testing strategies, and applications for treating bacterial infections. To this end, a general background on antimicrobial lipids, including structural classification, is provided along with a detailed description of their targeting spectrum and currently understood antibacterial mechanisms. Building on this knowledge, different experimental approaches to characterize antimicrobial lipids are presented, including cell-based biological and model membrane-based biophysical measurement techniques. Particular emphasis is placed on drawing out how biological and biophysical approaches complement one another and can yield mechanistic insights into how the physicochemical properties of antimicrobial lipids influence molecular self-assembly and concentration-dependent interactions with model phospholipid and bacterial cell membranes. Examples of possible therapeutic applications are briefly introduced to highlight the potential significance of antimicrobial lipids for human health and medicine, and to motivate the importance of employing orthogonal measurement strategies to characterize the activity profile of antimicrobial lipids. PMID:29642500

  8. Experimental Comparison of 56 Gbit/s PAM-4 and DMT for Data Center Interconnect Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) in combination with intensity modulation and direct-detection are two promising approaches for a low-power and low-cost solution for the next generation of data center interconnect applications. We experiment......Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) in combination with intensity modulation and direct-detection are two promising approaches for a low-power and low-cost solution for the next generation of data center interconnect applications. We...... experimentally investigate and compare both modulation formats at a data rate of 56 Gb/s and a transmission wavelength of 1544 nm using the same experimental setup. We show that PAM-4 outperforms double sideband DMT and also vestigial sideband DMT for the optical back-to-back (b2b) case and also...... for a transmission distance of 80 km SSMF in terms of required OSNR at a FEC-threshold of 3.8e-3. However, it is also pointed out that both versions of DMT do not require any optical dispersion compensation to transmit over 80 km SSMF while this is essential for PAM-4. Thus, implementation effort and cost may...

  9. Modeling and experimental validation of a Hybridized Energy Storage System for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenti, Simone; Guanetti, Jacopo; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the development and experimental validation of a dynamic model of a Hybridized Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of a parallel connection of a lead acid (PbA) battery and double layer capacitors (DLCs), for automotive applications. The dynamic modeling of both the PbA battery and the DLC has been tackled via the equivalent electric circuit based approach. Experimental tests are designed for identification purposes. Parameters of the PbA battery model are identified as a function of state of charge and current direction, whereas parameters of the DLC model are identified for different temperatures. A physical HESS has been assembled at the Center for Automotive Research The Ohio State University and used as a test-bench to validate the model against a typical current profile generated for Start&Stop applications. The HESS model is then integrated into a vehicle simulator to assess the effects of the battery hybridization on the vehicle fuel economy and mitigation of the battery stress.

  10. Data acquisition system and performance based on Apple II for using in experimental physics - Applications to spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.F.; Castro, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer based system oriented to experimental physics is described. The system was developed to achieve versatility, low cost, reliability and easy utilization. An application to this system to a dispersive spectrophotometer is also included. (author) [pt

  11. Tutorial: Terahertz beamforming, from concepts to realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headland, Daniel; Monnai, Yasuaki; Abbott, Derek; Fumeaux, Christophe; Withayachumnankul, Withawat

    2018-05-01

    The terahertz range possesses significant untapped potential for applications including high-volume wireless communications, noninvasive medical imaging, sensing, and safe security screening. However, due to the unique characteristics and constraints of terahertz waves, the vast majority of these applications are entirely dependent upon the availability of beam control techniques. Thus, the development of advanced terahertz-range beam control techniques yields a range of useful and unparalleled applications. This article provides an overview and tutorial on terahertz beam control. The underlying principles of wavefront engineering include array antenna theory and diffraction optics, which are drawn from the neighboring microwave and optical regimes, respectively. As both principles are applicable across the electromagnetic spectrum, they are reconciled in this overview. This provides a useful foundation for investigations into beam control in the terahertz range, which lies between microwaves and infrared light. Thereafter, noteworthy experimental demonstrations of beam control in the terahertz range are discussed, and these include geometric optics, phased array devices, leaky-wave antennas, reflectarrays, and transmitarrays. These techniques are compared and contrasted for their suitability in applications of terahertz waves.

  12. Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium

  13. Impact of animal waste application on runoff water quality in field experimental plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Dagne D; Owens, William E; Tchoounwou, Paul B

    2005-08-01

    Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate) characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium. Bacteria numbers

  14. Experimental study on the performance of a liquid cooling garment with the application of MEPCMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Liang; Bai, Lizhan; Lin, Guiping; Bu, Xueqin; Liu, Xiangyang; Xie, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MEPCMS was applied in a liquid cooling garment for space applications. • Extensive experimental study on the performance of the LCG was conducted. • LCG was assessed by heat dissipation, temperature control and thermal comfort. • Proper match of relevant parameters was crucial in enhancing LCG performance. • 26% enhancement in heat dissipation was achieved by MEPCMS compared to water. - Abstract: As a novel working fluid, microencapsulated phase change material suspension (MEPCMS) exhibits obvious superiority in both heat transfer and temperature control compared with traditional ones. In this paper, extensive experimental study on the performance of a liquid cooling garment (LCG) with the application of this novel working fluid was conducted for future space applications. The main task for a LCG is to efficiently collect, transport and dissipate the metabolic heat produced from the human body. In the experiment, a thermal manikin was employed to simulate the human body, and the performance of the LCG with MEPCMS as the working fluid was evaluated by a variety of aspects such as heat dissipation, temperature control, pump power consumption and thermal comfort under both steady state and transient conditions. Experimental results show that the inlet temperature, mass flowrate and volume concentration of the MEPCMS are three key parameters affecting the performance of the LCG, which can be enhanced significantly by a proper combination of these parameters. Otherwise, the performance of the LCG will deteriorate or even be worse than that using water as the working fluid. When the inlet temperature, mass flowrate and volume concentration of the MEPCMS were selected as 11 °C, 200 g/min and 20% respectively, the heat dissipation of the LCG was enhanced by up to 26% with no obvious increase of the pump power compared with that using water as the working fluid, the temperature distribution in the human body became more uniform, and the capability

  15. Development and implantation of application systems for reduction and analysis of experimental data in Nuclear Physics area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso Junior, J.L.; Schelin, H.R.; Lemos, B.J.K.C.; Tanaka, E.H.; Castro, A.T.C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Several application systems for reduction and analysis of experimental data are described. These codes were development and/or implanted in tee IEAv/CTA CYBER 170/750 system. A brief description of the experimental data acquisition modes and the necessary reduction for analysis is given. Information on the purposes, uses and access of the codes are given [pt

  16. Applications of 1H-NMR relaxometry in experimental liver studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzmueller, P.

    1992-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate applications of proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) relaxometry in experimental medicine. Relaxometry was performed by measurements of spin-lattice (T 1 ) and spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation time parameters on liver biopsies up to four hours after biopsy excision. Variations of relaxation times due to species and strain, different sample handling and different liver damage models, ethionine fatty liver and paracetamol liver necrosis, were investigated. Cell integrity effects were studied on homogenized liver samples. Relaxation time parameters, especially 'main' components T 1A and T 2A of biexponential model fit, were identified to react very sensitive after tissue damages as well as to cell viability. Thus, investigation of stored liver grafts was performed in order to evaluate the possibility of a rapid liver graft viability testing method for human liver transplantation surgery by 1 H-NMR relaxometry. Another series of measurements was performed to investigate the applicability of isoflurane anesthesia for in vivo NMR experiments. This study proved the good appropriateness of isoflurane for that purpose provided that physiological monitoring and individual adjustment of anesthesia are performed. In these investigations it could be revealed that mainly T 1A and T 2A are influenced by tissue condition and that different information is inherent in these two parameters, with T 2A reflecting tissue viability and changes of tissue conditions very sensitively but rather unspecifically in respect to the damage applied. Based on these results the following future applications of 1 H-NMR relaxometry are suggested : (1) model investigations, (2) investigation of given pathologies, (3) investigation of basic requirements for in vivo NMR and (4) application in a liver graft viability testing protocol, which seems to be the most important future application of 1 H-NMR relaxometry in medicine. (author)

  17. Applications of energy-release-rate techniques to part-through cracks in experimental pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryan, R.H.; Bryson, J.W.; Merkle, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    In nonlinear applications of computational fracture mechanics, energy release rate techniques are used increasingly for computing stress intensity parameters of crack configurations. Recently, deLorenzi used the virtual-crack-extension method to derive an analytical expression for the energy release rate that is better suited for three-dimensional calculations than the well-known J-integral. Certain studies of fracture phenomena, such as pressurized-thermal-shock of cracked structures, require that crack tip parameters be determined for combined thermal and mechanical loads. A method is proposed here that modifies the isothermal formulation of deLorenzi to account for thermal strains in cracked bodies. This combined thermo-mechanical formulation of the energy release rate is valid for general fracture, including nonplanar fracture, and applies to thermo-elastic as well as deformation plasticity material models. Two applications of the technique are described here. In the first, semi-elliptical surface cracks in an experimental test vessel are analyzed under elastic-plastic conditions using the finite element method. The second application is a thick-walled test vessel subjected to combined pressure and thermal shock loadings

  18. Supertrace formulae for nonlinearly realized supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murli, Divyanshu; Yamada, Yusuke

    2018-04-01

    We derive the general supertrace formula for a system with N chiral superfields and one nilpotent chiral superfield in global and local supersymmetry. The nilpotent multiplet is realized by taking the scalar-decoupling limit of a chiral superfield breaking supersymmetry spontaneously. As we show, however, the modified formula is not simply related to the scalar-decoupling limit of the supertrace in linearly-realized supersymmetry. We also show that the supertrace formula reduces to that of a linearly realized supersymmetric theory with a decoupled sGoldstino if the Goldstino is the fermion in the nilpotent multiplet.

  19. Experimental investigation of the diffusion coefficients in porous media by application of X-ray computer tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhelezny, Petr; Shapiro, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The present work describes a new experimental method that makes it possible to investigate diffusion coefficients in a porous medium. The method is based on application of X-ray computed tomography (CT). The general applicability of this method for the determination of diffusion coefficients...

  20. Modal identification of composite structures using Eigen realization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidzadeh, H.R.; Afolabi, D.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental modal analysis has proved to be a useful tool to determine the vibration response of complex composite structures. An accurate method for extracting modal parameters of these type of structures are presented. The method used experimental impulse response of the system as input and provides natural frequencies and damping ratios of a dynamic system. The employed theories are Eigen Realization and Impulse Response methods. The adopted method is superior to other available methods in time and frequency domains. The presented method is proven to provide robustness with respect to measured noise

  1. Practical realization of a microwave Bessel beam launcher

    KAUST Repository

    Manzhura, Oksana

    2011-08-01

    An experimental setup is realized to practically generate Bessel beams in the microwave regime. The setup, which consists of a series of circular loop antennas inserted coaxially inside a circular metallic waveguide, excites the waveguide\\'s transverse-electric modes such that their superposition forms a Bessel beam at the open-end of the waveguide. The excitation currents are calculated from the needed excitation coefficients of each guided mode, which, in turn, are calculated from the modal decomposition of the beam. The efficiency of the setup is evaluated and the obtained experimental results are compared to the theoretical estimates. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Performance on a CT Scanner. Application for the dose correction in the presence of heterogeneities, experimental study using high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Therese.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the physical analysis of a second generation C T scanner: the A C T A Scanner 0200 FS (PFIZER) used at the 'Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif' and its application in radiotherapy. The first part of the study specifically concerns the physical performance of the C T Scanner, and, the evaluation of the doses, delivered to patients during tomodensitometric examinations. The second part envisages the possibilities of the application of C T scanning in radiotherapy. A particular study is established for the utilization of the physical characteristics, furnished by the C T Scanner, concerning different organs, in dose calculations, in the presence of heterogeneities. An experimental study using high energy photon beams more particularly 25 MV X ray beams produced by a linear accelerator (type Sagittaire) has been realized with materials, simulating different human tissues. Consequently, the validity of different correction methods proposed in the literature has been tested for the soft tissues and bone as for the lungs. Modifications are suggested to allow the use of these methods for the photons of very high energy [fr

  3. Results of experimental testing of system of future physical culture teachers’ training for art pedagogic means’ application in pedagogic functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Nizhevska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the research is devoted to seeking of ways to rising of quality of future physical culture teachers. Material: in experiment 436 students and 29 teachers participated. Results: it was found that readiness of future physical culture teachers for application of art pedagogic means in professional functioning is achieved through realization of appropriate block system. Such system ensures mastering by students of the following: theoretical principles of art pedagogic; mastering of art pedagogic skills in teaching and quasi professional functioning; acquiring of practical experience of art means’ application in period of pedagogic practice at schools. It was also determined that training system of future teachers includes the following three blocks: conceptual-target, knowledge-procedural; control-correcting. Conclusions: it is recommended to use such criteria of students’ readiness for application of art means in pedagogic functioning: motivation-axiological, cognitive-active, personality’s-reflexive.

  4. Numerical simulation and experimental study of CLAM T-shapes for fusion applications by hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xunzhong; Tao Jie; Liu Hongbing; Li Ming

    2010-01-01

    The integral hydroforming process to prepare CLAM T-shapes for fusion applications was evaluated by means of numerical simulation. The paper firstly investigated the effect of different paths on the protrusion height and distribution of thickness thinning rate of T-shapes. Then, it discussed that the friction coefficient between die and tube blank played an important role in manufacturing high quality T-shapes. Subsequently, the practical hydroforming was performed based on the simulation results with the aid of special lubrication coatings with friction coefficient 0.07. It is obviously indicated that the simulation results agree well with the experimental ones in geometry size and wall thickness distribution. The results indicate that the numerical simulation guides the practical hydroforming of CLAM tube effectively and determines the actual cold forming process parameters rapidly. The sound CLAM T-shapes with proper geometry size and thickness distribution can be obtained by the optimal hydroforming process. (authors)

  5. Sesame Synchrotron Light for Experimental Sciences and Application in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khalafawy, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Anew international center for synchrotron radiation for research excellence for scientists from throughout the Middle East as well as other parts of the world could do for science what CERN has done for science in Europe. SESAME Project (Synchrotron Light for Experimental Sciences and Application in the Middle East ) under the umbrella for UNESCO establish the first major international research center as a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the Middle East, opened to all qualified scientists. It will be propeller for the regional economy while promoting the peaceful development of science and technology in the Middle East. SESAME will have as its centerpiece a synchrotron radiation based on a gift from Germany of the 0.8 GeV BESSYI storage ring and injector system which stopped operation at the end of November 1999

  6. Properties of experimental copper-aluminium-nickel alloys for dental post-and-core applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittapai, Apiwat; Urapepon, Somchai; Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep; Harniratisai, Choltacha

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to develop a copper-aluminium-nickel alloy which has properties comparable to that of dental alloys used for dental post and core applications with the reasonable cost. Sixteen groups of experimental copper alloys with variants of 3, 6, 9, 12 wt% Al and 0, 2, 4, 6 wt% Ni were prepared and casted. Their properties were tested and evaluated. The data of thermal, physical, and mechanical properties were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The alloy toxicity was evaluated according to the ISO standard. The solidus and liquidus points of experimental alloys ranged from 1023℃ to 1113℃ and increased as the nickel content increased. The highest ultimate tensile strength (595.9 ± 14.2 MPa) was shown in the Cu-12Al-4Ni alloy. The tensile strength was increased as the both elements increased. Alloys with 3-6 wt% Al exhibited a small amount of 0.2% proof strength. Accordingly, the Cu-9Al-2Ni and Cu-9Al-4Ni alloys not only demonstrated an appropriate modulus of elasticity (113.9 ± 8.0 and 122.8 ± 11.3 GPa, respectively), but also had a value of 0.2% proof strength (190.8 ± 4.8 and 198.2 ± 3.4 MPa, respectively), which complied with the ISO standard requirement (>180 MPa). Alloys with the highest contents of nickel (6 wt% Ni) revealed a widespread decolourisation zone (5.0-5.9 mm), which correspondingly produced the largest cell response, equating positive control. The copper alloys fused with 9 wt% Al and 2-4 wt% Ni can be considered for a potential use as dental post and core applications.

  7. Ecological restructuring in experimental aquatic mesocosms due to the application of diflubenzuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terence P.; Fairchild, James F.; Haverland, Pamela S.; Lebo, Jon A.; Robinson-Wilson, Everett

    1996-01-01

    Diflubenzuron is a chitin-inhibiting insecticide that is registered for use in controlling a multitude of invertebrate pests. The selective mode of action of diflubenzuron provided us with a unique tool for examining the indirect responses of an experimental aquatic ecosystem following direct impacts at the primary consumer (invertebrate) trophic level. Twelve outdoor aquatic mesocosms (0.1 ha each) were randomly assigned to three treatments of diflubenzuron (four mesocosms/treatment): control, monthly (five total 10-μg/L applications), or biweekly (twice monthly; nine total 10-μg/L applications). Direct impacts on invertebrates (numbers and species composition of insects and zooplankton) and indirect impacts on fish (mortality, growth, and reproduction of bluegill sunfish and largemouth bass), phytoplankton (biomass and productivity), and water quality were measured over 16 weeks posttreatment. Both monthly and biweekly treatments of diflubenzuron decreased total numbers (fivefold reduction) and species richness (twofold reduction) and increased dominance (twofold increase) of zooplankton within 4 weeks posttreatment; Cladocerans, Copepods, and Rotifers were all sensitive. Diflubenzuron reduced species richness of emergent insects, which resulted in increased dominance by a few species; however, impacts on emergent insects were confounded by a treatment × time interaction. Direct reductions in invertebrate grazers caused indirect increases in algal biomass. Indirect effects on biomass (50% reduction) and individual weight (50% reduction) of juvenile bluegill occurred because of apparent decreases in invertebrate food resources. No statistically significant impacts were observed on adult bluegill or largemouth bass for the duration of the experiment. Results indicated that diflubenzuron had both direct and indirect impacts on the experimental aquatic ecosystems under the conditions tested.

  8. Product Realization | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympiad Girls Who Code Club FIRST Tech Challenge NSF I-Corps Site of Southeastern Wisconsin UW-Milwaukee Product Realization Course Companies need time and talent to develop new product prototypes. Students need

  9. Modelling and Forecasting Multivariate Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halbleib, Roxana; Voev, Valeri

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for dynamic modelling and forecasting of realized covariance matrices based on fractionally integrated processes. The approach allows for flexible dependence patterns and automatically guarantees positive definiteness of the forecast. We provide an empirical appl...

  10. Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 16, 2014 Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis For a disease that affects an estimated 6 ... 10% of women, surprisingly little is known about endometriosis — a disorder that causes uterine tissue to grow ...

  11. Existing experimental criticality data applicable to nuclear-fuel-transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, S.R.

    1983-02-01

    Analytical techniques are generally relied upon in making criticality evaluations involving nuclear material outside reactors. For these evaluations to be accepted the calculations must be validated by comparison with experimental data for a known set of conditions having physical and neutronic characteristics similar to those conditions being evaluated analytically. The purpose of this report is to identify those existing experimental data that are suitable for use in verifying criticality calculations on nuclear fuel transportation systems. In addition, near term needs for additional data in this area are identified. Of the considerable amount of criticality data currently existing, that are applicable to non-reactor systems, those particularly suitable for use in support of nuclear material transportation systems have been identified and catalogued into the following groups: (1) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water; (2) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water containing soluble neutron absorbers; (3) critical assemblies containing solid neutron absorber; (4) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water with heavy metal reflectors; and (5) critical assemblies of fuel rods in water with irregular features. A listing of the current near term needs for additional data in each of the groups has been developed for future use in planning criticality research in support of nuclear fuel transportation systems. The criticality experiments needed to provide these data are briefly described and identified according to priority and relative cost of performing the experiments

  12. Electromagnetic Head-And-Neck Hyperthermia Applicator: Experimental Phantom Verification and FDTD Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulides, Margarethus M.; Bakker, Jurriaan F.; Rhoon, Gerard C. van

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To experimentally verify the feasibility of focused heating in the neck region by an array of two rings of six electromagnetic antennas. We also measured the dynamic specific absorption rate (SAR) steering possibilities of this setup and compared these SAR patterns to simulations. Methods and Materials: Using a specially constructed laboratory prototype head-and-neck applicator, including a neck-mimicking cylindrical muscle phantom, we performed SAR measurements by electric field, Schottky-diode sheet measurements and, using the power-pulse technique, by fiberoptic thermometry and infrared thermography. Using phase steering, we also steered the SAR distribution in radial and axial directions. All measured distributions were compared with the predictions by a finite-difference time-domain-based electromagnetic simulator. Results: A central 50% iso-SAR focus of 35 ± 3 mm in diameter and about 100 ± 15 mm in length was obtained for all investigated settings. Furthermore, this SAR focus could be steered toward the desired location in the radial and axial directions with an accuracy of ∼5 mm. The SAR distributions as measured by all three experimental methods were well predicted by the simulations. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that focused heating in the neck is feasible and that this focus can be effectively steered in the radial and axial directions. For quality assurance measurements, we believe that the Schottky-diode sheet provides the best compromise among effort, speed, and accuracy, although a more specific and improved design is warranted

  13. Nonlinear realizations of W3 symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Krivonos, S.O.

    1991-01-01

    We derive the Toda lattice realization of classical W 3 symmetry on two scalar fields in a purely geometric way, proceeding from a nonlinear realization of some associate higher-spin symmetry W 3 ∞ is derived. The Toda lattice equations are interpreted as the constraints singling out a two-dimensional fully geodesic subspace in the initial coset space of W 3 ∞ . This subspace is the quotient of SL(3,R) over its maximal parabolic subgroup. 20 refs

  14. Learning, Realizability and Games in Classical Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschieri, Federico

    2010-12-01

    In this dissertation we provide mathematical evidence that the concept of learning can be used to give a new and intuitive computational semantics of classical proofs in various fragments of Predicative Arithmetic. First, we extend Kreisel modified realizability to a classical fragment of first order Arithmetic, Heyting Arithmetic plus EM1 (Excluded middle axiom restricted to Sigma^0_1 formulas). We introduce a new realizability semantics we call "Interactive Learning-Based Realizability". Our realizers are self-correcting programs, which learn from their errors and evolve through time. Secondly, we extend the class of learning based realizers to a classical version PCFclass of PCF and, then, compare the resulting notion of realizability with Coquand game semantics and prove a full soundness and completeness result. In particular, we show there is a one-to-one correspondence between realizers and recursive winning strategies in the 1-Backtracking version of Tarski games. Third, we provide a complete and fully detailed constructive analysis of learning as it arises in learning based realizability for HA+EM1, Avigad's update procedures and epsilon substitution method for Peano Arithmetic PA. We present new constructive techniques to bound the length of learning processes and we apply them to reprove - by means of our theory - the classic result of Godel that provably total functions of PA can be represented in Godel's system T. Last, we give an axiomatization of the kind of learning that is needed to computationally interpret Predicative classical second order Arithmetic. Our work is an extension of Avigad's and generalizes the concept of update procedure to the transfinite case. Transfinite update procedures have to learn values of transfinite sequences of non computable functions in order to extract witnesses from classical proofs.

  15. Realization of FRC interior and exterior furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šonka, Š.; Frantová, M.; Štemberk, P.; Havrda, J.; Janouch, P.

    2017-09-01

    This article deals with the implementation of fibre reinforced concrete for interior and exterior furniture. The use of fibre reinforced concrete for non-traditional and small structures brings some specifics in design and realization. These are, in particular, the design of a suitable mixture, the choice of the shape of the structure in relation to the technological possibilities of realization, the static effects and finally the actual production of the element.

  16. The linguistic realization of information packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Vallduví, Enric; Engdahl, Elisabet

    1996-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of the large degree of crosslinguistic diversity involved in the structural realization of information packaging (or information structure). Whereas English and many Germanic languages primarily exploit intonation for informational purposes, in other languages, like Catalan, syntax plays the primary role in the realization of information packaging and intonation is reduced to a secondary role. In yet another group of languages the primary structural correlate is ...

  17. Experimental testing and numerical simulation on natural composite for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G. Raj; Vijayanandh, R.; Kumar, M. Senthil; Kumar, S. Sathish

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays polymers are commonly used in various applications, which make it difficult to avoid its usage even though it causes environmental problems. Natural fibers are best alternate to overcome the polymer based environmental issues. Natural fibers play an important role in developing high performing fully newline biodegradable green composites which will be a key material to solve environmental problems in future. In this paper deals the properties analysis of banana fiber is combined with epoxy resin in order to create a natural composite, which has special characteristics for aerospace applications. The objective of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of failure modes and strength of natural composite using experimental and numerical methods. The test specimen of natural composite has been fabricated as per ASTM standard, which undergoes tensile and compression tests using Tinius Olsen UTM in order to determine mechanical and physical properties. The reference model has been designed by CATIA, and then numerical simulation has been carried out by Ansys Workbench 16.2 for the given boundary conditions.

  18. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo eCorsetti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe and level of anti-microbial compounds and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability and salt concentration factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages. This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.

  19. Steady and unsteady experimental analysis of a turbocharger for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontempo, R.; Cardone, M.; Manna, M.; Vorraro, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Steady and unsteady characteristics of a turbocharger are analysed by experimental means. • The steady state characteristic maps are obtained for both the compressor and the turbine. • The validity of the classical adiabatic assumption is questioned. • The compressor efficiency evaluated through the adiabatic assumption may lead to a 5–10% relative error. • The mild and deep compressor surge phenomena have been experimentally investigated. - Abstract: The paper describes the steady and unsteady performance characteristics of a small size turbocharger typically employed in automotive downsized engine applications. The analysis is carried out by experimental means using an innovative hot gas generator system specifically designed for turbocharger testing which is capable of delivering a wide range of flow rates with adequate thermodynamic characteristics. More in detail, the gas generator consists of a medium size direct injection compression ignition Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) feeding the turbine of the test article. To independently set the hot gas mass flow rate and the turbine inlet temperature, the operating parameters of the aforementioned ICE are specified through an electronic control unit in a fully automated manner. Compared to previously presented data [1] (Energy Procedia, vol. 45, pp 1116-1125, 2014), those reported herein have been collected with the help of newly installed equipment and controlling software allowing for the estimation of the thermal power transferred from the turbocharger to the environment. In particular, thanks to a first law analysis, the collected measurements have shown that the algebraic sum of the thermal power transferred to the lubricating oil as well as to the environment is roughly speaking 20–30% of the compressor total enthalpy change per unit time. Moreover, it has been shown that evaluating the compressor efficiency through classical expression based on the adiabatic assumption leads to

  20. Experimental and computational study of dielectric barrier discharges for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Robby

    Air pollution has become a major global concern which affects all inhabitants of our precious earth. Nowadays it is fact that our climate is changing and the sea level is rising. Moreover, we are facing an energy crisis because all our fossil fuel resources will sooner or later be running empty. It is clear that drastic measures are needed to keep our planet as it is today for generations to come. One of these measures is the 20-20-20 targets imposed by the European Commission, which stimulates the research for environmental energy applications. In this PhD dissertation two environmental applications of plasma technology are investigated. The first one is the abatement of flue gases, and more specifically the destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The second one is the conversion of CO2 into valuable chemicals. Both of these applications suffer from a large energy cost under classical (thermodynamic) conditions, due to the chemical stability of these molecules. Plasma technology is quite promising to overcome these thermodynamic barriers. Plasmas allow reactions at different time-scales with different species, such as electrons, ions, radicals, molecules and excited species, creating new chemical pathways. Indeed, in a plasma the applied electrical energy is directly transferred to the electrons, which activate the gas by ionization, excitation and dissociation, hence creating reactive species (ions, excited species, radicals), that can further easily undergo other chemical reactions. Especially gas discharges, which are low temperature plasmas, show promising results in the destruction of pollutants at mild conditions. A common type of gas discharge is the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) which has been successfully scaled up for industrial ozone generation and is widely investigated in the field of environmental applications. The complexity of DBDs creates difficulties for experimental diagnostics and therefore numerical studies can help to improve

  1. Length of perineal pain relief after ice pack application: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Bosco Paiva, Caroline; Junqueira Vasconcellos de Oliveira, Sonia Maria; Amorim Francisco, Adriana; da Silva, Renata Luana; de Paula Batista Mendes, Edilaine; Steen, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Ice pack is effective for alleviating postpartum perineal pain in primiparous women while multiparous women's levels of perineal pain appear to be poorly explored. Ice pack is a low-cost non-invasive localised treatment that can be used with no impact on breastfeeding. However, how long perineal analgesia persists after applying an ice pack is still unknown. To evaluate if perineal analgesia is maintained up to 2h after applying an ice pack to the perineum for 20min. A quasi-experimental study, using a pre and post-test design, was undertaken with a sample size of 50 multiparous women in Brazil. Data was collected by structured interview. The intervention involved a single application of an ice pack applied for 20min to the perineal area of women who reported perineal pain ≥3 by use of a numeric rating scale (0-10), with intact perineum, 1st or 2nd degree lacerations or episiotomy, between 6 and 24h after spontaneous vaginal birth. Perineal pain was evaluated at three points of time: before, immediately after and 2h after applying an ice pack. Immediately after applying an ice pack to the perineal area, there was a significant reduction in the severity of perineal pain reported (5.4 vs. 1.0, p<0.0005), which continued for 1h 35min up to 2h after the local application. Ice pack application for 20min is effective for alleviating postpartum perineal pain and continues to be effective between 1h 35min for up to 2h. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Manipulating electromagnetic waves with metamaterials: Concept and microwave realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qiong; Xiao Shi-Yi; Li Xin; Song Zheng-Yong; Sun Wu-Jiong; Zhou Lei; Sun Shu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Our recent efforts in manipulating electromagnetic (EM) waves using metamaterials (MTMs) are reviewed with emphasis on 1) manipulating wave polarization and transporting properties using homogeneous MTMs, 2) manipulating surface-wave properties using plasmonic MTMs, and 3) bridging propagating and surface waves using inhomogeneous meta-surfaces. For all these topics, we first illustrate the physical concepts and then present several typical practical realizations and applications in the microwave regime. (topical review - plasmonics and metamaterials)

  3. Experimentally guided Monte Carlo calculations of the atmospheric muon flux for interdisciplinary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrica, B.; Brancus, I.M.; Toma, G.; Bercuci, A.; Aiftimiei, C.; Wentz, J.; Rebel, H.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric muons are produced in the interactions of primary cosmic rays particle with Earth's atmosphere, mainly by the decay of pions and kaons generated in hadronic interactions. They decay further in electrons and positrons and electron and muon neutrinos. Being the penetrating cosmic rays component, the muons manage to pass entirely through the atmosphere and can pass even larger absorbers before they interact with the material at the Earth's surface, and due to cosmogenic production of isotopes by atmospheric muons, information of astrophysical, environmental and material research interest can be obtained. Up to now, mainly semi-analytical approximations have been used to calculate the muon flux for estimating the cosmogenic isotope production, necessary for different applications. Our estimation of the atmospheric muon flux is based on a Monte-Carlo simulation program CORSIKA, in which we simulate the development in the atmosphere of the extensive air showers, using different models for the description of the hadronic interaction. Atmospheric muons are produced in the interactions of primary cosmic rays particle with Earth's atmosphere, mainly by the decay of pions and kaons generated in hadronic interactions. They decay further in electrons and positrons and electron and muon neutrinos. Being the penetrating cosmic rays component, the muons manage to pass entirely through the atmosphere and can pass even larger absorbers before they interact with the material at the Earth's surface, and due to cosmogenic production of isotopes by atmospheric muons, information of astrophysical, environmental and material research interest can be obtained. Up to now, mainly semi-analytical approximations have been used to calculate the muon flux for estimating the cosmogenic isotope production, necessary for different applications. Our estimation of the atmospheric muon flux is based on a Monte-Carlo simulation program CORSIKA, in which we simulates the development in the

  4. Realization of an electromagnetic isotope separator. Application to the isotopes of the mass 93 from the molybdenum and the technetium; Realisation d'un separateur electromagnetique d'isotope. Application a l'etude des isotopes de masse 93 du molybdene et du technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-15

    Analysis of focusing properties of a homogeneous magnetic field leads the author to use a magnetic sector of 60 deg, for the realization of an electromagnetic separator. The sources of realized ions provide ionic debits of 10 mA. The currents ionic detached isotopes to the collector vary from 1 to 5 mA. The separation efficiency is of 125 for a current collected of 1 mA. A survey of the neutralization of the space charge permitted to specify the role of the negative ions in this phenomenon. A method of neutralization of the space charge is proposed and gave excellent results. A report will be given of the separations of some elements: mercury, bromine, thorium, etc... The application of the separator to the study of the isomeric transfers in the molybdenum and the technetium permitted to assign definitely for {sup 93}Mo and {sup 93}Tc two radiances {gamma} of respective energies 260 and 390 keV. A new process of fast chemical separation Mo/Tc is described. (author) [French] L'analyse des proprietes de focalisation d'un champ magnetique homogene conduit l'auteur, pour la realisation d'un separateur electromagnetique, a employer un secteur magnetique de 60 deg. Les sources d'ions realisees fournissent des debits ioniques de 10 mA. Les courants ioniques d'isotopes separes au collecteur varient de 1 a 5 mA. Le pouvoir separateur est de 125 pour un courant collecte de 1 mA. Une etude de la neutralisation de la charge d'espace a permis de preciser le role des ions negatifs dans ce phenomene. Une methode de neutralisation de la charge d'espace est proposee et a donne d'excellents resultats. On donne le compte rendu des separations de quelques elements: mercure, brome, thorium, etc... L'application du separateur a l'etude des translations isomeriques dans le molybdene et le technetium a permis d'attribuer definitivement a {sup 93}Mo et a {sup 93}Tc deux rayonnements {gamma} d'energies respectives 260 et 390 keV. Un nouveau procede de separation chimique rapide Mo c est

  5. Realization of an electromagnetic isotope separator. Application to the isotopes of the mass 93 from the molybdenum and the technetium; Realisation d'un separateur electromagnetique d'isotope. Application a l'etude des isotopes de masse 93 du molybdene et du technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-15

    Analysis of focusing properties of a homogeneous magnetic field leads the author to use a magnetic sector of 60 deg, for the realization of an electromagnetic separator. The sources of realized ions provide ionic debits of 10 mA. The currents ionic detached isotopes to the collector vary from 1 to 5 mA. The separation efficiency is of 125 for a current collected of 1 mA. A survey of the neutralization of the space charge permitted to specify the role of the negative ions in this phenomenon. A method of neutralization of the space charge is proposed and gave excellent results. A report will be given of the separations of some elements: mercury, bromine, thorium, etc... The application of the separator to the study of the isomeric transfers in the molybdenum and the technetium permitted to assign definitely for {sup 93}Mo and {sup 93}Tc two radiances {gamma} of respective energies 260 and 390 keV. A new process of fast chemical separation Mo/Tc is described. (author) [French] L'analyse des proprietes de focalisation d'un champ magnetique homogene conduit l'auteur, pour la realisation d'un separateur electromagnetique, a employer un secteur magnetique de 60 deg. Les sources d'ions realisees fournissent des debits ioniques de 10 mA. Les courants ioniques d'isotopes separes au collecteur varient de 1 a 5 mA. Le pouvoir separateur est de 125 pour un courant collecte de 1 mA. Une etude de la neutralisation de la charge d'espace a permis de preciser le role des ions negatifs dans ce phenomene. Une methode de neutralisation de la charge d'espace est proposee et a donne d'excellents resultats. On donne le compte rendu des separations de quelques elements: mercure, brome, thorium, etc... L'application du separateur a l'etude des translations isomeriques dans le molybdene et le technetium a permis d'attribuer definitivement a {sup 93}Mo et a {sup 93}Tc deux rayonnements {gamma} d'energies respectives 260 et 390

  6. Experimental performance evaluation for a carbon dioxide light commercial cooling application under transcritical and subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccardi, G.; Calabrese, N.; Celata, G.P.; Mastrullo, R.; Mauro, A.W.; Perrone, A.; Trinchieri, R.

    2013-01-01

    CO 2 is one of the most interesting non toxic, nor flammable, low GWP natural fluid to be used in applications with a large direct contribution to global warming, such as vending machines. In this paper the results of an experimental investigation on a small capacity, air-forced refrigerating plant working with CO 2 are presented. The air inlet temperatures at gas cooler and evaporator were varied between 16 °C and 31 °C and between −25 °C and 25 °C, respectively, to cover the range of temperatures under conditions typical of commercial refrigeration, during quasi-steady operation. The thermodynamic analysis of the system performance was carried on varying independently the pressure at the gas cooler, by overfeeding the liquid receiver to point out the effect of refrigerant charge. The results allow to describe the performance of the system in a map varying the boundary conditions; at the same time the corresponding variations of the thermodynamic cycle, the COP and the mass flow rate are reported. -- Highlights: ► A light commercial refrigerating plant working with CO 2 was tested in order to evaluate its performance. ► 71 experimental points were collected varying the flow rates, the temperatures of air sources and the refrigerant charge. ► Mass flow rate, cooling capacity, electrical power and COP were evaluated as a function of pressures and superheating. ► The segregate influence of each operating parameter on each performance indicator was calculated. ► A map of plant performance as a function of air source temperatures is reported

  7. System identification by experimental data processing, application to turbulent transport of a tracer in pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgos, Manuel; Getto, Daniel; Berne, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    System identification is the first, and probably the most important step in detecting abnormal behavior, control system design or performance improving. Data analysis is performed for studying the plant behavior, sensitivity of operation procedures and several other goals. In all these cases, the observed data is the convolution of an input function, and the system's impulse response. Practical discrete time convolutions may be performed multiplying a matrix built from the impulse response by the input vector, but for deconvolution it is necessary to invert the matrix which is singular in a causal system. Another method for deconvolution is by means of Fourier Transforms. Actual readings are usually corrupted by noise and, besides, their transform shows high low frequencies components and high frequency ones mainly due to additive noise. Subjective decisions as cut-off frequency should be taken as well. This paper proposes a deconvolution method based on parameters fitting of suitable models, where they exist, and estimation of values where analytical forms are not available. It is based on the global, non linear fitting of them, with a maximum likelihood criteria. An application of the method is shown using data from two fluid flow experiments. The experimental test rigs basically consist in a long section of straight pipe in which fluid is flowing. A pulse of tracer is injected at the entrance and detected at various locations along the pipe. An attempt of deconvolution of signals from successive probes using a classical model describing the flow of tracer as a plug moving with the average fluid velocity, plus some axial dispersion. The parameters are for instance the velocity of the plug and a dispersion coefficient. After parameter fitting, the model is found to reproduce the experimental data well. The flow rates deduced from the adjusted travel times are in very good agreement with the actual values. In addition, the flow dispersion coefficient is obtained

  8. Experimental/analytical approaches to modeling, calibrating and optimizing shaking table dynamics for structural dynamic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, Tomaso

    This thesis presents an Experimental/Analytical approach to modeling and calibrating shaking tables for structural dynamic applications. This approach was successfully applied to the shaking table recently built in the structural laboratory of the Civil Engineering Department at Rice University. This shaking table is capable of reproducing model earthquake ground motions with a peak acceleration of 6 g's, a peak velocity of 40 inches per second, and a peak displacement of 3 inches, for a maximum payload of 1500 pounds. It has a frequency bandwidth of approximately 70 Hz and is designed to test structural specimens up to 1/5 scale. The rail/table system is mounted on a reaction mass of about 70,000 pounds consisting of three 12 ft x 12 ft x 1 ft reinforced concrete slabs, post-tensioned together and connected to the strong laboratory floor. The slip table is driven by a hydraulic actuator governed by a 407 MTS controller which employs a proportional-integral-derivative-feedforward-differential pressure algorithm to control the actuator displacement. Feedback signals are provided by two LVDT's (monitoring the slip table relative displacement and the servovalve main stage spool position) and by one differential pressure transducer (monitoring the actuator force). The dynamic actuator-foundation-specimen system is modeled and analyzed by combining linear control theory and linear structural dynamics. The analytical model developed accounts for the effects of actuator oil compressibility, oil leakage in the actuator, time delay in the response of the servovalve spool to a given electrical signal, foundation flexibility, and dynamic characteristics of multi-degree-of-freedom specimens. In order to study the actual dynamic behavior of the shaking table, the transfer function between target and actual table accelerations were identified using experimental results and spectral estimation techniques. The power spectral density of the system input and the cross power spectral

  9. Experimental investigation of a pulsating heat pipe for hybrid vehicle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burban, G.; Ayel, V.; Alexandre, A.; Lagonotte, P.; Bertin, Y.; Romestant, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental results of an unlooped pulsating heat pipe (PHP) developed and tested in an electronic thermal management field with hybrid vehicle applications in mind. The 2.5 mm inner tube diameter device was cooled by an air heat exchanger to replicate the environment of a vehicle. In order to characterize this pulsating heat pipe, four working fluids have been tested. They are acetone, methanol, water, and n-pentane, with applied thermal power ranging from 25 W to 550 W, air temperature ranging from 10 °C to 60 °C and air velocity ranging from 0.25 m s −1 to 2 m s −1 . Three inclinations have also been tested according to their horizontal positions: +45° (condenser above the evaporator), 0° and −45° (condenser below the evaporator). Among the different results, some of the most revelatory were obtained with regard to unfavourable inclination (−45°), for which the performances were very interesting considering a terrestrial application. On the other hand, one also observed low temperature limitations for water as a working fluid and degradation of performances for n-pentane tested at 60 °C air temperature. On an overall basis, however, it should be noted that the PHP functioned with high reliability and reproducibility and without any failure during the start-up or working stage. - Highlights: ► An unlooped pulsating heat pipe (PHP) has been tested varying heat power, air velocity and temperature, inclination and fluid. ► Four working fluids have been tested and classified into two groups according to the performances of the PHP. ► Interesting water phenomena have been highlighted in this study. ► The PHP worked with a good reliability and reproducibility.

  10. Thermoelectric generator experimental performance testing for wireless sensor network application in smart buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Musleh Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to make a conventional building more efficient or smarter, systems feedbacks are essential. Such feedbacks can include real-time or logged data from various systems, such as temperature, humidity, lighting and CO2 levels. This is only possible by the use of a network of sensors which report to the building management system. Conventional sensors are limited due to wiring and infrastructure requirements. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN however, eliminates the wiring limitations but still in certain cases require periodical battery changes and maintenance. A suitable solution for WSN limitations is to use different types of ambient energy harvesters to power battery-less sensors or alternatively to charge existing batteries so as to reduce their changing requirements. Such systems are already in place using various energy harvesting techniques. Thermoelectric Generators (TEG are one of them where the temperature gradient is used to generate electricity which is conditioned and used for WSN powering applications. Researchers in this field often face difficulty in estimating the TEG output at the low-temperature difference as manufacturers’ datasheets and performance data are not following the same standards and in most cases cover the high-temperature difference (more than 200C°. This is sufficient for industrial applications but not for WSN systems in the built environment where the temperature difference is much smaller (1-20C° is covered in this study. This paper presents a TEG experimental test setup using a temperature controlled hotplate in order to provide accurate TEG performance data at the low-temperature difference range.

  11. Experimental and computational studies of poly-L-lactic acid for cardiovascular applications: recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Raasti; Zhao, Liguo; Liu, Yang; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2017-12-01

    Stents are commonly used in medical procedures to alleviate the symptoms of coronary heart disease, a prevalent modern society disease. These structures are employed to maintain vessel patency and restore blood flow. Traditionally stents are made of metals such as stainless steel or cobalt chromium; however, these scaffolds have known disadvantages. An emergence of transient scaffolds is gaining popularity, with the structure engaged for a required period whilst healing of the diseased arterial wall occurs. Polymers dominate a medical device sector, with incorporation in sutures, scaffolds and screws. Thanks to their good mechanical and biological properties and their ability to degrade naturally. Polylactic acid is an extremely versatile polymer, with its properties easily tailored to applications. Its dominance in the stenting field increases continually, with the first polymer scaffold gaining FDA approval in 2016. Still some challenges with PLLA bioresorbable materials remain, especially with regard to understanding their mechanical response, assessment of its changes with degradation and comparison of their performance with that of metallic drug-eluting stent. Currently, there is still a lack of works on evaluating both the pre-degradation properties and degradation performance of these scaffolds. Additionally, there are no established material models incorporating non-linear viscoelastic behaviour of PLLA and its evolution with in-service degradation. Assessing these features through experimental analysis accompanied by analytical and numerical studies will provide powerful tools for design and optimisation of these structures endorsing their broader use in stenting. This overview assesses the recent studies investigating mechanical and computational performance of poly(l-lactic) acid and its use in stenting applications.

  12. Tooth apatite as a bone substitute: an experimental study and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun-Seok Kim; Pill-Hoon Choung

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of calcined teeth powder as biological apatite. The animal experiment was performed in 36 rabbits aging 6 weeks and weighing 1.6 kg. In experimental group, tooth apatite powder was implanted to 10 mm bony defects in diameter made on the cranial bone of the rabbits. As control groups, synthetic porous hydroxyapatite and resorbable type calcium carbonate were implanted to the defects of same size. Each group was sacrificed in 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 weeks after the surgery. Specimens were prepared for decalcified samples and observed by a light microscope. And we also performed quantitative analysis of new bone formation through image analysis using computer. In clinical applications, we used tooth apatite alone or mixed with decalcified freeze-dried bone for reconstruction of bony defects in 15 patients undergone enucleation of cyst or ameloblastoma. The obtained results were as follows; 1) The powder of the calcined teeth was called as 'tooth apatite' and it seemed to have biocompatibility in rabbits and human. 2) In group of tooth apatite, after 4 weeks of operation, new bone directly bonded to the particles was observed. And in 12 weeks of it, new bone occupied most of the bony defects. In 6 weeks, resorption of the tooth apatite particles was observed. Thus the tooth apatite was regarded as one of resorbable apatite. 3) The group of tooth apatite showed new bone formation similar to the group of porous hydroxyapatite, but they were inferior to the group of resorbable calcium carbonate. 4) In clinical application, tooth apatite had biocompatibility and new bone formation was observed without any complication except for 1 case. So we think it is a useful bone substitute with osteoconductivity

  13. Inverse Higgs effect in nonlinear realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetskij, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    In theories with nonlinearly realized symmetry it is possible in a number of cases to eliminate some initial Goldstone and gauge fields by means of putting appropriate Cartan forms equal to zero. This is called the inverse Higgs phenomenon. We give a general treatment of the inverse Higgs phenomenon for gauge and space-time symmetries and consider four instructive examples which are the elimination of unessential gauge fields in chiral symmetry and in non-linearly realized supersymmetry and also the elimination of unessential Goldstone fields in the spontaneously broken conformal and projective symmetries

  14. Experimental evaluation of torsional fatigue strength of welded bellows and application to design of fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Suzuki, Kazuo; Sonobe, Tadashi; Hayashi, Yuzo; Mizuno, Gen-ichiro.

    1984-01-01

    Torsional fatigue strength of the welded bellows was evaluated experimentally, aiming the application to a port of a fusion device. The welded bellows revealed elastic torsional buckling and spiral distorsion even under a small angle of torsion. Twisting load never leads the welded bellows to fracture easily so far as the angle of torsion is not excessively large, and the welded bellows has the torsional fatigue strength much larger than that expected so far. Two formulae were proposed to evaluate the stress of the welded bellows under the forced angle of torsion; shearing stress evaluation formula in the case that torsional buckling does not occur and the axial bending stress evaluation formula in the case that torsional buckling occurs. And the results of the torsional fatigue experiments showed that the former is reasonably conservative and simulates the actual behavior of the welded bellows better than the latter in the high cycle fatigue region and vice versa in the low cycle fatigue region from the viewpoint of the mechanical design. The present evaluation method of the torsional fatigue strength was applied to the welded bellows for the port of the JT-60 vacuum vessel and its structural integrity was confirmed under the design load condition. (author)

  15. Numerical and experimental study of heat transfers in an arc plasma. Application to TIG arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borel, Damien

    2013-01-01

    The arc welding is used for many industrial applications, especially GTA welding. Given the excellent quality of the produced welds, GTA welding is used for the majority of the interventions (repairs, joined sealing) on the French nuclear park. This work is part of a project carried out by EDF R and D which aims to simulate the whole process and builds a tool able to predict the welds quality. In this study, we focus on the development of a predictive model of the exchanged heat flux at the arc - work piece interface, responsible of the work piece fusion. The modeling of the arc plasma using the electric module of the hydrodynamics software Code Saturne R developed by EDF R and D is required. Two types of experimental tests are jointly carried out to validate this numerical model: i) on density and temperature measurements of plasma by atomic emission spectroscopy and ii) on the evaluation of the heat transfers on the work piece surface. This work also aims at demonstrate that the usual method of using an equivalent thermal source to model the welding process, can be replaced by our plasma model, without the numerous trials inherent to the usual method. (author)

  16. Experimental sea slicks: Their practical applications and utilization for basic studies of air-sea interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Garrett, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    Practical applications of organic surface films added to the sea surface date back to ancient times. Aristotle, Plutarch, and Pliny the Elder describe the seaman's practice of calming waves in a storm by pouring oil onto the sea [Scott, 1977]. It was also noted that divers released oil beneath the water surface so that it could rise and spread over the sea surface, thereby suppressing the irritating flicker associated with the passage of light through a rippled surface. From a scientific point of view, Benjamin Franklin was the first to perform experiments with oils on natural waters. His experiment with a `teaspoonful of oil' on Clapham pond in 1773 inspired many investigators to consider sea surface phenomena or to conduct experiments with oil films. This early research has been reviewed by Giles [1969], Giles and Forrester [1970], and Scott [1977]. Franklin's studies with experimental slicks can be regarded as the beginning of surface film chemistry. His speculations on the wave damping influence of oil induced him to perform the first qualitative experiment with artificial sea slicks at Portsmouth (England) in October of 1773. Although the sea was calmed and very few white caps appeared in the oil-covered area, the swell continued through the oiled area to Franklin's great disappointment.

  17. Experimental Study and Application of Inorganic Solidified Foam Filling Material for Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous combustion of residual coal in a gob due to air leakage poses a major risk to mining safety. Building an airtight wall is an effective measure for controlling air leakage. A new type of inorganic solidified foam-filled material was developed and its physical and chemical properties were analyzed experimentally. The compressive strength of this material increased with the amount of sulphoaluminate cement. With an increasing water–cement ratio, the initial setting time was gradually extended while the final setting time firstly shortened and then extended. The change in compressive strength had the opposite tendency. Additionally, as the foam expansion ratio increased, the solidification time tended to decrease but the compressive strength remained approximately constant. With an increase in foam production, the solidification time increased and the compressive strength decreased exponentially. The results can be used to determine the optimal material ratios of inorganic solidified foam-filled material for coal mines, and filling technology for an airtight wall was designed. A field application of the new material demonstrated that it seals crossheadings tightly, leaves no fissures, suppresses air leakage to the gob, and narrows the width of the spontaneous combustion and heat accumulation zone.

  18. Experimental Application of an Advanced Separation Process for NOM Removal from Surface Drinking Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Callegari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural organic matter (NOM in drinking water supplies significantly impacts on water supply quality and treatment, due to observed reactivity with many dissolved and particulate species. Several technologies are used nowadays to remove NOM from the water supply. The evolution of water-related directives, and progressively more restrictive standards for drinking water, however, call for the investigation of advanced, more efficient, and cost-effective water treatment processes. This paper contains a brief overview on the state-of-the-art methods for NOM removal from supply waters, and describes the experimental application of an advanced technology, tested and validated at the pilot scale on the water supply source of a town in Poland. The process allowed significant removal of natural organic matter (about 50% as Dissolved Organic Carbon and turbidity (from 50% to 90%, however, these results requested significant additions of powdered activated carbon. The key to success of this type of process is a correct setup with the identification of optimal types and dosages of reagents. Based on the results of the tests conducted it is foreseeable that this technology could be used onsite, not only for removal of NOM, but also of other hard-to-tackle pollutants potentially contained in the freshwater supply and not presently considered.

  19. Fifteen years of cold matter on the atom chip: promise, realizations, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Mark; Amit, Omer; Zhou, Shuyu; Groswasser, David; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Here we review the field of atom chips in the context of Bose–Einstein Condensates (BEC) as well as cold matter in general. Twenty years after the first realization of the BEC and 15 years after the realization of the atom chip, the latter has been found to enable extraordinary feats: from producing BECs at a rate of several per second, through the realization of matter-wave interferometry, and all the way to novel probing of surfaces and new forces. In addition, technological applications are also being intensively pursued. This review will describe these developments and more, including new ideas which have not yet been realized. PMID:27499585

  20. Realization of deterministic quantum teleportation with solid state qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreas Wallfraff

    2014-01-01

    Using modern micro and nano-fabrication techniques combined with superconducting materials we realize electronic circuits the dynamics of which are governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. Making use of the strong interaction of photons with superconducting quantum two-level systems realized in these circuits we investigate both fundamental quantum effects of light and applications in quantum information processing. In this talk I will discuss the deterministic teleportation of a quantum state in a macroscopic quantum system. Teleportation may be used for distributing entanglement between distant qubits in a quantum network and for realizing universal and fault-tolerant quantum computation. Previously, we have demonstrated the implementation of a teleportation protocol, up to the single-shot measurement step, with three superconducting qubits coupled to a single microwave resonator. Using full quantum state tomography and calculating the projection of the measured density matrix onto the basis of two qubits has allowed us to reconstruct the teleported state with an average output state fidelity of 86%. Now we have realized a new device in which four qubits are coupled pair-wise to three resonators. Making use of parametric amplifiers coupled to the output of two of the resonators we are able to perform high-fidelity single-shot read-out. This has allowed us to demonstrate teleportation by individually post-selecting on any Bell-state and by deterministically distinguishing between all four Bell states measured by the sender. In addition, we have recently implemented fast feed-forward to complete the teleportation process. In all instances, we demonstrate that the fidelity of the teleported states are above the threshold imposed by classical physics. The presented experiments are expected to contribute towards realizing quantum communication with microwave photons in the foreseeable future. (author)

  1. Non-linear realizations and bosonic branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this very short note, following hep-th/0001216, we express the well known bosonic brane as a non-linear realization. The reader may also consult hep-th/9912226, 0001216 and 0005270 where the branes of M theory are constructed as a non-linear realisation. The automorphisms of the supersymmetry algebra play an essential role. (author)

  2. Nonlinear realization of general covariance group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Shinji

    1979-01-01

    The structure of the theory resulting from the nonlinear realization of general covariance group is analysed. We discuss the general form of free Lagrangian for Goldstone fields, and propose as a special choice one reasonable form which is shown to describe a gravitational theory with massless tensor graviton and massive vector tordion. (author)

  3. The economic value of realized volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunou, Bruno; Jacobs, Kris

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that daily realized volatility estimates based on intraday returns provide volatility forecasts that are superior to forecasts constructed from daily returns only. We investigate whether these forecasting improvements translate into economic value added. To do so, we ...

  4. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L 1 . The spaces L 1 are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles. (paper)

  5. Zero-intelligence realized variance estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatheral, J.; Oomen, R.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Given a time series of intra-day tick-by-tick price data, how can realized variance be estimated? The obvious estimator—the sum of squared returns between trades—is biased by microstructure effects such as bid-ask bounce and so in the past, practitioners were advised to drop most of the data and

  6. FPGA Realization of Memory 10 Viterbi Decoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, Erik; Bach, Thomas Bo; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1997-01-01

    sequence mode when feedback from the Reed-Solomon decoder is available. The Viterbi decoder is realized using two Altera FLEX 10K50 FPGA's. The overall operating speed is 30 kbit/s, and since up to three iterations are performed for each frame and only one decoder is used, the operating speed...

  7. Evaluating realized genetic gains from tree improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair

    1993-01-01

    Tree improvement has become an essential part of the management of forest lands for wood production, and predicting yields and realized gains from forests planted with genetically-improved trees will become increasingly important. This paper discusses concepts of tree improvement and genetic gain important to growth and yield modeling, and reviews previous studies of...

  8. A low-cost and portable realization on fringe projection three-dimensional measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Fringe projection three-dimensional measurement is widely applied in a wide range of industrial application. The traditional fringe projection system has the disadvantages of high expense, big size, and complicated calibration requirements. In this paper we introduce a low-cost and portable realization on three-dimensional measurement with Pico projector. It has the advantages of low cost, compact physical size, and flexible configuration. For the proposed fringe projection system, there is no restriction to camera and projector's relative alignment on parallelism and perpendicularity for installation. Moreover, plane-based calibration method is adopted in this paper that avoids critical requirements on calibration system such as additional gauge block or precise linear z stage. What is more, error sources existing in the proposed system are introduced in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed low cost and portable fringe projection system.

  9. Application of the photoelastic experimental hybrid method with new numerical method to the high stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawong, Jai Sug; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Dong Ha; Tche, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    In this research, the photoelastic experimental hybrid method with Hook-Jeeves numerical method has been developed: This method is more precise and stable than the photoelastic experimental hybrid method with Newton-Rapson numerical method with Gaussian elimination method. Using the photoelastic experimental hybrid method with Hook-Jeeves numerical method, we can separate stress components from isochromatics only and stress intensity factors and stress concentration factors can be determined. The photoelastic experimental hybrid method with Hook-Jeeves had better be used in the full field experiment than the photoelastic experimental hybrid method with Newton-Rapson with Gaussian elimination method

  10. Realized Beta GARCH: A Multivariate GARCH Model with Realized Measures of Volatility and CoVolatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri

    We introduce a multivariate GARCH model that utilizes and models realized measures of volatility and covolatility. The realized measures extract information contained in high-frequency data that is particularly beneficial during periods with variation in volatility and covolatility. Applying the ...

  11. Experimental study of a staged combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Warren G.

    Two optically accessible experimental test rigs were designed and constructed to investigate a staged or distributed combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications. The test rigs were fuelled with natural gas and featured two combustion zones: the main combustion zone (MCZ) and the secondary combustion zone (SCZ). The MCZ is a swirl stabilized dump combustor and the SCZ, which is axially downstream from the MCZ, is formed by a transverse jet injecting a premixed fuel/air mixture into the vitiated stream. After installing and commissioning the test rig, an emission survey was conducted to investigate the SCZ conditions, equivalence ratio and momentum ratio, that produce low NOx emissions and give a higher temperature rise before a simulated high pressure turbine than firing only the MCZ. The emission survey found several operating conditions that show the benefit of combustion staging. These beneficial conditions had an SCZ equivalence ratio between 0.41 and 1.12. The data from the emission survey was then used to create an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN used a multi-layer feed-forward network architecture and was trained with experimental data using the backpropagation training algorithm. The ANN was then used to create performance maps and optimum operational regions were sought. Lastly, optical diagnostics were used to obtain information on the nature of the SCZ reactive jet. The diagnostics included high speed CH* chemiluminescence, OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The chemiluminescence and PLIF were used to qualitatively determine the size and shape of the transverse jet reaction zone. Dual-pump CARS was used to quantitatively determine the temperature and H2/N2 concentration ratio profile at the mid-plane of the transverse jet. Dual-pump CARS data was collected for four operating conditions but only one is presented in this dissertation. For the condition presented, the

  12. Amorphous graphene: a realization of Zachariasen’s glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, M F; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous graphene is a realization of a two-dimensional Zachariasen glass as first proposed 80 years ago. Planar continuous random networks of this archetypal two-dimensional network are generated by two complementary simulation methods. In the first, a Monte Carlo bond switching algorithm is employed to systematically amorphize a crystalline graphene sheet. In the second, molecular dynamics simulations are utilized to quench from the high temperature liquid state. The two approaches lead to similar results as detailed here, through the pair distribution function and the associated diffraction pattern. Details of the structure, including ring statistics and angular distortions, are shown to be sensitive to preparation conditions, and await experimental confirmation.

  13. Realization of a complementary medium using dielectric photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Fang, Anan; Jia, Ziyuan; Ji, Liyu; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2017-12-01

    By exploiting the scaling invariance of photonic band diagrams, a complementary photonic crystal slab structure is realized by stacking two uniformly scaled double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal slabs together. The space cancellation effect in complementary photonic crystals is demonstrated in both numerical simulations and microwave experiments. The refractive index dispersion of double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal is experimentally measured. Using pure dielectrics, our photonic crystal structure will be an ideal platform to explore various intriguing properties related to a complementary medium.

  14. Abelian realization of phenomenological two-zero neutrino textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. González Felipe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt at explaining the observed neutrino mass-squared differences and leptonic mixing, lepton mass matrices with zero textures have been widely studied. In the weak basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal, various neutrino mass matrices with two zeros have been shown to be consistent with the current experimental data. Using the canonical and Smith normal form methods, we construct the minimal Abelian symmetry realizations of these phenomenological two-zero neutrino textures. The implementation of these symmetries in the context of the seesaw mechanism for Majorana neutrino masses is also discussed.

  15. Experimental/Computational Approach to Accommodation Coefficients and its Application to Noble Gases on Aluminum Surface (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-03

    computational approach to accommodation coefficients and its application to noble gases on aluminum surface Nathaniel Selden Uruversity of Southern Cahfornia, Los ...8217 ,. 0.’ a~ .......,..,P. • " ,,-0, "p"’U".. ,Po"D.’ 0.’P.... uro . P." FIG. 5: Experimental and computed radiometri~ force for argon (left), xenon

  16. Realization of Copper Melting Point for Thermocouple Calibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. ABDELAZIZ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the temperature stability and uncertainty of the freezing plateau is better than that of the melting plateau in most of the thermometry fixed points, but realization of melting plateaus are easier than that of freezing plateaus for metal fixed points. It will be convenient if the melting points can be used instead of the freezing points in calibration of standard noble metal thermocouples because of easier realization and longer plateau duration of melting plateaus. In this work a comparison between the melting and freezing points of copper (Cu was carried out using standard noble metal thermocouples. Platinum - platinum 10 % rhodium (type S, platinum – 30 % rhodium / platinum 6 % rhodium (type B and platinum - palladium (Pt/Pd thermocouples are used in this study. Uncertainty budget analysis of the melting points and freezing points is presented. The experimental results show that it is possible to replace the freezing point with the melting point of copper cell in the calibration of standard noble metal thermocouples in secondary-level laboratories if the optimal methods of realization of melting points are used.

  17. Experimental validation of a true-scale morphing flap for large civil aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, R.; Amoroso, F.; Arena, M.; Noviello, M. C.; Rea, F.

    2017-04-01

    systems were duly analyzed and experimentally validated thus proving the overall device compliance with industrial standards and applicable airworthiness requirements.

  18. Experimental Study of Matrix Permeability of Gas Shale: An Application to CO2-Based Shale Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the limitations of water-based fracturing fluids restrict their fracturing efficiency and scope of application, liquid CO2 is regarded as a promising substitute, owing to its unique characteristics, including its greater environmental friendliness, shorter clean-up time, greater adsorption capacity than CH4 and less formation damage. Conversely, the disadvantage of high leak-off rate of CO2 fracturing due to its very low viscosity determines its applicability in gas shales with ultra-low permeability, accurate measurement of shale permeability to CO2 is therefore crucial to evaluate the appropriate injection rate and total consumption of CO2. The main purpose of this study is to accurately measure shale permeability to CO2 flow during hydraulic fracturing, and to compare the leak-off of CO2 and water fracturing. A series of permeability tests was conducted on cylindrical shale samples 38 mm in diameter and 19 mm long using water, CO2 in different phases and N2 considering multiple influencing factors. According to the experimental results, the apparent permeability of shale matrix to gaseous CO2 or N2 is greatly over-estimated compared with intrinsic permeability or that of liquid CO2 due to the Klinkenberg effect. This phenomenon explains that the permeability values measured under steady-state conditions are much higher than those under transient conditions. Supercritical CO2 with higher molecular kinetic energy has slightly higher permeability than liquid CO2. The leak-off rate of CO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that of water under the same injection conditions due to its lower viscosity. The significant decrease of shale permeability to gas after water flooding is due to the water block effect, and much longer clean-up time and deep water imbibition depth greatly impede the gas transport from the shale matrix to the created fractures. Therefore, it is necessary to substitute water-based fracturing fluids with liquid or super

  19. Microspheres labelled with short-lived isotopes: Development and application for tumors treatment (Experimental study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovsky, B.Y.; Rosiev, R.A.; Goncharova, A.Y.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Petriev, V.M.; Grigoriev, A.N.; Schischkanov, N.G.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of the conducted studies strongly suggests the possibility of usage of the domestic protein microspheres as a vehicle for radionuclide. The neutron-activating method of RPP production enables to utilize a broad spectrum of short-living isotopes that can be delivered into the target organ and anchored there for a long time. Good treatment results were obtained in case of the experimentally induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats after intraarticular loading of 165 Dy-hMSA. Mathematical calculations show that homogeneous distribution of RPP in human articulation cavity with the square of 100 cm 2 can be achieved when the quantity of administered particles exceeds 3000. On the example of 165 Dy-hMSA energy characteristic distribution we demonstrated that the absorbed dose for damaged cells at 2mm distance from the radioactive source is 7 times less than the one for a sphere of 2mm diameter. Analysis of dosimetric data in case of intratumoral loading of 165 Dy-hMSA also point out the necessity of the absorbed dose calculation methods taking into account the distance from the source and possible heterogeneity of RPP distribution inside the tumor to be employed. The prolonged RPP detention in the target causing no essential morphological and functional changes was achieved by embolization on the level of septal and interlobular arteries and of efferent arterioles in the animal's renal. The uniformity of microsphere distribution in the organ and their accumulation in tumors depends on the number of particles being administered. Investigations carried out suggest the efficacy of radionuclide therapy application for treatment of oncological and heavy somatic diseases. They also indicate the necessity of further investigations aimed to optimize the usage of microspheres as a radionuclide carrier usage and to work out the criteria of dosimetric planning

  20. Microspheres labelled with short-lived isotopes: Development and application for tumors treatment (Experimental study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdovsky, B.Y.; Rosiev, R.A.; Goncharova, A.Y.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Petriev, V.M.; Grigoriev, A.N.; Schischkanov, N.G. [Medical Radiological Research Centre RAMS, Kaluga Region, (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    Analysis of the conducted studies strongly suggests the possibility of usage of the domestic protein microspheres as a vehicle for radionuclide. The neutron-activating method of RPP production enables to utilize a broad spectrum of short-living isotopes that can be delivered into the target organ and anchored there for a long time. Good treatment results were obtained in case of the experimentally induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats after intraarticular loading of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA. Mathematical calculations show that homogeneous distribution of RPP in human articulation cavity with the square of 100 cm{sup 2} can be achieved when the quantity of administered particles exceeds 3000. On the example of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA energy characteristic distribution we demonstrated that the absorbed dose for damaged cells at 2mm distance from the radioactive source is 7 times less than the one for a sphere of 2mm diameter. Analysis of dosimetric data in case of intratumoral loading of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA also point out the necessity of the absorbed dose calculation methods taking into account the distance from the source and possible heterogeneity of RPP distribution inside the tumor to be employed. The prolonged RPP detention in the target causing no essential morphological and functional changes was achieved by embolization on the level of septal and interlobular arteries and of efferent arterioles in the animal`s renal. The uniformity of microsphere distribution in the organ and their accumulation in tumors depends on the number of particles being administered. Investigations carried out suggest the efficacy of radionuclide therapy application for treatment of oncological and heavy somatic diseases. They also indicate the necessity of further investigations aimed to optimize the usage of microspheres as a radionuclide carrier usage and to work out the criteria of dosimetric planning 25 refs.

  1. Animal experimentation in Japan: regulatory processes and application for microbiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, H; Omoe, K

    2007-07-01

    We have conducted animal experimentation as a highly effective technique in biological studies. Also in microbiological studies, we have used experimentation to prevent and treat many infectious diseases in humans and animals. In Japan, the 'Law for the Humane Treatment and Management of Animals', which covers the consideration of the three R principles, refinement, replacement and reduction for an international humane approach to animal experimentation came into effect in June 2006. Looking towards the straightforward operation of the law in animal experimentation, three government ministries established new basic guidelines for experimentation performed in their jurisdictional research and testing facilities. For future microbiological studies involving animals in Japan, we need to perform animal experiments according to the basic guidelines in association with overseas management systems. In this report, we discussed essential actions for the management of animal experimentation in microbiological studies in Japan.

  2. NIM Realization of the Gallium Triple Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoke, Yan; Ping, Qiu; Yuning, Duan; Yongmei, Qu

    2003-09-01

    In the last three years (1999 to 2001), the gallium triple-point cell has been successfully developed, and much corresponding research has been carried out at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing, China. This paper presents the cell design, apparatus and procedure for realizing the gallium triple point, and presents studies on the different freezing methods. The reproducibility is 0.03 mK, and the expanded uncertainty of realization of the gallium triple point is evaluated to be 0.17 mK (p=0.99, k=2.9). Also, the reproducibility of the gallium triple point was compared with that of the triple point of water.

  3. Enablers & Barriers for Realizing Modularity Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Thyssen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    far less attention compared to the theories and methods concerning modularization of technical systems. Harvesting the full potential of modularization, particularly in relation to product development agility, depends on more than an optimal architecture. Key enablers in this context......Although modularization is becoming both a well-described domain in academia and a broadly applied concept in business, many of today’s firm still struggle to realize the promised benefits of this approach. Managing modularization is a complex matter, and in spite of this, a topic that has received...... are the organizational and systems related aspects. Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers with regard to obtaining the full...

  4. Exploring heterogeneous market hypothesis using realized volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wen Cheong; Isa, Zaidi; Mohd Nor, Abu Hassan Shaari

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the heterogeneous market hypothesis using high frequency data. The cascaded heterogeneous trading activities with different time durations are modelled by the heterogeneous autoregressive framework. The empirical study indicated the presence of long memory behaviour and predictability elements in the financial time series which supported heterogeneous market hypothesis. Besides the common sum-of-square intraday realized volatility, we also advocated two power variation realized volatilities in forecast evaluation and risk measurement in order to overcome the possible abrupt jumps during the credit crisis. Finally, the empirical results are used in determining the market risk using the value-at-risk approach. The findings of this study have implications for informationally market efficiency analysis, portfolio strategies and risk managements.

  5. Realization of superconductive films by screen printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, H.

    1988-01-01

    Screen printing is a promising method to manufacture superconductive lines making use of superconductive ceramics. An ink has been realized with YBa 2 Cu 3 0 7-x' and the process conditions defined by thermal analysis. A superconductive transition is observed after screen printing on MgO. The firing of the layer is made at 920 0 C followed by a reoxidation step at 420 0 C. The silver electrical contacts are also screen printed [fr

  6. New techniques used to realize silicon photocells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siffert, P.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques used to realize the terrestrial silicon solar cells being considered the possible improvements of these methods are discussed. The various approaches under development to prepare silicon sheets in a continuous way are considered for both self-supporting or substrate deposited layers. Finally, the various methods used or under investigation to obtain the surface potential barrier are considered; MIS, heterojunction and ion implantation [fr

  7. Oil shale mines and their realizable production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habicht, K.

    1994-01-01

    The production of Estonian oil shale depends on its marketing opportunities. The realizable production is a function of the oil shale price, which in turn depends on production costs. The latter are dependent on which mines are producing oil shale and on the volume of production. The purpose of the present article is to analyze which mines should operate under various realizable production scenarios and what should be their annual output so that the total cost of oil shale production (including maintenance at idle mines) is minimized. This paper is also targeted at observing the change in the average production cost per ton of oil shale depending on the realizable output. The calculations are based on data for the first four months of 1993, as collected by N. Barabaner (Estonian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economy). The data include the total production volume and production cost from the mines of RE 'Eesti Polevkivi' (State Enterprise 'Estonian Oil Shale'). They also project expenses from mine closings in case of conservation. The latter costs were allocated among mines in direct proportion to their respective number of employees. (author)

  8. Coset realization of unifying W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, R.; Huebel, R.

    1994-06-01

    We construct several quantum coset W-algebras, e.g. sl(2,R)/U(1) and sl(2,R)+sl(2,R)/sl(2,R), and argue that they are finitely nonfreely generated. Furthermore, we discuss in detail their role as unifying W-algebras of Casimir W-algebras. We show that it is possible to give coset realizations of various types of unifying W-algebras, e.g. the diagonal cosets based on the symplectic Lie algebras sp(2n) realize the unifying W-algebras which have previously been introduced as 'WD -n '. In addition, minimal models of WD -n are studied. The coset realizations provide a generalization of level-rank-duality of dual coset pairs. As further examples of finitely nonfreely generated quantum W-algebras we discuss orbifolding of W-algebras which on the quantum level has different properties than in the classical case. We demonstrate in some examples that the classical limit according to Bowcock and Watts of these nonfreely finitely generated quantum W-algebras probably yields infinitely nonfreely generated classical W-algebras. (orig.)

  9. Realization of chiral symmetry in the ERG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigo, Yoshio; Igarashi, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    We discuss within the framework of the ERG how chiral symmetry is realized in a linear σ model. A generalized Ginsparg-Wilson relation is obtained from the Ward-Takahashi identities for the Wilson action assumed to be bilinear in the Dirac fields. We construct a family of its non-perturbative solutions. The family generates the most general solutions to the Ward-Takahashi identities. Some special solutions are discussed. For each solution in this family, chiral symmetry is realized in such a way that a change in the Wilson action under non-linear symmetry transformation is canceled with a change in the functional measure. We discuss that the family of solutions reduces via a field redefinition to a family of the Wilson actions with some composite object of the scalar fields which has a simple transformation property. For this family, chiral symmetry is linearly realized with a continuum analog of the operator extension of γ 5 used on the lattice. We also show that there exist some appropriate Dirac fields which obey the standard chiral transformations with γ 5 in contrast to the lattice case. Their Yukawa interaction with scalars, however, becomes non-linear. (author)

  10. A first theoretical realization of honeycomb topological magnon insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2016-09-28

    It has been recently shown that in the Heisenberg (anti)ferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice, the magnons (spin wave quasipacticles) realize a massless two-dimensional (2D) Dirac-like Hamiltonian. It was shown that the Dirac magnon Hamiltonian preserves time-reversal symmetry defined with the sublattice pseudo spins and the Dirac points are robust against magnon-magnon interactions. The Dirac points also occur at nonzero energy. In this paper, we propose a simple realization of nontrivial topology (magnon edge states) in this system. We show that the Dirac points are gapped when the inversion symmetry of the lattice is broken by introducing a next-nearest neighbour Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. Thus, the system realizes magnon edge states similar to the Haldane model for quantum anomalous Hall effect in electronic systems. However, in contrast to electronic spin current where dissipation can be very large due to Ohmic heating, noninteracting topological magnons can propagate for a long time without dissipation as magnons are uncharged particles. We observe the same magnon edge states for the XY model on the honeycomb lattice. Remarkably, in this case the model maps to interacting hardcore bosons on the honeycomb lattice. Quantum magnetic systems with nontrivial magnon edge states are called topological magnon insulators. They have been studied theoretically on the kagome lattice and recently observed experimentally on the kagome magnet Cu(1-3, bdc) with three magnon bulk bands. Our results for the honeycomb lattice suggests an experimental procedure to search for honeycomb topological magnon insulators within a class of 2D quantum magnets and ultracold atoms trapped in honeycomb optical lattices. In 3D lattices, Dirac and Weyl points were recently studied theoretically, however, the criteria that give rise to them were not well-understood. We argue that the low-energy Hamiltonian near the Weyl points should break time-reversal symmetry of the pseudo spins

  11. The Realized Hierarchical Archimedean Copula in Risk Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostap Okhrin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the concept of the realized hierarchical Archimedean copula (rHAC. The proposed approach inherits the ability of the copula to capture the dependencies among financial time series, and combines it with additional information contained in high-frequency data. The considered model does not suffer from the curse of dimensionality, and is able to accurately predict high-dimensional distributions. This flexibility is obtained by using a hierarchical structure in the copula. The time variability of the model is provided by daily forecasts of the realized correlation matrix, which is used to estimate the structure and the parameters of the rHAC. Extensive simulation studies show the validity of the estimator based on this realized correlation matrix, and its performance, in comparison to the benchmark models. The application of the estimator to one-day-ahead Value at Risk (VaR prediction using high-frequency data exhibits good forecasting properties for a multivariate portfolio.

  12. Experimental evaluation of multimodal human computer interface for tactical audio applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Starcevic, D.; Jovanov, E.; Oy, S.

    2002-01-01

    Mission critical and information overwhelming applications require careful design of the human computer interface. Typical applications include night vision or low visibility mission navigation, guidance through a hostile territory, and flight navigation and orientation. Additional channels of

  13. Co-transformation to cloud-native applications : development experiences and experimental evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Spillner, Josef; Bogado, Yessica; Benítez, Walter; López Pires, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Modern software applications following cloud-native design principles and architecture guidelines have inherent advantages in fulfilling current user requirements when executed in complex scheduled environments. Engineers responsible for software applications therefore have an intrinsic interest to migrate to cloud-native architectures. Existing methodologies for transforming legacy applications do not yet consider migration from partly cloud-enabled and cloud-aware applications under continu...

  14. Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yahong; Cai, Yangjian, E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Ponomarenko, Sergey A., E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2016-08-08

    We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.

  15. Realization of Miniaturized Multi-/Wideband Microwave Front-Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shamaileh, Khair A.

    the conventional design with NTLs of wideband matching nature. To bring this concept into practice, the equivalent transmission line model is used for profiling impedance variations. The proposed technique leads to flexible spectrum allocation and matching level. Moreover, the resulting structures are compact and planar. First, the analytical results of three 3-way BPDs of different fractional bandwidths are presented and discussed to validate the proposed approach. Then, two examples of 3- and 5-way BPDs with bandwidths of 4--10 GHz and 5--9 GHz, respectively, are simulated, fabricated, and measured. Simulated and measured results show an acceptable input port matching of below --15 dB and --12.5 dB for the 3- and 5-way dividers, respectively, over the bands of interest. The resulting transmission parameters of the 3- and 5-way dividers are --4.77+/-;1 dB and --7+/-1 dB, respectively, over the design bands; which are in close proximity to their theoretical values. The proposed wideband BPD dividers find many applications in microwave front-end circuitry, especially in only-transmitting antenna subsystems, such as multi-/broad-cast communications, where neither output ports matching nor isolation is a necessity. The third proposed component is a 90° hybrid branch-line coupler (BLC) with multi-/wideband frequency matching. To obtain a multi-frequency operation, NTLs of lengths equal to those in the conventional design are incorporated through the even- and odd-mode analysis. The proposed structure is relatively simple and is fabricated on a single-layered substrate. Two design examples of dual-/triple-frequency BLCs suitable for GSM, WLAN, and Wi-Fi applications are designed, fabricated and evaluated experimentally to validate the proposed methodology. The same concept is extended to realize a broadband BLC with arbitrary coupling levels. Based on how impedances are profiled, the fractional bandwidth of a single-section 90° 3-dB BLC is extended to 57%, and the

  16. Gradient index metamaterials realized by drilling hole arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Zhonglei; Cui Tiejun; Bai Jing

    2010-01-01

    Gradient index metamaterials have wide applications in the microwave and optical fields. Based on the quasi-static theory, such materials at the microwave band have been realized by drilling hole arrays on ordinary dielectric materials. As applications of the gradient index metamaterials, novel devices including a 45 0 dielectric wave-bending structure, a 16 0 wave-steering lens and a microwave focusing lens are designed and fabricated. Field mapping measurements validate the proposed gradient index metamaterials and the device designs. The method can be directly and easily extended to the design of cloaks, various lenses, beam shifters and beam-steering devices. It can also be applied in the optical band as long as quasi-static conditions are satisfied. The method and the devices may find applications in integrated circuit systems.

  17. Realizing Efficient Energy Harvesting from Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong

    Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) are emerging field of research in renewable energy. The development of OPVs in recent years has made this technology viable for many niche applications. In order to realize widespread application however, the power conversion efficiency requires further improvement. The efficiency of an OPV depends on the short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (FF). For state-of-the-art devices, JSC is mostly optimized with the application of novel low-bandgap materials and a bulk heterojunction device architecture (internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%). The remaining limiting factors are the low VOC and FF. This work focuses on overcoming these bottlenecks for improved efficiency. Temperature dependent measurements of device performance are used to examine both charge transfer and exciton ionization process in OPVs. The results permit an improved understanding of the intrinsic limit for VOC in various device architectures and provide insight on device operation. Efforts have also been directed at engineering device architecture for optimized FF, realizing a very high efficiency of 8% for vapor deposited small molecule OPVs. With collaborators, new molecules with tailored desired energy levels are being designed for further improvements in efficiency. A new type of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite material is also included in this study. By addressing processing issues and anomalous hysteresis effects, a very high efficiency of 19.1% is achieved. Moving forward, topics including engineering film crystallinity, exploring tandem architectures and understanding degradation mechanisms will further push OPVs toward broad commercialization.

  18. Concept, Implementation and Testing of PRESTo: Real-time experimentation in Southern Italy and worldwide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, Aldo; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Colombelli, Simona; Brondi, Piero; Caruso, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. This work presents an overview of the worldwide applications of the system PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem), which is the highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning developed by the RISSCLab group of the University of Naples Federico II. In particular, we first present the results of the real-time experimentation of PRESTo in Suthern Italy on the data streams of the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), in Southern Italy. ISNet is a dense high-dynamic range, earthquake observing system, which operates in true real-time mode, thanks to a mixed data transmission system based on proprietary digital terrestrial links, standard ADSL and UMTS technologies. Using the seedlink protocol data are transferred to the network center unit, running the software platform PRESTo which is devoted to process the real-time data streaming, estimate source parameters and issue the alert. The software platform PRESTo uses a P-wave, network-based approach which has evolved and improved during the time since its first release. In its original version consisted in a series of modules, aimed at the event detection/picking, probabilistic real-time earthquake location and magnitude estimation, prediction of peak ground motion at distant sites through ground motion prediction equations for the area. In the recent years, PRESTo has been also implemented at the accelerometric and broad-band seismic networks in South Korea, Romania, North-East Italy, and Turkey and off-line tested in Iberian Peninsula, Israel, and Japan. Moreover, the feasibility of a PRESTo-based, EEWS at national scale in Italy, has been tested

  19. Application of experimental soil erosion models (USLE, RUSLE) in Jordan: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, A. A.; Ayu, A. W.; Mohm, A. A.; Fahmi, R. M.; Ibrahim, O. M.

    2017-09-01

    In most of the existing models designed for the soil erosion experiment are moderately simplistic, which consistently, have been extensively practiced in many parts of the world. In reality, within the content of this study, the practical occurrences of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and that of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in Jordan were explored. This is obvious as RUSLE portrayed a product adaptation of a significantly enhanced USLE. In Jordan, various research accomplishments were made to decide the nearby values of the USLE components, demonstrating its, potential for use outside its birthplace nation. Entirely, this study found the soil experimental models stand to be mere demonstrating procedures or structures, instead of being the punctual robotic portrayals of the framework, and that perhaps; make no claim of universal comprehensiveness. In any case, with these identified weaknesses, sub-models were found to be utilized in order to give the best practical gauges of the disintegration of the sheet erosion within the Jordanian context. Most often, the spatial index circulation of the soil misfortune of the USLE is viewed as a valuable model that separate regions of high and low disintegration of the erosion potential. In this case, USLE is more generally known and utilized soil erosion condition on the planet. However, no specific model is ever, generally actualized. Although, the USLE model ended to be a promising instrument, as it gives a dynamic way to deal with foreseeing the misfortune of the soil erosion. This study, notwithstanding, perceives there is still a need to further enhanced a check of the RUSLE and USLE outcomes in Jordan. This study sees, by the virtues of hypothetical assessment and affectability in terms of the investigation performed have obviously demonstrated the benefit of the most adaptable and element structure of RUSLE against the strict exact structures of the USLE. Albeit, an exact model could be

  20. Ecological Responses to Five Years of Experimental Nitrogen Application in an Upland Jack-pine Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaschenko, N.; Berryman, S.; Straker, J.; Berg, K.; McDonough, A.; Watmough, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    A five-year experimental study was conducted to evaluate the response of an upland jack-pine (Pinus banksiana) forest to elevated levels of nitrogen (N) deposition in Northern Alberta. N deposition in the region is expected to increase with industrial expansion of oil sands activity, and there is regional interest to set N critical loads for sensitive ecosystems. In this study, N was applied as NH4NO3 above a jack-pine canopy via helicopter, annually for five years (2010-2015) at dosages equivalent to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Approximately 35% of the applied N was retained in the canopy while 65% reached understory vegetation dominated by lichens and mosses. We measured a significant increase in tissue N concentrations of common ground lichens (Cladonia mitis and C. stellaris) and ground moss (Pleurozium schreberi) as well as epiphytic lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia mesomorpha). On an annual basis, the applied N was primarily captured in the lichen and moss understory, dominated by C. mitis. In the highest treatments, N concentrations in C. mitis were 1.5-2.5 times greater than pre-treatment values. Peak N concentrations in the ground moss Pleurozium schreberi (1.4%) indicate that a threshold of N saturation was reached by year 3. We observed no changes in community composition of vascular and non-vascular plants, or changes in vascular plant tissue N. Chlorophyll levels in C. mitis increased with N treatment, but there was no indication of toxicity or changes to decomposition and growth. After five years of N application, only Peltigera polydactylon, a ground cyanolichen, appeared to be negatively impacted where the thalli showed necrosis at deposition loads >10kg N ha-1 yr-1. No changes to biomass or N ecosystem processes were observed. Based on these observations, we provide evidence that the first adverse ecological effects of N deposition in jack-pine stands occurred at deposition rates of 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1.

  1. Experimental and finite element analyses of multifunctional skins for morphing wing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Sebastian; Kintscher, Markus; Mahrholz, Thorsten; Wierach, Peter; Monner, Hans-Peter; Wiedemann, Martin

    2016-04-01

    As a consequence of operational efficiency because of rising energy costs, future transport systems need to be mission-adaptive. Especially in aircraft design the limits of lightweight construction, reduced aerodynamic drag and optimized propulsion are pushed further and further. The first two aspects can be addressed by using a morphing leading edge. Great economic advantages can be expected as a result of gapless surfaces which feature longer areas of laminar flow. Instead of focusing on the kinematics, which are already published in a great number of varieties, this paper emphasizes as major challenge, the qualification of a multi-material layup which meets the compromise of needed stiffness, flexibility and essential functions to match the flight worthiness requirements, such as erosion shielding, impact safety, lighting protection and de-icing. It is the aim to develop an gapless leading edge device and to prepare the path for higher technology readiness levels resulting in an airborne application. During several national and European projects the DLR developed a gapless smart droop nose concept, which functionality was successfully demonstrated using a two-dimensional 5 m in span prototype in low speed (up to 50 m/s) wind tunnel tests. The basic structure is made of commercially available and certified glass-fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP, Hexcel Hexply 913). This paper presents 4-point bending tests to characterize the composite with its integrated functions. The integrity and aging/fatigue issues of different material combinations are analyzed by experiments. It can be demonstrated that only by adding functional layers the mentioned requirements such as erosion-shielding or de-icing can be satisfied. The total thickness of the composite skin increases by more than 100 % when required functions are integrated as additional layers. This fact has a tremendous impact on the maximum strain of the outer surface if it features a complete monolithic build

  2. A FORTRAN realization of the block adjustment of CCD frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Tang, Zhenghong; Li, Jinling; Zhao, Ming

    A FORTRAN version realization of the block adjustment (BA) of overlapping CCD frames is developed. The flowchart is introduced including (a) data collection, (b) preprocessing, and (c) BA and object positioning. The subroutines and their functions are also demonstrated. The program package is tested by simulated data with/without the application of white noises. It is also preliminarily applied to the reduction of optical positions of four extragalactic radio sources. The results show that because of the increase in the sky coverage and number of reference stars, the precision of deducted positions is improved compared with single plate adjustment.

  3. An experimental result of estimating an application volume by machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuhito; Koshino, Makoto; Kimura, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we improved the usability of smartphones by automating a user's operations. We developed an intelligent system using machine learning techniques that periodically detects a user's context on a smartphone. We selected the Android operating system because it has the largest market share and highest flexibility of its development environment. In this paper, we describe an application that automatically adjusts application volume. Adjusting the volume can be easily forgotten because users need to push the volume buttons to alter the volume depending on the given situation. Therefore, we developed an application that automatically adjusts the volume based on learned user settings. Application volume can be set differently from ringtone volume on Android devices, and these volume settings are associated with each specific application including games. Our application records a user's location, the volume setting, the foreground application name and other such attributes as learning data, thereby estimating whether the volume should be adjusted using machine learning techniques via Weka.

  4. Realization of seven-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on NMR quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Daxiu; Yang Xiaodong; Luo Jun; Sun Xianping; Zeng Xizhi; Liu Maili; Ding Shangwu

    2002-01-01

    Recent years, remarkable progresses in experimental realization of quantum information have been made, especially based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) theory. In all quantum algorithms, Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm has been widely studied. It can be realized on NMR quantum computer and also can be simplified by using the Cirac's scheme. At first the principle of Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm is analyzed, then the authors implement the seven-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on NMR quantum computer

  5. 75 FR 6027 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Agrochemicals Ltd. requesting an experimental use permit (EUP) for the end-use product FAL 1800, containing the... Agrochemicals Ltd., (62097-EUP-R). Pesticide Chemical: Prohydrojasmon (PDJ). Summary of Request: Use as a plant...

  6. Application of Iterative Robust Model-based Optimal Experimental Design for the Calibration of Biocatalytic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Daele, Timothy; Gernaey, Krist V.; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of model calibration is to estimate unique parameter values from available experimental data, here applied to a biocatalytic process. The traditional approach of first gathering data followed by performing a model calibration is inefficient, since the information gathered during...... experimentation is not actively used to optimise the experimental design. By applying an iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design, the limited amount of data collected is used to design additional informative experiments. The algorithm is used here to calibrate the initial reaction rate of an ω......-transaminase catalysed reaction in a more accurate way. The parameter confidence region estimated from the Fisher Information Matrix is compared with the likelihood confidence region, which is a more accurate, but also a computationally more expensive method. As a result, an important deviation between both approaches...

  7. Modelling and Experimental Testing of Hybrid Joints Made of: Aluminium Adherends, Adhesive Layers and Rivets for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski T.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary demands in different branches of engineering require application of new multi-component materials and structural systems. Appropriately chosen joining technology can offer significant enhancement of structural system performance in terms of effectiveness, reliability, safety and other design criteria. The modern applications of complex joints are of great technological interest as they permit to combine and to enhance the individual effects of each kind of joint. This is of great importance for modern applications in different branches of engineering: aerospace, mechanical and civil. Therefore in this paper we will focus on the analysis of mechanical response of adhesive joint of aluminium strips reinforced by rivets. The aim of the paper is to investigate experimentally the mechanical behaviour of adhesive joint of aluminium strips reinforced by rivets for industrial applications in aerospace. The considered joint was subjected to uniaxial loading. The tests in this paper were performed for: • classical adhesive joint in order to investigate material parameters for numerical modelling of the hybrid joint • hybrid joining of the structural elements in order to investigate the reinforcement effect. The experiments with application of digital image ARAMIS system allowed for on-line monitoring of the deformation process of the considered joining elements. The particular distributions of displacement fields at the joint surface were estimated for any stage of loading process. Numerical modelling was performed for experimentally investigated specimens. The materials parameters, necessary for calculation, were estimated from experiments. FEA modelling was done with the help of ABAQUS code.

  8. Application of the failure modes and effects analysis technique to the emergency cooling system of an experimental nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao Junior, Osmar; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e

    2009-01-01

    This study consists on the application of the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), a hazard identification and a risk assessment technique, to the emergency cooling system (ECS), of an experimental nuclear power plant. The choice of this technique was due to its detailed analysis of each component of the system, enabling the identification of all possible ways of failure and its related consequences (in order of importance), allowing the designer to improve the system, maximizing its security and reliability. Through the application of this methodology, it could be observed that the ECS is an intrinsically safe system, in spite of the modifications proposed. (author)

  9. Analysis of Popper's Experiment and Its Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, T.

    2012-04-01

    An experiment proposed by Karl Popper to test the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics was realized by Kim and Shih. We use a quantum mechanical calculation to analyze Popper's proposal, and find a surprising result for the location of the virtual slit. We also analyze Kim and Shih's experiment, and demonstrate that although it ingeniously overcomes the problem of temporal spreading of the wave-packet, it is inconclusive about Popper's test. We point out that another experiment which (unknowingly) implements Popper's test in a conclusive way, has actually been carried out. Its results are in contradiction with Popper's prediction, and agree with our analysis.

  10. Quantization of a nonlinearly realized supersymmetric theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, K.

    1977-01-01

    The two-dimensional version of the Volkov-Akulov Lagrangian, where the supersymmetry is realized nonlinearly by means of a single Majorana spinor psi (x), is quantized. The equal-time anticommutators for the field are not c numbers but are functions of the field itself. By explicit calculation we shall show that the supersymmetry charges of the model form the supersymmetry algebra (the graded Lie algebra); therefore the Hamiltonian of the system P 0 is written as a bilinear sum of products of supersymmetry charges. We shall also show that the supersymmetry charges exactly generate a constant translation of psi (x) in the spinor space

  11. 77 FR 2539 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), and beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). A copy of the application and any information submitted...

  12. Flammability limits: A review with emphasis on ethanol for aeronautical applications and description of the experimental procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronado, Christian J.R.; Carvalho, João A.; Andrade, José C.; Cortez, Ely V.; Carvalho, Felipe S.; Santos, José C.; Mendiburu, Andrés Z.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Develops a comprehensive literature review on ethanol flammability limits. ► Difference in standard procedures lead to different experimental values of the flammability limits. ► Methodology for experiments to find the FL's of ethanol for aeronautical applications. - Abstract: The lower and upper flammability limits of a fuel are key tools for predicting fire, assessing the possibility of explosion, and designing protection systems. Knowledge about the risks involved with the explosion of both gaseous and vaporized liquid fuel mixtures with air is very important to guarantee safety in industrial, domestic, and aeronautical applications. Currently, most countries use various standard experimental tests, which lead to different experimental values for these limits. A comprehensive literature review of the flammability limits of combustible mixtures is developed here in order to organize the theoretical and practical knowledge of the subject. The main focus of this paper is the review of the flammability data of ethanol–air mixtures available in the literature. In addition, the description of methodology for experiments to find the upper and lower limits of flammability of ethanol for aeronautical applications is discussed. A heated spherical 20 L vessel was used. The mixtures were ignited with electrode rods placed in the center of the vessel, and the spark gap was 6.4 mm. LFL and the UFL were determined for ethanol (hydrated ethanol 96% °INPM) as functions of temperature for atmospheric pressure to compare results with data published in the scientific literature.

  13. Realization of fiber optic displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Lakomski, Mateusz

    2018-03-01

    Fiber optic sensors are very promising because of their inherent advantages such as very small size, hard environment tolerance and impact of electromagnetic fields. In this paper three different types of Intensity Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors (I-FODS) are presented. Three configurations of I-FODS were realized in two varieties. In the first one, the cleaved multimode optical fibers (MMF) were used to collect reflected light, while in the second variety the MMF ended with ball lenses were chosen. To ensure an accurate alignment of optical fibers in the sensor head the MTP C9730 optical fiber ferrules were used. In this paper the influence of distribution of transmitting and detecting optical fibers on sensitivity and linear range of operation of developed I-FODS were investigated. We have shown, that I-FODS with ball lenses receive average 10.5% more reflected power in comparison to the cleaved optical fibers and they increase linearity range of I-FODS by 33%. In this paper, an analysis of each type of the realized sensor and detailed discussion are given.

  14. Realization of quantum Fourier transform over ZN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiang-Qun; Bao Wan-Su; Li Fa-Da; Zhang Yu-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Since the difficulty in preparing the equal superposition state of amplitude is 1/√N, we construct a quantile transform of quantum Fourier transform (QFT) over Z N based on the elementary transforms, such as Hadamard transform and Pauli transform. The QFT over Z N can then be realized by the quantile transform, and used to further design its quantum circuit and analyze the requirements for the quantum register and quantum gates. However, the transform needs considerable quantum computational resources and it is difficult to construct a high-dimensional quantum register. Hence, we investigate the design of t-bit quantile transform, and introduce the definition of t-bit semiclassical QFT over Z N . According to probability amplitude, we prove that the transform can be used to realize QFT over Z N and further design its quantum circuit. For this transform, the requirements for the quantum register, the one-qubit gate, and two-qubit gate reduce obviously when compared with those for the QFT over Z N . (general)

  15. Design and application on experimental platform for high-speed bearing with grease lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental platform for high-speed grease is an important tool for research and development of high-speed motorized spindle with grease lubrication. In this article, the experimental platform for high-speed grease is designed and manufactured which consists of the drive system, the test portion, the loading system, the lubrication system, the control system, and so on. In the meantime, the high-speed angular contact ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 as the research object are tested and contrasted in the grease lubrication and oil mist lubrication. The experimental platform performance is validated by contrast experiment, and the high-speed lubricated bearing performance is also studied especially in the relationship among the rotating speed,load and temperature rise. The results show that the experimental platform works steadily, accurate, and reliable in the experimental testing. And the grease lubrication ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 can be used in high-speed motorized spindle in the circular water cooling conditions when the rotating speed is lower than 40,000 r/min or the DN value (the value of the bearing diameter times the rotating speed is lower than the 1.44 × 106 mm r/min. Grease lubrication instead of oil mist lubrication under high-speed rotating will simplify the structure design of the high-speed motorized spindle and reduce the pollution to the environment.

  16. A new application and experimental validation of moulding technology for ferrite magnet assisted synchronous reluctance machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qian; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new application of moulding technology to the installation of ferrite magnet material into the rotor flux barriers of Ferrite Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Machine (FASynRM). The feasibility of this application with respect to manufacturing process and motor...

  17. Methods for experimental design principles and applications for physicists and chemists

    CERN Document Server

    Goupy, J

    1993-01-01

    A method for organizing and conducting scientific experiments is described in this volume which enables experimenters to reduce the number of trials run, while retaining all the parameters that may influence the result. The choice of ideal experiments is based on mathematical concepts, but the author adopts a practical approach and uses theory only when necessary. Written for experimenters by an experimenter, it is an introduction to the philosophy of scientific investigation. Researchers with limited time and resources at their disposal will find this text a valuable guide for solving specific problems efficiently. The presentation makes extensive use of examples, and the approach and methods are graphical rather than numerical. All calculations can be performed on a personal computer; readers are assumed to have no previous knowledge of the subject. The presentation is such that the beginner may acquire a thorough understanding of the basic concepts. However, there is also sufficient material to challenge t...

  18. Application of Modern Experimental Technique to Solve Morphological Complexity in Plants Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURANTO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern taxonomy has two approaches, i.e. classical and experimental taxonomy. Classical taxonomy uses morphological characters, while experimental taxonomy uses broader methods including chemistry, physics and mathematics, in the form of laboratory data that are revealed together with the progress of optical technique (microscope, chemistry methods (chromatography, electrophoresis, etc. Modern taxonomy tends to use series of interrelated data. More data used would result in more validity and give better clarification of taxonomic status. A lot of modern taxonomic data such as palynology, cytotaxonomy (cytology, chemical constituent (chemotaxonomy, isozyme and DNA sequencing were used recently.

  19. Three Realizations and Comparison of Hardware for Piezoresistive Tactile Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Oballe-Peinado, Óscar; Sánchez-Durán, José A.; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Navas-González, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Tactile sensors are basically arrays of force sensors that are intended to emulate the skin in applications such as assistive robotics. Local electronics are usually implemented to reduce errors and interference caused by long wires. Realizations based on standard microcontrollers, Programmable Systems on Chip (PSoCs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have been proposed by the authors for the case of piezoresistive tactile sensors. The solution employing FPGAs is especially relevant since their performance is closer to that of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) than that of the other devices. This paper presents an implementation of such an idea for a specific sensor. For the purpose of comparison, the circuitry based on the other devices is also made for the same sensor. This paper discusses the implementation issues, provides details regarding the design of the hardware based on the three devices and compares them. PMID:22163797

  20. The Effect of Screen Size on Mobile Phone User Comprehension of Health Information and Application Structure: An Experimental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghamdi, Ebtisam; Yunus, Faisal; Da'ar, Omar; El-Metwally, Ashraf; Khalifa, Mohamed; Aldossari, Bakheet; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzes the impact of mobile phone screen size on user comprehension of health information and application structure. Applying experimental approach, we asked randomly selected users to read content and conduct tasks on a commonly used diabetes mobile application using three different mobile phone screen sizes. We timed and tracked a number of parameters, including correctness, effectiveness of completing tasks, content ease of reading, clarity of information organization, and comprehension. The impact of screen size on user comprehension/retention, clarity of information organization, and reading time were mixed. It is assumed on first glance that mobile screen size would affect all qualities of information reading and comprehension, including clarity of displayed information organization, reading time and user comprehension/retention of displayed information, but actually the screen size, in this experimental research, did not have significant impact on user comprehension/retention of the content or on understanding the application structure. However, it did have significant impact on clarity of information organization and reading time. Participants with larger screen size took shorter time reading the content with a significant difference in the ease of reading. While there was no significant difference in the comprehension of information or the application structures, there were a higher task completion rate and a lower number of errors with the bigger screen size. Screen size does not directly affect user comprehension of health information. However, it does affect clarity of information organization, reading time and user's ability to recall information.

  1. Geology knowledge application in civil engineering realization: Gas Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techera, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Company manager for the building project of south gas pipeline contracted technical services to National Direction of Geology and Mining DINAMIGE for study the geology.It studied Colonia-Montevideo stretch s and then Colonia-Porto Alegre stretch s of gas pipeline.The main purpose was determine the physical and mechanics earthly characteristic for in a future to bury the gas pipe

  2. Experimental concrete coating application on the median barrier of I 65 in Louisville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the experimental protective coating that was applied to approximately 1,200 linear feet of concrete median barrier along the paving project on a section of I 65 between mile points 131.289 and 136.421 ...

  3. An Electromagnetic Head and Neck Hyperthermia Applicator: experimental phantom verification and FDTD model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Paulides (Maarten); J.F. Bakker (Jurriaan); G.C. van Rhoon (Gerard)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To experimentally verify the feasibility of focused heating in the neck region by an array of two rings of six electromagnetic antennas. We also measured the dynamic specific absorption rate (SAR) steering possibilities of this setup and compared these SAR patterns to

  4. Experimental determination of ideal concrete density used for applications in bunkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitelli, T.; Coelho, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Comparisons between barite concrete of different densities and exactly equal measures, subjected to gamma irradiation of 192 Ir source, with changeless measure of geometry are presented. The experimental results and the applied statistics with 95% of trust, confirm that the barite added supplies a significant increase of irradiation attenuation. (C.M.) [pt

  5. 75 FR 71699 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permits; Receipt of Amendment and Extension Applications; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) or the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA... trials to evaluate insect and herbicide efficacy, agronomic performance, and breeding lines. Also proposed is the production of seed for future plantings of experimental and regulatory field trials...

  6. Experimental investigation of a blunt trailing edge flow field with application to sound generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, Daniel W. [University of Notre Dame, Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, B026 Hessert Laboratory, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Morris, Scott C. [University of Notre Dame, Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, 109 Hessert Laboratory, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The unsteady lift generated by turbulence at the trailing edge of an airfoil is a source of radiated sound. The objective of the present research was to measure the velocity field in the near wake region of an asymmetric beveled trailing edge in order to determine the flow mechanisms responsible for the generation of trailing edge noise. Two component velocity measurements were acquired using particle image velocimetry. The chord Reynolds number was 1.9 x 10{sup 6}. The data show velocity field realizations that were typical of a wake flow containing an asymmetric periodic vortex shedding. A phase average decomposition of the velocity field with respect to this shedding process was utilized to separate the large scale turbulent motions that occurred at the vortex shedding frequency (i.e., those responsible for the production of tonal noise) from the smaller scale turbulent motions, which were interpreted to be responsible for the production of broadband sound. The small scale turbulence was found to be dependent on the phase of the vortex shedding process implying a dependence of the broadband sound generated by the trailing edge on the phase of the vortex shedding process. (orig.)

  7. Flexible distribution systems through the application of multi back-to-back converters. Concept, implementation and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R A.A.

    2010-05-26

    with the versatile multi back-to-back converter topology. In Chapter 5 (Intelligent Node control and protection) the developed applications are translated into control schemes for the individual converters. To ensure proper implementation of the concept, together with the control concept, also a protection concept is developed, which is tailored to the specific characteristics of the Intelligent Node. To demonstrate the concept and controls as described in the previous chapters, a three-phase laboratory-scale set-up is realized and describe in Chapter 6 (Laboratory-scale demonstration). In this set-up experiments are carried out, which focus on the innovative parts of the IN concept. Chapter 7 gives the Conclusions The thesis ends with general conclusions and recommendations for future research.

  8. Applications of a superconducting solenoidal separator in the experimental investigation of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinde, D J; Carter, I P; Dasgupta, M; Simpson, E C; Cook, K J; Kalkal, Sunil; Luong, D H; Williams, E

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes applications of a novel superconducting solenoidal separator, with magnetic fields up to 8 Tesla, for studies of nuclear reactions using the Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility at the Australian National University. (paper)

  9. Assessment of realizability constraints in v2-f turbulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveningsson, A.; Davidson, L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of the realizability constraint in v 2 -f turbulence models is assessed by computing a stator vane passage flow. In this flow the stagnation region is large and it is shown that the time scale bound suggested by [Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 17 (1995) 89] is well suited to prevent unphysical growth of turbulence kinetic energy. However, this constraint causes numerical instabilities when used in the equation for the relaxation parameter, f. It is also shown that the standard use of the realizability constraint in the v 2 -f model is inconsistent and some modifications are suggested. These changes of the v 2 -f model are examined and shown to have negligible effect on the overall performance of the v 2 -f model. In this work two different versions of the v 2 -f model are investigated and the results obtained are compared with experimental data. The model on a form similar to that originally suggested by Durbin (e.g. [AIAA J. 33 (1995) 659]) produced the overall best agreement with stator vane heat transfer data

  10. Experimental investigations of an endoluminal ultrasound applicator for MR-guided thermal therapy of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Jones, Peter; Plata, Juan; Chen, Henry; Pauly, Kim Butts; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris

    2017-03-01

    An MR-guided endoluminal ultrasound applicator has been proposed for palliative and potential curative thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. Minimally invasive ablation or hyperthermia treatment of pancreatic tumor tissue would be performed with the applicator positioned in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen, and sparing of the luminal tissue would be achieved with a water-cooled balloon surrounding the ultrasound transducers. This approach offers the capability of conformal volumetric therapy for fast treatment times, with control over the 3D spatial deposition of energy. Prototype endoluminal ultrasound applicators have been fabricated using 3D printed fixtures that seat two 3.2 or 5.6 MHz planar or curvilinear transducers and contain channels for wiring and water flow. Spiral surface coils have been integrated onto the applicator body to allow for device localization and tracking for therapies performed under MR guidance. Heating experiments with a tissue-mimicking phantom in a 3T MR scanner were performed and demonstrated capability of the prototype to perform volumetric heating through duodenal luminal tissue under real-time PRF-based MR temperature imaging (MRTI). Additional experiments were performed in ex vivo pig carcasses with the applicator inserted into the esophagus and aimed towards liver or soft tissue surrounding the spine under MR guidance. These experiments verified the capacity of heating targets up to 20-25 mm from the GI tract. Active device tracking and automated prescription of imaging and temperature monitoring planes through the applicator were made possible by using Hadamard encoded tracking sequences to obtain the coordinates of the applicator tracking coils. The prototype applicators have been integrated with an MR software suite that performs real-time device tracking and temperature monitoring.

  11. Effective Complexity of Stationary Process Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleta Szkoła

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effective complexity of an object as the minimal description length of its regularities has been initiated by Gell-Mann and Lloyd. The regularities are modeled by means of ensembles, which is the probability distributions on finite binary strings. In our previous paper [1] we propose a definition of effective complexity in precise terms of algorithmic information theory. Here we investigate the effective complexity of binary strings generated by stationary, in general not computable, processes. We show that under not too strong conditions long typical process realizations are effectively simple. Our results become most transparent in the context of coarse effective complexity which is a modification of the original notion of effective complexity that needs less parameters in its definition. A similar modification of the related concept of sophistication has been suggested by Antunes and Fortnow.

  12. Realized Variance and Market Microstructure Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter R.; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    We study market microstructure noise in high-frequency data and analyze its implications for the realized variance (RV) under a general specification for the noise. We show that kernel-based estimators can unearth important characteristics of market microstructure noise and that a simple kernel......-based estimator dominates the RV for the estimation of integrated variance (IV). An empirical analysis of the Dow Jones Industrial Average stocks reveals that market microstructure noise its time-dependent and correlated with increments in the efficient price. This has important implications for volatility...... estimation based on high-frequency data. Finally, we apply cointegration techniques to decompose transaction prices and bid-ask quotes into an estimate of the efficient price and noise. This framework enables us to study the dynamic effects on transaction prices and quotes caused by changes in the efficient...

  13. Design and Realization of Intelligent Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiong Ye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to accurate flow rate control requirements in large irrigation zone, a fuzzy controller with dead-band is designed on the characteristics analysis and comparison of PID and Fuzzy. The setting values of water flow for gates are determined by real-time water level detection sensors, and the realistic value of discharged water and gate opening are detected out with relative sensors, simulation manifest that the specific control strategy can adjust the gate swiftly in circumstance of huge offset, and regulate the gate slightly in time of small bias, it is realized with Siemens S315 PLC (Programmable Logical Controller and has being working steadily for 2 years, the aim of regulation is performed properly.

  14. Design and realization of an autonomous solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaga, A.; Diouri, O.; Es-sbai, N.; Errahimi, F.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is the design and realization of an autonomous solar system, with MPPT control, a regulator charge/discharge of batteries, an H-bridge multi-level inverter with acquisition system and supervising based on a microcontroller. The proposed approach is based on developing a software platform in the LabVIEW environment which gives the system a flexible structure for controlling, monitoring and supervising the whole system in real time while providing power maximization and best quality of energy conversion from DC to AC power. The reliability of the proposed solar system is validated by the simulation results on PowerSim and experimental results achieved with a solar panel, a Lead acid battery, solar regulator and an H-bridge cascaded topology of single-phase inverter.

  15. Realization of a Service Robot for Cleaning Spherical Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houxiang Zhang

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available There are more and more buildings with complicated shape emerging all over the world. Their walls require constant cleaning which is difficult to realize. In this paper, based on analyzing the characteristics of the working target, a new kind of auto-climbing robot is proposed, which is used for cleaning the spherical surface of the National GrandTheatre in China. The robots' mechanism and unique aspects are presented in detail. A distributed controller based onCAN bus is designed to meet the requirements of controlling the robot. The control system is divided into 6 parts, fiveCAN bus control nodes and a remote controller, which are designed and established based mainly on the P80C592. Finally, the motion function is described in detail. The experimental results confirm the principle described above andthe robot's ability to work on the spherical surface.

  16. Clean Floquet Time Crystals: Models and Realizations in Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biao; Wu, Ying-Hai; Liu, W. Vincent

    2018-03-01

    Time crystals, a phase showing spontaneous breaking of time-translation symmetry, has been an intriguing subject for systems far away from equilibrium. Recent experiments found such a phase in both the presence and the absence of localization, while in theories localization by disorder is usually assumed a priori. In this work, we point out that time crystals can generally exist in systems without disorder. A series of clean quasi-one-dimensional models under Floquet driving are proposed to demonstrate this unexpected result in principle. Robust time crystalline orders are found in the strongly interacting regime along with the emergent integrals of motion in the dynamical system, which can be characterized by level statistics and the out-of-time-ordered correlators. We propose two cold atom experimental schemes to realize the clean Floquet time crystals, one by making use of dipolar gases and another by synthetic dimensions.

  17. PACS—Realization of an adaptive concept using pressure actuated cellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramüller, B; Boblenz, J; Hühne, C

    2014-01-01

    A biologically inspired concept is investigated which can be utilized to develop energy efficient, lightweight and applicational flexible adaptive structures. Building a real life morphing unit is an ambitious task as the numerous works in the particular field show. Summarizing fundamental demands and barriers regarding shape changing structures, the basic challenges of designing morphing structures are listed. The concept of Pressure Actuated Cellular Structures (PACS) is arranged within the recent morphing activities and it is shown that it complies with the underlying demands. Systematically divided into energy-related and structural subcomponents the working principle is illuminated and relationships between basic design parameters are expressed. The analytical background describing the physical mechanisms of PACS is presented in concentrated manner. This work focuses on the procedure of dimensioning, realizing and experimental testing of a single cell and a single row cantilever made of PACS. The experimental outcomes as well as the results from the FEM computations are used for evaluating the analytical methods. The functionality of the basic principle is thus validated and open issues are determined pointing the way ahead. (paper)

  18. PACS—Realization of an adaptive concept using pressure actuated cellular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramüller, B.; Boblenz, J.; Hühne, C.

    2014-10-01

    A biologically inspired concept is investigated which can be utilized to develop energy efficient, lightweight and applicational flexible adaptive structures. Building a real life morphing unit is an ambitious task as the numerous works in the particular field show. Summarizing fundamental demands and barriers regarding shape changing structures, the basic challenges of designing morphing structures are listed. The concept of Pressure Actuated Cellular Structures (PACS) is arranged within the recent morphing activities and it is shown that it complies with the underlying demands. Systematically divided into energy-related and structural subcomponents the working principle is illuminated and relationships between basic design parameters are expressed. The analytical background describing the physical mechanisms of PACS is presented in concentrated manner. This work focuses on the procedure of dimensioning, realizing and experimental testing of a single cell and a single row cantilever made of PACS. The experimental outcomes as well as the results from the FEM computations are used for evaluating the analytical methods. The functionality of the basic principle is thus validated and open issues are determined pointing the way ahead.

  19. Adiabatic Processes Realized with a Trapped Brownian Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ignacio A.; Roldán, Édgar; Dinis, Luis; Petrov, Dmitri; Rica, Raúl A.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to implement adiabatic processes in the mesoscale is of key importance in the study of artificial or biological micro- and nanoengines. Microadiabatic processes have been elusive to experimental implementation due to the difficulty in isolating Brownian particles from their fluctuating environment. Here we report on the experimental realization of a microscopic quasistatic adiabatic process employing a trapped Brownian particle. We circumvent the complete isolation of the Brownian particle by designing a protocol where both characteristic volume and temperature of the system are changed in such a way that the entropy of the system is conserved along the process. We compare the protocols that follow from either the overdamped or underdamped descriptions, demonstrating that the latter is mandatory in order to obtain a vanishing average heat flux to the particle. We provide analytical expressions for the distributions of the fluctuating heat and entropy and verify them experimentally. Our protocols could serve to implement the first microscopic engine that is able to attain the fundamental limit for the efficiency set by Carnot.

  20. APPLICATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF A TUNGSTEN CONCENTRATION PROCESS BY MICROEMULSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.S. RAMOS

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - In this work, we applied an experimental planning methodology in order to correlate the necessary amounts with the description of the a tungsten extraction process by microemulsions. The result is a mathematical modelling carried out using the Sheffe Net method, where the mixtures concentration values are represented inside an equilateral triangle. The tungsten concentration process occurs in two stages: extraction and reextraction. The extraction stage was determined by monitoring: phase relative volume (Vr, extraction percentage (%E and tungsten concentration in the microemulsion phase (Ctm e. The reextraction phase was determined by monitoring: reextraction percentage (%Re and tungsten concentration in the aqueous phase (Ctaq. Finally, we obtained equations that relate the extraction / reextraction properties to the composition of specific points inside the extraction region, obeying the error limits specified for the acceptance of each parameter. The results were evaluated through the construction of isoresponse diagrams and correlation graphics between experimental values and those obtained through use of equations.

  1. An experimental investigation of pump as turbine for micro hydro application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, N; Hussein, I; Palanisamy, K; Foo, B

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of a centrifugal pump working as turbine (PAT). An end suction centrifugal pump was tested in turbine mode at PAT experimental rig installed in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The pump with specific speed of 15.36 (m, m 3 /s) was used in the experiment and the performance characteristic of the PAT was determined. The experiment showed that a centrifugal pump can satisfactorily be operated as turbine without any mechanical problems. As compared to pump operation, the pump was found to operate at higher heads and discharge values in turbine mode. The best efficiency point (BEP) in turbine mode was found to be lower than BEP in pump mode. The results obtained were also compared to the work of some previous researchers.

  2. Load theory behind the wheel: an experimental application of a cognitive model to simulated driving

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Load Theory is a prominent model of selective attention first proposed over twenty years ago. Load Theory is supported by a great many experimental and neuroimaging studies. There is however, little evidence that Load Theory can be applied to real world attention, though it has great practical potential. Driving, as an everyday task where failures of attention can have profound consequences, stands to benefit from the understanding of selective attention that Load Theory provides. The aim of ...

  3. Experimental investigations into low concentrating line axis solar concentrators for CPV applications

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, H; Sabry, M; Redpath, DAG

    2016-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic conversion systems with integrated, low concentration ratio, non-imaging reflective concentrators, could be on south facing building roofs used to generate power at a lower cost than currently available proprietary systems. The experimental investigation presented by this research provides information on the optical and energy conversion characteristics of two geometrically equivalent non-imaging concentrators; a compound parabolic concentrator and a V-trough reflector. The...

  4. Developing experimental protocols for chronic irradiation studies: the application of a good practice guide framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.D.; Knowles, J.D.; Whittaker, J.H.; Copplestone, D.; Malcolm, H.M.; Bielby, S.; Zinger, I.

    2004-01-01

    The EC-funded FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) project collated information on the transfer, dosimetry, and effects of ionising radiation on wildlife. A major output from the project is the FASSET Radiation Effects Database (FRED). A review of the information contained within FRED highlighted that information on the effects of low-dose, chronic exposure was, at best, fragmentary. However, these data are required to define the dose effect relationships needed to underpin the assessment tools that are being developed. To address this requirement, a series of four Good Practice Guides (GPGs) has been produced as part of a protocol development framework. This framework aims to harmonise experimental approaches, with a view to ensuring that all necessary data on appropriate endpoints are collected, so that dose effect relationships can be determined. The GPGs cover test species selection, endpoint selection, radiation exposure and experimental design considerations. A key is used to guide researchers through the GPGs and the decisions made are recorded on an output pro-forma. The completed pro-forma forms the basis of the experimental protocol. The pro-forma also indicates the information that should be included when presenting the results of the experiment. Standardising approaches ensures that results are comparable between experiments and that they are suitable for determining dose effect relationships. This protocol development framework has been adopted by the UK Environment Agency as a document upon which future Agency-funded experimental work on the effects of chronic, low-level exposure to ionising radiation will be based. It is hoped that the framework will gain acceptance in the wider scientific community and facilitate addressing the knowledge gaps that have been identified in order that successful protection of non-human biota can be demonstrated. (author)

  5. Progress in nuclear measuring and experimental techniques by application of microelectronics. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiling, W.

    1984-01-01

    In the past decade considerable progress has been made in nuclear measuring and experimental techniques by developing position-sensitive detector systems and widely using integrated circuits and microcomputers for data acquisition and processing as well as for automation of measuring processes. In this report which will be published in three parts those developments are reviewed and demonstrated on selected examples. After briefly characterizing microelectronics, the use of microelectronic elements for radiation detectors is reviewed. (author)

  6. Experimental evaluation of end-to-end delay in switched Ethernet application in the automotive domain

    OpenAIRE

    Beretis , Kostas; Symeonidis , Ieroklis

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This article presents an approach for deriving upper bound for end-to-end delay in a double star switched Ethernet network. Four traffic classes, following a strict priority queuing policy, were considered. The theoretical analysis was based on network calculus. An experimental setup, which accu-rately reflects an automotive communication network, was implemented in or-der to evaluate the theoretical model. The results obtained by the experiments provided valuable feed...

  7. CT use for nasopharingeal molds realization in endocavitary brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J. Torrecilla; Crispin, V.; Chust, M.; Guinot, J.; Arribas, L.; Mengual, J.; Carrasco, P.; Miragall, E.; Hernandez, A.; Guardino, C.; Carrascosa, M.; Cardenal, R.; Casana, M.; Prats, C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: We present the following procedure for the making of individual molds with dental silicone for endocavitary brachytherapy of nasopharingeal cancer aided by CT scan. Procedure: Head immobilization during the realization of nasopharynx CT. Planification of treatment using these CT images, to determine the optimum position of radioactive sources. Printing on paper CT images with the nasopharynx contoured walls and the radioactive sources position. Realization of the mold in plastiline with the aid of the cuts of printer paper cut out with the nasopharynx form. Obtaining of the negative of the mold of plastiline by means of the use of alginate. Placement of two number 20 rectal rigid catheters with metal malleable bars inside them, in order to give them an adequate form in relation to the previous carried out planning. Filling in of alginato negative, where rectal catheters were placed, with Provil MCD Bayer Dental, a silicone based material for precision impression. We recommend to crossing the catheters' end with a number 2 silk thread to secure the catheter. An end of the silk thread is left outside the mold in order to help the extraction at the end of application. We advise to carry out a neuroleptic anaesthesia for its insertion, for the purpose of achieving a soft palate suitable relaxation. It makes the insertion easier. Repeat CT with the mold and phantoms in position to know a definitive dose distribution calculation. Conclusion: This method avoids the necessity of general anaesthesia in the realization of individual molds of nasopharyx for endocavitary brachytherapy and it improves the implant dosimetry

  8. Experimental determination of viscosity of water based magnetite nanofluid for application in heating and cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toghraie, Davood; Alempour, Seyed Mohammadbagher; Afrand, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, experimental determination of dynamic viscosity of water based magnetite nanofluid (Fe 3 O 4 /water) was performed. The viscosity was measured in the temperature range of 20–55 °C for various samples with solid volume fractions of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 1%, 2% and 3%. The results showed that the viscosity considerably decreases with increasing temperature. Moreover, the viscosity enhances with an increase in the solid volume fraction, remarkably. The calculated viscosity ratios showed that the maximum viscosity enhancement was 129.7%. Using experimental data, a new correlation has been proposed to predict the viscosity of magnetite nanofluid (Fe 3 O 4 /water). A comparison between the experimental results and the correlation outputs showed that the proposed model has a suitable accuracy. - Highlights: • Preparing Magnetite nanofluids with solid volume fractions up to 3%. • Measuring viscosity in temperature range of 20–55 °C using Brookfield Viscometer. • Maximum viscosity enhancement occurred at volume fraction of 3% and was 129.7%. • Proposing new correlation to predict the viscosity of Fe3O4/water nanofluid.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Comparative Process Capabilities of Metal and Ceramic Injection Molding for Precision Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Giannekas, Nikolaos; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    and discussion presented in the paper will be useful for thorough understanding of the MIM and CIM processes and to select the right material and process for the right application or even to combine metal and ceramic materials by molding to produce metal–ceramic hybrid components.......The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative study on the process capabilities of the two branches of the powder injection molding (PIM) process—metal injection molding (MIM) and ceramic injection molding (CIM), for high-end precision applications. The state-of-the-art literature does...

  10. Experimental design for reflection measurements of highly reactive liquid or solid substances with application to liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.H.; Gossler, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    This technical report describes the experimental part of a program on thermal radiation properties of reactor materials. A versatile goniometer system with associated electronic components and mechanical instruments has been assembled. It is designed to measure spectral, specular reflectances of highly reactive liquid or solid substances over a spectral range of 0.3 μ to 9 μ and incidence angles of 12 0 to 30 0 off the normal direction. The capability of measuring reflectances of liquid substances clearly distinguishes this experimental design from conventional systems which are applicable only to solid substances. This design has been used to measure the spectral, specular reflectance of liquid sodium and preliminary results obtained are compared with those of solid sodium measured by other investigators

  11. Application of a LiFePO4 Battery Energy Storage System to Primary Frequency Control: Simulations and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Massimo Gatta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental application of LiFePO4 battery energy storage systems (BESSs to primary frequency control, currently being performed by Terna, the Italian transmission system operator (TSO. BESS performance in the primary frequency control role was evaluated by means of a simplified electrical-thermal circuit model, taking into account also the BESS auxiliary consumptions, coupled with a cycle-life model, in order to assess the expected life of the BESS. Numerical simulations have been carried out considering the system response to real frequency measurements taken in Italy, spanning a whole year; a parametric study taking into account different values of governor droop and of BESS charge/discharge rates (C-rates was also performed. Simulations, fully validated by experimental results obtained thus far, evidenced a severe trade-off between expected lifetime and overall efficiency, which significantly restricts the choice of operating parameters for frequency control.

  12. Experimental results of a 3 k Wh thermochemical heat storage module for space heating application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C.J.; Henquet, E.M.R.; Soest, C.F.L. van; Oversloot, H.P.; Jong, A.J. de; Cuypers, R.; Spijker, J.C. van 't

    2014-01-01

    A 3 kWh thermochemical heat storage (TCS) module was built as part of an all-in house system implementation focusing on space heating application at a temperature level of 40 ºC and a temperature lift of 20 K. It has been tested and measurements showed a maximum water circuit temperature span

  13. 77 FR 64988 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... fair treatment and meaningful involvement of any group, including minority and/or low income... factors, may have atypical or disproportionately high and adverse human health impacts or environmental.../Product: Glyphosate and Dicamba/M1751 Herbicide. Summary of Request: Application for an EUP to conduct...

  14. 78 FR 25436 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permits; Receipt of Applications; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... more of land or 1 acre or more of water. A copy of the applications and any information submitted is... to mate with indigenous female Aedes albopictus, causing conditional sterility and resulting in... product in the indigenous population. Contact: Shanaz Bacchus, BPPD, (703) 308-8097, email address...

  15. MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality Assessment – Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

  16. Results of experimental investigations on the heat conductivity of nanofluids based on diathermic oil for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colangelo, Gianpiero; Favale, Ernani; Risi, Arturo de; Laforgia, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This work reports experimental results for nanofluids using diathermic oil as base fluid. ► Nanofluids with CuO, Al 2 O 3 , ZnO and Cu, with different shapes and concentrations have been tested. ► Thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids with diathermic oil is higher than those with demineralized water. ► Better results were obtained with ZnO, for nanofluids with metal oxide nanoparticles. -- Abstract: The work reported in this paper shows the experimental results from a study on diathermic oil based nanofluids. Diathermic oil finds application in renewable energy, cogeneration and cooling systems. For example, it is used in solar thermodynamic or biomass plants, where high efficiency, compact volumes and high energy fluxes are required. Besides diathermic oil is very important in those applications where high temperatures are reached or where the use of water or vapor is not suitable. Therefore an improvement of diathermic oil thermo-physical properties, by using of nanoparticles, can increase the performance of the systems. In literature there are not many experimental data on diathermic oil based nanofluids because many experimental campaigns are focused on water nanofluids. Samples of nanofluids, with nanoparticles of CuO, Al 2 O 3 , ZnO and Cu, having different shapes and concentrations varying from 0.0% up to 3.0%, have been produced and their thermal conductivity has been measured by means of hot-wire technique, according to the standard ASTM D 2717-95. Measurements were carried out to investigate the effects of volume fraction, particle size of nanoparticles on the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. The effect of temperature has been also investigated in the range 20–60 °C. A dependence was observed on the measured parameters and the results showed that the heat transfer performance of diathermic oil enhances more than water with the same nanoparticles.

  17. Quantum Optical Realization of Arbitrary Linear Transformations Allowing for Loss and Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, N.; Rockstuhl, C.; Słowik, K.

    2018-04-01

    Unitary transformations are routinely modeled and implemented in the field of quantum optics. In contrast, nonunitary transformations, which can involve loss and gain, require a different approach. In this work, we present a universal method to deal with nonunitary networks. An input to the method is an arbitrary linear transformation matrix of optical modes that does not need to adhere to bosonic commutation relations. The method constructs a transformation that includes the network of interest and accounts for full quantum optical effects related to loss and gain. Furthermore, through a decomposition in terms of simple building blocks, it provides a step-by-step implementation recipe, in a manner similar to the decomposition by Reck et al. [Experimental Realization of Any Discrete Unitary Operator, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 58 (1994), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.73.58] but applicable to nonunitary transformations. Applications of the method include the implementation of positive-operator-valued measures and the design of probabilistic optical quantum information protocols.

  18. Sulfur Tolerant Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Coal Syngas Application: Experimental Study on Diverse Impurity Effects and Fundamental Modeling of Electrode Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mingyang

    With demand over green energy economy, fuel cells have been developed as a promising energy conversion technology with higher efficiency and less emission. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) can utilize various fuels in addition to hydrogen including coal derived sygas, and thus are favored for future power generation due to dependence on coal in electrical industry. However impurities such as sulfur and phosphorous present in coal syngas in parts per million (p.p.m.) levels can severely poison SOFC anode typically made of Ni/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (Ni-YSZ) and limit SOFC applicability in economically derivable fuels. The focus of the research is to develop strategy for application of high performance SOFC in coal syngas with tolerance against trace impurities such as H2S and PH3. To realize the research goal, the experimental study on sulfur tolerant anode materials and examination of various fuel impurity effects on SOFC anode are combined with electrochemical modeling of SOFC cathode kinetics in order to benefit design of direct-coal-syngas SOFC. Tolerant strategy for SOFC anode against sulfur is studied by using alternative materials which can both mitigate sulfur poisoning and function as active anode components. The Ni-YSZ anode was modified by incorporation of lanthanum doped ceria (LDC) nano-coatings via impregnation. Cell test in coal syngas containing 20 ppm H2S indicated the impregnated LDC coatings inhibited on-set of sulfur poisoning by over 10hrs. Cell analysis via X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemistry revealed LDC coatings reacted with H2S via chemisorptions, resulting in less sulfur blocking triple--phase-boundary and minimized performance loss. Meanwhile the effects of PH3 impurity on SOFC anode is examined by using Ni-YSZ anode supported SOFC. Degradation of cell is found to be irreversible due to adsorption of PH3 on TPB and further reaction with Ni to form secondary phases with low melting point. The

  19. Experimental investigation and numerical modeling of carbonation process in reinforced concrete structures Part II. Practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saetta, Anna V.; Vitaliani, Renato V.

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical-numerical method developed by the authors to predict the corrosion initiation time of reinforced concrete structures due to carbonation process, recalled in Part I of this work, is here applied to some real cases. The final aim is to develop and test a practical method for determining the durability characteristics of existing buildings liable to carbonation, as well as estimating the corrosion initiation time of a building at the design stage. Two industrial sheds with different ages and located in different areas have been analyzed performing both experimental tests and numerical analyses. Finally, a case of carbonation-induced failure in a prestressed r.c. beam is presented

  20. Clustering of experimental data and its application to nuclear data evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, A.; Rashed, R.; Ibrahim, M.

    1997-01-01

    A semi-automatic pre-processing technique has been proposed by Iwasaki to classify the experimental data for a reaction into one or a small number of large data groups, called main cluster(s), and to eliminate some data which deviate from the main body of the data. The classifying method is based on a technique like pattern clustering in the information processing domain. Test of the data clustering formed reasonable main clusters for three activation cross-sections. This technique is a helpful tool in the neutron cross-section evaluation. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. Clustering of experimental data and its application to nuclear data evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, A.; Rashed, R.; Ibrahim, M.

    1998-01-01

    A semi-automatic pre-processing technique has been proposed by Iwasaki to classify the experimental data for a reaction into one or a small number of large data groups, called main cluster (s), and to eliminate some data which deviates from the main body of the data. The classifying method is based on technique like pattern clustering in the information processing domain. Test of the data clustering formed reasonable main clusters for three activation cross-sections. This technique is a helpful tool in the neutron cross-section evaluation

  2. Application of activation methods on the Dubna experimental transmutation set-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoulos, S; Fragopoulou, M; Adloff, J C; Debeauvais, M; Brandt, R; Westmeier, W; Krivopustov, M; Sosnin, A; Papastefanou, C; Zamani, M; Manolopoulou, M

    2003-02-01

    High spallation neutron fluxes were produced by irradiating massive heavy targets with proton beams in the GeV range. The experiments were performed at the Dubna High Energy Laboratory using the nuclotron accelerator. Two different experimental set-ups were used to produce neutron spectra convenient for transmutation of radioactive waste by (n,x) reactions. By a theoretical analysis neutron spectra can be reproduced from activation measurements. Thermal-epithermal and fast-super-fast neutron fluxes were estimated using the 197Au, 238U (n,gamma) and (n,2n) reactions, respectively. Depleted uranium transmutation rates were also studied in both experiments.

  3. An experimental applications of impedance measurements by spectral analysis to electrochemistry and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.B.; Vilche, J.R.; Milocco, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    An impedance measurement system based on the spectral analysis of excitation and response signals was implemented using a pseudo-random binary sequence in the generation of the electrical perturbation signal. The spectral density functions were estimated through finite Fourier transforms of the original time history records by fast computation of Fourier series. Experimental results obtained using the FFT algorithm in the developed impedance measurement system which covers a wide frequency range, 10 KHz >= f >= 1 mHz, are given both for dummy cells representing conventional electric circuits in electrochemistry and corrosion systems and for the Fe/acidic chloride solution interfaces under different polarization conditions. (C.L.B.) [pt

  4. Experimental applications of an expert system to operator problem solving in process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Jenkins, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has sponsored a program to assess the effectiveness of expert systems for nuclear reactor operators. The project has included two human factors experimental evaluations of the Response Tree expert system, a prototype expert system for helping nuclear reactor operators respond to emergency conditions. This paper discusses the Response Tree expert system, the experiments which have been performed to test its effectiveness, and the results of the experiments. Reference is made to the accident at TMI. 12 refs

  5. Experimental design for reflection measurements of highly reactive liquid or solid substances with application to liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.H.; Gossler, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A versatile goniometer system with associated electronic components and mechanical instruments has been assembled. It is designed to measure spectral, specular reflectances of highly reactive liquid or solid substances over a spectral range of 0.3 to 9 μ and incidence angles of 12 to 30 0 off the normal direction. The capability of measuring reflectances of liquid substances clearly distinguishes this experimental design from conventional systems which are applicable only to solid substances. This design has been used to measure the spectral, specular reflectance of liquid sodium and preliminary results obtained are compared with those of solid sodium measured by other investigators

  6. THE APPLICATION'S WAYS OF PROBLEM-ORIENTED TASKS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS IN THE DISTANCE COURSE "EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salyuk

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Some principles on which it is expedient to lean in the process of the development of materials of distant educational courses are considered: support on multiplicity of form of representation of information in consciousness; an account of conformity to law of maintenance of information in semantic memory of man; integration of educational information in the personal experience; orientation on the future real professional activity at the design of base of executive knowledge. Application of principles is illustrated by the examples of tasks in the distance educational course «Experimental psychology».

  7. The use of stem cells in aesthetic dermatology and plastic surgery procedures. A compact review of experimental and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Maciej; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Pietkun, Katarzyna; Zegarski, Maciej; Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Habib, Samy L; Drewa, Tomasz; Zegarska, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to collect currently available data related to the use of stem cells in aesthetic dermatology and plastic surgery based on a systemic review of experimental and clinical applications. We found that the use of stem cells is very promising but the current state of art is still not effective. This situation is connected with not fully known mechanisms of cell interactions, possible risks and side effects. We think that there is a big need to create and conduct different studies which could resolve problems of stem cells use for implementation into aesthetic dermatology and plastic surgery.

  8. Application of the failure modes and effects analysis technique to theemergency cooling system of an experimental nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao Junior, Osmar

    2009-01-01

    This study consists on the application of the Failure Modes and EffectsAnalysis (FMEA), a hazard identification and a risk assessment technique, tothe Emergency Cooling System (ECS) of an experimental nuclear power plant,which is responsible for mitigating the consequences of an eventual loss ofcoolant accident on the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Such analysisintends to identify possible weaknesses on the design of the system andpropose some improvements in order to maximize its reliability. To achievethis goal a detailed study of the system was carried on (through itstechnical documentation), the correspondent reliability block diagram wasobtained, the FMEA analysis was executed and, finally, some suggestions werepresented. (author)

  9. New Realization of Periodic Cycled Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegard, Bjarne; Clausen, Charlotte H.; Jørgensen, Sten B.

    2016-01-01

    are drained sequentially rather than simultaneously, such that the vapor flow is not interrupted during the liquid drainage. For different ratios of counter-current vapor/liquid flow rates, column efficiencies for periodically cycled columns are shown experimentally to be two times greater than those...

  10. Spontaneously broken realization of supersymmetry in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, S.; Trieste Univ.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that if supersymmetry is relevant for the physical world it must be broken either spontaneously or explicitly. Renormalizability and simplicity are in favor of a spontaneous realization of the symmetry breaking. When supersymmetry is spontaneously broken the spinorial analogue of the Goldstone phenomenon occurs, namely massless particles arise in the spectrum of the theory which carry the same quantum numbers of the broken generators Qsup(i) they are N spin 1/2 Goldstone fermions (goldstinos). These particles may be eaten by spin 3/2 gauge particles (gravitinos) when supersymmetry is gauged. It is shown that both the Higgs effect and super Higgs effect have taken place. 8 of the spin 1/2 particles have been eaten by the spin 3/2 particles and 24 of 70 scalars have been eaten by the spin 3/2 particles and 24 of 70 scalars have been eaten by 24 of the 28 vector particles to provide them with mass. The conclusion is that the number of mass relations is, in general, equal to r-1, where r is the rank of the algebra which generates the spectrum

  11. Realizing the potential of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.

    1982-01-01

    The future of nuclear power, just as the future of America, can be viewed with optimism. There is hope in America's record of overcoming obstacles, but growth is essential for that hope to be realized. Despite the downturn in energy demand made possible by conservation, we will need a 35% growth in total energy for new workers and production. Electricity generated by nuclear or coal can make US production more cost-competitive, and it can power mass-transit systems, electric heat pumps, and communications and information systems. Changes in electricity and gross national product (GNP) have been more closely in step since 1973 than have total energy and GNP. The nuclear power units now under construction will add 80,000 megawatts to the 56,000 now on line. It is important to note that, while utilities are cancelling plans for nuclear plants, they aren't ordering new coal plants, which shows the impact of the high cost of money. Interest rates must come down and public-relations efforts to sell electricity must improve to change the situation. Although capital shortages are real, waste disposal is a problem of perception that was politically induced because the government failed to provide a demonstration of safety as the French are doing. Streamlined regulatory and insurance procedures can help to justify optimism in the nuclear option. 4 figures

  12. Experimental consolidation of granulated rock salt with application to sleeve buckling. Technical memorandum report RSI-0044

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.D.

    1976-01-01

    Quasi-static and creep consolidation tests have been performed in order to determine the compressibility of granulated rock salt when subjected to uniaxial deformations. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the force-displacement characteristics of rock salt that may be used as a backfill material around waste canister sleeves. The test set-up involved placing rock salt pellets in a thin-walled steel cylinder and applying a uniaxial load which compressed the salt while allowing no lateral movement. Tests were run at room temperature, 100 and 200 0 C and consolidated to uniaxial stress levels between 1000 and 4000 psi. Axial force, displacement and time were monitored during each test and the relationships have been evaluated. In particular, compressibility of the rock salt is not drastically effected by the temperature differences, nor is there an appreciable difference between the consolidation tests that were allowed to creep and those that were tested quasi-statically. On the basis of experimental data relating volume change to uniaxial stress, the pressure on the waste canister sleeve has been shown to be a nonlinear function of drillhole displacement. For a proposed in situ field test geometry, a 16 inch drillhole and a canister with a 12.75 inch O.D., the pressure necessary to buckle the canister sleeve will develop when the drillhole closes diametrically 0.5 to 0.6 inches. By the nature of this experimental effort, the results obtained are conservative

  13. Application of metabonomics on an experimental model of fibrosis and cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, Maria A.; Theocharis, Stamatios E.; Mikros, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Metabonomics has already been used to discriminate different pathological states in biological fields. The metabolic profiles of chronic experimental fibrosis and cirrhosis induction in rats were investigated using 1 H NMR spectroscopy of liver extracts and serum combined with pattern recognition techniques. Rats were continuously administered with thioacetamide (TAA) in the drinking water (300 mg TAA/L), and sacrificed on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd month of treatment. 1 H NMR spectra of aqueous and lipid liver extracts, together with serum were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Liver portions were also subjected to histopathological examination and biochemical determination of malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were progressively induced in TAA-treated rats, verified by the histopathological examination and the alterations of MDA levels. TAA administration revealed a number of changes in the 1 H NMR spectra compared to control samples. The performance of PCA in liver extracts and serum, discriminated the control samples from the fibrotic and cirrhotic ones. Metabolic alterations revealed in NMR spectra during experimental liver fibrosis and cirrhosis induction, characterize the stage of fibrosis and could be illustrated by subsequent PCA of the spectra. Additionally, the PCA plots of the serum samples presented marked clustering during fibrosis progression and could be extended in clinical diagnosis for the management of cirrhotic patients

  14. Experimental and clinical application of laser doppler flowmetry in gastric and duodenal ulcerative bleedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasieva G.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to develop a new objective diagnostic method of prerecurrence syndrome that will prognose bleeding recurrence from gastroduodenal ulcers. Materials and methods. Method of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF of the regional perfusion of tissue has been used. The experimental part has been done on 30 white laboratory rats. Characteristics of regional tissue perfusion in the simulation and laser hemostasis of bleeding have been studied. Gastroduodenal endoscopy has been performed with laser Doppler flowmetry (ELDF in clinical conditions to predict the recurrence of ulcerative bleeding. The prognostic method of gastroduodenal ulcerative bleeding was used in 58 patients hospitalized with such pathology and activity of bleeding Forrest II. Results. The study of microcirculation parameters and experimental hemostasis has showed the possibility of using LDF to measure its performance. Effective hemostasis has been accompanied by a significant decrease in perfusion. On the basis of microcirculation parameters in ulcerative bleeding, medical adrenaline test has been proposed for an objective verification pre-recurrence syndrome. To evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic hemostasis perfusion has been measured before and after its implementation. Conclusion. ELDF has objectified the prognosis of ulcerative bleeding recurrence, verified pre-recurrence syndrome and evaluated the efficacy of endoscopic hemostasis

  15. [The application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Iu N; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Nikoulina, L A; Mikhaĭlik, L V; Geniatulina, M S; Bobkova, A S

    2014-01-01

    The experiments carried out on outbred male white rats with the use of optical, electron-microscopic, biochemical, and radioimmunological methods have demonstrated that the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI-EMR) with a flow density of 1 mcW/cm2 and a frequency of around 1,000 MHz both in the primary prophylaxis regime and as the therapeuticpreventive modality arrested the development of post-stress disorders in the rat testicles, liver, and thymus; moreover, it promoted activation of the adaptive, preventive, and compensatory processes. The data obtained provide a rationale for the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation to protect the organism from negative effects of stressful factors.

  16. The library of evaluated and experimental data on charged particles for fusion application (SaBa). Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvenigorodskij, A.G.; Zherebtsov, V.A.; Lazarev, L.M.; Dunaeva, S.A.; Generalov, L.N.; Taova, S.M.; Kamskaya, E.V.; Marshalkina, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic version of the evaluated and experimental data on charged particles for thermonuclear applications (SaBa) was prepared on the base of handbook 'Nuclear Physics Constants for Thermonuclear Fusion', INDC(CCP)-326/L+F, Vienna, 1991. Data on 100 channels for 52 reactions are presented in the Library. Program code was performed using the object-oriented programming environment Borland C ++ Builder for Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows NT operating systems. Optimal set of data processing procedures and friendly interface provide remarkable possibilities for the active use of this program for various applications in the field of thermonuclear fusion. It is available online (http:/www-nds.iaea.or.at/reports/data/saba/disk1.zip, ../disk2.zip, ../disk3.zip, on CD-ROM or on a set of PC diskettes from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, upon request. (author)

  17. MYRRHA. A European experimental ADS for R and D applications status at mid-2005 and prospective towards future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiet Abderrahim, Hamid; D'hondt, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, SCK/CEN in partnership with many European research laboratories, is designing a multipurpose ADS for R and D applications - MYRRHA - and is conducting an associated R and D support program. MYRRHA is an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) under development at Mol in Belgium and aiming to serve as a basis for the European experimental ADS to provide protons and neutrons for various R and D applications. It consists of a linac proton accelerator delivering a 350 MeV*5 mA proton beam to a windowless liquid Pb-Bi spallation target that in turn couples to a Pb-Bi cooled, subcritical fast core of 50 MWth. In this paper we report on the status of the MYRRHA project at mid-2005 and prospective towards the future. (author)

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTATION OF VORTEX REALIZABLE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR BENCHMARK TEST WITH LARGE SCALE MODEL OF NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dmitriev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decades development of applied calculation methods of nuclear reactor thermal and hydraulic processes are marked by the rapid growth of the High Performance Computing (HPC, which contribute to the active introduction of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The use of such programs to justify technical and economic parameters and especially the safety of nuclear reactors requires comprehensive verification of mathematical models and CFD programs. The aim of the work was the development and adaptation of a measuring system having the characteristics necessary for its application in the verification test (experimental facility. It’s main objective is to study the processes of coolant flow mixing with different physical properties (for example, the concentration of dissolved impurities inside a large-scale reactor model. The basic method used for registration of the spatial concentration field in the mixing area is the method of spatial conductometry. In the course of the work, a measurement complex, including spatial conductometric sensors, a system of secondary converters and software, was created. Methods of calibration and normalization of measurement results are developed. Averaged concentration fields, nonstationary realizations of the measured local conductivity were obtained during the first experimental series, spectral and statistical analysis of the realizations were carried out.The acquired data are compared with pretest CFD-calculations performed in the ANSYS CFX program. A joint analysis of the obtained results made it possible to identify the main regularities of the process under study, and to demonstrate the capabilities of the designed measuring system to receive the experimental data of the «CFD-quality» required for verification.The carried out adaptation of spatial sensors allows to conduct a more extensive program of experimental tests, on the basis of which a databank and necessary generalizations will be created

  19. Experimental design and analysis for piezoelectric circular actuators in flow control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, Poorna; Mossi, Karla; Bryant, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Flow control can lead to saving millions of dollars in fuel costs each year by making an aircraft more efficient. Synthetic jets, a device for active flow control, operate by introducing small amounts of energy locally to achieve non-local changes in the flow field with large performance gains. These devices consist of a cavity with an oscillating diaphragm that divides it into active and passive sides. The active side has a small opening where a jet is formed, while the passive side does not directly participate in the fluidic jet. Over the years, research has shown that synthetic jet behavior is dependent on the active diaphragm and the cavity design; hence, the focus of this work. The performance of the synthetic jet is studied under various factors related to the diaphragm and the cavity geometry. Three diaphragms, manufactured from piezoelectric composites, were selected for this study: Bimorph, Thunder ® and Lipca. The overall factors considered are the driving signals, voltage, frequency, cavity height, orifice size, and passive cavity pressure. Using the average maximum jet velocity as the response variable, these factors are individually studied for each actuator, and statistical analysis tools are used to select the relevant factors in the response variable. The factors are divided into two experimental fractional factorial design matrices, with five and four factors, respectively. Both experiments are chosen to be of resolution V, where main factors are confounded with three-factor interactions. In the first experimental design, the results show that frequency is not a significant factor, while waveform is significant for all the actuators. In addition, the magnitude of the regression coefficients suggests that a model that includes the diaphragm as a factor may be possible. These results are valid within the ranges tested, that is low frequencies and sawtooth and sine waveform as driving signals. In the second experimental design, cavity dimensions are

  20. Application of experimental plans method to formulate a self compacting cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrouki, A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The self-compacting concrete formulation means to elaborate a self-compacting cement paste to which will be injected aggregates. The purpose of this work is to find the composition of this cement paste containing local materials (pozzolanic cement, limestone fillers, superplasticizer and water having self-compacting properties. The use of the experimental plans method shows that it is possible to delimit an experimental field bounded by the volumetric proportions of materials composing the paste. The field was transformed in equations form conditioned by implicit constraints, defining zones of minimal shearing threshold and maximum viscosity; numerical resolution submitted to the optimization criteria permitted to define the volumetric proportions of each mixing parameter contributing to the preparation of an optimal paste. After experimental checking to validate obtained results, conclusions are that, from results given by ternary diagrams and desirability’s functions, a composition of an optimal self-compacting cement pas was obtained.

    En este trabajo se estudia la constitución de una pasta autocompactante a base de materiales locales argelinos (cemento binario de base puzolánica natural de Beni Saf y filler calizo de cantera. La reología de la pasta se estudia en función de las dosificaciones de cemento, caliza, superplastificante y agua. La fluidez de las pastas así formadas se deducen de los ensayos de escurrimiento del mini cono y del tiempo de flujo en el cono de Marsh. Utilizando el diseño estadístico de mezclas, el número de ensayos se ha visto considerablemente reducido, el problema se transformó en ecuaciones y después se resolvió numéricamente. A partir de las curvas de los diagramas ternarios, uniendo las respuestas de escurrimiento y el tiempo de flujo de las pastas en función de las dosificaciones en constituyentes y estudiando las funciones de conveniencia para cada respuesta, se terminará por deducir una

  1. Realization of a passive micromixer using herringbone structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whulanza, Yudan; Utomo, Muhammad S.; Hilman, Adam

    2018-02-01

    Micromixing is an important research area for a variety of applications in sensing and diagnostics. In this paper, we are trying to develop an overall understanding of the process of mixing by allowing two fluid flows to flow through various asymmetrical structures. We have successfully realized and compared the performance of different passive micromixer designs based on the idea of staggered herringbone micromixer. The herringbone structure is expected to affect the flow rate. We design few microchannels using varieties on velocity, height and distance between herringbone. The layout of the structure is based on the staggered herringbone bilayers where the layer is positioned on the bottom wall of the microchannel. From simulation and experiment, it is known that the height of the channel and herringbone structure affect the flow, and the most effective height of the main channel and herringbone structure is 0.3 and 0.14 mm (2:1 ratio).

  2. On the physical realizability of quantum stochastic walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Bruno; Govia, Luke; Schuhmacher, Peter; Wilhelm, Frank

    Quantum walks are a promising framework that can be used to both understand and implement quantum information processing tasks. The recently developed quantum stochastic walk combines the concepts of a quantum walk and a classical random walk through open system evolution of a quantum system, and have been shown to have applications in as far reaching fields as artificial intelligence. However, nature puts significant constraints on the kind of open system evolutions that can be realized in a physical experiment. In this work, we discuss the restrictions on the allowed open system evolution, and the physical assumptions underpinning them. We then introduce a way to circumvent some of these restrictions, and simulate a more general quantum stochastic walk on a quantum computer, using a technique we call quantum trajectories on a quantum computer. We finally describe a circuit QED approach to implement discrete time quantum stochastic walks.

  3. Realization, characterization and functionalization of lipidic wrapped carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Obata, Yosuke; Sato, Izumi; Okamura, Yosuke; Raffa, Vittoria; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Takeda, Naoya; Takeoka, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Mass-produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are strongly aggregated and highly hydrophobic, and processes to make them water soluble are required for biological applications. Both covalent and non-covalent strategies are pursued for obtaining stable, highly concentrated CNT aqueous dispersions. Covalent functionalization has the great disadvantage of producing an irreversible chemical modification of nanotubes, thus alterating their mechanical, chemical and electric properties. On the other hand, non-covalent functionalization is often obtained by employing surfactants that sensibly affect cell viability. Moreover, derivatization with biological moieties is often impossible through non-covalent CNT dispersion. This paper proposes a non-covalent dispersion of multi-wall CNT based on a lipidic mixture that can guarantee high concentration and high stability as well as high cytocompatibility. Moreover, CNTs wrapped with a lipid membrane are realized to demonstrate that the proposed CNTs can be functionalised with a dodecapeptide that specifically recognizes activated platelets without chemical modification of the nanotube itself.

  4. A general technique for confluence of calculational and experimental information with application to power distribution determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serov, I.V.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Physical quantities can be obtained by utilizing different informational sources. The available information is usually associated with systematic and statistical errors. If the informational sources are utilized simultaneously, then it is possible to obtain posterior estimates of the quantities with better statistical properties than exhibited by any prior estimates. The general technique for confluence of any number possibly dependent informational sources can be developed. Insight into the nature of the informational source allows different types of data associated with the source to be improved. The formulas of the technique are presented and applied to the power distribution determination for research reactor HOR of the Delft University of Technology, employing calculational and experimental data. (authors). 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  5. An experimental study on the application of radionuclide imaging in repair of the bone defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zhu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to validate the effect of radionuclide imaging in early monitoring of the bone’s reconstruction, the animal model of bone defect was made on the rabbits repaired with HA artificial bone. The ability of bone defect repair was evaluated by using radionuclide bone imaging at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The results indicate that the experimental group stimulated more bone formation than that of the control group. The differences of the bone reconstruction ability were statistically significant (p<0.05. The nano-HA artificial has good bone conduction, and it can be used for the treatment of bone defects. Radionuclide imaging may be an effective and first choice method for the early monitoring of the bone’s reconstruction.

  6. ON THE APPLICATION OF PARTIAL BARRIERS FOR SPINNING MACHINE NOISE CONTROL: A THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Monazzam, A. Nezafat

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Noise is one of the most serious challenges in modern community. In some specific industries, according to the nature of process, this challenge is more threatening. This paper describes a means of noise control for spinning machine based on experimental measurements. Also advantages and disadvantages of the control procedure are added. Different factors which may affect the performance of the barrier in this situation are also mentioned. To provide a good estimation of the control measure, a theoretical formula is also described and it is compared with the field data. Good agreement between the results of filed measurements and theoretical presented model was achieved. No obvious noise reduction was seen by partial indoor barriers in low absorbent enclosed spaces, since the reflection from multiple hard surfaces is the main dominated factor in the tested environment. At the end, the situation of the environment and standards, which are necessary in attaining the ideal results, are explained.

  7. Nitrous oxide as an opioid agonist: some experimental and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillman, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The interactions of nitrous oxide at analgesic concentrations with the endogenous opioid system is investigated, both in vitro and in vivo, with particular emphasis on the possibility that nitrous oxide is a possible tool both experimentally, diagnostically and therapeutically. In vitro findings show that nitrous oxide displaces ( 3 H) - naloxone from its binding sites in a definite and measurable manner, indicating a direct action of nitrous oxide at opioid receptors, in this case the mu site. An additional finding is that nitrous oxide unmasks a heretofore undiscovered super high affinity sites which may be an opioid auto-receptor. Naloxone was demonstrated to reverse acute alcoholic intoxication in some cases. The investigative as well as therapeutic role of nitrous oxide was investigated. It is concluded that nitrous oxide at analgesic concentrations (ie. low concentrations of nitrous oxide diluted with high concentrations of oxygen) is a safe and effective therapeutic agent

  8. Experimental Study on Steel to FRP Bonded Lap Joints in Marine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiçek Özes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel structures coated with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP composites have gained wide acceptance in marine industry due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, good protection from environmental degradation, and impact loads. In this study, adhesive bonding performance of single-lap bonded joints composed of steel coated with FRP has been investigated experimentally for three different surface roughness and two epoxy types. Single-lap bonded joints have been tested under tensile loading. The adhesive bonding performance has been evaluated by calculating the strain energy values. The results reveal that the surface roughness of steel has a significant effect on the bonding performance of steel to FRP combinations and the performance of the resin can be improved by using the primer in an economical way.

  9. Application of artificial neural networks in analysis of CHF experimental data in round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yanping; Chen Bingde; Lang Xuemei; Wang Xiaojun; Shan Jianqiang; Jia Dounan

    2004-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are applied successfully to analyze the critical heat flux (CHF) experimental data from some round tubes in this paper. A set of software adopting artificial neural network method for predicting CHF in round tube and a set of CHF database are gotten. Comparing with common CHF correlations and CHF look-up table, ANN method has stronger ability of allow-wrong and nice robustness. The CHF predicting software adopting artificial neural network technology can improve the predicting accuracy in a wider parameter range, and is easier to update and to use. The artificial neural network method used in this paper can be applied to some similar physical problems. (authors)

  10. Gut Microbiota in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Current Applications and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Yue

    2018-01-01

    The gut environment and gut microbiome dysbiosis have been demonstrated to significantly influence a range of disorders in humans, including obesity, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The etiology of MS is not clear, and it should involve both genetic and extrinsic factors. The extrinsic factors responsible for predisposition to MS remain elusive. Recent studies on MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have found that gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS/EAE. Thus, gut microbiome adjustment may be a future direction of treatment in MS. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of the gut microbiota, the connection between the brain and the gut, and the changes in gut microbiota in MS/EAE, and we explore the possibility of applying microbiota therapies in patients with MS. PMID:29805314

  11. A proposed safety assurance method and its application to the fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, T.; Seki, Y.; Inabe, T.; Aoki, I.

    1995-01-01

    Importance categorization and hazard identification methods have been proposed for a fusion experimental reactor. A parameter, the system index, is introduced in the categorization method. The relative importance of systems with safety functions can be classified by the largeness of the system index and whether or not the system acts as a boundary for radioactive materials. This categorization can be used as the basic principle in determining structure design assessment, seismic design criteria etc. For the hazard identification the system time energy matrix is proposed, where the time and spatial distributions of hazard energies are used. This approach is formulated more systematically than an ad-hoc identification of hazard events and it is useful to select design basis events which are employed in the assessment of safety designs. (orig.)

  12. Experimental design applications for modeling and assessing carbon dioxide sequestration in saline aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John [Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-11-29

    and project funding was expended to determine the limitations of both the commercial simulator and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) R&D simulator, TOUGHREACT available to the project. A simplified layer cake model approximating the volume of the RMOTC targeted reservoirs was defined with 1-3 minerals eventually modeled with limited success. Modeling reactive transport in porous media requires significant computational power. In this project, up to 24 processors were used to model a limited mineral set of 1-3 minerals. In addition, geomechanical aspects of injecting CO2 into closed, semi-open, and open systems in various well completion methods was simulated. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) as a storage method was not modeled. A robust and stable simulation dataset or base case was developed and used to create a master dataset with embedded instructions for input to the ED/RSM software. Little success was achieved toward the objective of the project using the commercial simulator or the LBNL simulator versions available during the time of this project. Several hundred realizations were run with the commercial simulator and ED/RSM software, most having convergence problems and terminating prematurely. A proxy model for full field CO2 injection sequestration utilization and storage was not capable of being developed with software available for this project. Though the chemistry is reasonably known and understood, based on the amount of effort and huge computational time required, predicting CO2 sequestration storage capacity in geologic formations to within the program goals of ±30% proved unsuccessful.

  13. Experimental study on the thermal hydraulic performance of plate-fin heat exchangers for cryogenic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingfeng; Zhuang, Ming; Zhang, Qiyong; Zhu, Zhigang; Geng, Maofei; Sheng, Linhai; Zhu, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Efficient and compact plate-fin heat exchangers are critical for large-scale helium liquefaction/refrigeration systems as they constitute major part in the cold box. This study experimentally explores the heat transfer and pressure drop behaviors of helium gas at low temperature in four types of plate-fin channels, namely offset-strip and perforated fins, with different geometrical parameters. A series of cryogenic experiments at approximately liquid nitrogen temperature are carried out to measure the Colburn j factors and Fanning friction f factors with a wide range of Reynolds number. Besides, to reveal the performance variations under different operating temperatures, comparative experiments respectively conducted at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature are implemented. The results show that in comparison with the performance data at room temperature, most of j factors are relatively smaller perhaps because the lower aluminum thermal conductivity and higher Prandtl Number at low temperature. Meanwhile, the f factors corresponding to cryogenic conditions exhibit slightly larger even though the core pressure drops show considerable reductions. In contrast to the calculated results from the frequently-used performance curves (Chen and Shen, 1993), the Root Mean Squared Errors of j and f values are correlated within 8.38% and 6.97% for one perforated fin core, 41.29% and 34.97% for three OSF cores, respectively. For OSFs, further comparisons with the previous empirical correlations from literatures are conducted to verify the accuracy of each correlation. Generally, most of the calculated results predict acceptably within the deviations of ±25% for the j factors, while the predicted results express relatively large deviations for the f factors. Therefore, it may be revealed that most of the existing correlations were not able to accurately predict the experimental data in consideration of the performance differences under realistic cryogenic operating

  14. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF APPLICATION IMMOBILIZED FORM CHLORHEXIDINEBIGLUCONATE IN TREATMENT OF PURULENT WOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Sukovatykh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the important problems of modern surgery is the local drug treatment of inflamma-tory processes of soft tissues, which is associated with a high prevalence of this disease, the desensitization of microorganisms to antibiotics.Objectives. Prove experimentally the possibility of using chlorhexidine bigluconate immobilized form in the treatment of purulent wounds.Methods. The analysis of the results of experimental studies of wound healing process on 180 Wistar rats line in the treatment of the following composition of ointment: chlorhexidine bigluconate 0.5% – 30.0; methyluracil – 2.0; polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate – 70.0. Animals were divided into 3 statistically ho mogeneous groups of 60 animals each. In the series comparison, local wound treatment was carried out using the ointment «Levomecol» (chloramphenicol + metiluratsil, while in the series pilot – using an immobilized form of chlorhexidine bigluconate, a control series of no treatment.Results. Percentage reduction in the series pilot area of the wounds was higher than in the series comparison on day 10 to 12.8%, on day 15 to 11.1%. In the series pilot of animals microbial contamination of wounds (CFU in1 g of tissue was lower than in the wounds of the series comparison on the 5th day – on 4,3 ∙ 105 and on the 10th day –62,5 ∙ 103. At the same period, the number of fibroblasts in the wounds of the series pilot was more by 10.6 and 9.4%.Conclusion. The use of an immobilized forms of chlorhexidine bigluconate in the treatment of the first phase of purulent wounds pathogenetically justified and effective. 

  15. NMR: its application to the experimental study of hydrocephalus and brain edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asato, R; Murata, T; Mori, K; Handa, H [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1981-06-01

    The pulsed NMR technique is very sensitive to molecular movement because its observation frequency is in the range of the rates of molecular movement. Furthermore it makes it possible to study the interested molecules in the biological tissues physically and noninvasively. In this report we have investigated the experimental brain edema and hydrocephalus, in both of which the tissue fluid changes are main pathology, through /sup 1/H-NMR relaxation study of water molecule in the brain tissues. The longitudinal (T/sub 1/) and the transverse (T/sub 2/) relaxation times were measured with Varian-HR-220 spectrometer modified with Nicolet-TT-100 PFT system. The experimental materials were the adult male Wister rats suffering from cold injury edema and the adult canines suffering from kaolin hydrocephalus. The study showed firstly that in brain edema no particular changes were found for relaxation times in the white matter, whereas in the gray matter, discrepancy between the changes of T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ was observed. That is to say, there were 2 components of T/sub 2/ in contrast with single T/sub 1/ value in the same sample of the edematous gray matter, which indicates the existence of 2 fractions of tissue water, not exchanging on an NMR time scale. Secondary, a good correlation between the longitudinal (T/sub 1/) relaxation time and the tissue water content was found for the dog brains, which suggests that we can analyse the NMR relaxation data of the dog brains based on the two-fraction fast-exchange model.

  16. Realization of the Najafi-Golestanian microswimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Maxime; Grosjean, Galien; Lagubeau, Guillaume; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Grasp Lab, Cesam Research Unit Team; Departamento de Fısica Team

    The development of artificial microswimmers, microscopic robots that swim in a fluid like sperm cells and motile bacteria, could cause a leap forward in various fields such as microfluidics, microsystems, or minimally invasive medicine. Nature provides plenty of examples of efficient microswimmers. However, a bottom-up approach, looking at the simplest ingredients needed to generate a microswimmer, can lead to a deeper understanding of the swimming problem. First described by Najafi and Golestanian, a paradigmatic microswimmer is the three-linked-spheres model, which follows a minimalist approach for propulsion by shape shifting. In this presentation, we describe the experimental realisation of this microswimmer using self-assembled ferromagnetic particle at an air-water interface, powered by an uniform oscillating magnetic field. A model, using two harmonic oscillators, reproduces the experimental findings. Because the model remains general, the same approach could be used to design a variety of efficient microswimmers.

  17. Bootstrapping realized volatility and realized beta under a local Gaussianity assumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    The main contribution of this paper is to propose a new bootstrap method for statistics based on high frequency returns. The new method exploits the local Gaussianity and the local constancy of volatility of high frequency returns, two assumptions that can simplify inference in the high frequency...... context, as recently explained by Mykland and Zhang (2009). Our main contributions are as follows. First, we show that the local Gaussian bootstrap is firstorder consistent when used to estimate the distributions of realized volatility and ealized betas. Second, we show that the local Gaussian bootstrap...... matches accurately the first four cumulants of realized volatility, implying that this method provides third-order refinements. This is in contrast with the wild bootstrap of Gonçalves and Meddahi (2009), which is only second-order correct. Third, we show that the local Gaussian bootstrap is able...

  18. Preparation and realization of HPP Zilina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizik, F.

    1997-01-01

    The results achieved in finishing of the preparation and in realization of the Hydro Power Project (HPP) Zilina proved advantageousness of such approach even if an increasing presence of eccentric competing interests should be mentioned. Integration of mutual interest within the established company limited by shares means to create equal conditions for all of the partners and not a power liquidation of specificities and not a power liquidation of specificities, specialties and individualities, both of value and legal ones. HPPs with power utilization must be built in such places in which there are suitable conditions for their operation created by the nature on a stream. Their power contribution is, as a rule, a contribution for the whole electric system. The part beneficial to the public is a contribution for the region affected by the construction. During the construction, they offer jobs not only, but especially, for the residents of the region affected by the construction but also for workers in cement works, brick works, steels works, and other kinds of industries providing supplies for the construction, industry of services. Changes in legislation supporting construction of HPPs with power utilization, purchasing system and electric energy prices remain still unsolved. Energy prices are distorted compared to relations in western in western market economies and do not allow either reproduction of a production base or gain and pay back the credits and compound interest. An additional idea of the state about financing the part of HPPs with power utilization beneficial to the public from resources gained in operation of the built objects without any form of easement of taxation and changes shifts a return of invested resources behind a border of an entrepreneurial interest

  19. The Semantic Web: From Representation to Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thórisson, Kristinn R.; Spivack, Nova; Wissner, James M.

    A semantically-linked web of electronic information - the Semantic Web - promises numerous benefits including increased precision in automated information sorting, searching, organizing and summarizing. Realizing this requires significantly more reliable meta-information than is readily available today. It also requires a better way to represent information that supports unified management of diverse data and diverse Manipulation methods: from basic keywords to various types of artificial intelligence, to the highest level of intelligent manipulation - the human mind. How this is best done is far from obvious. Relying solely on hand-crafted annotation and ontologies, or solely on artificial intelligence techniques, seems less likely for success than a combination of the two. In this paper describe an integrated, complete solution to these challenges that has already been implemented and tested with hundreds of thousands of users. It is based on an ontological representational level we call SemCards that combines ontological rigour with flexible user interface constructs. SemCards are machine- and human-readable digital entities that allow non-experts to create and use semantic content, while empowering machines to better assist and participate in the process. SemCards enable users to easily create semantically-grounded data that in turn acts as examples for automation processes, creating a positive iterative feedback loop of metadata creation and refinement between user and machine. They provide a holistic solution to the Semantic Web, supporting powerful management of the full lifecycle of data, including its creation, retrieval, classification, sorting and sharing. We have implemented the SemCard technology on the semantic Web site Twine.com, showing that the technology is indeed versatile and scalable. Here we present the key ideas behind SemCards and describe the initial implementation of the technology.

  20. Computer simulations of rare earth sites in glass: experimental tests and applications to laser materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.J.

    1984-11-01

    Computer simulations of the microscopic structure of BeF 2 glasses using molecular dynamics are reviewed and compared with x-ray and neutron diffraction, EXAFS, NMR, and optical measurements. Unique information about the site-to-site variations in the local environments of rare earth ions is obtained using optical selective excitation and laser-induced fluorescence line-narrowing techniques. Applications and limitations of computer simulations to the development of laser glasses and to predictions of other static and dynamic properties of glasses are discussed. 35 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  1. The possibilities of application of experimental Kfk results from BR2 on SNR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsten, G.; Elbel, K.; Dienst, W.; Schaefer, L.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the relevant results of the technological application for the SNR300 reactor, since the BR2 reactor has been used as a test facility for the material development. Special emphasis has been laid on the fuel pin behavior under the aspect of chemical and mechanical fuel-clad interaction and on the specification of the cladding in terms of high temperature mechanical behavior in the SNR 300 reactor. A systematic analysis of urgent research topics in BR2 test facility reactor is presented. (A.F.)

  2. The properties of realized volatility and realized correlation: Evidence from the Indian stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkillas (Gillas), Konstantinos; Vortelinos, Dimitrios I.; Saha, Shrabani

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the properties of realized volatility and correlation series in the Indian stock market by employing daily data converting to monthly frequency of five different stock indices from January 2, 2006 to November 30, 2014. Using non-parametric estimation technique the properties examined include normality, long-memory, asymmetries, jumps, and heterogeneity. The realized volatility is a useful technique which provides a relatively accurate measure of volatility based on the actual variance which is beneficial for asset management in particular for non-speculative funds. The results show that realized volatility and correlation series are not normally distributed, with some evidence of persistence. Asymmetries are also evident in both volatilities and correlations. Both jumps and heterogeneity properties are significant; whereas, the former is more significant than the latter. The findings show that properties of volatilities and correlations in Indian stock market have similarities as that show in the stock markets in developed countries such as the stock market in the United States which is more prevalent for speculative business traders.

  3. Preface of "The Second Symposium on Border Zones Between Experimental and Numerical Application Including Solution Approaches By Extensions of Standard Numerical Methods"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortleb, Sigrun; Seidel, Christian

    2017-07-01

    In this second symposium at the limits of experimental and numerical methods, recent research is presented on practically relevant problems. Presentations discuss experimental investigation as well as numerical methods with a strong focus on application. In addition, problems are identified which require a hybrid experimental-numerical approach. Topics include fast explicit diffusion applied to a geothermal energy storage tank, noise in experimental measurements of electrical quantities, thermal fluid structure interaction, tensegrity structures, experimental and numerical methods for Chladni figures, optimized construction of hydroelectric power stations, experimental and numerical limits in the investigation of rain-wind induced vibrations as well as the application of exponential integrators in a domain-based IMEX setting.

  4. GPR applicability to concrete structure inspection - Experiences gained from both experimental studies and workaday measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainbruch, J.

    2009-01-01

    During recent years the use of geo-radar (GPR) as a non-destructive technique for examining concrete structures has greatly increased. Though the method is used principally for metallic structural element detection and construction layer thickness determination, its applicability is much wider. GPR is an electromagnetic method working on the principle of transmitting high frequency pulses and analysing their echoes. GPR measurement is performed in reflective mode when transmitting and receiving antennas are towed along the same surface, but it can be used also in trans-illumination mode when transmitter and receiver are on either side of the studied body. In this paper we would like to present the results of our GPR measurements performed on physical models with a known inner structure, as well as the results of 'blind tests' diagnostic measurements of different kinds of real concrete constructions (road bridges and the wall of a water supply tunnel) without any additional information. It is shown that GPR can be used in a wide range of diagnostic applications. Very good results are obtained mainly in the detection of metal objects (for instance reinforcement bars). The detection of other kinds of anomalies depends on the contrast in electrical properties between the object and host media and on sufficient target size compare to wave-length

  5. Experimental studies on 3D printing of barium titanate ceramics for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schult Mark

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the 3D printing of porous barium titanate ceramics. Barium titanate is a biocompatible material with piezoelectric properties. Due to insufficient flowability of the starting material for 3D printing, the barium titanate raw material has been modified in three different ways. Firstly, barium titanate powder has been calcined. Secondly, flow additives have been added to the powder. And thirdly, flow additives have been added to the calcined powder. Finally, a polymer has been added to the three materials and specimens have been printed from these three material mixtures. The 3D printed parts were then sintered at 1320°C. The sintering leads to shrinkage which differs between 29.51–71.53% for the tested material mixtures. The porosity of the parts is beneficial for cell growth which is relevant for future medical applications. The results reported in this study demonstrate the possibility to fabricate porous piezoelectric barium titanate parts with a 3D printer that can be used for medical applications. 3D printed porous barium titanate ceramics can especially be used as scaffold for bone tissue engineering, where the bone formation can be promoted by electrical stimulation.

  6. EXTASE - An Experimental Thermal Probe for Applications in Snow Research and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Seiferlin, K.; Marczewski, W.; Gadomski, S.; Spohn, T.

    2002-12-01

    EXTASE is a spin-off project from the Rosetta Lander (MUPUS) thermal probe, funded by DLR. The application of this probe is to be tested in different fields, e.g. in snow research, agriculture, permafrost etc. The system consists of the probe itself with a portable field electronic and a computer for control of the system and storage of the data. The probe penetrates the surface ca. 32 cm deep and provides a temperature profile (16 sensors) and thermal conductivity profile of the penetrated layer. The main advantages of the probe in comparison to common temperature profile measurement methods are: - no need to excavate material - minimized influence of the probe on the temperature field - minimized modification of the microstructure of the studied medium. Presently we are concentrating on agriculture (soil humidity) and snow research. Further applications could be e.g.: monitoring waste deposits and the heat released by decomposition, volcanology and ground truth for remote sensing. We present the general concept of the probe and also data obtained during different field measurement campaigns with prototypes of the probe.

  7. Realization of manchester encoding and decoding and fast-speed communication for digital power supply based on FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanguang; Xu Ruinian; Shen Tianjian; Li Deming

    2008-01-01

    A design and simulation to realize the process of Manchester encoding and decoding, to realize the process of SPI communication between FPGA and DSP, using Altera company's Quartus II IDE on FPGA is presented in this paper. And the application on the digital power supply controller with Manchester communication by optical fiber is introduced. (authors)

  8. PCM thermal storage design in buildings: Experimental studies and applications to solaria in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarino, Francesco; Athienitis, Andreas; Cellura, Maurizio; Bastien, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper analyzes the performance of a building-integrated thermal storage system. • A wall opposing a glazed surface serves as phase change materials thermal storage. • The study is based on both experimental and simulation studies. • Heat is stored and released up to 6–8 h after solar irradiation. • Yearly heating requirements are reduced by 17% in a cold climate. - Abstract: As energy availability and demand often do not match, thermal energy storage plays a crucial role to take advantage of solar radiation in buildings: in particular, latent heat storage via phase-change material is particularly attractive due to its ability to provide high energy storage density. This paper analyzes the performance of a building-integrated thermal storage system to increase the energy performances of solaria in a cold climate. A wall opposing a highly glazed façade (south oriented) is used as thermal storage with phase change materials embedded in the wall. The study is based on both experimental and simulation studies. The concept considered is particularly suited to retrofits in a solarium since the PCM can be added as layers facing the large window on the vertical wall directly opposite. Results indicate that this PCM thermal storage system is effective during the whole year in a cold climate. The thermal storage allows solar radiation to be stored and released up to 6–8 h after solar irradiation: this has effects on both the reduction of daily temperature swings (up to 10 °C) and heating requirements (more than 17% on a yearly base). Coupling of the thermal storage system with natural ventilation is important during mid-seasons and summer to improve the PCM charge-discharge cycles and to reduce overheating. Results also show that cooling is less important than heating, reaching up to 20% of the overall annual energy requirements for the city of Montreal, Canada. Moreover, the phase change temperature range of the material used (18–24

  9. Applications of structural and spectroscopic techniques to the experimental and theoretical study of new luminescent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Ahumada, Gustavo Adolfo

    2001-01-01

    This thesis discusses the general problem of the radiation-matter interaction in the case of a family of crystals known as elpasolites, which belong to the spatial group FM3M(O 5 H ). These systems present complications, from a theoretical as well as experimental point of view. The study was carried out in stoichiometric elpasolite type systems, characterized by empirical formulas of the general type Cs2NaLnCl 6 where Ln is a lanthanide of the first series of internal transition with electronic configurations for the trivalent state (Ln +3 ) of the form ∫ 1 → ∫ 13 . An analysis of the atomic spectra for these gaseous phase ions shows a diversity of permitted states, due to relativistic and non relativistic effects. Systems with positive trivalent lanthanide ions of the form Dy 3+ (∫ 9 ), Ho 3+ (∫ 10 ) y Er 3+ (∫ 11 ) have been selected at the level of the stoichiometric elpasolites and are characterized by complex energetic spectra. A careful experimental study of the emission states suggests that the elpasolite of Er 3+ is interesting, and its study is very relevant. The assignments and identifications of the peaks, during absorption as well as during emission, are more precise for the configuration Er 3+ , and careful studies show that fluorescence between terminal states with the rule of selection for the total orbital angular momentum:ΔJ = 6 is observed for this system. A declining cascade that can reasonably explain the unsuspected related spectral intensity, in the order of 10-9, is presented and suggested although a value was predicted for the electric dipolar force of lesser than 4 orders of magnitude what was observed. This problem is discussed and a mechanism is proposed for spectral intensities associated with two emissions characterized by ΔJ = 4 (electric hexadecapole) and ΔJ = 2 (electric cuadrupole). The laboratory tests made, include synthesis by solid state reactions of Dy 3+ and Ho 3+ , type elpasolites, structural characterization

  10. Experimental design and optimization of raloxifene hydrochloride loaded nanotransfersomes for transdermal application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Syed Mahmood, Muhammad Taher, Uttam Kumar Mandal Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia Abstract: Raloxifene hydrochloride, a highly effective drug for the treatment of invasive breast cancer and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, shows poor oral bioavailability of 2%. The aim of this study was to develop, statistically optimize, and characterize raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersomes for transdermal delivery, in order to overcome the poor bioavailability issue with the drug. A response surface methodology experimental design was applied for the optimization of transfersomes, using Box-Behnken experimental design. Phospholipon® 90G, sodium deoxycholate, and sonication time, each at three levels, were selected as independent variables, while entrapment efficiency, vesicle size, and transdermal flux were identified as dependent variables. The formulation was characterized by surface morphology and shape, particle size, and zeta potential. Ex vivo transdermal flux was determined using a Hanson diffusion cell assembly, with rat skin as a barrier medium. Transfersomes from the optimized formulation were found to have spherical, unilamellar structures, with a ­homogeneous distribution and low polydispersity index (0.08. They had a particle size of 134±9 nM, with an entrapment efficiency of 91.00%±4.90%, and transdermal flux of 6.5±1.1 µg/cm2/hour. Raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersomes proved significantly superior in terms of amount of drug permeated and deposited in the skin, with enhancement ratios of 6.25±1.50 and 9.25±2.40, respectively, when compared with drug-loaded conventional liposomes, and an ethanolic phosphate buffer saline. Differential scanning calorimetry study revealed a greater change in skin structure, compared with a control sample, during the ex vivo drug diffusion study. Further, confocal laser

  11. Smart Materials in Architecture: Useful Tools with Practical Applications or Fascinating Inventions for Experimental Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarzewska, Bogusława

    2017-10-01

    For at least several decades smart or so-called intelligent materials, being the result of great advancements in material engineering, appear in architecture in different applications. Most of them are called “smart” because of their inherent properties: a real-time response to environmental stimuli. There are also those considered to be “smart” due to smart design: their original structure or the composition of their materials are in nanoscale, providing them with unique properties. Colour changes, physical states, temperature or shape-always repeatable and reversible - make these materials attractive to architects, both from a visual and a practical point of view. Their spectacular applications often inspire architects, scientists and artists to create, for instance, city displays revealing various shapes and figures according to daily weather conditions; thermochromics urban seats that reflect peoples’ presence; wallpaper with organic patterns that glow in darkness, and many others. On the other hand, more practical projects are being developed, such as “switchable” partition glass walls (that is, we can turn them on and they change their transparency while switching on or off: electrochromic glass is a good example). Other concepts include self-cleaning building envelopes; self-repairing concrete; phase-changing materials diminishing cooling loads in the buildings; energy-generating highways; materials that harden at the moment of impact thus withstanding exceptionally great forces; shape memory alloys playing the role of actuators-opening and - closing façade louvers or thin polymer films mimicking the function of living skin, adopted as a building envelope. All those projects result from the fascination of designers with the possibility to create materials and, in effect, a complex environment that is active, “flexible”, and adapts to changing conditions and users’ needs and is compatible with real, natural environments. Smart materials

  12. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, EEM; Akkerman, [No Value; Koulman, A; Kamermans, P; Reith, H; Barbosa, MJ; Sipkema, D; Wijffels, RH

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals,

  13. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, E.E.M.; Akkerman, I.; Koulman, A.; Kamermans, P.; Reith, H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Sipkema, D.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals,

  14. Modelling and Forecasting Multivariate Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiriac, Roxana; Voev, Valeri

    . We provide an empirical application of the model, in which we show by means of stochastic dominance tests that the returns from an optimal portfolio based on the model's forecasts second-order dominate returns of portfolios optimized on the basis of traditional MGARCH models. This result implies...

  15. Exponential GARCH Modeling with Realized Measures of Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Huang, Zhuo

    returns and volatility. We apply the model to DJIA stocks and an exchange traded fund that tracks the S&P 500 index and find that specifications with multiple realized measures dominate those that rely on a single realized measure. The empirical analysis suggests some convenient simplifications......We introduce the Realized Exponential GARCH model that can utilize multiple realized volatility measures for the modeling of a return series. The model specifies the dynamic properties of both returns and realized measures, and is characterized by a flexible modeling of the dependence between...

  16. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines: Numerical Methods, Applications, and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Asprion

    2014-01-01

    become complex systems. The exploitation of any leftover potential during transient operation is crucial. However, even an experienced calibration engineer cannot conceive all the dynamic cross couplings between the many actuators. Therefore, a highly iterative procedure is required to obtain a single engine calibration, which in turn causes a high demand for test-bench time. Physics-based mathematical models and a dynamic optimisation are the tools to alleviate this dilemma. This paper presents the methods required to implement such an approach. The optimisation-oriented modelling of diesel engines is summarised, and the numerical methods required to solve the corresponding large-scale optimal control problems are presented. The resulting optimal control input trajectories over long driving profiles are shown to provide enough information to allow conclusions to be drawn for causal control strategies. Ways of utilising this data are illustrated, which indicate that a fully automated dynamic calibration of the engine control unit is conceivable. An experimental validation demonstrates the meaningfulness of these results. The measurement results show that the optimisation predicts the reduction of the fuel consumption and the cumulative pollutant emissions with a relative error of around 10% on highly transient driving cycles.

  17. Experimental impedance investigation of an ultracapacitor at different conditions for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhenpo; Sun, Fengchun; Dorrell, David G.

    2015-08-01

    Ultracapacitors (UCs) are being increasingly deployed as a short-term energy storage device in various energy systems including uninterruptable power supplies, electrified vehicles, renewable energy systems, and wireless communication. They exhibit excellent power density and energy efficiency. The dynamic behavior of a UC, however, strongly depends on its impedance characteristics. In this paper, the impedance characteristics of a commercial UC are experimentally investigated through the well-adopted Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The implications of the UC operating conditions (i.e., temperature and state of charge (SOC)) to the impedance are systematically examined. The results show that the impedance is highly sensitive to the temperature and SOC; and the temperature effect is more significant. In particular, the coupling effect between the temperature and SOC is illustrated, as well as the high-efficiency SOC window, which is highlighted. To further verify the reliability of the EIS-based investigation and to probe the sensitivity of UC parameters to the operating conditions, a dynamic model is characterized by fitting the collected impedance data. The interdependence of UC parameters (i.e., capacitance and resistance elements) on the temperature and SOC is quantitatively revealed. The impedance-based model is demonstrated to be accurate in two driving-cycle tests.

  18. Application of radio-thermoluminescence to the experimental study of the dose equivalent index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Elvira-Beatriz

    1980-01-01

    First, the Systems of dose limitation proposed by the ICRP since 1965 are analysed. The notion of 'critical organ' is replaced by the system based on the effective dose equivalent (ICRP 77). In the same document, the 'dose equivalent index' (H I ) is suggested as a secondary limit. Here, its first definition, later modifications, advantages, and inconveniences are discussed. The second part of the study is devoted to the experimental determination of H I for X and gamma (Co 60 ) beams by radioluminescent (RTL) dosimetry. In order to take into account the different chromatic relative sensitivities of the detectors used lithium fluoride (powder and pellets), lithium borate (pellets) and calcium sulfate activated by dysprosium (powder) these latter are measured within the (10-1250) keV energy range. With the help of the preceding values and the results of the RTL measurements carried out inside the ICRU spherical phantom, the corresponding absorbed doses are deduced in order to calculate H I . (author) [fr

  19. An experimental test on large animals of MCNP application for whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, N.; Yatsenko, V.; Kochetkov, O.; Gusev, I.; Vlasov, P.; Kalistratova, V.; Nisimov, P.; Levochkin, F.; Borovkov, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Tsedish, S.; Tyurin, I.; Franck, D.; Carlan, L. de

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of actinide body burden using whole body counting spectrometry is hampered due to intensive absorption of γ-rays inside the patient's body, which depends on the anatomy of a patient. To establish the correspondence between pulse-height-spectra intensity and radionuclide activity, Monte Carlo calculations are widely used. For such calculations, the radiation transport geometry is usually described in terms of small rectangular boxes (voxels) retrieved from computed tomography or magnetic resonance images. The software for Monte Carlo-assisted calibration of whole body counting, which performs automatic creation of individual MCNP voxel phantoms, was checked in a quasi-in vivo experiment on large animals. During the experiment, pigs of 35-40 kg body mass were used as phantoms for measurement of actinides body burden. 241 Am was administered (via injection of a radioactive solution or via implantation of plastic capsules containing the radioactive material) into the lungs of pigs. The pigs were measured using the pure germanium low-energy γ-spectrometers. The images of animals were obtained using the computed tomography machine. On the base of these tomograms, MCNP4c2 calculations were done to obtain the pulse-height-spectra of the whole body counters. The experimental results were reproduced in calculations with error of less than 30% for 241 Am administered via injection and less than 10% for 241 Am administered inside the capsules. (authors)

  20. ENERGY AND ENTROPY ANALYSES OF AN EXPERIMENTAL TURBOJET ENGINE FOR TARGET DRONE APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Turan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates energy and entropy analyses of an experimental turbojet engine build in Anadolu University Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics Test-Cell Laboratory.  Law of motions and Brayton thermodynamic cycle model are used for this purpose. The processes (that is, compression, combustion, and expansion are simulated in P-v, T-s and h-s diagrams. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics is applied to the cycle model to perform the entropy analysis. A distribution of the wasted and thrust power, the overall (energy-based the first law efficiency, and the specific fuel consumption and specific thrust of the engine were calculated during the analyses as well. The results of the study also show the entropy changing value in engine components due to irreversibilities and inefficiencies. As a conclusion, it is expected that this study is useful to study future design and research work similar aircraft turbojets, auxiliary power units and target drone power systems.

  1. Application of a two-region kinetic model for reflected reactors to experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, R.D.; Spriggs, G.D.; Williams, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Reflected reactors constitute one of the most important classes of nuclear reactors. Yet, during the past 50 yr, a plethora of experimental data involving reflected systems has been reported in the literature that cannot be satisfactorily explained using the open-quotes standardclose quotes (i.e., one-region) point-kinetic model. In particular, many have observed that the prompt-decay a curves obtained from Rossi-α and pulsed-neutron experiments can exhibit multiple decay modes in the vicinity near delayed critical in some types of reflected systems. When analyzed using theories based on the standard point-kinetic model, these data yielded system lifetimes that do not always agree well with the lifetimes predicted by numerical solutions of the multigroup, multidimensional diffusion or transport equations. In several cases, when the longest lived decay mode (i.e., the dominant root) was plotted as a function of reactivity, the a curve intercepted the reactivity axis at a reactivity significantly greater than 1$. Brunson dubbed this seemingly inexplicable behavior as the open-quotes dollar discrepancy.close quotes Furthermore, it has also been observed that the kinetic behavior of some reflected, fast-burst assemblies exhibits a very pronounced nonlinear relationship between reactivity and the initial inverse period for reactivity insertions > 1 $

  2. Experimental Investigation of the Properties of Electrospun Nanofibers for Potential Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer based nanofibers using ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH were fabricated by electrospinning technology. The nanofibers were studied for potential use as dressing materials for skin wounds treatment. Properties closely related to the clinical requirements for wound dressing were investigated, including the fluid uptake ability (FUA, the water vapour transmission rate (WVTR, the bacteria control ability of nanofibers encapsulated with different antibacterial drugs, and Ag of various concentrations. Nanofibre degradation under different environmental conditions was also studied for the prospect of long term usage. The finding confirms the potential of EVOH nanofibers for wound dressing application, including the superior performance compared to cotton gauze and the strong germ killing capacity when Ag particles are present in the nanofibers.

  3. Experimental Performance Evaluation of a Supersonic Turbine for Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellgrove, Lauren M.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Sieja, James P.; Huber, Frank W.

    2003-01-01

    In order to mitigate the risk of rocket propulsion development, efficient, accurate, detailed fluid dynamics analysis and testing of the turbomachinery is necessary. To support this requirement, a task was developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to improve turbine aerodynamic performance through the application of advanced design and analysis tools. These tools were applied to optimize a supersonic turbine design suitable for a reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The hot gas path and blading were redesigned-to obtain an increased efficiency. The goal of the demonstration was to increase the total-to- static efficiency of the turbine by eight points over the baseline design. A sub-scale, cold flow test article modeling the final optimized turbine was designed, manufactured, and tested in air at MSFC s Turbine Airflow Facility. Extensive on- and off- design point performance data, steady-state data, and unsteady blade loading data were collected during testing.

  4. Experimental gyroklystron research at the University of Maryland for application to TeV linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Hogan, B.; Koc, U.V.; Latham, P.E.; Main, W.; Matthews, H.W.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Reiser, M.; Striffler, C.D.; Tantawi, S.

    1992-01-01

    X-Band and K-Band gyroklystrons are being evaluated for possible application to future linear colliders. So far we have examined the different two- and three-cavity configurations. We have achieved a maximum peak power of 27 MW in ∼1 μs pulses at a gain of 36 dB and an efficiency exceeding 32%. The nominal parameters include a 430 kV. 150--200 A beam with an average perpendicular to parallel velocity ratio near one. In this paper, we detail our progress to date and describe our plans for future experiments that should culminate in amplifier outputs in excess of 100 MW in 1 μs pulses

  5. Nitrous oxide as an opioid agonist: some experimental and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillman, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is primarily to determine whether N 2 O at analgesic concentrations acts vid the opioid system. Interaction at an opioid receptor level will be studied by means of a ligand binding study. An in vitro study is presented in which the effect of 50% N 2 O mixed with 50% O 2 and 100% N 2 O on ( 3 H) naloxone binding is presented. Secondly, possible therapeutic and diagnostic applications of the use of N 2 O in conditions possibly related to abnormalities of the opioid system viz alcoholism, depression, schizophrenia and anxiety will be investigated. Thirdly, possible hematological abnormalities induced by the use of N 2 O will be studied

  6. Experimental study of neutron noise with criticality safety applications in mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.S.

    1985-11-01

    A study has been conducted on the statistics of detected neutrons that leaked from four subcritical reflected, enriched-uranium assemblies, to explore the feasibility of developing a criticality warning system based on neutron noise analysis. Studies were conducted on three possible discriminators, i.e., three signatures that might be used to discriminate among assemblies of various multiplications. The noise analysis techniques studied performed well enough in deeply subcritical situations to deserve testing in an applications environment. They have a good chance of detecting changes in reactivity that are potentially dangerous. One can expect sharpest results when doing comparisons, i.e., when comparing two records, one taken in the past under circumstances known to be normal and one taken now to search for change

  7. Immersion radiography for enhancement of soft tissue contrast - experimental study and clinical application -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan

    1986-01-01

    Detection and evaluation of early soft tissue changes are important in rheumatoid arthritis or other joint diseases. The most important factors for radiologic demonstration of soft tissue changes are resolving power and the optimization of contrast differences between structures representing skin and subcutaneous tissue densities. Phantom study was done by using combination of immersion technique and mammography to get the most reliable method for improvement of soft tissue contrast without deterioration of resolution. Clinical application was also done in 5 normal volunteers and 5 rheumatoid patients. The results indicate that soft tissue contrast, especially between skin and subcutaneous tissues can be significantly improved with combination of immersion technique and mammography with 50% ethanol in both phantom and clinical study.

  8. Topical Application of Aloe vera Accelerated Wound Healing, Modeling, and Remodeling: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Mohammadalipour, Adel; Moshiri, Ali; Tabandeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of large wounds is technically demanding and several attempts have been taken to improve wound healing. Aloe vera has been shown to have some beneficial roles on wound healing but its mechanism on various stages of the healing process is not clear. This study was designed to investigate the effect of topical application of A. vera on cutaneous wound healing in rats. A rectangular 2 × 2-cm cutaneous wound was created in the dorsum back of rats. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups of control (n = 20), low-dose (n = 20), and high-dose (n = 20) A. vera. The control and treated animals were treated daily with topical application of saline, low-dose (25 mg/mL), and high-dose (50 mg/mL) A. vera gel, up to 10 days, respectively. The wound surface, wound contraction, and epithelialization were monitored. In each group, the animals were euthanized at 10 (n = 5), 20 (n = 5), and 30 (n = 10) days post injury (DPI). At 10, 20, and 30 DPI, the skin samples were used for histopathological and biochemical investigations; and at 30 DPI, the skin samples were also subjected for biomechanical studies. Aloe vera modulated the inflammation, increased wound contraction and epithelialization, decreased scar tissue size, and increased alignment and organization of the regenerated scar tissue. A dose-dependent increase in the tissue level of dry matter, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans' content was seen in the treated lesions, compared to the controls. The treated lesions also demonstrated greater maximum load, ultimate strength, and modulus of elasticity compared to the control ones (P vera improved the biochemical, morphological, and biomechanical characteristics of the healing cutaneous wounds in rats. This treatment option may be valuable in clinical practice.

  9. Experimental evaluation of photocrosslinkable chitosan as a biologic adhesive with surgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, K; Ishihara, M; Ozeki, Y; Deguchi, H; Sato, M; Saito, Y; Yura, H; Sato, M; Kikuchi, M; Kurita, A; Maehara, T

    2001-11-01

    In various surgical cases, effective tissue adhesives are required for both hemostasis (eg, intraoperative bleeding) and air sealing (eg, thoracic surgery). We have designed a chitosan molecule (Az-CH-LA) that can be photocrosslinked by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, thereby forming a hydrogel. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the photocrosslinkable chitosan hydrogel as an adhesive with surgical applications. The sealing ability of the chitosan hydrogel, determined as a bursting pressure, was assessed with removed thoracic aorta, trachea, and lung of farm pigs and in a rabbit model. The carotid artery and lung of rabbits were punctured with a needle, and the chitosan hydrogel was applied to, respectively, stop the bleeding and the air leakage. In vivo chitosan degradability and biologic responses were histologically assessed in animal models. The bursting pressure of chitosan hydrogel (30 mg/mL) and fibrin glue, respectively, was 225 +/- 25 mm Hg (mean +/- SD) and 80 +/- 20 mm Hg in the thoracic aorta; 77 +/- 29 mm Hg and 48 +/- 21 mm Hg in the trachea; and in the lung, 51 +/- 11 mm Hg (chitosan hydrogel), 62 +/- 4 mm Hg (fibrin glue, rubbing method), and 12 +/- 2 mm Hg (fibrin glue, layer method). The sealing ability of the chitosan hydrogel was stronger than that of fibrin glue. All rabbits with a carotid artery (n = 8) or lung (n = 8) that was punctured with a needle and then sealed with chitosan hydrogel survived the 1-month observation period without any bleeding or air leakage from the puncture sites. Histologic examinations demonstrated that 30 days after application, a fraction of the chitosan hydrogel was phagocytosed by macrophages, had partially degraded, and had induced the formation of fibrous tissues around the hydrogel. A newly developed photocrosslinkable chitosan has demonstrated strong sealing ability and a great potential for use as an adhesive in surgical operations.

  10. On the calibration strategies of the Johnson–Cook strength model: Discussion and applications to experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambirasio, Luca; Rizzi, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    The present paper aims at assessing the various procedures adoptable for calibrating the parameters of the so-called Johnson–Cook strength model, expressing the deviatoric behavior of elastoplastic materials, with particular reference to the description of High Strain Rate (HSR) phenomena. The procedures rely on input experimental data corresponding to a set of hardening functions recorded at different equivalent plastic strain rates and temperatures. After a brief review of the main characteristics of the Johnson–Cook strength model, five different calibration strategies are framed and widely described. The assessment is implemented through a systematic application of each calibration strategy to three different real material cases, i.e. a DH-36 structural steel, a commercially pure niobium and an AL-6XN stainless steel. Experimental data available in the literature are considered. Results are presented in terms of plots showing the predicted Johnson–Cook hardening functions against the experimental trends, together with tables describing the fitting problematics which arise in each case, by assessing both lower yield stress and overall plastic flow introduced errors. The consequences determined by each calibration approach are then carefully compared and evaluated. A discussion on the positive and negative aspects of each strategy is presented and some suggestions on how to choose the best calibration approach are outlined, by considering the available experimental data and the objectives of the following modeling process. The proposed considerations should provide a useful guideline in the process of determining the best Johnson–Cook parameters in each specific situation in which the model is going to be adopted. A last section introduces some considerations about the calibration of the Johnson–Cook strength model through experimental data different from those consisting in a set of hardening functions relative to different equivalent plastic strain

  11. Performance of ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation for indoor air applications: Systematic experimental evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lexuan [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Haghighat, Fariborz, E-mail: fariborz.haghighat@concordia.ca [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Lee, Chang-Seo [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Lakdawala, Ness [DECTRON International Inc., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • An innovative experimental set-up was designed and constructed for testing UV-PCO. • Test methodologies were developed to examine UV-PCO air cleaners for VOCs removal. • VOCs type, inlet concentration, flow rate, irradiance, and RH have influence on PCO. • Gas-phase ozonation with a variety of compounds was examined in a duct system. • Formation of by-products generated from incomplete conversion was investigated. -- Abstract: Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a promising technology that has potential to be applied in mechanically ventilated buildings to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). However, the major research studies were done in bench-top scale reactors under ideal reaction conditions. In addition, no study has been carried out on the investigation of the ozonation and photolysis effect using a pilot duct system. The objective of this study is the development of methodologies to evaluate the performance of PCO systems. A systematic parametric evaluation of the effects of various kinetic parameters, such as compound's type, inlet concentration, airflow rate, light intensity, and relative humidity, was conducted, and new interpretations were provided from a fundamental analysis. In addition, the photolysis effect under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation for a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was examined for the first time in a pilot duct system. The performance comparison of ultraviolet C (UVC)-PCO and VUV-PCO was also discussed due to the presence of ozone. Moreover, the formation of by-products generated with or without ozone generation was fully compared to evaluate the PCO technology.

  12. Performance of ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation for indoor air applications: Systematic experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Lexuan; Haghighat, Fariborz; Lee, Chang-Seo; Lakdawala, Ness

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative experimental set-up was designed and constructed for testing UV-PCO. • Test methodologies were developed to examine UV-PCO air cleaners for VOCs removal. • VOCs type, inlet concentration, flow rate, irradiance, and RH have influence on PCO. • Gas-phase ozonation with a variety of compounds was examined in a duct system. • Formation of by-products generated from incomplete conversion was investigated. -- Abstract: Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a promising technology that has potential to be applied in mechanically ventilated buildings to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). However, the major research studies were done in bench-top scale reactors under ideal reaction conditions. In addition, no study has been carried out on the investigation of the ozonation and photolysis effect using a pilot duct system. The objective of this study is the development of methodologies to evaluate the performance of PCO systems. A systematic parametric evaluation of the effects of various kinetic parameters, such as compound's type, inlet concentration, airflow rate, light intensity, and relative humidity, was conducted, and new interpretations were provided from a fundamental analysis. In addition, the photolysis effect under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation for a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was examined for the first time in a pilot duct system. The performance comparison of ultraviolet C (UVC)-PCO and VUV-PCO was also discussed due to the presence of ozone. Moreover, the formation of by-products generated with or without ozone generation was fully compared to evaluate the PCO technology

  13. Experimental studies of lithium-based surface chemistry for fusion plasma-facing materials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, J.P.; Rokusek, D.L.; Harilal, S.S.; Nieto-Perez, M.; Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Heim, B.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium has enhanced the operational performance of fusion devices such as: TFTR, CDX-U, FTU, T-11 M, and NSTX. Lithium in the solid and liquid state has been studied extensively in laboratory experiments including its erosion and hydrogen-retaining properties. Reductions in physical sputtering up to 40-60% have been measured for deuterated solid and liquid lithium surfaces. Computational modeling indicates that up to a 1:1 deuterium volumetric retention in lithium is possible. This paper presents the results of systematic in situ laboratory experimental studies on the surface chemistry evolution of ATJ graphite under lithium deposition. Results are compared to post-mortem analysis of similar lithium surface coatings on graphite exposed to deuterium discharge plasmas in NSTX. Lithium coatings on plasma-facing components in NSTX have shown substantial reduction of hydrogenic recycling. Questions remain on the role lithium surface chemistry on a graphite substrate has on particle sputtering (physical and chemical) as well as hydrogen isotope recycling. This is particularly due to the lack of in situ measurements of plasma-surface interactions in tokamaks such as NSTX. Results suggest that the lithium bonding state on ATJ graphite is lithium peroxide and with sufficient exposure to ambient air conditions, lithium carbonate is generated. Correlation between both results is used to assess the role of lithium chemistry on the state of lithium bonding and implications on hydrogen pumping and lithium sputtering. In addition, reduction of factors between 10 and 30 reduction in physical sputtering from lithiated graphite compared to pure lithium or carbon is also measured.

  14. Experimental characterization of the COndensation PArticle counting System for high altitude aircraft-borne application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borrmann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A characterization of the ultra-fine aerosol particle counter COPAS (COndensation PArticle counting System for operation on board the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysika is presented. The COPAS instrument consists of an aerosol inlet and two dual-channel continuous flow Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs operated with the chlorofluorocarbon FC-43. It operates at pressures between 400 and 50 hPa for aerosol detection in the particle diameter (dp range from 6 nm up to 1 μm. The aerosol inlet, designed for the M-55, is characterized with respect to aspiration, transmission, and transport losses. The experimental characterization of counting efficiencies of three CPCs yields dp50 (50% detection particle diameter of 6 nm, 11 nm, and 15 nm at temperature differences (ΔT between saturator and condenser of 17°C, 30°C, and 33°C, respectively. Non-volatile particles are quantified with a fourth CPC, with dp50=11 nm. It includes an aerosol heating line (250°C to evaporate H2SO4-H2O particles of 11 nm<dp<200 nm at pressures between 70 and 300 hPa. An instrumental in-flight inter-comparison of the different COPAS CPCs yields correlation coefficients of 0.996 and 0.985. The particle emission index for the M-55 in the range of 1.4–8.4×1016 kg−1 fuel burned has been estimated based on measurements of the Geophysika's own exhaust.

  15. Snow Leopard cloud : A multi-national education training and experimentation cloud and its security challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayirci, E.; Rong, C.; Huiskamp, W.; Verkoelen, C.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Military/civilian education training and experimentation networks (ETEN) are an important application area for the cloud computing concept. However, major security challenges have to be overcome to realize an ETEN. These challenges can be categorized as security challenges typical to any cloud and

  16. Experimental and Computational Investigation of High Entropy Alloys for Elevated-Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, Peter [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Zhang, Fan [CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI (United States); Zhang, Chuan [CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI (United States); Wang, Gongyao [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Xie, Xie [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Diao, Haoyan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kuo, Chih-Hsiang [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); An, Zhinan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hemphill, Michael [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-07-30

    tomography (APT), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ neutron diffraction experiments were conducted to study the strengthening effect of B2 phase on tensile properties of Al0.3CoCrFeNi HEAs directly. The results shows the creep behavior of Al0.3CoCrFeNi is superior to conventional alloys, and the heat treatment introduces secondary B2 phase into the FCC matrix, which increase the yielding strength, decrease the ductility, diminish the serrated flow during compression tests at high temperatures. In summary, the outcomes of the development of the HEAs with creep resistance include: (1) Suitable candidates, for the application to boilers and steam and gas turbines at temperatures above 760 °C and a stress of 35 MPa. (2) Fundamental understanding on the precipitate stability and deformation mechanisms of both single-phase and precipitate-strengthened alloys at room and elevated temperatures, and (3) The demonstration of an integrated approach, coupling modeling [thermodynamic calculations and crystal-plasticity finite-element modeling (CPFEM)] and focused experiments, to identify HEAs that outperform conventional alloys for high-temperature applications, which will be applicable for the discovery and development of other high-temperature materials in the power-generating industry.

  17. Design, realization and structural testing of a compliant adaptable wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, G; Arrieta, A F; Ermanni, P; Quack, M; Morari, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, optimization, realization and testing of a novel wing morphing concept, based on distributed compliance structures, and actuated by piezoelectric elements. The adaptive wing features ribs with a selectively compliant inner structure, numerically optimized to achieve aerodynamically efficient shape changes while simultaneously withstanding aeroelastic loads. The static and dynamic aeroelastic behavior of the wing, and the effect of activating the actuators, is assessed by means of coupled 3D aerodynamic and structural simulations. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed morphing concept and optimization procedure, the wings of a model airplane are designed and manufactured according to the presented approach. The goal is to replace conventional ailerons, thus to achieve controllability in roll purely by morphing. The mechanical properties of the manufactured components are characterized experimentally, and used to create a refined and correlated finite element model. The overall stiffness, strength, and actuation capabilities are experimentally tested and successfully compared with the numerical prediction. To counteract the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the piezoelectric actuators, a closed-loop controller is implemented, and its capability of accurately achieving the desired shape adaptation is evaluated experimentally. Using the correlated finite element model, the aeroelastic behavior of the manufactured wing is simulated, showing that the morphing concept can provide sufficient roll authority to allow controllability of the flight. The additional degrees of freedom offered by morphing can be also used to vary the plane lift coefficient, similarly to conventional flaps. The efficiency improvements offered by this technique are evaluated numerically, and compared to the performance of a rigid wing. (paper)

  18. Electrospinning: A versatile technique for making of 1D growth of nanostructured nanofibers and its applications: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jyoti V.; Mali, Sawanta S.; Kamble, Archana S.; Hong, Chang K.; Kim, Jin H.; Patil, Pramod S.

    2017-11-01

    One dimensional (1D) metal oxide nanostructures (1D-MONS) play a key role in the development of functional devices including energy conversion, energy storage and environmental devices. They are also used for some important biomedical products like wound dressings, filter media, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The electrospinning (ES) is the versatile technique for making of 1D growth of nanostructured nanofibers, an experimental approach and its applications. The present review is focused on the 1D growth of nanostructured nanofibers in different applications like dye sensitized solar cells, perovskite solar cells, fuel cells, lithium ion batteries, redox flow batteries, supercapacitor, photocatalytic, and gas sensors based on ZnO, TiO2, MnO2, WO3, V2O5, NiO, SnO2, Fe2O3 etc. metal oxides, their composites and carbon. This review article presents an introduction to various types of ES techniques and their technical details. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of each ES technique are summarized. The various technical details such as preparative parameters, post-deposition methods, applied electric field, solution feed rate and a distance between a tip to the collector are the key factors in order to obtain exotic 1D nanostructured materials. Also, the lucid literature survey on the growth of nanostructures of various metal oxides and application in different fields are covered in this review. Further, the future perspectives has also been discussed.

  19. A Comparison of Product Realization Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    software (integrated FrameMaker ). Also included are BOLD for on-line documentation delivery, printer/plotter support, and 18 network licensing support. AMPLE...are built with DSS. Documentation tools include an on-line information system (BOLD), text editing (Notepad), word processing (integrated FrameMaker ...within an application. FrameMaker is fully integrated with the Falcon Framework to provide consistent documentation capabilities within engineering

  20. [New horizons in medicine. The application of "fuzzy logic" in clinical and experimental medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, G

    1994-06-01

    In medicine, the study of physiological and physiopathological problems is generally programmed by elaborating models which respond to the principals of formal logic. This gives the advantage of favouring the transformation of the formal model into a mathematical model of reference which responds to the principles of the set theories. All this is in the utopian wish to obtain as a result of each research, a net answer whether positive or negative, according to the Aristotelian principal of tertium non datur. Taking this into consideration, the A. briefly traces the principles of modal logic and, in particular, those of fuzzy logic, proposing that the latter substitute the actual definition of "logic with more truth values", with that perhaps more pertinent of "logic of conditioned possibilities". After a brief synthesis on the state of the art on the application of fuzzy logic, the A. reports an example of graphic expression of fuzzy logic by demonstrating how the basic glycemic data (expressed by the vectors magnitude) revealed in a sample of healthy individuals, constituted on the whole an unbroken continuous stream of set partials. The A. calls attention to fuzzy logic as a useful instrument to elaborate in a new way the analysis of scenario qualified to acquire the necessary information to single out the critical points which characterize the potential development of any biological phenomenon.

  1. Experimental Study of Nonequilibrium Electrodeposition of Nanostructures on Copper and Nickel for Photochemical Fuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Shanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the performance of photochemical fuel cells, nonequilibrium electrodeposition has been performed on Cu and Ni to make photosensitive anodes. Processing parameters including electrolyte concentration, and electrode potential were studied using cyclic voltammetry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS were performed to understand the formation of the nanostructures during the nonequilibrium deposition of copper fractals. An increase in the deposition rate was observed with the increase in electrolyte concentration (from 0.05 M to 1.0 M. Similar trend was found when the cathode potential was decreased from −0.5 V to −4.5 V. The effect of substrate material was also examined. Porous fractal structures on copper were achieved, while the deposited material showed high density of surface cracks on nickel. The fractal structures deposited on copper electrode with the increased surface area were converted into copper oxide by oxidation in air. Such oxide samples were made into anodes for photochemical fuel cell application. We demonstrated that an increase in the magnitude of open circuit output voltage is associated with the increase in the fractal surface area under the ultraviolet irradiation test conditions. However, the electrodeposited fractals on nickel showed very limited increase in the magnitude of open circuit voltage.

  2. Effect of intraoperative PEEP application on colonic anastomoses healing: An experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Mehmet; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Bilgili, Hasan; Türkoğlu, Yıldız; Karadeniz, Ümit; Aydoğ, Gülden; Erçin, Uğur; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Özer, İlter; Akoğlu, Musa

    2015-07-27

    This study aimed to assess the effect of intraoperative PEEP intervention on the healing of colonic anastomoses in rabbits. Thirty-two New Zealand type male rabbits were divided into two groups of sixteen animals each. Following ventilation with tracheostomy, colonic resection and anastomosis were performed in both groups. While 10 cm H2O PEEP level was applied in Group I (PEEP), Group II (ZEEP) was ventilated without PEEP throughout the surgery. Half of the both PEEP and ZEEP group animals were killed on the third postoperative day, while the remaining half on the seventh. Anastomotic bursting pressures, the tissue concentrations in hydroxyproline, and histological assessments were performed. Besides, intraoperative oxygen saturation and postoperative arterial blood gas parameters were also compared. On the first postoperative day, both arterial oxygen tension (PO2) and oxygen saturation (SO2) in the PEEP group were significantly higher than in the ZEEP group. On the seventh postoperative day, the bursting pressures of the anastomoses were significantly higher in the PEEP group, however the hydroxyproline content was significantly lower in the PEEP group than that in the ZEEP group. At day 7, PEEP group was significantly associated with increased neoangiogenesis compared with the ZEEP group. The anastomotic healing process is positively influenced by the intraoperative PEEP application.

  3. EEG Spectral Analysis in Serious Gaming: An Ad Hoc Experimental Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minchev Z.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of serious gaming technology in different areas of human knowledge for learning is raising the question of quantitative measurement of the training process quality. In the present paper a pilot study of 10 healthy volunteers' EEG spectra is performed for ad hoc selected game events ('win' and 'lose' via continuous wavelet transform (real and complex on the basis of the Morlet mother wavelet function and S-transformation. The results have shown a general decrease of the alpha rhythms power spectra frequencies for the 'lose' events and increase for the 'win' events. This fact corresponds to an opposite behaviour of the theta rhythm of the players for the same 'win' and 'lose' events. Additionally, the frequency changes in the alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz, alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz and theta2 rhythms (6-8 Hz were supposed to be a phenomena related to positive and negative emotions appearance in the EEG activity of the players regarding the selected 'win' and 'lose' states.

  4. Application of gamma densitometer for void fraction measurement in the downcomer of DVI experimental apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, In Cheol; Kim, Y. K.; Yun, B. J.; Kwon, T. S.; Chung, M. K.; Song, C. H.

    2000-11-01

    KNGR which adopts the DVI type of ECCS is expected to show different thermal hydraulic aspects from existing NPPs which use the CLI type of ECCS. Therefore, it is necessary to examine whether existing safety analysis codes could correctly predict major thermal hydraulic phenomena which are inherent in SIS operation of DVI type. Among several thermal hydraulic phenomena, it is of particular importance to examine and improve the analyzing capability of existing codes for the void fraction and flow pattern in the downcomer. In the present study, the design of gamma densitometer to measure the void fraction and flow pattern in the downcomer of DVI test apparatus has been performed. In addition, provided are the requirements of gamma source, source activity, scintillation detector, and signal processing system. Also, the design of the shielding facilities has been carried out to ensure the safety of operator from the danger of radiation exposure. And finally the applicability of gamma densitometer to the density measurement of two-phase flow has been investigated throughout the preliminary tests

  5. Statistical Information and Uncertainty: A Critique of Applications in Experimental Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Laming

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, first, a formal exploration of the relationships between information (statistically defined, statistical hypothesis testing, the use of hypothesis testing in reverse as an investigative tool, channel capacity in a communication system, uncertainty, the concept of entropy in thermodynamics, and Bayes’ theorem. This exercise brings out the close mathematical interrelationships between different applications of these ideas in diverse areas of psychology. Subsequent illustrative examples are grouped under (a the human operator as an ideal communications channel, (b the human operator as a purely physical system, and (c Bayes’ theorem as an algorithm for combining information from different sources. Some tentative conclusions are drawn about the usefulness of information theory within these different categories. (a The idea of the human operator as an ideal communications channel has long been abandoned, though it provides some lessons that still need to be absorbed today. (b Treating the human operator as a purely physical system provides a platform for the quantitative exploration of many aspects of human performance by analogy with the analysis of other physical systems. (c The use of Bayes’ theorem to calculate the effects of prior probabilities and stimulus frequencies on human performance is probably misconceived, but it is difficult to obtain results precise enough to resolve this question.

  6. Li-NMC Batteries Model Evaluation with Experimental Data for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Baczyńska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the battery equivalent circuit for electric vehicle application. Moreover, the model described below is dedicated to lithium-ion types of batteries. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an efficient and transparent method to develop a battery equivalent circuit model. Battery modeling requires, depending on the chosen method, either significant calculations or a highly developed mathematical model for optimization. The model is evaluated in comparison to the real data measurements, to present the performance of the method. Battery measurements based on charge/discharge tests at a fixed C-rate are presented to show the relation of the output voltage profiles with the battery state of charge. The pulse discharge test is presented to obtain the electric parameters of the battery equivalent circuit model, using a Thévenin circuit. According to the Reverse Trike Ecologic Electric Vehicle (VEECO RT characteristics used as a case study in this work, new values for vehicle autonomy and battery pack volume based on lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide cells are evaluated.

  7. Experimental investigation of thermal de-stratification in rock bed TES systems for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, Denis; Nydal, Ole J.; Banda, Eldad J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High thermal stratifications exists rock bed TES when charge with high temperature heat. • Faster thermal degradation occurs in highly stratified bed irrespective of the bed length. • Average rate of heat loss as a function of storage time increases with increasing average bed temperature. - Abstract: Solar energy fluctuates so much that it cannot promote continuous use. Integration of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) with solar energy collection devices has the potential of making solar energy available on demand. Thermal energy can be stored in a bed of rocks at temperatures suitable for applications like cooking, boiling space heating, etc. During charging, temperature stratification is observed in the bed. In a stratified system, if the heat is used immediately, then it is possible to extract heat at reasonably high temperature from the top. For cases where the system is to be used after sometime (later at night or the following morning), the high temperature heat at the top is observed to degrade as the system tries to establish thermal equilibrium irrespective of the bed height. The average rate of heat loss from the TES unit to the ambient is found to increase with increasing average bed temperatures

  8. Experimental Aspects of Colloidal Interactions in Mixed Systems of Liposome and Inorganic Nanoparticle and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gradzielski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, growing attention has been devoted to the study of the interactions taking place in mixed systems of phospholipid membranes (for instance in the form of vesicles and hard nanoparticles (NPs. In this context liposomes (vesicles may serve as versatile carriers or as a model system for biological membranes. Research on these systems has led to the observation of novel hybrid structures whose morphology strongly depends on the charge, composition and size of the interacting colloidal species as well as on the nature (pH, ionic strength of their dispersing medium. A central role is played by the phase behaviour of phospholipid bilayers which have a tremendous influence on the liposome properties. Another central aspect is the incorporation of nanoparticles into vesicles, which is intimately linked to the conditions required for transporting a nanoparticle through a membrane. Herein, we review recent progress made on the investigations of the interactions in liposome/nanoparticle systems focusing on the particularly interesting structures that are formed in these hybrid systems as well as their potential applications.

  9. Experimental studies of applicability of the wet air oxidation for purification liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergienko, V. I.; Dobrzansky, V. G.

    2005-01-01

    The scheme of handling with liquid radioactive waste (LRW) accepted to exploitation at atomic electric station (AWS) is often connected with evaporating technologies. In this case vat residues of evaporating systems with activity 10 5 -10 6 Bq/1 and containing to 200-300 g/1 of salts are delivered up to LRW storages for lasting keeping. This schema does not correlate to the modern safety standards of handling with LRW, therefore at present numerous works are being carried on including those using technology of accumulated vat residues processing. Some successful experiments on sorption purification of high-salt LRW from cesium radionuclides giving the principal contribution into the total activity of a certain LRW are known. Unfortunately, attempts of sorption purification of the vat residues from other long-lived radionuclides (mainly from 60 Co-radionuclide) were unsuccessful up to the present time. It is found with the fact that the vat residues contain a considerable amount of complexing agent producing stable complexes with transition metal radionuclides including those of 60 Co. Extreme oxidation of the vat residues for decomposition of radioactive organic complexes is one of the solutions of this problem. The works related to oxidation of LRW including the AES vat residues with ozone, hydrogen peroxide as well as photo catalytic and electrochemical oxidation are known, however, possibilities of wet air oxidation (WAO) for LRW processing are not studied till the present time. Condition for decomposition of cobalt complex compounds and necessary excess of oxidizing agent may be easily attained with WAO usage. The necessary experiments were carried out at the experimental plant with the great interface surface (oxygen-solutions) equal to 400m -1 and 3 mm probe bed thickness. The heating time of the reactor to the working temperature 250 .deg. C did not exceed 50 seconds. 20... 50-fold oxidizer excess was achieved by the initial oxygen pressure into the reactor

  10. Experimental investigations on the aerodynamics and aeromechanics of wind turbines for floating offshore applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Morteza

    There are many advantages in floating wind turbines in deep waters, however, there are also significant technological challenges associated with it too. The dynamic excitation of wind and waves can induce excessive motions along each of the 6 degrees of freedom (6-DOF) of the floating platforms. These motions will then be transferred to the turbine, and directly impact the wake characteristics of the floating wind turbines, and consequently the resultant wind loadings and performances of the wind turbines sited in offshore wind farms. In the present study, a comprehensive experimental study was performed to analyze the performance, loading, and the near wake characteristics of a rigid wind turbine model subjected to surge, heave, and pitch motions. The experimental study was performed in a large-scale atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel with a scaled three-blade Horizontal Axial Wind Turbine model placed in a turbulent boundary layer airflow with similar mean and turbulence characteristics as those over a typical offshore wind farm. The base of the 1:300 scaled model wind turbine was mounted on translation and rotation stages. These stages can be controlled to generate surge, pitch and heave motions to simulate the dynamic motions experienced by floating offshore wind turbines. During the experiments, the velocity scaling method was chosen to maintain the similar velocity ratios (i.e., the ratios of the incoming airflow flow to that of turbine base motion) between the model and the prototype. During the experiments, a high resolution digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to achieve flow field measurements to quantify the characteristics of the turbulent vortex flow in the near wake of the wind turbine model. Besides conducting ''free run'' PIV measurements to determine the ensemble-averaged statistics of the flow quantities such as mean velocity, Reynolds stress, and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) distributions in the wake flow, ''phase

  11. Computational and Experimental Design of Fe-Based Superalloys for Elevated-Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, Peter K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fine, Morris E. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ghosh, Gautam [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Asta, Mark D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Chain T. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Sun, Zhiqian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Huang, Shenyan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Teng, Zhenke [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wang, Gongyao [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2012-04-13

    Analogous to nickel-based superalloys, Fe-based superalloys, which are strengthened by coherent B2- type precipitates are proposed for elevated-temperature applications. During the period of this project, a series of ferritic superalloys have been designed and fabricated by methods of vacuum-arc melting and vacuum-induction melting. Nano-scale precipitates were characterized by atom-probe tomography, ultrasmall- angle X-ray scattering, and transmission-electron microscopy. A duplex distribution of precipitates was found. It seems that ferritic superalloys are susceptible to brittle fracture. Systematic endeavors have been devoted to understanding and resolving the problem. Factors, such as hot rolling, precipitate volume fractions, alloy compositions, precipitate sizes and inter-particle spacings, and hyperfine cooling precipitates, have been investigated. In order to understand the underlying relationship between the microstructure and creep behavior of ferric alloys at elevated temperatures, in-situ neutron studies have been carried out. Based on the current result, it seems that the major role of β' with a 16%-volume fraction in strengthening ferritic alloys is not load sharing but interactions with dislocations. The oxidation behavior of one ferritic alloy, FBB8 (Fe-6.5Al-10Ni-10Cr-3.4Mo-0.25Zr-0.005B, weight percent), was studied in dry air. It is found that it possesses superior oxidation resistance at 1,023 and 1,123 K, compared with other creep-resistant ferritic steels [T91 (modified 9Cr-1Mo, weight percent) and P92 (9Cr-1.8W-0.5Mo, weight percent)]. At the same time, the calculation of the interfacial energies between the -iron and B2-type intermetallics (CoAl, FeAl, and NiAl) has been conducted.

  12. High Z neoclassical transport: Application and limitation of analytical formulae for modelling JET experimental parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, S.; Casson, F. J.; Bourdelle, C.; Angioni, C.; Belli, E.; Camenen, Y.; Citrin, J.; Garbet, X.; Sarazin, Y.; Sertoli, M.; JET Contributors

    2018-01-01

    screening reduction due to poloidal asymmetries would need to be better characterised for this faster model to be extended to a more general applicability.

  13. Status of the realization of the neutral beam test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toigo, Vanni

    2015-01-01

    The ITER Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are required to deliver 16.5 MW of additional heating power to the plasma, accelerating negative ions up to -1 MV with a beam current of 40A lasting up to 1 hour. Since these outstanding requirements were never achieved all together so far, the realization of a Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF), called PRIMA, currently under construction in Padova, was launched with the aim to test the operation of the NB injector and to study the relevant physical and technological issues, in advance to the implementation in ITER. Two projects are under development: MITICA and SPIDER. MITICA is a full scale prototype of the ITER NB injector; the design is based on a similar scheme and layout, with the same power supply system and also the control and protection systems are being designed according to the ITER rules and constraints. The HV components are procured by JADA; the low voltage ones and the injector are procured by F4E. SPIDER project is an ion source with the same characteristics of the ITER one, specifically addressed to study the issues related to the RF operation; for this reason, the beam energy is limited to 100keV. It can generate both Hydrogen and Deuterium Ions; the design includes provisions to filter electrons and also to allow the use of cesium to attain the high values of current density required. SPIDER is procured by F4E and INDA. The construction of PRIMA buildings and auxiliaries, started in autumn 2008, was completed in summer 2015. SPIDER plant systems procurement is well advanced and some systems are under installation or site acceptance tests. In 2016 integrated commissioning and power supply integrated tests will be performed followed by the beginning of the first experimental phase. MITICA design was completed; many procurement contracts have been signed or will be launched in the next months. Installation activity will start in December 2015 with the installation of the first HV power supply components provided

  14. Diamond-Based Supercapacitors: Realization and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Nebel, Christoph E

    2016-10-26

    In this Spotlight on Applications, we describe our recent progress on the fabrication of surface-enlarged boron-doped polycrystalline diamond electrodes, and evaluate their performance in supercapacitor applications. We begin with a discussion of the fabrication methods of porous diamond materials. The diamond surface enlargement starts with a top-down plasma etching method. Although the extra surface area provided by surface roughening or nanostructuring provides good outcome for sensing applications, a capacitance value <1 mF cm -2 or a surface-enlargement factor <100 fail to meet the requirement of a practical supercapacitor. Driven by the need for large surface areas, we recently focused on the tempated-growth method. We worked on both supported and free-standing porous diamond materials to enhance the areal capacitance to the "mF cm -2 " range. With our newly developed free-standing diamond paper, areal capacitance can be multiplied by stacking multilayers of the electrode material. Finally, considering the fact that there is no real diamond-based supercapacitor device up to now, we fabricated the first prototype pouch-cell device based on the free-standing diamond paper to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that the diamond paper is suitable for operation in high potential windows (up to 2.5 V) in aqueous electrolyte with a capacitance of 0.688 mF cm -2 per layer of paper (or 0.645 F g -1 ). Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the operation frequency of the device exceeds 30 Hz. Because of the large potential window and the ability to work at high frequency, the specific power of the device reached 1 × 10 5 W kg -1 . In the end, we made estimations on the future target performance of diamond supercapacitors based on the existing information.

  15. Isotopic and continuous realizability of maps in the metastable range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhov, Sergey A

    2004-01-01

    A continuous map f of a compact n-polyhedron into an orientable piecewise linear m-manifold, m-n≥3, is discretely (isotopically) realizable if it is the uniform limit of a sequence of embeddings g k , k element of N (respectively, of an isotopy g t , t element of [0,∞)), and is continuously realizable if any embedding sufficiently close to f can be included in an arbitrarily small such isotopy. It was shown by the author that for m=2n+1, n≠1, all maps are continuously realizable, but for m=3, n=6 there are maps that are discretely realizable, but not isotopically. The first obstruction o(f) to the isotopic realizability of a discretely realizable map f lies in the kernel K f of the canonical epimorphism between the Steenrod and Cech (2n-m)-dimensional homologies of the singular set of f. It is known that for m=2n, n≥4, this obstruction is complete and f is continuously realizable if and only if the group K f is trivial. In the present paper it is established that f is continuously realizable if and only if K f is trivial even in the metastable range, that is, for m≥3(n+1)/2, n≠1. The proof uses higher cohomology operations. On the other hand, for each n≥9 a map S n →R 2n-5 is constructed that is discretely realizable and has zero obstruction o(f) to the isotopic realizability, but is not isotopically realizable, which fact is detected by the Steenrod square. Thus, in order to determine whether a discretely realizable map in the metastable range is isotopically realizable one cannot avoid using the complete obstruction in the group of Koschorke-Akhmet'ev bordisms.

  16. Multidimensional evaluation of performance: experimental application of the balanced scorecard in Ferrara university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    evaluated, not only for the financial outcomes, but also for the satisfaction of improving internal procedure, relationships with the community and their own growth/learning. BSC is an ideal point of contact between the financial and clinical dimensions of management. However, difficulties in its application were faced, among these, at least in the initial phase, the lack of information systems able to drive it, and the complexity of the research for specific indicators needed to be overcome. The time factor (on average, at least two years are required and the availability of technological resources were also limiting factors. The rapid diffusion of BSC among the principal international profit and non-profit organisations is testament to its great potential. This project could be seen as a preparatory phase in the strategical analysis of a subsequent business plan.

  17. BIOCHEMICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF COMBINED THERAPY APPLICATION IN THE ACUTE PHASE OF EXPERIMENTAL HELMINTHIASIS OF ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Grishina

    2017-01-01

    both Syphacia and Trichocephalus caused a gradual decrease in serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and γ-GTP, and a reduction in ALT and AST levels almost to control values. As a result of this treatment were normalized processes of protein synthesis, antitoxic liver function returned to normal levels and were decreased levels of endogenous intoxication. Conclusion. Thereby, in consideration of this dynamics of blood beochimical parameters in we can conclude that the animal invasion provokes hepatotoxic effect in the host organism, which is further enhanced with the albendazole etiotropic mono-therapy. At the same time integrated antihelminthic therapy with simultaneous application of antioxidant drug “Gamavit” and albendazole stimulates cell energy metabolism, detoxification and hepatoprotective effect. Consequently, the use of complex antihelminthic therapy in combination with antidote therapy in pathologies of parasitic origin is highly relevant and appropriate.

  18. Multidimensional evaluation of performance: experimental application of the balanced scorecard in Ferrara university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzola, Adriano; Bentivegna, Roberto; Carandina, Gianni; Trevisani, Lucio; Gregorio, Pasquale; Mandini, Alberto

    2009-09-08

    internal procedure, relationships with the community and their own growth/learning. BSC is an ideal point of contact between the financial and clinical dimensions of management. However, difficulties in its application were faced, among these, at least in the initial phase, the lack of information systems able to drive it, and the complexity of the research for specific indicators needed to be overcome. The time factor (on average, at least two years are required) and the availability of technological resources were also limiting factors.The rapid diffusion of BSC among the principal international profit and non-profit organisations is testament to its great potential. This project could be seen as a preparatory phase in the strategical analysis of a subsequent business plan.

  19. PCM-air heat exchangers for free-cooling applications in buildings: Experimental results of two real-scale prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, Ana; Dolado, Pablo; Marin, Jose M.; Zalba, Belen

    2009-01-01

    Latent heat storage using phase change materials (PCM) can be used for free-cooling. In this application low air temperature is used to solidify the PCM during the night and then during the next day, the inside air of a building can be cooled down by exchanging heat with PCM. Short times for charging and discharging the PCM are required. PCM have in general low thermal conductivity, therefore the heat exchanger design is very important to fulfil free-cooling requirements. This paper presents an experimental setup for testing PCM-air real-scale heat exchangers and the results for two real-scale prototypes. Results show that a heat exchanger using a PCM with lower thermal conductivity and lower total stored energy, but adequately designed, has higher cooling power and can be applied for free-cooling

  20. Experimental Implementation of a Low-Cost Single Phase Five-Level Inverter for Autonomous PV System Applications Without Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nouaiti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and the implementation of a low-cost single phase five-level inverter for photovoltaic applications. The proposed multilevel inverter is composed of a simple boost converter, a switched-capacitor converter, and an H-bridge converter. An efficient control method which associates a closed-loop regulation method with a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT method is applied in order to allow the proposed multilevel inverter to transfer power energy from solar panels to autonomous load with no storage batteries. An experimental prototype of this inverter is fabricated at the laboratory and tested with a digital control system. Obtained results confirm the simplicity and the performance of the proposed photovoltaic system.

  1. Pharao: study of an atomic clock using laser-cooled atoms and realization of a prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonde, P.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal jets and atomic fountains are two different principles on which atomic clocks are based. In atomic fountains the velocity of atoms can be reduced to a few cm/s so the classical limitations of thermal jets such as phase shift between two Ramsey impulses, second order Doppler effect become negligible. The new limitations set by atomic fountain clocks are now collisions between cold atoms and the radiation emitted by the black body. Weightlessness leads to a different running of the atomic clock and can imply an enhancement of its performances. In micro-gravity an interatomic interaction time of several seconds can be reached. The application of such atomic clocks can go beyond time or frequency metrology. This work is dedicated to the development of a spatial atomic clock to fully use the extremely low velocity of laser-cooled atoms and to quantify what can be expected of weightlessness. This study has involved the realization of a prototype and its testing in a zero-g plane. The experimental results are presented and it is highlighted that an accuracy and a one-day stability of 10 -16 are within reach with an optimized version of this atomic clock. (A.C.)

  2. Realizations of κ-Minkowski space, Drinfeld twists, and related symmetry algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juric, Tajron; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutic, Danijel [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Theoretical Physics Division, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-11-15

    Realizations of κ-Minkowski space linear in momenta are studied for time-, space- and light-like deformations. We construct and classify all such linear realizations and express them in terms of the gl(n) generators. There are three one-parameter families of linear realizations for timelike and space-like deformations, while for light-like deformations, there are only four linear realizations. The relation between a deformed Heisenberg algebra, the star product, the coproduct of momenta, and the twist operator is presented. It is proved that for each linear realization there exists a Drinfeld twist satisfying normalization and cocycle conditions. κ-Deformed igl(n)-Hopf algebras are presented for all cases. The κ-Poincare-Weyl and κ-Poincare-Hopf algebras are discussed. The left-right dual κ-Minkowski algebra is constructed from the transposed twists. The corresponding realizations are nonlinear. All Drinfeld twists related to κ-Minkowski space are obtained from our construction. Finally, some physical applications are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Realizations of κ-Minkowski space, Drinfeld twists, and related symmetry algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juric, Tajron; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutic, Danijel

    2015-01-01

    Realizations of κ-Minkowski space linear in momenta are studied for time-, space- and light-like deformations. We construct and classify all such linear realizations and express them in terms of the gl(n) generators. There are three one-parameter families of linear realizations for timelike and space-like deformations, while for light-like deformations, there are only four linear realizations. The relation between a deformed Heisenberg algebra, the star product, the coproduct of momenta, and the twist operator is presented. It is proved that for each linear realization there exists a Drinfeld twist satisfying normalization and cocycle conditions. κ-Deformed igl(n)-Hopf algebras are presented for all cases. The κ-Poincare-Weyl and κ-Poincare-Hopf algebras are discussed. The left-right dual κ-Minkowski algebra is constructed from the transposed twists. The corresponding realizations are nonlinear. All Drinfeld twists related to κ-Minkowski space are obtained from our construction. Finally, some physical applications are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Realization of an endoscope equipped with microprojection system for optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ryan; Falk, Ryan; Pashaie, Ramin

    2012-03-01

    Optogenetics is the science where recent progresses in the field of photonics are combined with the techniques in molecular genetics to develop a methodology for modulation of neural activities.1-9 Despite enormous enthusiasm in using optogenetics for brain studies, little has been done on the engineering side such as technology development for light delivery or realization of reliable systems for optical monitoring of the induced activities. In this project, we have implemented a Digital Micromirror Device based microprojection system capable of delivering illumination patterns through a high-resolution imaging fiber bundle that guides the pattern to the region of interest on the surface or within the brain tissue. The system is also equipped with an imaging path for detection of calcium signals and monitoring the induced patterns of cellular activities. A very interesting application of the system is extracting topographic computational maps of cortex or cellular receptive fields in-vivo. It is known that such maps are the engine of information processing in the cortex. Better understanding of the structure of such maps will help to unravel the mysteries of brain higher level computations. Another application of this system is related to the high-resolution stimulation patterns that cannot be produced with electrode arrays. Production of high-resolution patterns is important in the study of specific modes of brain activities. We report the details of our optical design, preliminary results produced by testing the system on tissue, and we discuss our strategy to extract new data from the brain tissue.

  5. BAMOS: A recording application for BAsso MOuse scale of locomotion in experimental models of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Alberto; Nieto-Díaz, Manuel; Del Águila, Ángela; Arias, Enrique

    2018-05-01

    Transparency in science is increasingly a hot topic. Scientists are required to show not only results but also evidence of how they have achieved these results. In experimental studies of spinal cord injury, there are a number of standardized tests, such as the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for rats and Basso Mouse Scale for mice, which researchers use to study the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury and to evaluate the effects of experimental therapies. Although the standardized data from the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale and the Basso Mouse Scale are particularly suited for storage and sharing in databases, systems of data acquisition and repositories are still lacking. To the best of our knowledge, both tests are usually conducted manually, with the data being recorded on a paper form, which may be documented with video recordings, before the data is transferred to a spreadsheet for analysis. The data thus obtained is used to compute global scores, which is the information that usually appears in publications, with a wealth of information being omitted. This information may be relevant to understand locomotion deficits or recovery, or even important aspects of the treatment effects. Therefore, this paper presents a mobile application to record and share Basso Mouse Scale tests, meeting the following criteria: i) user-friendly; ii) few hardware requirements (only a smartphone or tablet with a camera running under Android Operating System); and iii) based on open source software such as SQLite, XML, Java, Android Studio and Android SDK. The BAMOS app can be downloaded and installed from the Google Market repository and the app code is available at the GitHub repository. The BAMOS app demonstrates that mobile technology constitutes an opportunity to develop tools for aiding spinal cord injury scientists in recording and sharing experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards designing polymers for photovoltaic applications: A DFT and experimental study of polyazomethines with various chemical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkiewicz, Jacek; Iwan, Agnieszka; Pilch, Marek; Boharewicz, Bartosz; Wójcik, Kamil; Tazbir, Igor; Kaminska, Maria

    2017-06-15

    Theoretical studies of polyazomethines (PAZs) with various chemical structures designated for photovoltaic applications are presented. PAZ energy levels and optical properties were calculated within density-functional theory (DFT and TDDFT) framework for 28 oligomers (monomer, dimer and trimer) of PAZs. The correlations between chemical structure of PAZ and location of its highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels were examined. It turned out that the presence of triaminophenylene, dimethoxydiphenylene and fluorine group raises the orbital energies. As a consequence, it is a factor which improves the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cell built on the base of the corresponding PAZ and [6,6]-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). On the contrary, quinone, 1,3,5-triazine and perfluorophenylene groups lower orbital energies and have negative influence on the photovoltaic efficiency. Moreover, calculations for methyl, ethyl and butyl analogs of P3HT as well as polythiophenes were performed and compared with the results obtained for PAZs. In addition experimental data are presented, which cover optical, electrochemical and electrical transport properties of the studied PAZs, allowing to determine HOMO and LUMO energies of the polymers and their conductivity. Finally, comparison between calculated and experimental results were made and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental and computational analysis of a 1.2 kW PEMFC designed for communications backup power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, K.J.; Claveria, J.; Varadharajan, L.; Kalam, A.

    2011-01-01

    Usage of Fuel Cells due to their high power density and low greenhouse gas emissions which combine H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ electrochemically to produce electricity and H/sub 2/O as the by-product will become widespread in the near future due to its quality, reliability and portability. Among all types of fuel cells, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) is most attractive for residential and automotive industry use due to its low operating temperature, silent operation, quick start-up characteristics and better performance. The T-1000 1.2 kW PEMFC are mainly used for communications backup power applications because of its high reliability, simplicity and ease of maintenance in telecommunication sector, utility and government etc. This paper discuses the features of T- 1000 PEMFC and also the production losses due to power outages in US and different parts of the globe and the advantages of using it in different sectors to reduce the production loses occurred by the power outages. This work focuses on the experimental data and the computational data of load, P, V, A and H/sub 2/ consumed under laboratory conditions at Power Lab in Victoria University, Melbourne. The paper also describes various load, P, V and A curves recorded at regular intervals between the experimental and computational data. The work shows notably the benefit of using T-1000 1.2 kW PEMFC for residential, automobile, government and telecom sectors. (author)

  8. Modeling the basin of attraction as a two-dimensional manifold from experimental data: Applications to balance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.; Stirling, James R.; Cordente Martínez, Carlos A.; Díaz de Durana, Alfonso López; Quintana, Manuel Sillero; Romo, Gabriel Rodríguez; Molinuevo, Javier Sampedro

    2010-03-01

    We present a method of modeling the basin of attraction as a three-dimensional function describing a two-dimensional manifold on which the dynamics of the system evolves from experimental time series data. Our method is based on the density of the data set and uses numerical optimization and data modeling tools. We also show how to obtain analytic curves that describe both the contours and the boundary of the basin. Our method is applied to the problem of regaining balance after perturbation from quiet vertical stance using data of an elite athlete. Our method goes beyond the statistical description of the experimental data, providing a function that describes the shape of the basin of attraction. To test its robustness, our method has also been applied to two different data sets of a second subject and no significant differences were found between the contours of the calculated basin of attraction for the different data sets. The proposed method has many uses in a wide variety of areas, not just human balance for which there are many applications in medicine, rehabilitation, and sport.

  9. Experimental and CFD Analysis of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger for Supercritical CO{sub 2} Power Cycle Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Seungjoon; Kim, Hyeon Tae; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jekyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) power cycle has been suggested as an alternative for the SFR power generation system. First of all, relatively mild sodium-CO{sub 2} interaction can reduce the accident probability. Also the S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle can achieve high efficiency with SFR core thermal condition. Moreover, the S-CO{sub 2} power cycle can reduce cycle footprint due to high density of the working fluid. Recently, various compact heat exchangers have been studied for developing an optimal heat exchanger. In this paper, the printed circuit heat exchanger was selected for S-CO{sub 2} power cycle applications and was closely investigated experimentally and analytically. Recently, design and performance prediction of PCHE received attention due to its importance in high pressure power systems such as S-CO{sub 2} cycle. To evaluate a PCHE performance with CO{sub 2} to water, KAIST research team designed and tested a lab-scale PCHE. From the experimental data and CFD analysis, pressure drop and heat transfer correlations are obtained. For the CFD analysis, Ansys-CFX commercial code was utilized with RGP table implementation. In near future, the turbulence model sensitivity study will be followed.

  10. Realizing a supercapacitor in an electrical circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Capacitors are commonly used in electronic resonance circuits; however, capacitors have not been used for storing large amounts of electrical energy in electrical circuits. Here, we report a superior RC circuit which serves as an electrical storage system characterized by quick charging and long-term discharging of electricity. The improved energy storage characteristics in this mixed electric circuit (R 1  + R 2 C 1 ) with small resistor R 1 , large resistor R 2 , and large capacitor C 1 are derived from the damming effect by large R 2 in simple parallel R 2 C 1 circuit. However, no research work has been carried out previously on the use of capacitors as electrical energy storage devices in circuits. Combined with nanotechnology, we hope that our finding will play a remarkable role in a variety of applications such as hybrid electric vehicles and backup power supplies

  11. Prospect of realizing nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Report describes the results of the research work on nuclear fusion, which CRIEPI has carried out for about ten years from the standpoint of electric power utilities, potential user of its energy. The principal points are; (a) economic analysis (calculation of costs) based on Japanese analysis procedures and database of commercial fusion reactors, including fusion-fission hybrid reactors, and (b) conceptual design of two types of hybrid reactors, that is, fission-fuel producing DMHR (Demonstration Molten-Salt Hybrid Reactor) and electric-power producing THPR (Tokamak Hybrid Power Reactor). The Report consists of the following chapters: 1. Introduction. 2. Conceptual Design of Hybrid Reactors. 3. Economic Analysis of Commercial Fusion Reactors. 4. Basic Studies Applicable Also to Nuclear Fusion Technology. 5. List of Published Reports and Papers; 6. Conclusion. Appendices. (author)

  12. The realization problem for positive and fractional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczorek, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the realization problem of positive and fractional continuous-time and discrete-time linear systems. Roughly speaking the essence of the realization problem can be stated as follows: Find the matrices of the state space equations of linear systems for given their transfer matrices. This first book on this topic shows how many well-known classical approaches have been extended to the new classes of positive and fractional linear systems. The modified Gilbert method for multi-input multi-output linear systems, the method for determination of realizations in the controller canonical forms and in observer canonical forms are presented. The realization problem for linear systems described by differential operators, the realization problem in the Weierstrass canonical forms and of the descriptor linear systems for given Markov parameters are addressed. The book also presents a method for the determination of minimal realizations of descriptor linear systems and an extension for cone linear syste...

  13. Growth of self-assembled (Ga)InAs/GaAs quantum dots and realization of high quality microcavities for experiments in the field of strong exciton photon coupling; Selbstorganisiertes Wachstum von (Ga)InAs/GaAs-Quantenpunkten und Entwicklung von Mikroresonatoren hoechster Guete fuer Experimente zur starken Exziton-Photon-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, Andreas

    2008-11-05

    At the beginning, we improved the three dimensional optical confinement of the micropillars. The quality factor of the pillars could be increased by the use of higher reflectivity mirrors and a matched V/III ratio for the different epitaxial layers. Hence, a record quality factor of about 90000 was achieved for an active micropillar with 26 (30) mirror pairs in the top (bottom) DBR and a diameter of 4 {mu}m. In parallel to this, we made studies on the growth of self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots on GaAs substrates. Here, the nucleation of three dimensional islands as well as their optical properties were object of the investigation. The morphological properties of the dots were analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and the optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence and photoreflectance measurements. The optical and particularly the morphological properties of the self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots were essentially improved. Due to a low strain nucleation layer with an indium content of 30 %, the dot density could be reduced to 6-9 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} and their geometric dimensions were increased to typical lengths between 50 and 100 nm and widths of about 30 nm. The lattice mismatch between the quantum dots and the surrounding matrix is decreased due to the reduced indium content. The minimized strain during the dot growth leads to an enhanced migration length of the deposited atoms on the surface. Finally, the obtained findings of the MBE growth of microcavities, their fabrication and the self-assembled island growth of GaInAs on GaAs were used for the realization of further samples. Low strain GaInAs quantum dots were embedded into the microresonators. These structures allowed for the first time the observation of strong coupling between light and matter in a semiconductor. In case of the low strain quantum dots with enlarged dimensions in the strong coupling regime, a vacuum Rabi-splitting of about 140 {mu}eV between the

  14. Analysis of Software Development Methodologies to Build Safety Software Applications for the SATEX-II: A Mexican Experimental Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cisneros, Jorge; Vargas Martinez, Hector; Pedroza Melendez, Alejandro; Alonso Arevalo, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Mexico is a country where the experience to build software for satellite applications is beginning. This is a delicate situation because in the near future we will need to develop software for the SATEX-II (Mexican Experimental Satellite). SATEX- II is a SOMECyTA's project (the Mexican Society of Aerospace Science and Technology). We have experienced applying software development methodologies, like TSP (Team Software Process) and SCRUM in other areas. Then, we analyzed these methodologies and we concluded: these can be applied to develop software for the SATEX-II, also, we supported these methodologies with SSP-05-0 Standard in particular with ESA PSS-05-11. Our analysis was focusing on main characteristics of each methodology and how these methodologies could be used with the ESA PSS 05-0 Standards. Our outcomes, in general, may be used by teams who need to build small satellites, but, in particular, these are going to be used when we will build the on board software applications for the SATEX-II.

  15. [The influence of application of a low-frequency magnetic field on the serum corticosterone level (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabovskiĭ, V V; Gotovskiĭ, M Iu; Vinokurov, A A; Maslov, O V

    2013-01-01

    The results of analysis of the literature publications suggest the necessity of experimental studies aimed at investigation of modulating effect of low-frequency magnetic fields on endocrine organs. The present study was carried out using 200 outbred white male rats (body weight 200-220 g). Corticosterone was measured in blood sera following the application of a low-frequency magnetic field (20 and 53 Hz with induction from 0.4 to 6 mT) generated by a Mini-Expert-T apparatus for induction magnetic therapy during 30 minutes. It was shown that the application of the alternating magnetic field to the adrenal region of the rats in the selected frequency and induction ranges caused a significant increase in the serum corticosterone levels. The results of the present study on the hormonal activity of rat adrenals give reason to consider the influence of the alternating magnetic fields as being modulatory. Analysis of the data thus obtained has demonstrated the non-linear dependence of glucocorticoid activity of the rat adrenal glands on the induction strength of the alternating magnetic field.

  16. Realization of a scanning ion beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautard, C.

    2008-07-01

    During this thesis, a scanning ion beam monitor has been developed in order to measure on-line fluence spatial distributions. This monitor is composed of an ionization chamber, Hall Effect sensors and a scintillator. The ionization chamber set between the beam exit and the experiment measures the ion rate. The beam spot is localized thanks to the Hall Effect sensors set near the beam sweeping magnets. The scintillator is used with a photomultiplier tube to calibrate the ionization chamber and with an imaging device to calibrate the Hall Effect sensors. This monitor was developed to control the beam lines of a radiobiology dedicated experimentation room at GANIL. These experiments are held in the context of the research in hadron-therapy. As a matter of fact, this new cancer treatment technique is based on ion irradiations and therefore demands accurate knowledge about the relation between the dose deposit in biological samples and the induced effects. To be effective, these studies require an on-line control of the fluence. The monitor has been tested with different beams at GANIL. Fluence can be measured with a relative precision of ±4% for a dose rate ranging between 1 mGy/s and 2 Gy/s. Once permanently set on the beam lines dedicated to radiobiology at GANIL, this monitor will enable users to control the fluence spatial distribution for each irradiation. The scintillator and the imaging device are also used to control the position, the spot shape and the energy of different beams such as those used for hadron-therapy. (author)

  17. Atypical transistor-based chaotic oscillators: Design, realization, and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Frasca, Mattia; OświÈ©cimka, Paweł; Faes, Luca; DroŻdŻ, Stanisław

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we show that novel autonomous chaotic oscillators based on one or two bipolar junction transistors and a limited number of passive components can be obtained via random search with suitable heuristics. Chaos is a pervasive occurrence in these circuits, particularly after manual adjustment of a variable resistor placed in series with the supply voltage source. Following this approach, 49 unique circuits generating chaotic signals when physically realized were designed, representing the largest collection of circuits of this kind to date. These circuits are atypical as they do not trivially map onto known topologies or variations thereof. They feature diverse spectra and predominantly anti-persistent monofractal dynamics. Notably, we recurrently found a circuit comprising one resistor, one transistor, two inductors, and one capacitor, which generates a range of attractors depending on the parameter values. We also found a circuit yielding an irregular quantized spike-train resembling some aspects of neural discharge and another one generating a double-scroll attractor, which represent the smallest known transistor-based embodiments of these behaviors. Through three representative examples, we additionally show that diffusive coupling of heterogeneous oscillators of this kind may give rise to complex entrainment, such as lag synchronization with directed information transfer and generalized synchronization. The replicability and reproducibility of the experimental findings are good.

  18. Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raginsky, Maxim

    2002-01-01

    We study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modeled by strictly contractive channels. A channel T is defined to be strictly contractive if, for any pair of density operators ρ, σ in its domain, parallel Tρ-Tσ parallel 1 ≤k parallel ρ-σ parallel 1 for some 0≤k 1 denotes the trace norm). In other words, strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of quantum detection theory. Starting from the premise that all experimental procedures can be carried out with finite precision, we argue that there exists a physically meaningful connection between strictly contractive channels and errors in physically realizable quantum computers. We show that, in the absence of error correction, sensitivity of quantum memories and computers to strictly contractive errors grows exponentially with storage time and computation time, respectively, and depends only on the constant k and the measurement precision. We prove that strict contractivity rules out the possibility of perfect error correction, and give an argument that approximate error correction, which covers previous work on fault-tolerant quantum computation as a special case, is possible

  19. Data acquisition system realization for H1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Buono, L.

    1989-06-01

    The acquisition and trigger system for H1 liquid argon calorimeter deals with severe constraints which have to be taken into account. We describe the system which results from these constraints, emphasizing the solutions adopted to meet the specificities of the detector and the difficult experimental conditions at HERA: high physical background (10 4-5 Hz), physics and background events pile up (10%), large crossing frequency of proton and electron bunches (10.4 MHz). Next, we present a detailed description of the acquisition and online control scheme used during the calorimetry tests in SPS beam, at CERN. This test system, prefiguring the final one (which will start to work at the end of 1989), includes a fast frontal processor CAB (taking charge of the electronics read out and sequencing, and furthermore producing simple histograms). The CAB is controlled by a Micro Vax computer which realizes the user interface, allowing a quick visualisation and verification of the acquired data, these functions being performed in multitasking environment [fr

  20. An Experimental Protocol for Assessing the Performance of New Ultrasound Probes Based on CMUT Technology in Application to Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrone, Giulia; Ramalli, Alessandro; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Quaglia, Fabio; Castellazzi, Gloria; Morbini, Patrizia; Piastra, Marco

    2017-09-24

    The possibility to perform an early and repeatable assessment of imaging performance is fundamental in the design and development process of new ultrasound (US) probes. Particularly, a more realistic analysis with application-specific imaging targets can be extremely valuable to assess the expected performance of US probes in their potential clinical field of application. The experimental protocol presented in this work was purposely designed to provide an application-specific assessment procedure for newly-developed US probe prototypes based on Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) technology in relation to brain imaging. The protocol combines the use of a bovine brain fixed in formalin as the imaging target, which ensures both realism and repeatability of the described procedures, and of neuronavigation techniques borrowed from neurosurgery. The US probe is in fact connected to a motion tracking system which acquires position data and enables the superposition of US images to reference Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of the brain. This provides a means for human experts to perform a visual qualitative assessment of the US probe imaging performance and to compare acquisitions made with different probes. Moreover, the protocol relies on the use of a complete and open research and development system for US image acquisition, i.e. the Ultrasound Advanced Open Platform (ULA-OP) scanner. The manuscript describes in detail the instruments and procedures involved in the protocol, in particular for the calibration, image acquisition and registration of US and MR images. The obtained results prove the effectiveness of the overall protocol presented, which is entirely open (within the limits of the instrumentation involved), repeatable, and covers the entire set of acquisition and processing activities for US images.

  1. Realizing a supercapacitor in an electrical circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuhara, Mikio, E-mail: fukuhara@niche.tohoku.ac.jp; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-11-17

    Capacitors are commonly used in electronic resonance circuits; however, capacitors have not been used for storing large amounts of electrical energy in electrical circuits. Here, we report a superior RC circuit which serves as an electrical storage system characterized by quick charging and long-term discharging of electricity. The improved energy storage characteristics in this mixed electric circuit (R{sub 1} + R{sub 2}C{sub 1}) with small resistor R{sub 1}, large resistor R{sub 2}, and large capacitor C{sub 1} are derived from the damming effect by large R{sub 2} in simple parallel R{sub 2}C{sub 1} circuit. However, no research work has been carried out previously on the use of capacitors as electrical energy storage devices in circuits. Combined with nanotechnology, we hope that our finding will play a remarkable role in a variety of applications such as hybrid electric vehicles and backup power supplies.

  2. Design and Realization of Network Teaching System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Shan Shan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 21 century, with the wide spread in family and public, network has been applied in many new fields, and the application in classes is of no exception. In traditional education, teachers give lessons to students face to face. Hence, the teaching quality depends largely on the quality and initiative of the individual teacher. However, the serious disadvantages of this mode are that teachers completely dominate the classroom and may ignore the subjective cognition role of the students, which may be bad for the growth of creativity and the innovative thinking ability. Obviously, traditional education mode cannot meet the requirements of the this new era which leads to the booming developing tendency of the network. As a new teaching measure, scientifically combining modern information technology and teaching practice, network teaching not only changes the traditional education by the means and form, but even also gives new meanings to teaching concept, process, method as well as teacher-student role and other deep levels. With the help of network teaching system, on-line classroom learning, relevant information systematization, standardization and automation, this system provides students with an efficient online learning method with high quality. This also helps to solve the disadvantages of the traditional teaching mode and promote the teaching methods to a new stage. It improves the network teaching platform, enriches the network teaching resources, and establishes a network teaching system, so as to improve information quality of teachers and students and assist in improving teaching quality of schools.

  3. Development and experimental qualification of a calculation scheme for the evaluation of gamma heating in experimental reactors. Application to MARIA and Jules Horowitz (JHR) MTR Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarchalski, M.; Pytel, K.; Wroblewska, M.; Marcinkowska, Z.; Boettcher, A.; Prokopowicz, R. [NCBJ Institute, MARIA Reactor, ul.Andrzeja Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk (Poland); Sireta, P.; Gonnier, C.; Bignan, G. [CEA, DEN, Reactor Studies Department, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Barbot, L.; Villard, J.F.; Destouches, C. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Reynard-Carette, C.; Brun, J. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Universite de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Jagielski, J. [NCBJ Institute, MARIA Reactor, ul.Andrzeja Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technolgy, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland); Luks, A. [Institute of Heat Engineering, Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    Precise computational determination of nuclear heating which consists predominantly of gamma heating (more than 80 %) is one of the challenges in material testing reactor exploitation. Due to sophisticated construction and conditions of experimental programs planned in JHR it became essential to use most accurate and precise gamma heating model. Before the JHR starts to operate, gamma heating evaluation methods need to be developed and qualified in other experimental reactor facilities. This is done inter alia using OSIRIS, MINERVE or EOLE research reactors in France. Furthermore, MARIA - Polish material testing reactor - has been chosen to contribute to the qualification of gamma heating calculation schemes/tools. This reactor has some characteristics close to those of JHR (beryllium usage, fuel element geometry). To evaluate gamma heating in JHR and MARIA reactors, both simulation tools and experimental program have been developed and performed. For gamma heating simulation, new calculation scheme and gamma heating model of MARIA have been carried out using TRIPOLI4 and APOLLO2 codes. Calculation outcome has been verified by comparison to experimental measurements in MARIA reactor. To have more precise calculation results, model of MARIA in TRIPOLI4 has been made using the whole geometry of the core. This has been done for the first time in the history of MARIA reactor and was complex due to cut cone shape of all its elements. Material composition of burnt fuel elements has been implemented from APOLLO2 calculations. An experiment for nuclear heating measurements and calculation verification has been done in September 2014. This involved neutron, photon and nuclear heating measurements at selected locations in MARIA reactor using in particular Rh SPND, Ag SPND, Ionization Chamber (all three from CEA), KAROLINA calorimeter (NCBJ) and Gamma Thermometer (CEA/SCK CEN). Measurements were done in forty points using four channels. Maximal nuclear heating evaluated from

  4. Application of bias factor method with use of virtual experimental value to prediction uncertainty reduction in void reactivity worth of breeding light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Teruhiko; Mori, Takamasa; Kojima, Kensuke; Takeda, Toshikazu

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out the critical experiments for the MOX fueled tight lattice LWR cores using FCA facility and constructed the XXII-1 series cores. Utilizing the critical experiments carried out at FCA, we have evaluated the reduction of prediction uncertainty in the coolant void reactivity worth of the breeding LWR core based on the bias factor method with focusing on the prediction uncertainty due to cross section errors. In the present study, we have introduced a concept of a virtual experimental value into the conventional bias factor method to overcome a problem caused by the conventional bias factor method in which the prediction uncertainty increases in the case that the experimental core has the opposite reactivity worth and the consequent opposite sensitivity coefficients to the real core. To extend the applicability of the bias factor method, we have adopted an exponentiated experimental value as the virtual experimental value and formulated the prediction uncertainty reduction by the use of the bias factor method extended by the concept of the virtual experimental value. From the numerical evaluation, it has been shown that the prediction uncertainty due to cross section errors has been reduced by the use of the concept of the virtual experimental value. It is concluded that the introduction of virtual experimental value can effectively utilize experimental data and extend applicability of the bias factor method. (author)

  5. THE CONCEPT OF STUDENTS SELF-REALIZATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF INFORMATIZATION OF HIGHER SCHOOL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nikolaevna Shutenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In article author states the phenomenological aspect of use of modern information technologies in higher education, which opens modalities of students’ self-realization (cognitive, communicative, creative, pragmatical, influential, dedicative etc., describes the personal-focused concept of informatization within two contours-components: subjective and conditional. The first component covers attributive signs of students self-realization over it the relevant requirements of application of information technologies are built on, these requirements form the second conditional component. Such approach gives the chance of more adequate interrelation technological and personal factors of the modern higher school.

  6. Data ontology and an information system realization for web-based management of image measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter eProdanov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Image acquisition, processing and quantification of objects (morphometry require the integration of data inputs and outputs originating from heterogeneous sources. Management of the data exchange along this workflow in a systematic manner poses several challenges, notably the description of the heterogeneous meta data and the interoperability between the software used. The use of integrated software solutions for morphometry and management of imaging data in combination ontologies can reduce metadata data loss and greatly facilitate subsequent data analysis. This paper presents an integrated information system, called LabIS. The system has the objectives to automate (i the process of storage, annotation and querying of image measurements and (ii to provide means for data sharing with 3rd party applications consuming measurement data using open standard communication protocols. LabIS implements 3-tier architecture with a relational database back-end and an application logic middle tier realizing web-based user interface for reporting and annotation and a web service communication layer. The image processing and morphometry functionality is backed by interoperability with ImageJ, a public domain image processing software, via integrated clients. Instrumental for the latter was the construction of a data ontology representing the common measurement data model. LabIS supports user profiling and can store arbitrary types of measurements, regions of interest, calibrations and ImageJ settings. Integration of the stored measurements is facilitated by atlas mapping and ontology-based markup. The system can be used as an experimental workflow management tool allowing for description and reporting of the performed experiments. LabIS can be also used as a measurements repository that can be transparently accessed by computational environments, such as Matlab. Finally, the system can be used as a data sharing tool.

  7. Aspect-Oriented Change Realizations and Their Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vranić, Valentino; Menkyna, Radoslav; Bebjak, Michal

    2009-01-01

    With aspect-oriented programming, changes can be treated explicitly and directly at the programming language level. An approach to aspect-oriented change realization based on a two-level change type model is presented in this paper. In this approach, aspect-oriented change realizations are mainly...

  8. Realized range-based estimation of integrated variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Podolskij, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We provide a set of probabilistic laws for estimating the quadratic variation of continuous semimartingales with the realized range-based variance-a statistic that replaces every squared return of the realized variance with a normalized squared range. If the entire sample path of the process is a...

  9. Technology Education: The Means to the Realization of Nigeria's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The realization of Nigeria's vision 2020 is now a challenging problem. However, using Technology Education as a means to the realization is the focus of this paper. This paper highlighted the current state of technology education in Nigeria and stated its efficacy to advance development and improve the nation's economy.

  10. Proposal of Realization Restricted Quantum Game with Linear Optic Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haijun; Fang Ximing

    2006-01-01

    We present a quantum game with the restricted strategic space and its realization with linear optical system, which can be played by two players who are separated remotely. This game can also be realized on any other quantum computers. We find that the constraint brings some interesting properties that are useful for making game models.

  11. Realizing e-government benefits with minimal capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    but to fully automate processes the reliance on formal benefits realization practices is decreased. Research limitations/implications — The findings are based on single case. Originality/value — There is only little empirical research studying benefits realization in a public sector context. Furthermore...

  12. Experimental studies of the quench behaviour of MgB{sub 2} superconducting wires for fault current limiter applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Lin [Interdisciplinary Research Center (IRC) in Superconductivity, Cavendish Laboratory/Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Majoros, M [Laboratories for Applied Superconductivity and Magnetism, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Campbell, A M [Interdisciplinary Research Center (IRC) in Superconductivity, Cavendish Laboratory/Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Coombs, T [Interdisciplinary Research Center (IRC) in Superconductivity, Cavendish Laboratory/Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Astill, D [Interdisciplinary Research Center (IRC) in Superconductivity, Cavendish Laboratory/Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Harrison, S [Scientific Magnetics, Culham Science Centre, Culham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Husband, M [Strategic Research Center (SRC)-Electrical Engineering, Rolls-Royce plc, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Rindfleisch, M [Hyper Tech Research Inc., Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Tomsic, M [Hyper Tech Research Inc., Columbus, OH 43212 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Various MgB{sub 2} wires with different sheath materials provided by Hyper Tech Research Inc., have been tested in the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) desktop tester at 24-26 K in a self-field. Samples 1 and 2 are similarly fabricated monofilamentary MgB{sub 2} wires with a sheath of CuNi, except that sample 2 is doped with SiC and Mg addition. Sample 3 is a CuNi sheathed multifilamentary wire with Cu stabilization and Mg addition. All the samples with Nb barriers have the same diameter of 0.83 mm and superconducting fractions ranging from 15% to 27% of the total cross section. They were heat-treated at temperatures of 700 deg. C for a hold time of 20-40 min. Current limiting properties of MgB{sub 2} wires subjected to pulse overcurrents have been experimentally investigated in an AC environment in the self-field at 50 Hz. The quench currents extracted from the pulse measurements were in a range of 200-328 A for different samples, corresponding to an average engineering critical current density (J{sub e}) of around 4.8 x 10{sup 4} A cm{sup -2} at 25 K in the self-field, based on the 1 {mu}V cm{sup -1} criterion. This work is intended to compare the quench behaviour in the Nb-barrier monofilamentary and multifilamentary MgB{sub 2} wires with CuNi and Cu/CuNi sheaths. The experimental results can be applied to the design of fault current limiter applications based on MgB{sub 2} wires.

  13. Final Report for the Virtual Reliability Realization System LDRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DELLIN, THEODORE A.; HENDERSON, CHRISTOPHER L.; O' TOOLE, EDWARD J.

    2000-12-01

    Current approaches to reliability are not adequate to keep pace with the need for faster, better and cheaper products and systems. This is especially true in high consequence of failure applications. The original proposal for the LDRD was to look at this challenge and see if there was a new paradigm that could make reliability predictions, along with a quantitative estimate of the risk in that prediction, in a way that was faster, better and cheaper. Such an approach would be based on the underlying science models that are the backbone of reliability predictions. The new paradigm would be implemented in two software tools: the Virtual Reliability Realization System (VRRS) and the Reliability Expert System (REX). The three-year LDRD was funded at a reduced level for the first year ($120K vs. $250K) and not renewed. Because of the reduced funding, we concentrated on the initial development of the expertise system. We developed an interactive semiconductor calculation tool needed for reliability analyses. We also were able to generate a basic functional system using Microsoft Siteserver Commerce Edition and Microsoft Sequel Server. The base system has the capability to store Office documents from multiple authors, and has the ability to track and charge for usage. The full outline of the knowledge model has been incorporated as well as examples of various types of content.

  14. Creating Turbulent Flow Realizations with Generative Adversarial Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ryan; Graf, Peter; Chertkov, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Generating valid inflow conditions is a crucial, yet computationally expensive, step in unsteady turbulent flow simulations. We demonstrate a new technique for rapid generation of turbulent inflow realizations that leverages recent advances in machine learning for image generation using a deep convolutional generative adversarial network (DCGAN). The DCGAN is an unsupervised machine learning technique consisting of two competing neural networks that are trained against each other using backpropagation. One network, the generator, tries to produce samples from the true distribution of states, while the discriminator tries to distinguish between true and synthetic samples. We present results from a fully-trained DCGAN that is able to rapidly draw random samples from the full distribution of possible inflow states without needing to solve the Navier-Stokes equations, eliminating the costly process of spinning up inflow turbulence. This suggests a new paradigm in physics informed machine learning where the turbulence physics can be encoded in either the discriminator or generator. Finally, we also propose additional applications such as feature identification and subgrid scale modeling.

  15. Experimental Thermodynamics of [Na-Mg-Cl-SO4] Aqueous Solutions at GPa Pressure With Application to Icy Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. M.; Bollengier, O.; Vance, S.

    2017-12-01

    Water competes with silicates as the main constituent of solid bodies in the outer solar system. Ganymede and Titan, the Mercury-sized satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, are made up half of water present as massive hydrospheres where pressure can reach up to 1.5 GPa. Geophysical data and planetary models unequivocally support the existence of global aqueous oceans trapped in these hydrospheres. However, the extent of these oceans and their role in the processes governing the internal structure of these moons remain unresolved. At issue is the poor to non-existent characterization, at the relevant pressures, of the properties of the aqueous fluids of significance to the outer solar system (with notably the Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 salts found in primitive chondrites), forcing current models to rely on pure water only. Our team at the University of Washington has developed an experimental apparatus to acquire the speed of sound of aqueous solutions in the 0 - 0.7 GPa and 250 - 350 K pressure and temperature ranges covering most of the conditions of existence of these extra-terrestrial oceans. Speeds of sound measured over a grid of pressures and temperatures allow calculation of the thermodynamic quantities (G, ρ, μ...) required for planetary science. Early analysis of pure water samples indicates our experimental results are on par with (at lower pressures), or better than, the IAPWS water laboratory standard, with sound speeds determined to 0.02% over our entire pressure range. For the first time at the high pressures of interest for large icy moons, we achieved the exploration of H2O-NaCl, H2O-MgSO4, H2O-Na2SO4 and H2O-MgCl2 solutions, from dilute concentrations to saturation. We are now in the process of acquiring the first data for H2O-NaCl-MgSO4 mixtures. We will briefly present our experimental setup and the underlying sound speed theory, and will then compare our results for the four endmembers, with an emphasis on their different association behavior under pressure as

  16. Simple BiCMOS CCCTA design and resistorless analog function realization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangsrirat, Worapong

    2014-01-01

    The simple realization of the current-controlled conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCTA) in BiCMOS technology is introduced. The proposed BiCMOS CCCTA realization is based on the use of differential pair and basic current mirror, which results in simple structure. Its characteristics, that is, parasitic resistance (R x) and current transfer (i o/i z), are also tunable electronically by external bias currents. The realized circuit is suitable for fabrication using standard 0.35 μm BiCMOS technology. Some simple and compact resistorless applications employing the proposed CCCTA as active elements are also suggested, which show that their circuit characteristics with electronic controllability are obtained. PSPICE simulation results demonstrating the circuit behaviors and confirming the theoretical analysis are performed.

  17. Simple BiCMOS CCCTA Design and Resistorless Analog Function Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapong Tangsrirat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The simple realization of the current-controlled conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCTA in BiCMOS technology is introduced. The proposed BiCMOS CCCTA realization is based on the use of differential pair and basic current mirror, which results in simple structure. Its characteristics, that is, parasitic resistance (Rx and current transfer (io/iz, are also tunable electronically by external bias currents. The realized circuit is suitable for fabrication using standard 0.35 μm BiCMOS technology. Some simple and compact resistorless applications employing the proposed CCCTA as active elements are also suggested, which show that their circuit characteristics with electronic controllability are obtained. PSPICE simulation results demonstrating the circuit behaviors and confirming the theoretical analysis are performed.

  18. Experimental inflammation following dural application of complete Freund's adjuvant or inflammatory soup does not alter brain and trigeminal microvascular passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Cornelia; Haanes, Kristian A; Grände, Gustaf; Edvinsson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a paroxysmal, disabling primary headache that affects 16 % of the adult population. In spite of decades of intense research, the origin and the pathophysiology mechanisms involved are still not fully known. Although triptans and gepants provide effective relief from acute migraine for many patients, their site of action remains unidentified. It has been suggested that during migraine attacks the leakiness of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is altered, increasing the passage of anti-migraine drugs. This study aimed to investigate the effect of experimental inflammation, following dural application of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or inflammatory soup (IS) on brain and trigeminal microvascular passage. In order to address this issue, we induced local inflammation in male Sprague-Dawley-rats dura mater by the addition of CFA or IS directly on the dural surface. Following 2, 24 or 48 h of inflammation we calculated permeability-surface area product (PS) for [(51)Cr]-EDTA in the trigeminal ganglion (TG), spinal trigeminal nucleus, cortex, periaqueductal grey and cerebellum. We observed that [(51)Cr]-EDTA did not pass into the central nervous system (CNS) in a major way. However, [(51)Cr]-EDTA readily passed the TG by >30 times compared to the CNS. Application of CFA or IS did not show altered transfer constants. With these experiments we show that dural IS/CFA triggered TG inflammation, did not increase the BBB passage, and that the TG is readily exposed to circulating molecules. The TG could provide a site of anti-migraine drug interaction with effect on the trigeminal system.

  19. Minimal-memory realization of pearl-necklace encoders of general quantum convolutional codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houshmand, Monireh; Hosseini-Khayat, Saied

    2011-01-01

    Quantum convolutional codes, like their classical counterparts, promise to offer higher error correction performance than block codes of equivalent encoding complexity, and are expected to find important applications in reliable quantum communication where a continuous stream of qubits is transmitted. Grassl and Roetteler devised an algorithm to encode a quantum convolutional code with a ''pearl-necklace'' encoder. Despite their algorithm's theoretical significance as a neat way of representing quantum convolutional codes, it is not well suited to practical realization. In fact, there is no straightforward way to implement any given pearl-necklace structure. This paper closes the gap between theoretical representation and practical implementation. In our previous work, we presented an efficient algorithm to find a minimal-memory realization of a pearl-necklace encoder for Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) convolutional codes. This work is an extension of our previous work and presents an algorithm for turning a pearl-necklace encoder for a general (non-CSS) quantum convolutional code into a realizable quantum convolutional encoder. We show that a minimal-memory realization depends on the commutativity relations between the gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder. We find a realization by means of a weighted graph which details the noncommutative paths through the pearl necklace. The weight of the longest path in this graph is equal to the minimal amount of memory needed to implement the encoder. The algorithm has a polynomial-time complexity in the number of gate strings in the pearl-necklace encoder.

  20. Optical Realization of Double-Continuum Fano Interference and Coherent Control in Plasmonic Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arju, Nihal; Ma, Tzuhsuan; Khanikaev, Alexander; Purtseladze, David; Shvets, Gennady

    2015-06-01

    Classical realization of a ubiquitous quantum mechanical phenomenon of double-continuum Fano interference using metasurfaces is experimentally demonstrated by engineering the near-field interaction between two bright and one dark plasmonic modes. The competition between the bright modes, one of them effectively suppressing the Fano interference for the orthogonal light polarization, is discovered. Coherent control of optical energy concentration and light absorption by the ellipticity of the incident light is theoretically predicted.