WorldWideScience

Sample records for experimental reactor building

  1. Nuclear reactor building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-04-05

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed there above. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define there between an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin. 4 figures.

  2. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  3. The Fast-spectrum Transmutation Experimental Facility FASTEF: Main design achievements (part 2: Reactor building design and plant layout) within the FP7-CDT collaborative project of the European Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, D.; Engelen, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Ortega, A.; Aguado, M. P. [Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E., Magallanes 3, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator-driven system (ADS) in development at SCK-CEN in replacement of its material testing reactor BR2. SCK-CEN in association with 17 European partners from industry, research centres and academia, responded to the FP7 (Seventh Framework Programme) call from the European Commission to establish a Central Design Team (CDT) for the design of a Fast Spectrum Transmutation Experimental Facility (FASTEF) able to demonstrate efficient transmutation and associated technology through a system working in subcritical and/or critical mode. The project has started on April 01, 2009 for a period of three years. In this paper, we present the latest concept of the reactor building and the plant layout. The FASTEF facility has evolved quite a lot since the intermediate reporting done at the ICAPP'10 and ICAPP'11 conferences 1,2. Many iterations have been performed to take into account the safety requirements. The present configuration enables an easy operation and maintenance of the facility, including the possibility to change large components of the reactor. In a companion paper 3, we present the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system. (authors)

  4. Experimental Building Information Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    facilitate interoperability between different software platforms covering the many disciplines that contribute to a building throughout its lifecycle . As...Library M_Ball Valve - 50-150 mm.rfa MEP Library M_Bath Tub.rfa MEP Library M_Cleanout Two-Way - PVC - Sch 40 - DWV.rfa MEP Library M_Drinking

  5. Seclazone Reactor Modeling And Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osinga, T. [ETH-Zuerich (Switzerland); Olalde, G. [CNRS Odeillo (France); Steinfeld, A. [PSI and ETHZ (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    A numerical model is formulated for the SOLZINC solar chemical reactor for the production of Zn by carbothermal reduction of ZnO. The model involves solving, by the finite-volume technique, a 1D unsteady state energy equation that couples heat transfer to the chemical kinetics for a shrinking packed bed exposed to thermal radiation. Validation is accomplished by comparison with experimentally measured temperature profiles and Zn production rates as a function of time, obtained for a 5-kW solar reactor tested at PSI's solar furnace. (author)

  6. Overview of the Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor building layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronje, J. M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Centurion (South Africa); Van Wyk, J. J.; Memmott, M. J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the third in a series of four papers, which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses in particular upon the plant building layout and modular design of the Westinghouse SMR. In the development of small modular reactors, the building layout is an area where the safety of the plant can be improved by applying new design approaches. This paper will present an overview of the Westinghouse SMR building layout and indicate how the design features improve the safety and robustness of the plant. The Westinghouse SMR is designed with no shared systems between individual reactor units. The main buildings inside the security fence are the nuclear island, the rad-waste building, the annex building, and the turbine building. All safety related equipment is located in the nuclear island, which is a seismic class 1 building. To further enhance the safety and robustness of the design, the reactor, containment, and most of the safety related equipment are located below grade on the nuclear island. This reduces the possibility of severe damage from external threats or natural disasters. Two safety related ultimate heat sink (UHS) water tanks that are used for decay heat removal are located above grade, but are redundant and physically separated as far as possible for improved safety. The reactor and containment vessel are located below grade in the center of the nuclear island. The rad-waste and other radioactive systems are located on the bottom floors to limit the radiation exposure to personnel. The Westinghouse SMR safety trains are completely separated into four unconnected quadrants of the building, with access between quadrants only allowed

  7. Plasma heating systems planned for the Argonne experimental power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoncini, P.; Brooks, J.; Fasolo, J.; Mills, F.; Moretti, A.; Norem, J.

    1976-01-01

    A scoping study and conceptual design of a tokamak experimental power reactor (TEPR) have been completed. The design objectives of the TEPR are to operate for ten years at or near electrical power breakeven conditions with a duty factor of greater than or equal to 50 percent and to demonstrate the feasibility of tokamak fusion power reactor techniques. These objectives can be met by a design which has a major radius of 6.25 m and a plasma radius of 2.1 m. Parameters for this reactor are listed, and a diagram is given. This paper will describe TEPR plasma heating systems. Neutral beam heating and rf heating are described.

  8. Upgrading program of the experimental fast reactor Joyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, A.; Yogo, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Iibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The experimental fast reactor Joyo finished its operation as an irradiation core in June, 2000. Throughout the operation of MK-I (breeder core) and MK-II (irradiation core), the net operation time has exceeded 60,000 hours. During these operations there were no fuel failures or serious plant problems. The MK-III modification program will improve irradiation capability to demonstrate advanced technologies for commercial Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). When the MK-III core is started, it will support irradiation tests in feasibility studies for fast reactor and related fuel cycle research and development in Japan. (authors)

  9. Investigation of mixing chamber for experimental FGD reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosád Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical investigation of flow and mixing of air and sulphur dioxide SO2 in designated mixing chamber. The mixing chamber is a part of experimental laboratory reactor designed for simulating the flue gas desulfurization (FGD process. Aim of this work is the numerical investigation of effect of different mixing chamber geometries to mixture composition, especially to mass fraction of sulphur dioxide. Using of similar concentration of sulphur dioxide in the experimental reactor as in the real process is necessary to be able to make additional research. Conclusion describes the effect of different geometries of mixing chamber to mixing. The aim of this work is to develop perfectly works mixing chamber, which will be manufactured and then implemented into experimental FGD reactor. The results will be validated by experiment after the mixing chamber will be manufactured.

  10. Experimental Criticality Benchmarks for SNAP 10A/2 Reactor Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krass, A.W.

    2005-12-19

    This report describes computational benchmark models for nuclear criticality derived from descriptions of the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Critical Assembly (SCA)-4B experimental criticality program conducted by Atomics International during the early 1960's. The selected experimental configurations consist of fueled SNAP 10A/2-type reactor cores subject to varied conditions of water immersion and reflection under experimental control to measure neutron multiplication. SNAP 10A/2-type reactor cores are compact volumes fueled and moderated with the hydride of highly enriched uranium-zirconium alloy. Specifications for the materials and geometry needed to describe a given experimental configuration for a model using MCNP5 are provided. The material and geometry specifications are adequate to permit user development of input for alternative nuclear safety codes, such as KENO. A total of 73 distinct experimental configurations are described.

  11. Seismic analysis modeling and seismic response analysis of KALIMER reactor building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The 3D finite element models with shell elements are developed to calculate the eigenvalues and seismic responses of KALIMER reactor building with several preliminary wall dimensions. The eigenvalues and weight for these designs are calculated, and the seismic response spectrum analyses using the final dimension of reactor building are performed for both the fixed-base and isolated-base conditions. The stresses and displacements for the seismic spectrum loads of the US NRC RG 1.60 are calculated in the several points of reactor building. The stress levels of the isolated condition are reduced to a third times of the non-isolated one. For obtaining the time history nodal responses of reactor building, two lumped-mass beam models are developed. The one is composed of one stick for whole reactor building, the other is composed of two sticks for the reactor building and the reactor support structure. From the eigenvalue analyses for two models, the eigenvalue results do not effect by the offset of center of gravity of KALIMER reactor building. But the rotary inertia of the lumped models of reactor building generates some additional rotating modes with low frequency, while it does not exist in 3D shell model. The time history responses for the non-isolated and isolated reactor buildings are calculated under the 1940 El Centro (NS) earthquake and an artificial time history, generated using the seismic spectrum curve of US NRC RG1.60. The analysis results show that the horizontal accelerations of the isolated building are dramatically decreased to one-tenths of the non-isolated one, but the vertical responses are increased by about 40%. By the way the horizontal isolation of KALIMER reactor building is very effective method to reduce the acceleration responses. (author). 6 refs., 25 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Experimental studies of irradiated and hydrogen implantation damaged reactor steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slugeň, Vladimír, E-mail: vladimir.slugen@stuba.sk; Pecko, Stanislav; Sojak, Stanislav

    2016-01-15

    Radiation degradation of nuclear materials can be experimentally simulated via ion implantation. In our case, German reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels were studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). This unique non-destructive method can be effectively applied for the evaluation of microstructural changes and for the analysis of degradation of reactor steels due to neutron irradiation and proton implantation. Studied specimens of German reactor pressure vessel steels are originally from CARINA/CARISMA program. Eight specimens were measured in as-received state and two specimens were irradiated by neutrons in German experimental reactor VAK (Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl) in the 1980s. One of the specimens which was in as-received and neutron irradiated condition was also used for simulation of neutron damage by hydrogen nuclei implantation. Defects with the size of about 1–2 vacancies with relatively small contribution (with intensity on the level of 20–40 %) were observed in “as-received” steels. A significant increase in the size of the induced defects due to neutron damage was observed in the irradiated specimens resulting in 2–3 vacancies. The size and intensity of defects reached a similar level as in the specimens irradiated in the nuclear reactor due to the implantation of hydrogen ions with energies of 100 keV (up to the depth <500 nm).

  13. Experimental studies of irradiated and hydrogen implantation damaged reactor steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slugeň, Vladimír; Pecko, Stanislav; Sojak, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Radiation degradation of nuclear materials can be experimentally simulated via ion implantation. In our case, German reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels were studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). This unique non-destructive method can be effectively applied for the evaluation of microstructural changes and for the analysis of degradation of reactor steels due to neutron irradiation and proton implantation. Studied specimens of German reactor pressure vessel steels are originally from CARINA/CARISMA program. Eight specimens were measured in as-received state and two specimens were irradiated by neutrons in German experimental reactor VAK (Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl) in the 1980s. One of the specimens which was in as-received and neutron irradiated condition was also used for simulation of neutron damage by hydrogen nuclei implantation. Defects with the size of about 1-2 vacancies with relatively small contribution (with intensity on the level of 20-40 %) were observed in "as-received" steels. A significant increase in the size of the induced defects due to neutron damage was observed in the irradiated specimens resulting in 2-3 vacancies. The size and intensity of defects reached a similar level as in the specimens irradiated in the nuclear reactor due to the implantation of hydrogen ions with energies of 100 keV (up to the depth <500 nm).

  14. Incipient Transient Detection in Reactor Systems: Experimental and Theoretical Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefteri H. Tsoukalas; S.T. Revankar; X Wang; R. Sattuluri

    2005-09-27

    The main goal of this research was to develop a method for detecting reactor system transients at the earliest possible time through a comprehensive experimental, testing and benchmarking program. This approach holds strong promise for developing new diagnostic technologies that are non-intrusive, generic and highly portable across different systems. It will help in the design of new generation nuclear power reactors, which utilize passive safety systems with a reliable and non-intrusive multiphase flow diagnostic system to monitor the function of the passive safety systems. The main objective of this research was to develop an improved fuzzy logic based detection method based on a comprehensive experimental testing program to detect reactor transients at the earliest possible time, practically at their birth moment. A fuzzy logic and neural network based transient identification methodology and implemented in a computer code called PROTREN was considered in this research and was compared with SPRT (Sequentially Probability Ratio Testing) decision and Bayesian inference. The project involved experiment, theoretical modeling and a thermal-hydraulic code assessment. It involved graduate and undergraduate students participation providing them with exposure and training in advanced reactor concepts and safety systems. In this final report, main tasks performed during the project period are summarized and the selected results are presented. Detailed descriptions for the tasks and the results are presented in previous yearly reports (Revankar et al 2003 and Revankar et al 2004).

  15. Validation of High-Fidelity Reactor Physics Models for Support of the KJRR Experimental Campaign in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, David W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nielsen, Joseph W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Norman, Daren R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is currently in the process of qualifying a Low-Enriched Uranium fuel element design for the new Ki-Jang Research Reactor (KJRR). As part of this effort, a prototype KJRR fuel element was irradiated for several operating cycles in the Northeast Flux Trap of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. The KJRR fuel element contained a very large quantity of fissile material (618g 235U) in comparison with historical ATR experiment standards (<1g 235U), and its presence in the ATR flux trap was expected to create a neutronic configuration that would be well outside of the approved validation envelope for the reactor physics analysis methods used to support ATR operations. Accordingly it was necessary, prior to high-power irradiation of the KJRR fuel element in the ATR, to conduct an extensive set of new low-power physics measurements with the KJRR fuel element installed in the ATR Critical Facility (ATRC), a companion facility to the ATR that is located in an immediately adjacent building, sharing the same fuel handling and storage canal. The new measurements had the objective of expanding the validation envelope for the computational reactor physics tools used to support ATR operations and safety analysis to include the planned KJRR irradiation in the ATR and similar experiments that are anticipated in the future. The computational and experimental results demonstrated that the neutronic behavior of the KJRR fuel element in the ATRC is well-understood, both in terms of its general effects on core excess reactivity and fission power distributions, its effects on the calibration of the core lobe power measurement system, as well as in terms of its own internal fission rate distribution and total fission power per unit ATRC core power. Taken as a whole, these results have significantly extended the ATR physics validation envelope, thereby enabling an entire new class of irradiation experiments.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Effect on Hydrate Formation in Spray Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of reaction condition on hydrate formation were conducted in spray reactor. The temperature, pressure, and gas volume of reaction on hydrate formation were measured in pure water and SDS solutions at different temperature and pressure with a high-pressure experimental rig for hydrate formation. The experimental data and result reveal that additives could improve the hydrate formation rate and gas storage capacity. Temperature and pressure can restrict the hydrate formation. Lower temperature and higher pressure can promote hydrate formation, but they can increase production cost. So these factors should be considered synthetically. The investigation will promote the advance of gas storage technology in hydrates.

  17. The Jules Horowitz reactor (JHR), a European material testing reactor (MTR), with extended experimental capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A.; Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Bravo, X.; Guigon, B.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]|[CEA Saclay Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-07-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is the European MTR (Material Testing Reactor) designed to provide, after 2010, the necessary knowledge for keeping the existing power plants in operation and to design innovative reactors types with new objectives such as: minimizing the radioactive waste production, taking into account additional safety requirements, preventing risks of nuclear proliferation... To achieve such an ambitious objective. The JHR is designed with a high flexibility in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and to be able to accommodate future requirements. The JHR will offer a wide range of performances and services in gathering, in a single site at Cadarache, all the necessary functionalities and facilities for an effective production of results: e.g. fuel fabrication laboratories, preparation of the instrumented devices, interpretation of the experiments, modelling. The JHR must rely on a top level scientific environment based on experts teams from CEA and EC and local universities. With a thermal flux of 7,4.10{sup 14} ncm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and a fast flux of 6,4.10{sup 14} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, it is possible to carry out irradiation experiments on materials and fuels whatever the reactor type considered. It will also be possible to carry out locally, fast neutron irradiation to achieve damage effect up to 25 dpa/year. (dpa = displacement per atom.) The study of the fuels behavior under accidental conditions, from analytical experiments, on a limited amount of irradiated fuel, is a major objective of the project. These oriented safety tests are possible by taking into account specific requirements in the design of the facility such as the tightness level of the containment building, the addition of an alpha hot cell and a laboratory for on line fission products measurement. (authors)

  18. XPS Investigations of Ruthenium Deposited onto Representative Inner Surfaces of Nuclear Reactor Containment Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mun, Christian; Ehrhardt, J.J.; Lambert, J.; Madic, C.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; In the case of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear power plant, interactions of gaseous RuO4 with reactor containment building surfaces (stainless steel and epoxy paint) could possibly lead to a black Ru-containing deposit on these surfaces. Some scenarios include the possibility of formation of highly radiotoxic RuO4(g) by the interactions of these deposits with the oxidising medium induced by air radiolysis, in the reactor containment building, and consequent...

  19. Air leakage analysis of research reactor HANARO building in typhoon condition for the nuclear emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Goany Up; Lee, Hae Cho; Kim, Bong Seok; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Pyung Kyu [Dept. of Emergency Preparedness, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To find out the leak characteristic of research reactor 'HANARO' building in a typhoon condition MELCOR code which normally is used to simulate severe accident behavior in a nuclear power plant was used to simulate the leak rate of air and fission products from reactor hall after the shutdown of the ventilation system of HANARO reactor building. For the simulation, HANARO building was designed by MELCOR code and typhoon condition passed through Daejeon in 2012 was applied. It was found that the leak rate is 0.1%·day{sup -1} of air, 0.004%·day{sup -1} of noble gas and 3.7×10{sup -5}%·day{sup -1} of aerosol during typhoon passing. The air leak rate of 0.1%·day can be converted into 1.36 m{sup 3}·hr{sup -1} , but the design leak rate in HANARO safety analysis report was considered as 600 m3·hr{sup -1} under the condition of 20 m·sec{sup -1} wind speed outside of the building by typhoon. Most of fission products during the maximum hypothesis accident at HANARO reactor will be contained in the reactor hall, so the direct radiation by remained fission products in the reactor hall will be the most important factor in designing emergency preparedness for HANARO reactor.

  20. Investigation of cable deterioration in the containment building of the Savannah River Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.; Jones, L.H.

    1982-08-01

    This report describes an investigation of the deterioration of polyethylene and polyvinylchloride cable materials which occurred in the containment building of the Savannah River nuclear reactor located at Aiken, South Carolina. Radiation dosimetry and temperature mapping data of the containment area indicated that the maximum dose experienced by the cable materials was only 2.5 Mrad at an average operating temperature of 43/sup 0/C. Considering this relatively moderate environment, the amount of material degradation seemed surprising. To understand these findings, an experimental program was performed on the commercial polyethylene and polyvinylchloride materials used at the plant to investigate their degradation behavior under combined ..gamma..-radiation and elevated temperature conditions. It is established that the material deterioration at the plant resulted from radiation-induced oxidation and that the degradation rate can be correlated with local levels of radiation intensity in the containment area.

  1. Methanol synthesis in a countercurrent gas-solid-solid trickle flow reactor. An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczynski, M.; Oyevaar, M.H.; Pieters, R.T.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The synthesis of methanol from CO and H2 was executed in a gas-solid-solid trickle flow reactor. The reactor consisted of three tubular reactor sections with cooling sections in between. The catalyst was Cu on alumina, the adsorbent was a silica-alumina powder and the experimental range 498–523 K,

  2. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V; Keefer, D G

    1984-10-01

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the /sup 3/H, 2.7% of the /sup 90/Sr, 15% of the /sup 129/I, 20% of the /sup 131/I, and 42% of the /sup 137/Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 144/Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement.

  3. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to operate at net electrical power conditions with a plant capacity factor of 50 percent for 10 years. The EPR operates in a pulsed mode at a frequency of approximately 1/min., with an approximate 75 percent duty cycle, is capable of producing approximately 72 MWe and requires 42 MWe. The annual tritium consumption is 16 kg. The EPR vacuum chamber is 6.25 m in major radius and 2.4 m in minor radius, is constructed of 2-cm thick stainless steel, and has 2-cm thick detachable, beryllium-coated coolant panels mounted on the interior. An 0.28 m stainless steel blanket and a shield ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 m surround the vacuum vessel. The coolant is H/sub 2/O. Sixteen niobium-titanium superconducting toroidal-field coils provide a field of 10 T at the coil and 4.47 T at the plasma. Superconducting ohmic-heating and equilibrium-field coils provide 135 V-s to drive the plasma current. Plasma heating is accomplished by 12 neutral beam-injectors, which provide 60 MW. The energy transfer and storage system consists of a central superconducting storage ring, a homopolar energy storage unit, and a variety of inductor-converters.

  4. Experimental Assessment between Building Regulations and Claustrophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Pop

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades there was a noticeable effervescence characterizing the space-psychology related studies. These studies established a connection between the characteristics of the environment and behavior. Therefore, this paper would like to join this field of research. Consequently, the issue raised would be the role played by architecture in the context of the space-perception discussion. In order to provide a practical answer, the paper debates the results obtained through an experiment which analyzed the interaction between certain characteristics of a 12 m2 room, according to architectural building regulations in Romania, and the variations of anxiety, comfort and safety. This experiment tested certain situations in which the natural adaptation process has been short-circuited, triggering phobic reactions. Thus, the paper focuses on questioning whether Romanian building regulations take into account aspects regarding the psychological comfort of the individuals.

  5. Integral Reactor Containment Condensation Model and Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiao [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Corradini, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-05-02

    This NEUP funded project, NEUP 12-3630, is for experimental, numerical and analytical studies on high-pressure steam condensation phenomena in a steel containment vessel connected to a water cooling tank, carried out at Oregon State University (OrSU) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW-Madison). In the three years of investigation duration, following the original proposal, the planned tasks have been completed: (1) Performed a scaling study for the full pressure test facility applicable to the reference design for the condensation heat transfer process during design basis accidents (DBAs), modified the existing test facility to route the steady-state secondary steam flow into the high pressure containment for controllable condensation tests, and extended the operations at negative gage pressure conditions (OrSU). (2) Conducted a series of DBA and quasi-steady experiments using the full pressure test facility to provide a reliable high pressure condensation database (OrSU). (3) Analyzed experimental data and evaluated condensation model for the experimental conditions, and predicted the prototypic containment performance under accidental conditions (UW-Madison). A film flow model was developed for the scaling analysis, and the results suggest that the 1/3 scaled test facility covers large portion of laminar film flow, leading to a lower average heat transfer coefficient comparing to the prototypic value. Although it is conservative in reactor safety analysis, the significant reduction of heat transfer coefficient (50%) could under estimate the prototypic condensation heat transfer rate, resulting in inaccurate prediction of the decay heat removal capability. Further investigation is thus needed to quantify the scaling distortion for safety analysis code validation. Experimental investigations were performed in the existing MASLWR test facility at OrST with minor modifications. A total of 13 containment condensation tests were conducted for pressure

  6. Introduction of Nuclear Instrumentations and Radiation Measurements in Experimental Fast Reactor 「JOYO」

    OpenAIRE

    大戸 敏弘; 鈴木 惣十

    1992-01-01

    This report introduces the nuclear instrumentation system and major R&D (research and development) activities using radiation measurement techniques in Experimental Fast Reactor "JOYO". In the introduction of the nuclear instrumentation system, following items are described; (1)system function (2)roles as a reactor plant equipment (3)specifications and charactelistics of neutron detectors, (4)construction and layout of the system. For reactor dosimetry at various irradiation tests and surveil...

  7. Review of accident analyses of RB experimental reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The RB reactor is a uranium fuel heavy water moderated critical assembly that has been put and kept in operation by the VTNCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro, since April 1958. The first complete Safety Analysis Report of the RB reactor was prepared in 1961/62 yet, the first accident analysis had been made in late 1958 with the aim to examine a power transition and the total equivalent doses received by the staff during the reactivity accident that occurred on October 15, 1958. Since 1960, the RB reactor has been modified a few times. Beside the initial natural uranium metal fuel rods, new types of fuel (TVR-S types of Russian origin consisting of 2% enriched uranium metal and 80% enriched UO2 dispersed in aluminum matrix, have been available since 1962 and 1976 respectively. Modifications of the control and safety systems of the reactor were made occasionally. Special reactor cores were designed and constructed using all three types of fuel elements as well as the coupled fast-thermal ones. The Nuclear Safety Committee of the VINĆA Institute, an independent regulatory body, approved for usage all these modifications of the RB reactor on the basis of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Reports, which, beside proposed technical modifications and new regulation rules, included safety analyses of various possible accidents. A special attention was given (and a new safety methodology was proposed to thorough analyses of the design-based accidents related to the coupled fast-thermal cores that included central zones of the reactor filled by the fuel elements without any moderator. In this paper, an overview of some accidents, methodologies and computation tools used for the accident analyses of the RB reactor is given.

  8. A reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor for the production of syngas: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper experimental results are presented for a demonstration unit of a recently proposed novel integrated reactor concept (Smit et. al., 2005) for the partial oxidation of natural gas to syngas (POM), namely a Reverse Flow Catalytic Membrane Reactor (RFCMR). Natural gas has great potential

  9. Experimental and simulated dosimetry of the university of Utah TRIGA reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, Benjamin James

    Simulated neutron and gamma transport enable the gamma dose to be estimated at the surface of the University of Utah TRIGA Reactor UUTR pool. These results are benchmarked against experimental results for model verification. This model is useful for future licensing and possible reactor power upgrades. MCNP5 was utilized for the UUTR simulation and comparison with thermoluminescent detectors TLDs.

  10. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. (Nuclear Energy Services, Inc., Danbury, CT (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

  11. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV

  12. Building of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System development of the simulator for the integral type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Teruo; Shimazaki, Junya; Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Fukuhara, Yosifumi; Kusunoki, Takeshi; Ochiai, Masaaki [Department of Nuclear Energy Systems, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakazawa, Toshio [Department of HTTR Project, Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    JAERI had carried out the design study of a light-weight and compact integral type reactor of power 100 MW{sub th} with passive safety as a power source for the future nuclear ships, and completed an engineering design. To confirm the design and operation performance and to utilize the study of automation of the operations of reactor, we developed a real-time simulator for the integral type reactor. This simulator is a part of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and on the same hardware as 'Mutsu' simulator which was developed to simulate the first Japanese nuclear ship Mutsu'. Simulation accuracy of 'Mutsu' simulator was verified by comparing the simulation results With data got in the experimental voyage of 'Mutsu'. The simulator for the integral type reactor uses the same programs which were used in 'Mutsu' simulator for the separate type PWR, and the simulated results are approximately consistent with the calculated values using RELAP5/MOD2 (The later points are reported separately). Therefore simulation accuracy of the simulator for the integral type reactor is also expected to be reasonable, though it is necessary to verify by comparing with the real plant data or experimental data in future. We can get the perspectives to use as a real-time engineering simulator and to achieve the above-mentioned aims. This is a report on development of the simulator for the integral type reactor mainly focused on the contents of the analytical programs expressed the structural features of reactor. (author)

  13. Experimental Modal Analysis on Vibrations in the Building Construction

    OpenAIRE

    成瀬, 治興; 佐野, 泰之; 北畠, 弘基

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes some results of vibration propagation characteristics of two rooms next door to each other in the actual building construction (including floor, walls, and upstairfloor) by experimental modal analysis. In addition, we investigate about vibration response of measuring points by forced response and sensitivity analysis. The results are summarized as follows. The vibration of lower modes gives larger effect to vibration propagation characteristics of building construction th...

  14. Experimental study of radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajijul Hoq, M; Malek Soner, M A; Salam, M A; Haque, M M; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S M

    2017-12-01

    The 3MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been under operation for about thirty years since its commissioning at 1986. In accordance with the demand of fundamental nuclear research works, the reactor has to operate at different power levels by utilizing a number of experimental facilities. Regarding the enquiry for safety of reactor operating personnel and radiation workers, it is necessary to know the radiation level at different strategic points of the reactor where they are often worked. In the present study, neutron, beta and gamma radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the reactor facility with reactor power level of 2.4MW was measured to estimate the rising level of radiation due to its operational activities. From the obtained results high radiation dose is observed at the measurement position of the piercing beam port which is caused by neutron leakage and accordingly, dose rate at the stated position with different reactor power levels was measured. This study also deals with the gamma dose rate measurements at a fixed position of the reactor pool top surface for different reactor power levels under both Natural Convection Cooling Mode (NCCM) and Forced Convection Cooling Mode (FCCM). Results show that, radiation dose rate is higher for NCCM in compared with FCCM and increasing with the increase of reactor power. Thus, concerning the radiological safety issues for working personnel and the general public, the radiation dose level monitoring and the experimental analysis performed within this paper is so much effective and the result of this work can be utilized for base line data and code verification of the nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ESTIMATION OF ROUTINE DISCHARGE OF RADIONUCLIDES ON POWER REACTOR EXPERIMENTAL RDE

    OpenAIRE

    Udiyani, P.M; Sri Kuntjoro

    2017-01-01

    Experimental power reactor (RDE) which is planned to be constructed by BATAN is a kind of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) with 10 MWth power. HTGR is a helium gas-cooled reactor with TRISO-coated fuel that is able to confine fission products remained in the core. Although the fission products released into the environment are very small, in order to comply the regulations the study about environmental radiation on normal or routine operation condition need to be performed. Estimati...

  16. Experimental Investigation of Biogas Reforming in Gliding Arc Plasma Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thanompongchart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is an important renewable energy source. Its utilization is restricted to vicinity of farm areas, unless pipeline networks or compression facilities are established. Alternatively, biogas may be upgraded into synthetic gas via reforming reaction. In this work, plasma assisted reforming of biogas was investigated. A laboratory gliding arc plasma setup was developed. Effects of CH4/CO2 ratio (1, 2.33, 9, feed flow rate (16.67–83.33 cm3/s, power input (100–600 W, number of reactor, and air addition (0–60% v/v on process performances in terms of yield, selectivity, conversion, and energy consumption were investigated. High power inputs and long reaction time from low flow rates, or use of two cascade reactors were found to promote dry reforming of biogas. High H2 and CO yields can be obtained at low energy consumption. Presence of air enabled partial oxidation reforming that produced higher CH4 conversion, compared to purely dry CO2 reforming process.

  17. Prediction of prestressing losses for long term operation of nuclear reactor buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillard G.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Prestressed concrete is used in nuclear reactor buildings to guarantee containment and structural integrity in case of an accident. Monitoring and operating experience over 40 years has shown that prestressing losses can be much greater than the design estimation based on the usual standard laws. A method was developed to determine the realistic residual prestress level in structures, in particular for those where no embedded instrumentation was installed, taking into account in situ measurement results rather than design characteristics. The results can enable the owner to justify extending the lifespan while guaranteeing adequate safety and to define and plan adequate maintenance actions.

  18. Determination of floor response spectra for the Brookhaven HFBR reactor building structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M.; Goradia, H.

    1978-11-01

    In order to perform the dynamic analysis of various structural components of the HFBR reactor building at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) subjected to seismic disturbances, it is necessary to obtain the floor response spectra of the primary structure. The mathematical model includes the four floor levels of the internal structure, the dome, and soil spring effects. The standard time history analysis is adopted to obtain the response spectrum for each floor of the internal structure. This report summarizes the results both in tabular and graphical form for various damping values.

  19. Experiments in the experimental fast reactor VENUS-F: The FREYA project; Experimentos en el reactor rapido experimental VENUS-F: El proyecto FREYA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villamarin, D.; Becares, V.; Cano, D.; Gonzalez, E.

    2011-07-01

    Due to the high flexibility of operation of the reactor VENUS-E, FREYA project has two main objectives. The first is the end of the study monitoring techniques reactivity and serve as validation of simulation codes. The second objective is to provide experimental support for design and licensing MYRRHA / FASTEE and TRF in collaboration with CDTy LEADER projects of the 7th Framework Programme of the EU.

  20. Experimental and computational investigation of flow of pebbles in a pebble bed nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khane, Vaibhav B.

    The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is a 4th generation nuclear reactor which is conceptually similar to moving bed reactors used in the chemical and petrochemical industries. In a PBR core, nuclear fuel in the form of pebbles moves slowly under the influence of gravity. Due to the dynamic nature of the core, a thorough understanding about slow and dense granular flow of pebbles is required from both a reactor safety and performance evaluation point of view. In this dissertation, a new integrated experimental and computational study of granular flow in a PBR has been performed. Continuous pebble re-circulation experimental set-up, mimicking flow of pebbles in a PBR, is designed and developed. Experimental investigation of the flow of pebbles in a mimicked test reactor was carried out for the first time using non-invasive radioactive particle tracking (RPT) and residence time distribution (RTD) techniques to measure the pebble trajectory, velocity, overall/zonal residence times, flow patterns etc. The tracer trajectory length and overall/zonal residence time is found to increase with change in pebble's initial seeding position from the center towards the wall of the test reactor. Overall and zonal average velocities of pebbles are found to decrease from the center towards the wall. Discrete element method (DEM) based simulations of test reactor geometry were also carried out using commercial code EDEM(TM) and simulation results were validated using the obtained benchmark experimental data. In addition, EDEM(TM) based parametric sensitivity study of interaction properties was carried out which suggests that static friction characteristics play an important role from a packed/pebble beds structural characterization point of view. To make the RPT technique viable for practical applications and to enhance its accuracy, a novel and dynamic technique for RPT calibration was designed and developed. Preliminary feasibility results suggest that it can be implemented as a non

  1. Experimental investigation of a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental parameter study was conducted in a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). The pilot plant is downscaled from a limestone-based, gypsum producing full-scale wet FGD plant. Important process parameters, such as slurry pH, inlet...... flue gas concentration of SO2, reactor temperature, and slurry concentration of Cl- have been varied. The degree of desulphurisation, residual limestone content of the gypsum, liquid phase concentrations, and solids content of the slurry were measured during the experimental series. The SO2 removal...

  2. SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE LATTICE TEST REACTOR BUILDING 318 PROJECT CAH-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitro Engineering Company

    1964-07-15

    This is the specifications for the High Temperature Lattice Test Reactor Building 318 and it is divided into the following 21 divisions or chapters: (1) Excavating, Backfill & Grading; (2) Reinforced Concrete; (3) Masonry; (4) Structural Steel & Miscellaneous Metal Items, Contents - Division V; (5) Plumbing, Process & Service Piping; (6) Welding; (7) Insulated Metal Siding; (8) Roof Decks & Roofing; (9) Plaster Partitions & Ceiling; (10) Standard Doors, Windows & Hardware; (11) Shielding Doors; (12) Sprinkler System & Fire Extinguishers, Contents - Division XIII; (13) Heating, Ventilating & Air Conditioning; (14) Painting, Protective Coating & Floor Covering, Contents - Division XV; (15) Electrical; (16) Communications & Alarm Systems; (17) Special Equipment & Furnishings; (18) Overhead Bridge Crane; (19) Prefabricated Steel Building; (20) Paved Drive; and (21) Landscaping & Irrigation Sprinklers.

  3. Experimental studies on catalytic hydrogen recombiners for light water reactors; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zu katalytischen Wasserstoffkombinatoren fuer Leichtwasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drinovac, P.

    2006-06-19

    In the course of core melt accidents in nuclear power plants a large amount of hydrogen can be produced and form an explosive or even detonative gas mixture with aerial oxygen in the reactor building. In the containment atmosphere of pressurized water reactors hydrogen combines a phlogistically with the oxygen present to form water vapor even at room temperature. In the past, experimental work conducted at various facilities has contributed little or nothing to an understanding of the operating principles of catalytic recombiners. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to conduct detailed investigations on a section of a recombiner essentially in order to deepen the understanding of reaction kinetics and heat transport processes. The results of the experiments presented in this dissertation form a large data base of measurements which provides an insight into the processes taking place in recombiners. The reaction-kinetic interpretation of the measured data confirms and deepens the diffusion theory - proposed in an earlier study. Thus it is now possible to validate detailed numeric models representing the processes in recombiners. Consequently the present study serves to broaden and corroborate competence in this significant area of reactor technology. In addition, the empirical knowledge thus gained may be used for a critical reassessment of previous numeric model calculations. (orig.)

  4. Experimental characterization of slurry bubble-column reactor hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shollenberger, K.A.; Torczynski, J.R.; Jackson, N.B.; O`Hern, T.J.

    1997-09-01

    Sandia`s program to develop, implement, and apply diagnostics for hydrodynamic characterization of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) at industrially relevant conditions is discussed. Gas liquid flow experiments are performed on an industrial scale. Gamma densitometry tomography (GDT) is applied to measure radial variations in gas holdup at one axial location. Differential pressure (DP) measurements are used to calculate volume averaged gas holdups along the axis of the vessel. The holdups obtained from DP show negligible axial variation for water but significant variations for oil, suggesting that the air water flow is fully developed (minimal flow variations in the axial direction) but that the air oil flow is still developing at the GDT measurement location. The GDT and DP gas holdup results are in good agreement for the air water flow but not for the air oil flow. Strong flow variations in the axial direction may be impacting the accuracy of one or both of these techniques. DP measurements are also acquired at high sampling frequencies (250 Hz) and are interpreted using statistical analyses to determine the physical mechanism producing each frequency component in the flow. This approach did not yield the information needed to determine the flow regime in these experiments. As a first step toward three phase material distribution measurements, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and GDT are applied to a liquid solid flow to measure solids holdup. Good agreement is observed between both techniques and known values.

  5. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  6. The CABRI fast neutron Hodoscope: Renovation, qualification program and first results following the experimental reactor restart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, V.; Mirotta, S.; Guillot, J.; Biard, B.

    2018-01-01

    The CABRI experimental pulse reactor, located at the Cadarache nuclear research center, southern France, is devoted to the study of Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA). For the purpose of the CABRI International Program (CIP), managed and funded by IRSN, in the framework of an OECD/NEA agreement, a huge renovation of the facility has been conducted since 2003. The Cabri Water Loop was then installed to ensure prototypical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) conditions for testing irradiated fuel rods. The hodoscope installed in the CABRI reactor is a unique online fuel motion monitoring system, operated by IRSN and dedicated to the measurement of the fast neutrons emitted by the tested rod during the power pulse. It is one of the distinctive features of the CABRI reactor facility, which is operated by CEA. The system is able to determine the fuel motion, if any, with a time resolution of 1 ms and a spatial resolution of 3 mm. The hodoscope equipment has been upgraded as well during the CABRI facility renovation. This paper presents the main outcomes achieved with the hodoscope since October 2015, date of the first criticality of the CABRI reactor in its new Cabri Water Loop configuration. Results obtained during reactor commissioning phase functioning, either in steady-state mode (at low and high power, up to 23 MW) or in transient mode (start-up, possibly beyond 20 GW), are discussed.

  7. Design of a management information system for the Shielding Experimental Reactor ageing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jie, E-mail: hejiejoe@163.co [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Xianhong [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The problem of nuclear reactor ageing is a topic of increasing importance in nuclear safety recent years. Ageing management is usually implemented for reactors maintenance. In the practice, a large number of data and records need to be processed. However, there are few professional software applications that aid reactor ageing management, especially for research reactors. This paper introduces the design of a new web-based management information system (MIS), named the Shielding Experimental Reactor Ageing Management Information System (SERAMIS). It is an auxiliary means that helps to collect data, keep records, and retrieve information for a research reactor ageing management. The Java2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) and network database techniques, such as three-tiered model, Model-View-Controller architecture, transaction-oriented operations, and JavaScript techniques, are used in the development of this system. The functionalities of the application cover periodic safety review (PSR), regulatory references, data inspection, and SSCs classification according to ageing management methodology. Data and examples are presented to demonstrate the functionalities. For future work, techniques of data mining will be employed to support decision-making.

  8. Antenna design for fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Furtula, Vedran; Salewski, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    Fast ion physics will play an important role for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), where confined alpha particles will affect and be affected by plasma dynamics and thereby have impacts on the overall confinement. A fast ion collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic...

  9. Experimental research in neutron physic and thermal-hydraulic at the CDTN Triga reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Amir Z.; Souza, Rose Mary G.P.; Ferreira, Andrea V.; Pinto, Antonio J.; Costa, Antonio C.L.; Rezende, Hugo C., E-mail: amir@cdtn.b, E-mail: souzarm@cdtn.b, E-mail: avf@cdtn.b, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.b, E-mail: aclc@cdtn.b, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The IPR-R1 TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes production, General Atomics) at Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) is a pool type reactor cooled by natural circulation of light water and an open surface. TRIGA reactors, developed by General Atomics (GA), are the most widely used research reactor in the world and characterized by inherent safety. The IPR-R1 is the only Brazilian nuclear research reactor available and able to perform experiments in which interaction between neutronic and thermal-hydraulic areas occurs. The IPR-R1 has started up on November 11th, 1960. At that time the maximum thermal power was 30 kW. The present forced cooling system was built in the 70th and the power was upgraded to 100 kW. Recently the core configuration and instrumentation was upgraded again to 250 kW at steady state, and is awaiting the license of CNEN to operate definitely at this new power. This paper describes the experimental research project carried out in the IPR-R1 reactor that has as objective evaluate the behaviour of the reactor operational parameters, and mainly to investigate the influence of temperature on the neutronic variables. The research was supported by Research Support Foundation of the State of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) and Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The research project meets the recommendations of the IAEA, for safety, modernization and development of strategic plan for research reactors utilization. This work is in line with the strategic objectives of Brazil, which aims to design and construct the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (RMB). (author)

  10. Experimental estimation of moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rubens C. da; Bitelli, Ulysses D.; Mura, Luiz Ernesto C., E-mail: rubensrcs@usp.br, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br, E-mail: credidiomura@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PNV/POLI/USP), SP (Brazil). Arquitetura Naval e Departamento de Engenharia Oceanica; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present the procedure for the experimental estimation of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity of the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor, a parameter that has an important role in the physics and the control operations of any reactor facility. At the experiment, the IPEN/MB-01 reactor went critical at the power of 1W (1% of its total power), and whose core configuration was 28 x 26 rectangular array of UO{sub 2} fuel rods, inside a light water (moderator) tank. In addition, there was a heavy water (D{sub 2}O) reflector installed in the West side of the core to obtain an adequate neutron reflection along the experiment. The moderator temperature was increased in steps of 4 °C, and the measurement of the mean moderator temperature was acquired using twelve calibrated thermocouples, placed around the reactor core. As a result, the mean value of -4.81 pcm/°C was obtained for such coefficient. The curves of ρ(T) (Reactivity x Temperature) and α{sup M}{sub T}(T)(Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity x Temperature) were developed using data from an experimental measurement of the integral reactivity curves through the Stable Period and Inverse Kinetics Methods, that was carried out at the reactor with the same core configuration. Such curves were compared and showed a very similar behavior between them. (author)

  11. The manufacture of enriched uranium fuel slugs for the Experimental Breeder Reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuck, Author B.

    1953-04-20

    This report describes the specifications, materials and the sequence of operations used to found and fabricate 4 the first charge of enriched uranium fuel in the Experimental Breeder Reactor. The work was governed by the following principles: a. That the fuel be of correct composition, dimension and metallurgical condition for use in the reactor. b. That a maximum yield of finished fuel slugs from the quantity of uranium available for the program be achieved. c. That the residues be in a form which can be recovered by chemical or other means. d. That a detailed record be kept in such form that a complete history of each fuel slug be available.

  12. Management of waste from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and from future fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Association EURATOM, Nykoeping (Sweden); Lindberg, M. [Association EURATOM, Nykoeping (Sweden); Nisan, S. [The NET Team, Garching (Germany); Rocco, P. [European Commission, Institute for Advanced Materials, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Zucchetti, M. [Energetics Department, Polytechnic of Turin, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Taylor, N. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA, UKAEA Fusion, Culham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Forty, C. [Association EURATOM-UKAEA, UKAEA Fusion, Culham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    An important inherent advantage of fusion would be the total absence of high-level radioactive spent fuel as produced in fission reactors. Fusion will, however, produce activated material containing both activation products and tritium. Part of the material may also contain chemically toxic substances. This paper describes methods that could be used to manage these materials and also methods to reduce or entirely eliminate the waste quantities. The results are based on studies for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and also for future fusion power station designs currently under investigation within the European programme on the safety and environmental assessment of fusion power, long-term. (orig.)

  13. EVALUATION OF THE DURABILITY OF THE STRUCTURAL CONCRETE OF REACTOR BUILDINGS AT SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.; Reigel, M.

    2011-02-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) intends to close 100-150 facilities in the DOE complex using an in situ decommissioning (ISD) strategy that calls for grouting the below-grade interior volume of the structure and leaving the above-grade interior open or demolishing it and disposing of it in the slit trenches in E Area. These closures are expected to persist and remain stable for centuries, but there are neither facility-specific monitoring approaches nor studies on the rate of deterioration of the materials used in the original construction or on the ISD components added during closure (caps, sloped roofs, etc). This report will focus on the evaluation of the actual aging/degradation of the materials of construction used in the ISD structures at Savannah River Site (SRS) above grade, specifically P & R reactor buildings. Concrete blocks (six 2 to 5 ton blocks) removed from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building were turned over to SRNL as the first source for concrete cores. Larger cores were received as a result of grouting activities in P and R reactor facilities. The cores were sectioned and evaluated using microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), ion chromatography (IC) and thermal analysis. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the aggregate and cement phases present in the concrete are consistent with the mix design and no degradation mechanisms are evident at the aggregate-cement interfaces. Samples of the cores were digested and analyzed for chloride ingress as well as sulfate attack. The concentrations of chloride and sulfate ions did not exceed the limits of the mix design and there is no indication of any degradation due to these mechanisms. Thermal analysis on samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the cores show that there is a 1 inch carbonation layer (i.e., no portlandite) present in the interior wall of the reactor building and a negligible carbonation layer in the exterior wall. A mixed layer of carbonate and portlandite extends deeper into the

  14. The D&D of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellhauer, C.R.; Boling, L.E.; Yule, T.J.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the D&D of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor. The Project consisted of decontaminating and for packaging as radioactive waste the reactor vessel and internals, contaminated piping systems, miscellaneous tanks, pumps, and associated equipment. The D&D work involved dismantling process equipment and associated plumbing, ductwork drain lines, etc., performing size reduction of reactor vessel internals in the fuel pool, packaging and manifesting all radioactive and mixed waste, and performing a thorough survey of the facility after the removal of activated and contaminated material. Non-radioactive waste was disposed of in the ANL-E landfill or recycled. In January 1996 the EBWR facility was formally decommissioned and transferred from EM-40 to EM-30. This paper will discuss the details of this ten year effort.

  15. On the possibility of experimentally confirming the hypothesis of reactor antineutrino passage into a sterile state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Fomin, A. K.; Zinov'ev, V. G.; Loginov, Yu. E.; Onegin, M. S.; Gagarskiy, A. M.; Petrov, G. A.; Solovei, V. A.; Chernyi, A. V.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Martem'yanov, V. P.; Tsinoev, V. G.; Tarasenkov, V. G.; Aleshin, V. I.; Petelin, A. L.; Pavlov, S. V.; Svyatkin, M. N.; Izhutov, A. L.; Sazontov, S. A.; Ryazanov, D. K.; Gromov, M. O.; Khramkov, N. S.; Rykalin, V. I.

    2013-07-01

    The "Neutrino-4" experiment for the 100-MW SM-3 reactor has been developed with the aim of testing the reactor antineutrino anomaly at Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. The advantages of this reactor for studying the antineutrino anomaly are (i) a low background level and (ii) small dimensions (35 × 42 × 42 cm) of the active zone. Operation of a position-sensitive antineutrino detector comprising five working sections and moving so as to cover a region of distances within 6-13 m from the active zone has been simulated by the Monte-Carlo method. The range of experimental sensitivity with respect to the oscillation parameters Δ m 2 and sin22θ is determined, which will make it possible to confirm the hypothesis of antineutrino oscillations into a sterile state.

  16. Design and Build of Reactor Simulator for Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstrator Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Dickens, Ricky; Houts, Michael; Pearson, Boise; Webster, Kenny; Gibson, Marc; Qualls, Lou; Poston, Dave; Werner, Jim; Radel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Systems Team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focuses on technology development for state of the art capability in non-nuclear testing of nuclear system and Space Nuclear Power for fission reactor systems for lunar and Mars surface power generation as well as radioisotope power systems for both spacecraft and surface applications. Currently being designed and developed is a reactor simulator (RxSim) for incorporation into the Technology Demonstrator Unit (TDU) for the Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) Program, which is supported by multiple national laboratories and NASA centers. The ultimate purpose of the RxSim is to provide heated NaK to a pair of Stirling engines in the TDU. The RxSim includes many different systems, components, and instrumentation that have been developed at MSFC while working with pumped NaK systems and in partnership with the national laboratories and NASA centers. The main components of the RxSim are a core, a pump, a heat exchanger (to mimic the thermal load of the Stirling engines), and a flow meter for tests at MSFC. When tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) the heat exchanger will be replaced with a Stirling power conversion engine. Additional components include storage reservoirs, expansion volumes, overflow catch tanks, safety and support hardware, instrumentation (temperature, pressure, flow) for data collection, and power supplies. This paper will discuss the design and current build status of the RxSim for delivery to GRC in early 2012.

  17. Material unaccounted for at the Southwest Experimental Fast Oxide Reactor: The SEFOR MUF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    1994-11-07

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission contracted with the General Electric Company to design, construct, and operate the Southwest Experimental Fast Oxide Reactor (SEFOR) to measure the Doppler effect for fast neutron breeder reactors. It contracted with Nuclear Fuel Services to fabricate the fuel rods for the reactor. When the reactor went critical in May, 1969, it appeared that some of the mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel rods did not contain the specified quantity of plutonium. The SEFOR operators soon found several fuel rods which appeared to be low in plutonium. The safeguards group at Brookhaven was asked to look into the problem and, if possible, determine how much plutonium was missing from the unirradiated rods and from the larger number which had been slightly irradiated in the reactor. It was decided that the plutonium content of the unirradiated and irradiated rods could be measured relative to a reference rod using a high resolution gamma-ray detector and also by neutron measurements using an auto-correlation circuit recently developed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). During the next two years, Brookhaven personnel and C.V. Strain of NRL made several trips to the SEFOR reactor. About 250 of the 775 rods were measured by two or more methods, using a sodium-iodide detector, a high-resolution germanium detector, a neutron detector, or the reactor (to measure reactivity). The research team concluded that 4.6 {+-} 0.46 kg of plutonium was missing out of the 433 kg that the rods should have contained. This report describes the SEFOR experiment and the procedures used to determine the material unaccounted for, or MUF.

  18. Experimental investigation of a new method for advanced fast reactor shutdown cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakholkov, V. V.; Kandaurov, A. A.; Potseluev, A. I.; Rogozhkin, S. A.; Sergeev, D. A.; Troitskaya, Yu. I.; Shepelev, S. F.

    2017-07-01

    We consider a new method for fast reactor shutdown cooling using a decay heat removal system (DHRS) with a check valve. In this method, a coolant from the decay heat exchanger (DHX) immersed into the reactor upper plenum is supplied to the high-pressure plenum and, then, inside the fuel subassemblies (SAs). A check valve installed at the DHX outlet opens by the force of gravity after primary pumps (PP-1) are shut down. Experimental studies of the new and alternative methods of shutdown cooling were performed at the TISEY test facility at OKBM. The velocity fields in the upper plenum of the reactor model were obtained using the optical particle image velocimetry developed at the Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Academy of Sciences). The study considers the process of development of natural circulation in the reactor and the DHRS models and the corresponding evolution of the temperature and velocity fields. A considerable influence of the valve position in the displacer of the primary pump on the natural circulation of water in the reactor through the DHX was discovered (in some modes, circulation reversal through the DHX was obtained). Alternative DHRS designs without a shell at the DHX outlet with open and closed check valve are also studied. For an open check valve, in spite of the absence of a shell, part of the flow is supplied through the DHX pipeline and then inside the SA simulators. When simulating power modes of the reactor operation, temperature stratification of the liquid was observed, which increased in the cooling mode via the DHRS. These data qualitatively agree with the results of tests at BN-600 and BN-800 reactors.

  19. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Lam; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2000-09-01

    The objective if this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with PIV measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. This phase of the work was presented at the Chemical Reaction Engineering VIII: Computational Fluid Dynamics, August 6-11, 2000 in Quebec City, Canada. To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. The results together with simulations will be presented at the annual meeting of AIChE in November 2000.

  20. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Ethyl Levulinate Oxidation in a Jet-Stirred Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jui-Yang

    2017-06-01

    A jet-stirred reactor was designed and constructed in the Clean Combustion Research Center (CCRC) at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST); was validated with n-heptane, iso-octane oxidation and cyclohexene pyrolysis. Different configurations of the setup have been tested to achieve good agreement with results from the literature. Test results of the reactor indicated that installation of a pumping system at the downstream side in the experimental apparatus was necessary to avoid the reoccurrence of reactions in the sampling probe. Experiments in ethyl levulinate oxidation were conducted in the reactor under several equivalence ratios, from 600 to 1000 K, 1 bar and 2 s residence time. Oxygenated species detected included methyl vinyl ketone, levulinic acid and ethyl acrylate. Ethylene, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide were further quantified with a gas chromatography, coupled with a flame ionization detector and a thermal conductivity detector. The ethyl levulinate chemical kinetic model was first developed by Dr. Stephen Dooley, Trinity College Dublin, and simulated under the same conditions, using the Perfect-Stirred Reactor code in Chemkin software. In comparing the simulation results with experimental data, some discrepancies were noted; predictions of ethylene production were not well matched. The kinetic model was improved by updating several classes of reactions: unimolecular decomposition, H-abstraction, C-C and C-O beta-scissions of fuel radicals. The updated model was then compared again with experimental results and good agreement was achieved, proving that the concerted eliminated reaction is crucial for the kinetic mechanism formulation of ethyl levulinate. In addition, primary reaction pathways and sensitivity analysis were performed to describe the role of molecular structure in combustion (800 and 1000 K for ethyl levulinate oxidation in the jet-stirred reactor).

  1. Results of theoretical and experimental studies of hydrodynamics of circulation loops in circulating fluidized bed reactors and systems with interconnected reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, G. A.; Folomeev, O. M.; Sankin, D. A.; Melnikov, D. A.

    2015-02-01

    Problems of the calculation of circulation loops in circulating fluidized bed reactors and systems with interconnected reactors (polygeneration systems for the production of electricity, heat, and useful products and chemical cycles of combustion and gasification of solid fuels)are considered. A method has been developed for the calculation of circulation loop of fuel particles with respect to boilers with circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and systems with interconnected reactors with fluidized bed (FB) and CFB. New dependences for the connection between the fluidizing agent flow (air, gas, and steam) and performance of reactors and for the whole system (solids flow rate, furnace and cyclone pressure drops, and bed level in the riser) are important elements of this method. Experimental studies of hydrodynamics of circulation loops on the aerodynamic unit have been conducted. Experimental values of pressure drop of the horizontal part of the L-valve, which satisfy the calculated dependence, have been obtained.

  2. Experimentation on the anaerobic filter reactor for biogas production using rural domestic wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leju Celestino Ladu, John; Lü, Xi-wu; Zhong, Zhaoping

    2017-08-01

    The biogas production from anaerobic filter (AF) reactor was experimented in Taihu Lake Environmental Engineering Research Center of Southeast University, Wuxi, China. Two rounds of experimental operations were conducted in a laboratory scale at different Hydraulic retention time (HRT) and wastewater temperature. The biogas production rate during the experimentation was in the range of 4.63 to 11.78 L/d. In the first experimentation, the average gas production rate was 10.08 L/d, and in the second experimentation, the average gas production rate was 4.97 L/d. The experimentation observed the favorable Hydraulic Retention Time and wastewater temperature in AF was three days and 30.95°C which produced the gas concentration of 11.78 L/d. The HRT and wastewater temperature affected the efficiency of the AF process on the organic matter removal and nutrients removal as well. It can be deduced from the obtained results that HRT and wastewater temperature directly affects the efficiency of the AF reactor in biogas production. In conclusion, anaerobic filter treatment of organic matter substrates from the rural domestic wastewater increases the efficiency of the AF reactor on biogas production and gives a number of benefits for the management of organic wastes as well as reduction in water pollution. Hence, the operation of the AF reactor in rural domestic wastewater treatment can play an important element for corporate economy of the biogas plant, socio-economic aspects and in the development of effective and feasible concepts for wastewater management, especially for people in rural low-income areas.

  3. Kinetics of vinyl acetate emulsion polymerization in a pulsed tubular reactor: comparison between experimental and simulation results

    OpenAIRE

    Sayer C.; Palma M.; Giudici R.

    2002-01-01

    A new reactor, the pulsed sieve plate column (PSPC), was developed to perform continuous emulsion polymerization reactions. This reactor combines the enhanced flexibility of tubular reactors with the mixing behavior provided by sieved plates and by the introduction of pulses that is important to prevent emulsion destabilization. The main objective of this work is to study the kinetics of vinyl acetate (VA) emulsion polymerization reactions performed in this PSPC. Therefore, both experimental ...

  4. High energy resolution characteristics on 14MeV neutron spectrometer for fusion experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Takada, Eiji; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-10-01

    A 14MeV neutron spectrometer suitable for an ITER-like fusion experimental reactor is now under development on the basis of a recoil proton counter telescope principle in oblique scattering geometry. To verify its high energy resolution characteristics, preliminary experiments are made for a prototypical detector system. The comparison results show reasonably good agreement and demonstrate the possibility of energy resolution of 2.5% in full width at half maximum for 14MeV neutron spectrometry. (author)

  5. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  6. An experimental study of hypervapotron structure in external reactor vessel cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Zhang, Ming [State Nuclear Power Technology R& D Center (Beijing), Beijing (China); Hou, Fangxin [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Gao, Tianfang [State Nuclear Power Technology R& D Center (Beijing), Beijing (China); Chen, Peipei, E-mail: chenpeipei@snptc.com.cn [State Power Investment Group Corporation, Beijing (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Experiments are performed to study the application of hypervapotron in ERVC design. • CHF experiments on two surfaces are conducted under different flow conditions. • Hypervapotron improves CHF performance by 40–60% compared with smooth surface. • Visualization shows fin structure removes vapor mushroom for better liquid supply. - Abstract: In vessel retention (IVR) is one of the key strategies for many advanced LWR designs to mitigate postulated severe accidents. The success of IVR substantially relies on external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) by which the decay heat is removed from the melt core in the reactor vessel lower head. The main challenge of IVR is to provide an adequate safety margin of ERVC against critical heat flux (CHF) of subcooled flow boiling in the reactor lower head flow channel. Due to uncertainties in corium melt pool configuration, large CHF margin of ERVC is usually required by regulatory authorities to demonstrate reliability of severe accident mitigation methods. Various CHF enhancement designs have been proposed and studied in literature. In this paper, an experimental study of hypervapotron structure as a novel design to improve CHF performance of ERVC is conducted. Hypervapotron is chosen as one of the potential engineering options for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program as a divertor structure to remove highly intense heat from fusion chamber. This study is to conduct CHF experiments at typical PWR ERVC working conditions. The CHF experiments are performed in a 30 mm by 61 mm rectangular flow channel with a 200 mm long heated surface along the flow direction. Both smooth and hypervapotron surface are tested at various inclination angles of the test section to simulate various positions of the reactor lower head. The hypervapotron is found to have a 40–60% CHF improvement compared with the smooth surface. The high speed visualization indicates that hypervapotron is able to

  7. Advanced Reactors-Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) Coupling: Theoretical Modeling and Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utgikar, Vivek [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Christensen, Richard [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-29

    The overall goal of the research project was to model the behavior of the advanced reactorintermediate heat exchange system and to develop advanced control techniques for off-normal conditions. The specific objectives defined for the project were: 1. To develop the steady-state thermal hydraulic design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX); 2. To develop mathematical models to describe the advanced nuclear reactor-IHX-chemical process/power generation coupling during normal and off-normal operations, and to simulate models using multiphysics software; 3. To develop control strategies using genetic algorithm or neural network techniques and couple these techniques with the multiphysics software; 4. To validate the models experimentally The project objectives were accomplished by defining and executing four different tasks corresponding to these specific objectives. The first task involved selection of IHX candidates and developing steady state designs for those. The second task involved modeling of the transient and offnormal operation of the reactor-IHX system. The subsequent task dealt with the development of control strategies and involved algorithm development and simulation. The last task involved experimental validation of the thermal hydraulic performances of the two prototype heat exchangers designed and fabricated for the project at steady state and transient conditions to simulate the coupling of the reactor- IHX-process plant system. The experimental work utilized the two test facilities at The Ohio State University (OSU) including one existing High-Temperature Helium Test Facility (HTHF) and the newly developed high-temperature molten salt facility.

  8. Development of a membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor - 2 - Experimental demonstration and modeling for the partial oxidation of methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Laverman, J.A.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A small laboratory-scale membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor (MAFBR) was constructed in order to experimentally demonstrate the reactor concept for the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Methanol conversion and product selectivities were measured at various overall fluidization

  9. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of the By-Pass Flow in a Catalytic Plate Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    Numerical and experimental study is performed to evaluate the reactant by-pass flow in a catalytic plate reactor with a coated wire mesh catalyst for steam reforming of methane for hydrogen generation. By-pass of unconverted methane is evaluated under different wire mesh catalyst width to reactor...

  10. Conceptual studies of toroidal field magnets for the tokamak experimental power reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buncher, B.R.; Chi, J.W.H.; Fernandez, R.

    1976-10-26

    This report documents the principal results of a Conceptual Design Study for the Superconducting Toroidal Field System for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor. Two concepts are described for peak operating fields at the windings of 8 tesla, and 12 tesla, respectively. The design and manufacturing considerations are treated in sufficient detail that cost and schedule estimates could be developed. Major uncertainties in the design are identified and their potential impact discussed, along with recommendations for the necessary research and development programs to minimize these uncertainties. The minimum dimensions of a sub-size test coil for experimental qualification of the full size design are developed and a test program is recommended.

  11. Experimental and kinetic modeling study of 3-methylheptane in a jet-stirred reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Karsenty, Florent

    2012-08-16

    Improving the combustion of conventional and alternative fuels in practical applications requires the fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. The focus of the present study is on a high-molecular-weight branched alkane, namely, 3-methylheptane, oxidized in a jet-stirred reactor. This fuel, along with 2-methylheptane, 2,5-dimethylhexane, and n-octane, are candidate surrogate components for conventional diesel fuels derived from petroleum, synthetic Fischer-Tropsch diesel and jet fuels derived from coal, natural gas, and/or biomass, and renewable diesel and jet fuels derived from the thermochemical treatment of bioderived fats and oils. This study presents new experimental results along with a low- and high-temperature chemical kinetic model for the oxidation of 3-methylheptane. The proposed model is validated against these new experimental data from a jet-stirred reactor operated at 10 atm, over the temperature range of 530-1220 K, and for equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1, and 2. Significant effort is placed on the understanding of the effects of methyl substitution on important combustion properties, such as fuel reactivity and species formation. It was found that 3-methylheptane reacts more slowly than 2-methylheptane at both low and high temperatures in the jet-stirred reactor. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Experimental assessment of accident scenarios for the high temperature reactor fuel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, O.; Avincola, V.; Bottomley, P.D.W.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission Joint Research Centre - Institute for Transuranium Elements (JRC-ITU) (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is an advanced reactor concept with particular safety features. Fuel elements are constituted by a graphite matrix containing sub-mm-sized fuel particles with TRISO (tri-isotropic) coating designed to provide high fission product retention. Passive safety features of the HTR include a low power density in the core compared to other reactor designs; this ensures sufficient heat transport in a loss of coolant accident scenario. The temperature during such events would not exceed 1600 C, remaining well below the melting point of the fuel. An experimental assessment of the fuel behaviour under severe accident conditions is necessary to confirm the fission product retention of TRISO coated particles and to validate relevant computer codes. Though helium is used as coolant for the HTR system, additional corrosion effects come into play in case of an in-leakage affecting the primary circuit. The experimental scope of the present work focuses on two key aspects associated with the HTR fuel safety. Fission product retention at high temperatures (up to {proportional_to}1800 C) is analyzed with the so-called cold finger apparatus (KueFA: Kuehlfinger-Apparatur), while the performance of HTR fuel elements in case of air/steam ingress accidents is assessed with a high temperature corrosion apparatus (KORA: Korrosions-Apparatur). (orig.)

  13. Experimental measurement and CFD simulation on the hydrodynamics of an internal-loop airlift reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liew Shi Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns with the experimental measurement and computational fluid dynamics simulation on local hydrodynamics of a gas-liquid internal-loop airlift reactor. The aim of this work is to study the sensitivity of the drag models and the significance of considering the lift force on the predictive accuracy of the simulation. The experimental analysis was carried out using laser Doppler anemometry at three different heights (i.e. Y = 0.20 m, 0.30 m and 0.38 m across the riser and downcomerat volumetric flow rate of 0.30 m3/h to provide validation for the simulation results. A transient three-dimensional gasliquid internal-loop airlift reactor was carried out using FLUENT 16.2 by implementing the two-fluid model approach. The Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase and standard κ-ε dispersed turbulence model wereemployed in this study. Results suggest that the spherical drag model performed poorly and that the drag model governed by Rayleigh-Taylor shows promising accuracy in the prediction of overall mean axial liquid velocity. On the other hand, the consideration of lift model shows slightly improvement in accuracy. These findings may serve as a guidance for future scale-up and design of airlift reactor studies

  14. Experimental facility for development of high-temperature reactor technology: instrumentation needs and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharwall Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-temperature, multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for support of thermal hydraulic materials, and system integration research for high-temperature reactors. The experimental facility includes a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX. Research topics to be addressed include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs at prototypical operating conditions. Each loop will also include an interchangeable high-temperature test section that can be customized to address specific research issues associated with each working fluid. This paper also discusses needs and challenges associated with advanced instrumentation for the multi-loop facility, which could be further applied to advanced high-temperature reactors. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST facility. A preliminary design configuration of the ARTIST facility will be presented with the required design and operating characteristics of the various components. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750 °C, high-pressure (7 MPa helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF4 flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa, at a temperature of ∼450 °C. The salt loop will be thermally integrated with the steam/water loop operating at PWR conditions. Experiment design challenges include identifying suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. The instrumentation needs to be highly accurate (negligible drift in measuring operational data for extended periods of times, as data collected will be

  15. Decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor: Dismantling the auxiliary systems and clearance and reuse of the buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Franz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents work performed in the last phase of the decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf. Dismantling the pump room installations and the ventilation system, as well as the clearance of the buildings is described. Some conclusions and summary data regarding the timetable, material management, and the cost of the entire project are also presented.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of a Water Shield for a Surface Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Reid, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Vision for Space Exploration the end of the next decade will bring man back to the surface of the moon. One of the most critical issues for the establishment of human presence on the moon will be the availability of compact power sources. The establishment of man on the moon will require power from greater than 10's of kWt's in follow on years. Nuclear reactors are extremely we11 suited to meet the needs for power generation on the lunar or Martian surface. reactor system. Several competing concepts exist for lightweight, safe, robust shielding systems such as a water shield, lithium hydride (LiH), Boron Carbide, and others. Water offers several potential advantages, including reduced cost, reduced technical risk, and reduced mass. Water has not typically been considered for space reactor applications because of the need for gravity to remove the potential for radiation streaming paths. The water shield concept relies on predictions of passive circulation of the shield water by natural convection to adequately cool the shield. This prediction needs to be experimentally evaluated, especially for shields with complex geometries. MSFC has developed the experience and fac necessary to do this evaluation in the Early Flight Fission - Test Facility (EFF-TF).

  17. Experimental conditions for determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy with reactor antineutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Youl Pac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the optimized experimental requirements to determine neutrino mass hierarchy using electron antineutrinos (ν¯e generated in a nuclear reactor. The features of the neutrino mass hierarchy can be extracted from the |Δm312| and |Δm322| oscillations by applying the Fourier sine and cosine transforms to the L/E spectrum. To determine the neutrino mass hierarchy above 90% probability, the requirements on the energy resolution as a function of the baseline are studied at sin2⁡2θ13=0.1. If the energy resolution of the neutrino detector is less than 0.04/Eν and the determination probability obtained from Bayes' theorem is above 90%, the detector needs to be located around 48–53 km from the reactor(s to measure the energy spectrum of ν¯e. These results will be helpful for setting up an experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, which is an important problem in neutrino physics.

  18. Generation of an activation map for decommissioning planning of the Berlin Experimental Reactor-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapins, Janis; Guilliard, Nicole; Bernnat, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    The BER-II is an experimental facility with 10 MW that was operated since 1974. Its planned operation will end in 2019. To support the decommissioning planning, a map with the overall distribution of relevant radionuclides has to be created according to the state of the art. In this paper, a procedure to create these 3-d maps using a combination of MCNP and deterministic methods is presented. With this approach, an activation analysis is performed for the whole reactor geometry including the most remote parts of the concrete shielding.

  19. ESTIMATION OF ROUTINE DISCHARGE OF RADIONUCLIDES ON POWER REACTOR EXPERIMENTAL RDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Udiyani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental power reactor (RDE which is planned to be constructed by BATAN is a kind of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR with 10 MWth power. HTGR is a helium gas-cooled reactor with TRISO-coated fuel that is able to confine fission products remained in the core. Although the fission products released into the environment are very small, in order to comply the regulations the study about environmental radiation on normal or routine operation condition need to be performed. Estimation of radiology in the environment involves the source term released into the environment under routine operation condition. The purpose of this study is to estimate the source term released into the environment based on postulation of normal or routine operations of RDE. The research approach starts with an assumption that there are defects and impurities in the TRISO fuel because of limitation during the fabrication. Mechanism of fission products release from the fuel to the environment was created based on the safety features design of RDE. Radionuclides inventories in the reactor were calculated using ORIGEN-2 whose library has been modified for HTGR type, and the assumptions of defects of the TRISO fuel and release fraction for each compartment of RDE safety system used a reference parameter. The results showed that the important source terms of RDE are group of noble gases (Kr and Xe, halogen (I, Sr, Cs, H-3, and Ag. Activities of RDE source terms for routine operations have no significant difference with the HTGR source terms with the same power. Keywords: routine discharge, radionuclide, source term, RDE, HTGR

  20. Approaches to experimental validation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, S.E. [Joint Stock Company ' Afrikantov OKB Mechanical Engineering' , Burnakovsky Proezd, 15, Nizhny Novgorod 603074 (Russian Federation); Borovkov, M.N., E-mail: borovkov@okbm.nnov.ru [Joint Stock Company ' Afrikantov OKB Mechanical Engineering' , Burnakovsky Proezd, 15, Nizhny Novgorod 603074 (Russian Federation); Golovko, V.F.; Dmitrieva, I.V.; Drumov, I.V.; Znamensky, D.S.; Kodochigov, N.G. [Joint Stock Company ' Afrikantov OKB Mechanical Engineering' , Burnakovsky Proezd, 15, Nizhny Novgorod 603074 (Russian Federation); Baxi, C.B.; Shenoy, A.; Telengator, A. [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, CA (United States); Razvi, J., E-mail: Junaid.Razvi@ga.com [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, CA (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Computational and experimental investigations of thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics for the equipment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vibroacoustic investigations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studies of the electromagnetic suspension system on GT-MHR turbo machine rotor models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental investigations of the catcher bearings design. - Abstract: The special feature of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is stressed operating conditions for equipment due to high temperature of the primary circuit helium, up to 950 Degree-Sign C, as well as acoustic and hydrodynamic loads upon the gas path elements. Therefore, great significance is given to reproduction of real operation conditions in tests. Experimental investigation of full-size nuclear power plant (NPP) primary circuit components is not practically feasible because costly test facilities will have to be developed for the power of up to hundreds of megawatts. Under such conditions, the only possible process to validate designs under development is representative tests of smaller scale models and fragmentary models. At the same time, in order to take in to validated account the effect of various physical factors, it is necessary to ensure reproduction of both individual processes and integrated tests incorporating needed integrated investigations. Presented are approaches to experimental validation of thermohydraulic and vibroacoustic characteristics for main equipment components and primary circuit path elements under standard loading conditions, which take account of their operation in the HTGR. Within the framework of the of modular helium reactor project, including a turbo machine in the primary circuit, a new and difficult problem is creation of multiple-bearing flexible vertical rotor. Presented are approaches to analytical and experimental validation of the rotor electromagnetic bearings, catcher bearings, flexible rotor

  1. Modeling and Experimental Studies of Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago, Paula A.; Morrill, Mike; Lighty, JoAnn S.; Silcox, Geoffrey D.

    2009-06-15

    This report presents experimental and modeling mercury oxidation and adsorption data. Fixed-bed and single-particle models of mercury adsorption were developed. The experimental data were obtained with two reactors: a 300-W, methane-fired, tubular, quartz-lined reactor for studying homogeneous oxidation reactions and a fixed-bed reactor, also of quartz, for studying heterogeneous reactions. The latter was attached to the exit of the former to provide realistic combustion gases. The fixed-bed reactor contained one gram of coconut-shell carbon and remained at a temperature of 150°C. All methane, air, SO2, and halogen species were introduced through the burner to produce a radical pool representative of real combustion systems. A Tekran 2537A Analyzer coupled with a wet conditioning system provided speciated mercury concentrations. At 150°C and in the absence of HCl or HBr, the mercury uptake was about 20%. The addition of 50 ppm HCl caused complete capture of all elemental and oxidized mercury species. In the absence of halogens, SO2 increased the mercury adsorption efficiency to up to 30 percent. The extent of adsorption decreased with increasing SO2 concentration when halogens were present. Increasing the HCl concentration to 100 ppm lessened the effect of SO2. The fixed-bed model incorporates Langmuir adsorption kinetics and was developed to predict adsorption of elemental mercury and the effect of multiple flue gas components. This model neglects intraparticle diffusional resistances and is only applicable to pulverized carbon sorbents. It roughly describes experimental data from the literature. The current version includes the ability to account for competitive adsorption between mercury, SO2, and NO2. The single particle model simulates in-flight sorbent capture of elemental mercury. This model was developed to include Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, rate equations, sorbent feed rate, and

  2. Overview of the TIBER 2 (Thermal Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, C. D.; Logan, B. G.

    1987-10-01

    The TIBER 2 Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor design is the result of efforts by numerous people and institutions, including many fusion laboratories, universities, and industries. While subsystems will be covered extensively in other reports, this overview will attempt to place the work in perspective. Major features of the design are compact size, low cost, and steady-state operation. These are achieved through plasma shaping and innovative features such as radiation tolerant magnets and optimized shielding. While TIBER 2 can operate in a pulsed mode, steady-state is preferred for nuclear testing. Current drive is achieved by a combination of lower hybrid and neutral beams. In addition, 10 MW of ECR is added for disruption control and current drive profiling. The TIBER 2 design has been the US option in preparation for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Other equivalent national designs are the NET in Europe, the FER in Japan and the OTR in the USSR. These designs will help set the basis for the new international design effort.

  3. Modeling and experimental validation of hydrodynamics in an ultrasonic batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, M; Rusli, S; Fieg, G

    2016-01-01

    Simulation of hydrodynamics in ultrasonic batch reactor containing immobilized enzymes as catalyst is done. A transducer with variable power and constant frequency (24 kHz) is taken as source of ultrasound (US). Simulation comprises two steps. In first step, acoustic pressure field is simulated and in second step effect of this field on particle trajectories is simulated. Simulation results are compared with experimentally determined particle trajectories using PIV Lab (particle image velocimetry). Effect of varying ultrasonic power, positioning and number of ultrasonic sources on particle trajectories is studied. It is observed that catalyst particles tend to orientate according to pattern of acoustic pressure field. An increase in ultrasonic power increases particle velocity and also brings more particles into motion. Simulation results are found to be in agreement with experimentally determined data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinetics of vinyl acetate emulsion polymerization in a pulsed tubular reactor: comparison between experimental and simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayer C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reactor, the pulsed sieve plate column (PSPC, was developed to perform continuous emulsion polymerization reactions. This reactor combines the enhanced flexibility of tubular reactors with the mixing behavior provided by sieved plates and by the introduction of pulses that is important to prevent emulsion destabilization. The main objective of this work is to study the kinetics of vinyl acetate (VA emulsion polymerization reactions performed in this PSPC. Therefore, both experimental studies and reaction simulations were performed. Results showed that it is possible to obtain high conversions with rather low residence times in the PSPC.

  5. CFD and experimental investigation of sloshing parameters for the safety assessment of HLM reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrillas, Konstantinos, E-mail: myrillas@vki.ac.be [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, B-1640 Rhode-St-Genèse (Belgium); Planquart, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.planquart@vki.ac.be [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, B-1640 Rhode-St-Genèse (Belgium); Simonini, Alessia, E-mail: Simonini@vki.ac.be [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, B-1640 Rhode-St-Genèse (Belgium); Buchlin, Jean-Marie, E-mail: buchlin@vki.ac.be [von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, B-1640 Rhode-St-Genèse (Belgium); Schyns, Marc, E-mail: mschyns@SCKCEN.BE [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Comparison of sloshing behavior in cylindrical tank using mercury and water. • Flow visualization of liquid sloshing in resonance case. • CFD simulations of sloshing with OpenFOAM, using the VOF method. • Qualitative and quantitative comparison of experimental and numerical results. • Evaluation of sloshing forces on the tank walls from numerical simulations. - Abstract: For the safety assessment of Heavy Liquid Metal nuclear reactors under seismic excitation, sloshing phenomena can be of great concern. The earthquake motions are transferred to the liquid coolant which oscillates inside the vessel, exerting additional forces on the walls and internal structures. The present study examines the case of MYRRHA, a multi-purpose experimental reactor with LBE as coolant, developed by SCK·CEN. The sloshing behavior of liquid metals is studied through a comparison between mercury and water in a cylindrical tank. Experimental investigation of sloshing is carried out using optical techniques with the shaking table facility SHAKESPEARE at the von Karman Institute. Emphasis is given on the resonance case, where maximum forces occur on the tank walls. The experimental cases are reproduced numerically with the CFD software OpenFOAM, using the VOF method to track the liquid interface. The non-linear nature of sloshing is observed through visualization, where swirling is shown in the resonance case. The complex behavior is well reproduced by the CFD simulations, providing good qualitative validation of the numerical tools. A quantitative comparison of the maximum liquid elevation inside the tank shows higher values for the liquid metal than for water. Some discrepancies are revealed in CFD results and the differences are quantified. From simulations it is verified that the forces scale with the density ratio, following similar evolution in time. Overall, water is demonstrated to be a valid option as a working liquid in order to evaluate the sloshing

  6. Experimental study and modeling of a high-temperature solar chemical reactor for hydrogen production from methane cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abanades, Stephane; Flamant, Gilles [Processes, Materials, and Solar Energy Laboratory, CNRS (PROMES-CNRS, UPR 8521), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, 66120 Odeillo Font-Romeu (France)

    2007-07-15

    A high-temperature fluid-wall solar reactor was developed for the production of hydrogen from methane cracking. This laboratory-scale reactor features a graphite tubular cavity directly heated by concentrated solar energy, in which the reactive flowing gas dissociates to form hydrogen and carbon black. The solar reactor characterization was achieved with: (a) a thorough experimental study on the reactor performance versus operating conditions and (b) solar reactor modeling. The results showed that the conversion of CH{sub 4} and yield of H{sub 2} can exceed 97% and 90%, respectively, and these depend strongly on temperature and on fluid-wall heat transfer and reaction surface area. In addition to the experimental study, a 2D computational model coupling transport phenomena was developed to predict the mapping of reactor temperature and of species concentration, and the reaction extent at the outlet. The model was validated and kinetics of methane decomposition were identified from simulations and comparison to experimental results. (author)

  7. Seismic Risk Scenario in Grenoble (FRANCE) Using Experimental Dynamic Properties of Buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Clotaire

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the vulnerability of a large set of buildings using sophisticated methods can be very time consuming and at a prohibitive cost, particularly for a moderate seismic hazard country like France. We propose here a low-cost analysis using an experimental approach to extract the elastic behaviour of existing buildings. An elastic modal model is proposed for the different types of building tested in Grenoble (France) thanks to their experimental modal parameters (resonance frequencies, modal shapes and damping), which are estimated using ambient vibrations surveys. Sixty buildings of various types were recorded. The building integrity is then calculated considering an accelerogram scenario provided by seismologists as input and considering an integrity threshold based on the FEMA inter-storey drift limits. Even if the level of damage remains unknown, we conclude that masonry buildings undergo more damage (70% of buildings damaged) than RC buildings. Finally, extracting modal parameters from ambient vibrati...

  8. Formulation and experimental evaluation of closed-form control laws for the rapid maneuvering of reactor neutronic power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Nuclear Reactor Lab.)

    1989-09-01

    This report describes both the theoretical development and the experimental evaluation of a novel, robust methodology for the time-optimal adjustment of a reactor's neutronic power under conditions of closed-loop digital control. Central to the approach are the MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws' which determine the rate at which reactivity should be changed in order to cause a reactor's neutronic power to conform to a specified trajectory. Using these laws, reactor power can be safely raised by five to seven orders of magnitude in a few seconds. The MIT-SNL laws were developed to facilitate rapid increases of neutronic power on spacecraft reactors operating in an SDI environment. However, these laws are generic and have other applications including the rapid recovery of research and test reactors subsequent to an unanticipated shutdown, power increases following the achievement of criticality on commercial reactors, power adjustments on commercial reactors so as to minimize thermal stress, and automated startups. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the Sandia National Laboratories. Support was also provided by the US Department of Energy's Division of University and Industry Programs. The work described in this report is significant in that a novel solution to the problem of time-optimal control of neutronic power was identified, in that a rigorous description of a reactor's dynamics was derived in that the rate of change of reactivity was recognized as the proper control signal, and in that extensive experimental trials were conducted of these newly developed concepts on actual nuclear reactors. 43 refs., 118 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Advances in Multi-Sensor Scanning and Visualization of Complex Plants: the Utmost Case of a Reactor Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullo, J.-F.; Thibault, G.; Boucheny, C.

    2015-02-01

    In a context of increased maintenance operations and workers generational renewal, a nuclear owner and operator like Electricité de France (EDF) is interested in the scaling up of tools and methods of "as-built virtual reality" for larger buildings and wider audiences. However, acquisition and sharing of as-built data on a large scale (large and complex multi-floored buildings) challenge current scientific and technical capacities. In this paper, we first present a state of the art of scanning tools and methods for industrial plants with very complex architecture. Then, we introduce the inner characteristics of the multi-sensor scanning and visualization of the interior of the most complex building of a power plant: a nuclear reactor building. We introduce several developments that made possible a first complete survey of such a large building, from acquisition, processing and fusion of multiple data sources (3D laser scans, total-station survey, RGB panoramic, 2D floor plans, 3D CAD as-built models). In addition, we present the concepts of a smart application developed for the painless exploration of the whole dataset. The goal of this application is to help professionals, unfamiliar with the manipulation of such datasets, to take into account spatial constraints induced by the building complexity while preparing maintenance operations. Finally, we discuss the main feedbacks of this large experiment, the remaining issues for the generalization of such large scale surveys and the future technical and scientific challenges in the field of industrial "virtual reality".

  10. Advanced automation concepts applied to Experimental Breeder Reactor-II startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkan, R.C.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Bywater, R.L. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Kisner, R.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The major objective of this work is to demonstrate through simulations that advanced liquid-metal reactor plants can be operated from low power by computer control. Development of an automatic control system with this objective will help resolve specific issues and provide proof through demonstration that automatic control for plant startup is feasible. This paper presents an advanced control system design for startup of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) located at Idaho Falls, Idaho. The design incorporates recent methods in nonlinear control with advanced diagnostics techniques such as neural networks to form an integrated architecture. The preliminary evaluations are obtained in a simulated environment by a low-order, valid nonlinear model. Within the framework of phase 1 research, the design includes an inverse dynamics controller, a fuzzy controller, and an artificial neural network controller. These three nonlinear control modules are designed to follow the EBR-2 startup trajectories in a multi-input/output regime. They are coordinated by a supervisory routine to yield a fault-tolerant, parallel operation. The control system operates in three modes: manual, semiautomatic, and fully automatic control. The simulation results of the EBR-2 startup transients proved the effectiveness of the advanced concepts. The work presented in this paper is a preliminary feasibility analysis and does not constitute a final design of an automated startup control system for EBR-2. 14 refs., 43 figs.

  11. A SEISMIC DESIGN OF NUCLEAR REACTOR BUILDING STRUCTURES APPLYING SEISMIC ISOLATION SYSTEM IN A HIGH SEISMICITY REGION –A FEASIBILITY CASE STUDY IN JAPAN-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETSUO KUBO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility study on the seismic design of nuclear reactor buildings with application of a seismic isolation system is introduced. After the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake in Japan of 1995, seismic isolation technologies have been widely employed for commercial buildings. Having become a mature technology, seismic isolation systems can be applied to NPP facilities in areas of high seismicity. Two reactor buildings are discussed, representing the PWR and BWR buildings in Japan, and the application of seismic isolation systems is discussed. The isolation system employing rubber bearings with a lead plug positioned (LRB is examined. Through a series of seismic response analyses using the so-named standard design earthquake motions covering the design basis earthquake motions obtained for NPP sites in Japan, the responses of the seismic isolated reactor buildings are evaluated. It is revealed that for the building structures examined herein: (1 the responses of both isolated buildings and isolating LRBs fulfill the specified design criteria; (2 the responses obtained for the isolating LRBs first reach the ultimate condition when intensity of motion is 2.0 to 2.5 times as large as that of the design-basis; and (3 the responses of isolated reactor building fall below the range of the prescribed criteria.

  12. Development of gas cooled reactors and experimental setup of high temperature helium loop for in-pile operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miletić, Marija, E-mail: marija_miletic@live.com [Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Fukač, Rostislav, E-mail: fuk@cvrez.cz [Research Centre Rez Ltd., Rez (Czech Republic); Pioro, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Pioro@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa (Canada); Dragunov, Alexey, E-mail: Alexey.Dragunov@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    coolants. The purpose of the high temperature helium loop (HTHL) is to simulate technical and chemical conditions of VHTR's coolant. The loop is intended to serve an as experimental device for fatigue and creep tests of construction metallic materials for gas-cooled reactors and it should be also employed for research in field of gaseous coolant chemistry. The loop will serve also for tests of nuclear graphite, dosing and helium purification systems. Because the VHTR is a new reactor concept, major technical uncertainties remain relative to helium-cooled advanced reactor systems. This paper summarizes also the concept of the HTHL in the Research Centre Rez Ltd., its design, utilization and future plans for experimental setup.

  13. ALARA Analysis for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Fuel Storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, M E

    2000-01-01

    The addition of Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assembly storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) will increase the total cumulative CSB personnel exposure from receipt and handling activities. The loaded Shippingport Spent Fuel Canisters (SSFCs) used for the Shippingport fuel have a higher external dose rate. Assuming an MCO handling rate of 170 per year (K East and K West concurrent operation), 24-hr CSB operation, and nominal SSFC loading, all work crew personnel will have a cumulative annual exposure of less than the 1,000 mrem limit.

  14. Conceptual design of superconducting magnet systems for the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T.; Turner, L.R.; Mills, F.E.; DeMichele, D.W.; Smelser, P.; Kim, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    As an integral effort in the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor Conceptual Design, the conceptual design of a 10-tesla, pure-tension superconducting toroidal-field (TF) coil system has been developed in sufficient detail to define a realistic design for the TF coil system that could be built based upon the current state of technology with minimum technological extrapolations. A conceptual design study on the superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coils and the superconducting equilibrium-field (EF) coils were also completed. These conceptual designs are developed in sufficient detail with clear information on high current ac conductor design, cooling, venting provision, coil structural support and zero loss poloidal coil cryostat design. Also investigated is the EF penetration into the blanket and shield.

  15. A large scale fullerenes synthesis solar reactor modelling and first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillard, T.; Flamand, G.; Robert, J.F.; Rivoire, B.; Olalde, G.; Alvarez, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-IMP), 66 - Font-Romeu (France); Laplaze, D. [Universite de Montpellier, GDPC, 34 (France)

    1999-03-01

    After the promising results obtained with a 2 kW solar furnace for fullerenes and nano-tubes synthesis, a large scale production project using the 1 MW Odeillo solar furnace started in 1997. This paper presents the first experimental results obtained with a concept-validation vessel and the comparison with a numerical simulation of the target thermal behavior. It is shown that a 6 mm i.d. graphite rod heated by a 500 W/cm{sup 2} incident solar flux density (I{sub s}) reaches a front temperature of 2800 K, in agreement with the thermal model. On this basis, accurate prediction of maximum working temperature of the 1 MW reactor is proposed: 3400 K for I{sub s} = 900 W/cm{sup 2}. (authors)

  16. Review of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) detailed design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-18

    Dr. Martha Krebs, Director, Office of Energy Research at the US Department of Energy (DOE), wrote to the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), in letters dated September 23 and November 6, 1996, requesting that FESAC review the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Detailed Design Report (DDR) and provide its view of the adequacy of the DDR as part of the basis for the United States decision to enter negotiations with the other interested Parties regarding the terms and conditions for an agreement for the construction, operations, exploitation and decommissioning of ITER. The letter from Dr. Krebs, referred to as the Charge Letter, provided context for the review and a set of questions of specific interest.

  17. Intention, Principle, Outputs and Aims of the Experimental Pavilion Research of Building Envelopes Including Windows for Wooden Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štaffenová, Daniela; Rybárik, Ján; Jakubčík, Miroslav

    2017-06-01

    The aim of experimental research in the area of exterior walls and windows suitable for wooden buildings was to build special pavilion laboratories. These laboratories are ideally isolated from the surrounding environment, airtight and controlled by the constant internal climate. The principle of experimental research is measuring and recording of required physical parameters (e.g. temperature or relative humidity). This is done in layers of experimental fragment sections in the direction from exterior to interior, as well as in critical places by stable interior and real exterior climatic conditions. The outputs are evaluations of experimental structures behaviour during the specified time period, possibly during the whole year by stable interior and real exterior boundary conditions. The main aim of this experimental research is processing of long-term measurements of experimental structures and the subsequent analysis. The next part of the research consists of collecting measurements obtained with assistance of the experimental detached weather station, analysis, evaluation for later setting up of reference data set for the research locality, from the point of view of its comparison to the data sets from Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) and to localities with similar climate conditions. Later on, the data sets could lead to recommendations for design of wooden buildings.

  18. Combination of a building condenser with H{sub 2}-recombiner elements in light water reactors; Kombination eines Gebaeudekondensators mit H{sub 2}-Rekombinatorelementen in Leichtwasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelm, Stephan

    2010-06-17

    In innovative reactor concepts of generation III and III+, passive safety systems are applied in order to ensure the integrity of the physical barriers against the release of fission products to the environment in the course of accidents. The containment represents the final barrier. An early filtered release due to an unacceptable pressure increase therefore has to be excluded or at least delayed. For this purpose, building condensers are envisaged in modern containment concepts in order to condense the steam released during an accident and thus reduce pressure. Experimental investigations on this concept conducted at various facilities showed a significant trip of the condenser effectivity in case of beyond-design-basis accidents with hydrogen release into the containment. In order to reduce the related significant pressure rise, an innovative condenser concept with integrated catalyst elements for recombining the hydrogen with the atmospheric oxygen present it proposed and investigated. The CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models developed in the present work form the basis for numerical simulation of the complex interaction between catalytic reaction, wall condensation and buoyancy-driven flow inside an innovative, combined catalyst-condenser bundle. The high-resolution CFD simulation allows for the first time detailed insight into the flow and transport phenomena inside the tube bundle, verifies the conceptual idea and thus serves for the enhancement of safety margins of future reactor systems. (orig.)

  19. Development plan for the External Hazards Experimental Group. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Burns, Douglas Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the development plan for a new multi-partner External Hazards Experimental Group (EHEG) coordinated by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) technical pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Currently, there is limited data available for development and validation of the tools and methods being developed in the RISMC Toolkit. The EHEG is being developed to obtain high-quality, small- and large-scale experimental data validation of RISMC tools and methods in a timely and cost-effective way. The group of universities and national laboratories that will eventually form the EHEG (which is ultimately expected to include both the initial participants and other universities and national laboratories that have been identified) have the expertise and experimental capabilities needed to both obtain and compile existing data archives and perform additional seismic and flooding experiments. The data developed by EHEG will be stored in databases for use within RISMC. These databases will be used to validate the advanced external hazard tools and methods.

  20. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  1. Information Value and Externalities in Reputation Building - An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gary E Bolton; Axel Ockenfels

    2007-01-01

    In sequential equilibrium theory, reputation building is independent of whether the reputation builder is matched with one long-run player or a series of short run players. We observe, however, that reputation builders are significantly more challenged by long-run players in both laboratory chain store and buyer-seller games. Reputation builder behavior is not as unpredictable as required by the mixed equilibrium strategies and so information about the reputation builder’s past behavior has m...

  2. Numerical and experimental investigation of surface vortex formation in coolant reservoirs of reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandazis, Peter [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany); Babcsany, Boglarka [Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Techniques

    2016-11-15

    The reliable operation of the emergency coolant pumps and passive gravitational injection systems are an important safety issue during accident scenarios with coolant loss in pressurized water reactors. Because of the pressure drop and flow disturbances surface vortices develops at the pump intakes if the water level decreasing below a critical value. The induced swirling flow and gas entrainment lead to flow limitation and to pump failures and damages. The prediction of the critical submergence to avoid surface vortex building is difficult because it depends on many geometrical and fluid dynamical parameters. An alternative and new method has been developed for the investigation of surface vortices. The method based on the combination of CFD results with the analytical vortex model of Burgers and Rott. For further investigation the small scale experiments from the Institute of Nuclear Techniques of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics are used which were inspired from flow limitation problems during the draining of the bubble condenser trays at a VVER type nuclear power plants.

  3. Computational and Experimental Investigations of the Coolant Flow in the Cassette Fissile Core of a KLT-40S Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. M.; Varentsov, A. V.; Dobrov, A. A.; Doronkov, D. V.; Pronin, A. N.; Sorokin, V. D.; Khrobostov, A. E.

    2017-07-01

    Results of experimental investigations of the local hydrodynamic and mass-exchange characteristics of a coolant flowing through the cells in the characteristic zones of a fuel assembly of a KLT-40S reactor plant downstream of a plate-type spacer grid by the method of diffusion of a gas tracer in the coolant flow with measurement of its velocity by a five-channel pneumometric probe are presented. An analysis of the concentration distribution of the tracer in the coolant flow downstream of a plate-type spacer grid in the fuel assembly of the KLT-40S reactor plant and its velocity field made it possible to obtain a detailed pattern of this flow and to determine its main mechanisms and features. Results of measurement of the hydraulic-resistance coefficient of a plate-type spacer grid depending on the Reynolds number are presented. On the basis of the experimental data obtained, recommendations for improvement of the method of calculating the flow rate of a coolant in the cells of the fissile core of a KLT-40S reactor were developed. The results of investigations of the local hydrodynamic and mass-exchange characteristics of the coolant flow in the fuel assembly of the KLT-40S reactor plant were accepted for estimating the thermal and technical reliability of the fissile cores of KLT-40S reactors and were included in the database for verification of computational hydrodynamics programs (CFD codes).

  4. Analysis of the optimal fuel composition for the Indonesian experimental power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liem, Peng Hong [Nippon Advanced Information Service (NAIS Co., Inc.), Ibaraki (Japan); Sembiring, Tagor Malem [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Banten (Indonesia). Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety; Arbie, Bakri; Subki, Iyos [PT MOTAB Technology, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia)

    2017-03-15

    The optimal fuel composition of the 10 MWth Experimental Power Reactor (RDE), to be built by the Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), is a very important design parameter since it will directly affect the fuel cost, new and spent fuel storage capacity, and other back-end environmental burden. The RDE is a very small sized pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) with low enriched uranium (LEU) UO{sub 2} TRISO fuel under multipass or once-through-then-out fueling scheme. A scoping study on fuel composition parameters, namely heavy metal (HM) loading per pebble and uranium enrichment is conducted. All burnup, criticality calculations and core equilibrium search are carried out by using BATAN-MPASS, a general in-core fuel management code for pebble bed HTGRs, featured with many automatic equilibrium searching options as well as thermal-hydraulic calculation capability. The RDE User Requirement Document issued by BATAN is used to derive the main core design parameters and constraints. The scoping study is conducted over uranium enrichment in the range of 10 to 20 w/o and HM loading in the range of 4 g to 10 g/pebble. Fissile loading per unit energy generated (kg/GWd) is taken as the objective function for the present scoping study. The analysis results show that the optimal HM loading is around 8 g/pebble. Under the constraint of 80 GWd/t fuel discharge burnup imposed by the technical specification, the uranium enrichment for the optimal HM loading is approximately 13 w/o.

  5. Thermo-kinetic instabilities in model reactors. Examples in experimental tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavadera, Marco Lubrano; Sorrentino, Giancarlo; Sabia, Pino; de Joannon, Mara; Cavaliere, Antonio; Ragucci, Raffaele

    2017-11-01

    The use of advanced combustion technologies (such as MILD, LTC, etc.) is among the most promising methods to reduce emission of pollutants. For such technologies, working temperatures are enough low to boost the formation of several classes of pollutants, such as NOx and soot. To access this temperature range, a significant dilution as well as preheating of reactants is required. Such conditions are usually achieved by a strong recirculation of exhaust gases that simultaneously dilute and pre-heat the fresh reactants. These peculiar operative conditions also imply strong fuel flexibility, thus allowing the use of low calorific value (LCV) energy carriers with high efficiency. However, the intersection of low combustion temperatures and highly diluted mixtures with intense pre-heating alters the evolution of the combustion process with respect to traditional flames, leading to features such as the susceptibility to oscillations, which are undesirable during combustion. Therefore, an effective use of advanced combustion technologies requires a thorough analysis of the combustion kinetic characteristics in order to identify optimal operating conditions and control strategies with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. The present work experimentally and numerically characterized the ignition and oxidation processes of methane and propane, highly diluted in nitrogen, at atmospheric pressure, in a Plug Flow Reactor and a Perfectly Stirred Reactor under a wide range of operating conditions involving temperatures, mixture compositions and dilution levels. The attention was focused particularly on the chemistry of oscillatory phenomena and multistage ignitions. The global behavior of these systems can be qualitatively and partially quantitatively modeled using the detailed kinetic models available in the literature. Results suggested that, for diluted conditions and lower adiabatic flame temperatures, the competition among several pathways, i.e. intermediate- and

  6. Basic experiments during loss of vacuum event (LOVE) in fusion experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Masuro; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Seki, Yasushi (JAERI, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-06-01

    If a loss of vacuum event (LOVE) occurs due to damage of the vacuum vessel of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor, some chemical reactions such as a graphic oxidation and a buoyancy-driven exchange flow take place after equalization of the gas pressure between the inside and outside of the vacuum vessel. The graphite oxidation would generate inflammable carbon monoxide and release tritium retained in the graphite. The exchange flow through the breaches may transport the carbon monoxide and tritium out of the vacuum vessel. To add confidence to the safety evaluations and analyses, it is important to grasp the basic phenomena such as the exchange flow and the graphite oxidation. Experiments of the exchange flow and the graphite oxidation were carried out to obtain the exchange flow rate and the rate constant for the carbon monoxide combustion, respectively. These experimental results were compared with existing correlations. The authors plan a scaled-model test and a full-scale model test for the LOVE.

  7. Experimental and numerical thermal-hydraulics investigation of a molten salt reactor concept core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, Bogdan; Aszodi, Attila [Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Techniques

    2017-09-15

    In the paper measurement results of experimental modelling of a molten salt fast reactor concept will be presented and compared with three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results. Purpose of this article is twofold, on one hand to introduce a geometry modification in order to avoid the disadvantages of the original geometry and discuss new measurement results. On the other hand to present an analysis in order to suggest a method of proper numerical modelling of the problem based on the comparison of calculation results and measurement data for the new, modified geometry. The investigated concept has a homogeneous cylindrical core without any internal structures. Previous measurements on the scaled and segmented plexiglas model of the concept core and simulation results have shown that this core geometry could be optimized for better thermal-hydraulics characteristics. In case of the original geometry strong undesired flow separation could develop, that could negatively affect the characteristics of the core from neutronics point of view as well. An internal flow distributor plate was designed and installed with the purpose of optimizing the flow field in the core by enhancing its uniformity. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement results of the modified experimental model will be presented and compared to numerical simulation results with the purpose of CFD model validation.

  8. Experimental and numerical studies of microwave-plasma interaction in a MWPECVD reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massaro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with and proposes a simple and compact diagnostic method able to characterize the interaction between microwave and plasma without the necessity of using an external diagnostic tool. The interaction between 2.45 GHz microwave and plasma, in a typical ASTeX-type reactor, is investigated from experimental and numerical view points. The experiments are performed by considering plasmas of three different gas mixtures: H2, CH4-H2 and CH4-H2-N2. The two latter are used to deposit synthetic undoped and n-doped diamond films. The experimental setup equipped with a matching network enables the measurements of very low reflected power. The reflected powers show ripples due to the mismatching between wave and plasma impedance. Specifically, the three types of plasma exhibit reflected power values related to the variation of electron-neutral collision frequency among the species by changing the gas mixture. The different gas mixtures studied are also useful to test the sensitivity of the reflected power measurements to the change of plasma composition. By means of a numerical model, only the interaction of microwave and H2 plasma is examined allowing the estimation of plasma and matching network impedances and of reflected power that is found about eighteen times higher than that measured.

  9. Study of process of water disinfection it saw energy solar using an experimental reactor; Estudo do proceso de desinfeccao de agua via energia solar utilizando um reator experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, C. H.; Prado, L. R.; Lima, A. S.; Egues, S. M. S.; Araujo, P. M. M.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, was conducted an experimental study of the efficiency of a solar reactor in the disinfection of drinking water using photolysis (UV) and heterogeneous photo catalysis (TiO{sub 2}/UV). The experiments were conducted in batch mode, evaluating the effects of reactor inclination and the presence of a solar concentrator. The results indicated that the employed system was capable to promote the complete disinfection in 150 min using only the photo thermic effect, and in 120 min with the addition of immobilized TiO{sub 2} and the solar concentrator. (Author)

  10. Estudio del comportamiento de reactores discontinuos y semicontinuos: modelización y comprobación experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Grau Vilalta, Ma. Dolors

    1999-01-01

    L'objectiu primordial d'aquest treball és la comparació entre el funcionament d'un reactor discontinu i un de semicontinu. Per això es porta a terme la modelització matemàtica d'ambdós, utilitzant programes propis emprant el llenguatge Fortran 77, a més del simulador ISIM i el software MATLAB. La validació dels models matemàtics s'efectua, en primer lloc, a partir de dades de la bibliografia. A partir d'aquí, es realitzen proves experimentals en una planta piloto amb un reactor encamisat de v...

  11. Experimental and Analytic Study on the Core Bypass Flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz

    2012-04-01

    Core bypass flow has been one of key issues in the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design for securing core thermal margins and achieving target temperatures at the core exit. The bypass flow in a prismatic VHTR core occurs through the control element holes and the radial and axial gaps between the graphite blocks for manufacturing and refueling tolerances. These gaps vary with the core life cycles because of the irradiation swelling/shrinkage characteristic of the graphite blocks such as fuel and reflector blocks, which are main components of a core's structure. Thus, the core bypass flow occurs in a complicated multidimensional way. The accurate prediction of this bypass flow and counter-measures to minimize it are thus of major importance in assuring core thermal margins and securing higher core efficiency. Even with this importance, there has not been much effort in quantifying and accurately modeling the effect of the core bypass flow. The main objectives of this project were to generate experimental data for validating the software to be used to calculate the bypass flow in a prismatic VHTR core, validate thermofluid analysis tools and their model improvements, and identify and assess measures for reducing the bypass flow. To achieve these objectives, tasks were defined to (1) design and construct experiments to generate validation data for software analysis tools, (2) determine the experimental conditions and define the measurement requirements and techniques, (3) generate and analyze the experimental data, (4) validate and improve the thermofluid analysis tools, and (5) identify measures to control the bypass flow and assess its performance in the experiment.

  12. Review of nuclear data improvement needs for nuclear radiation measurement techniques used at the CEA experimental reactor facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destouches Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The constant improvement of the neutron and gamma calculation codes used in experimental nuclear reactors goes hand in hand with that of the associated nuclear data libraries. The validation of these calculation schemes always requires the confrontation with integral experiments performed in experimental reactors to be completed. Nuclear data of interest, straight as cross sections, or elaborated ones such as reactivity, are always derived from a reaction rate measurement which is the only measurable parameter in a nuclear sensor. So, in order to derive physical parameters from the electric signal of the sensor, one needs specific nuclear data libraries. This paper presents successively the main features of the measurement techniques used in the CEA experimental reactor facilities for the on-line and offline neutron/gamma flux characterizations: reactor dosimetry, neutron flux measurements with miniature fission chambers and Self Power Neutron Detector (SPND and gamma flux measurements with chamber ionization and TLD. For each technique, the nuclear data necessary for their interpretation will be presented, the main identified needs for improvement identified and an analysis of their impact on the quality of the measurement. Finally, a synthesis of the study will be done.

  13. Building a Hybrid Experimental Platform for Mobile Botnet Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Malatras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile botnets are an emerging security threat that aims at exploiting the wide penetration of mobile devices and systems and their vulnerabilities in the same spirit of traditional botnets. Mobile botmasters take advantage of infected mobile devices and issue command and control operations on them to extract personal information, cause denial of service or gain financially. To date, research on countering such attacks or studying their effects has been conducted in a sporadic manner that hinders the repetition of experiments and thus limits their validity. We present here our work on a hybrid experimental platform for mobile botnets that supports the execution and monitoring of related scenarios concerning their infection, attack vectors, propagation, etc. The platform is based on principles of flexibility, extensibility and facilitates the setup of scalable experiments utilising both real and emulated mobile systems. We also discuss a novel method of estimating the active bot population in a botnet and illustrate its deployment on the experimental platform.

  14. Experimental Study on Volume for Fly Ash of Building Block

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Wang; He Sun; Zhihui Sun; Enqing Ma

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste substance from thermal power plants, steel mills, etc. That is found in abundance in the world. It has polluted the environment, wasting the cultivated land. This study introduces an experimental research on fly ash being reused effectively, the study introduces raw materials of fly ash brick, production process and product inspection, fly ash content could be amounted to 40%~75%. High doping fly ash bricks are manufactured, which selects wet fly ash from the power plants, ...

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LOCAL HYDRODYNAMICS AND MASS EXCHANGE PROCESSES OF COOLANT IN FUEL ASSEMBLIES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dmitriev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of local hydrodynamics and mass exchange of coolant flow behind spacer and mixing grids of different structural versions that were developed for fuel assemblies of domestic and foreign nuclear reactors are presented in the article. In order to carry out the study the models of the following fuel assemblies have been fabricated: FA for VVER and VBER, FA-KVADRAT for PWR-reactor and FA for KLT-40C reactor. All the models have been fabricated with a full geometrical similarity with full-scale fuel assemblies. The study was carried out by simulating the flow of coolant in a core by air on an aerodynamic test rig. In order to measure local hydrodynamic characteristics of coolant flow five-channel Pitot probes were used that enable to measure the velocity vector in a point by its three components. The tracerpropane method was used for studying mass transfer processes. Flow hydrodynamics was studied by measuring cross-section velocities of coolant flow and coolant rates according to the model cells. The investigation of mass exchange processes consisted of a study of concentration distribution for tracer in experimental model, in determination of attenuation lengths of mass transfer processes behind mixing grids, in calculating of inter-cellar mass exchange coefficient. The database on coolant flow in fuel assemblies for different types of reactors had been accumulated that formed the basis of the engineering substantiation of reactor cores designs. The recommendations on choice of optimal versions of mixing grids have been taken into consideration by implementers of the JSC “OKBM Afrikantov” when creating commissioned fuel assemblies. The results of the study are used for verification of CFD-codes and CFD programs of detailed cell-by-cell calculation of reactor cores in order to decrease conservatism for substantiation of thermal-mechanical reliability.

  16. Experimental and statistical investigation of thermally induced failure in reactor fuel particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, J.L.; Imprescia, R.J.; Bowman, A.L.; Radosevich, C.E.

    1980-10-01

    An incomplete experimental study into the failure statistics of fuel particle for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is described. Fuel particles failure was induced by thermal ramping from room temperature to temperatures in the vicinity of 2273/sup 0/K to 2773/sup 0/K in 2 to 30 h and detected by the appearance of /sup 85/Kr in the helium carrier gas used to sweep the furnace. The concentration of krypton, a beta emitter, was detected by measuring the current that resulted when the helium sweep gas was passed through an ionization chamber. TRISO fuel particles gave a krypton concentration profile as a function of time that built up in several minutes and decayed in a fraction of an hour. This profile, which was temperature independent, was similar to the impulse response of the ionization chamber, suggesting that the TRISO particles failed instantaneously and completely. BISO fuel particles gave a krypton concentration profile as a function of time that built up in a fraction of an hour and decayed in a fraction of a day. This profile was strongly temperature dependent, suggesting that krypton release was diffusion controlled, i.e., that the krypton was diffusing through a sound coat, or that the BISO coating failed but that the krypton was unable to escape the kernel without diffusion, or that a combination of pre- and postfailure diffusion accompanied partial or complete failure.

  17. Calculation of fast neutron flux in reactor pressure tubes and experimental facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, P.C. [Canadian General Electric (Canada)

    1968-07-15

    The computer program EPITHET was used to calculate the fast neutron flux (>1 MeV) in several reactor pressure tubes and experimental facilities in order to compare the fast neutron flux in the different cases and to provide a self-consistent set of flux values which may be used to relate creep strain to fast neutron flux . The facilities considered are shown below together with the calculated fast neutron flux (>1 MeV). Fast flux 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}s: NPD 1.14, Douglas Point 2.66, Pickering 2.89, Gentilly 2.35, SGHWR 3.65, NRU U-1 and U-2 3.25'' pressure tube - 19 element fuel 3.05, NRU U-1 and U-2 4.07'' pressure tube - 28 element fuel 3.18, NRU U-1 and U-2 4.07'' pressure tube - 18 element fuel 2.90, NRX X-5 0.88, PRTR Mk I fuel 2.81, PRTR HPD fuel 3.52, WR-1 2.73, Mk IV creep machine (NRX) 0.85, Mk VI creep machine (NRU) 2.04, Biaxial creep insert (NRU U-49) 2.61.

  18. Analysis of Experimental Data for High Burnup PWR Spent Fuel Isotopic Validation - Vandellos II Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This report is one of the several recent NUREG/CR reports documenting benchmark-quality radiochemical assay data and the use of the data to validate computer code predictions of isotopic composition for spent nuclear fuel, to establish the uncertainty and bias associated with code predictions. The experimental data analyzed in the current report were acquired from a high-burnup fuel program coordinated by Spanish organizations. The measurements included extensive actinide and fission product data of importance to spent fuel safety applications, including burnup credit, decay heat, and radiation source terms. Six unique spent fuel samples from three uranium oxide fuel rods were analyzed. The fuel rods had a 4.5 wt % {sup 235}U initial enrichment and were irradiated in the Vandellos II pressurized water reactor operated in Spain. The burnups of the fuel samples range from 42 to 78 GWd/MTU. The measurements were used to validate the two-dimensional depletion sequence TRITON in the SCALE computer code system.

  19. Fission product iodine release and retention in nuclear reactor accidents— experimental programme at PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchertseifer, H.; Cripps, R.; Guentay, S.; Jaeckel, B.

    2003-01-01

    Iodine radionuclides constitute one of the most important fission products of uranium and plutonium. If the volatile forms would be released into the environment during a severe accident, a potential health hazard would then ensue. Understanding its behaviour is an important prerequisite for planning appropriate mitigation measures. Improved and extensive knowledge of the main iodine species and their reactions important for the release and retention processes in the reactor containment is thus mandatory. The aim of PSI's radiolytical studies is to improve the current thermodynamic and kinetic databases and the models for iodine used in severe accident computer codes. Formation of sparingly soluble silver iodide (AgI) in a PWR containment sump can substantially reduce volatile iodine fraction in the containment atmosphere. However, the effectiveness is dependent on its radiation stability. The direct radiolytic decomposition of AgI and the effect of impurities on iodine volatilisation were experimentally determined at PSI using a remote-controlled and automated high activity 188W/Re generator (40 GBq/ml). Low molecular weight organic iodides are difficult to be retained in engineered safety systems. Investigation of radiolytic decomposition of methyl iodide in aqueous solutions, combined with an on-line analysis of iodine species is currently under investigation at PSI.

  20. Design study of toroidal magnets for tokamak experimental power reactors. [NbTi alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stekly, Z.J.J.; Lucas, E.J. (eds.)

    1976-12-01

    This report contains the results of a six-month study of superconducting toroidal field coils for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to be built in the late 1980s. The designs are for 8 T and 12 T maximum magnetic field at the superconducting winding. At each field level two main concepts were generated; one in which each of the 16 coils comprising the system has an individual vacuum vessel and the other in which all the coils are contained in a single vacuum vessel. The coils have a D shape and have openings of 11.25 m x 7.5 m for the 8 T coils and 10.2 m x 6.8 m for the 12 T coils. All the designs utilize rectangular cabled conductor made from copper stabilized Niobium Titanium composite which operates at 4.2 K for the 8 T design and at 2.5 K for the 12 T design. Manufacturing procedures, processes and schedule estimates are also discussed.

  1. Bulk-bronzied graphites for plasma-facing components in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Doerner, R.; Khandagle, M. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research); Causey, R.; Wilson, K. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Croessmann, D.; Whitley, J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Holland, D.; Smolik, G. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Matsuda, T.; Sogabe, T. (Toyo Tanso Co. Ltd., O

    1990-06-01

    Newly developed bulk-boronized graphites and boronized C-C composites with a total boron concentration ranging from 1 wt % to 30 wt % have been evaluated as plasma-facing component materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Bulk-boronized graphites have been bombarded with high-flux deuterium plasmas at temperatures between 200 and 1600{degree}C. Plasma interaction induced erosion of bulk-boronized graphites is observed to be a factor of 2--3 smaller than that of pyrolytic graphite, in regimes of physical sputtering, chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation. Postbombardment thermal desorption spectroscopy indicates that bulk-boronized graphites enhance recombinative desorption of deuterium, which leads to a suppression of the formation of deuterocarbon due to chemical sputtering. The tritium inventory in graphite has been found to decrease by an order of magnitude due to 10 wt % bulk-boronization at temperatures above 1000{degree}C. The critical heat flux to induce cracking for bulk-boronized graphites has been found to be essentially the same as that for non-boronized graphites. Also, 10 wt % bulk-boronization of graphite hinders air oxidation nearly completely at 800{degree}C and reduces the steam oxidation rate by a factor of 2--3 at around 1100 and 1350{degree}C. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  3. An experimental study on coolability through the external reactor vessel cooling according to RPV insulation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Koo, Kil Mo; Park, Rae Joon; Cho, Young Ro; Kim, Sang Baik

    2004-01-01

    LAVA-ERVC experiments have been performed to investigate the effect of insulation design features on the water accessibility and coolability in case of the external reactor vessel cooling. Alumina iron thermite melt was used as corium stimulant. And the hemispherical test vessel is linearly scaled-down of RPV lower plenum. 4 tests have been performed varying the melt composition and the configuration of the insulation system. Due to the limited steam venting capacity through the insulation, steam binding occurred inside the annulus in the LAVA- ERVC-1, 2 tests which were performed for simulating the KSNP insulation design. This steam binding brought about incident heat up of the vessel outer surface at the upper part in the LAVA-ERVC-1, 2 tests. On the contrary, in the LAVA-ERVC-3, 4 tests which were performed for simulating the APR1400 insulation design, the temperatures of the vessel outer surface maintained near saturation temperature. Sufficient water ingression and steam venting through the insulation lead to effective cooldown of the vessel characterized by nucleate boiling in the LAVA-ERVC-3, 4 tests. From the LAVA-ERVC experimental results, it could be preliminarily concluded that if pertinent modification of the insulation design focused on the improvement of water ingression and steam venting should be preceded the possibility of in-vessel corium retention through the external vessel cooling could be considerably increased.

  4. A statistical experimental design to remove sulfate by crystallization in a fluidized-bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel G. de Luna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study used crystallization in a fluidized-bed reactor as an alternative technology to the conventional chemical precipitation to remove sulfate. The Box-Behnken Design was used to study the effects and interactions of seed dosage of synthetic gypsum, initial sulfate concentration and molar ratio of calcium to sulfate on conversion and removal of sulfate. The optimum conditions of conversion and removal of sulfate were determined and used to treat the simulated acid mine drainage (AMD wastewater. The effect of inorganic ions CO32−, NH4+ and Al3+ on sulfate conversion was also investigated. Experimental results indicated that seed dosage, initial sulfate concentration and molar ratio of calcium to sulfate are all significant parameters in the sulfate removal by fluidized-bed crystallization. The optimal conditions of 4 g seed L−1, 119.7 mM of initial sulfate concentration and [Ca2+]/[SO42−] molar ratio of 1.48 resulted in sulfate conversion of 82% and sulfate removal of 67%. Conversion and removal of sulfate in the simulated AMD wastewater were 79 and 63%, respectively. When ammonium or aluminum was added to the synthetic sulfate wastewater, significant conversion of sulfate was achieved.

  5. Economic Impacts on the United States of Siting Decisions for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerenboom, J. P.; Hanson, M. E.; Huddleston, J. R.; Wolsko, T. D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  6. Conceptual studies of toroidal field magnets for the tokamak (fusion) experimental power reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    This report presents the results of ''Conceptual Studies of Toroidal Field Magnets for the Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor'' performed for the Energy Research and Development Administration, Oak Ridge Operations. Two conceptual coil designs are developed. One design approach to produce a specified 8 Tesla maximum field uses a novel NbTi superconductor design cooled by pool-boiling liquid helium. For a highest practicable field design, a unique NbSn/sub 3/ conductor is used with forced-flow, single-phase liquid helium cooling to achieve a 12 Tesla peak field. Fabrication requirements are also developed for these approximately 7 meter horizontal bore by 11 meter vertical bore coils. Cryostat design approaches are analyzed and a hybrid cryostat approach selected. Structural analyses are performed for approaches to support in-plane and out-of-plane loads and a structural approach selected. In addition to the conceptual design studies, cost estimates and schedules are prepared for each of the design approaches, major uncertainties and recommendations for research and development identified, and test coil size for demonstration recommended.

  7. Design, Specification and Construction of Specialized Measurement System in the Experimental Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorczak-Cisak, Malgorzata; Kwasnowski, Pawel; Furtak, Marcin; Hayduk, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    Experimental buildings for “in situ” research are a very important tool for collecting data on energy efficiency of the energy-saving technologies. One of the most advanced building of this type in Poland is the Maloposkie Laboratory of Energy-saving Buildings at Cracow University of Technology. The building itself is used by scientists as a research object and research tool to test energy-saving technologies. It is equipped with a specialized measuring system consisting of approx. 3 000 different sensors distributed in technical installations and structural elements of the building (walls, ceilings, cornices) and the ground. The authors of the paper will present the innovative design and technology of this specialized instrumentation. They will discuss issues arising during the implementation and use of the building.

  8. Transmission thermography for inspecting the busbar insulation layer in thermonuclear experimental reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dapeng; Zhang, Guang; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zeng, Zhi

    2014-11-01

    In Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, Superconducting Busbar is used for current transmission between magnet coils and current leads. The work temperature of the Busbar is about 4K because of liquid helium via inside. The large temperature grad from 300K to 4K could lead to the defects and damages occur on the insulation layer, which is made of glass fiber and polyimide and has a big different thermal expansion coefficient compared with the metal inner cylinder. This paper aims at developing an infrared transmission non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method for inspecting the insulation layer of Superconducting Busbar; theoretical model of transient heat conduction under a continuous inner heat source for cylindrical structure is described in the paper; a Busbar specimen which is designed with three delamination defects of different depths is heated inside by pouring hot water and monitored by an infrared detector located outside. Results demonstrate excellent detection performance for delamination defects in the insulation layer by using transmission thermography, all of the three defects of different depths can be visualized clearly in the thermal images, and the deeper defect has a better signal contrast, which is also shown in the temperature difference between defects and sound area vs. time curves. The results of light pulse thermography is also shown as a comparison, and it is found that the thermal images obtained by the transmission thermography has a much better signal contrast than that of the pulse thermography. In order to verify the experiments, finite element method is applied to simulate the heat conduction in the Busbar under the continuous inside heating, and it is found that the simulated temperature vs. time and simulated temperature difference vs. time curves are basically coincident with the experimental results. In addition, the possibility of in-service inspection for Busbar insulation layer in ITER item is discussed.

  9. A novel reverse flow reactor coupling endothermic and exothermic reactions: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Nijssen, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    A new reactor concept is studied for highly endothermic heterogeneously catalysed gas phase reactions at high temperatures with rapid but reversible catalyst deactivation. The reactor concept aims to achieve an indirect coupling of energy necessary for endothermic reactions and energy released by

  10. Experimental and numerical stability investigations on natural circulation boiling water reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Marcel, CP

    2007-01-01

    In the design of novel nuclear reactors active systems are replaced by passive ones in order to reduce the risk of failure. For that reason natural circulation is being considered as the primary cooling mechanism in next generation nuclear reactor designs

  11. ORNL fusion power demonstration study: arguments for a vacuum building in which to enclose a fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R.W.

    1976-12-01

    Fusion reactors as presently contemplated are excessively complicated, are virtually inaccessible for some repairs, and are subject to frequent loss of function. This dilemma arises in large part because the closed surface that separates the ''hard'' vacuum of the plasma zone from atmospheric pressure is located at the first wall or between blanket and shield. This closed surface is one containing hundreds to thousands of linear meters of welds or mechanical seals which are subject to radiation damage and cyclic fatigue. In situ repair is extremely difficult. This paper examines the arguments favoring the enclosing of the entire reactor in a vacuum building and thus changing the character of this closed surface from one requiring absolute vacuum integrity to one of high pumping impedance. Two differentially pumped vacuum zones are imagined, one clean zone for the plasma and one for the balance of the volume. Both would be at substantially the same pressure. Other advantages for the vacuum enclosure are also cited and discussed.

  12. Acidic weathering of carbonate building stones: experimental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kryza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three types of carbonate rocks, travertine, limestone and marble have been studied to determine their selected technical parameters (water absorption, resistance to salt crystallization damage and reaction to experimentally modelled acid rain weathering imitating the polluted urban atmospheric conditions. The acidic agents present in natural acid rain precipitation, H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, CH3COOH and mixture of all the acids, “Acid mix”, were tested. The initial stages of acid weathering involve, apart from chemical dissolution, particularly intense physical detachment of rock particles (granular disintegration significantly contributing to the total mass loss. Travertine was found to be most prone to salt crystallization damage and to acid weathering, and these features should be taken into account especially in external architectural usage of this stone in cold climate conditions and polluted urban atmosphere.

  13. Design considerations and experimental observations for the TAMU air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system for the VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, S. A., E-mail: shamsulamri@tamu.edu; Dominguez-Ontiveros, E. E., E-mail: elvisdom@tamu.edu; Alhashimi, T., E-mail: jbudd123@tamu.edu; Budd, J. L., E-mail: dubaiboy@tamu.edu; Matos, M. D., E-mail: mailgoeshere@gmail.com; Hassan, Y. A., E-mail: yhasssan@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3133 (United States)

    2015-04-29

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a promising passive decay heat removal system for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to ensure reliability of the transfer of the core residual and decay heat to the environment under all off-normal circumstances. A small scale experimental test facility was constructed at Texas A and M University (TAMU) to study pertinent multifaceted thermal hydraulic phenomena in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design based on the General Atomics (GA) concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The TAMU Air-Cooled Experimental Test Facility is ⅛ scale from the proposed GA-MHTGR design. Groundwork for experimental investigations focusing into the complex turbulence mixing flow behavior inside the upper plenum is currently underway. The following paper illustrates some of the chief design considerations used in construction of the experimental test facility, complete with an outline of the planned instrumentation and data acquisition methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to furnish some insights on the overall behavior of the air flow in the system. CFD simulations assisted the placement of the flow measurement sensors location. Preliminary experimental observations of experiments at 120oC inlet temperature suggested the presence of flow reversal for cases involving single active riser at both 5 m/s and 2.25 m/s, respectively and four active risers at 2.25 m/s. Flow reversal may lead to thermal stratification inside the upper plenum by means of steady state temperature measurements. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to furnish some insight on flow patterns and directions.

  14. Design considerations and experimental observations for the TAMU air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system for the VHTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, S. A.; Dominguez-Ontiveros, E. E.; Alhashimi, T.; Budd, J. L.; Matos, M. D.; Hassan, Y. A.

    2015-04-01

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a promising passive decay heat removal system for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to ensure reliability of the transfer of the core residual and decay heat to the environment under all off-normal circumstances. A small scale experimental test facility was constructed at Texas A&M University (TAMU) to study pertinent multifaceted thermal hydraulic phenomena in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design based on the General Atomics (GA) concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The TAMU Air-Cooled Experimental Test Facility is ⅛ scale from the proposed GA-MHTGR design. Groundwork for experimental investigations focusing into the complex turbulence mixing flow behavior inside the upper plenum is currently underway. The following paper illustrates some of the chief design considerations used in construction of the experimental test facility, complete with an outline of the planned instrumentation and data acquisition methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to furnish some insights on the overall behavior of the air flow in the system. CFD simulations assisted the placement of the flow measurement sensors location. Preliminary experimental observations of experiments at 120oC inlet temperature suggested the presence of flow reversal for cases involving single active riser at both 5 m/s and 2.25 m/s, respectively and four active risers at 2.25 m/s. Flow reversal may lead to thermal stratification inside the upper plenum by means of steady state temperature measurements. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to furnish some insight on flow patterns and directions.

  15. Thermal assessment of Shippingport pressurized water reactor blanket fuel assemblies within a multi-canister overpack within the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEARD, F.J.

    1999-04-09

    A series of analyses were performed to assess the thermal performance characteristics of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assemblies as loaded within a Multi-Canister Overpack within the Canister Storage Building. A two-dimensional finite element was developed, with enough detail to model the individual fuel plates: including the fuel wafers, cladding, and flow channels.

  16. Experimental validation of the buildings energy performance (PEC assessment methods with reference to occupied spaces heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PETCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of the series of pre-standardization research aimed to analyze the existing methods of calculating the Buildings Energy Performance (PEC in view of their correction of completing. The entire research activity aims to experimentally validate the PEC Calculation Algorithm as well as the comparative application, on the support of several case studies focused on representative buildings of the stock of buildings in Romania, of the PEC calculation methodology for buildings equipped with occupied spaces heating systems. The targets of the report are the experimental testing of the calculation models so far known (NP 048-2000, Mc 001-2006, SR EN 13790:2009, on the support provided by the CE INCERC Bucharest experimental building, together with the complex calculation algorithms specific to the dynamic modeling, for the evaluation of the occupied spaces heat demand in the cold season, specific to the traditional buildings and to modern buildings equipped with solar radiation passive systems, of the ventilated solar space type. The schedule of the measurements performed in the 2008-2009 cold season is presented as well as the primary processing of the measured data and the experimental validation of the heat demand monthly calculation methods, on the support of CE INCERC Bucharest. The calculation error per heating season (153 days of measurements between the measured heat demand and the calculated one was of 0.61%, an exceptional value confirming the phenomenological nature of the INCERC method, NP 048-2006. The mathematical model specific to the hourly thermal balance is recurrent – decisional with alternating paces. The experimental validation of the theoretical model is based on the measurements performed on the CE INCERC Bucharest building, within a time lag of 57 days (06.01-04.03.2009. The measurements performed on the CE INCERC Bucharest building confirm the accuracy of the hourly calculation model by comparison to the values

  17. Hydrocarbon pyrolysis reactor experimentation and modeling for the production of solar absorbing carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Lee Thomas

    Much of combustion research focuses on reducing soot particulates in emissions. However, current research at San Diego State University (SDSU) Combustion and Solar Energy Laboratory (CSEL) is underway to develop a high temperature solar receiver which will utilize carbon nanoparticles as a solar absorption medium. To produce carbon nanoparticles for the small particle heat exchange receiver (SPHER), a lab-scale carbon particle generator (CPG) has been built and tested. The CPG is a heated ceramic tube reactor with a set point wall temperature of 1100-1300°C operating at 5-6 bar pressure. Natural gas and nitrogen are fed to the CPG where natural gas undergoes pyrolysis resulting in carbon particles. The gas-particle mixture is met downstream with dilution air and sent to the lab scale solar receiver. To predict soot yield and general trends in CPG performance, a model has been setup in Reaction Design CHEMKIN-PRO software. One of the primary goals of this research is to accurately measure particle properties. Mean particle diameter, size distribution, and index of refraction are calculated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and a Diesel Particulate Scatterometer (DPS). Filter samples taken during experimentation are analyzed to obtain a particle size distribution with SEM images processed in ImageJ software. These results are compared with the DPS, which calculates the particle size distribution and the index of refraction from light scattering using Mie theory. For testing with the lab scale receiver, a particle diameter range of 200-500 nm is desired. Test conditions are varied to understand effects of operating parameters on particle size and the ability to obtain the size range. Analysis of particle loading is the other important metric for this research. Particle loading is measured downstream of the CPG outlet and dilution air mixing point. The air-particle mixture flows through an extinction tube where opacity of the mixture is measured with a 532 nm

  18. Parametric experimental tests of steam gasification of pine wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vecchione

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among Renewable Energy Sources (RES, biomass represent one of the most common and suitable solution in order to contribute to the global energy supply and to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. The disposal of some residual biomass, as pruning from pine trees, represent a problem for agricultural and agro-industrial sectors. But if the residual biomass are used for energy production can become a resource. The most suitable energy conversion technology for the above-mentioned biomass is gasification process because the high C/N ratio and the low moisture content, obtained from the analysis. In this work a small-pilot bubbling-bed gasification plant has been designed, constructed and used in order to obtain, from the pine trees pruning, a syngas with low tar and char contents and high hydrogen content. The activities showed here are part of the activities carried out in the European 7FP UNIfHY project. In particular the aim of this work is to develop experimental test on a bench scale steam blown fluidized bed biomass gasifier. These tests will be utilized in future works for the simulations of a pilot scale steam fluidized bed gasifier (100 kWth fed with different biomass feedstock. The results of the tests include produced gas and tar composition as well gas, tar and char yield. Tests on a bench scale reactor (8 cm I.D. were carried out varying steam to biomass ratio from 0.5, 0.7 and 1 to 830°C.

  19. Fast reactor: an experimental study of thermohydraulic processes in different operating regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanasenko, A. N.; Sorokin, A. P.; Zaryugin, D. G.; Trufanov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    Results of integrated water model studies of temperature fields and a flow pattern of a nonisothermal primary coolant in the elements of the fast neutron reactor (hereinafter, fast reactor) primary circuit with primary sodium in different regimes, such as forced circulation (FC), transition to the reactor cooldown and emergency cooldown with natural coolant convection, are presented. It is shown that, under the influence of lift forces on the nonisothermal coolant flow in the upper chamber at the periphery of its bottom region over the side shields, a stable cold coolant isothermal zone is formed, whose dimensions increase with increase of total water flowrate. An essential and stable coolant temperature stratification is detected in the peripheral area of the upper (hot) chamber over the side shields, in the pressure and cold side chambers, in the elevator baffle, in the cooling system of the reactor vessel, and in the outlet of intermediate and autonomous heat exchangers in different operating regimes. Large gradients and temperature fluctuations are registered at the interface of stratified and recycling formations. In all of the studied cooldown versions, the coolant outlet temperature at the core fuel assembly is decreased and the coolant temperature in the peripheral zone of the upper chamber is increased compared to the FC. High performance of a passive emergency cooldown system of a fast reactor (BN-1200) with submersible autonomous heat exchangers (AHE) is confirmed. Thus, in a normal operation regime, even in case of malfunction of three submersible AHEs, the temperature of the equipment inside the reactor remains within acceptable limits and decay heat removal from the reactor does not exceed safe operation limits. The obtained results can be used both for computer code verification and for approximate estimate of the reactor plant parameters on the similarity criteria basis.

  20. Experimental evidences of95 mTc production in a nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I M; Robles, A; Mendoza, P; Airas, R M; Montoya, E H

    2018-02-02

    95 m Tc has been identified as by-product in some solutions of 99 m Tc obtained by irradiation of molybdenum trioxide in a reactor neutron flux. The characterization was carried out using both measurements by gamma spectrometry and half-life determination. The possible ways that lead to the 95 m Tc production in a nuclear reactor are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Experimental evaluation of gamma fluence-rate predictions from Argon-41 releases to the atmosphere over a nuclear research reactor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Palma, C.; Aage, H.K.; Astrup, P.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study of radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere has been conducted at the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Artificially generated aerosols ('white smoke') were mixed with the routine releases of Ar-41 in the reactor's 60-m tall venting stack. The detailed plume geometry...

  2. Analysis and Experimental Qualification of an Irradiation Capsule Design for Testing Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Cladding in the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kurt R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Daily, Charles R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is currently investigating a number of advanced nuclear fuel cladding concepts to improve the accident tolerance of light water reactors. Alumina-forming ferritic alloys (e.g., FeCrAl) are some of the leading candidates to replace traditional zirconium alloys due to their superior oxidation resistance, provided no prohibitive irradiation-induced embrittlement occurs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed experimental designs to irradiate thin-walled cladding tubes with representative pressurized water reactor geometry in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) under relevant temperatures. These designs allow for post-irradiation examination (PIE) of cladding that closely resembles expected commercially viable geometries and microstructures. The experiments were designed using relatively inexpensive rabbit capsules for the irradiation vehicle. The simplistic designs combined with the extremely high neutron flux in the HFIR allow for rapid testing of a large test matrix, thus reducing the time and cost needed to advanced cladding materials closer to commercialization. The designs are flexible in that they allow for testing FeCrAl alloys, stainless steels, Inconel alloys, and zirconium alloys (as a reference material) both with and without hydrides. This will allow a direct comparison of the irradiation performance of advanced cladding materials with traditional zirconium alloys. PIE will include studies of dimensional change, microstructure variation, mechanical performance, etc. This work describes the capsule design, neutronic and thermal analyses, and flow testing that were performed to support the qualification of this new irradiation vehicle.

  3. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

    2008-07-08

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to : 1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, 2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and 3) develop mathematical model and ehat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal- hydraulic codes assessment.

  4. Experimental and MCNP5 based evaluation of neutron and gamma flux in the irradiation ports of the University of Utah research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Brooklyn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron and gamma flux environment of various irradiation ports in the University of Utah training, research, isotope production, general atomics reactor were experimentally assessed and fully modeled using the MCNP5 code. The experimental measurements were based on the cadmium ratio in the irradiation ports of the reactor, flux profiling using nickel wire, and gamma dose measurements using thermo luminescence dosimeter. Full 3-D MCNP5 reactor model was developed to obtain the neutron flux distributions of the entire reactor core and to compare it with the measured flux focusing at the irradiation ports. Integration of all these analysis provided the updated comprehensive neutron-gamma flux maps of the existing irradiation facilities of the University of Utah TRIGA reactor.

  5. Evaluation of integral continuing experimental capability (CEC) concepts for light water reactor research: PWR scaling concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condie, K G; Larson, T K; Davis, C B; McCreery, G E

    1987-02-01

    In this report reactor transients and thermal-hydraulic phenomena of importance (based on probabilistic risk assessment and the International Code Assessment Program) to reactor safety were examined and identified. Established scaling methodologies were used to develop potential concepts for integral thermal-hydraulic testing facilities. Advantages and disadvantages of each concept are evaluated. Analysis is conducted to examine the scaling of various phenomena in each of the selected concepts. Results generally suggest that a facility capable of operating at typical reactor operating conditions will scale most phenomena reasonably well. Although many phenomena in facilities using Freon or water at nontypical pressure will scale reasonably well, those phenomena that are heavily dependent on quality (heat transfer or critical flow for example) can be distorted. Furthermore, relation of data produced in facilities operating with nontypical fluids or at nontypical pressures to large plants will be a difficult and time consuming process.

  6. Verification and Validation of the PLTEMP/ANL Code for Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Experimental and Test Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalimullah, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Olson, Arne P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Feldman, E. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hanan, N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-04-07

    The document compiles in a single volume several verification and validation works done for the PLTEMP/ANL code during the years of its development and improvement. Some works that are available in the open literature are simply referenced at the outset, and are not included in the document. PLTEMP has been used in conversion safety analysis reports of several US and foreign research reactors that have been licensed and converted. A list of such reactors is given. Each chapter of the document deals with the verification or validation of a specific model. The model verification is usually done by comparing the code with hand calculation, Microsoft spreadsheet calculation, or Mathematica calculation. The model validation is done by comparing the code with experimental data or a more validated code like the RELAP5 code.

  7. Screening of Gas-Cooled Reactor Thermal-Hydraulic and Safety Analysis Tools and Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Seung Wook (and others)

    2007-08-15

    This report is a final report of I-NERI Project, 'Screening of Gas-cooled Reactor Thermal Hydraulic and Safety Analysis Tools and Experimental Database 'jointly carried out by KAERI, ANL and INL. In this study, we developed the basic technologies required to develop and validate the VHTR TH/safety analysis tools and evaluated the TH/safety database information. The research tasks consist of; 1) code qualification methodology (INL), 2) high-level PIRTs for major nucleus set of events (KAERI, ANL, INL), 3) initial scaling and scoping analysis (ANL, KAERI, INL), 4) filtering of TH/safety tools (KAERI, INL), 5) evaluation of TH/safety database information (KAERI, INL, ANL) and 6) key scoping analysis (KAERI). The code qualification methodology identifies the role of PIRTs in the R and D process and the bottom-up and top-down code validation methods. Since the design of VHTR is still evolving, we generated the high-level PIRTs referencing 600MWth block-type GT-MHR and 400MWth pebble-type PBMR. Nucleus set of events that represents the VHTR safety and operational transients consists of the enveloping scenarios of HPCC (high pressure conduction cooling: loss of primary flow), LPCC/Air-Ingress (low pressure conduction cooling: loss of coolant), LC (load changes: power maneuvering), ATWS (anticipated transients without scram: reactivity insertion), WS (water ingress: water-interfacing system break) and HU (hydrogen-side upset: loss of heat sink). The initial scaling analysis defines dimensionless parameters that need to be reflected in mixed convection modeling and the initial scoping analysis provided the reference system transients used in the PIRTs generation. For the PIRTs phenomena, we evaluated the modeling capability of the candidate TH/safety tools and derived a model improvement need. By surveying and evaluating the TH/safety database information, a tools V and V matrix has been developed. Through the key scoping analysis using available database, the

  8. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we

  9. Experimental and numerical characterization of wind-induced pressure coefficients on nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.ricciardi@irsn.fr; Gélain, Thomas; Soares, Sandrine

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Experiments on scale models of nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts were performed. • Pressure coefficient fields on buildings are shown for various wind directions. • Evolution of pressure coefficient vs U/W ratio is given for various chimney exhausts. • RANS simulations using SST k–ω turbulence model were performed on most studied cases. • A good agreement is overall observed, with Root Mean Square Deviation lower than 0.15. - Abstract: Wind creates pressure effects on different surfaces of buildings according to their exposure to the wind, in particular at external communications. In nuclear facilities, these effects can change contamination transfers inside the building and can even lead to contamination release into the environment, especially in damaged (ventilation stopped) or accidental situations. The diversity of geometries of facilities requires the use of a validated code for predicting pressure coefficients, which characterize the wind effect on the building walls and the interaction between the wind and chimney exhaust. The first aim of a research program launched by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), was therefore to acquire experimental data of the mean pressure coefficients for different geometries of buildings and chimneys through wind tunnel tests and then to validate a CFD code (ANSYS CFX) from these experimental results. The simulations were performed using a steady RANS approach and a two-equation SST k–ω turbulence model. After a mesh sensitivity study for one configuration of building and chimney, a comparison was carried out between the numerical and experimental values for other studied configurations. This comparison was generally satisfactory, averaged over all measurement points, with values of Root Mean Square Deviations lower than 0.15 for most cases.

  10. Experimental investigation into fast pyrolysis of biomass using an entrained flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, M.; Benham, C.

    1981-02-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were performed with steam as a carrier gas and two different feedstocks - wheat straw and powdered material derived from municipal solid waste (ECO-II TM). Reactor wall temperature was varied from 7000 to 1400 C. Gas composition data from the ECO-II tests were comparable to previously reported data but ethylene yield appeared to vary with reactor wall temperature and residence time. The important conclusion from the wheat straw tests is that olefin yields are about one half that obtained from ECO-II. Evidence was found that high olefin yields from ECO-II are due to the presence of plastics in the feedstock.

  11. Evaluation of activation detectors for the SPHINX project at the LR-0 experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahodova, Zdena; Viererbl, Ladislav [Research Center Rez Ltd (Czech Republic); Novak, Evzen; Svadlenkova, Marie; Rypar, Vojtech [Nuclear Power and Safety Division, Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    This article summarizes the measurements of neutron fluence distributions carried out at the LR-0 research reactor (Czech Republic) in the frame of the SPHINX project. The influence of fluoride-salts or graphite filling in the SR-0 modules on neutron spectrum was studied using activation detectors. The activation detectors (Mn, Ni, In and Au) were evaluated to determine the changes in neutron field. The In and Au detectors were also irradiated with a cadmium cover. Five different configurations of reactor core (EROS) were realized. (authors)

  12. Experimental evaluation of methane dry reforming process on a membrane reactor to hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabiano S.A.; Benachour, Mohand; Abreu, Cesar A.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering], Email: f.aruda@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In a fixed bed membrane reactor evaluations of methane-carbon dioxide reforming over a Ni/{gamma}- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst were performed at 773 K, 823 K and 873 K. A to convert natural gas into syngas a fixed-bed reactor associate with a selective membrane was employed, where the operating procedures allowed to shift the chemical equilibrium of the reaction in the direction of the products of the process. Operations under hydrogen permeation, at 873 K, promoted the increase of methane conversion, circa 83%, and doubled the yield of hydrogen production, when compared with operations where no hydrogen permeation occurred. (author)

  13. Hydrogen production by reforming of liquid hydrocarbons in a membrane reactor for portable power generation-Experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Ashok S.

    One of the most promising technologies for lightweight, compact, portable power generation is proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. PEM fuel cells, however, require a source of pure hydrogen. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in an integrated membrane reactor has potential to provide pure hydrogen in a compact system. Continuous separation of product hydrogen from the reforming gas mixture is expected to increase the yield of hydrogen significantly as predicted by model simulations. In the laboratory-scale experimental studies reported here steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, butane, methanol and Clearlite ® was conducted to produce pure hydrogen in a single step membrane reformer using commercially available Pd-Ag foil membranes and reforming/WGS catalysts. All of the experimental results demonstrated increase in hydrocarbon conversion due to hydrogen separation when compared with the hydrocarbon conversion without any hydrogen separation. Increase in hydrogen recovery was also shown to result in corresponding increase in hydrocarbon conversion in these studies demonstrating the basic concept. The experiments also provided insight into the effect of individual variables such as pressure, temperature, gas space velocity, and steam to carbon ratio. Steam reforming of butane was found to be limited by reaction kinetics for the experimental conditions used: catalysts used, average gas space velocity, and the reactor characteristics of surface area to volume ratio. Steam reforming of methanol in the presence of only WGS catalyst on the other hand indicated that the membrane reactor performance was limited by membrane permeation, especially at lower temperatures and lower feed pressures due to slower reconstitution of CO and H 2 into methane thus maintaining high hydrogen partial pressures in the reacting gas mixture. The limited amount of data collected with steam reforming of Clearlite ® indicated very good match between theoretical predictions and

  14. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  15. Dynamic modeling, experimental evaluation, optimal design and control of integrated fuel cell system and hybrid energy systems for building demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gia Luong Huu

    obtained experimental data, the research studied the control of airflow to regulate the temperature of reactors within the fuel processor. The dynamic model provided a platform to test the dynamic response for different control gains. With sufficient sensing and appropriate control, a rapid response to maintain the temperature of the reactor despite an increase in power was possible. The third part of the research studied the use of a fuel cell in conjunction with photovoltaic panels, and energy storage to provide electricity for buildings. This research developed an optimization framework to determine the size of each device in the hybrid energy system to satisfy the electrical demands of buildings and yield the lowest cost. The advantage of having the fuel cell with photovoltaic and energy storage was the ability to operate the fuel cell at baseload at night, thus reducing the need for large battery systems to shift the solar power produced in the day to the night. In addition, the dispatchability of the fuel cell provided an extra degree of freedom necessary for unforeseen disturbances. An operation framework based on model predictive control showed that the method is suitable for optimizing the dispatch of the hybrid energy system.

  16. Students' Assessment of Interactive Distance Experimentation in Nuclear Reactor Physics Laboratory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkawi, Salaheddin; Al-Araidah, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments develop students' skills in dealing with laboratory instruments and physical processes with the objective of reinforcing the understanding of the investigated subject. In nuclear engineering, where research reactors play a vital role in the practical education of students, the high cost and long construction time of research…

  17. Experimental and numerical stability investigations on natural circulation boiling water reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcel, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The stability of natural circulation boiling water reactors is investigated with a strong emphasis on experiments. Two different facilities are used for such a task: the GENESIS facility (to which a void reactivity feedback system is artificially added) and the CIRCUS facility. In addition,

  18. Experimental computer-controlled instrumentation system for the research reactor DR2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodstein, L.P.

    1969-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for one of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission's research reactors as part of an experiment on the advantages to be gained by the use of digital computers in a process plant application. Problem areas to be investigated include (a) reliability and safety...

  19. Experimental analysis of arsenic precipitation during microbial sulfate and iron reduction in model aquifer sediment reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Roden, Eric E.; Crossey, Laura J.; Brealey, Adrian J.; Spilde, Michael N.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial SO 42- reduction limits accumulation of aqueous As in reducing aquifers where the sulfide that is produced forms minerals that sequester As. We examined the potential for As partitioning into As- and Fe-sulfide minerals in anaerobic, semi-continuous flow bioreactors inoculated with 0.5% (g mL -1) fine-grained alluvial aquifer sediment. A fluid residence time of three weeks was maintained over a ca. 300-d incubation period by replacing one-third of the aqueous phase volume of the reactors with fresh medium every seven days. The medium had a composition comparable to natural As-contaminated groundwater with slightly basic pH (7.3) and 7.5 μM aqueous As(V) and also contained 0.8 mM acetate to stimulate microbial activity. Medium was delivered to a reactor system with and without 10 mmol L -1 synthetic goethite (α-FeOOH). In both reactors, influent As(V) was almost completely reduced to As(III). Pure As-sulfide minerals did not form in the Fe-limited reactor. Realgar (As 4S 4) and As 2S 3(am) were undersaturated throughout the experiment. Orpiment (As 2S 3) was saturated while sulfide content was low (˜50 to 150 μM), but precipitation was likely limited by slow kinetics. Reaction-path modeling suggests that, even if these minerals had formed, the dissolved As content of the reactor would have remained at hazardous levels. Mackinawite (Fe 1 + xS; x ⩽ 0.07) formed readily in the Fe-bearing reactor and held dissolved sulfide at levels below saturation for orpiment and realgar. The mackinawite sequestered little As (<0.1 wt.%), however, and aqueous As accumulated to levels above the influent concentration as microbial Fe(III) reduction consumed goethite and mobilized adsorbed As. A relatively small amount of pyrite (FeS 2) and greigite (Fe 3S 4) formed in the Fe-bearing reactor when we injected a polysulfide solution (Na 2S 4) to a final concentration of 0.5 mM after 216, 230, 279, and 286 days. The pyrite, and to a lesser extent the greigite, that formed

  20. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. Design response spectra-compliant real and synthetic GMS for seismic analysis of seismically isolated nuclear reactor containment building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmer Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the severe impacts of recent earthquakes, the use of seismic isolation is paramount for the safety of nuclear structures. The diversity observed in seismic events demands ongoing research to analyze the devastating attributes involved, and hence to enhance the sustainability of base-isolated nuclear power plants. This study reports the seismic performance of a seismically-isolated nuclear reactor containment building (NRCB under strong short-period ground motions (SPGMs and long-period ground motions (LPGMs. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission-based design response spectrum for the seismic design of nuclear power plants is stipulated as the reference spectrum for ground motion selection. Within the period range(s of interest, the spectral matching of selected records with the target spectrum is ensured using the spectral-compatibility approach. NRC-compliant SPGMs and LPGMs from the mega-thrust Tohoku earthquake are used to obtain the structural response of the base-isolated NRCB. To account for the lack of earthquakes in low-to-moderate seismicity zones and the gap in the artificial synthesis of long-period records, wavelet-decomposition based autoregressive moving average modeling for artificial generation of real ground motions is performed. Based on analysis results from real and simulated SPGMs versus LPGMs, the performance of NRCBs is discussed with suggestions for future research and seismic provisions.

  2. Design response spectra-compliant real and synthetic GMS for seismic analysis of seismically isolated nuclear reactor containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmer [ENVICO Consultants Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Abu-Hayah, Nadin; Kim, Doo Kie [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Gook [Innose Tech Co., Ltd., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Due to the severe impacts of recent earthquakes, the use of seismic isolation is paramount for the safety of nuclear structures. The diversity observed in seismic events demands ongoing research to analyze the devastating attributes involved, and hence to enhance the sustainability of base-isolated nuclear power plants. This study reports the seismic performance of a seismically-isolated nuclear reactor containment building (NRCB) under strong short-period ground motions (SPGMs) and long-period ground motions (LPGMs). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission-based design response spectrum for the seismic design of nuclear power plants is stipulated as the reference spectrum for ground motion selection. Within the period range(s) of interest, the spectral matching of selected records with the target spectrum is ensured using the spectral-compatibility approach. NRC-compliant SPGMs and LPGMs from the mega-thrust Tohoku earthquake are used to obtain the structural response of the base-isolated NRCB. To account for the lack of earthquakes in low-to-moderate seismicity zones and the gap in the artificial synthesis of long-period records, wavelet-decomposition based autoregressive moving average modeling for artificial generation of real ground motions is performed. Based on analysis results from real and simulated SPGMs versus LPGMs, the performance of NRCBs is discussed with suggestions for future research and seismic provisions.

  3. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF THREE-PHASE SLURRY-BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    1999-09-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding three-phase reactors from the point of view of kinetic theory. In a paper in press for publication in Chemical Engineering Science (Wu and Gidaspow, 1999) we have obtained a complete numerical solution of bubble column reactors. In view of the complexity of the simulation a better understanding of the processes using simplified analytical solutions is required. Such analytical solutions are presented in the attached paper, Large Scale Oscillations or Gravity Waves in Risers and Bubbling Beds. This paper presents analytical solutions for bubbling frequencies and standing wave flow patterns. The flow patterns in operating slurry bubble column reactors are not optimum. They involve upflow in the center and downflow at the walls. It may be possible to control flow patterns by proper redistribution of heat exchangers in slurry bubble column reactors. We also believe that the catalyst size in operating slurry bubble column reactors is not optimum. To obtain an optimum size we are following up on the observation of George Cody of Exxon who reported a maximum granular temperature (random particle kinetic energy) for a particle size of 90 microns. The attached paper, Turbulence of Particles in a CFB and Slurry Bubble Columns Using Kinetic Theory, supports George Cody's observations. However, our explanation for the existence of the maximum in granular temperature differs from that proposed by George Cody. Further computer simulations and experiments involving measurements of granular temperature are needed to obtain a sound theoretical explanation for the possible existence of an optimum catalyst size.

  4. Theoretical and experimental study of the dark signal in CMOS image sensors affected by neutron radiation from a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zujun; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Liu, Minbo; Ma, Wuying; Sheng, Jiangkun; Dong, Guantao; Jin, Junshan

    2017-12-01

    The CMOS image sensors (CISs) are irradiated with neutron from a nuclear reactor. The dark signal in CISs affected by neutron radiation is studied theoretically and experimentally. The Primary knock-on atoms (PKA) energy spectra for 1 MeV incident neutrons are simulated by Geant4. And the theoretical models for the mean dark signal, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU) and dark signal distribution versus neutron fluence are established. The results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental outputs. Finally, the dark signal in the CISs under the different neutron fluence conditions is estimated. This study provides the theoretical and experimental evidence for the displacement damage effects on the dark signal CISs.

  5. Presentation and comparison of experimental critical heat flux data at conditions prototypical of light water small modular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, M.S., E-mail: 1greenwoodms@ornl.gov; Duarte, J.P.; Corradini, M.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Low mass flux and moderate to high pressure CHF experimental results are presented. • Facility uses chopped-cosine heater profile in a 2 × 2 square bundle geometry. • The EPRI, CISE-GE, and W-3 CHF correlations provide reasonable average CHF prediction. • Neural network analysis predicts experimental data and demonstrates utility of method. - Abstract: The critical heat flux (CHF) is a two-phase flow phenomenon which rapidly decreases the efficiency of the heat transfer performance at a heated surface. This phenomenon is one of the limiting criteria in the design and operation of light water reactors. Deviations of operating parameters greatly alters the CHF condition and must be experimentally determined for any new parameters such as those proposed in small modular reactors (SMR) (e.g. moderate to high pressure and low mass fluxes). Current open literature provides too little data for functional use at the proposed conditions of prototypical SMRs. This paper presents a brief summary of CHF data acquired from an experimental facility at the University of Wisconsin-Madison designed and built to study CHF at high pressure and low mass flux ranges in a 2 × 2 chopped cosine rod bundle prototypical of conceptual SMR designs. The experimental CHF test inlet conditions range from pressures of 8–16 MPa, mass fluxes of 500–1600 kg/m2 s, and inlet water subcooling from 250 to 650 kJ/kg. The experimental data is also compared against several accepted prediction methods whose application ranges are most similar to the test conditions.

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of the Temperature Distribution in a Dry Type Air Core Smoothing Reactor of HVDC Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor ultra-high voltage (UHV dry-type air-core smoothing reactors (DASR of High Voltage Direct Current systems are equipped with a rain cover and an acoustic enclosure. To study the convective heat transfer between the DASR and the surrounding air, this paper presents a coupled model of the temperature and fluid field based on the structural features and cooling manner. The resistive losses of encapsulations calculated by finite element method (FEM were used as heat sources in the thermal analysis. The steady fluid and thermal field of the 3-D reactor model were solved by the finite volume method (FVM, and the temperature distribution characteristics of the reactor were obtained. Subsequently, the axial and radial temperature distributions of encapsulation were investigated separately. Finally, an optical fiber temperature measurement scheme was used for an UHV DASR under natural convection conditions. Comparative analysis showed that the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data, which verifies the rationality and accuracy of the numerical calculation. These results can serve as a reference for the optimal design and maintenance of UHV DASRs.

  7. DIissolution of low enriched uranium from the experimental breeder reactor-II fuel stored at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Almond, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-28

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is actively engaged in the development of electrochemical processing technology for the treatment of fast reactor fuels using irradiated fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as the primary test material. The research and development (R&D) activities generate a low enriched uranium (LEU) metal product from the electrorefining of the EBR-II fuel and the subsequent consolidation and removal of chloride salts by the cathode processor. The LEU metal ingots from past R&D activities are currently stored at INL awaiting disposition. One potential disposition pathway is the shipment of the ingots to the Savannah River Site (SRS) for dissolution in H-Canyon. Carbon steel cans containing the LEU metal would be loaded into reusable charging bundles in the H-Canyon Crane Maintenance Area and charged to the 6.4D or 6.1D dissolver. The LEU dissolution would be accomplished as the final charge in a dissolver batch (following the dissolution of multiple charges of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)). The solution would then be purified and the 235U enrichment downblended to allow use of the U in commercial reactor fuel. To support this potential disposition path, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a dissolution flowsheet for the LEU using samples of the material received from INL.

  8. Theoretical and experimental research on progressive collapse of RC frame buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Lupoae

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Progressive collapse of the buildings has become an important issue to be studied in recent years due to the catastrophic nature of its effects. This subject can be approached from two different perspectives: one where an ideal collapse of the structure is aimed to be achieved and corresponds to the controlled demolition of buildings and other which treats the mitigation of the potential of progressive collapse of structures. The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental research conducted by the authors regarding the progressive collapse of RC structures from the two perspectives above mentioned.

  9. Automated operator procedure prompting for startup of Experimental Breeder Reactor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renshaw, A.W.; Ball, S.J.; Ford, C.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the development of an operator procedure prompting aid for startup of a nuclear reactor. This operator aid is a preliminary design for a similar aid that eventually will be used with the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) presently in the design stage. Two approaches were used to develop this operator procedure prompting aid. One method uses an expert system software shell, and the other method uses database software. The preliminary requirements strongly pointed toward features traditionally associated with both database and expert systems software. Database software usually provides data manipulation flexibility and user interface tools, and expert systems tools offer sophisticated data representation and reasoning capabilities. Both methods, including software and associated hardware, are described in this report. Proposals for future enhancements to improve the expert system approach to procedure prompting and for developing other operator aids are also offered. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  10. A statistical experimental design to remove sulfate by crystallization in a fluidized-bed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Daniel G. de Luna; Rance, Diana Pearl M.; Luzvisminda M. Bellotindos; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study used crystallization in a fluidized-bed reactor as an alternative technology to the conventional chemical precipitation to remove sulfate. The Box-Behnken Design was used to study the effects and interactions of seed dosage of synthetic gypsum, initial sulfate concentration and molar ratio of calcium to sulfate on conversion and removal of sulfate. The optimum conditions of conversion and removal of sulfate were determined and used to treat the simulated acid mine drainage (AMD) wa...

  11. Stress state dependence of in-reactor creep and swelling. Part 2: Experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M. M., Jr.; Flinn, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation creep constitutive equations, which were developed in Part I, are used here to analyze in-reactor creep and swelling data obtained ca. 1977-1979 as part of the US breeder reactor program. The equations were developed according to the principles of incremental continuum plasticity for the purpose of analyzing data obtained from a novel irradiation experiment that was conducted, in part, using Type 304 stainless steel that had been previously irradiated to significant levels of void swelling. Analyses of these data support an earlier observation that all stress states, whether tensile, compressive, shear or mixed, can affect both void swelling and interactions between irradiation creep and swelling. The data were obtained using a set of five unique multiaxial creep-test specimens that were designed and used for the first time in this study. The data analyses demonstrate that the constitutive equations derived in Part I provide an excellent phenomenological representation of the interactive creep and swelling phenomena. These equations provide nuclear power reactor designers and analysts with a first-of-its-kind structural analysis tool for evaluating irradiation damage-dependent distortion of complex structural components having gradients in neutron damage rate, temperature and stress state.

  12. The SPES3 Experimental Facility Design for the IRIS Reactor Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Carelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available IRIS is an advanced integral pressurized water reactor, developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse. The licensing process requires the execution of integral and separate effect tests on a properly scaled reactor simulator for reactor concept, safety system verification, and code assessment. Within the framework of an Italian R&D program on Nuclear Fission, managed by ENEA and supported by the Ministry of Economic Development, the SPES3 facility is under design and will be built and operated at SIET laboratories. SPES3 simulates the primary, secondary, and containment systems of IRIS with 1 : 100 volume scale, full elevation, and prototypical thermal-hydraulic conditions. The simulation of the facility with the RELAP5 code and the execution of the tests will provide a reliable tool for data extrapolation and safety analyses of the final IRIS design. This paper summarises the main design steps of the SPES3 integral test facility, underlying choices and phases that lead to the final design.

  13. Experimental Study on Ash-Returned Reactor of CFB Atmospheric Air Gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihong, Zhang; Luning, Tian; Xianrong, Zhou; Hanping, Chen; Haiping, Yang; Xianhua, Wang

    In an attempt to improve the gasification efficiency and decrease the carbon content in fly ash of atmospheric air CFB gasifiers, an innovatory equipment by name ash-returned reactor is put forward by SKLCC. Ash-returned reactor is an ash-returned apparatus on line of ash circulation, typically like "U" type valve in CFB boilers, with additional function of some extent combustion of residual carbon and increase the furnace inlet temperature of returning ash, and hence the coal conversion of gasifiers is enhanced. As to its configuration compared to conventional "U" type valve, ash-returned rector has two distinguished features of several times of height scale of fluidizing transportation region to meet the combustion reaction time need and appropriate heat transfer tube bundles arranged in the region to moderate the local temperature so as to avoid slagging. And hence, corresponding to the structure renovation, the material transportation and regulation performance of ash-returned reactor is primarily investigated through a series of experiments in a cold lab-scale facility in this paper. The heat transfer characteristic of the tube bundles is then researched and its influential factors are further discussed. These works lay a foundation on the following study of hot state experiments and industrial applications.

  14. Experimental Studies on Assemblies 1 and 2 of the Fast Reactor FR-0. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, E.; Andersson, T.L.; Brunfelter, B.; Kockum, J.; Londen, S.O.; Tiren, L.I.

    1965-12-15

    In a first part of this report, published as AE-195, an account was given of critical mass determinations and measurements of flux distribution and reaction ratios in the first assemblies of the fast zero power reactor FR0. This second part of the report deals with various investigations involving the measurement of reactivity. Control rod calibrations have been made using the positive period, the inverse multiplication, the rod drop and the pulsed source techniques, and show satisfactory agreement between the various methods. The reactivity worths of samples of different materials and different sizes have been measured at the core centre. Comparisons with perturbation calculations show that the regular and adjoint fluxes are well predicted in the central region of the core. The variation in the prompt neutron life-time with reactivity has been studied by means of the pulsed source and the Rossi-{alpha} techniques. Comparison with one region calculations reveals large discrepancies, indicating that this simple model is inadequate. Some investigations of streaming effects in an empty channel in the reactor and of interaction effects between channels have been made and are compared with theoretical estimates. Measurements of the reactivity worth of an air gap between the reactor halves and of the temperature coefficient are also described in the report. The work has been performed as a joint effort by AB Atomenergi and the Research Institute of National Defence.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Solar Chimney for Ventilation in Low Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zha, Xinyu; Zhang, Jun; Qin, Menghao

    2017-01-01

    As an effective way to protect environment and save energy in buildings, passive ventilation method has generated intense interest for improving indoor thermal environment in recent years. Among these passive ventilation solutions, design of solar chimney in buildings is a promising approach...... the performance of a full-scale solar chimney in a real building in East-ern China. The measured performance is compared with theoretical calculation and numerical simulation. In a solar chimney of 6.2m length, 2.8m width and 0.35m air gap, the experimental results show that air flow rate of 70.6 m3/h~1887.6 m3/h...... can be achieved during the daytime in the testing day. Comparing measured value with theoretical value, the flow rate is generally lower than the theoretical value. By data analysis, the suggested discharge coefficient Cd of solar energy in real engineering project is 0.51. With the use...

  16. Modeling and Experimental Studies of Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed and Entrained-Flow Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago, Paula A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Morrill, Mike [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, JoAnn S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Silcox, Geoffrey D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report presents experimental and modeling mercury oxidation and adsorption data. Fixed-bed and single-particle models of mercury adsorption were developed. The experimental data were obtained with two reactors: a 300-W, methane-fired, tubular, quartz-lined reactor for studying homogeneous oxidation reactions and a fixed-bed reactor, also of quartz, for studying heterogeneous reactions. The latter was attached to the exit of the former to provide realistic combustion gases. The fixed-bed reactor contained one gram of coconut-shell carbon and remained at a temperature of 150°C. All methane, air, SO2, and halogen species were introduced through the burner to produce a radical pool representative of real combustion systems. A Tekran 2537A Analyzer coupled with a wet conditioning system provided speciated mercury concentrations. At 150°C and in the absence of HCl or HBr, the mercury uptake was about 20%. The addition of 50 ppm HCl caused complete capture of all elemental and oxidized mercury species. In the absence of halogens, SO2 increased the mercury adsorption efficiency to up to 30 percent. The extent of adsorption decreased with increasing SO2 concentration when halogens were present. Increasing the HCl concentration to 100 ppm lessened the effect of SO2. The fixed-bed model incorporates Langmuir adsorption kinetics and was developed to predict adsorption of elemental mercury and the effect of multiple flue gas components. This model neglects intraparticle diffusional resistances and is only applicable to pulverized carbon sorbents. It roughly describes experimental data from the literature. The current version includes the ability to account for competitive adsorption between mercury, SO2, and NO2. The single particle model simulates in-flight sorbent capture of elemental mercury. This model was developed to include Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, rate equations, sorbent feed rate, and

  17. Structural control and health monitoring of building structures with unknown ground excitations: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Xu, You-Lin; Zhan, Sheng; Huang, Qin

    2017-03-01

    When health monitoring system and vibration control system both are required for a building structure, it will be beneficial and cost-effective to integrate these two systems together for creating a smart building structure. Recently, on the basis of extended Kalman filter (EKF), a time-domain integrated approach was proposed for the identification of structural parameters of the controlled buildings with unknown ground excitations. The identified physical parameters and structural state vectors were then utilized to determine the control force for vibration suppression. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such a smart building structure with the function of simultaneous damage detection and vibration suppression was explored experimentally. A five-story shear building structure equipped with three magneto-rheological (MR) dampers was built. Four additional columns were added to the building model, and several damage scenarios were then simulated by symmetrically cutting off these columns in certain stories. Two sets of earthquakes, i.e. Kobe earthquake and Northridge earthquake, were considered as seismic input and assumed to be unknown during the tests. The structural parameters and the unknown ground excitations were identified during the tests by using the proposed identification method with the measured control forces. Based on the identified structural parameters and system states, a switching control law was employed to adjust the current applied to the MR dampers for the purpose of vibration attenuation. The experimental results show that the presented approach is capable of satisfactorily identifying structural damages and unknown excitations on one hand and significantly mitigating the structural vibration on the other hand.

  18. Experimental studies into the thermal-hydraulic performance of the VK-300 reactor based on a draft tube model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Serdun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental study into the thermal-hydraulic performance of the VK-300 reactor based on a model of a single draft tube at a pressure of 3.4MPa, various flow rates and the model inlet relative enthalpies of –0.05 to 0.2. The experimental procedures include generation of a steam-water mixture circulation with a preset flow rate and a relative enthalpy through the test section at a pressure of 3.3 to 3.4MPa, and measurement of thermal-hydraulic parameters within the circuit's representative upflow and downflow lengths of practical interest. There have been confirmed the designs used to support the reactor facility serviceability and the assumptions concerning the thermal-hydraulic performance of a natural circulation circuit used in the analysis thereof. It has been shown that, across the analyzed range of the relative enthalpy values, the draft tube has an annular-dispersed or an annular flow of the steam-water mixture, both providing for the significant separation of the steam-water mixture (Ksep=0.4 at the draft tube edges and in the mixing chamber. The perforation in the upper part of the draft tubes allows the separation coefficient to be increased at the first stage and creates more favorable conditions for the second-stage separation. The measured values of the void fraction in the mixing chamber and in the draft tube are in a satisfactory agreement with calculations based on Z.L. Miropolskiy's method and the RELAP code and may be used to verify the VK-300 thermal-hydraulic codes. It has been shown that steam may enter the ring slit that simulates the annular space and reach the reactor core inlet. Further investigations need to be conducted to study this effect for its guaranteed exclusion and for the development of emergency response procedures.

  19. Experimental study of geotextile as plinth beam in a pile group-supported modeled building frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar Reddy, C.; Gunneswara Rao, T. D.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of static vertical load tests on a model building frame with geotextile as plinth beam supported by pile groups embedded in cohesionless soil (sand). The experimental results have been compared with those obtained from the nonlinear FEA and conventional method of analysis. The results revealed that the conventional method of analysis gives a shear force of about 53%, bending moment at the top of the column about 17% and at the base of the column about 50-98% higher than that by the nonlinear FEA for the frame with geotextile as plinth beam.

  20. Experimental study of geotextile as plinth beam in a pile group-supported modeled building frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar Reddy, C.; Gunneswara Rao, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of static vertical load tests on a model building frame with geotextile as plinth beam supported by pile groups embedded in cohesionless soil (sand). The experimental results have been compared with those obtained from the nonlinear FEA and conventional method of analysis. The results revealed that the conventional method of analysis gives a shear force of about 53%, bending moment at the top of the column about 17% and at the base of the column about 50-98% higher than that by the nonlinear FEA for the frame with geotextile as plinth beam.

  1. Experimental Study of the Effect of Graphite Dispersion on the Heat Transfer Phenomena in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaghetto, Rodolfo; Capone, Luigi; Hassan, Yassin A

    2011-05-31

    An experimental activity was performed to observe and study the effects of graphite dispersion and deposition on thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). The small-scale RCCS experimental facility (16.5 x 16.5 x 30.4 cm) used for this activity represents half of the reactor cavity with an electrically heated vessel. Water flowing through five vertical pipes removes the heat produced in the vessel and releases it into the environment by mixing with cold water in a large tank. The particle image velocimetry technique was used to study the velocity field of the air inside the cavity. A set of 52 thermocouples was installed in the facility to monitor the temperature profiles of the vessel, pipe walls, and air. Ten grams of a fine graphite powder (average particle size 2 m) was injected into the cavity through a spraying nozzle placed at the bottom of the vessel. The temperatures and air velocity field were recorded and compared with the measurements obtained before the graphite dispersion, showing a decrease of the temperature surfaces that was related to an increase in their emissivity. The results contribute to the understanding of RCCS capability in an accident scenario.

  2. Uncertainty analysis and flow measurements in an experimental mock-up of a molten salt reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, Bogdan; Aszodi, Attila [Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Techniques

    2016-09-15

    In the paper measurement results from the experimental modelling of a molten salt reactor concept will be presented along with detailed uncertainty analysis of the experimental system. Non-intrusive flow measurements are carried out on the scaled and segmented mock-up of a homogeneous, single region molten salt fast reactor concept. Uncertainty assessment of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement system applied with the scaled and segmented model is presented in detail. The analysis covers the error sources of the measurement system (laser, recording camera, etc.) and the specific conditions (de-warping of measurement planes) originating in the geometry of the investigated domain. Effect of sample size in the ensemble averaged PIV measurements is discussed as well. An additional two-loop-operation mode is also presented and the analysis of the measurement results confirm that without enhancement nominal and other operation conditions will lead to strong unfavourable separation in the core flow. It implies that use of internal flow distribution structures will be necessary for the optimisation of the core coolant flow. Preliminary CFD calculations are presented to help the design of a perforated plate located above the inlet region. The purpose of the perforated plate is to reduce recirculation near the cylindrical wall and enhance the uniformity of the core flow distribution.

  3. Experimental investigation and model validation of a CaO/Ca(OH)2 fluidized bed reactor for thermochemical energy storage applications

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Criado, Yolanda; Huille, Alfred; Rougé, Sylvie; Abanades García, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The CaO/Ca(OH)2 hydration/dehydration chemical loop has long been recognized as a potential candidate for application in energy storage systems for concentrated solar plants. However, the technology still remains at a conceptual level because little information has been published on the performance of the key reactors in the system. In this work, we experimentally investigate the hydration and dehydration reactors in a 5.5 kWth batch fluidized bed reactor, in conditions relevant to larger sys...

  4. SSI on the Dynamic Behaviour of a Historical Masonry Building: Experimental versus Numerical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ceroni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A reliable procedure to identify the dynamic behaviour of existing masonry buildings is described in the paper, referring to a representative case study: a historical masonry palace located in Benevento (Italy. Since the building has been equipped with a permanent dynamic monitoring system by the Department of Civil Protection, some of the recorded data, acquired in various operating conditions, have been analysed with basic instruments of the Operational Modal Analysis in order to identify the main eigenfrequencies and vibration modes of the structure. The obtained experimental results have been compared to the numerical outcomes provided by three detailed Finite Element (FE models of the building. The influence of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI has been also introduced in the FE model by a sub-structure approach where concentrated springs were placed at the base of the building to simulate the effect of soil and foundation on the global dynamic behaviour of the structure. The obtained results evidence that subsoil cannot a priori be disregarded in identifying the dynamic response of the building.

  5. Experimental verification of an energy consumption signal tool for operational decision support in an office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlak, Gregory S.; Henze, Gregor P.; Hirsch, Adam I.; Florita, Anthony R.; Dodier, Robert H.

    2016-12-01

    This paper demonstrates an energy signal tool to assess the system-level and whole-building energy use of an office building in downtown Denver, Colorado. The energy signal tool uses a traffic light visualization to alert a building operator to energy use which is substantially different from expected. The tool selects which light to display for a given energy end-use by comparing measured energy use to expected energy use, accounting for uncertainty. A red light is only displayed when a fault is likely enough, and abnormal operation costly enough, that taking action will yield the lowest cost result. While the theoretical advances and tool development were reported previously, it has only been tested using a basic building model and has not, until now, been experimentally verified. Expected energy use for the field demonstration is provided by a compact reduced-order representation of the Alliance Center, generated from a detailed DOE-2.2 energy model. Actual building energy consumption data is taken from the summer of 2014 for the office building immediately after a significant renovation project. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a first look at the building following its major renovation compared to the design intent. The tool indicated strong under-consumption in lighting and plug loads and strong over-consumption in HVAC energy consumption, which prompted several focused actions for follow-up investigation. In addition, this paper illustrates the application of Bayesian inference to the estimation of posterior parameter probability distributions to measured data. Practical discussion of the application is provided, along with additional findings from further investigating the significant difference between expected and actual energy consumption.

  6. Analysis of gamma ray intensity on the S/C vent pipes area in the unit 2 reactor building of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The robot is equipped with cameras, a dosimeter, and 2 DOF (degree of freedom) manipulation arms. It loads a small vehicle equipped with a camera that can access and inspect narrow areas. TEPCO is using the four-legged walking robot to inspect the suppression chamber (S/C) area of the unit 2 reactor building basement in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The robot carried out 6 missions for about four months, from 11 December, 2012 to 15 March, 2013, where it examined an evidence of a leakage of radioactivity contaminated water in the S/C area of unit 2 reactor building. When a camera's signal processing unit, which is consist of ASIC and FPGA devices manufactured by a CMOS fabrication process, is exposed to a higher dose rate gamma ray, the speckle distribution in the camera image increase more. From the inspection videos, released by TEPCO, of the underground 8 vent pipes in the unit 2 reactor building, we analyzed the speckle distribution from the high dose-rate gamma rays. Based on the distribution of the speckle, we attempted to characterize the vent pipe with much radioactivity contaminated materials among the eight vent pipes connected to the PCV. The numbers of speckles viewed in the image of a CCD (or CMOS) camera are related to an intensity of the gamma ray energy emitted by a nuclear fission reaction from radioactivity materials. The numbers of speckles generated by gamma ray irradiation in the camera image are calculated by an image processing technique. Therefore, calculating the speckles counts, we can determine the vent pipe with relatively most radioactivity-contaminated materials among the other vent pipes. From the comparison of speckles counts calculated in the inspection image of the vent pipe with the speckles counts extracted by gamma ray irradiation experiment of the same small vehicle camera model loaded with the four-legged walking robot, we can qualitatively estimate the gamma ray dose-rate in the S/C vent pipe area of the

  7. Feasibility Study of a Novel Membrane Reactor for Syngas Production. Part 1: Experimental Study of O2 Permeation through Perovskite Membranes under Reducing and Non-Reducing Atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang Wenxing, Z.W.; Zhang, Wenxing; Smit, J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution, the feasibility of a novel membrane reactor for energy efficient syngas production is investigated by means of an experimental and a simulation study. In Part 1, a detailed experimental study is performed on the O2 permeation through a perovskite membrane with composition

  8. Selective hydrogenation in trickle-bed reactor. Experimental and modelling including partial wetting.

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Adrian; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Wilhelm, Anne-Marie; Delmas, Henri

    2003-01-01

    International audience; A steady state model of a trickle bed reactor is developed for the consecutive hydrogenation of 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene on a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. Various experiments have shown that the selectivity of this reaction towards the product of interest is much lower in co-current down-flow (trickle-bed) than in up-flow. This is due to uneven liquid distribution and to partial wetting of the catalyst surface at low liquid flow rates. The non-isothermal heterogeneous model propo...

  9. The energy-saving anaerobic baffled reactor membrane bioreactor (EABR-MBR) system for recycling wastewater from a high-rise building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanatamskul, Chavalit; Charoenphol, Chakraphan

    2015-01-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic baffled reactor-membrane bioreactor (EABR-MBR) system has been developed as a compact biological treatment system for reuse of water from a high-rise building. The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) compartment had five baffles and served as the anaerobic degradation zone, followed by the aerobic MBR compartment. The total operating hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the EABR-MBR system was 3 hours (2 hours for ABR compartment and very short HRT of 1 hour for aerobic MBR compartment). The wastewater came from the Charoen Wisawakam building. The results showed that treated effluent quality was quite good and highly promising for water reuse purposes. The average flux of the membrane was kept at 30 l/(m2h). The EABR-MBR system could remove chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus from building wastewater by more than 90%. Moreover, it was found that phosphorus concentration was rising in the ABR compartment due to the phosphorus release phenomenon, and then the concentration decreased rapidly in the aerobic MBR compartment due to the phosphorus uptake phenomenon. This implies that phosphorus-accumulating organisms inside the EABR-MBR system are responsible for biological phosphorus removal. The research suggests that the EABR-MBR system can be a promising system for water reuse and reclamation for high-rise building application in the near future.

  10. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE REACTOR BUILDING, HOT LABORATORY, PRIMARY PUMP HOUSE, AND LAND AREAS AT THE PLUM BROOK REACTOR FACILITY, SANDUSKY, OHIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika N. Bailey

    2011-10-10

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics later called the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities

  11. Experimental study of the temperature distribution in the TRIGA IPR-R1 Brazilian research reactor; Investigacao experimental da distribuicao de temperaturas no reator nuclear de pesquisa TRIGA IPR-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Amir Zacarias

    2005-07-01

    The TRIGA-IPR-R1 Research Nuclear Reactor has completed 44 years in operation in November 2004. Its initial nominal thermal power was 30 kW. In 1979 its power was increased to 100 kW by adding new fuel elements to the reactor. Recently some more fuel elements were added to the core increasing the power to 250 kW. The TRIGA-IPR-R1 is a pool type reactor with a natural circulation core cooling system. Although the large number of experiments had been carried out with this reactor, mainly on neutron activation analysis, there is not many data on its thermal-hydraulics processes, whether experimental or theoretical. So a number of experiments were carried out with the measurement of the temperature inside the fuel element, in the reactor core and along the reactor pool. During these experiments the reactor was set in many different power levels. These experiments are part of the CDTN/CNEN research program, and have the main objective of commissioning the TRIGA-IPR-R1 reactor for routine operation at 250 kW. This work presents the experimental and theoretical analyses to determine the temperature distribution in the reactor. A methodology for the calibration and monitoring the reactor thermal power was also developed. This methodology allowed adding others power measuring channels to the reactor by using thermal processes. The fuel thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient from the cladding to the coolant were also experimentally valued. lt was also presented a correlation for the gap conductance between the fuel and the cladding. The experimental results were compared with theoretical calculations and with data obtained from technical literature. A data acquisition and processing system and a software were developed to help the investigation. This system allows on line monitoring and registration of the main reactor operational parameters. The experiments have given better comprehension of the reactor thermal-fluid dynamics and helped to develop numerical

  12. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  13. Experimental study of hydrodynamic and operation start of a baffled anaerobic reactor treating sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Silveira Perico

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to provide individual sanitation systems for sewage peri-urban communities or rural areas to minimize impacts on the environment and human health caused by sewage discharge in natura into water resources. In this context, the anaerobic digestion of effluent has been one of the main considered technologies due to easy implementation, material minimization and reduction in waste production. The objective of this work was to study a Baffled Anaerobic Reactor (BAR including its hydrodynamic characteristics, percentile of inoculum to be applied and reactor operation start. It was concluded that the flow is dispersed with 3.84% of dead spaces and that 20% of the cow manure provided best results; however, due to the high fiber content of the manure, its use is not recommended as inoculum. The BAR system, composed of four chambers, presented good performance for sewage treatment of a rural community in terms of organic substance removal (COD, turbidity and solids meeting effluent disposal standards of these parameters considering the Federal and Minas Gerais State legislation, in Brazil, even in a transient phase of operation, at temperatures below 20°C. However, the effluents from the BAR can’t be released into water bodies without other parameters such as nitrogen, phosphorus, fecal coliforms, and others are investigated to be conforming to those standards.

  14. Theoretical and experimental study of the photocatalytic activity of ZnO coated tubular reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ríos-Valdovinos, E.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Pola-Albores, F.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnO thin films were deposited on the internal surface of fused silica tubing. • Surface carrier concentration was calculated theoretically under external irradiation. • Influence of film thickness on photocatalytic activity was explained by this model. • An optimum thickness around 60–70 nm was determined to get highest activity. -- Abstract: ZnO thin films were deposited inside of fused silica tubing by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. The films were transparent, uniform, highly adherent and non-light scattering. Photocatalytic activity of internally ZnO coated tubing was evaluated by discoloration of a methyl orange aqueous solution in a batch reactor. Tubing was externally irradiated with UV-A at room temperature. A one dimensional model was proposed to calculate the spatial distribution of the carrier density and the films’ surface charge carrier concentration. This model can explain the influence of the films thickness on the photocatalytic activity. Results showed that the photocatalytic activity largely depends on the film thickness. For external irradiation of the films the optimum thickness was around 60–70 nm, for which the photocatalytic activity was maximum. The photonic efficiency of internally ZnO coated tubular reactors was evaluated as a function of initial colorant concentration, irradiation time and intensity. Furthermore, due to the high activity of the ZnO films, the films were repeatedly exposed to UV-A irradiation cycles, followed by activity measurement.

  15. Experimental Comparison of Different Carbon Fiber Composites in Reinforcement Layouts for Wooden Beams of Historical Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescalvo, Francisco J; Valverde-Palacios, Ignacio; Suarez, Elisabet; Gallego, Antolino

    2017-09-21

    This paper offers a detailed, quantitative and exhaustive experimental comparison in terms of mechanical properties of three different layouts of carbon composite materials (CFRP) used to strengthen existing old timber beams highly affected by diverse natural defects and biological attacks, testing the use of pultruded laminate attached on the tension side of the element (LR), CFRP fabrics totally U-shape wrapping the timber element (UR), and the combined use of both reinforcement solutions (UR-P). Moreover, unidirectional and bidirectional fabrics were considered and compared. Timber elements used for the experimental program were extracted from a recent rehabilitation of the roof of the current Faculty of Law building, University of Granada (Spain), catalogued as a historical edifice. Experimental results from bending tests show that in all cases reinforcement provides a clear improvement in terms of bending capacity and stiffness as compared with the control specimens (without reinforcement). However, improvements in terms of ductility differ considerably depending on the kind of layout.

  16. Development of Safety Analysis Codes and Experimental Validation for a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H. Oh, PhD; Cliff Davis; Richard Moore

    2004-11-01

    The very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTGRs) are those concepts that have average coolant temperatures above 900 degrees C or operational fuel temperatures above 1250 degrees C. These concepts provide the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation and nuclear hydrogen generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperatures to support process heat applications, such as desalination and cogeneration, the VHTGR's higher temperatures are suitable for particular applications such as thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the high temperature operation can be detrimental to safety following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) initiated by pipe breaks caused by seismic or other events. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air from the containment will enter the core by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structures and fuel. The oxidation will release heat and accelerate the heatup of the reactor core. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has investigated this event for the past three years for the HTGR. However, the computer codes used, and in fact none of the world's computer codes, have been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably predict this event. New code development, improvement of the existing codes, and experimental validation are imperative to narrow the uncertaninty in the predictions of this type of accident. The objectives of this Korean/United States collaboration are to develop advanced computational methods for VHTGR safety analysis codes and to validate these computer codes.

  17. Assessment of extent and degree of thermal damage to polymeric materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building. Volume VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.

    1984-02-01

    Thermal damage to susceptible materials in accessible regions shows damage-distribution patterns that indicate nonuniform intensity of exposure. No clear explanation for nonuniformity is found in existing evidence; e.g., in some regions a lack of thermally susceptible materials frustrates analysis. Elsewhere, burned materials are present next to materials that seem similar but appear unscathed - leading to conjecture that the latter materials preferentially absorb water vapor during periods of high local steam concentration. Most of the polar crane pendant shows heavy burns on one half of its circumferential surface. This evidence suggests that the polar crane pendant side that experienced heaviest burn damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Tests and simple heat-transfer calculations based on pressure and temperature records from the accident show that the atmosphere inside the reactor building was probably 8% hydrogen in air, a value not inconsistent with the extent of burn damage. Burn-pattern geography indicates uniform thermal exposure in the dome volume to the 406-ft level (about 6 ft below the polar crane girder), partial thermal exposure in the volume between the 406- and 347-ft levels as indicated by the polar crane cable, and lack of damage to most thermally susceptible materials in the west quadrant of the reactor building; some evidence of thermal exposure is seen in the free volume between the 305- and 347-ft levels.

  18. Large-scale experimental facility for emergency condition investigation of a new generation NPP WWER-640 reactor with passive safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniskevich, Y.N.; Vasilenko, V.A.; Zasukha, V.K.; Migrov, Y.A.; Khabensky, V.B. [Research Inst. of Technology NITI (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The creation of the large-scale integral experimental facility (KMS) is specified by the programme of the experimental investigations to justify the engineering decisions on the safety of the design of the new generation NPP with the reactor WWER-640. The construction of KMS in a full volume will allow to conduct experimental investigations of all physical phenomena and processes, practically, occurring during the accidents on the NPPs with the reactor of WWER type and including the heat - mass exchange processes with low rates of the coolant, which is typical during the utilization of the passive safety systems, process during the accidents with a large leak, and also the complex intercommunicated processes in the reactor unit, passive safety systems and in the containment with the condition of long-term heat removal to the final absorber. KMS is being constructed at the Research Institute of Technology (NITI), Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad region, Russia. (orig.). 5 refs.

  19. A dynamic experimental study on the evaporative cooling performance of porous building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Lei; Meng, Qinglin; Feng, Yanshan; Chen, Yuanrui

    2017-08-01

    Conventional outdoor dynamic and indoor steady-state experiments have certain limitations in regard to investigating the evaporative cooling performance of porous building materials. The present study investigated the evaporative cooling performance of a porous building material using a special wind tunnel apparatus. First, the composition and control principles of the wind tunnel environment control system were elucidated. Then, the meteorological environment on a typical summer day in Guangzhou was reproduced in the wind tunnel and the evaporation process and thermal parameters of specimens composed of a porous building material were continuously measured. Finally, the experimental results were analysed to evaluate the accuracy of the wind tunnel environment control system, the heat budget of the external surface of the specimens and the total thermal resistance of the specimens and its uncertainty. The analysis results indicated that the normalized root-mean-square error between the measured value of each environmental parameter in the wind tunnel test section and the corresponding value input into the environment control system was thermal resistance of the wet specimen was approximately doubled, indicating that the evaporation process of the porous building material could significantly improve the thermal insulation performance of the specimen.

  20. Experimental Air-Tightness Analysis in Mediterranean Buildings after Windows Retrofit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romana d’Ambrosio Alfano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ in buildings are strongly affected by air leakages. Several studies reveal that the energy loss owing to leaky windows can account for up to 40% of the total building energy demand. Furthermore, at the design stage, the possible infiltration of outdoor air through windows is not taken into account when determining the nominal outdoor airflow rate of the ventilation system. This practice may result in an oversizing of the ventilation system and consequent energy waste. Thus, the air-tightness class of a wall assembly should be assessed for each window component considering the type of material, the presence of the seal, the type of closure, the sealing and the maintenance condition. In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of air-tightness measurements carried out using the fan pressurization method in three residential buildings located in the Mediterranean region before and after a window retrofit. Two different window retrofits were investigated: the application of rubber seals on window frames and the substitution of existing windows with new certified high performance windows. The effectiveness of such retrofits was estimated also in terms of energy saving. Test results demonstrated a high variability of the building air tightness after window retrofits, despite the fact that air tight–certified windows were used.

  1. Experimental assessment of accident scenarios for the high temperature reactor fuel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, O.; Laurie, M.; Bottomley, P.D.W.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission, Joint Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Avincola, V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Materialien (IAM-AWP); Allelein, H.J. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik

    2013-11-15

    The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is characterized by an advanced design with passive safety features. Fuel elements are constituted by a graphite matrix containing sub-mm-sized fuel particles with TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coating, designed to provide high fission product retention. During a loss of coolant accident scenario in a HTR the maximum temperature is foreseen to be in the range of 1,600 to 1,650 C, remaining well below the melting point of the fuel. Two key aspects associated with the safety of HTR fuel are assessed in this paper: fission product retention at temperatures up to 1,800 C is analyzed with the Cold Finger Apparatus (KueFA) while the behaviour of HTR-relevant fuel materials in an oxidizing environment is studied with the Corrosion Apparatus KORA. The KueFA is used to observe the combined effects of Depressurization and LOss of Forced Circulation (DLOFC) accident scenarios on HTR fuel. Originally designed at the Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), an adapted KueFA operates on irradiated fuel in hot cell at JRC-ITU. A fuel pebble is heated in helium atmosphere for several hundred hours, mimicking accident temperatures up to 1,800 C and realistic temperature transients. Nongaseous volatile fission products released from the fuel condense on a water cooled stainless steel plate dubbed 'Cold Finger'. Exchanging plates frequently during the experiment and analyzing plate deposits by means of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectroscopy allows a reconstruction of the fission product release as a function of time and temperature. To achieve a good quantification of the release, a careful calibration of the setup is necessary and a collimator needs to be used in some cases. The analysis of condensation plates from recent KueFA tests shows that fission product release quantification is possible at high and low activity levels. Another relevant HTR accident scenario is air ingress into the reactor vessel as a consequence of a DLOFC incident. In

  2. Experimental investigation of the solar carbothermic reduction of ZnO using a two-cavity solar reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frommherz, U.; Osinga, T.; Steinfeld, A.; Wieckert, C.

    2003-03-01

    Zinc production by solar carbothermic reduction of ZnO offers a CO{sub 2} emission reduction by a factor of 5 vis-a-vis the conventional fossil-fuel-based electrolytic or Imperial Smelting processes. Zinc can serve as a fuel in Zn-air fuel cells or can be further reacted with H{sub 2}O to form high-purity H{sub 2}. In either case, the product ZnO can be solar-recycled to Zn. We report on experimental results obtained with a 5 kW solar chemical reactor prototype that features two cavities in series, with the inner one functioning as the solar absorber and the outer one as the reaction chamber. Tests were conducted at PSI's Solar Furnace and ETH's High-Flux Solar Simulator to investigate the effect of process temperature (range 1350-1600 K) and reducing agent type (beech charcoal, activated charcoal, petcoke) on the reactor's performance and on the chemical conversion. In a typical 40-min solar experiment at 1500 K, 500 g of a 1:0.8 stoichiometric ZnO-C mixture were processed into Zn(g), CO, and CO{sub 2}. Thermal efficiencies of up to 20% were achieved. (author)

  3. Experimental Design for Evaluating Selected Nondestructive Measurement Technologies - Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M3AT-16PN2301043

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pitman, Stan G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Good, Morris S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walker, Cody M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-16

    The harsh environments in advanced reactors (AdvRx) increase the possibility of degradation of safety-critical passive components, and therefore pose a particular challenge for deployment and extended operation of these concepts. Nondestructive evaluation technologies are an essential element for obtaining information on passive component condition in AdvRx, with the development of sensor technologies for nondestructively inspecting AdvRx passive components identified as a key need. Given the challenges posed by AdvRx environments and the potential needs for reducing the burden posed by periodic in-service inspection of hard-to-access and hard-to-replace components, a viable solution may be provided by online condition monitoring of components. This report identifies the key challenges that will need to be overcome for sensor development in this context, and documents an experimental plan for sensor development, test, and evaluation. The focus of initial research and development is on sodium fast reactors, with the eventual goal of the research being developing the necessary sensor technology, quantifying sensor survivability and long-term measurement reliability for nondestructively inspecting critical components. Materials for sensor development that are likely to withstand the harsh environments are described, along with a status on the fabrication of reference specimens, and the planned approach for design and evaluation of the sensor and measurement technology.

  4. Combined numerical and experimental investigation into the coolant flow hydrodynamics and mass transfer behind the spacer grid in fuel assemblies of the floating power unit reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Dmitriev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental investigations into the local hydrodynamics and inter-cell mass transfer of the coolant flow in representative zones of the KLT-40C reactor FAs behind the plate-type spacer grid are presented. The investigations were conducted on an aerodynamic rig using the admixture diffusion method (the tracer-gas method. A study into the spatial dispersion of the absolute flow velocity projections and into the distribution of the tracer concentration allowed specify the coolant flow pattern behind the FA plate-type spacer grid of the KLT-40C reactor. The results of measuring the flow friction coefficient in the plate-type spacer grid, depending on the Reynolds number, are presented. Based on the obtained experimental data, recommendations have been provided for updating the procedures to calculate the coolant flow rates for the KLT-40C reactor core by-channel codes. The results of investigating the coolant flow local hydrodynamics and mass transfer in the KLT-40C reactor FAs have been adopted for practical use by Afrikantov OKBM for estimating the heat-engineering reliability of the KLT-40C reactor cores and have been data based for verification of CFD codes and detailed by-channel calculation of the KLT-40C reactor core.

  5. A flexible and low cost experimental stand for air source heat pump for Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crăciun, Vasile S.; Bojesen, Carsten; Blarke, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Energy systems are faced with the challenges of reducing dependency on fossil fuels, while handling increasing penetration levels of intermittent renewables such as wind and solar power. At the same time, the efficient consumption of energy is vital for avoiding the impacts from increasing fuel...... prices. A significant part of this challenge may be dealt with in the way space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water production which is provided to residential and commercial buildings. Air source heat pumps (ASHP) are widely used conversion technologies for providing building thermal energy...... the evaporator is operated. In order to cover various climate conditions, performance and behavior must be tested for temperatures ranging from -30°C to 40°C and for various humidity levels. This paper presents a stateof-art experimental stand, named controlled lab environment (CLE or climatic box), for testing...

  6. A Statistical Approach for Selecting Buildings for Experimental Measurement of HVAC Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Paweł

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a statistical methodology for selecting representative buildings for experimentally evaluating the performance of HVAC systems, especially in terms of energy consumption. The proposed approach is based on the k-means method. The algorithm for this method is conceptually simple, allowing it to be easily implemented. The method can be applied to large quantities of data with unknown distributions. The method was tested using numerical experiments to determine the hourly, daily, and yearly heat values and the domestic hot water demands of residential buildings in Poland. Due to its simplicity, the proposed approach is very promising for use in engineering applications and is applicable to testing the performance of many HVAC systems.

  7. A Statistical Approach for Selecting Buildings for Experimental Measurement of HVAC Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Paweł; Ziembicki, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a statistical methodology for selecting representative buildings for experimentally evaluating the performance of HVAC systems, especially in terms of energy consumption. The proposed approach is based on the k-means method. The algorithm for this method is conceptually simple, allowing it to be easily implemented. The method can be applied to large quantities of data with unknown distributions. The method was tested using numerical experiments to determine the hourly, daily, and yearly heat values and the domestic hot water demands of residential buildings in Poland. Due to its simplicity, the proposed approach is very promising for use in engineering applications and is applicable to testing the performance of many HVAC systems.

  8. Experimental determination about thermal comfort conditions in buildings; Determinacion experimental de las condiciones de confort termico en edificaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambriz Garcia, Juan Jose; Garcia Chavez, Jose Roberto; Paredes Rubio, Hernando Romero [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)]. E-mail: agj@xanum.uam.mx; jgc@correo.azc.uam.mx; hrp@xanum.uam.mx

    2006-04-15

    This paper analyzes the thermal comfort importance in a building. And the influence it exerts on quality of life as well as the efficiency of people work activities. There are comments about some models which better help to estimate the recommended temperature levels. The experimental evaluation results from a Mexico City population sampler are presented. This work was done in a Controlled Environment Laboratory; the obtained outcomes proved the preferences occupants exceed the comfort zone greatest limit accepted in the reference international standards. The meaning of this conclusion is thermal comfort can be reached with higher temperatures and consequently an energy consumption and an environment impact decrease. [Spanish] En este trabajo se analiza la importancia que tiene el confort termico en la calidad de vida de las personas que ocupan una edificacion y en la eficiencia de sus actividades. Se comentan algunos modelos con los cuales se estiman los niveles de temperatura recomendados y se presentan los resultados de una evaluacion experimental realizada en un Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado con una muestra de la poblacion del Distrito Federal. Los resultados que se obtuvieron demuestran que los ocupantes tienen preferencias que rebasan el limite superior de la zona de confort comunmente aceptada en los estandares internacionales de referencia. Esto quiere decir que el confort puede lograrse con mayores temperaturas, lo que se traduce en menor consumo de energia y menor impacto en el ambiente.

  9. 324 Building B-Cell Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Packaging & Shipment RL Readiness Assessment Final Report [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUMPHREYS, D C

    2002-08-01

    A parallel readiness assessment (RA) was conducted by independent Fluor Hanford (FH) and U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) team to verify that an adequate state of readiness had been achieved for activities associated with the packaging and shipping of pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies from B-Cell in the 324 Building to the interim storage area at the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The RL review was conducted in parallel with the FH review in accordance with the Joint RL/FH Implementation Plan (Appendix B). The RL RA Team members were assigned a FH RA Team counterpart for the review. With this one-on-one approach, the RL RA Team was able to assess the FH Team's performance, competence, and adherence to the implementation plan and evaluate the level of facility readiness. The RL RA Team agrees with the FH determination that startup of the 324 Building B-Cell pressurized water reactor spent nuclear fuel packaging and shipping operations can safely proceed, pending completion of the identified pre-start items in the FH final report (see Appendix A), completion of the manageable list of open items included in the facility's declaration of readiness, and execution of the startup plan to operations.

  10. Monitoring of dry anaerobic fermentation in experimental facility with use of biofilm reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Šinkora

    2011-01-01

    -called biofilm reactor. An external reactor with a cultivated bacterial biofilm on an immovable carrier with the percolate flowing through it has been constructed in laboratory conditions for this purpose. The choice of suitable percolate strategy (this means the frequency of sprinkling and the amount of percolate directly influences the process of anaerobic fermentation.

  11. Experimental Investigations of Physical and Chemical Properties for Microalgae HTL Bio-Crude Using a Large Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad M. Hossain

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As a biofuel feedstock, microalgae has good scalability and potential to supply a significant proportion of world energy compared to most types of biofuel feedstock. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL is well-suited to wet biomass (such as microalgae as it greatly reduces the energy requirements associated with dewatering and drying. This article presents experimental analyses of chemical and physical properties of bio-crude oil produced via HTL using a high growth-rate microalga Scenedesmus sp. in a large batch reactor. The overarching goal was to investigate the suitability of microalgae HTL bio-crude produced in a large batch reactor for direct application in marine diesel engines. To this end we characterized the chemical and physical properties of the bio-crudes produced. HTL literature mostly reports work using very small batch reactors which are preferred by researchers, so there are few experimental and parametric measurements for bio-crude physical properties, such as viscosity and density. In the course of this study, a difference between traditionally calculated values and measured values was noted. In the parametric study, the bio-crude viscosity was significantly closer to regular diesel and biodiesel standards than transesterified (FAME microalgae biodiesel. Under optimised conditions, HTL bio-crude’s high density (0.97–1.04 kg·L−1 and its high viscosity (70.77–73.89 mm2·s−1 had enough similarity to marine heavy fuels. although the measured higher heating value, HHV, was lower (29.8 MJ·kg−1. The reaction temperature was explored in the range 280–350 °C and bio-crude oil yield and HHV reached their maxima at the highest temperature. Slurry concentration was explored between 15% and 30% at this temperature and the best HHV, O:C, and N:C were found to occur at 25%. Two solvents (dichloromethane and n-hexane were used to recover the bio-crude oil, affecting the yield and chemical composition of the bio-crude.

  12. Experimental investigation of pebble flow dynamics using radioactive particle tracking technique in a scaled-down Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khane, Vaibhav; Said, I.A.; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H., E-mail: aldahhanm@mst.edu

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Pebble Flow fields at Pebble Bed Modular Reactor was investigated. • Radioactive Particle Tracking (RPT) technique has been used. • Plug flow type velocity profile is suggested at upper cylindrical region. - Abstract: The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a type of very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) that is conceptually very similar to moving bed reactors used in the chemical and petrochemical industries. In a PBMR core, nuclear fuel is in the form of pebbles and moves slowly under the influence of gravity. In this work, an integrated experimental and computational study of granular flow in a scaled-down cold flow PBMR was performed. A continuous pebble re-circulation experimental set-up, mimicking the flow of pebbles in a PBMR was designed and developed. An experimental investigation of pebble flow dynamics in a scaled down test reactor was carried out using a non-invasive radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique that used a cobalt-60 based tracer to mimic pebbles in terms of shape, size and density. A cross-correlation based position reconstruction algorithm and RPT calibration data were used to obtain results about Lagrangian trajectories, the velocity field, and residence time distributions. The RPT technique results a serve as a benchmark data for assessing contact force models used in the discrete element method (DEM) simulations.

  13. The thermal decomposition of the benzyl radical in a heated micro-reactor. I. Experimental findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Grant T.; Ormond, Thomas K.; Porterfield, Jessica P.; Hemberger, Patrick; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Robichaud, David J.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Daily, John W.; Ellison, G. Barney

    2015-01-01

    The pyrolysis of the benzyl radical has been studied in a set of heated micro-reactors. A combination of photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) and matrix isolation infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been used to identify the decomposition products. Both benzyl bromide and ethyl benzene have been used as precursors of the parent species, C6H5CH2, as well as a set of isotopically labeled radicals: C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H513CH2. The combination of PIMS and IR spectroscopy has been used to identify the earliest pyrolysis products from benzyl radical as: C5H4=C=CH2, H atom, C5H4—C ≡ CH, C5H5, HCCCH2, and HC ≡ CH. Pyrolysis of the C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H513CH2 benzyl radicals produces a set of methyl radicals, cyclopentadienyl radicals, and benzynes that are not predicted by a fulvenallene pathway. Explicit PIMS searches for the cycloheptatrienyl radical were unsuccessful, there is no evidence for the isomerization of benzyl and cycloheptatrienyl radicals: C6H5CH2⇋C7H7. These labeling studies suggest that there must be other thermal decomposition routes for the C6H5CH2 radical that differ from the fulvenallene pathway.

  14. The significance of secondary organic aerosol formation and growth in buildings: experimental and computational evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, G.; Corsi, R.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in an 11 m3 environmental chamber to investigate secondaryparticles resulting from homogeneous reactions between ozone and alpha-pinene. Experimental results indicate that rapid fine particle growth occurs due to homogeneous reactions between ozone and alpha...... measured particle size distributions and were in reasonable agreement with results predicted from the model. Both experimental and model results indicate that secondary particle mass concentrations incfrease substantially with lower air exchange rates. This is an interesting results, given a continuing...... trend toward more energy-efficient buildings. Seconary particle mass concentrations are also predictedc to increase with lower indoor temperatures, higher outdoor ozone concentrations, higher outdoor particle concentrations, and higher indoor alpha-pinene emissions rates....

  15. IAEA coordinated research program on `harmonization and validation of fast reactor thermomechanical and thermohydraulic codes using experimental data`. 1. Thermohydraulic benchmark analysis on high-cycle thermal fatigue events occurred at French fast breeder reactor Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-06-01

    A benchmark exercise on `Tee junction of Liquid Metal Fast Reactor (LMFR) secondary circuit` was proposed by France in the scope of the said Coordinated Research Program (CRP) via International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The physical phenomenon chosen here deals with the mixture of two flows of different temperature. In a LMFR, several areas of the reactor are submitted to this problem. They are often difficult to design, because of the complexity of the phenomena involved. This is one of the major problems of the LMFRs. This problem has been encountered in the Phenix reactor on the secondary loop, where defects in a tee junction zone were detected during a campaign of inspections after an operation of 90,000 hours of the reactor. The present benchmark is based on an industrial problem and deal with thermal striping phenomena. Problems on pipes induced by thermal striping phenomena have been observed in some reactors and experimental facilities coolant circuits. This report presents numerical results on thermohydraulic characteristics of the benchmark problem, carried out using a direct numerical simulation code DINUS-3 and a boundary element code BEMSET. From the analysis with both the codes, it was confirmed that the hot sodium from the small pipe rise into the cold sodium of the main pipe with thermally instabilities. Furthermore, it was indicated that the coolant mixing region including the instabilities agrees approximately with the result by eye inspections. (author)

  16. Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Fuel-Performance Test Facility (FPTF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardini, J.A.; Brubaker, R.C.; Veith, D.J.; Giorgis, G.C.; Walker, D.E.; Seim, O.S.

    1982-01-01

    The Fuel-Performance Test Facility (FPTF) is the latest in a series of special EBR-II instrumented in-core test facilities. A flow control valve in the facility is programmed to vary the coolant flow, and thus the temperature, in an experimental-irradiation subassembly beneath it and coupled to it. In this way, thermal transients can be simulated in that subassembly without changing the temperatures in surrounding subassemblies. The FPTF also monitors sodium flow and temperature, and detects delayed neutrons in the sodium effluent from the experimental-irradiation subassembly beneath it. This facility also has an acoustical detector (high-temperature microphone) for detecting sodium boiling.

  17. An Experimental Study on Solidifying Municipal Sewage Sludge through Skeleton Building Using Cement and Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The municipal sewage sludge typically has very high water content and low shear strength. Conventional methods of lime and cement solidification of municipal sewage sludge often suffer high cost, significant drying shrinkage, frequent cracking, high hydraulic conductivity, and low strength. To overcome these shortcomings, in this paper a skeleton-building method was used to solidify municipal sewage sludge in which coal gangue, cement and clay, and fiber were used as skeleton materials, cementation materials, and filling materials, respectively. Comprehensive laboratory tests including cracking, nitrogen adsorption, triaxial shearing, and permeability tests were performed to determine cracking, pore structure, shear strength, and hydraulic conductivity of municipal sewage sludge solidified with different proportions of coal gangue, cement, fiber, and clay. Based upon the experimental results, the mechanisms of the skeleton building using cement and coal gangue were discussed and factors controlling the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of the solidified soils were analyzed at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. Based upon the test results and analyses, recommendations were made for solidifying municipal sewage sludge through skeleton building using cement and coal gangue. The solidified soils have high soil strength, high resistance to cracking, and low hydraulic conductivity which are sufficient for being used as landfill liner.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL CALIBRATION OF UNDERGROUND HEAT TRANSFER MODELS UNDER A WINERY BUILDING IN A RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tinti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground temperature and hydrogeological conditions are key parameters for many engineering applications, such as the design of building basements and underground spaces and the assessment of shallow geothermal energy potential. Especially in urban areas, in the very shallow depths, it is diffi cult to fi nd natural undisturbed underground thermal conditions because of anthropic interventions. The assessment of underground behaviour in disturbed conditions will become more and more relevant because of increasing awareness to energy effi ciency and renewable energy topics. The purpose of this paper is to show a three-dimensional representation - based on models calibrated on experimental data - of the underground thermal behaviour aff ected by a building in a rural area in Italy. Temperature varies in space and time and it depends on ground, climate and building characteristics, and all these parameters are taken into account by the seasonal periodic modelling implemented. The results obtained in a context of low urbanization indirectly suggest the importance of these eff ects in dense urban areas; taking greater account of these aspects could lead to improvements in the design of underground spaces and geo-exchanger fi elds for geothermal energy exploitation.

  19. An Experimental Study of Energy Consumption in Buildings Providing Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yashen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Afshari, Sina [University of Michigan; Wolfe, John [University of Michigan; Nazir, Md Salman [University of Michigan; Hiskens, Ian A. [University of Michigan; Johnson, Jeremiah X. [University of Michigan; Mathieu, Johanna L. [University of Michigan; Barnes, Arthur K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geller, Drew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-10-03

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial buildings can provide ancillary services (AS) to the power grid, but by providing AS their energy consumption may increase. This inefficiency is evaluated using round-trip efficiency (RTE), which is defined as the ratio between the decrease and the increase in the HVAC system's energy consumption compared to the baseline consumption as a result of providing AS. This paper evaluates the RTE of a 30,000 m2 commercial building providing AS. We propose two methods to estimate the HVAC system's settling time after an AS event based on temperature and the air flow measurements from the building. Experimental data gathered over a 4-month period are used to calculate the RTE for AS signals of various waveforms, magnitudes, durations, and polarities. The results indicate that the settling time estimation algorithm based on the air flow measurements obtains more accurate results compared to the temperature-based algorithm. Further, we study the impact of the AS signal shape parameters on the RTE and discuss the practical implications of our findings.

  20. Experimental study on small group behavior and crowd dynamics in a tall office building evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaping; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    It is well known that a large percentage of occupants in a building are evacuated together with their friends, families, and officemates, especially in China. Small group behaviors are therefore critical for crowd movement. This paper aims to study the crowd dynamic considering different social relations and the impacts of small groups on crowd dynamics in emergency evacuation. Three experiments are conducted in an 11-storey office building. In the first two experiments, all participants are classmates and know each other well. They are evacuated as individuals or pairs. In the third experiment, social relations among the participants are complex. Participants consist of 8 families, 6 lovers and several individuals. Space-time features, speed characteristics and density-speed relations for each experiment are analyzed and compared. Results conclude that small group behaviors can make positive impacts on crowd dynamics when evacuees know each other and are cooperative. This conclusion is also testified by four verified experiments. In the third experiment, speeds of evacuees are lowest. Small groups form automatically with the presence of intimate social relations. Small groups in this experiment slow down the average speed of the crowd and make disturbance on the crowd flow. Small groups in this case make negative impacts on the movement of the crowd. It is because that evacuees do not know each other and they are competitive to each other. Characteristics of different types of small groups are also investigated. Experimental data can provide foundational parameters for evacuation model development and are helpful for building designers.

  1. The role of clusters in gas-solids reactors. An experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    This PhD-work is meant to determine the contact efficiency experimentally for fluidization of fine particles over a wide range of superficial gas velocities (dp<200 mm and 0.1

  2. Infrared Thermography Assessment of Thermal Bridges in Building Envelope: Experimental Validation in a Test Room Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bianchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared imaging is a valuable tool to perform non-destructive qualitative tests and to investigate buildings envelope thermal-energy behavior. The assessment of envelope thermal insulation, ventilation, air leakages, and HVAC performance can be implemented through the analysis of each thermogram corresponding to an object surface temperature. Thermography also allows the identification of thermal bridges in buildings’ envelope that, together with windows and doors, constitute one of the weakest component increasing thermal losses. A quantitative methodology was proposed in previous researches by the authors in order to evaluate the effect of such weak point on the energy balance of the whole building. In the present work, in-field experimental measurements were carried out with the purpose of evaluating the energy losses through the envelope of a test room experimental field. In-situ thermal transmittance of walls, ceiling and roof were continuously monitored and each element was characterized by its own thermal insulation capability. Infrared thermography and the proposed quantitative methodology were applied to assess the energy losses due to thermal bridges. The main results show that the procedure confirms to be a reliable tool to quantify the incidence of thermal bridges in the envelope thermal losses.

  3. Experimental Analysis of a Heat Cost Allocation Method for Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Saba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The correct estimate of individual thermal energy consumptions, and consequently, a fair heat cost allocation among the residents of apartment buildings with centralized heating systems, represents an important driving force towards energy saving, energy efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions. Nowadays, in those contexts where direct heat meters cannot be used because of the layout of the hot water distribution system, electronic Heat Cost Allocators (HCAs have the highest market share for the assessment of individual thermal energy consumptions. The uncertainty associated with the parameterization of heat cost allocation devices and the installation effects arising in real applications can negatively affect the accuracy of these devices, as far as the estimation of the individual fractions of thermal energy consumption is concerned. This work deals with the experimental analysis of a novel heat cost allocation method for apartment buildings and its comparison with conventional HCAs. The method allows the indirect estimation of the thermal energy exchanged by water radiators without the need for surface temperature measurements, reducing some of the drawbacks associated with the on-site installation. The experimental analysis was carried out in a full-scale central heating system test facility available at the Italian National Metrology Institute (INRIM and characterized by SI-traceable direct heat meters installed on each water radiator.

  4. 14MeV neutron irradiation experiment on window materials for fusion experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Fuminobu; Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Iida, Toshiyuki

    1997-06-01

    Data on wavelength spectra of photons emitted from window material during neutron and gamma-ray irradiation has been required for design of next D-T burning fusion reactor such as ITER. Thus, a photon measurement system has been developed to analyze wavelength spectra of photons emitted from the optical window materials during 14MeV-neutron irradiation, and the system consisted of a sample holder, a radiation-resistant optical fiber, a photon counting analyzer and other electronic devices. The irradiation experiments for synthesized sapphire, high-purity silica glass and synthesized quartz were performed using a fusion neutron source FNS. As for all the sample, number of photon emission was proportional to the 14MeV-neutron flux in the range of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 11}n/cm{sup 2}/sec. The photon emission efficiency of F-center luminescence of the sapphire was 2200 {+-} 700photons/MeV, while the efficiency of F{sup +}-center luminescence was two order less than that of F-center. The wavelength spectra of the high-purity silica glass had a large peak around 450nm, which was concerned with decay of self-trapped excitons in oxygen vacancies. Its photon emission efficiency for 14MeV-neutrons has been found to be about 5 {+-} 3photons/MeV in visible range, while that for gamma-rays to be about 135 {+-} 50photons/MeV. The spectrum of photons emitted from the quartz had two large peaks around not only 450nm but also 650nm, and the photon emission efficiency in the wavelength range of 350-750nm was 14 {+-} 4photons/MeV. (author)

  5. The thermal decomposition of the benzyl radical in a heated micro-reactor. I. Experimental findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, Grant T.; Ormond, Thomas K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Porterfield, Jessica P.; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Hemberger, Patrick [Molecular Dynamics Group, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Robichaud, David J.; Nimlos, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Daily, John W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Combustion and Environmental Research,University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0427 (United States)

    2015-01-28

    The pyrolysis of the benzyl radical has been studied in a set of heated micro-reactors. A combination of photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) and matrix isolation infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been used to identify the decomposition products. Both benzyl bromide and ethyl benzene have been used as precursors of the parent species, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}, as well as a set of isotopically labeled radicals: C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CD{sub 2}, C{sub 6}D{sub 5}CH{sub 2}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}{sup 13}CH{sub 2}. The combination of PIMS and IR spectroscopy has been used to identify the earliest pyrolysis products from benzyl radical as: C{sub 5}H{sub 4}=C=CH{sub 2}, H atom, C{sub 5}H{sub 4}—C ≡ CH, C{sub 5}H{sub 5}, HCCCH{sub 2}, and HC ≡ CH. Pyrolysis of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CD{sub 2}, C{sub 6}D{sub 5}CH{sub 2}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}{sup 13}CH{sub 2} benzyl radicals produces a set of methyl radicals, cyclopentadienyl radicals, and benzynes that are not predicted by a fulvenallene pathway. Explicit PIMS searches for the cycloheptatrienyl radical were unsuccessful, there is no evidence for the isomerization of benzyl and cycloheptatrienyl radicals: C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}⇋C{sub 7}H{sub 7}. These labeling studies suggest that there must be other thermal decomposition routes for the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2} radical that differ from the fulvenallene pathway.

  6. Three-phase packed bed reactor with an evaporating solvent—I. Experimental: the hydrogenation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelder, K.B.; Damhof, J.K.; Kroijenga, P.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present experimental data on the three-phase hydrogenation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to triaminotoluene. The experiments are performed in a cocurrent upflow packed bed reactor. Methanol is used as an evaporating solvent. The influence of the main operating parameters, the

  7. Experimental Investigation of the Root Cause Mechanism and Effectiveness of Mitigating Actions for Axial Offset Anomaly in Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said Abdel-Khalik

    2005-07-02

    Axial offset anomaly (AOA) in pressurized water reactors refers to the presence of a significantly larger measured negative axial offset deviation than predicted by core design calculations. The neutron flux depression in the upper half of high-power rods experiencing significant subcooled boiling is believed to be caused by the concentration of boron species within the crud layer formed on the cladding surface. Recent investigations of the root-cause mechanism for AOA [1,2] suggest that boron build-up on the fuel is caused by precipitation of lithium metaborate (LiBO2) within the crud in regions of subcooled boiling. Indirect evidence in support of this hypothesis was inferred from operating experience at Callaway, where lithium return and hide-out were, respectively, observed following power reductions and power increases when AOA was present. However, direct evidence of lithium metaborate precipitation within the crud has, heretofore, not been shown because of its retrograde solubility. To this end, this investigation has been undertaken in order to directly verify or refute the proposed root-cause mechanism of AOA, and examine the effectiveness of possible mitigating actions to limit its impact in high power PWR cores.

  8. A scaled experimental study of control blade insertion dynamics in Pebble-Bed Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buster, Grant C., E-mail: grant.buster@gmail.com; Laufer, Michael R.; Peterson, Per F.

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A granular dynamics scaling methodology is discussed. • Control blade insertion in a representative pebble-bed core is experimentally studied. • Control blade insertion forces and pebble displacements are experimentally measured. • X-ray tomography techniques are used to observe pebble displacement distributions. - Abstract: Direct control element insertion into a pebble-bed reactor core is proposed as a viable control system in molten-salt-cooled pebble-bed reactors. Unlike helium-cooled pebble-bed reactors, this reactor type uses spherical fuel elements with near-neutral buoyancy in the molten-salt coolant, thus reducing contact forces on the fuel elements. This study uses the X-ray Pebble Bed Recirculation Experiment facility to measure the force required to insert a control element directly into a scaled pebble-bed. The required control element insertion force, and therefore the contact force on fuel elements, is measured to be well below recommended limits. Additionally, X-ray tomography is used to observe how the direct insertion of a control element physically displaces spherical fuel elements. The tomography results further support the viability of direct control element insertion into molten-salt-cooled pebble-bed reactor cores.

  9. An Experimental Investigation of Sewage Sludge Gasification in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, L. F.; García, A. I.; Otero, M.

    2013-01-01

    The gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a simple atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. Flow and fuel feed rate were adjusted for experimentally obtaining an air mass : fuel mass ratio (A/F) of 0.2 gasification. This allowed improving the process heat transfer and, therefore, gasification efficiency. The heating value of the produced gas was 8.4 MJ/Nm, attaining a hot gas efficiency of 70% and a cold gas efficiency of 57%. PMID:24453863

  10. Experimental and Numerical Study of Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Gullies for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Chang Lo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The miniaturization of a gully for building drainage system is attempted by installing a streamlined bump in the discharge pipe to maintain the minimum water trap height of 50 mm. The hydrodynamic performances of the air–water flows with or without glass balls through the two types of four-entry gullies with beveled or vertical nozzle flows are experimentally and numerically studied. The images of air–water–solid flow, maximum flow rates, self-purification properties and sustainable water traps subject to static and dynamic loadings are experimentally detected. The predictions of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD unravel the characteristic flow structures to assist the interpretation of experimental results. In this respect, the observed entrained air bubbles and clustered glass balls in each gully correspond favorably to the regions with negative static pressures and weak flow momentums as disclosed by the CFD predictions. The measured ratios between discharged and supplied glass balls are consistently higher for the gully with beveled nozzle flows. The less efficient transportation of glass balls out of the drum for the gully with downward nozzle flow is attributed to the larger pressure gradients with considerable air entrainments. The relaxations of the form and friction drags over the nozzle-tip region and the reductions of air entrainments are essential for upgrading the maximum flow rate and the self-purification performance of a miniaturized gully.

  11. An analytical and experimental investigation of natural circulation transients in a model pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoud, M

    1987-01-01

    Natural Circulation phenomena in a simulated PWR was investigated experimentally and analytically. The experimental investigation included determination of system characteristics as well as system response to the imposed transient under symmetric and asymmetric operations. System characteristics were used to obtain correlation for heat transfer coefficient in heat exchangers, system flow resistance, and system buoyancy heat. Asymmetric transients were imposed to study flow oscillation and possible instability. The analytical investigation encompassed development of mathematical model for single-phase, steady-state and transient natural circulation as well as modification of existing model for two-phase flow analysis of phenomena such as small break LOCA, high pressure coolant injection and pump coast down. The developed mathematical model for single-phase analysis was computer coded to simulate the imposed transients. The computer program, entitled ''Symmetric and Asymmetric Analysis of Single-Phase Flow (SAS),'' were employed to simulate the imposed transients. It closely emulated the system behavior throughout the transient and subsequent steady-state. Modifications for two-phase flow analysis included addition of models for once-through steam generator and electric heater rods. Both programs are faster than real time. Off-line, they can be used for prediction and training applications while on-line they serve for simulation and signal validation. The programs can also be used to determine the sensitivity of natural circulation behavior to variation of inputs such as secondary distribution and power transients.

  12. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Tracer Gas Methodology in the Case of a Naturally Cross-Ventilated Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolopoulos, Nikos; Nikolopoulos, Aristeidis; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2012-01-01

    in this area of scientific research is provided, using the numerical predictions as a reference. It is concluded that velocity measurements in the inlet window are of high accuracy when the flow in this region has a steady character, whilst the accuracy of the tracer gas methodology depends significantly......The paper presents the investigation of a naturally cross – ventilated building using both experimental and numerical methods with the parameters being the free-stream and the incidence angle of the wind to the openings of the building. The experimental methodology calculates the air change rate......, focusing on the time dependent character of the induced flow field. The numerical results are compared with corresponding experimental data for the three aforementioned experimental methodologies in the case of a full scale building inside a wind-tunnel. The numerical investigation reveals that for large...

  13. Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning' Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

    2011-12-29

    The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

  14. Analysis of radiological accident emissions of a lead-cooled experimental reactor. LEADER Project; Analisis radiologico de las emisiones en caso de accidente de un reactor experimental refrigerado por plomo. Proyecto LEADER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Salcedo, F.; Cortes Martin, A.

    2013-07-01

    The LEADER project develops a conceptual level industrial size reactor cooled lead and a demonstration plant of this technology. The project objectives are to define the characteristics and design to installation scale reactor using available technologies and short-term components and assess safety aspects conducting a preliminary analysis of the impact of the facility.

  15. Building a substitute model of a bolster based on experimentally determined deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgoll, F.; Götze, T.; Volk, W.

    2017-09-01

    The high design requirements in the production of car body parts necessitate an exact closure of the forming tools in deep drawing processes. The tool closure is directly related to the machine elastic behaviour. To significantly reduce efforts and save time during ramp up of new forming tools, knowledge of the expected machine behaviour should be considered during the virtual development process of the tools. A prerequisite for that is building a validated machine-specific substitute model of the forming press composed of bolster, ram and drawing cushion. In this contribution, a substitute model with the help of finite element analysis (FEA) based on experimentally determined deflection is presented. The deflection measurements are performed by means of a multifunctional press measuring system from Volkswagen.

  16. Experimental and CFD modelling for thermal comfort and CO2 concentration in office building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabrein, H.; Hariri, A.; Leman, A. M.; Yusof, M. Z. M.; Afandi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Computational fluid dynamic CFD was used for simulating air flow, indoor air distribution and contamination concentration. Gases pollution and thermal discomfort affected occupational health and productivity of work place. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of air change rate in CO2 concentration and to estimate the profile of CO2 concentration in the offices building. The thermal comfort and gases contamination are investigated by numerical analysis CFD which was validated by experiment. Thus the air temperature, air velocity and CO2 concentration were measured at several points in the chamber with four occupants. Comparing between experimental and numerical results showed good agreement. In addition, the CO2 concentration around human recorded high, compared to the other area. Moreover, the thermal comfort in this study is within the ASHRAE standard 55-2004.

  17. Development and trial manufacturing of 1/2-scale partial mock-up of blanket box structure for fusion experimental reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Sato, Satoshi

    1994-07-01

    Conceptual design of breeding blanket has been discussed during the CDA (Conceptual Design Activities) of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). Structural concept of breeding blanket is based on box structure integrated with first wall and shield, which consists of three coolant manifolds for first wall, breeding and shield regions. The first wall must have cooling channels to remove surface heat flux and nuclear heating. The box structure includes plates to form the manifolds and stiffening ribs to withstand enormous electromagnetic load, coolant pressure and blanket internal (purge gas) pressure. A 1/2-scale partial model of the blanket box structure for the outboard side module near midplane is manufactured to estimate the fabrication technology, i.e. diffusion bonding by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) and EBW (Electron Beam Welding) procedure. Fabrication accuracy is a key issue to manufacture first wall panel because bending deformation during HIP may not be small for a large size structure. Data on bending deformation during HIP was obtained by preliminary manufacturing of HIP elements. For the shield structure, it is necessary to reduce the welding strain and residual stress of the weldment to establish the fabrication procedure. Optimal shape of the parts forming the manifolds, welding locations and welding sequence have been investigated. In addition, preliminary EBW tests have been performed in order to select the EBW conditions, and fundamental data on built-up shield have been obtained. Especially, welding deformation by joining the first wall panel to the shield has been measured, and total deformation to build-up shield by EBW has been found to be smaller than 2 mm. Consequently, the feasibility of fabrication technologies has been successfully demonstrated for a 1m-scaled box structure including the first wall with cooling channels by means of HIP, EBW and TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas arc)-welding.

  18. Contribution to modeling of the reflooding of a severely damaged reactor core using PRELUDE experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachrata, A.; Fichot, F.; Repetto, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, Cadarache (France); Quintard, M. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Fleurot, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, Cadarache (France)

    2012-07-01

    In case of accident at a nuclear power plant, water sources may not be available for a long period of time and the core heats up due to the residual power. The reflooding (injection of water into core) may be applied if the availability of safety injection is recovered during accident. If the injection becomes available only in the late phase of accident, water will enter a core configuration that will differ significantly from original rod-bundle geometry. Any attempt to inject water after significant core degradation can lead to further fragmentation of core material. The fragmentation of fuel rods may result in the formation of a 'debris bed'. The typical particle size in a debris bed might reach few millimeters (characteristic length-scale: 1 to 5 mm), i.e., a high permeability porous medium. The French 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' is developing experimental programs (PEARL and PRELUDE) and simulation tools (ICARE-CATHARE and ASTEC) to study and optimize the severe accident management strategy and to assess the probabilities to stop the progress of in-vessel core degradation. It is shown that the quench front exhibits either a ID behaviour or a 2D one, depending on injection rate or bed characteristics. The PRELUDE experiment covers a rather large range of variation of parameters, for which the developed model appears to be quite predictive. (authors)

  19. High power 1 MeV neutral beam system and its application plan for the international tokamak experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemsworth, R.S. [ITER Joint Central Team, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the Neutral Beam Injection system which is presently being designed for the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, ITER, in Europe Japan and Russia, with co-ordination by the Joint Central Team of ITER at Naka, Japan. The proposed system consists of three negative ion based neutral injectors, delivering a total of 50 MW of 1 MeV D{sup 0} to the ITER plasma for a pulse length of >1000 s. Each injectors uses a single caesiated volume arc discharge negative ion source, and a multi-grid, multi-aperture accelerator, to produce about 40 A of 1 MeV D{sup -}. This will be neutralized by collisions with D{sub 2} in a sub-divided gas neutralizer, which has a conversion efficiency of about 60%. The charged fraction of the beam emerging from the neutralizer is dumped in an electrostatic residual ion dump. A water cooled calorimeter can be moved into the beam path to intercept the neutral beam, allowing commissioning of the injector independent of ITER. ITER is scheduled to produce its first plasma at the beginning of 2008, and the planning of the R and D, construction and installation foresees the neutral injection system being available from the start of ITER operations. (author)

  20. Modeling of secondary emission processes in the negative ion based electrostatic accelerator of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fubiani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The negative ion electrostatic accelerator for the neutral beam injector of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER is designed to deliver a negative deuterium current of 40 A at 1 MeV. Inside the accelerator there are several types of interactions that may create secondary particles. The dominating process originates from the single and double stripping of the accelerated negative ion by collision with the residual molecular deuterium gas (≃29% losses. The resulting secondary particles (positive ions, neutrals, and electrons are accelerated and deflected by the electric and magnetic fields inside the accelerator and may induce more secondaries after a likely impact with the accelerator grids. This chain of reactions is responsible for a non-negligible heat load on the grids and must be understood in detail. In this paper, we will provide a comprehensive summary of the physics involved in the process of secondary emission in a typical ITER-like negative ion electrostatic accelerator together with a precise description of the numerical method and approximations involved. As an example, the multiaperture-multigrid accelerator concept will be discussed.

  1. Analysis of quench-vent pressures for present design of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) TF (toroidal field) coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, D.S.

    1989-09-20

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Japan, the European Community, the Union of the Soviet Union, and the United States. This paper examines the effects of a quench within the toroidal field (TF) coils based on current ITER design. It is a preliminary, rough analysis. Its intent is to assist ITER designers while more accurate computer codes are being developed and to provide a check against these more rigorous solutions. Rigorous solutions to the quench problem are very complex involving three- dimensional heat transfer, extreme changes in heat capacities and copper resistivity, and varying flow dynamics within the conductors. This analysis addresses all these factors in an approximate way. The result is much less accurate than a rigorous analysis. Results here could be in error as much as 30 to 40 percent. However, it is believed that this paper can still be very useful to the coil designer. Coil pressures and temperatures vs time into a quench are presented. Rate of helium vent, energy deposition in the coil, and depletion of magnetic stored energy are also presented. Peak pressures are high (about 43 MPa). This is due to the very long vent path length (446 m), small hydraulic diameters, and high current densities associated with ITER's cable-in-conduit design. The effects of these pressures as well as the ability of the coil to be self protecting during a quench are discussed. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Recent progress on the hydrogen storage properties of ZrCo-based alloys applied in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Under the development of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER system aimed at realizing the controllable fusion reaction to solve the energy crisis fundamentally, there is an urgent need to find an appropriate material for tritium handling. ZrCo alloy is considered to be a promising candidate for the storage and delivery of hydrogen isotopes due to the favorable characteristics such as low plateau pressure for absorption, high dissociation pressure at moderate temperature and better ability of trapping 3He. However, the hydrogen induced disproportionation and the slower recovery/deliverty rate of ZrCo-based alloys have limited their further application in ITER system. This review summarizes the efforts towards enhancing the hydrogen storage properties of ZrCo-based alloys including element substitution, surface modification, disproportionation mechanism investigation and the isotope effect study. Element substitution and surface modification play positive role to improve the anti-disproportionation ability and kinetic property of the alloys. However, the ZrCo-based alloys require to be further modified by more attempts such as new composition, novelty modification method or catalyst addition in order to better satisfy the application demands for tritium handling. Moreover, new insight for further understanding the inner disproportionation mechanisms of this material is needed by combining the advance characterization and theoretical analysis, which is in favor of addressing the disproportionation problem of the ZrCo-based alloys essentially.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Air Flow, Heat Transfer and Thermal Comfort in Buildings with Different Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabanskis A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Air Flow, Heat Transfer and Thermal Comfort in Buildings with Different Heating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanskis, A.; Virbulis, J.

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.

  5. Thermoelectric generator experimental performance testing for wireless sensor network application in smart buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Musleh Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to make a conventional building more efficient or smarter, systems feedbacks are essential. Such feedbacks can include real-time or logged data from various systems, such as temperature, humidity, lighting and CO2 levels. This is only possible by the use of a network of sensors which report to the building management system. Conventional sensors are limited due to wiring and infrastructure requirements. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN however, eliminates the wiring limitations but still in certain cases require periodical battery changes and maintenance. A suitable solution for WSN limitations is to use different types of ambient energy harvesters to power battery-less sensors or alternatively to charge existing batteries so as to reduce their changing requirements. Such systems are already in place using various energy harvesting techniques. Thermoelectric Generators (TEG are one of them where the temperature gradient is used to generate electricity which is conditioned and used for WSN powering applications. Researchers in this field often face difficulty in estimating the TEG output at the low-temperature difference as manufacturers’ datasheets and performance data are not following the same standards and in most cases cover the high-temperature difference (more than 200C°. This is sufficient for industrial applications but not for WSN systems in the built environment where the temperature difference is much smaller (1-20C° is covered in this study. This paper presents a TEG experimental test setup using a temperature controlled hotplate in order to provide accurate TEG performance data at the low-temperature difference range.

  6. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 113: Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Building Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Smith

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure in place of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 113 Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility (R-MAD). CAU 113 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-04-01, R-MAD Facility (Figures 1-2). This plan provides the methodology for closure in place of CAU 113. The site contains radiologically impacted and hazardous material. Based on preassessment field work, there is sufficient process knowledge to close in place CAU 113 using the SAFER process. At a future date when funding becomes available, the R-MAD Building (25-3110) will be demolished and inaccessible radiologic waste will be properly disposed in the Area 3 Radiological Waste Management Site (RWMS).

  7. Replacement of the feedwater pipe system in reactor building outside containment at the nuclear power plant Philippsburg; Austausch der Speisewasserleitung im Reaktorgebaeude ausserhalb SHB im Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, A. [Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Labes, M. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Schwenk, B. [Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg GmbH (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    After full replacement of the feedwater pipe system during the inspection period in 1997, combined with a modern materials, manufacturing and analysis concept, the entire pipe system of the water/steam cycle in the reactor building of KKP 1 now consists of high-toughness materials. The safety level of the entire plant has been increased by leaving aside postulation of F2 breaks in the reactor building and providing for protection against 0.1 leaks. Based on fluid-dynamic calculations for the cases of pump failure and pipe break, as well as pipe system calculations in 5 extensive calculation cycles, about 130 documents were filed for inspection and approval (excluding preliminary test documents on restraints). Points of main interest for safety analysis in this context were the optimised closing performance of the 3rd check valves and the integrity of the nozzle region at the RPV. (oirg./CB) [Deutsch] Durch den Restaustausch der Speisewasserleitungen in der Revision 1997, verbunden mit einem modernen Werkstoff-, Fertigungs- und Nachweiskonzept, sind im Reaktorgebaeude von KKP 1 in den Hauptleitungen des Wasser-Dampf-Kreislaufes nur noch hochzaehe Werkstoffe eingesetzt. Durch den Verzicht auf das Postulat von 2F-Bruechen im Reaktorgebaeude und durch die Auslegung gegen 0,1F-Lecks wird das Sicherheitsniveau der Anlage insgesamt gesteigert. Ausgehend von fluiddynamischen Berechnungen fuer Pumpenausfall und Rohrbruch sowie Rohrsystem-Berechnungen in 5 umfangreichen Berechnungskreisen wurden fuer die Genehmigung und Begutachtung ca. 130 Unterlagen (ohne Halterungs-Vorpruefunterlagen) eingereicht und vom Gutachter geprueft. Schwerpunkte der Nachweisfuehrung waren die Optimierung des Schliessverhaltens der 3. Rueckschlagarmaturen sowie der Integritaetsnachweis des RDB-Anschlusses. (orig./MM)

  8. Commissioning of the STAR test section for experimental simulation of loss of coolant accident using the EC-208 instrumented fuel assembly of the IEA-R1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maprelian, Eduardo; Torres, Walmir M.; Prado, Adelk C.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Franca, Renato L.; Santos, Samuel C.; Macedo, Luiz A.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: emaprel@ipen.br, E-mail: wmtorres@ipen.br, E-mail: acprado@ipen.br, E-mail: umbehaun@ipen.br, E-mail: rlfranca@ipen.br, E-mail: samuelcs@ipen.br, E-mail: lamacedo@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The three basic safety functions of Research Reactors (RR) are the safe shutdown of the reactor, the proper cooling of the decay heat of the fuel elements and the confinement of radioactive materials. Compared to Nuclear Power Reactors, RR power release is small, yet its three safety functions must be met to ensure the integrity of the reactor. During a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in pool type RR, partial or complete loss of pool water may occur, with consequent partial or complete uncovering of the fuel assemblies. In such an accident, the decay heat removal safety function must not be compromised. The Test Section for Experimental Simulation of Loss of Coolant Accident (STAR) is in commissioning phase. This test section will provide experimental data on partial and total uncovering of the EC-208 instrumented fuel assembly (IFA) irradiated in the IEA-R1. Experimental results will be useful in validation of computer codes for RR safety analysis, particularly on heat removal efficiency aspects (safety function) in accident conditions. STAR comprises a base on which is installed the IFA, the cylindrical stainless steel hull, the compressed air system for the test section emptying and refilling, and the instrumentation for temperature and level measurements. The commissioning tests or pre-operational check, consist of several preliminary tests to verify experimental procedures, the difficulties during assembling of STAR in the pool, the difficulties in control the emptying and refilling velocities, as well as, the repeatability capacity, tests of equipment, valves and systems and tests of instrumentation and data acquisition system. Safety, accuracy and easiness of operation will be checked. (author)

  9. An easy-to-build remote laboratory with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, František; Lustig, František; Dvořák, Jiří; Ožvoldová, Miroslava

    2008-07-01

    The present state of information communication technology makes it possible to devise and run computer-based e-laboratories accessible to any user with a connection to the Internet, equipped with very simple technical means and making full use of web services. Thus, the way is open for a new strategy of physics education with strongly global features, based on experiment and experimentation. We name this strategy integrated e-learning, and remote experiments across the Internet are the foundation for this strategy. We present both pedagogical and technical reasoning for the remote experiments and outline a simple system based on a server-client approach, and on web services and Java applets. We give here an outline of the prospective remote laboratory system with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System (ISES) as hardware and ISES WEB Control kit as software. This approach enables the simple construction of remote experiments without building any hardware and virtually no programming, using a paste and copy approach with typical prebuilt blocks such as a camera view, controls, graphs, displays, etc. We have set up and operate at present seven experiments, running round the clock, with more than 12 000 connections since 2005. The experiments are widely used in practical teaching of both university and secondary level physics. The recording of the detailed steps the experimentor takes during the measurement enables detailed study of the psychological aspects of running the experiments. The system is ready for a network of universities to start covering the basic set of physics experiments. In conclusion we summarize the results achieved and experiences of using remote experiments built on the ISES hardware system.

  10. An easy-to-build remote laboratory with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauer, Frantisek; Ozvoldova, Miroslava [Trnava University, Faculty of Pedagogy, Department of Physics, Trnava (Slovakia); Lustig, Frantisek; Dvorak, JirI [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Didactics of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic)], E-mail: fschauer@ft.utb.cz

    2008-07-15

    The present state of information communication technology makes it possible to devise and run computer-based e-laboratories accessible to any user with a connection to the Internet, equipped with very simple technical means and making full use of web services. Thus, the way is open for a new strategy of physics education with strongly global features, based on experiment and experimentation. We name this strategy integrated e-learning, and remote experiments across the Internet are the foundation for this strategy. We present both pedagogical and technical reasoning for the remote experiments and outline a simple system based on a server-client approach, and on web services and Java applets. We give here an outline of the prospective remote laboratory system with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System (ISES) as hardware and ISES WEB Control kit as software. This approach enables the simple construction of remote experiments without building any hardware and virtually no programming, using a paste and copy approach with typical prebuilt blocks such as a camera view, controls, graphs, displays, etc. We have set up and operate at present seven experiments, running round the clock, with more than 12 000 connections since 2005. The experiments are widely used in practical teaching of both university and secondary level physics. The recording of the detailed steps the experimentor takes during the measurement enables detailed study of the psychological aspects of running the experiments. The system is ready for a network of universities to start covering the basic set of physics experiments. In conclusion we summarize the results achieved and experiences of using remote experiments built on the ISES hardware system.

  11. Sandia Pulsed Reactor Facility (SPRF) calculator-assisted pulse analysis and display system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, B.F.; Berry, D.T.

    1980-02-01

    Two solid-metal fast burst type reactors (SPR II and SPR III) are operated at the Sandia Pulsed Reactor Facility. Since startup of the reactors, oscilloscope traces have been used to record (by camera) the pulse (power) shape while log N systems have measured initial reactor period. Virtually no other pulse information is available. A decision was made to build a system that could collect the basic input data available from the reactor - fission chambers, photodiodes, and thermocouples - condition the signals and output the various parameters such as power, energy, temperature, period and lifetime on hard copy that would provide a record for operations personnel as well as the experimenter. Because the reactors operate in short time frames - pulse operation - it is convenient to utilize the classical Nordheim-Fuchs approximation of the diffusion equation to describe reactor behavior. This report describes the work performed to date in developing the calculator system and analytical models for computing the desired parameters.

  12. An experimental data set for benchmarking 1-D, transient heat and moisture transfer models of hygroscopic building materials. Part II: Experimental, numerical and analytical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, Prabal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Osanyintola, Olalekan F. [XXL Engineering Ltd., 101-807 Manning Road NE, Calgary, AB (Canada); Olutimayin, Stephen O.; Simonson, Carey J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the experimental results on spruce plywood and cellulose insulation using the transient moisture transfer (TMT) facility presented in Part I [P. Talukdar, S.O. Olutmayin, O.F. Osanyintola, C.J. Simonson, An experimental data set for benchmarking 1-D, transient heat and moisture transfer models of hygroscopic building materials-Part-I: experimental facility and property data, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, in press, doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2007.03.026] of this paper. The temperature, relative humidity and moisture accumulation distributions within both materials are presented following different and repeated step changes in air humidity and different airflow Reynolds numbers above the materials. The experimental data are compared with numerical data, numerical sensitivity studies and analytical solutions to increase the confidence in the experimental data set. (author)

  13. Nitritation performance and biofilm development of co- and counter-diffusion biofilm reactors: Modeling and experimental comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Rongchang; Terada, Akihiko; Lackner, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the start-up performance and biofilm development in two different biofilm reactors with aim of obtaining partial nitritation. The reactors were both operated under oxygen limited conditions, but differed in geometry. While substrates (O-2, NH3) co...... results showed that the counter-diffusion biofilms developed faster and attained a larger maximum biofilm thickness than the co-diffusion biofilms. Under oxygen limited condition (DO

  14. Experimental and numerical characterization of thermal bridges in prefabricated building walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalewski, Laurent; Lassue, Stephane; Boukhalfa, Kamel [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); UArtois, LGCgE, F-62400 Bethune (France); Rousse, Daniel [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    This work is a contribution to the characterization of the thermal efficiency of complex walls of buildings with respect to the ever increasing requirements in thermal insulation. The work specifically concerns the quantitative evaluation of heat losses by thermal bridges. The support of the study is the envelope of industrial light construction walls containing a metal framework, an insulating material inserted in between metal trusses, water and vapor barriers, and the internal and external facings. This article presents first the infrared thermography method which is used to visualize the thermal bridges as well as a genuine complementary experimental method allowing for the determination of the quantitative aspects of the heat losses through the envelope. Tangential-gradient heat fluxmeters, which create little disturbance in the measurements, are used in the context of laboratory and in full-scale insitu experiments. Then, the article presents a simple yet accurate prediction with a three-dimensional numerical method that could be used for the design of specific installations and parametric studies. (author)

  15. Experimental study and advanced CFD simulation of fire safety performance of building external wall insulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhenghua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fire tests of building external wall insulation system were conducted. In the experiment, thermal-couples were mounted to measure the insulation system surface temperature and the gas temperature inside rooms at the second and third floors. Photos were also taken during the fire tests. The measurement provides information of the ignition and fire spread of the external insulation system which consists of surface protection layer, glass fibre net, bonding thin layer, anchor and the load bearing wall. Comprehensive simulations of the fire tests were carried out using an advanced CFD fire simulation software Simtec (Simulation of Thermal Engineering Complex [1, 2], which is now released by Simtec Soft Sweden, with the turbulent flow, turbulent combustion, thermal radiation, soot formation, convective heat transfer, the fully coupled three dimensional heat transfer inside solid materials, the ‘burn-out' of the surface protection layer and the pyrolysis of the insulation layer, etc, all computed. The simulation is compared with experimental measurement for validation. The simulation well captured the burning and fire spread of the external insulation wall.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Wind Driven Natural Ventilation in a Building Scale Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; True, Jan Per Jensen; Sandberg, Mats

    2004-01-01

    Airflow through openings in a cross ventilated building scale model was investigated in a wind tunnel and by numerical predictions. Predictions for a wind direction perpendicular to the building showed an airflow pattern consisting of streamlines entering the room, that originated from approximat......Airflow through openings in a cross ventilated building scale model was investigated in a wind tunnel and by numerical predictions. Predictions for a wind direction perpendicular to the building showed an airflow pattern consisting of streamlines entering the room, that originated from...... and leeward sides and the airflow rate was found to be a linear function of the local pressure difference across the building....

  17. Full-Scale Experimental Verification of Soft-Story-Only Retrofits of Wood-Frame Buildings using Hybrid Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaina Jennings; John W. van de Lindt; Ershad Ziaei; Pouria Bahmani; Sangki Park; Xiaoyun Shao; Weichiang Pang; Douglas Rammer; Gary Mochizuki; Mikhail Gershfeld

    2015-01-01

    The FEMA P-807 Guidelines were developed for retrofitting soft-story wood-frame buildings based on existing data, and the method had not been verified through full-scale experimental testing. This article presents two different retrofit designs based directly on the FEMA P-807 Guidelines that were examined at several different seismic intensity levels. The...

  18. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of an Experimental Reactor Cavity Cooling System with Air. Part I: Experiments; Part II: Separate Effects Tests and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradin, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Anderson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Muci, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Hassan, Yassin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Dominguez, A. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tokuhiro, Akira [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Hamman, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2014-10-15

    This experimental study investigates the thermal hydraulic behavior and the heat removal performance for a scaled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) with air. A quarter-scale RCCS facility was designed and built based on a full-scale General Atomics (GA) RCCS design concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR). The GA RCCS is a passive cooling system that draws in air to use as the cooling fluid to remove heat radiated from the reactor pressure vessel to the air-cooled riser tubes and discharged the heated air into the atmosphere. Scaling laws were used to preserve key aspects and to maintain similarity. The scaled air RCCS facility at UW-Madison is a quarter-scale reduced length experiment housing six riser ducts that represent a 9.5° sector slice of the full-scale GA air RCCS concept. Radiant heaters were used to simulate the heat radiation from the reactor pressure vessel. The maximum power that can be achieved with the radiant heaters is 40 kW with a peak heat flux of 25 kW per meter squared. The quarter-scale RCCS was run under different heat loading cases and operated successfully. Instabilities were observed in some experiments in which one of the two exhaust ducts experienced a flow reversal for a period of time. The data and analysis presented show that the RCCS has promising potential to be a decay heat removal system during an accident scenario.

  19. Experimental evaluation of two different types of reactors for CO2 removal from gaseous stream by bottom ash accelerated carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, L; Carnevale, E A; Pecorini, I

    2016-12-01

    Low methane content landfill gas may be enriched by removing carbon dioxide. An innovative process, based on carbon dioxide capture and storage by means of accelerated carbonation of bottom ash is proposed and studied for the above purpose. Within this research framework we devoted a preliminary research activity to investigate the possibility of improving the way the contact between bottom ash and landfill gas takes place: this is the scope of the work reported in this paper. Two different types of reactors - fixed bed and rotating drum - were designed and constructed for this purpose. The process was investigated at laboratory scale. As the aim of this phase was the comparison of the performances of the two different reactors, we used a pure stream of CO2 to preliminarily evaluate the reactor behaviors in the most favorable condition for the process (i.e. maximum CO2 partial pressure at ambient condition). With respect to the simple fixed bed reactor concept, some modifications were proposed, consisting of separating the ash bed in three layers. With the three layer configuration we would like to reduce the possibility for the gas to follow preferential paths through the ash bed. However, the results showed that the process performances are not significantly influenced by the multiple layer arrangement. As an alternative to the fixed bed reactor, the rotating drum concept was selected in order to provide continuous mixing of the solids. Two operating parameters were considered and varied during the tests: the filling ratio and the rotating speed. Better performances were observed for lower filling ratio while the rotating speed showed minor importance. Finally the performances of the two reactors were compared. The rotating drum reactor is able to provide improved carbon dioxide removal with respect to the fixed bed one, especially when the rotating reactor is operated at low filling ratio values and slow rotating speed values. Comparing the carbon dioxide

  20. A comparison of experimental methods for measuring water permeability of porous building rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvan, S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares different experimental methods for measuring water permeability in 17 different porous building rocks. Both commercial apparatus and specially made designed permeameters are used for characterising intrinsic permeability and hydraulic conductivity, k, of rocks in the range of 10−12 to 10−4 m/s (~ 10−19−10−11 m2 or ~ 10−4−104 mD. We use both falling head and constant head permeameter methods including the triaxial and modified triaxial tests and a classical constant head permeameter. Results showed that for very low and low permeability samples (k−6 m/s, triaxial conditions were found the most accurate procedures and they provided similar or slightly lower permeability values than constant and falling head methods. The latter techniques were highly recommended for permeable and high permeable porous building materials. Water permeability values were also linked to effective porosity and interpreted in terms of interparticle and vugs porosity. Finally, some modifications in the apparatus and procedures were carried out in order to assess water permeability in soft materials, which involve the use of non-saturated samples.Se comparan diferentes métodos experimentales para la medida de la permeabilidad al agua en rocas porosas usadas como material de construcción. Se usaron diferentes permeabilímetros, (comerciales y desarrollados específicamente empleando los métodos triaxial, triaxial modificado, carga constante y carga variable. Se caracterizó la permeabilidad intrínseca y conductividad hidráulica, k, con valores que var.an desde 10−12 a 10−4 m/s (~ 10−19−10−11 m2 or ~ 10−4−104 mD. Para muestras poco y muy poco permeables el ensayo con célula triaxial fue el mas reproducible. Los ensayos de carga constante son muy recomendables para rocas porosas de construcción permeables y muy permeables. Además, se definen los parámetros experimentales más apropiados para caracterizar la

  1. Dr Robert Aymar, Director of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), was nominated to succeed Professor Luciano Maiani as CERN's Director General, to take office on 1 January 2004.

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Dr Robert Aymar, Director of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), was nominated to succeed Professor Luciano Maiani as CERN's Director General, to take office on 1 January 2004.

  2. Experimental study of local coolant hydrodynamics in TVS-Kvadrat PWR reactor fuel assembly using mixing spacer grids with different types of deflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Dmitriev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental studies of local hydrodynamic characteristics of coolant flow in fuel assemblies of RWR reactors using different types of mixing spacer grids are presented. Specific features and regularities of coolant flow in fuel pin bundles of TVS-KVADRAT fuel assemblies with different types of mixing spacer grids were revealed in the course of experiments. Analysis of space distribution of projections of absolute flow velocity allowed detailed description of coolant flow beyond the spacer grid with installation of three different types of deflectors. Optimal design of deflector for spacer grid of the TVS-KVADRAT fuel assembly in the standard cell in the area of guiding channels was identified. Results of studies of local hydrodynamics of coolant flow in the TVS-KVADRAT fuel assembly are accepted for subsequent practical application by the JSC Afrikantov Experimental Design Bureau for Mechanical Engineering (OKBM in the evaluations of thermal engineering reliability of PWR reactor cores and were included in the database for verification of computational fluid dynamic codes (CFD-codes and implementation of detailed cell array calculations of PWR reactor cores.

  3. Experimental results of controlled PV module for building integrated PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, E.; Alonso, R.; Ibanez, P.; Elorduizapatarietxe, S. [Energy Unit, Robotiker Corporacion Tecnologica Tecnalia, Parque Tecnologico de Zamudio. Edif. 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Martinez, V.; Jimeno, J.C. [EHU/UPV Instituto de Tecnologia Microelectronica, Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Last issues about Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems (BIPV) still show average Performance Ratio (PR) values in the range of 0.75-0.80. The main causes well known: partial shadows, temperature effects, PV inverter losses, thermal losses, etc. and mismatching losses. Ideally, all the modules work in the same conditions, but differences between modules really exist due to differences in the working temperature, the inclination or orientation angles, differences in the I-V characteristic coming from the manufacturing process, etc. The effect is that the output power of the complete PV system is lower than the addition of the power of each PV module. These mismatching losses can be decreased by means of suitable electronics. This paper presents the experimental results obtained over PV systems equipped with controlled PV modules, PV modules with low cost and high efficiency DC-DC converters, including MPPT algorithm and other functions, such as power control and Power Line Communications (PLC). Tests have been divided into two great categories: tests on the electronic performance of the DC-DC converter and tests on grid-connected PV systems with multiple DC-DC converters. Many of these tests have been carried out taking advantage of the PV System Test Platform, a powerful tool especially designed by Robotiker to evaluate all kind of PV systems, especially systems with differences between modules. Aspects of the DC-DC converter performance have been detailed and among the most important experiments, the paper analyses different situations such as partial shadows, different inclined planes, PV systems with different PV modules, and finally a comparison between a conventional system and a system composed by controlled PV modules have been described. To sum up, the importance of a good system dimensioning is analysed, with very interesting results. (author)

  4. Daylighting and energy performance of a building for composite climate: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Sudan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study includes overall energy saving through thermal as well as daylighting for composite climate for the building known as SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC situated at Varanasi, India. The building has been designed including all the passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting to maximize the use of natural lighting for the occupants in day to day activities. This approach can be useful for multi-story building for rural and urban areas for both residential and commercial buildings. The energy saving potential and corresponding CO2 mitigation have been determined for different lifetimes of the building. The energy matrices namely energy payback time (EPBT, energy production factor (EPF and life cycle conversion efficiency (LCCE of the building have also been estimated by considering overall energy saving. An annual energy saving has been obtained as 3675.61 kW h due to daylight concept by considering different Zones in each floors of the building. Further, the EPBT has been determined as 49.25 years and 34.73 years for average 4 °C and 6 °C temperature difference between ambient and room, respectively. It has been found that when thermal heat gain increases in the building LCCE and EPF increase.

  5. An experimental setup for measuring generation and transport of radon in building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pal, M.; Hendriks, N.A.; de Meijer, R.J.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Wit, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    This study describes an approach for measuring and modelling diffusive and advective transport of radon through building materials. The goal of these measurements and model calculations is to improve our understanding concerning the factors influencing the transport of radon through building

  6. Autothermal reforming of methane with integrated CO2 capture in a novel fluidized bed membrane reactor. Part 1: experimental demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Two fluidized bed membrane reactor concepts for hydrogen production via autothermal reforming of methane with integrated CO2 capture are proposed. Ultra-pure hydrogen is obtained via hydrogen perm-selective Pd-based membranes, while the required reaction energy is supplied by oxidizing part of the

  7. Experimental study of a cocurrent upflow packed bed bubble column reactor: pressure drop, holdup and interfacial area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molga, E.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Gas¿liquid interfacial areas have been determined by means of chemically enhanced absorption of CO2 into DEA in a packed bed bubble column reactor with an inner diameter of 156 mm. The influence of the gas velocity and particle diameter on the interfacial areas, pressure drops and liquid holdups has

  8. Fluidised bed membrane reactor for ultrapure hydrogen production via methane steam reforming: Experimental demonstration and model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, C.S.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen is emerging as a future alternative for mobile and stationary energy carriers in addition to its use in chemical and petrochemical applications. A novel multifunctional reactor concept has been developed for the production of ultrapure hydrogen View the MathML source from light hydrocarbons

  9. Development of safety analysis codes and experimental validation for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh

    2006-03-01

    The very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is envisioned as a single- or dual-purpose reactor for electricity and hydrogen generation. The concept has average coolant temperatures above 9000C and operational fuel temperatures above 12500C. The concept provides the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperature to support process heat applications, such as coal gasification, desalination or cogenerative processes, the VHTR’s higher temperatures allow broader applications, including thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the very high temperatures of this reactor concept can be detrimental to safety if a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurs. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air will enter the core through the break by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heatup of the reactor core and the release of toxic gasses (CO and CO2) and fission products. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. Prior to the start of this Korean/United States collaboration, no computer codes were available that had been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably simulate a LOCA in the VHTR. Therefore, we have worked for the past three years on developing and validating advanced computational methods for simulating LOCAs in a VHTR. Research Objectives As described above, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release in the VHTR. The objectives of this Korean/United States collaboration were to develop and validate advanced computational methods for VHTR safety analysis. The methods that have been developed are now

  10. Evaluation on Thermal Behavior of a Green Roof Retrofit System Installed on Experimental Building in Composite Climate of Roorkee, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Deoliya, Rajesh; Chani, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Green roofs not only provide cooling by shading, but also by transpiration of water through the stomata. However, the evidence for green roofs providing significant air cooling remains limited. No literature investigates the thermal performance of prefab brick panel roofing technology with green roof. Hence, the aim of this research is to investigate the thermal behavior of an experimental room, built at CSIR-Central Building Research Institute (CBRI) campus, Roorkee, India using such roofing technology during May 2013. The study also explores the feasibility of green roof with grass carpets that require minimum irrigation, to assess the expected indoor thermal comfort improvements by doing real-time experimental studies. The results show that the proposed green roof system is suitable for reducing the energy demand for space cooling during hot summer, without worsening the winter energy performance. The cost of proposed retrofit system is about Rs. 1075 per m2. Therefore, green roofs can be used efficiently in retrofitting existing buildings in India to improve the micro-climate on building roofs and roof insulation, where the additional load carrying capacity of buildings is about 100-130 kg/m2.

  11. Experimental Study on Influence of Hardening of Isolator in Multiple Isolation Building

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Kohei; Miura, Toshiya; Tsuji, Masaaki; Takewaki, Izuru

    2016-01-01

    An innovative multiple isolation building system is proposed, and the influence of hardening in seismic isolators on the response of a multiple isolation building is investigated by shaking table vibration tests for a scaled structural model. From the observation in recent earthquake disasters in far-fault ground motions, e.g., the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake, a significant concern is reminded that the long-period and long-duration ground excitation may cause severe damage...

  12. Reactor transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menegus, R.L.

    1956-05-31

    The authors are planning a calculation to be done on the Univac at the Louviers Building to estimate the effect of xenon transients, a high reactor power. This memorandum outlines the reasons why they prefer to do the work at Louviers rather than at another location, such as N.Y.U. They are to calculate the response of the reactor to a sudden change in position of the half rods. Qualitatively, the response will be a change in the rooftop ratio of the neutron flux. The rooftop ratio may oscillate with high damping, or, instead, it may oscillate for many cycles. It has not been possible for them to determine this response by hand calculation because of the complexity of the problem, and yet it is important for them to be certain that high power operation will not lead us to inherently unstable operation. Therefore they have resorted to machine computation. The system of differential equations that describes the response has seven dependent variables; therefore there are seven equations, each coupled with one or more of the others. The authors have discussed the problem with R.R. Haefner at the plant, and it is his opinion that the IBM 650 cannot adequately handle the system of seven equations because the characteristic time constants vary over a range of about 10{sup 8}. The Univac located at the Louviers Building is said to be satisfactory for this computation.

  13. Experimental data and boundary conditions for a Double - Skin Facade building in preheating mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    Frequent discussions of double skin façade energy performance have started a dialogue about the methods, models and tools for simulation of double façade systems and reliability of their results. Their reliability will increase with empirical validation of the software. Detailed experimental work...... with all information about the experimental data and measurements, necessary to complete an independent empirical validation of any simulation tool. The article includes detailed information about the experimental apparatus, experimental principles and experimental full-scale test facility ‘The Cube...

  14. Experimental data and boundary conditions for a Double - Skin Facade building in transparent insulation mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    Frequent discussions of double skin façade energy performance have started a dialogue about the methods, models and tools for simulation of double façade systems and reliability of their results. Their reliability will increase with empirical validation of the software. Detailed experimental work...... with all information about the experimental data and measurements, necessary to complete an independent empirical validation of any simulation tool. The article includes detailed information about the experimental apparatus, experimental principles and experimental full-scale test facility ‘The Cube...

  15. Experimental determination of spectral indices by scanning of fuel rod in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor; Determinacao experimental de indices espectrais por varredura gama de vareta combustivel no reator IPEN/MB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Leda Cristina Cabelo Bernardes

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the spectral indexes 28{rho}{sup *} and 25{delta}{sup *}, and gamma efficiency factor in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor were determined experimentally employing a rod scanning technique. In the case of 28{rho}{sup *}, this method has the advantage of eliminating most of the correction factors derived from the calculations. Only the fission yield factor and the relative fission rate in the {sup 235}U remain in the determination of the 25{delta}{sup *}. The experiments were performed with different thicknesses of cadmium sleeves: 0.55 mm, 1.10 mm and 2.20 mm. The final experimental uncertainty achieved in the experiment, less that 1 %, and the excellent geometrical and material data characterization of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor allow to use the results as benchmark for validate calculation methods and related nuclear data libraries. The comparison between calculated values and experimental values was performed by employing the MCNP-5 code and the nuclear data libraries: ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.1. The results demonstrate that the difference among libraries is very small. Also, the comparison between calculated values and experimental values shows that there has been considerable progress in the recent nuclear data libraries. The best result is obtained with ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library, and the highest discrepancy was obtained with JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 nuclear data libraries. (author)

  16. Energy efficient electrocoagulation using a new flow column reactor to remove nitrate from drinking water - Experimental, statistical, and economic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Khalid S; Shaw, Andy; Al Khaddar, Rafid; Pedrola, Montserrat Ortoneda; Phipps, David

    2017-07-01

    In this investigation, a new bench-scale electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) has been applied for drinking water denitrification. FCER utilises the concepts of flow column to mix and aerate the water. The water being treated flows through the perforated aluminium disks electrodes, thereby efficiently mixing and aerating the water. As a result, FCER reduces the need for external stirring and aerating devices, which until now have been widely used in the electrocoagulation reactors. Therefore, FCER could be a promising cost-effective alternative to the traditional lab-scale EC reactors. A comprehensive study has been commenced to investigate the performance of the new reactor. This includes the application of FCER to remove nitrate from drinking water. Estimation of the produced amount of H2 gas and the yieldable energy from it, an estimation of its preliminary operating cost, and a SEM (scanning electron microscope) investigation of the influence of the EC process on the morphology of the surface of electrodes. Additionally, an empirical model was developed to reproduce the nitrate removal performance of the FCER. The results obtained indicated that the FCER reduced the nitrate concentration from 100 to 15 mg/L (World Health Organization limitations for infants) after 55 min of electrolysing at initial pH of 7, GBE of 5 mm, CD of 2 mA/cm2, and at operating cost of 0.455 US $/m3. Additionally, it was found that FCER emits H2 gas enough to generate a power of 1.36 kW/m3. Statistically, the relationship between the operating parameters and nitrate removal could be modelled with R2 of 0.848. The obtained SEM images showed a large number dents on anode's surface due to the production of aluminium hydroxides. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental Study on the Comparison of the Material Properties of Glass Wool Used as Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Woo KIM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial mineral fibers such as glass wool or stone wool are commonly used in building walls, ceilings and floors as a major insulation material for buildings. Among the material properties of building materials, thermal conductivity, the sound absorption coefficient, compressibility, and dynamic stiffness are regarded as important performance requirements since they directly affect the thermal and acoustic properties of the building. This study measured the changes of the thermal and acoustical performances of glass wool that was actually installed for a long time to the outer wall of a building as an insulation material through a comparison with recently produced glass wool. The results showed that the measured thermal conductivities of the old and the new specimens both rise with an increase of temperature, showing quite similar results in both specimens over temperature ranges of (0 – 20 ºC. The noise reduction coefficient decreased by 0.1 in the old specimen and the difference of the compressibilities in both specimens was shown to be 7.32 mm. The dynamic stiffness of the old specimen was found to be 1.28 MN/m3 higher than that of the new specimen.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3714

  18. An arctic low-energy house as experimental setup for studies of heat dynamics of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Rode, Carsten; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    throughout long winters, strong winds, and very different circumstances regarding solar radiation compared to areas where low-energy houses are usually built, make the location very interesting for modeling and testing purposes. In 2011 new measurement equipment was installed in the house, which will be used......This paper addresses the difficulties in pinpointing reasons for unexpectedly high energy consumption in construction, and in low-energy houses especially. Statistical methods are applied to improve the insight into the energy performance and heat dynamics of a building based on consumption records...... and weather data. Dynamical methods separate influences from outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and wind on the energy consumption in the building. The studied building is a low-energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland. Weather conditions like large temperature differences between indoors and outdoors...

  19. Experimental study of dynamic effects in moisture transfer in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    of the moisture transfer processes involved. The available evidence primarily stems from imbibition and drainage experiments on soils however, and compared to many other porous media, these tests consider rather permeable materials with relatively dominant liquid transport at comparatively large (de...... in building materials. Drying and ad-/desorption tests are executed on two building materials, in which moisture contents and moisture potentials are measured simultaneously. These are translated into dynamic retention relations and dynamic storage coefficients, which both distinctly demonstrate that moisture...... transfer in building materials, similar to moisture transfer in soils, is not free of dynamic effects. The findings imply that the widely accepted static theory for moisture storage in porous media is not generally valid and should be corrected for the occurrences of dynamic effects. Considering...

  20. Study of an experimental methodology for thermal properties diagnostic of building envelop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingying; Sempy, Alain; Vogt Wu, Tingting; Sommier, Alain; Dumoulin, Jean; Batsale, Jean Christophe

    2017-04-01

    The building envelope plays a critical role in determining levels of comfort and building efficiency. Its real thermal properties characterization is of major interest to be able to diagnose energy efficiency performance of buildings (new construction and retrofitted existing old building). Research and development on a possible methodology for energy diagnostic of the building envelop is a hot topic and necessary trend. Many kinds of sensors and instruments are used for the studies. The application of infrared (IR) thermography in non-destructive evaluation has been widely employed for qualitative evaluations for building diagnostics; meanwhile, the IR thermography technology also has a large potentiality for the evaluation of the thermal characteristics of the building envelope. Some promising recent research studies have been carried out with such contactless measurement technique. Nevertheless, research efforts are still required for in situ measurements under natural environmental conditions. In order to develop new solutions for non-intrusive evaluation of local thermal performance, enabling quantitative assessment of thermal properties of buildings and materials, experiments were carried out on a multi-layer pratical scale wall fixed on a caisson placed in a climatic chamber. Six halogen lamps (1.5 kW for each lamp) placed in front of objective wall were used to emulate sunny conditions. The radiative heat flux emitted was monitored and modulated with time according to typical weather data set encountered in France. Both steady state and transient regime heat transfer were studied during these experiments. Contact sensors (thermocouples, heat flux meters, Peltier sensors) and non-contact sensors (thermal IR camera, pyranometer) were used to measure the temperatures and heat flux density evolution. It has to be noticed that the Peltier sensors have been tuned and used with a specific processing to set them compliant for heat flux density measurements. The

  1. Remote Reactor Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dazeley, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobie, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brennan, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerling, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sumner, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweany, Melinda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-21

    The overall goal of the WATCHMAN project is to experimentally demonstrate the potential of water Cerenkov antineutrino detectors as a tool for remote monitoring of nuclear reactors. In particular, the project seeks to field a large prototype gadolinium-doped, water-based antineutrino detector to demonstrate sensitivity to a power reactor at ~10 kilometer standoff using a kiloton scale detector. The technology under development, when fully realized at large scale, could provide remote near-real-time information about reactor existence and operational status for small operating nuclear reactors out to distances of many hundreds of kilometers.

  2. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part II: Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héquet, Valérie; Batault, Frédéric; Raillard, Cécile; Thévenet, Frédéric; Le Coq, Laurence; Dumont, Éric

    2017-03-06

    The performances of a laboratory PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) device were determined using a recirculation closed-loop pilot reactor. The closed-loop system was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: a perfectly mixed reservoir with a volume of VR = 0.42 m³ and a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device with a volume of VP = 5.6 × 10-3 m³. The PCO device was composed of a pleated photocatalytic filter (1100 cm²) and two 18-W UVA fluorescent tubes. The Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of the apparatus was measured under different operating conditions. The influence of three operating parameters was investigated: (i) light irradiance I from 0.10 to 2.0 mW·cm-2; (ii) air velocity v from 0.2 to 1.9 m·s-1; and (iii) initial toluene concentration C₀ (200, 600, 1000 and 4700 ppbv). The results showed that the conditions needed to apply a first-order decay model to the experimental data (described in Part I) were fulfilled. The CADR values, ranging from 0.35 to 3.95 m³·h-1, were mainly dependent on the light irradiance intensity. A square root influence of the light irradiance was observed. Although the CADR of the PCO device inserted in the closed-loop reactor did not theoretically depend on the flow rate (see Part I), the experimental results did not enable the confirmation of this prediction. The initial concentration was also a parameter influencing the CADR, as well as the toluene degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate rmax ranged from 342 to 4894 ppbv/h. Finally, this study evidenced that a recirculation closed-loop pilot could be used to develop a reliable standard test method to assess the effectiveness of PCO devices.

  3. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Héquet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The performances of a laboratory PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO device were determined using a recirculation closed-loop pilot reactor. The closed-loop system was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: a perfectly mixed reservoir with a volume of VR = 0.42 m3 and a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device with a volume of VP = 5.6 × 10−3 m3. The PCO device was composed of a pleated photocatalytic filter (1100 cm2 and two 18-W UVA fluorescent tubes. The Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR of the apparatus was measured under different operating conditions. The influence of three operating parameters was investigated: (i light irradiance I from 0.10 to 2.0 mW·cm−2; (ii air velocity v from 0.2 to 1.9 m·s−1; and (iii initial toluene concentration C0 (200, 600, 1000 and 4700 ppbv. The results showed that the conditions needed to apply a first-order decay model to the experimental data (described in Part I were fulfilled. The CADR values, ranging from 0.35 to 3.95 m3·h−1, were mainly dependent on the light irradiance intensity. A square root influence of the light irradiance was observed. Although the CADR of the PCO device inserted in the closed-loop reactor did not theoretically depend on the flow rate (see Part I, the experimental results did not enable the confirmation of this prediction. The initial concentration was also a parameter influencing the CADR, as well as the toluene degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate rmax ranged from 342 to 4894 ppbv/h. Finally, this study evidenced that a recirculation closed-loop pilot could be used to develop a reliable standard test method to assess the effectiveness of PCO devices.

  4. Experimental research on molten salt thermofluid technology using a high-temperature molten salt loop applied for a fusion reactor Flibe blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Saburo; Chiba, Shinya E-mail: schiba@karma.qse.tohoku.ac.jp; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Omae, Masahiro; Sagara, Akio

    2002-12-01

    Experimental research on molten salt thermofluid technology using a high-temperature molten salt loop (MSL) is described in this paper. The MSL was designed to be able to use Flibe as a coolant, however, a simulant, heat transfer salt (HTS) has to be used alternatively since Flibe is difficult to operate under avoiding a biohazard of Be. Experiment on heat-transfer enhancement, that is required for applying to cool the high heat flux components of fusion reactors, is ongoing. Preliminary experimental results showed that an internal structure of a mixing chamber in the MSL was important to obtain accurate bulk temperatures under severe thermal conditions. For operating the loop, careful handling are needed to proceed how to melt the salt and to circulate it in starting the operation of the MSL. It is concluded that several improvements proposed from the present experiences should be applied for the future Flibe operation.

  5. Experimental Study of an Integrated System with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per

    The experiments are carried out in a climate chamber located at the Department of Civil Engineering Aalborg University. The objective of the experiments is to evaluate the performance of the system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation and thermally activated building construction (TABS) in terms...

  6. Experimental Bleaching of a Reef-Building Coral Using a Simplified Recirculating Laboratory Exposure System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining stressor-response relationships in reef building corals is a critical need for researchers because of global declines in coral reef ecosystems. A simplified recirculating coral exposure system for laboratory testing of a diversity of species and morphologies of reef b...

  7. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  8. Reactor power monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Naotaka; Igawa, Shinji; Kitazono, Hideaki

    1998-02-13

    The present invention provides a reactor power monitoring device capable of ensuring circumstance resistance, high reliability and high speed transmission even if an APRM is disposed in a reactor building (R/B). Namely, signal processing sections (APRM) for transmitting data to a central control chamber are distributed in the reactor building at an area at the lowest temperature among areas where the temperature control in an emergency state is regulated, and a transmission processing section (APRM-I/F) for transmitting data to the other systems is disposed to the central control chamber. An LPRM signal transmission processing section is constituted such that LPRM signals can be transmitted at a high speed by DMA. Set values relevant to reactor tripping (neutron flux high, thermal output high and sudden reduction of a reactor core flow rate) are stored in the APRM-I/F, and reactor tripping calculation is conducted in the APRM-I/F. With such procedure, a reactor power monitoring device having enhanced control function can be attained. (N.H.)

  9. Development of Flow-Through Polymeric Membrane Reactor for Liquid Phase Reactions: Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalkachew Chanie Mengistie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating metal nanoparticles into polymer membranes can endow the membranes with additional functions. This work explores the development of catalytic polymer membrane through synthesis of palladium nanoparticles based on the approaches of intermatrix synthesis (IMS inside surface functionalized polyethersulfone (PES membrane and its application to liquid phase reactions. Flat sheet PES membranes have been successfully modified via UV-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid monomer. Palladium nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical reduction of palladium precursor loaded on surface modified membranes, an approach to the design of membranes modified with nanomaterials. The catalytic performances of the nanoparticle incorporated membranes have been evaluated by the liquid phase reduction of p-nitrophenol using NaBH4 as a reductant in flow-through membrane reactor configuration. The nanocomposite membranes containing palladium nanoparticles were catalytically efficient in achieving a nearly 100% conversion and the conversion was found to be dependent on the flux, amount of catalyst, and initial concentration of nitrophenol. The proposed mathematical model equation represents satisfactorily the reaction and transport phenomena in flow-through catalytic membrane reactor.

  10. Experimental Analysis of Cool Traditional Solar Shading Systems for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing interest in the development and thermal-energy analysis of passive solutions for reducing building cooling needs and thus improving indoor thermal comfort conditions. In this view, several studies were carried out about cool roofs and cool coatings, producing acknowledged mitigation effects on urban heat island phenomenon. The purpose of this work is to investigate the thermal-energy performance of cool louvers of shutters, usually installed in residential buildings, compared to dark color traditional shading systems. To this aim, two full-scale prototype buildings were continuously monitored under summer conditions and the role of the cool shutter in reducing the overheating of the shading system and the energy requirements for cooling was analyzed. After an in-lab optical analysis of the cool coating, showing a huge solar reflectance increase with respect to the traditional configuration, i.e., by about 75%, field monitoring results showed that the cool shutter is able to decrease the indoor air temperature up to 2 °C under free floating conditions. The corresponding energy saving was about 25%, with even much higher peaks during very hot summer conditions.

  11. Development of Safety Analysis Codes and Experimental Validation for a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor - FY-05 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh

    2005-09-01

    The very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTGRs) are those concepts that have average coolant temperatures above 9000C or operational fuel temperatures above 12500C. These concepts provide the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation and nuclear hydrogen generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperatures to support process heat applications, such as desalination and cogeneration, the VHTGR’s higher temperatures are suitable for particular applications such as thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the high temperature operation can be detrimental to safety following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) initiated by pipe breaks caused by seismic or other events. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air from the containment will enter the core by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structures and fuel. The oxidation will release heat and accelerate the heatup of the reactor core. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has investigated this event for the past three years for the HTGR. However, the computer codes used, and in fact none of the world’s computer codes, have been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably predict this event. New code development, improvement of the existing codes, and experimental validation are imperative to narrow the uncertainty in the predictions of this type of accident. The objectives of this Korean/United States collaboration are to develop advanced computational methods for VHTGR safety analysis codes and to validate these computer codes.

  12. Experimental and modeling study of the effect of CO and H2 on the urea DeNO(x) process in a 150kW laboratory reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M Tayyeb; Nimmo, W; Gibbs, B M

    2008-01-01

    An experimental and modeling investigation has been performed to study the effect of process additives, H2 and CO on NO(x) removal from flue gases by a selective non-catalytic reduction process using urea as a reducing agent. Experiments were performed with a flow reactor in which flue gas was generated by the combustion of propane in air at 3% excess oxygen and the desired levels of initial NO(x) (500ppm) were achieved by doping the flame with ammonia. Experiments were performed throughout the temperature range of interest, i.e. from 850 to 1200 degrees C for investigation of the effects of the process additives on the performance of aqueous urea DeNO(x). Subsequently, computational kinetic modeling with SENKIN code was performed to analyze the performance of urea providing a direct comparison of modeling prediction with experimental measurements. With CO addition, a downwards shift of 215 degrees C in the peak reduction temperature from 1125 to 910 degrees C was observed during the experimentation while the kinetic modeling suggests it to be 150 degrees C, i.e. from 1020 to 870 degrees C. The addition of H2 impairs the peak NO(x) reduction but suggests a low temperature application of the process. A downward shift of 250 degrees C in the peak reduction temperature, from 1020 to 770 degrees C, was observed during kinetic modeling studies. The kinetic modeling shows a good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations and reveals additional information about the process.

  13. The Polyvalent Heat Supply System for Experimental Building of the Passive Type (area of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of the development and implementation of heat supply system for experimental building of the passive type are presented, optimal operating conditions are investigated, guidelines for the creation of heat supply systems for passive type buildings are provided.

  14. Electrical Supply System for the Experimental Zero-Energy Building (of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the development and implementation of the power supply system of the experimental zero-energy building based on renewable and alternative energy sources are presented. CDF-model to determine the optimal conditions for the deployment of wind energy installations within the building limits is developed.

  15. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    buildings to cover acoustic requirements hinders the use of TABS. To measure the reduction of the heat capacity, several experiments are performed in a room equipped with TABS in the upper deck and mixing ventilation. The heat transfer is measured for different suspended ceiling covering percentages...... that the ventilation rate has a high influence on the convective heat capacity. When the ventilation rate is increased from 1.7 h-1 to 2.9 h-1, the heat transfer coefficient increases up to 16% for the same occupancy and suspended ceiling layout....

  16. Sequential Aeration of Membrane-Aerated Biofilm Reactors for High-Rate Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal: Experimental Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Sun, Sheng-Peng; Lackner, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    One-stage autotrophic nitrogen (N) removal, requiring the simultaneous activity of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB and AnAOB), can be obtained in spatially redox-stratified biofilms. However, previous experience with Membrane-Aerated Biofilm Reactors (MABRs) has revealed......S rRNA gene confirmed that sequential aeration, even at elevated average O2 loads, stimulated the abundance of AnAOB and AOB and prevented the increase in NOB. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were 100-fold lower compared to other anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox)-nitritation systems. Hence...... a difficulty in reducing the abundance and activity of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), which drastically lowers process efficiency. Here we show how sequential aeration is an effective strategy to attain autotrophic N removal in MABRs: Two separate MABRs, which displayed limited or no N removal under...

  17. Pilot Experimentation with Complete Mixing Anoxic Reactors to Improve Sewage Denitrification in Treatment Plants in Small Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of two sewage treatment tests in a community of 15,000 inhabitants. The sewage treatment plant is subject to strong fluctuations in load (BOD5, COD, TKN, and in particular in the BOD5/TKN ratio. These fluctuations adversely affect the biological denitrification, as demonstrated by many pilot and real-scale plants. The plants we tested were subjected to two treatment types: anoxic-aerobic and simultaneous denitrification. Both processes are designed for complete mixing conditions in the reactors in order to level the fluctuations in the load and thus improve the denitrification efficiency. The results prove that an average denitrification efficiency of up to 80% can be achieved with the sludge loading close to 0.1 kg BOD5 (d∙kgMLVSS−1. The effect of the sludge loading and dissolved oxygen on the denitrification efficiency is highlighted.

  18. Defluoridation of drinking water using a new flow column-electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) - Experimental, statistical, and economic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Khalid S; Shaw, Andy; Al Khaddar, Rafid; Ortoneda Pedrola, Montserrat; Phipps, David

    2017-07-15

    A new batch, flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) that utilises a perforated plate flow column as a mixer has been used to remove fluoride from drinking water. A comprehensive study has been carried out to assess its performance. The efficiency of fluoride removal (R%) as a function of key operational parameters such as initial pH, detention time (t), current density (CD), inter-electrode distance (ID) and initial concentration (C 0 ) has been examined and an empirical model has been developed. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of the influence of the EC process on morphology of the surface of the aluminium electrodes, showed the erosion caused by aluminium loss. A preliminary estimation of the reactor's operating cost is suggested, allowing for the energy from recycling of hydrogen gas hydrogen gas produced amount. The results obtained showed that 98% of fluoride was removed within 25 min of electrolysis at pH of 6, ID of 5 mm, and CD of 2 mA/cm 2 . The general relationship between fluoride removal and operating parameters could be described by a linear model with R 2 of 0.823. The contribution of the operating parameters to the suggested model followed the order: t > CD > C 0  > ID > pH. The SEM images obtained showed that, after the EC process, the surface of the anodes, became non-uniform with a large number of irregularities due to the generation of aluminium hydroxides. It is suggested that these do not materially affect the performance. A provisional estimate of the operating cost was 0.379 US $/m 3 . Additionally, it has been found that 0.6 kW/m 3 is potentially recoverable from the H 2 gas. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of BWR regional stability experimental facility SIRIUS-F, which simulates thermal-hydraulics-neutronics coupling in reactor core, and stability evaluation of ABWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masahiro Furuya; Fumio Inada [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) 2-11-1 Iwado-kita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Takanori Fukahori [Global Nuclear Fuel Japan (GNF-J) 2-3-1 Uchikawa, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0836 (Japan); Shinya Mizokami [Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) 1-1-3 Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-0011 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The SIRIUS-F facility was designed and constructed for highly accurate simulation of channel, core-wide and regional instabilities of an ABWR. A real-time simulation is performed for the modal-point kinetics of reactor neutronics and fuel-rod conduction on the basis of a measured void fraction in a reactor core section of the facility. A noise analysis method was performed to calculate decay ratios from dominant poles of transfer function on the basis of the AR method by applying time series of a core inlet flow rate. By utilizing this method, one can estimate stability at any specific operating point online without assuming excess conservative conditions. Channel and regional stability experiments were conducted for a wide range of operating conditions including maximum power points along the minimum pump speed line and the natural circulation line of the ABWR. The decay ratios and the resonance frequencies are in good agreement with those from the design analysis code, ODYSY. The SIRIUS-F experimental results demonstrated stability characteristics such as a stabilizing effect of the power, and reviled a sufficiently large stability margin even under hypothetical conditions of power enlargement. (authors)

  20. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations on the 192Os(p,n)192Ir reaction: Comparison of reactor and cyclotron production of the therapeutic radionuclide 192Ir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, K; Sudár, S; Qaim, S M

    2005-07-01

    In a search for an alternative route of production of the important therapeutic radionuclide (192)Ir (T(1/2)=78.83 d), the excitation function of the reaction (192)Os(p,n)(192)Ir was investigated from its threshold up to 20 MeV. Thin samples of enriched (192)Os were obtained by electrodeposition on Ni, and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. The experimental data were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the codes EMPIRE-II and ALICE-IPPE. Good agreement was found with EMPIRE-II, but slightly less with the ALICE-IPPE calculations. The theoretical thick target yield of (192)Ir over the energy range E(p)=16-->8 MeV amounts to only 0.16MBq/muA.h. A comparison of the reactor and cyclotron production methods is given. In terms of yield and radionuclidic purity of (192)Ir the reactor method appears to be superior; the only advantage of the cyclotron method could be the higher specific activity of the product.

  1. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations on the $^{192}Os (p, n)^{192}$Ir reaction Comparison of reactor and cyclotron production of the therapeutic radionuclide $^{192}$Ir

    CERN Document Server

    Hilgers, K; Sudar, S; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.12.010

    2005-01-01

    In a search for an alternative route of production of the important therapeutic radionuclide /sup 192/Ir (T/sub 1/2/=78.83 d), the excitation function of the reaction /sup 192/Os(p, n)/sup 192/Ir was investigated from its threshold up to 20MeV. Thin samples of enriched /sup 192/Os were obtained by electrodeposition on Ni, and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. The experimental data were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the codes EMPIRE-II and ALICE-IPPE. Good agreement was found with EMPIRE-II, but slightly less with the ALICE-IPPE calculations. The theoretical thick target yield of /sup 192/Ir over the energy range E/sub p/=16 to 8MeV amounts to only 0.16MBq/ mu A.h. A comparison of the reactor and cyclotron production methods is given. In terms of yield and radionuclidic purity of /sup 192/Ir the reactor method appears to be superior; the only advantage of the cyclotron method could be the higher specific activity of the product.

  2. Feasibility of processing the experimental breeder reactor-II driver fuel from the Idaho National Laboratory through Savannah River Site's H-Canyon facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to evaluate the potential to receive and process the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) uranium (U) recovered from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) driver fuel through the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) H-Canyon as a way to disposition the material. INL recovers the uranium from the sodium bonded metallic fuel irradiated in the EBR-II reactor using an electrorefining process. There were two compositions of EBR-II driver fuel. The early generation fuel was U-5Fs, which consisted of 95% U metal alloyed with 5% noble metal elements “fissium” (2.5% molybdenum, 2.0% ruthenium, 0.3% rhodium, 0.1% palladium, and 0.1% zirconium), while the later generation was U-10Zr which was 90% U metal alloyed with 10% zirconium. A potential concern during the H-Canyon nitric acid dissolution process of the U metal containing zirconium (Zr) is the explosive behavior that has been reported for alloys of these materials. For this reason, this evaluation was focused on the ability to process the lower Zr content materials, the U-5Fs material.

  3. Influence of Experimental Parameters on Fatigue Crack Growth and Heat Build-Up in Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Franziska; Koch, Thomas; Archodoulaki, Vasiliki-Maria; Planitzer, Florian; Fidi, Wolfgang; Holzner, Armin

    2013-11-27

    Loading parameters (frequency, amplitude ratio and waveform) are varied to determine their influence on fatigue crack growth in rubber. Up to three different rubber blends are investigated: one actual engineering material and two model materials. Fatigue crack growth curves and strain distributions of pure shear and faint waist pure shear samples are compared for a model material. Fatigue behavior is studied for three different frequencies (1 Hz, 3 Hz and 5 Hz). Amplitude ratio appears to be another important influence factor concerning fatigue crack growth in rubber. The beneficial effect of positive amplitude ratios (tensional loading conditions) is shown for different materials. However, fatigue crack growth is considerably increased for negative amplitude ratios (tensional-compressional loading conditions). Furthermore, the influence of the waveform is determined for three different waveform shapes. One is sinusoidal, and two have a square shape, including dwell periods and sinusoidal slopes. Special focus lies on heat build-up, which is substantial, especially for large loads, high frequencies and/or highly filled rubber blends. Plateau temperatures are determined for various loading conditions and rubber blends. A very simple linear relationship with dissipated energy per time and unit area is obtained. Results gathered with dynamic mechanical analyses show, likewise, a linear trend, but the heat build-up is very small, due to different sample geometries.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Lime Mortar Used in Historical Buildings in Becin, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem SOLAK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance that the architectural and engineering disciplines work together in the restoration studies of historical buildings which are our cultural heritages. It is required that the bearing system and the materials of the structures should be investigated in detail prior to any conservation. The determination of the properties and compositions of the mortar material used in the construction of the historical building is one of the most important phases of the conservation studies and it is the main purpose of this study. In the scope of the study, the basic physical and mechanical properties, micro structures, raw material compositions, mineralogical and chemical properties of historical mortars taken from Kizil Khan, Karapasah Madrasah and Yelli Mosque structures in Becin antique city are determined. As a result of the study, it is determined that all mortar samples have hydraulic properties that is a result of hydraulic properties of binder lime.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.9022

  5. Experimental and numerical modelling of thermal performance of a residential building in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučićević Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate simulation of thermal performance of a residential 4 floors high building placed in the suburb of Belgrade (ground and 3 upper floors with it's total surface area of 1410 m2. It's supplied with liquid petroleum gas storage tank as a fuel reservoir since there is automatic gas boiler in each apartment. Measurements have been carried out in first floor apartment (68 m2 heating area in heating season period. Measured parameters are: inside and outside air temperature and U-value of apartment envelope. Weather data is obtained by using METEONORM, the software package for climatic data calculation based on last 10 years measurements. TRNSYS 16 has been used as the simulation tool. The behavior of the building in terms of heating loads for climate on a daily and monthly basis in heating season is investigated. The calculations show possibility for saving energy by optimization inside temperature during different gas boiler working regimes.

  6. Simple Simulated Propagation Modeling and Experimentation within and around Buildings at 2700 MHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanay Bhatt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in understanding wave behavior in urban and suburban environment for 5th generation broadband applications. With the advent of using broadband technologies in buildings, office space and vehicle have become a necessity on a large scale. Models, predictions, and calculations for in-building, within a vehicle or near a reflective object with microscale details, are becoming highly classified in a competitive telecom environment. This paper provides an improved understanding of signal strength behavior within suburban residences with predictions prequalified using a vehicular scanner. Supporting predictions are provided by a ray tracing algorithm developed for dissertation. Results indicate signal strength variation of more than 50 dB from “strong signal” locations such as room centers and far corners to “weak signal” locations where shadowing and tunneling effects are evident. Based on this unique classification a scheme is proposed which indicates that specular scattering provides the major signal energy at more than 70% of the locations within the residences. Finally, an observed rake stabilizing effect is attributed to the proximity of strong scatterers.

  7. Analysis of Software Development Methodologies to Build Safety Software Applications for the SATEX-II: A Mexican Experimental Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cisneros, Jorge; Vargas Martinez, Hector; Pedroza Melendez, Alejandro; Alonso Arevalo, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Mexico is a country where the experience to build software for satellite applications is beginning. This is a delicate situation because in the near future we will need to develop software for the SATEX-II (Mexican Experimental Satellite). SATEX- II is a SOMECyTA's project (the Mexican Society of Aerospace Science and Technology). We have experienced applying software development methodologies, like TSP (Team Software Process) and SCRUM in other areas. Then, we analyzed these methodologies and we concluded: these can be applied to develop software for the SATEX-II, also, we supported these methodologies with SSP-05-0 Standard in particular with ESA PSS-05-11. Our analysis was focusing on main characteristics of each methodology and how these methodologies could be used with the ESA PSS 05-0 Standards. Our outcomes, in general, may be used by teams who need to build small satellites, but, in particular, these are going to be used when we will build the on board software applications for the SATEX-II.

  8. Influence of PCMs on thermal behavior of building walls: experimental study using the walls of a reduced scale room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gounni Ayoub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Phase-Change Materials (PCM for lightweight building applications can increase equivalent thermal mass and provide energy savings. In the present experimental work, the heat transfer performance testing of some building walls, with or without PCM, is carried out using a reduced-scale cubic room (the test-cell. The cubic cell is heated by an incandescent bulb placed on its centre, and it is housed in an air-conditioned large-scale room that allows to control the ambient air temperature. The effect of the double PCM layer and of its location relatively to the outside surface of the wall is tested and discussed in terms of overall transmitted heat flux and in terms of reduction of the inside and outside surface temperatures. Findings shows that the additional inertia introduced by the PCM leads to a reduced overall heat flux transmission by the wall and to a lesser daily temperature amplitude on the surface of the wall that enhances the thermal comfort inside the building. In the next step of this work, the case of sandwich walls with air gap, and with wood and PCM layers will be considered.

  9. Influence of PCMs on thermal behavior of building walls: experimental study using the walls of a reduced scale room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounni, Ayoub; Tahar Mabrouk, Mohamed; Kheiri, Abdelhamid; El alami, Mustapha

    2017-11-01

    Using Phase-Change Materials (PCM) for lightweight building applications can increase equivalent thermal mass and provide energy savings. In the present experimental work, the heat transfer performance testing of some building walls, with or without PCM, is carried out using a reduced-scale cubic room (the test-cell). The cubic cell is heated by an incandescent bulb placed on its centre, and it is housed in an air-conditioned large-scale room that allows to control the ambient air temperature. The effect of the double PCM layer and of its location relatively to the outside surface of the wall is tested and discussed in terms of overall transmitted heat flux and in terms of reduction of the inside and outside surface temperatures. Findings shows that the additional inertia introduced by the PCM leads to a reduced overall heat flux transmission by the wall and to a lesser daily temperature amplitude on the surface of the wall that enhances the thermal comfort inside the building. In the next step of this work, the case of sandwich walls with air gap, and with wood and PCM layers will be considered.

  10. Accelerating Venture Creation and Building on Mutual Strengths in Experimental Business Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, Martin G.; Formica, Piero

    2010-01-01

    This paper articulates the opportunity of using an experimental business laboratory approach as a means of accelerating the creation, incubation and testing of new venture ideas. Such a strategy leads to the establishment of a micro-ecosystem of aspiring entrepreneurs and others in a business laboratory environment. The goal is to create a mini…

  11. Building a "cyber forest" in complex terrain at the Andrews Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald L. Henshaw; Fred Bierlmaier; Barbara J. Bond; Kari B. O' Connell

    2008-01-01

    Our vision for a future "cyber forest" at the Andrews Experimental Forest foresees high performance wireless communications enhancing connectivity among remote field research locations, station headquarters, and beyond to the university and outside world. New sensor technologies and collaboration tools foretell exponential increases in data and information...

  12. Building upon the Experimental Design in Media Violence Research: The Importance of Including Receiver Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Tomasello, Tami K.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that the inclusion of viewer interpretation variables in experimental design and analysis procedures can greatly increase the methodology's ability to explain variance. Focuses attention on the between-group differences, while an analysis of how individual participants interpret the cues in the stimulus material focused attention on the…

  13. Numerical Analysis and Experimental Verification of Stresses Building up in Microelectronics Packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaie Adli, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis comprises a thorough study of the microelectronics packaging process by means of various experimental and numerical methods to estimate the process induced residual stresses. The main objective of the packaging is to encapsulate the die, interconnections and the other exposed internal

  14. Experimental and numerical investigation of gas/liquid phase boundaries representing the reference level for hydrostatic level measurements in boiling water reactors; Experimentelle und numerische Untersuchung von Gas/Liquid-Phasengrenzflaechen als Referenzwert fuer die hydrostatische Fuellstandsmessung in Siedewasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Stephan

    2013-12-17

    The experimental and numerical investigation of gas/liquid phase boundaries representing the reference level for hydrostatic level measurements in boiling water reactors is considered as relevant for reactor safety research. The experiments allow a quantification of the transition processes in hydrostatic level measurement devices that were up to now only assessed by phenomenological descriptions. Experimental studies covered the topology and stability of water/vapor phase boundaries and the numerical description using CFD codes, including modeling of the surface topology and modeling of the heat and mass transport.

  15. Optimization Design Method and Experimental Validation of a Solar PVT Cogeneration System Based on Building Energy Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT technology refers to the integration of a photovoltaic (PV and a conventional solar thermal collector, representing the deep exploitation and utilization of solar energy. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a solar PVT cogeneration system based on specific building energy demand using theoretical modeling and experimental study. Through calculation and simulation, the dynamic heating load and electricity load is obtained as the basis of the system design. An analytical expression for the connection of PVT collector array is derived by using basic energy balance equations and thermal models. Based on analytical results, an optimized design method was carried out for the system. In addition, the fuzzy control method of frequency conversion circulating water pumps and pipeline switching by electromagnetic valves is introduced in this paper to maintain the system at an optimal working point. Meanwhile, an experimental setup is established, which includes 36 PVT collectors with every 6 PVT collectors connected in series. The thermal energy generation, thermal efficiency, power generation and photovoltaic efficiency have been given in this paper. The results demonstrate that the demonstration solar PVT cogeneration system can meet the building energy demand in the daytime in the heating season.

  16. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation of coolant mixing in a model of reactor pressure vessel down-comer and in cold leg inlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutli Ezddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal fatigue and pressurized thermal shock phenomena are the main problems for the reactor pressure vessel and the T-junctions both of them depend on the mixing of the coolant. The mixing process, flow and temperature distribution has been investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry, laser induced fluorescence, and simulated by CFD tools. The obtained results showed that the ratio of flow rate between the main pipe and the branch pipe has a big influence on the mixing process. The particle image velocimetry/planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements technologies proved to be suitable for the investigation of turbulent mixing in the complicated flow system: both velocity and temperature distribution are important parameters in the determination of thermal fatigue and pressurized thermal shock. Results of the applied these techniques showed that both of them can be used as a good provider for data base and to validate CFD results.

  18. Evaluation of wind-induced internal pressure in low-rise buildings: A multi scale experimental and numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecle, Amanuel Sebhatu

    Hurricane is one of the most destructive and costly natural hazard to the built environment and its impact on low-rise buildings, particularity, is beyond acceptable. The major objective of this research was to perform a parametric evaluation of internal pressure (IP) for wind-resistant design of low-rise buildings and wind-driven natural ventilation applications. For this purpose, a multi-scale experimental, i.e. full-scale at Wall of Wind (WoW) and small-scale at Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel (BLWT), and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach was adopted. This provided new capability to assess wind pressures realistically on internal volumes ranging from small spaces formed between roof tiles and its deck to attic to room partitions. Effects of sudden breaching, existing dominant openings on building envelopes as well as compartmentalization of building interior on the IP were systematically investigated. Results of this research indicated: (i) for sudden breaching of dominant openings, the transient overshooting response was lower than the subsequent steady state peak IP and internal volume correction for low-wind-speed testing facilities was necessary. For example a building without volume correction experienced a response four times faster and exhibited 30--40% lower mean and peak IP; (ii) for existing openings, vent openings uniformly distributed along the roof alleviated, whereas one sided openings aggravated the IP; (iii) larger dominant openings exhibited a higher IP on the building envelope, and an off-center opening on the wall exhibited (30--40%) higher IP than center located openings; (iv) compartmentalization amplified the intensity of IP and; (v) significant underneath pressure was measured for field tiles, warranting its consideration during net pressure evaluations. The study aimed at wind driven natural ventilation indicated: (i) the IP due to cross ventilation was 1.5 to 2.5 times higher for Ainlet/Aoutlet>1 compared to cases where Ainlet

  19. The experimental study of heating sources in living room of multistory building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станіслав Вячеславович Попов

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review of current sources of heating of residential premises was undertaken. The results of experimental studies of heating sources, for example a living room of 16 m2 in a brick house on the middle floor are presented. Methods and means of measurement are described. The best sources from the point of view of minimum energy consumption and the cost of their monthly usage were determined

  20. Building a Science of Animal Minds: Lloyd Morgan, Experimentation, and Morgan's Canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Simon; Goodrich, Grant

    2017-08-01

    Conwy Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936) is widely regarded as the father of modern comparative psychology. Yet, Morgan initially had significant doubts about whether a genuine science of comparative psychology was even possible, only later becoming more optimistic about our ability to make reliable inferences about the mental capacities of non-human animals. There has been a fair amount of disagreement amongst scholars of Morgan's work about the nature, timing, and causes of this shift in Morgan's thinking. We argue that Morgan underwent two quite different shifts of attitude towards the proper practice of comparative psychology. The first was a qualified acceptance of the Romanesian approach to comparative psychology that he had initially criticized. The second was a shift away from Romanes' reliance on systematizing anecdotal evidence of animal intelligence towards an experimental approach, focused on studying the development of behaviour. We emphasize the role of Morgan's evolving epistemological views in bringing about the first shift - in particular, his philosophy of science. We emphasize the role of an intriguing but overlooked figure in the history of comparative psychology in explaining the second shift, T. Mann Jones, whose correspondence with Morgan provided an important catalyst for Morgan's experimental turn, particularly the special focus on development. We also shed light on the intended function of Morgan's Canon, the methodological principle for which Morgan is now mostly known. The Canon can only be properly understood by seeing it in the context of Morgan's own unique experimental vision for comparative psychology.

  1. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  2. Easy-to-Build Satellite Beacon Receiver for Propagation Experimentation at Millimeter Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Machado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and development of a digital satellite beacon receiver for propagation experimentation. Satellite beacons are frequently available for pointing large antennas, but such signals can be used for measuring rain attenuation and other phenomena as, for example, tropospheric scintillation. A fairly inexpensive beacon receiver has been built using off-the-shelf parts. This instrument is not at all bulky making it suitable for easy transportation. This article analyzes the receiver specifications, describes in detail its structure and presents some operational test results.

  3. Seismic Evaluation of a Multitower Connected Building by Using Three Software Programs with Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyuan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai International Design Center (SHIDC is a hybrid structure of steel frame and reinforced concrete core tube (SF-RCC. It is a building of unequal height two-tower system and the story lateral stiffness of two towers is different, which may result in the torsion effect. To fully evaluate structural behaviors of SHIDC under earthquakes, NosaCAD, ABAQUS, and Perform-3D, which are widely applied for nonlinear structure analysis, were used to perform elastoplastic time history analyses. Numerical results were compared with those of shake table testing. NosaCAD has function modules for transforming the nonlinear analysis model to Perform-3D and ABAQUS. These models were used in ABAQUS or Perform-3D directly. With the model transformation, seismic performances of SHIDC were fully investigated. Analyses have shown that the maximum interstory drift can satisfy the limits specified in Chinese code and the failure sequence of structural members was reasonable. It meant that the earthquake input energy can be well dissipated. The structure keeps in an undamaged state under frequent earthquakes and it does not collapse under rare earthquakes; therefore, the seismic design target is satisfied. The integrated use of multisoftware with the validation of shake table testing provides confidence for a safe design of such a complex structure.

  4. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  5. Integration of a hygrothermal transfer model for envelope in a building energy simulation model: experimental validation of a HAM-BES co-simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroukhi, M. Y.; Abahri, K.; Belarbi, R.; Limam, K.

    2017-06-01

    The present paper focuses on studying a new methodology to predict the overall behavior of buildings, which combines two simulation tools: COMSOL Multiphysicsand TRNSYS. The first software is used for the modeling of heat, air and moisture transfer in multilayer porous walls (HAM model—Heat, Air and Moisture transfer), and the second is used to simulate the hygrothermal behavior of the building (BES model—Building Energy Simulation). The combined software applications dynamically solve the mass and energy conservation equations of the two physical models. In this context, a coupled heat, air and mass transfer model is proposed. This model incorporates simultaneously the diffusive, convective and conductive effects on the building elements. Heat transfer is considered in the strongly coupled situation where the mass and heat flux are temperature, vapor pressure and total pressure dependents. The model input parameters are evaluated experimentally through the development of various experimental prototypes in the laboratory. Thereafter, an experimental setup has been established in order to evaluate the hygrothermal process of building walls. The experimental procedure consists to follow the temperature and relative humidity evolutions within the envelope thickness, submitted to controlled and fixed boundary conditions. Finally, using the developed experimental device, comparison between experimental data and numerical solution of the HAM-BES co-simulation platform was undertaken. Results showed good agreement with acceptable errors margins.

  6. Development and verification test of integral reactor major components - Development of MCP impeller design, performance prediction code and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung Kyoon; Oh, Woo Hyoung; Song, Jae Wook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The present study is aimed at developing a computational code for design and performance prediction of an axial-flow pump. The proposed performance prediction method is tested against a model axial-flow pump streamline curvature method. The preliminary design is made by using the ideal velocity triangles at inlet and exit and the three dimensional blade shape is calculated by employing the free vortex design method. Then the detailed blading design is carried out by using experimental database of double circular arc cambered hydrofoils. To computationally determine the design incidence, deviation, blade camber, solidity and stagger angle, a number of correlation equations are developed form the experimental database and a theorical formula for the lift coefficient is adopted. A total of 8 equations are solved iteratively using an under-relaxation factor. An experimental measurement is conducted under a non-cavitating condition to obtain the off-design performance curve and also a cavitation test is carried out by reducing the suction pressure. The experimental results are very satisfactorily compared with the predictions by the streamline curvature method. 28 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  7. Fluid flow separation in a reactor pressure vessel during an ECC injection. Single phase flow and two phase flow (air-water) experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierry Bichet; Alain Martin [EDF - Research and Development Division - Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfert 6, quai Watier - B.P. 49 - 78401 Chatou CEDEX 01 (France); Frederic Beaud [EDF/ Industry - Basic Design Department., 12-14, Avenue Dutrievoz 69628 Villeurbanne CEDEX (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Within the framework of the nuclear power plant lifetime issue, the assessment of the French 900 MWe (3-loops) series reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity has been performed. A simplified analysis has shown that the most severe loading conditions are given by the small break loss of coolant accidents due to the pressurized injection of cold water (9 deg. C) into the cold leg and down comer of the RPV. During these transient scenarios, single or two-phase (uncovered cold leg) flows have been shown in the cold leg, depending on the crack size and RPV model (900 MWe or 1300 MWe). An experimental study has been carried out, on the one hand, to consolidate the numerical results obtained with CFD home code (Code-Saturne) which mainly showed the stratified flow in the cold leg and the fluid flow separation and its oscillations in the down comer during a single phase scenario. These physical phenomena are important for the thermal RPV loading assessment. On the other hand, the absence of experimental two-phase data necessitated to carry out an experimental study around the mixing area behavior (free surface, stratified flow) during an ECC injection with an uncovered cold leg. The new EDF R and D mock up, called HYBISCUS, is a facility which is made out of Plexiglas (atmosphere pressure) and represents a half scale CP0 geometry with one cold leg and part of the down comer. The mock up modularity allows us to insert representative ECC nozzles and a thermal shield. In reference to the reactor scenarios, the experimental operating conditions are derived from the conservation of the density effects (Froude number). For that, a heated salted water flow is used to represent the ECC injection whereas water represents the cold leg fluid. This mock up has been defined in order to represent single phase flow (cold leg and down comer full of water) or two-phase flow (uncovered cold leg) ECC scenarios. This paper reports experimental results

  8. Reactor flux calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuillier, D. [Commissariat à l' Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-02-15

    The status of the prediction of reactor anti-neutrino spectra is presented. The most accurate method is still the conversion of total β spectra of fissionning isotopes as measured at research reactors. Recent re-evaluations of the conversion process led to an increased predicted flux by few percent and were at the origin of the so-called reactor anomaly. The up to date predictions are presented with their main sources of error. Perspectives are given on the complementary ab-initio predictions and upcoming experimental cross-checks of the predicted spectrum shape.

  9. Building an understanding of water use innovation adoption processes through farmer-driven experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Jody D.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.; Lorentz, Simon A.

    Smallholder farmers in Southern Africa are faced with the challenge of securing their livelihoods within the context of a wide variety of biophysical and socio-economic constraints. Agriculture is inherently risky, particularly in regions prone to drought or dry spells, and risk-averse farmers may be viewed by researchers or extension agents as reluctant to invest in agricultural innovations that have potential to improve their livelihoods. However, farmers themselves are more interested in personal livelihood security than any other stakeholder and it is the farmers’ perceptions of needs, investment options and risks that drive their decision-making process. A holistic approach to agricultural innovation development and extension is needed to address both socio-economic and biophysical dynamics that influence adoption and dissemination of innovations. This paper, presents a methodology for involving farmers from the Bergville district of South Africa in the process of innovation development through facilitation of farmer-driven gardening experiments. Facilitating farmer-driven experimentation allows farmers to methodically assess the value of innovations they choose to study while providing researchers with a venue for learning about socio-economic as well as biophysical influences on farmers’ decisions. With this knowledge, researchers can focus on developing innovations that are socially and economically appropriate and therefore, more readily adoptable. The participatory process gave farmers the tools they needed to make informed decisions through critical thinking and analysis and improved their confidence in explaining the function of innovations to others. Researchers were able to use farmers’ manually collected data and observations to supplement laboratory generated and electronically recorded information about soil water dynamics to understand water balances associated with different garden bed designs, and to investigate whether trench beds, drip

  10. Experimental studies and computational benchmark on heavy liquid metal natural circulation in a full height-scale test loop for small modular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yong-Hoon, E-mail: chaotics@snu.ac.kr [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaehyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111 Daedeok-daero, 989 Beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jueun; Ju, Heejae; Sohn, Sungjune; Kim, Yeji; Noh, Hyunyub; Hwang, Il Soon [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Experimental studies on natural circulation for lead-bismuth eutectic were conducted. • Adiabatic wall boundaries conditions were established by compensating heat loss. • Computational benchmark with a system thermal-hydraulics code was performed. • Numerical simulation and experiment showed good agreement in mass flow rate. • An empirical relation was formulated for mass flow rate with experimental data. - Abstract: In order to test the enhanced safety of small lead-cooled fast reactors, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) natural circulation characteristics have been studied. We present results of experiments with LBE non-isothermal natural circulation in a full-height scale test loop, HELIOS (heavy eutectic liquid metal loop for integral test of operability and safety of PEACER), and the validation of a system thermal-hydraulics code. The experimental studies on LBE were conducted under steady state as a function of core power conditions from 9.8 kW to 33.6 kW. Local surface heaters on the main loop were activated and finely tuned by trial-and-error approach to make adiabatic wall boundary conditions. A thermal-hydraulic system code MARS-LBE was validated by using the well-defined benchmark data. It was found that the predictions were mostly in good agreement with the experimental data in terms of mass flow rate and temperature difference that were both within 7%, respectively. With experiment results, an empirical relation predicting mass flow rate at a non-isothermal, adiabatic condition in HELIOS was derived.

  11. Experimental demonstration of building and operating QoS-aware survivable vSD-EONs with transparent resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Guo, Jiannan; Kong, Bingxin; Yin, Heqing; Zhu, Zuqing

    2017-06-26

    Software-defined elastic optical networks (SD-EONs) provide operators more flexibility to customize their optical infrastructures dynamically. By leveraging infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), virtual SD-EONs (vSD-EONs) can be realized to further enhance the adaptivity of SD-EONs and shorten the time-to-market of new services. In this paper, we design and demonstrate the building and operating of quality-of-service (QoS) aware survivable vSD-EONs that are equipped with transparent data plane (DP) resiliency. Specifically, when slicing a vSD-EON, our network hypervisor (NHV) chooses to use "1:1" virtual link (VL) protection or on-demand VL remapping as the DP restoration scheme, according to the service-level agreement (SLA) between the vSD-EON's operator and the infrastructure provider (InP). Then, during an actual substrate link (SL) failure, the NHV realizes automatic DP restoration that is transparent to the controllers of vSD-EONs. We build a network testbed to demonstrate the creation of QoS-aware survivable vSD-EONs, the activation of lightpaths in the vSD-EONs to support upper-layer applications, and the automatic and simultaneous QoS-aware DP restorations during an SL failure. The experimental results indicate that our vSD-EON slicing system can build QoS-aware survivable vSD-EONs on-demand, operate them to set up lightpaths for carrying real application traffic, and facilitate differentiated DP restorations during SL failures to recover the vSD-EONs' services according to their SLAs.

  12. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Natural Convection in Open-Ended Channels with Application to Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timchenko V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical and experimental investigations of the flow and heat transfer in open-ended channel formed by the double skin façade have been undertaken in order to improve understanding of the phenomena and to apply it to passive cooling of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Both uniform heating and non-uniform heating configurations in which heat sources alternated with unheated zones on both skins were studied. Different periodic and asymmetric heating modes have been considered for the same aspect ratio 1/15 of wall distance to wall height and for periodicity 1/15 and 4/15 of heated/unheated zones and heat input, 220 W/m2. In computational study three dimensional transient LES simulation was carried out. It is shown that in comparison to uniformly heating configuration, non-uniformly heating configuration enhances both convective heat transfer and chimney effect.

  13. [Building of defects of the bladder wall by membrane, created on the basis of type I collagen (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalov, A A; Mksimov, V A; Kirpatovskiĭ, V I; Kudriavtsev, Iu V; Karpov, V K; Tokarev, F K; Kamalov, D M; Burov, V N; Okhobotov, D A

    2012-01-01

    Experimental study was performed on 24 Chinchilla rabbits, which underwent resection of the bladder with building of defect by membrane "Collost", created on the basis of type I collagen. The functional state of the bladder in situ was assessed by infusion cystomanometry during repeated surgery at 7, 14 day and at 1, 3, 6 months, and at 1 and 1.5 years. It is found that developing detrusor pressure during bladder contractions was decreased by 10 times in the first week of the study; it was in line with the subcompensation after 3 months, and was restored at 6 month. At 1 and 1.5 years, increase of cumulative function of bladder while saving detrusor pressure was observed. Dilating cystoplastics using biopolymer "Collost" provides good long-term functional results.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Research on Tensile Performance of Inter-Panel Fastener Joints of Large-Panel Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyakin, A. A.; Derbentsev, I. S.; Tarasov, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    When designing large-panel buildings, it is necessary to take into account the work of wall panel joints. In addition to welded joints, monolithic joints in the form of pinned joints of the loop releases of adjacent wall panels are widely used. The main characteristics of a joint in the design scheme are its rigidity and bearing capacity under the action of shear and tensile (compressive) forces. This paper studies a new type of an inter-panel joint in the form of a fastener junction of wall panels made using a bracket of reinforcing steel and a metal plate joining the ends of the bracket. Due to the creation of a closed loop of voltages in the node, its high load-bearing capacity is assumed as well as the possibility of using this connection under dynamic effects on the building. An experimental study of the strength and rigidity of the joint at tensile loading along the joint axis was carried out, the breakdown of the joint, the stiffness characteristics and the bearing capacity of the samples were determined. The numerical modeling of the joint’s work on stretching to the formation of cracks is carried out.

  15. Local Neutron Flux Distribution Measurements by Wire-Dosimetry in the AMMON Experimental Program in the EOLE Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruel A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dosimetry measurements were carried out during the AMMON experimental program, in the EOLE facility. Al-0.1 wt% Au wires were positioned along curved fuel plates of JHR-type assemblies to investigate the azimuthal and axial gold capture rate profiles, directly linked to the thermal and epithermal flux. After irradiation, wires were cut into small segments (a few mm, and the gold capture rate of each part was measured by gamma spectrometry on the MADERE platform. This paper presents results in the “hafnium” configuration, and more specifically the azimuthal flux profile characterization. The final uncertainty on each measured wire lies below 1% (at 2 standard deviations. Experimental profiles are in a good agreement against Monte Carlo calculations, and the 4% capture rate increase at the plate edge is well observed. The flux dissymmetry due to assembly position in the core is also measured, and shows a 10% discrepancy between the two edges of the plate.

  16. Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Frederick H. [Argonne National Laboratory; Jacobson, Norman H.

    1968-09-01

    This booklet discusses research reactors - reactors designed to provide a source of neutrons and/or gamma radiation for research, or to aid in the investigation of the effects of radiation on any type of material.

  17. Progress of thermal hydraulic evaluation methods and experimental studies on a sodium-cooled fast reactor and its safety in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamide, Hideki, E-mail: kamide.hideki@jaea.go.jp; Ohshima, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ohshima.hiroyuki@jaea.go.jp; Sakai, Takaaki, E-mail: sakai.takaaki@jaea.go.jp; Tanaka, Masaaki, E-mail: tanaka.masaaki@jaea.go.jp

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Thermal hydraulic issues for safety design criteria of sodium cooled fast reactors. • Measurement of velocity data in a subchannel surrounded by wire wrapped fuel-pins. • Statistical evaluation of core hot spot temperature during natural circulation. • Simulation of dynamics of molten fuel pool in a core disruptive accident. • V&V procedure of a multi-dimensional thermal hydraulic code on thermal striping. - Abstract: In the framework of the Generation-IV International Forum, the safety design criteria (SDC) incorporating safety-related R&D results on innovative technologies and lessons learned from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants accident has been established to provide the set of general criteria for the safety designs of structures, systems and components of Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (Gen-IV SFRs). A number of thermal-hydraulic evaluations are necessary to meet the concept of the criteria in the design studies of Gen-IV SFRs. This paper focuses on four kinds of thermal-hydraulic issues associated with the SDC, i.e., fuel subassembly thermal-hydraulics, natural circulation decay heat removal, core disruptive accidents, and thermal striping. Progress of evaluation methods on these issues is shown with activities on verification and validation (V&V) and experimental studies towards commercialization of SFR in Japan. These evaluation methods are planned to be eventually integrated into a comprehensive numerical simulation system that can be applied to all possible phenomena in SFR systems and that can be expected to become an effective tool for the development of human resource and the handing our knowledge and technologies down.

  18. Analysis and interpretation of residence time distribution experimental curves in FM01-LC reactor using axial dispersion and plug dispersion exchange models with closed-closed boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Fernando F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Diaz, Martin R., E-mail: mcruz@tese.edu.m [Division de Quimica y Bioquimica, Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Av. Tecnologico S/N Esq. Av. Hank Gonzalez, Valle de Anahuac, C.P. 55120, Ecatepec, Edo. de Mex (Mexico); Rivero, Eligio P. [Departamento de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlan, Av. Primero de Mayo, Cuautitlan Izcalli, C.P. 54740, Edo. de Mex (Mexico); Gonzalez, Ignacio [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The liquid phase mixing flow pattern at low (20 < Re < 120) and intermediate liquid flow rate (120 < Re < 400) was studied by means of residence time distribution (RTD) experimental curve in an up-flow Filter Press electrochemical reactor (FM01-LC) bench scale. For this purpose, a plastic turbulence promoter was used with stainless-steel and platinised titanium structural meshes as electrodes in channel configuration. To visualize and determine the mixing flow pattern in the liquid phase, the stimulus-response technique was employed using dextran blue (D{sub M} = 1.058 x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} s{sup -1}, 25 {sup o}C, in water) as model tracer. A theoretical analysis and approximation RTD experimental curves with axial dispersion model (ADM) and plug dispersion exchange model (PDE), with 'closed-closed vessel' boundary conditions were used in order to establish a better approximation of the axial dispersion, stagnant zones, channelling and by-pass (preference flow) effects present at low and intermediate Re. RTD curves show that the liquid flow pattern in the FM01-LC deviates considerably from axial dispersion model at low Re, where the FM01-LC exhibits large channelling, stagnant zones, and dead zone. The PDE model represents fairly this deviation from ideal flow (less dead zone).

  19. Experimental study on fluid mixing in a fuel subassembly of a fast reactor. Temperature field around heated pin with cross flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Kamide, Hideki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2002-03-01

    High burnup of the core is one of means to reduce the cost of a fast reactor and fuel cycle system. However, it is not enough to investigate thermohydraulics in the core, in which fuel and wrapper tube are deformed due to irradiation under high burnup condition. In this study, sodium experiment was performed to investigate fluid mixing in a wire-wrapped 37-pin subassembly model, which had local blockage and cross flow around the blockage. Such cross flow is one of elements of thermohydraulics in a deformed subassembly. The experimental results is useful to develop numerical simulation method for the deformed subassembly. Seven pins, each had different relative position to the blockage, were heated individually in the experiments. Temperature field in the subassembly was measured. Influences of the flow rate and heater power were also examined. A horizontal cross flow occurred in upstream region toward the blockage. It was observed that the temperature field was influenced by this cross flow. The measured temperature field showed that there was a bypass flow around the blockage, which flowed toward the center of subassembly. The cross flow due to the bypass flow reached the 3rd row of pins from the blockage. The swirl flow, resulted from the spacer wire, also influenced the temperature field. The obtained experimental data will be used to develop and verify a numerical simulation method for a deformed fuel subassembly. (author)

  20. The analysis of fundamental period of cultural heritage buildings: experimental data for church towers in Basilicata (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Liberatore, Domenico; Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Zotta, Cinzia; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Scavone, Manuela; Sorrentino, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Seismic hazard is among the main factors conditioning the conservation of historical centres and cultural heritage located in them. This consideration is suitable especially for downtown areas located in Italy, whose territory is prone to seismic hazards, in the southern area especially. As a matter of fact, the historical sources inform us that most of monuments located in Southern Italy suffered damage and consequent restoration or rebuilding due to the earthquake of the past. Therefore, knowing what buildings are the most exposed to the seismic risk can help the stakeholders to fix priority actions aimed at mitigating the effects of future events. Starting from these preliminary remarks, in the framework of the Project PRO_CULT, we started an extensive campaign of measurements of dynamic features of the church towers in some towns of the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The aim of the research activity is to assess the fundamental period of such a typology of historical buildings and comparing it with the dynamic features of the foundation soil to put into evidence possible resonance phenomena responsible of an increase of building damage during the seismic shaking. The selection of the towns to be considered as a target of the experimental survey was performed taking into account the availability of written sources dealing with the historical seismic effects suffered by the bell-towers over the centuries with special attention to the sites heavily affected by the 16 December 1857 Basilicata and 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquakes (Gizzi and Masini 2007). The fundamental period of bell-towers is estimated using ambient noise vibration signals recorded at the highest level of the towers. The techniques used to get the dynamic values are both the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and the Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratio (HHSR) (Liberatore et al. 2008). Once the fundamental frequency has been estimated, it is compared with the

  1. REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES AND HYDRODYNAMIC DATA FOR VALIDATION OF CFD-BASED PREDICTIONS FOR SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; Daniel S. Wendt; Steven P. Antal; Michael Z. Podowski

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the review of several open-literature sources of both experimental capabilities and published hydrodynamic data to aid in the validation of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based model of a slurry bubble column (SBC). The review included searching the Web of Science, ISI Proceedings, and Inspec databases, internet searches as well as other open literature sources. The goal of this study was to identify available experimental facilities and relevant data. Integral (i.e., pertaining to the SBC system), as well as fundamental (i.e., separate effects are considered), data are included in the scope of this effort. The fundamental data is needed to validate the individual mechanistic models or closure laws used in a Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) simulation of a SBC. The fundamental data is generally focused on simple geometries (i.e., flow between parallel plates or cylindrical pipes) or custom-designed tests to focus on selected interfacial phenomena. Integral data covers the operation of a SBC as a system with coupled effects. This work highlights selected experimental capabilities and data for the purpose of SBC model validation, and is not meant to be an exhaustive summary.

  2. REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES AND HYDRODYNAMIC DATA FOR VALIDATION OF CFD BASED PREDICTIONS FOR SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; Daniel S. Wendt

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the review of several open-literature sources of both experimental capabilities and published hydrodynamic data to aid in the validation of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based model of a slurry bubble column (SBC). The review included searching the Web of Science, ISI Proceedings, and Inspec databases, internet searches as well as other open literature sources. The goal of this study was to identify available experimental facilities and relevant data. Integral (i.e., pertaining to the SBC system), as well as fundamental (i.e., separate effects are considered), data are included in the scope of this effort. The fundamental data is needed to validate the individual mechanistic models or closure laws used in a Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) simulation of a SBC. The fundamental data is generally focused on simple geometries (i.e., flow between parallel plates or cylindrical pipes) or custom-designed tests to focus on selected interfacial phenomena. Integral data covers the operation of a SBC as a system with coupled effects. This work highlights selected experimental capabilities and data for the purpose of SBC model validation, and is not meant to be an exhaustive summary.

  3. Building an experimental model of the human body with non-physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuz, Joseph M; Moraes, Christopher; Mertz, David R; Leung, Brendan M; Takayama, Shuichi

    2017-03-01

    New advances in engineering and biomedical technology have enabled recent efforts to capture essential aspects of human physiology in microscale, in-vitro systems. The application of these advances to experimentally model complex processes in an integrated platform - commonly called a 'human-on-a-chip (HOC)' - requires that relevant compartments and parameters be sized correctly relative to each other and to the system as a whole. Empirical observation, theoretical treatments of resource distribution systems and natural experiments can all be used to inform rational design of such a system, but technical and fundamental challenges (e.g. small system blood volumes and context-dependent cell metabolism, respectively) pose substantial, unaddressed obstacles. Here, we put forth two fundamental principles for HOC design: inducing in-vivo-like cellular metabolic rates is necessary and may be accomplished in-vitro by limiting O2 availability and that the effects of increased blood volumes on drug concentration can be mitigated through pharmacokinetics-based treatments of solute distribution. Combining these principles with natural observation and engineering workarounds, we derive a complete set of design criteria for a practically realizable, physiologically faithful, five-organ millionth-scale (× 10-6) microfluidic model of the human body.

  4. Experimental damage localization in a full-scale 7 story benchmark building under seismic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovino, C.; Ditommaso, R.; Limongelli, M. P.; Ponzo, F. C.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper two methods of damage localization previously proposed by the authors are combined to smooth the possible drawbacks and boost the advantages each of them. The Modal Interpolation Method (IM), recently proposed, is based on a damage feature defined in terms of the loss of smoothness (that is local increases of curvature) of the modal shapes induced by a local reduction of stiffness. Herein the combination of the IM with the Curvature Evolution Methods (CEM) is proposed. The CEM is based on the use of a Band-Variable Filter able to extract from recorded responses the nonlinear response of one mode of vibration enabling the detection of possible changes of a properly defined damage feature, during a single earthquake. In the CEM the modal curvature is assumed as damage feature. The combination of the two methods CEM and IM is carried out using the Band-Variable Filter to extract the nonlinear response of the structure and assuming as a damage feature the variation of the interpolation error computed at different times during the strong motion. The validation of the combined approach, named Interpolation Evolution Method (IEM), is carried out on a full scale experimental benchmark tested on the UCSD-NEES shake table.

  5. Full-scale experimental and numerical study about structural behaviour of a thin-walled cold-formed steel building affected by ground settlements due to land subsidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ortiz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence due to ground water withdrawal is a problem in many places around the world (Poland, 1984. This causes differential ground settlements that affect masonry structures, because these structural materials do not exhibit an adequate performance beyond a certain level of angular distortion. This work presents the experimental and numerical results about a study regarding the performance of a full-scale thin-walled cold-formed steel building affected by ground differential settlements due to land subsidence. The experimental stage consisted in the construction of a test-building to be subjected to differential settlements in laboratory. The numerical stage consisted in performing a numerical non-linear static pull-down analysis simulating the differential ground settlements of the test-building. The results show that the structural performance of the tested building was very suitable in terms of ductility.

  6. General meeting. Technical reunion: the numerical and experimental simulation applied to the Reactor Physics; Assemblee generale. Reunion technique: la simulation numerique et experimentale appliquee a la physique des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    The SFEN (French Society on Nuclear Energy), organized the 18 october 2001 at Paris, a technical day on the numerical and experimental simulation, applied to the reactor Physics. Nine aspects were discussed, giving a state of the art in the domain:the french nuclear park; the future technology; the controlled thermonuclear fusion; the new organizations and their implications on the research and development programs; Framatome-ANP markets and industrial code packages; reactor core simulation at high temperature; software architecture; SALOME; DESCARTES. (A.L.B.)

  7. CONVECTION REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  8. Experimental Measurements of Heat Transfer through a Lunar Regolith Simulant in a Vibro-Fluidized Reactor Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Berger, Gordon M.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Paz, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Extraction of mission consumable resources such as water and oxygen from the planetary environment provides valuable reduction in launch-mass and potentially extends the mission duration. Processing of lunar regolith for resource extraction necessarily involves heating and chemical reaction of solid material with processing gases. Vibrofluidization is known to produce effective mixing and control of flow within granular media. In this study we present experimental results for vibrofluidized heat transfer in lunar regolith simulants (JSC-1 and JSC-1A) heated up to 900 C. The results show that the simulant bed height has a significant influence on the vibration induced flow field and heat transfer rates. A taller bed height leads to a two-cell circulation pattern whereas a single-cell circulation was observed for a shorter height. Lessons learned from these test results should provide insight into efficient design of future robotic missions involving In-Situ Resource Utilization.

  9. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  10. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: Application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, E. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina)], E-mail: epozzi@cnea.gov.ar; Nigg, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States); Miller, M.; Thorp, S.I. [Instrumentation and Control Department, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Heber, E.M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Zarza, L.; Estryk, G. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Monti Hughes, A.; Molinari, A.J.; Garabalino, M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Itoiz, M.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina); Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, R.F. [Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Quintana, J. [Research and Production Reactors, National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Center (Argentina); Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, A.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Constituyentes Atomic Center (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1x10{sup 9} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and the fast neutron flux was 2.5x10{sup 6} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in {sup 6}Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated.

  11. Combined coagulation-flocculation and sequencing batch reactor with phosphorus adjustment for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate: experimental kinetics and chemical oxygen demand fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Matar, F; Hashisho, J

    2013-05-01

    The treatability of high-strength landfill leachate is challenging and relatively limited. This study examines the feasibility of treating high-strength landfill leachate (chemical oxygen demand [COD]: 7,760-11,770 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5]: 2,760-3,569 mg/L, total nitrogen [TN] = 980-1,160 mg/L) using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) preceded by a coagulation-flocculation process with phosphorus nutritional balance under various mixing and aeration patterns. Simulations were also conducted to define kinetic parameters and COD fractionation. Removal efficiencies reached 89% for BOD5, 60% for COD, and 72% for TN, similar to and better than reported studies, albeit with a relatively lower hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid retention time (SRT). The coupled experimental and simulation results contribute in filling a gap toward managing high-strength landfill leachate and providing guidelines for corresponding SBR applications. The treatability of high-strength landfill leachate, which is challenging and relatively limited, was demonstrated using a combined coagulation-flocculation with SBR technology and nutrient balance adjustment. The most suitable coagulant, kinetic design parameters, and COD fractionation were defined using coupled experimental and simulation results contributing in filling a gap toward managing high-strength leachate by providing guidelines for corresponding SBR applications and anticipating potential constraints related to the non-biodegradable COD fraction. In this context, while the combined coagulation-flocculation and SBR process improved removal efficiencies, posttreatment may be required for high-strength leachate, depending on discharge standards and ultimate usage of the treated leachate.

  12. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, E; Nigg, D W; Miller, M; Thorp, S I; Heber, E M; Zarza, L; Estryk, G; Monti Hughes, A; Molinari, A J; Garabalino, M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Quintana, J; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2009-07-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1 x 10(9) n cm(-2)s(-1) and the fast neutron flux was 2.5 x 10(6) n cm(-2)s(-1), indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in (6)Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated.

  13. The improvement of control rod in experimental fast reactor JOYO. The development of a sodium bonded type control rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soga, T.; Miyakawa, S.; Mitsugi, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai Engineering Center, Irradiation Center, Irradiation and Administration Section, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    that the cladding strength sufficient to withstand stress accounting for decreased thickness by the ACCI zone. (5) The wet wash and storage method was selected for disposing of the spent sodium bonded control rods, based upon experimental results at the JOYO facilities. The effects from storing sodium bonded control rods in wet storage were evaluated. The results indicated that these effect would not pose a safety problem. (author)

  14. THE WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE PULSED REACTOR FACILITY, MAY 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Robert L.; Boor, R.A.; Cole, W.M.; Elder, G.E.

    1963-05-15

    A brief statement of the mission of the White Sands Missile Range Nuclear Effects Laboratory is given. The new Nuclear Effects Laboratory Facility is described. This facility consists of two buildings-a laboratory and a reactor building. The White Sands Missile Range bare critical assembly, designated as the MoLLY-G, is described. The MoLLY-G, an unreflected, unmoderated right circular cylinder of uranium-molybdenum alloy designed for pulsed operation, will have a maximum burst capability of approximately 2 x 10/sup 17/ fissions with a burst width of 50 microseconds. The reactor construction and operating procedures are described. As designed, the MoLLY-G will provide an intense source of pulsed neutron and gamma radiation for a great variety of experimental and test arrangements. (auth)

  15. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effects of Acoustic Sound Absorbers on the Cooling Performance of Thermally Active Building Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, L. Marcos; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Rage, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Free-hanging horizontal and vertical sound absorbers are commonly used in buildings for room acoustic control; however, when these sound absorbers are used in combination with Thermally Active Building Systems, they will decrease the cooling performance of Thermally Active Building Systems and th...

  16. Report on design and technical standard planning of vibration controlling structure on the buildings, in the Tokai Reprocessing Facility, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Terada, Shuji; Shinohara, Takaharu; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Kondo, Toshinari; Hosoya, Hisashi

    1997-10-01

    The Tokai reprocessing facility buildings are constituted by a lower foundation, vibration controlling layers, and upper structure. At the vibration controlling layer, a laminated rubber aiming support of the building load and extension of the eigenfrequency and a damper aiming absorption of earthquake energy are provided. Of course, the facility buildings are directly supported at the arenaceous shale (Taga Layer) of the Miocene in the Neogene confirmed to the stablest ground, as well the buildings with high vibration resistant importance in Japan. This report shows that when the vibration controlling structure is adopted for the reprocessing facility buildings where such high vibration resistance is required, reduction of input acceleration for equipments and pipings can be achieved and the earthquake resistant safety can also be maintained with sufficient tolerance and reliability. (G.K.)

  17. Final Report Independent Verification Survey of the High Flux Beam Reactor, Building 802 Fan House Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpeneau, Evan M. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program

    2011-06-24

    On May 9, 2011, ORISE conducted verification survey activities including scans, sampling, and the collection of smears of the remaining soils and off-gas pipe associated with the 802 Fan House within the HFBR (High Flux Beam Reactor) Complex at BNL. ORISE is of the opinion, based on independent scan and sample results obtained during verification activities at the HFBR 802 Fan House, that the FSS (final status survey) unit meets the applicable site cleanup objectives established for as left radiological conditions.

  18. REACTOR COOLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  19. Experience gathered in dismounting pressure vessel internals of the Kahl experimental reactor (VAK Kahl); Erfahrungen bei der Zerlegung der Druckgefaesseinbauten im VAK Kahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalwa, H. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl GmbH, Karlstein am Main (Germany); Eickelpasch, N. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl GmbH, Karlstein am Main (Germany); Reiter, W. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl GmbH, Karlstein am Main (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Mechanical cutting processes are preferred for dismantling of activated pressure vessel internals in the VAK Kahl. Up to now, sawing, nibbling, grinding and electroeroding have been tried. For a realistic under-water trial run on a scale of 1:1, an inactive experimental facility was erected in the empty turbine building of the VAK. (orig./DG) [Deutsch] Bei der Zerlegung der aktivierten RDB-Einbauten im Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl werden bevorzugt mechanische Trennverfahren angewendet. Erprobt und eingesetzt wurden bisher das Saegen, das Knabbern, das Schleifen und das Elektroerodieren. Fuer eine realitaetsnahe Erprobung unter Wasser im Massstab 1:1 wurde in VAK ein inaktiver Versuchsstand im bereits leergeraeumten Maschinenhaus erstellt. (orig./DG)

  20. Experimental seismic behavior of a full-scale four-story soft-story wood-frame building with retrofits I: building design, retrofit methodology, and numerical validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouria Bahmani; John W. van de Lindt; Mikhail Gershfeld; Gary L. Mochizuki; Steven E. Pryor; Douglas Rammer

    2016-01-01

    Soft-story wood-frame buildings have been recognized as a disaster preparedness problem for decades. There are tens of thousands of these multifamily three- and four-story structures throughout California and other parts of the United States. The majority were constructed between 1920 and 1970 and are prevalent in regions such as the San Francisco Bay Area in...

  1. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  2. Physics design of a 100 keV acceleration grid system for the diagnostic neutral beam for international tokamak experimental reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M J; De Esch, H P L

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the physics design of a 100 keV, 60 A H(-) accelerator for the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER). The accelerator is a three grid system comprising of 1280 apertures, grouped in 16 groups with 80 apertures per beam group. Several computer codes have been used to optimize the design which follows the same philosophy as the ITER Design Description Document (DDD) 5.3 and the 1 MeV heating and current drive beam line [R. Hemsworth, H. Decamps, J. Graceffa, B. Schunke, M. Tanaka, M. Dremel, A. Tanga, H. P. L. De Esch, F. Geli, J. Milnes, T. Inoue, D. Marcuzzi, P. Sonato, and P. Zaccaria, Nucl. Fusion 49, 045006 (2009)]. The aperture shapes, intergrid distances, and the extractor voltage have been optimized to minimize the beamlet divergence. To suppress the acceleration of coextracted electrons, permanent magnets have been incorporated in the extraction grid, downstream of the cooling water channels. The electron power loads on the extractor and the grounded grids have been calculated assuming 1 coextracted electron per ion. The beamlet divergence is calculated to be 4 mrad. At present the design for the filter field of the RF based ion sources for ITER is not fixed, therefore a few configurations of the same have been considered. Their effect on the transmission of the electrons and beams through the accelerator has been studied. The OPERA-3D code has been used to estimate the aperture offset steering constant of the grounded grid and the extraction grid, the space charge interaction between the beamlets and the kerb design required to compensate for this interaction. All beamlets in the DNB must be focused to a single point in the duct, 20.665 m from the grounded grid, and the required geometrical aimings and aperture offsets have been calculated.

  3. Gas Reactor International Cooperative Program. Interim report. Construction and operating experience of selected European Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The construction and operating experience of selected European Gas-Cooled Reactors is summarized along with technical descriptions of the plants. Included in the report are the AVR Experimental Pebble Bed Reactor, the Dragon Reactor, AGR Reactors, and the Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR). The study demonstrates that the European experience has been favorable and forms a good foundation for the development of Advanced High Temperature Reactors.

  4. Facility for a Low Power Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalker, R. G.

    1949-09-14

    Preliminary investigation indicates that a reactor facility with ample research provisions for use by University or other interested groups, featuring safety in design, can be economically constructed in the Los Angeles area. The complete installation, including an underground gas-tight reactor building, with associated storage and experiment assembly building, administration offices, two general laboratory buildings, hot latoratory and lodge, can be constructed for approxinately $1,500,000. This does not include the cost of the reactor itself or of its auxiliary equipment,

  5. Overview of the NEES-Soft Experimental Program for Seismic Risk Reduction of Soft-Story Woodframe Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. van de Lindt; Pouria Bahmani; Steven E. Pryor; Gary Mochizuki; Mikhail Gershfeld; Weichiang Pang; Ershad Ziaei; Elaina N. Jennings; Michael D. Symans; Xiaoyun Shao; Jingjing Tian; Doug Rammer

    2014-01-01

    The existence of thousands of soft-story woodframe buildings in California has been recognized as a disaster preparedness problem resulting in mitigation efforts throughout the state. The considerable presence of these large multi-family buildings in San Francisco prompted the city to mandate their retrofitting over the next seven years. The NEES-Soft project, whose...

  6. Important problems of future thermonuclear reactors*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Marek J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns important and difficult problems connected with a design and construction of thermonuclear reactors, which have to use nuclear fusion reactions of heavy isotopes of hydrogen, i.e., deuterium (D and tritium (T. There are described conditions in which such reactions can occur, and different methods of a high-temperature plasma generation, i.e., high-current electrical discharges, intense microwave pulses, and injection of energetic neutral atoms (NBI. There are also presented experimental facilities which can contain hot plasma for an appropriate period, and particularly so-called tokamaks. The second part presents the technical problems which must be solved in order to build a thermonuclear reactor, that might be used for energetic purposes. There are considered problems connected with a choice of constructional materials for a vacuum chamber, its internal parts, external windings generating a magnetic field, and necessary shields. The next part considers the handling of radioactive tritium; the using of alpha particles (4He for additional heating of plasma; recuperation of hydrogen isotopes absorbed in the tokamak internal parts, and a removal of a helium excess. There is presented a scheme of a future thermonuclear power plant and critical comments on a road map which should enable the construction of an industrial thermonuclear reactor (DEMO.

  7. Demolition to Green-Field conditions of the FRJ-1 (MERLIN) research reactor. Successes and hurdles in the demolition of a research reactor of the megawatt class; Der Rueckbau des Forschungsreaktors FRJ-1 (MERLIN) bis zur 'Gruenen Wiese'. Erfolge und Huerden beim Rueckbau eines Forschungsreaktors der Megawatt-Klasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahn, Burkhard; Printz, Rudolf; Matela, Karel; Zehbe, Carsten; Stauch, Bernhard; Zander, Iven [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    The Juelich-1 Research Reactor (FRJ-1), also referred to as MERLIN (Medium Energy Research Light Water Moderated Industrial Nuclear Reactor), was a light-water moderated and cooled swimming pool reactor of British design. The cornerstone in the erection of the reactor building was laid on June 11, 1958. Reactor operation was started on February 23, 1962. The plant was last run at a thermal power of 10 MW and shut down for good in 1985 after 23 years of operation. After the fuel elements had been removed and most of the experimental installations dismantled, some first steps towards demolition were taken in 1995. Demolition on a large scale began in 1996. September 8, 2008 was a special day: On the area of the former reactor hall, an oak tree was planted as a symbol of the 'green field' and of the original oak wood which had to make way for the construction of reactors in Juelich. An oak tree now stands in the place of the reactor unit. Was that all? It was not, for there were ancillary systems, operations, utility and hygiene buildings which had to be pulled down. Decontamination and clearance measurements were completed. The application for clearance was prepared and completed. Conventional demolition was started in 2009. After completion of that step, the last chapter about demolition of the FRJ-1 research reactor has been written, and the book can be closed. (orig.)

  8. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  10. Service life assessment of historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone: a computational analysis based on experimental input data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Fořt, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure.

  11. Nuclear reactor PBMR and cogeneration; Reactor nuclear PBMR y cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In recent years the nuclear reactor designs for the electricity generation have increased their costs, so that at the moment costs are managed of around the 5000 US D for installed kw, reason for which a big nuclear plant requires of investments of the order of billions of dollars, the designed reactors as modular of low power seek to lighten the initial investment of a big reactor dividing the power in parts and dividing in modules the components to lower the production costs, this way it can begin to build a module and finished this to build other, differing the long term investment, getting less risk therefore in the investment. On the other hand the reactors of low power can be very useful in regions where is difficult to have access to the electric net being able to take advantage of the thermal energy of the reactor to feed other processes like the water desalination or the vapor generation for the processes industry like the petrochemical, or even more the possible hydrogen production to be used as fuel. In this work the possibility to generate vapor of high quality for the petrochemical industry is described using a spheres bed reactor of high temperature. (Author)

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Thermal and Hygrometric Characteristics of Building Structures Employing Recycled Plastic Aggregates and Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Colangelo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The correct estimation of building energy consumptions is assuming an always increasing importance, and a detailed reproduction of building structures, with all the single components involved, is necessary to achieve this aim. In addition, the current ecological development tries to limit the use of natural raw materials as building components, in favor of alternative (waste materials, which ensure significant advantages from the economic, energetic and environmental point of views. In this work, dynamic heat and vapor transport in a typical three-dimensional (3D building structure, involving different types of environmental-friendly concrete mixtures, have been simulated by using finite elements. In particular, the authors propose to substitute part of the aggregates with plastic waste and to use a fly ash based geopolymeric binder for the production of low conductivity concrete, to be employed in eco-efficient buildings. Concrete produced with natural limestone aggregates has been considered as the reference benchmark. The whole characterization of the different types of concrete tested in the present work has been obtained through laboratory experiments. The structure taken into account in the simulations is a 3D thermal bridge, typical of building envelopes. The thermal and hygrometric transient behavior of this structure, employing plastic waste in different percentages and geopolymer concrete, has been analyzed by the authors.

  14. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of ‘inherent safety’ concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and

  15. Experimental data and numerical predictions of a single-phase flow in a batch square stirred tank reactor with a rotating cylinder agitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Ruíz, I. A.; Sierra-Espinosa, F. Z.; García, J. C.; Valera-Medina, A.; Carrillo, F.

    2017-09-01

    Single-phase flows in stirred tank reactors have useful characteristics for a wide number of industrial applications. Usually, reactors are cylindrical vessels and complex impeller designs, which are often highly energy consuming and produce complicated flow patterns. Therefore, a novel configuration consisting of a square stirred tank reactor is proposed in this study with potential advantages over conventional reactors. In the present work hydrodynamics and turbulence have been studied for a single-phase flow in steady state operating in batch condition. The flow was induced by drag from a rotating cylinder with two diameters. The effects of drag from the stirrer as well as geometrical parameters of the system on the hydrodynamic behavior were investigated using Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) and non-intrusive Laser Doppler Anemometry, (LDA). Data obtained from LDA measurements were used for the validation of the CFD simulations, and to detecting the macro-instabilities inside the tank, based on the time series analysis for three rotational speeds N = 180, 1000 and 2000 rpm. The numerical results revealed the formation of flow patterns and macro-vortex structures in the upper part of the tank as consequence of the Reynolds number and the stream discharge emanated from the cylindrical stirrer. Moreover, increasing the cylinder diameter has an impact on the number of recirculation loops as well as the energy consumption of the entire system showing better performance in the presence of turbulent flows.

  16. Modelling, experimentation and simulation of a reversible HP/ORC unit to get a Positive Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Quoilin, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative building comprising a heat pump connected to a solar roof and a geothermal heat exchanger. This unit is able to invert its cycle and operate as an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The solar roof is producing large amount of heat throughout the year. This allows...... and fluid R134a shows promising performance with a net electrical energy produced over one year reaching 4030 kWh. Following that, a prototype has been built and has proven the feasibility of the technology. Finally, a simulation code including the building, the ground heat exchanger, the thermal energy...... storage, the solar roof and the reversible HP/ORC unit is developed and allows to perform a sensivity analysis. Annual results show that this technology leads to a Positive Energy Building....

  17. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  18. Comparison of fundamental natural period of masonry and reinforced concrete buildings retrieved from experimental campaigns performed in Italy, Greece and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Antonella; Ponzo, Felice C.; Ditommaso, Rocco; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Nigro, Domenico S.; Soupios, Pantelis; García-Fernández, Mariano; Jimenez, Maria-Jose

    2017-04-01

    Aim of this study is the experimental estimation of the dynamic characteristics of existing buildings and the comparison of the related fundamental natural period of the buildings (masonry and reinforced concrete) located in Basilicata (Italy), in Madrid (Spain) and in Crete (Greece). Several experimental campaigns, on different kind of structures all over the world, have been performed in the last years with the aim of proposing simplified relationships to evaluate the fundamental period of buildings. Most of formulas retrieved from experimental analyses provide vibration periods smaller than those suggested by the Italian Seismic Code (NTC2008) and the European Seismic Code (EC8). It is known that the fundamental period of a structure play a key role in the correct estimation of the spectral acceleration for seismic static analyses and to detect possible resonance phenomena with the foundation soil. Usually, simplified approaches dictate the use of safety factors greater than those related to in depth dynamic linear and nonlinear analyses with the aim to cover any unexpected uncertainties. The fundamental period calculated with the simplified formula given by both NTC 2008 and EC8 is higher than the fundamental period measured on the investigated structures in Italy, Spain and Greece. The consequence is that the spectral acceleration adopted in the seismic static analysis may be significantly different than real spectral acceleration. This approach could produces a decreasing in safety factors obtained using linear seismic static analyses. Based on numerical and experimental results, in order to confirm the results proposed in this work, authors suggest to increase the number of numerical and experimental tests considering also the effects of non-structural components and soil during small, medium and strong motion earthquakes. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Department of Civil Protection within the project DPC-RELUIS 2016 - RS4

  19. Reactor Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, T; Lasserre, Thierry; Sobel, Henry W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrino oscillation physics in the last years. It is now widely accepted that a new middle baseline disappearance reactor neutrino experiment with multiple detectors could provide a clean measurement of the last undetermined neutrino mixing angle theta13. We conclude by opening on possible use of neutrinos for Society: NonProliferation of Nuclear materials and Geophysics.

  20. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for loading and unloading rod type fuel elements of a neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, solld moderator, liquid cooled type. In the embodiment illustrated, the fuel rods are disposed in vertical coolant channels in the reactor core. The fuel rods are loaded and unloaded through the upper openings of the channels which are immersed in the coolant liquid, such as water. Unloading is accomplished by means of a coffer dam assembly having an outer sleeve which is placed in sealing relation around the upper opening. A radiation shield sleeve is disposed in and reciprocable through the coffer dam sleeve. A fuel rod engaging member operates through the axial bore in the radiation shield sleeve to withdraw the fuel rod from its position in the reactor coolant channel into the shield, the shield snd rod then being removed. Loading is accomplished in the reverse procedure.

  1. Safety of VVER-440 reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Slugen, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Safety of VVER-440 Reactors endeavours to promote an increase in the safety of VVER-440 nuclear reactors via the improvement of fission products limitation systems and the implementation of special non-destructive spectroscopic methods for materials testing. All theoretical and experimental studies performed the by author over the last 25 years have been undertaken with the aim of improving VVER-440 defence in depth, which is one of the most important principle for ensuring safety in nuclear power plants. Safety of VVER-440 Reactors is focused on the barrier system through which the safety pri

  2. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation coupled with a thermally activated building construction in an office room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses the performance of an integrated system with diffuse ceiling ventilation and a thermally activated building construction. A full-scale experiment is carried out in a hot box with an office setup. The performance of the integrated system is evaluated under different...

  3. Supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest reactor concepts, single pass core and experimental findings in thermal hydraulics, materials, corrosion, and water chemistry. It highlights research on supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWRs), one of the Generation IV reactors that are studied around the world. This book includes cladding material development and experimental findings on heat transfer, corrosion and water chemistry. The work presented here will help readers to understand the fundamental elements of reactor design and analysis methods, thermal hydraulics, materials and water

  4. Neutronics calculation of an heterogeneous compact and thermal core by means of deterministic and stochastic transport theory. Application to the experimental reactor of the University of Strasbourg; Modelisation neutronique d`un coeur thermique compact et heterogene en theorie du transport deterministe et probabiliste. Application au reacteur experimental de l`Universite de Strasbourg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammes, Ch

    1997-11-28

    The aim of this work is to create, validate theoretically and experimentally a calculation route for a thermal irradiation reactor. This is the research reactor of the University of Strasbourg, which presents all of characteristics of this reactor-type: compact and heterogeneous core, slab-type fuel with a high 235-uranium enrichment. This calculation route is based on the first use of the following two modern transport methods: the TDT method and the Monte Carlo method. The former, programmed within the APOLLO2 code, is a two dimensional collision probabilities method. The later, used by the TRIPOLI4 code, is a stochastic method. Both can be applied to complex geometries. After a few theoretical reminders about transport codes, a set of integral experiments is described which have been realized within the research reactor of the University of Strasbourg. One of them has been performed for this study. At the beginning of the theoretical part, significant errors are apparent due to the use of calculation route based on homogenization, condensation and the diffusion approximation. An extensive comparison between the discrete ordinates method and the TDT method carries out that the use of the TDT method is relevant for the studied reactor. The treatment of axial leakage with this method is the only disadvantage. Therefore, the use of the code TRIPOLI4 is recommended for a more accurate study of leakage within a reflector. By means of the experimental data, the ability of our calculation route is confirmed for essential neutronics questions such as the critical mass determination, the power distribution and the fuel management. (author)

  5. Experimental studies into the fluid dynamic performance of the coolant flow in the mixed core of the Temelin NPP VVER-1000 reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Dmitriev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies into the interassembly coolant interaction in the Temelin nuclear power plant (NPP VVER-1000 reactor core. An aerodynamic test bench was used to study the coolant flow processes in a TVSA-type fuel assembly bundle. To obtain more detailed information on the coolant flow dynamics, a VVER-1000 reactor core fragment was selected as the test model, which comprised two segments of a TVSA-12 PLUS fuel assembly and one segment of a TVSA-T assembly with stiffening angles and an interassembly gap. The studies into the coolant fluid dynamics consisted in measuring the velocity vector both in representative TVSA regions and inside the interassembly gap using a five-channel pneumometric probe. An analysis into the spatial distribution of the absolute flow velocity projections made it possible to detail the TVSA spacer, mixing and combined spacer grid flow pattern, identify the regions with the maximum transverse coolant flow, and determine the depth of the coolant flow disturbance propagation and redistribution in adjacent TVSA assemblies. The results of the studies into the interassembly coolant interaction among the adjacent TVSA assemblies are used at OKBM Afrikantov to update the VVER-1000 core thermal-hydraulic analysis procedures and have been added to the database for verification of computational fluid dynamics (CFD codes and for detailed cellwise analyses of the VVER-100 reactor cores.

  6. Determination of the exposition rapidity in the level 49.90 of the reactor building for the decrease in the water level of the spent fuel pool; Determinacion de la rapidez de exposion en el nivel 49.90 del edificio del reactor por la disminucion en el nivel de agua de la alberca de combustible gastado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijangos D, Z. E.; Herrera H, S. F.; Cruz G, M. A.; Amador C, C., E-mail: zoedelfin@gmail.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Km 44.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91476 Laguna Verde, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The fuel assemblies storage in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) represents a crucial aspect, due to the generated dose by the decay heat of the present radio-nuclides in the assemblies retired of the reactor core, after their useful life. These spent assemblies are located inside the spent fuel pool (SFP), in the level 49.90 m in the Reload Floor of the Reactor building of NPP-L V. This leads to the protection at personnel applying the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) criteria, fulfilling the established dose criteria by the Regulator Body the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). Considering the loss scenario of the cooling system of the SFP, in which the SFP water vaporizes, is important to know the water level in which the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled for the personnel. Also, is important for the instrumentation of the SFP, for the useful life of the same instruments. In this work is obtained the exposition rapidity corresponding to different water levels of SFP in the Reload Floor of NPP-L V, to identify the minimum level of water where the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled of 25 rem s to the personnel, established in the Article 48 of the General Regulation of Radiological Safety of CNSNS and the Chapter 50 Section 67 of the 10-Cfr of Nuclear Regulatory Commission in USA. The water level is also identified where the exposition rapidity is of 15 m R/hr, being the value of the set point of the area radiation monitor D21-Re-N003-1, located to 125 cm over the level 49.90 meters of the Reload Floor of NPP-L V. (Author)

  7. EBR-II Reactor Physics Benchmark Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Chad L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Lum, Edward S [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Stewart, Ryan [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Byambadorj, Bilguun [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Beaulieu, Quinton [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2017-12-28

    This report provides a reactor physics benchmark evaluation with associated uncertainty quantification for the critical configuration of the April 1986 Experimental Breeder Reactor II Run 138B core configuration.

  8. Neutronic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Charles W. J.; Babcock, Dale F.; Menegus, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

  9. Neutronic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, D.F.; Menegus, R.L.; Wende, C.W.

    1983-01-04

    A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

  10. Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T

    2007-04-03

    The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

  11. High Energy-Efficient Windows with Silica Aerogel for Building Refurbishment: Experimental Characterization and Preliminary Simulations in Different Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the potential of high energy-efficient windows with granular silica aerogel for energy saving in building refurbishment. Different glazing systems were investigated considering two kinds of granular silica aerogel and different glass layers. Thermal transmittance and optical properties of the samples were measured and used in building simulations. The aerogel impact on heat transfer is remarkable, allowing a thermal transmittance of 1.0–1.1 W/(m2·K with granular aerogel in interspace only 15 mm in thickness. A 63% reduction in U-value was achieved when compared to the corresponding conventional windows, together with a significant reduction (30% in light transmittance. When assembled with a low-e glass, the U-value reduction was lower (31%, but a moderate reduction in light transmittance (about 10% was observed for larger granules. Energy simulations for a case study in different climate conditions (hot, moderate, and cold showed a reduction in energy demand both for heating and cooling for silica aerogel glazing systems, when compared to the conventional ones. The new glazings are a suitable solution for building refurbishment, thanks to low U-values and total solar transmittance, also in warm climate conditions.

  12. Building foundations for transcatheter intervascular anastomoses: 3D anatomy of the great vessels in large experimental animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizarov, Aleksander; de Bakker, Bernadette S.; Klein, Karina; Ohlerth, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    To provide comprehensive illustrations of anatomy of the relevant vessels in large experimental animals in an interactive format as preparation for developing an effective and safe transcatheter technique of aortopulmonary and bidirectional cavopulmonary intervascular anastomoses. Computed

  13. Damage of lithium-disilicate all-ceramic restorations by an experimental self-adhesive resin cement used as core build-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzenbach, G; Karajouli, G; Tunjan, R; Spintig, T; Bitter, K; Naumann, M

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study aimed to predict the potential of fracture initiation after long-term incubation (LTI) of lithium-disilicate restorations due to a hygroscopic expansion of self-adhesive resin cement (SARC) used as core build-up material. Human maxillary central incisors were divided into four groups (n = 10). Teeth were endodontically treated and decoronated. Specimens were restored in a one-stage post-and-core procedure using experimental dual-curing SARC. Three application protocols to build up the core were compared as follows: I, auto-polymerisation; II, dual curing including 40 s light-initiated polymerisation; and III, an open matrix technique in a dual-curing mode. In group IV, a chemical-curing composite core build-up material served as control. For all specimens, a 2-mm ferrule design was ensured. Full anatomic lithium-disilicate crowns were adhesively luted. One-year LTI in 0.5 % chloramine solution at 37 °C was performed. Restorations were examined after 3, 6, 9 and 12 month of storage. Survival rates were calculated using log-rank statistics (p = 0.05). Fifty per cent of lithium-disilicate crowns of groups I and II showed visible crack propagation after 9 months of incubation, while one crown failed in group III. No failure was observed in group IV. The survival rates differed significantly (p = 0.017). SARC used to build up the core of severely damaged endodontically treated teeth does have the potential to cause fracture of lithium-disilicate crown restorations. Hygroscopic expansion of self-adhesive resin cements used as a core build-up material might have an adverse impact on longevity of glass-ceramic crowns.

  14. Gas-phase optical fiber photocatalytic reactors for indoor air application: a preliminary study on performance indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiste, Ü.; Voll, H.

    2017-10-01

    The development of advanced air cleaning technologies aims to reduce building energy consumption by reduction of outdoor air flow rates while keeping the indoor air quality at an acceptable level by air cleaning. Photocatalytic oxidation is an emerging technology for gas-phase air cleaning that can be applied in a standalone unit or a subsystem of a building mechanical ventilation system. Quantitative information on photocatalytic reactor performance is required to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the advanced air cleaning by PCO technology as an energy conservation measure in a building air conditioning system. Photocatalytic reactors applying optical fibers as light guide or photocatalyst coating support have been reported as an approach to address the current light utilization problems and thus, improve the overall efficiency. The aim of the paper is to present a preliminary evaluation on continuous flow optical fiber photocatalytic reactors based on performance indicators commonly applied for air cleaners. Based on experimental data, monolith-type optical fiber reactor performance surpasses annular-type optical fiber reactors in single-pass removal efficiency, clean air delivery rate and operating cost efficiency.

  15. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  16. Turbulent precipitation of uranium oxalate in a vortex reactor - experimental study and modelling; Precipitation turbulente d'oxalate d'uranium en reacteur vortex - etude experimentale et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer de Gelicourt, Y

    2004-03-15

    Industrial oxalic precipitation processed in an un-baffled magnetically stirred tank, the Vortex Reactor, has been studied with uranium simulating plutonium. Modelling precipitation requires a mixing model for the continuous liquid phase and the solution of population balance for the dispersed solid phase. Being chemical reaction influenced by the degree of mixing at molecular scale, that commercial CFD code does not resolve, a sub-grid scale model has been introduced: the finite mode probability density functions, and coupled with a model for the liquid energy spectrum. Evolution of the dispersed phase has been resolved by the quadrature method of moments, first used here with experimental nucleation and growth kinetics, and an aggregation kernel based on local shear rate. The promising abilities of this local approach, without any fitting constant, are strengthened by the similarity between experimental results and simulations. (author)

  17. Dynamic model of biological nitrogen removal in SBR reactors: Experimental study and model calibration; Modello di simulazione dinamica della rimozione biologica dell`azoto con reattori a flusso discontinuo (SBR): indagine sperimentale e taratura del modello

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, G. [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale; Bortone, G.; Spadoni, S. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute

    1995-03-01

    In the present study are presented the results of the experimental activity carried out in order to calibrate and verify the dynamical model developed by the Authors for nitrogen removal with SBR processes. Four track studies (two for the calibration phase and two for the verification one) have been carried out on the SBR lab-scale reactor. The experimental results have shown temporary increase of nitrite in the nitrification phase. Therefore, the SBR dynamic model has been modified, in order to better explain the dynamic behavior of the nitrogen removal process: nitrousation and nitratation processes have been explicitly described and a inhibition kinetic of nitratation by ammonia has been introduced. The new model, calibrated and verified, has successfully explained the dynamic behavior of the process. Further work will be carried out in order to better understand the inhibition dynamic of nitratation.

  18. Experimental Evaluation of Indoor Air Distribution in High-Performance Residential Buildings: Part I. General Descriptions and Qualification Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalalzadeh, A. A.; Hancock, E.; Powell, D.

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this project is to experimentally characterize an air distribution system in heating mode during a period of recovery from setback. The specific air distribution system under evaluation incorporates a high sidewall supply-air register/diffuser and a near-floor wall return air grille directly below. With this arrangement, the highest temperature difference between the supply air and the room can occur during the recovery period and create a favorable condition for stratification. The experimental approach will provide realistic input data and results for verification of computational fluid dynamics modeling.

  19. Experimental investigation of iodine removal and containment depressurization in containment spray system test facility of 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Manish [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Kandar, T.K.; Vhora, S.F.; Mohan, Nalini [Directorate of Technology Development, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Mumbai (India); Iyer, K.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Prabhu, S.V., E-mail: svprabhu@iitb.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Depressurization rate in a scaled down vessel filled with air and steam is studied. • Iodine removal rate in a scaled down vessel filled with steam/air is investigated. • Effect of SMD and vessel pressure on depressurization rate is studied. • Depressurization rate decreases with the increase in the droplet size (590 μm – 1 mm) • Decrease in pressure and iodine concentration with time follow exponential trend. - Abstract: As an additional safety measure in the new 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactors, the first of a kind system called containment Spray System is introduced. The system is designed to cater/mitigate the conditions after design basis accidents i.e., loss of coolant accident and main steam line break. As a contribution to the safety analysis of condition following loss-of-coolant accidents, experiments are carried out to establish the performance of the system. The loss of coolant is simulated by injecting saturated steam and iodine vapors into the containment vessel in which air is enclosed at atmospheric and room temperature, and then the steam-air mixture is cooled by sprays of water. The effect of water spray on the containment vessel pressure and the iodine scrubbing in a scaled down facility is investigated for the containment spray system of Indian pressurized heavy water reactors. The experiments are carried out in the scaled down vessel of the diameter of 2.0 m and height of 3.5 m respectively. Experiments are conducted with water at room temperature as the spray medium. Two different initial vessel pressure i.e. 0.7 bar and 1.0 bar are chosen for the studies as they are nearing the loss of coolant accident & main steam line break pressures in Indian pressurized heavy water reactors. These pressures are chosen based on the containment resultant pressures after a design basis accident. The transient temperature and pressure distribution of the steam in the vessel are measured during the depressurization

  20. The Role of Trust-building in Fostering Cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin: A Case of Experimental Game Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Motlagh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Escalating tension and a sense of mistrust currently prevail between downstream and upstream countries in the Nile Basin over Ethiopia's construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD. Striving for self-sufficiency in hydropower generation, Ethiopia has initiated a new series of upstream reservoir construction projects, with the GERD being the largest, and this may affect the water availability in downstream countries of Egypt and Sudan. This paper examines a set of compensation options to induce cooperation through trust-building, possibly minimizing uncertainties in water allocation decision-making and simplifying complex inter-relationships in the basin using laboratory game experiments. The game was developed and conducted using hydro-economic modeling of the basin with GAMS software, an expert survey with the SPSS program and Z-tree software to design and analyze the laboratory experiment. This paper presents the results of the laboratory game experiment where the Eastern Nile Basin scenario was modeled as a multi-round, adjusted trust game with non-binding deals among players. The results suggest that the "win for all" situation may be reached through a stable integrative, cooperative framework. Building the enabling environment, in particular, transparency, knowledge, trust, and confidence among riparian states is the first step in developing transboundary cooperation. Basin-wide cooperation requires a transparent environment including a variety of compensation options, institutional changes, and incentive-compatible considerations.

  1. The Use of Sound Absorbing Shading Systems for the Attenuation of Noise on Building Façades. An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Zuccherini Martello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of solar irradiation in building façades with large windows is often solved with the use of external shading devices, such as brise-soleil systems, but their potential acoustic effects on building façades are usually neglected. The purpose of this work is a preliminary consideration of the acoustic behaviour of brise-soleil systems and, furthermore, the evaluation of the possibility to improve their performances, in terms of Sound Pressure Level (SPL abatement over glass surfaces. The paper reports the results of a study on two portions of the same office building, with shading devices installed in front of large windows. Both airborne sound insulation measurements and SPL measurements over the glass surfaces of the windows were carried out to compare different situations, with or without louvers, and with sound absorbing experimental louvers as well. Results show that the louvers' presence can produce an increase in the SPL over the glass surface as a consequence of the reflection of the sound. Results further show that sound absorbing louvers improve the noise protection of the system, in terms of the SPL reduction, over glass surfaces, cancelling out the negative effect of the standard shading devices.

  2. INL Experimental Program Roadmap for Thermal Hydraulic Code Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn McCreery; Hugh McIlroy

    2007-09-01

    Advanced computer modeling and simulation tools and protocols will be heavily relied on for a wide variety of system studies, engineering design activities, and other aspects of the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), the DOE Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), and light-water reactors. The goal is for all modeling and simulation tools to be demonstrated accurate and reliable through a formal Verification and Validation (V&V) process, especially where such tools are to be used to establish safety margins and support regulatory compliance, or to design a system in a manner that reduces the role of expensive mockups and prototypes. Recent literature identifies specific experimental principles that must be followed in order to insure that experimental data meet the standards required for a “benchmark” database. Even for well conducted experiments, missing experimental details, such as geometrical definition, data reduction procedures, and manufacturing tolerances have led to poor Benchmark calculations. The INL has a long and deep history of research in thermal hydraulics, especially in the 1960s through 1980s when many programs such as LOFT and Semiscle were devoted to light-water reactor safety research, the EBRII fast reactor was in operation, and a strong geothermal energy program was established. The past can serve as a partial guide for reinvigorating thermal hydraulic research at the laboratory. However, new research programs need to fully incorporate modern experimental methods such as measurement techniques using the latest instrumentation, computerized data reduction, and scaling methodology. The path forward for establishing experimental research for code model validation will require benchmark experiments conducted in suitable facilities located at the INL. This document describes thermal hydraulic facility requirements and candidate buildings and presents examples of suitable validation experiments related

  3. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to “breed” nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and “burn” actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is “fertile” or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing “TRU”-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II “EBR-II” at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line – a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  4. Jules Horowitz Reactor, basic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Chantoin, P.; Guigon, B.; Bravo, X.; Germain, C.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P

    2003-07-01

    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and maintain a fission research capacity in Europe after 2010. This capacity should be service-oriented. It will be established in Cadarache. The Jules Horowitz reactor will also: - represent a significant step in term of performances and experimental capabilities, - be designed with a high flexibility, in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and be able to accommodate future requirements, - reach a high level of safety, according to the best current practice. This paper will present the main functionalities and the design options resulting from the 'preliminary design' studies. (authors)

  5. Experimental data and boundary conditions for a Double-Skin Facade building in external air curtain mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    was carried out in a full scale test facility ‘The Cube’, in order to compile three sets of high quality experimental data for validation purposes. The data sets are available for preheating mode, external air curtain mode and transparent insulation mode. The objective of this article is to provide the reader...

  6. A new MTR fuel for a new MTR reactor: UMo for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guigon, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, Reacteur Jules Horowitz, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vacelet, H. [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, CERCA, Etablissement de Romans, 26 (France); Dornbusch, D. [Technicatome, Service d' Architecture Generale, 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2003-07-01

    Within some years, the Jules Horowitz Reactor will be the only working experimental reactor (material and fuel testing reactor) in France. It will have to provide facilities for a wide range of needs: from activation analysis to power reactor fuel qualification. In this paper will be presented the main characteristics of the Jules Horowitz Reactor: its total power, neutron flux, fuel element... Safety criteria will be explained. Finally merits and disadvantages of UMo compared to the standard U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel will be discussed. (authors)

  7. Theoretical and experimental investigations on coherence of traffic noise transmission through an open window into a rectangular room in high-rise buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiping; Jiang, Weikang; Li, Ningrong

    2002-10-01

    A method for theoretically calculating the coherence between sound pressure inside a rectangular room in a high-rise building and that outside the open window of the room is proposed. The traffic noise transmitted into a room is generally dominated by low-frequency components, to which active noise control (ANC) technology may find an application. However, good coherence between reference and error signals is essential for an effective noise reduction and should be checked first. Based on traffic noise prediction methods, wave theory, and mode coupling theory, the results of this paper enabled one to determine the potentials and limitations of ANC used to reduce such a transmission. Experimental coherence results are shown for two similar, empty rectangular rooms located on the 17th and 30th floors of a 34 floor high-rise building. The calculated results with the proposed method are generally in good agreement with the experimental results and demonstrate the usefulness of the method for predicting the coherence.

  8. Experimental results of acetone hydrogenation on a heat exchanger type reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru acetone suisoka hanno netsu kaishu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T.; Doi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ando, Y. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyahara, R.; Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    With the purpose of converting solar heat energy to industrial heat energy, an experiment of acetone hydrogenation was carried out using a heat exchanger type reactor that recovers heat generated by acetone hydrogenation, an exothermic reaction, and supplies it to an outside load. In the experiment, a pellet-like activated carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst was used for the acetone hydrogenation with hydrogen and acetone supplied to the catalyst layer at a space velocity of 400-1,200 or so. In the external pipe of the double-pipe type reactor, a heating medium oil was circulated in parallel with the flow of the reactant, with the heat of reaction recovered that was generated from the acetone hydrogenation. In this experiment, an 1wt%Ru/C catalyst and a 5wt%Ru/C catalyst were used so as to examine the effects of variation in the space velocity. As a result, from the viewpoint of recovering the heat of reaction, it was found desirable to increase the reaction speed by raising catalytic density and also to supply the reactant downstream inside the reaction pipe by increasing the space velocity. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Experimental and density functional theoretical study of the effects of Fenton’s reaction on the degradation of Bisphenol A in a high voltage plasma reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Fei, E-mail: daif@clarkson.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Clarkson University, Potsdam, 13699 NY (United States); Fan, Xiangru, E-mail: fanx@clarkson.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Clarkson University, Potsdam, 13699 NY (United States); Stratton, Gunnar R., E-mail: strattgr@clarkson.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Clarkson University, Potsdam, 13699 NY (United States); Bellona, Christopher L., E-mail: cbellona@clarkson.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Clarkson University, Potsdam, 13699 NY (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1500 Illinois St., Colorado School of Mines, Golden, 80401 CO (United States); Holsen, Thomas M., E-mail: tholsen@clarkson.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Clarkson University, Potsdam, 13699 NY (United States); Crimmins, Bernard S., E-mail: bcrimmin@clarkson.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Clarkson University, Potsdam, 13699 NY (United States); Xia, Xiaoyan, E-mail: xiax@clarkson.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Clarkson University, Potsdam, 13699 NY (United States); Mededovic Thagard, Selma, E-mail: smededov@clarkson.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Clarkson University, Potsdam, 13699 NY (United States)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Combining the Fenton reaction with the plasma treatment reduces Bisphenol A concentration below the detection limit within 30 min. • Carbon steel electrode in the plasma reactor can be used as a source of iron ions. • OH radical attack on Bisphenol A is the primary pathway for byproduct formation. - Abstract: A novel electrical discharge plasma reactor configuration with and without iron ions was evaluated for the degradation of 0.02 mM Bisphenol A (BPA). The pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant calculated for the plasma treatment of BPA with a stainless steel electrode in the presence of dissolved ferrous ion (Fe{sup 2+}) salts (termed plasma/Fenton treatment) was higher than in the plasma treatment in the absence of iron salts. At the optimal ferrous ion concentration, longer plasma treatment times resulted in higher BPA degradation rates, likely due to increased hydroxyl (OH) radical concentration formed through the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Replacing the stainless steel with a carbon steel grounded electrode resulted in the release of iron ions from the carbon steel thereby increasing the rate of BPA removal and eliminating the need for iron salts. After the plasma/Fenton treatment, >97% of the residual iron salts were removed by coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation. Byproduct identification coupled with density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirmed that OH radical attack on BPA’s hydroxyl group is the primary pathway for byproduct formation.

  10. Building a social capital model of research development: The case of the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research

    OpenAIRE

    James S Dietz

    2000-01-01

    This paper argues that social capital theory, originally developed to explain collective, cooperative behavior, can be applied in understanding how better to use science and technology to advance social and economic objectives of underdeveloped regions. Using the case of the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR), broad issues affecting priority setting, knowledge utilization, and program evaluation are examined to shape a revised theory of social capital, EPSCoR, and...

  11. Development of technology for next generation reactor - Development of next generation reactor in Korea -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Chang, Moon Heuy; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1993-09-01

    The project, development of next generation reactor, aims overall related technology development and obtainment of related license in 2001. The development direction is to determine the reactor type and to build up the design concept in 1994. For development trend analysis of foreign next generation reactor, level-1 PSA, fuel cycle analysis and computer code development are performed on System 80+ and AP 600. Especially for design characteristics analysis and volume upgrade of AP 600, nuclear fuel and reactor core design analysis, coolant circuit design analysis, mechanical structure design analysis and safety analysis etc. are performed. (Author).

  12. Experimental investigations on the coolability of prototypical particle beds with respect to reactor safety; Experimentelle Untersuchungen der Kuehlbarkeit prototypischer Schuettungskonfigurationen unter dem Aspekt der Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Simon

    2017-02-22

    In case of a severe accident in a light water reactor, continuous unavailability of cooling water to the reactor core may result in overheating of the fuel elements and finally the loss of core integrity. Under such conditions, a structure of heat-releasing particles of different size and shape may be formed by fragmentation of molten core material in several stages of the accident. The long-term coolability of such beds is of prime im-portance to avoid any damage to the reactor pressure vessel or even a release of fission products to the environment. In the frame of this work, specific experiments were con-ducted under prototypical conditions employing the existing DEBRIS test facility in order to gain further knowledge about the thermohydraulic behavior of such beds. In steady state boiling experiments, the pressure gradients in particle beds were meas-ured both for one- and multi-dimensional cooling water flow conditions and compared with one another in order to assess the flow behavior inside the bed. For these different flow conditions as well as for stratified bed configurations, the maximum removable heat flux densities were determined in the dryout experiments. E. g., it was found that an axial stratification of the permeability can significantly reduce the bed's coolability. For the first time, the quenching behavior of dry, superheated beds was investigated at elevated system pressure up to 0.5 MPa. In these experiments, the effect of system pressure on the coolability was quantified by means of the quenching time (time period to cool down the bed to saturation temperature). The investigated particle beds mainly consisted of non-spherical particles with well-defined geometry (cylinders and screws). It was shown that the effect of the particles geometry on the flow in a particle bed can be best estimated by using an equivalent particle diameter calculated for monodisperse particle beds from the product of the Sauter diameter and a shape factor and for

  13. Nuclear Reactors. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: How Reactors Work; Reactor Design; Research, Teaching, and Materials Testing; Reactors (Research, Teaching and Materials); Production Reactors; Reactors for Electric Power…

  14. Multiphase Reactors: Models and Experimental Verification Les réacteurs polyphasés : modèles et vérification expérimentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudukovic M. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification and quantification of flow regimes, phase holdup distributions, flow patterns and backmixing is essential for proper design and scale-up of multiphase reactors. Existing models often suffer from inadequate experimental confirmation. Here, we describe recent progress made in our laboratory in characterizing liquid circulation and backmixing in bubble columns and in quantifying, via a phenomenological model, the behavior of trickle-beds in the low interaction regime. The need for imaging techniques such as fan-beam tomography and PET is illustrated. Liquid mixing in bubble columns caused by global liquid convection and by turbulent eddies is usually described by the axial dispersion model (ADM which, at least in the churn turbulent regime, lacks a theoretical basis. In the ADM the two mixing mechanisms are lumped into a single effective dispersion coefficient. An alternative backmixing description assumes multiple liquid circulation cells, with height equal to column diameter, to occur in the column. We have successfully demonstrated that instantaneous and time averaged liquid velocity profiles in the column can be determined by monitoring the motion of a neutrally bouyant tracer particle via a Computer Aided Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT technique. It can now be shown that a single strong liquid circulation cell exists in columns of a variety of diameters and at different operating conditions but that smaller circulation cells can form in the distributor region. Model predicted one dimensional axial time averaged liquid velocity profile agrees well with the data and applies to the middle section of the column. The CARPT technique allows the computation of Lagrangian autocorrelation coefficients, the rms fluctuating velocities, Lagrangian integral time scales and the turbulent dispersion coefficients. Thus CARPT provides the necessary information i. e. velocity profiles and turbulent dispersion coefficients, for

  15. Photocatalytic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Fain, Douglas E.; Stockdale, John A. D.

    1999-01-01

    A photocatalytic reactor for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane.

  16. Water chemistry management of research reactor in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshijima, Tetsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The JRR-3M cooling system consists of four systems, namely; (1) primary cooling system, (2) heavy water cooling system, (3) helium system and (4) secondary cooling system. The heavy water is used for reflector and pressurized with helium gas. Water chemistry management of the JRR-3M cooling systems is one of the important subject for the safety operation. The main objects are to prevent the corrosion of cooling system and fuel elements, to suppress the plant radiation build-up and to minimize the generation of radioactive waste. All measured values were within the limits of specifications and JRR-3M reactor was operated with safety in 1996. Spent fuels of JRR-3M reactor are stored in the spent fuel pool. This pool water has been analyzed to prevent corrosion of aluminum cladding of spent fuels. Water chemistry of spent fuel pool water is applied to the prevention of corrosion of aluminum alloys including fuel cladding. The JRR-2 reactor was eternally stopped in December 1996 and is now under decommissioning. The JRR-2 reactor is composed of heavy water tank, fuel guide tube and horizontal experimental hole. These are constructed of aluminum alloy and biological shield and upper shield are constructed of concrete. Three types of corrosion of aluminum alloy were observed in the JRR-2. The Alkaline corrosion of aluminum tube occurred in 1972 because of the mechanical damage of the aluminum fuel guide tube which is used for fuel handling. Modification of the reactor top shield was started in 1974 and completed in 1975. (author)

  17. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  18. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  19. Combined Reactor and Microelectrode Measurements in Laboratory Grown Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Harremoës, Poul

    1994-01-01

    A combined biofilm reactor-/microelectrode experimental set-up has been constructed, allowing for simultaneous reactor mass balances and measurements of concentration profiles within the biofilm. The system consists of an annular biofilm reactor equipped with an oxygen microelectrode. Experiments...

  20. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Shane T.; Geerken, Alexander R.; Dixon, Kyle L.; Kroliczak, Gregory; Olsen, Reid H.J.; Miller, Jeremy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures. Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity), attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall), working memory (Digit Span Forward), and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation) in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22). Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22). Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89) and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31) tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86) and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79), intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63) but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15). Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function. Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net) is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance. PMID:26713233

  1. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Piper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures.Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity, attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall, working memory (Digit Span Forward, and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22. Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22.Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89 and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31 tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86 and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79, intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63 but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15. Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function.Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance.

  2. Verification of Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internal Structures of Liquid Metal Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Jae Han

    2007-02-15

    The reactor internal structures and components of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures and components. Reactor internals of LMR can not be visually examined due to opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing techniques using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the visual inspection of reactor internals. Recently, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium inspection. In this study, visualization technique, ranging technique and monitoring technique have been suggested for the remote inspection of reactor internals by using the waveguide sensor. The feasibility of these remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been evaluated by an experimental verification.

  3. Experiment for search for sterile neutrino at SM-3 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Ivochkin, V. G.; Samoylov, R. M.; Fomin, A. K.; Zinoviev, V. G.; Neustroev, P. V.; Golovtsov, V. L.; Gruzinsky, N. V.; Solovey, V. A.; Cherniy, A. V.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Martemyanov, V. P.; Zinoev, V. G.; Tarasenkov, V. G.; Aleshin, V. I.; Petelin, A. L.; Pavlov, S. V.; Izhutov, A. L.; Sazontov, S. A.; Ryazanov, D. K.; Gromov, M. O.; Afanasiev, V. V.; Matrosov, L. N.; Matrosova, M. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    In connection with the question of possible existence of sterile neutrino the laboratory on the basis of SM-3 reactor was created to search for oscillations of reactor antineutrino. A prototype of a neutrino detector with scintillator volume of 400 l can be moved at the distance of 6-11 m from the reactor core. The measurements of background conditions have been made. It is shown that the main experimental problem is associated with cosmic radiation background. Test measurements of dependence of a reactor antineutrino flux on the distance from a reactor core have been made. The prospects of search for oscillations of reactor antineutrino at short distances are discussed.

  4. Reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Fiorentini, Giovanni; Mantovani, Fabio; Ricci, Barbara; Strati, Virginia; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-03-01

    Antineutrinos produced at nuclear reactors constitute a severe source of background for the detection of geoneutrinos, which bring to the Earth's surface information about natural radioactivity in the whole planet. In this framework, we provide a reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors, in view of reactors operational records yearly published by the International Atomic Energy Agency. We evaluate the expected signal from commercial reactors for ongoing (KamLAND and Borexino), planned (SNO +), and proposed (Juno, RENO-50, LENA, and Hanohano) experimental sites. Uncertainties related to reactor antineutrino production, propagation, and detection processes are estimated using a Monte Carlo-based approach, which provides an overall site-dependent uncertainty on the signal in the geoneutrino energy window on the order of 3%. We also implement the off-equilibrium correction to the reference reactor spectra associated with the long-lived isotopes, and we estimate a 2.4% increase of the unoscillated event rate in the geoneutrino energy window due to the storage of spent nuclear fuels in the cooling pools. We predict that the research reactors contribute to less than 0.2% to the commercial reactor signal in the investigated 14 sites. We perform a multitemporal analysis of the expected reactor signal over a time lapse of ten years using reactor operational records collected in a comprehensive database published at www.fe.infn.it/antineutrino.

  5. The development and experimental evaluation of a simple analytical model for the TPR in the build-up region of megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Marcelo; Galiano, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a simple analytical model for the tissue phantom ratio (TPR) in the build-up region of megavoltage photon beams and to experimentally evaluate the model under a variety of clinically relevant field configurations. Considering electron contamination and primary photons as the main components of the absorbed dose in the build-up region, an analytic expression for the TPR was derived. The electron contamination component was addressed with a biexponential function; the primary photon component was treated as nonlocal energy transport, i.e., assuming the energy deposited by secondary electrons can be described by a biexponential mode similar to that of contaminating electrons. The model contains five independent constants, which were fitted experimentally. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by comparing its results with in-phantom measurements taken on square, rectangular, irregular, and wedged fields, for 6 and 15 MV photon beams on a GE-Saturne 41 accelerator. More specifically, the accuracy of the model was quantified using the gamma index with 2% dose and 2 mm spatial tolerances as described by Low et al. [Med. Phys. 25, 656-661 (1998)]. For square cerrobende blocked fields, the maximum recorded gamma indices were 0.42 and 0.54 for 6 and 15 MV beams, respectively. For "I" shaped fields, the corresponding maxima were 0.64 and 0.52, respectively, while for "cross" shaped fields they were 0.42 and 0.76. For rectangular 10 × 30 cm fields, the corresponding maxima were 0.32 and 0.42, and for 7 × 20 cm fields, they were 0.70 and 0.35, respectively. For square 10 × 10 cm and 15 × 15 cm fields with an acrylic tray, the maxima were 0.57 and 0.45 for 6 MV and 0.32 and 0.77 for 15 MV beams, respectively. For a 10 × 10 cm 60° wedged field, the maxima were 0.53 and 0.33 for 6 and 15 MV beams, respectively. In all examined cases of irregular, rectangular, square (with and without tray), and wedged fields, the

  6. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND THE DENITRIFICATION IN UASB REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    José Tavares de Sousa; Keliana Dantas Santos; Israel Nunes Henrique; Danielle Patrício Brasil; Eclésio Cavalcante Santos

    2008-01-01

    The environmental conditions in Brazil have been contributing to the development of anaerobic systems in the treatment of wastewaters, especially UASB - Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactors. The classic biological process for removal of nutrients uses three reactors - Bardenpho System, therefore, this work intends an alternative system, where the anaerobic digestion and the denitrification happen in the same reactor reducing the number of reactors for two. The experimental system was con...

  7. Development and Optimization of Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2013-01-02

    INL developed a bench–scale, modular hybrid plasma system for gas-phase nanomaterials synthesis. The system was optimized for WO{sub 3} nanoparticle production and scale-model projection to a 300 kW pilot system. During the course of technology development, many modifications were made to the system to resolve technical issues that surfaced and also to improve performance. All project tasks were completed except two optimization subtasks. Researchers were unable to complete these two subtasks, a four-hour and an eight-hour continuous powder production run at 1 lb/hr powder-feeding rate, due to major technical issues developed with the reactor system. The 4-hour run was attempted twice, and on both occasions, the run was terminated prematurely. The termination was due to (1) heavy material condensation on the modular electrodes, which led to system operational instability, and (2) pressure buildup in the reactor due to powder clogging of the exhaust gas and product transfer line. The modular electrode for the plasma system was significantly redesigned to address the material condensation problem on the electrodes. However, the cause for product powder clogging of the exhaust gas and product transfer line led to a pressure build up in the reactor that was undetected. Fabrication of the redesigned modular electrodes and additional components was completed near the end of the project life. However, insufficient resource was available to perform tests to evaluate the performance of the new modifications. More development work would be needed to resolve these problems prior to scaling. The technology demonstrated a surprising capability of synthesizing a single phase of meta-stable {delta}- Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from pure {alpha}-phase large Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The formation of {delta} -Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was surprising because this phase is meta-stable and only formed between 973–1073 K, and {delta} -Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is very difficult to synthesize as a single

  8. Bioremediation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil by two phase bioslurry reactor: Processes evaluation and optimization by Taguchi's design of experimental (DOE) methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Apourv; Rai, J P N

    2018-04-15

    Two phase bioreactor was constructed, designed and developed to evaluate the chlorpyrifos remediation. Six biotic and abiotic factors (substrate-loading rate, slurry phase pH, slurry phase dissolved oxygen (DO), soil water ratio, temperature and soil micro flora load) were evaluated by design of experimental (DOE) methodology employing Taguchi's orthogonal array (OA). The selected six factors were considered at two levels L-8 array (2^7, 15 experiments) in the experimental design. The optimum operating conditions obtained from the methodology showed enhanced chlorpyrifos degradation from 283.86µg/g to 955.364µg/g by overall 70.34% of enhancement. In the present study, with the help of few well defined experimental parameters a mathematical model was constructed to understand the complex bioremediation process and optimize the approximate parameters upto great accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  10. Application of CFD Codes in Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Höhne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD is increasingly being used in nuclear reactor safety (NRS analyses as a tool that enables safety relevant phenomena occurring in the reactor coolant system to be described in more detail. Numerical investigations on single phase coolant mixing in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR have been performed at the FZD for almost a decade. The work is aimed at describing the mixing phenomena relevant for both safety analysis, particularly in steam line break and boron dilution scenarios, and mixing phenomena of interest for economical operation and the structural integrity. For the experimental investigation of horizontal two phase flows, different non pressurized channels and the TOPFLOW Hot Leg model in a pressure chamber was build and simulated with ANSYS CFX. In a common project between the University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Görlitz and FZD the behaviour of insulation material released by a LOCA released into the containment and might compromise the long term emergency cooling systems is investigated. Moreover, the actual capability of CFD is shown to contribute to fuel rod bundle design with a good CHF performance.

  11. Design of the experimental apparatus to obtain a thermal neutron beam, intermediate-energy neutrons (2-144 keV) and high-energy photons (6 MeV) by means of the TRIGA reactor at the ENEA Casaccia center

    CERN Document Server

    Laitano, R F

    1987-01-01

    Design of the experimental apparatus to obtain a thermal neutron beam, intermediate-energy neutrons (2-144 keV) and high-energy photons (6 MeV) by means of the TRIGA reactor at the ENEA Casaccia center

  12. Modelization of physical phenomena in research reactors with the help of new developments in transport methods, and methodology validation with experimental data; Modelisation des phenomenes physiques dans les reacteurs de recherche a l'aide de developpements realises dans les methodes de transport et qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauck, St

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a scheme for experimental reactors, based on transport equations. This type of reactors is characterized by a small core, a complex, very heterogeneous geometry and a large leakage. The possible insertion of neutron beams in the reflector and the presence of absorbers in the core increase the difficulty of the 3D-geometrical description and the physical modeling of the component parameters of the reactor. The Orphee reactor has been chosen for our study. Physical models (homogenization, collapsing cross section in few groups, albedo multigroup condition) have been developed in the APOLLO2 and CRONOS2 codes to calculate flux and power maps in a 3D-geometry, with different burnup and through transport equations. Comparisons with experimental measurements have shown the interest of taking into account anisotropy, steep flux gradients by using Sn methods, and on the other hand using a 12-group cross section library. The modeling of neutron beams has been done outside the core modeling through Monte Carlo calculations and with the total geometry, including a large thickness of heavy water. Thanks to this calculations, one can evaluate the neutron beams anti-reactivity and determinate the core cycle. We assure these methods more accurate than usual transport-diffusion calculations will be used for the conception of new research reactors. (author)

  13. Isotopic evidence for nitrous oxide production pathways in a partial nitritation-anammox reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Joss, Adriano; Emmenegger, Lukas; Kipf, Marco; Wolf, Benjamin; Mohn, Joachim; Wunderlin, Pascal

    2015-10-15

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production pathways in a single stage, continuously fed partial nitritation-anammox reactor were investigated using online isotopic analysis of offgas N2O with quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS). N2O emissions increased when reactor operating conditions were not optimal, for example, high dissolved oxygen concentration. SP measurements indicated that the increase in N2O was due to enhanced nitrifier denitrification, generally related to nitrite build-up in the reactor. The results of this study confirm that process control via online N2O monitoring is an ideal method to detect imbalances in reactor operation and regulate aeration, to ensure optimal reactor conditions and minimise N2O emissions. Under normal operating conditions, the N2O isotopic site preference (SP) was much higher than expected - up to 40‰ - which could not be explained within the current understanding of N2O production pathways. Various targeted experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of N2O formation in the reactor. The high SP measurements during both normal operating and experimental conditions could potentially be explained by a number of hypotheses: i) unexpectedly strong heterotrophic N2O reduction, ii) unknown inorganic or anammox-associated N2O production pathway, iii) previous underestimation of SP fractionation during N2O production from NH2OH, or strong variations in SP from this pathway depending on reactor conditions. The second hypothesis - an unknown or incompletely characterised production pathway - was most consistent with results, however the other possibilities cannot be discounted. Further experiments are needed to distinguish between these hypotheses and fully resolve N2O production pathways in PN-anammox systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. First experimental results of particle re-suspension in a low pressure wind tunnel applied to the issue of dust in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondeau, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.rondeau@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Merrison, Jonathan; Iversen, Jens Jacob [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Storage Ring Facilities, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Peillon, Samuel; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe; Lemaitre, Pascal; Gensdarmes, François [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Chassefière, Eric [Laboratoire Géosciences Paris Sud (GEOPS), UMR 8148, Université Paris Sud, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The first experimental data of dust re-suspension performed by controlled airflow (in terms of airflow velocity and fluid density). • The effect of the surrounding pressure in the re-suspension mechanism. • The friction (shear velocity) reduction at low pressure in the transient regime (Knudsen number close to one). • The importance of the adhesion forces between particles in dust mobilization by clustering. • The fact that the existing re-suspension models of the relevant literature do not take into account this clustering phenomenon. - Abstract: During the normal operating condition of the future ITER tokamak, a massive production of dust in the toroidal vacuum vessel is expected. This dust, originating from the erosion of tungsten and beryllium internal walls of the torus by the plasma, would be mobilized to some extent during a loss of vacuum accident (LOVA). For safety reasons, it is essential to quantify the re-suspended dust fraction during such an event. Here, we provide preliminary experimental data of dust re-suspension obtained in the wind tunnel of the European Space Agency (ESA) at low pressures (300, 130 and 10 mbar). The experimentations were performed with multilayer deposits. We used two powders with a median diameter at 15.5 μm and 21.8 μm. A negative influence of the low pressure in the re-suspension mechanism is observed. For example, given a re-suspension fraction of 10%, increasing friction shear velocities are derived for decreasing absolute pressures: 300 mbar/0.66 m s{sup −1}; 130 mbar/1.08 m s{sup −1}; and 10 mbar/1.84 m s{sup −1}. In addition, we highlight the friction reduction for Kundsen numbers greater than 0.1 by an analysis of the airflow forces.

  15. Flash Cracking Reactor for Waste Plastic Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, model, build, and test a novel flash cracking reactor to convert plastic waste, and potentially other unconventional hydrocarbon feedstocks,...

  16. Photoneutron effects on pulse reactor kinetics for the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parma, Edward J., Jr.

    2009-06-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) is a swimming-pool type pulsed reactor that maintains an epithermal neutron flux and a nine-inch diameter central dry cavity. One of its uses is neutron and gamma-ray irradiation damage studies on electronic components under transient reactor power conditions. In analyzing the experimental results, careful attention must be paid to the kinetics associated with the reactor to ensure that the transient behavior of the electronic device is understood. Since the ACRR fuel maintains a substantial amount of beryllium, copious quantities of photoneutrons are produced that can significantly alter the expected behavior of the reactor power, especially following a reactor pulse. In order to understand these photoneutron effects on the reactor kinetics, the KIFLE transient reactor-analysis code was modified to include the photoneutron groups associated with the beryllium. The time-dependent behavior of the reactor power was analyzed for small and large pulses, assuming several initial conditions including following several pulses during the day, and following a long steady-state power run. The results indicate that, for these types of initial conditions, the photoneutron contribution to the reactor pulse energy can have a few to tens of percent effect.

  17. Using thermal balance model to determine optimal reactor volume and insulation material needed in a laboratory-scale composting reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjiang; Pang, Li; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Yuansheng; Zhou, Kexun; Luo, Fei

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive model of thermal balance and degradation kinetics was developed to determine the optimal reactor volume and insulation material. Biological heat production and five channels of heat loss were considered in the thermal balance model for a representative reactor. Degradation kinetics was developed to make the model applicable to different types of substrates. Simulation of the model showed that the internal energy accumulation of compost was the significant heat loss channel, following by heat loss through reactor wall, and latent heat of water evaporation. Lower proportion of heat loss occurred through the reactor wall when the reactor volume was larger. Insulating materials with low densities and low conductive coefficients were more desirable for building small reactor systems. Model developed could be used to determine the optimal reactor volume and insulation material needed before the fabrication of a lab-scale composting system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In-situ Condition Monitoring of Components in Small Modular Reactors Using Process and Electrical Signature Analysis. Final report, volume 1. Development of experimental flow control loop, data analysis and plant monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Belle [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hines, J. Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Damiano, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehta, Chaitanya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Collins, Price [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lish, Matthew [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cady, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lollar, Victor [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); de Wet, Dane [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bayram, Duygu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The research and development under this project was focused on the following three major objectives: Objective 1: Identification of critical in-vessel SMR components for remote monitoring and development of their low-order dynamic models, along with a simulation model of an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR). Objective 2: Development of an experimental flow control loop with motor-driven valves and pumps, incorporating data acquisition and on-line monitoring interface. Objective 3: Development of stationary and transient signal processing methods for electrical signatures, machinery vibration, and for characterizing process variables for equipment monitoring. This objective includes the development of a data analysis toolbox. The following is a summary of the technical accomplishments under this project: - A detailed literature review of various SMR types and electrical signature analysis of motor-driven systems was completed. A bibliography of literature is provided at the end of this report. Assistance was provided by ORNL in identifying some key references. - A review of literature on pump-motor modeling and digital signal processing methods was performed. - An existing flow control loop was upgraded with new instrumentation, data acquisition hardware and software. The upgrading of the experimental loop included the installation of a new submersible pump driven by a three-phase induction motor. All the sensors were calibrated before full-scale experimental runs were performed. - MATLAB-Simulink model of a three-phase induction motor and pump system was completed. The model was used to simulate normal operation and fault conditions in the motor-pump system, and to identify changes in the electrical signatures. - A simulation model of an integral PWR (iPWR) was updated and the MATLAB-Simulink model was validated for known transients. The pump-motor model was interfaced with the iPWR model for testing the impact of primary flow perturbations (upsets) on

  19. N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.L.

    1993-12-01

    This N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan is structured to provide the basic methodology required to place N Reactor and supporting facilities {center_dot} in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition such that they can be decommissioned at a later date. Deactivation will be in accordance with facility transfer criteria specified in Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) guidance. Transition activities primarily involve shutdown and isolation of operational systems and buildings, radiological/hazardous waste cleanup, N Fuel Basin stabilization and environmental stabilization of the facilities. The N Reactor Deactivation Program covers the period FY 1992 through FY 1997. The directive to cease N Reactor preservation and prepare for decommissioning was issued by DOE to WHC on September 20, 1991. The work year and budget data supporting the Work Breakdown Structure in this document are found in the Activity Data Sheets (ADS) and the Environmental Restoration Program Baseline, that are prepared annually.

  20. Continuous esterification to produce biodiesel by SPES/PES/NWF composite catalytic membrane in flow-through membrane reactor: experimental and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenying; He, Benqiao; Cao, Yuping; Li, Jianxin; Yan, Feng; Cui, Zhenyu; Zou, Zhiqun; Guo, Shiwei; Qian, Xiaomin

    2013-02-01

    A novel composite catalytic membrane (CCM) was prepared from sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) and polyethersulfone (PES) blend supported by non-woven fabrics, as a heterogeneous catalyst to produce biodiesel from continuous esterification of oleic acid with methanol in a flow-through mode. A kinetic model of esterification was established based on a plug-flow assumption. The effects of the CCM structure (thickness, area, porosity, etc.), reaction temperature and the external and internal mass transfer resistances on esterification were investigated. The results showed that the CCM structure had a significant effect on the acid conversion. The external mass transfer resistance could be neglected when the flow rate was over 1.2 ml min(-1). The internal mass transfer resistance impacted on the conversion when membrane thickness was over 1.779 mm. An oleic acid conversion kept over 98.0% for 500 h of continuous running. The conversions obtained from the model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prolongation of the BOR-60 reactor operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey l. Izhutov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast neutron reactor BOR-60 is one of the key experimental facilities worldwide to perform large-scale tests of fuel, absorbing, and structural materials for advanced reactors. The BOR-60 reactor was put into operation in December 1969, and by the end of 2014 it had been operating on power for ∼265,000 hours. BOR-60 still demonstrates potential capabilities to extend the lifetime of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The BOR-60 lifetime should have expired at the end of 2014. Over the past few years, a great scope of work has been performed to justify the possibility of extending its lifetime. The work included inspection of the equipment conditions, calculations and experimental research on operating parameters and the conditions of nonremovable components, investigation of the structural material samples after their long-term operation under irradiation, etc. Based on the results of the work performed, the residual lifetime was evaluated and the reactor operator made a decision to extend the lifetime period of the BOR-60 reactor. After considering both a set of documents about the reactor conditions and the positive decision of independent experts, the Regulatory Authority of the Russian Federation extended the BOR-60 operating license up to 2020.

  2. Experimental study of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal in anaerobic/anoxic SBR reactor with separated biofilm nitrification; Indagine sperimentale sulla rimozione biologica di azoto e fosforo in un reattore SBR anaerobico/anossico con nitrificazione separata su biofiltro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortone, G.; Malaspina, F.; Stante, L.; Tilche, A. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute; Andreottola, G. [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile-Ambientale

    1995-04-01

    An Anaerobic/Anoxic Sequencing Batch Reactor (A/A SBR) with separated batch biofilm nitrification was tested for nutrient removal against a five step anaerobic anoxic/Oxic SBR (A/O SBR). Piggery waste water, particularly challenging for its low COD/N ratio, was used as feed. A/A SBR, especially in the configuration tested in the second experimental period, showed very good N (97%) and P (90%) removal capacities with excellent sludge settling properties (SVI 52 ml/gSS). On the other hand, organic carbon removal efficiency with nitrate was a little bit lower than with oxygen (90% in A/A SBR against 92% in A/O SBR). Batch biofilm nitrification was very effective, with very high nitrification rates (1.4 mgN gVSS{sup -1} h{sup -1}; 0.1 khN m{sup 3}d{sup -1}). Presence of poly P bacteria in the A/A SBR sludge was assessed through microscopic observation and from the high cellular poly-phosphate content.

  3. Neutronics qualification of the Jules Horowitz reactor fuel by interpretation of the VALMONT experimental program - Transposition of the uncertainties on the reactivity of JHR with JEF2.2 and JEFF3.1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leray, O.; Hudelot, J. P. [DEN Nuclear Projects Laboratory, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Antony, M. [DEN Experimental Physics Laboratory, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Doederlein, C. [DEN Nuclear Projects Laboratory, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Santamarina, A. [DEN Reactor and Cycle Physics Service, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bernard, D. [DEN Physical Studies Laboratory, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Vaglio-Gaudard, C. [DEN Nuclear Projects Laboratory, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2011-07-01

    The new European material testing Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), currently under construction in Cadarache center (CEA France), will use LEU (20% enrichment in {sup 235}U) fuels (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} for the start up and UMoAl in the future) which are quite different from the industrial oxide fuel, for which an extensive neutronics qualification database has been established. The HORUS3D/N neutronics calculation scheme, used for the design and safety studies of the JHR, is being developed within the framework of a rigorous verification-validation-qualification methodology. In this framework, the experimental VALMONT (Validation of Aluminium Molybdenum uranium fuel for Neutronics) program has been performed in the MINERVE facility of CEA Cadarache (France), in order to qualify the capability of HORUS3D/N to accurately calculate the reactivity of the JHR reactor. The MINERVE facility using the oscillation technique provides accurate measurements of reactivity effect of samples. The VALMONT program includes oscillations of samples of UAl{sub x}/Al and UMo/Al with enrichments ranging from 0.2% to 20% and Uranium densities from 2.2 to 8 g/cm{sup 3}. The geometry of the samples and the pitch of the experimental lattice ensure maximum representativeness with the neutron spectrum expected for JHR. By comparing the effect of the sample with the one of a known fuel specimen, the reactivity effect can be measured in absolute terms and be compared to computational results. Special attention was paid to the rigorous determination and reduction of the experimental uncertainties. The calculational analysis of the VALMONT results was performed with the French deterministic code APOLLO2. A comparison of the impact of the different calculation methods, data libraries and energy meshes that were tested is presented. The interpretation of the VALMONT experimental program allowed the qualification of JHR fuel UMoAl8 (with an enrichment of 19.75% {sup 235}U) by the Minerve

  4. Experimental and CFD Studies of Coolant Flow Mixing within Scaled Models of the Upper and Lower Plenums of NGNP Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yassin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Anand, Nk [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-03-30

    A 1/16th scaled VHTR experimental model was constructed and the preliminary test was performed in this study. To produce benchmark data for CFD validation in the future, the facility was first run at partial operation with five pipes being heated. PIV was performed to extract the vector velocity field for three adjacent naturally convective jets at statistically steady state. A small recirculation zone was found between the pipes, and the jets entered the merging zone at 3 cm from the pipe outlet but diverged as the flow approached the top of the test geometry. Turbulence analysis shows the turbulence intensity peaked at 41-45% as the jets mixed. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that 1000 frames were sufficient to measure statistically steady state. The results were then validated by extracting the flow rate from the PIV jet velocity profile, and comparing it with an analytic flow rate and ultrasonic flowmeter; all flow rates lie within the uncertainty of the other two methods for Tests 1 and 2. This test facility can be used for further analysis of naturally convective mixing, and eventually produce benchmark data for CFD validation for the VHTR during a PCC or DCC accident scenario. Next, a PTV study of 3000 images (1500 image pairs) were used to quantify the velocity field in the upper plenum. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that 1500 frames were sufficient to precisely estimate the flow. Subsequently, three (3, 9, and 15 cm) Y-lines from the pipe output were extracted to consider the output differences between 50 to 1500 frames. The average velocity field and standard deviation error that accrued in the three different tests were calculated to assess repeatability. The error was varied, from 1 to 14%, depending on Y-elevation. The error decreased as the flow moved farther from the output pipe. In addition, turbulent intensity was calculated and found to be high near the output. Reynolds stresses and turbulent intensity were used to validate the data by

  5. Studying the properties and behaviour of high-level radioactive wastes from the BOR-60 reactor U-Pu and U spent fuel experimental gas-fluoride reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillovich, A.P.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.; Vorobej, M.P.; Pimonov, Yu.I.

    1982-07-01

    The results of investigations of physical-chemical and radiation properties of fluoride radioactive wastes produced during experimental reprocessing of spent oxide uranium-plutonium fuel as well as high-level radioactive waste behaviour in the process of their six-year controlled storage are presented. Radioactive gas release from solid wastes, gaseous phase composition, radionuclide leaching rate are determined. Investigations are performed at a special bench. Energy release of the spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes is determined by means of heat-conducting type calorimeter. Gas mixture composition in containers with wastes is determined by mass-spectrometric method at equilibrium temperature of high-level radioactive product self-heating and at external container heating up to 700 deg C. Thermal-physical characteristics of solid fluoride wastes are found by the differential thermography method under quasistationary heating. The results obtained show that about a half (44.8-60.9%) of fission product radioactivity is concentrated in fluorination wastes, specific heat release of which constitutes 50-52 W/kg, while ..beta..-activity exceeds 550 TBq/kg. Main contribution into ..beta..-activity is made by Ce, /sup 144/Pr, Ru, /sup 106/Rh, Zr, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 137/Cs. With waste storage time increase their thermal stability increases. It is concluded that the investigation results can be used for calculating the conditions of safe storage of high-level radiactive solid fluoride wastes and optimization of the technological process of spent fuel gas-fluoride reprossing.

  6. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  7. Attrition reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Davison, Brian H.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  8. Guidebook to nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    A general introduction to reactor physics and theory is followed by descriptions of commercial nuclear reactor types. Future directions for nuclear power are also discussed. The technical level of the material is suitable for laymen.

  9. Pebble Fuel Handling and Reactivity Control for Salt-Cooled High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Per [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Greenspan, Ehud [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2015-02-09

    -PREX facility uses novel digital x-ray tomography methods to track both the translational and rotational motion of spherical pebbles, which provides unique experimental results that can be used to validate discrete element method (DEM) simulations of pebble motion. The validation effort supported by the X-PREX facility provides a means to build confidence in analysis of pebble bed configuration and residence time distributions that impact the neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and safety analysis of pebble bed reactor cores. Experimental and DEM simulation results are reported for silo drainage, a classical problem in the granular flow literature, at several hopper angles. These studies include conventional converging and novel diverging geometries that provide additional flexibility in the design of pebble bed reactor cores. Excellent agreement is found between the X-PREX experimental and DEM simulation results. This report also includes results for additional studies relevant to the design and analysis of pebble bed reactor cores including the study of forces on shut down blades inserted directly into a packed bed and pebble flow in a cylindrical hopper that is representative of a small test reactor.

  10. Equipment for neutron measurements at VR-1 Sparrow training reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolros, Antonin; Huml, Ondrej; Kríz, Martin; Kos, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The VR-1 sparrow reactor is an experimental nuclear facility for training, student education and teaching purposes. The sparrow reactor is an educational platform for the basic experiments at the reactor physic and dosimetry. The aim of this article is to describe the new experimental equipment EMK310 features and possibilities for neutron detection by different gas filled detectors at VR-1 reactor. Among the EMK310 equipment typical attributes belong precise set-up, simple control, resistance to electromagnetic interference, high throughput (counting rate), versatility and remote controllability. The methods for non-linearity correction of pulse neutron detection system and reactimeter application are presented. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  12. Tritium resources available for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovari, M.; Coleman, M.; Cristescu, I.; Smith, R.

    2018-02-01

    The tritium required for ITER will be supplied from the CANDU production in Ontario, but while Ontario may be able to supply 8 kg for a DEMO fusion reactor in the mid-2050s, it will not be able to provide 10 kg at any realistic starting time. The tritium required to start DEMO will depend on advances in plasma fuelling efficiency, burnup fraction, and tritium processing technology. It is in theory possible to start up a fusion reactor with little or no tritium, but at an estimated cost of 2 billion per kilogram of tritium saved, it is not economically sensible. Some heavy water reactor tritium production scenarios with varying degrees of optimism are presented, with the assumption that only Canada, the Republic of Korea, and Romania make tritium available to the fusion community. Results for the tritium available for DEMO in 2055 range from zero to 30 kg. CANDU and similar heavy water reactors could in theory generate additional tritium in a number of ways: (a) adjuster rods containing lithium could be used, giving 0.13 kg per year per reactor; (b) a fuel bundle with a burnable absorber has been designed for CANDU reactors, which might be adapted for tritium production; (c) tritium production could be increased by 0.05 kg per year per reactor by doping the moderator with lithium-6. If a fusion reactor is started up around 2055, governments in Canada, Argentina, China, India, South Korea and Romania will have the opportunity in the years leading up to that to take appropriate steps: (a) build, refurbish or upgrade tritium extraction facilities; (b) extend the lives of heavy water reactors, or build new ones; (c) reduce tritium sales; (d) boost tritium production in the remaining heavy water reactors. All of the alternative production methods considered have serious economic and regulatory drawbacks, and the risk of diversion of tritium or lithium-6 would also be a major concern. There are likely to be serious problems with supplying tritium for future

  13. Development of a PID-Fuzzy controller in the water level control of a pressurizer of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Thiago S.P.; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.; Vasconcelos, Wagner E., E-mail: thiago.brito86@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br, E-mail: wagner@unicap.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that safety in the operation of nuclear power plants is a primary requirement because a failure of this system can result in serious problems to the environment. A nuclear reactor has several systems that help keep it in normal operation, within safety margins. Many of these systems operate in the control of variable quantities in the primary circuit of a reactor. However, nuclear reactors are nonlinear physical systems, and this introduces a complexity in the control strategies. Among several mechanisms in the thermal-hydraulic system of a reactor that actuate as a controller, the pressurizer is the component responsible for absorbing pressure variations that occur in the primary circuit. This work aims at the development of a PID controller (Proportional Integral Derivative) based on fuzzy logic to operate in a pressurizer of a nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor. A Fuzzy Controller was developed using the process of fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification of the variables of interest to a pressurizer, then this controller was coupled to a PID Controller building a PID Controller, but oriented by Fuzzy logic. Subsequently, the PID-Fuzzy Controller was experimentally validated in a Simulation Plant in which transients like those in a PWR were conducted. The PID parameters were analyzed and adjusted for better responses and results. The results of the validation were also compared to simple controllers (on / off). (author)

  14. Mitigate Strategy of Very High Temperature Reactor Air-ingress Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Tae Kyu [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Arcilesi, David J.; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N. [The Ohio State University, Columbus (United States); Oh, Chang H.; Kim, Eung S. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    2016-10-15

    A critical safety event of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Since a VHTR uses graphite as a core structure, if there is a break on the pressure vessel, the air in the reactor cavity could ingress into the reactor core. The worst case scenario of the accident is initiated by a double-ended guillotine break of the cross vessel that connects the reactor vessel and the power conversion unit. The operating pressures in the vessel and containment are about 7 and 0.1 MPa, respectively. In the VHTR, the reactor pressure vessel is located within a reactor cavity which is filled with air during normal operation. Therefore, the air-helium mixture in the cavity may ingress into the reactor pressure vessel after the depressurization process. In this paper, a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool, FLUENT, was used to figure out air-ingress mitigation strategies in the gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) designed by General Atomics, Inc. After depressurization, there is almost no air in the reactor cavity; however, the air could flow back to the reactor cavity since the reactor cavity is placed in the lowest place in the reactor building. The heavier air could flow to the reactor cavity through free surface areas in the reactor building. Therefore, Argon gas injection in the reactor cavity is introduced. The injected argon would prevent the flow by pressurizing the reactor cavity initially, and eventually it prevents the flow by making the gas a heavier density than air in the reactor cavity. The gate opens when the reactor cavity is pressurized during the depressurization and it closes by gravity when the depressurization is terminated so that it can slow down the air flow to the reactor cavity.

  15. Experimental seismic behavior of a full-scale four-story soft-story wood-frame building with retrofits II: shake table test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. van de Lindt; Pouria Bahmani; Gary Mochizuki; Steven E. Pryor; Mikhail Gershfeld; Jingjing Tian; Michael D. Symans; Douglas Rammer

    2016-01-01

    Soft-story wood-frame buildings have been recognized as a disaster preparedness problem for decades. The majority of these buildings were constructed from the 1920s to the 1960s and are prone to collapse during moderate to large earthquakes due to a characteristic deficiency in strength and stiffness in their first story. In order to propose and validate retrofit...

  16. Status of Kijang Resarch Reactor Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jee. Y; Kwon, T. H.; Kim, Jun. Y.; Oh, G. B. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO) is a multi-purpose reactor in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and is being utilized for neutron scattering experiments, material and fuel tests for nuclear power plants, radio-isotope (RI) productions, silicon doping, neutron activation analysis, and neutron radiography. In medical applications, the majority of RIs produced using HANARO are I-131 and Ir-192. Other RIs such as Mo-99 are coming from imports. The self-sufficiency of RI demand becomes an important issue for the public health service in Korea. In this regard the Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) project was officially launched on the first of April 2012 in need to provide the self-sufficiency of RI demand including Mo-99, increase the neutron transportation doping (NTD) capacity and develop technologies related to the research reactor. When CP is granted, the first excavation is planned to start at the end of this year. In next year, pouring the first concrete and energizing 154kV will follow. In 2018, it is planned to complete utility building construction and reactor building construction.

  17. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  18. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  19. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  20. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.

    1992-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1991. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is an American company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4, in each section). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  1. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  2. Decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramenkovs Andris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor and to dispense with nuclear energy in the future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study on the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor was drawn up by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH in 1998-1999. On October 26th, 1999, the Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to “green-field” in 2001. The upgrading of the decommissioning and dismantling plan was carried out from 2003-2004, resulting in a change of the primary goal of decommissioning. Collecting and conditioning of “historical” radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall became the primary goal. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons were conditioned for disposal in concrete containers at the radioactive wastes depository “Radons” at the Baldone site. Protective and radiation measurement equipment of the personnel was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and materials outside the reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Contaminated materials from the reactor hall were collected and removed for clearance measurements on a weekly basis.

  3. Massive computation methodology for reactor operation (MACRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Cecilia; Pomp, Stephan; Sjoestrand, Henrik; Wallin, Gustav; Oesterlund, Michael [Division of applied nuclear physics, Department of physics and astronomy, Uppsala University, Laegerhyddsvaegen 1, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Koning, Arjan; Rochman, Dimitri [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG) Westerduinweg 3, Petten (Netherlands); Bejmer, Klaes-Hakan [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, Vaellingby (Sweden); Henriksson, Hans [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, Vaellingby (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Today, nuclear data libraries do not handle uncertainties from nuclear data in a consistent manner and the reactor codes do not request uncertainties in nuclear data input. Thus, the output from these codes have unknown uncertainties. The plan is to use a method proposed by Koning and Rochman to investigate the propagation of nuclear data uncertainties into reactor physics codes and macroscopic parameters. A project (acronym MACRO) has started at Uppsala University in collaboration with A. Koning and with financial support from Vattenfall AB and the Swedish Research Council within the GENIUS (Generation IV research in universities of Sweden) project. In the proposed method the uncertainties in nuclear model parameters will be derived from theoretical considerations and comparisons of nuclear model results with experimental cross-section data. Given the probability distribution in the model parameters a large set of random, complete ENDF-formatted nuclear data libraries will be created using the TALYS code. The generated nuclear data libraries will then be used in neutron transport codes to obtain macroscopic reactor parameters. For this, models of reactor systems with proper geometry and elements will be used. This will be done for all data libraries and the variation of the final results will be regarded as a systematic uncertainty in the investigated reactor parameter. The understanding of these systematic uncertainties is especially important for the design and intercomparison of new reactor concepts, i.e., Generation IV, and optimization applications for current generation reactors is envisaged. (authors)

  4. Reactor Monitoring with Antineutrinos - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam

    2012-08-01

    The Reactor Safeguards regime is the name given to a set of protocols and technologies used to monitor the consumption and production of fissile materials in nuclear reactors. The Safeguards regime is administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and is an essential component of the global Treaty on Nuclear Nonproliferation, recently renewed by its 189 remaining signators. (The 190th, North Korea, withdrew from the Treaty in 2003). Beginning in Russia in the 1980s, a number of researchers worldwide have experimentally demonstrated the potential of cubic meter scale antineutrino detectors for non-intrusive real-time monitoring of fissile inventories and power output of reactors. The detectors built so far have operated tens of meters from a reactor core, outside of the containment dome, largely unattended and with remote data acquisition for an entire 1.5 year reactor cycle, and have achieved levels of sensitivity to fissile content of potential interest for the IAEA safeguards regime. In this article, I will describe the unique advantages of antineutrino detectors for cooperative monitoring, consider the prospects and benefits of increasing the range of detectability for small reactors, and provide a partial survey of ongoing global research aimed at improving near-field and far field monitoring and discovery of nuclear reactors.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN THE R- AND P-REACTOR VESSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2009-12-29

    The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS&T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or Portland cement grout (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters does not provide a significant margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. It is recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. The R-reactor vessel contains significantly less aluminum and thus a Portland cement grout may be considered as well. For example, if the grout fill rate is less than 1 inch/min and the grout temperature is maintained at 70 C or less, the risk of hydrogen accumulation in the R-reactor vessel is very low for the Portland cement. Alternatively, if the grout fill rate is less than 0.5 inch/min and the grout is maintained

  6. Conduction heat transfer in a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat, H. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)], E-mail: hamou.sadat@univ-poitiers.fr; Dubus, N. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France); Pinard, L.; Tatibouet, J.M.; Barrault, J. [Laboratoire en catalyse et chimie organique, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)

    2009-04-15

    The thermal behaviour of a dielectric barrier discharge reactor is studied. The experimental tests are performed on a laboratory reactor with two working fluids: helium and air. A simple heat conduction model for calculating the heat loss is developed. By using temperature measurements in the internal and external electrodes, a thermal resistance of the reactor is defined. Finally, the percentage of the input power that is dissipated to the environment is given.

  7. Consumption of the electric power inside silent discharge reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yehia, Ashraf, E-mail: yehia30161@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Arab Republic of Egypt and Department of Physics, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies at Alkharj, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 83, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-01-15

    An experimental study was made in this paper to investigate the relation between the places of the dielectric barriers, which cover the surfaces of the electrodes in the coaxial cylindrical reactors, and the rate of change of the electric power that is consumed in forming silent discharges. Therefore, silent discharges have been formed inside three coaxial cylindrical reactors. The dielectric barriers in these reactors were pasted on both the internal surface of the outer electrode in the first reactor and the external surface of the inner electrode in the second reactor as well as the surfaces of the two electrodes in the third reactor. The reactor under study has been fed by atmospheric air that flowed inside it with a constant rate at normal temperature and pressure, in parallel with the application of a sinusoidal ac voltage between the electrodes of the reactor. The electric power consumed in forming the silent discharges inside the three reactors was measured as a function of the ac peak voltage. The validity of the experimental results was investigated by applying Manley's equation on the same discharge conditions. The results have shown that the rate of consumption of the electric power relative to the ac peak voltage per unit width of the discharge gap improves by a ratio of either 26.8% or 80% or 128% depending on the places of the dielectric barriers that cover the surfaces of the electrodes inside the three reactors.

  8. Training experience at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, J.W.; McCormick, R.P.; McCreery, H.I.

    1978-01-01

    The EBR-II Training Group develops, maintains,and oversees training programs and activities associated with the EBR-II Project. The group originally spent all its time on EBR-II plant-operations training, but has gradually spread its work into other areas. These other areas of training now include mechanical maintenance, fuel manufacturing facility, instrumentation and control, fissile fuel handling, and emergency activities. This report describes each of the programs and gives a statistical breakdown of the time spent by the Training Group for each program. The major training programs for the EBR-II Project are presented by multimedia methods at a pace controlled by the student. The Training Group has much experience in the use of audio-visual techniques and equipment, including video-tapes, 35 mm slides, Super 8 and 16 mm film, models, and filmstrips. The effectiveness of these techniques is evaluated in this report.

  9. Chemical reactor modeling multiphase reactive flows

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Hugo A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical Reactor Modeling closes the gap between Chemical Reaction Engineering and Fluid Mechanics.  The second edition consists of two volumes: Volume 1: Fundamentals. Volume 2: Chemical Engineering Applications In volume 1 most of the fundamental theory is presented. A few numerical model simulation application examples are given to elucidate the link between theory and applications. In volume 2 the chemical reactor equipment to be modeled are described. Several engineering models are introduced and discussed. A survey of the frequently used numerical methods, algorithms and schemes is provided. A few practical engineering applications of the modeling tools are presented and discussed. The working principles of several experimental techniques employed in order to get data for model validation are outlined. The monograph is based on lectures regularly taught in the fourth and fifth years graduate courses in transport phenomena and chemical reactor modeling, and in a post graduate course in modern reactor m...

  10. Gas pollutant cleaning by a membrane reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaldis Sotiris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative technology for the removal of gas pollutants at the integrated gasification combined cycle process for power generation is the use of a catalytic membrane reactor. In the present study, ammonia decomposition in a catalytic reactor, with a simultaneous removal of hydrogen through a ceramic membrane, was investigated. A Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by the dry and wet impregnation method and characterized by the inductively coupled plasma method, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and N2 adsorption before and after activation. Commercially available a-Al2O3 membranes were also characterized and the permeabilities and permselectivities of H2, N2, and CO2 were measured by the variable volume method. In parallel with the experimental analysis, the necessary mathematical models were developed to describe the operation of the catalytic membrane reactor and to compare its performance with the conventional reactor. .

  11. Neutron fluxes in test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youinou, Gilles Jean-Michel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Communicate the fact that high-power water-cooled test reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) or the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) cannot provide fast flux levels as high as sodium-cooled fast test reactors. The memo first presents some basics physics considerations about neutron fluxes in test reactors and then uses ATR, HFIR and JHR as an illustration of the performance of modern high-power water-cooled test reactors.

  12. Benchmarking severe accident computer codes for heavy water reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    Consideration of severe accidents at a nuclear power plant (NPP) is an essential component of the defence in depth approach used in nuclear safety. Severe accident analysis involves very complex physical phenomena that occur sequentially during various stages of accident progression. Computer codes are essential tools for understanding how the reactor and its containment might respond under severe accident conditions. International cooperative research programmes are established by the IAEA in areas that are of common interest to a number of Member States. These co-operative efforts are carried out through coordinated research projects (CRPs), typically 3 to 6 years in duration, and often involving experimental activities. Such CRPs allow a sharing of efforts on an international basis, foster team-building and benefit from the experience and expertise of researchers from all participating institutes. The IAEA is organizing a CRP on benchmarking severe accident computer codes for heavy water reactor (HWR) applications. The CRP scope includes defining the severe accident sequence and conducting benchmark analyses for HWRs, evaluating the capabilities of existing computer codes to predict important severe accident phenomena, and suggesting necessary code improvements and/or new experiments to reduce uncertainties. The CRP has been planned on the advice and with the support of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for HWRs. (author)

  13. Advanced Computational Thermal Fluid Physics (CTFP) and Its Assessment for Light Water Reactors and Supercritical Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. McEligot; K. G. Condie; G. E. McCreery; H. M. McIlroy; R. J. Pink; L.E. Hochreiter; J.D. Jackson; R.H. Pletcher; B.L. Smith; P. Vukoslavcevic; J.M. Wallace; J.Y. Yoo; J.S. Lee; S.T. Ro; S.O. Park

    2005-10-01

    Background: The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of Generation IV reactor systems such as supercritical water reactors (SCWR) for higher efficiency, improved performance and operation, design simplification, enhanced safety and reduced waste and cost. The objective of this Korean / US / laboratory / university collaboration of coupled fundamental computational and experimental studies is to develop the supporting knowledge needed for improved predictive techniques for use in the technology development of Generation IV reactor concepts and their passive safety systems. The present study emphasizes SCWR concepts in the Generation IV program.

  14. HORIZONTAL BOILING REACTOR SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treshow, M.

    1958-11-18

    Reactors of the boiling water type are described wherein water serves both as the moderator and coolant. The reactor system consists essentially of a horizontal pressure vessel divided into two compartments by a weir, a thermal neutronic reactor core having vertical coolant passages and designed to use water as a moderator-coolant posltioned in one compartment, means for removing live steam from the other compartment and means for conveying feed-water and water from the steam compartment to the reactor compartment. The system further includes auxiliary apparatus to utilize the steam for driving a turbine and returning the condensate to the feed-water inlet of the reactor. The entire system is designed so that the reactor is self-regulating and has self-limiting power and self-limiting pressure features.

  15. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  16. POTENTIAL BENCHMARKS FOR ACTINIDE PRODUCTION IN HANFORD REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PUIGH RJ; TOFFER H

    2011-10-19

    A significant experimental program was conducted in the early Hanford reactors to understand the reactor production of actinides. These experiments were conducted with sufficient rigor, in some cases, to provide useful information that can be utilized today in development of benchmark experiments that may be used for the validation of present computer codes for the production of these actinides in low enriched uranium fuel.

  17. THERMAL NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1960-01-12

    A novel thermal reactor was designed in which a first reflector formed from a high atomic weight, nonmoderating material is disposed immediately adjacent to the reactor core. A second reflector composed of a moderating material is disposed outwardly of the first reflector. The advantage of this novel reflector arrangement is that the first reflector provides a high slow neutron flux in the second reflector, where irradiation experiments may be conducted with a small effect on reactor reactivity.

  18. Development of reactor graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, G.; Mindermann, D.; Wilhelmi, G.; Persicke, H.; Ulsamer, W.

    1990-04-01

    The German graphite development programme for High Temperature Reactors has been based on the assumption that reactor graphite for core components with lifetime fluences of up to 4 × 10 22 neutrons per cm 2 (EDN) at 400°C can be manufactured from regular pitch coke. The use of secondary coke and vibrational moulding techniques have allowed production of materials with very small anisotropy, high strength, and high purity which are the most important properties of reactor graphite. A variety of graphite grades has been tested in fast neutron irradiation experiments. The results show that suitable graphites for modern High Temperature Reactors with spherical fuel elements are available.

  19. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slavnić Danijela S; Bugarski Branko M; Nikačević Nikola M

    2014-01-01

    .... However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat...

  20. Membrane reactors at Degussa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöltinger, Jens; Karau, Andreas; Leuchtenberger, Wolfgang; Drauz, Karlheinz

    2005-01-01

    The review covers the development of membrane reactor technologies at Degussa for the synthesis of fine chemicals. The operation of fed-batch or continuous biocatalytic processes in the enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) is well established at Degussa. Degussa has experience of running EMRs from laboratory gram scale up to a production scale of several hundreds of tons per year. The transfer of the enzyme membrane reactor from biocatalysis to chemical catalysis in the chemzyme membrane reactor (CMR) is discussed. Various homogeneous catalysts have been investigated in the CMR, and the scope and limitation of this new technique is discussed.

  1. Pressurizing new reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, J.S.

    1956-01-30

    The Technical Division was asked recently to consider designs for new reactors that would add 8000 MW capacity to the Savannah River Plant. One modification of the existing SRP design that would enable a higher power rating, and therefore require fewer new reactors, is an increase in the maximum pressure in the D{sub 2}O system. The existing reactors at SRP are designed for a maximum pressure in the gas plenum of only 5 psig. Higher pressures enable higher D{sub 2} temperatures and higher sheath temperatures without local boiling or burnout. The requirements in reactor cooling facilities at any given power level would therefore be reduced by pressurizing.

  2. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  3. The role of nuclear reactors in space exploration and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, R.J.

    2000-07-01

    The United States has launched more than 20 radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) into space over the past 30 yr but has launched only one nuclear reactor, and that was in 1965. Russia has launched more than 30 reactors. The RTGs use the heat of alpha decay of {sup 238}Pu for power and typically generate <1 kW of electricity. Apollo, Pioneer, Voyager, Viking, Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini all used RTGs. Space reactors use the fission energy of {sup 235}U; typical designs are for 100 to 1000 kW of electricity. The only US space reactor launch (SNAP-10A) was a demonstration mission. One reason for the lack of space reactor use by the United States was the lack of space missions that required high power. But, another was the assumed negative publicity that would accompany a reactor launch. The net result is that all space reactor programs after 1970 were terminated before an operating space reactor could be developed, and they are now many years from recovering the ability to build them. Two major near-term needs for space reactors are the human exploration of Mars and advanced missions to and beyond the orbit of Jupiter. To help obtain public acceptance of space reactors, one must correct some of the misconceptions concerning space reactors and convey the following facts to the public and to decision makers: Space reactors are 1000 times smaller in power and size than a commercial power reactor. A space reactor at launch is only as radioactive as a pile of dirt 60 m (200 ft) across. A space reactor contains no plutonium at launch. It does not become significantly radioactive until it is turned on, and it will be engineered so that no launch accident can turn it on, even if that means fueling it after launch. The reactor will not be turned on until it is in a high stable orbit or even on an earth-escape trajectory for some missions. The benefits of space reactors are that they give humanity a stairway to the planets and perhaps the stars. They open a new

  4. Antineutrino and gamma emission from the OSIRIS research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giot, Lydie; Fallot, Muriel

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, the summation method has been coupled with a complete reactor model, in order to predict the antineutrino emission of a research reactor. This work, discussed in the first part of this paper, allows us to predict the low energy part of the antineutrino spectrum, evidencing the important contribution of actinides to the antineutrino emission. Experimental conditions at short distance from research reactors are challenging, because the reactor itself produces huge gamma background that induce accidental and correlated backgrounds in an antineutrino target. The understanding of this background is of utmost importance and triggered the second part of the work presented here.

  5. Numerical simulations of subcritical reactor kinetics in thermal hydraulic transient phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J.; Park, W. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A subcritical reactor driven by a linear proton accelerator has been considered as a nuclear waste incinerator at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Since the multiplication factor of a subcritical reactor is less than unity, to compensate exponentially decreasing fission neutrons, external neutrons form spallation reactions are essentially required for operating the reactor in its steady state. Furthermore, the profile of accelerator beam currents is very important in controlling a subcritical reactor, because the reactor power varies in accordance to the profile of external neutrons. We have developed a code system to find numerical solutions of reactor kinetics equations, which are the simplest dynamic model for controlling reactors. In a due course of our previous numerical study of point kinetics equations for critical reactors, however, we learned that the same code system can be used in studying dynamic behavior of the subcritical reactor. Our major motivation of this paper is to investigate responses of subcritical reactors for small changes in thermal hydraulic parameters. Building a thermal hydraulic model for the subcritical reactor dynamics, we performed numerical simulations for dynamic responses of the reactor based on point kinetics equations with a source term. Linearizing a set of coupled differential equations for reactor responses, we focus our research interest on dynamic responses of the reactor to variations of the thermal hydraulic parameters in transient phases. 5 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  6. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  7. Dynamic reactor modeling with applications to SPR and ZEDNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-12-01

    A dynamic reactor model has been developed for pulse-type reactor applications. The model predicts reactor power, axial and radial fuel expansion, prompt and delayed neutron population, and prompt and delayed gamma population. All model predictions are made as a function of time. The model includes the reactivity effect of fuel expansion on a dynamic timescale as a feedback mechanism for reactor power. All inputs to the model are calculated from first principles, either directly by solving systems of equations, or indirectly from Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) derived results. The model does not include any empirical parameters that can be adjusted to match experimental data. Comparisons of model predictions to actual Sandia Pulse Reactor SPR-III pulses show very good agreement for a full range of pulse magnitudes. The model is also applied to Z-pinch externally driven neutron assembly (ZEDNA) type reactor designs to model both normal and off-normal ZEDNA operations.

  8. Technical specifications, Hanford production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, W.D. [comp.

    1962-06-25

    These technical specifications are applicable to the eight operating production reactor facilities, B, C, D, DR, F, H, KE, and KW. Covered are operating and performance restrictions and administrative procedures. Areas covered by the operating and performance restrictions are reactivity, reactor control and safety elements, power level, temperature and heat flux, reactor fuel loadings, reactor coolant systems, reactor confinement, test facilities, code compliance, and reactor scram set points. Administrative procedures include process control procedures, training programs, audits and inspections, and reports and records.

  9. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  10. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  11. REFLECTOR FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1963-08-01

    A reflector for nuclear reactors that comprises an assembly of closely packed graphite rods disposed with their major axes substantially perpendicular to the interface between the reactor core and the reflector is described. Each graphite rod is round in transverse cross section at (at least) its interface end and is provided, at that end, with a coaxial, inwardly tapering hole. (AEC)

  12. Significance assessment of small-medium sized reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Minoru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Research and Development Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Preliminary assessment for deployment of small-medium sized reactor (S and M reactor) as a future option has been conducted at the JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) under the cooperation with the CRIERI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). Significance of the S and M reactor introduction is listed as follows; lower investment cost, possible siting near demand side, enlarged freedom of siting, shorter transmission line, good compatibility with slow increase of demand and plain explanation of safety using simpler system such as integral type vessel without piping, natural convection core cooling and passive safety system. The deployment of simpler plant system, modular shop fabrication, ship-shell structured building and longer operation period can assure economics comparable with that of a large sized reactor, coping with scale-demerit. Also the S and M reactor is preferable in size for the nuclear heat utilization such as hydrogen production. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Small Modular Reactors for Enhancing Energy Security in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis N. Kessides; Vladimir Kuznetsov

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, small modular reactors (SMRs) have been attracting considerable attention around the world. SMR designs incorporate innovative approaches to achieve simplicity, modularity and speed of build, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, and reduced financial risk. The incremental capacity expansion associated with SMR deployment could provide a better match (than the large-scale reactors) to the limited grid capacity of many developing countries. Because of their lower ...

  14. A porous medium approach for the fluid structure interaction modelling of a water pressurized nuclear reactor core fuel assemblies: simulation and experimentation; Une approche milieu poreux pour la modeisation de l'interaction fluide-structure des assemblages combustibles dans un coeur de reacteur a eau pressurisee: simulation et experimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, G.

    2008-10-15

    The designing of a pressurized water reactor core subjected to seismic loading, is a major concern of the nuclear industry. We propose, in this PhD report, to establish the global behaviour equations of the core, in term of a porous medium. Local equations of fluid and structure are space averaged on a control volume, thus we define an equivalent fluid and an equivalent structure, of which unknowns are defined on the whole space. The non-linear fuel assemblies behaviour is modelled by a visco-elastic constitutive law. The fluid-structure coupling is accounted for by a body force, the expression of that force is based on empirical formula of fluid forces acting on a tube subject to an axial flow. The resulting equations are solved using a finite element method. A validation of the model, on three experimental device, is proposed. The first one presents two fuel assemblies subjected to axial flow. One of the two fuel assemblies is deviated from its position of equilibrium and released, while the other is at rest. The second one presents a six assemblies row, immersed in water, placed on a shaking table that can simulate seismic loading. Finally, the last one presents nine fuel assemblies network, arranged in a three by three, subject to an axial flow. The displacement of the central fuel assembly is imposed. The simulations are in agreement with the experiments, the model reproduces the influence of the flow of fluid on the dynamics and coupling of the fuel assemblies. (author)

  15. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  16. Action Memorandum for the Engineering Test Reactor under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Culp

    2007-01-26

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative for decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Idaho Cleanup Project. Since the missions of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex have been completed, an engineering evaluation/cost analysis that evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex was prepared adn released for public comment. The scope of this Action Memorandum is to encompass the final end state of the Complex and disposal of the Engineering Test Reactor vessol. The selected removal action includes removing and disposing of the vessel at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility and demolishing the reactor building to ground surface.

  17. Mirror reactor surface study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  18. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  19. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  20. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-08-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. In order to prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this paper examines the root causes and potential solutions for the production of this radionuclide, including materials selection and inert gas sparging. A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750°C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for one steadystate value of tritium production in the reactor.