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Sample records for experimental rat model

  1. Experimental model to induce obesity in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinicius Von Diemen; Eduardo Neubarth Trindade; Manoel Roberto Maciel Trindade

    2006-01-01

    .... Obesity can be induced in animals by neuroendocrine, dietary or genetic changes. The most widely used models to induce obesity in rats are a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH...

  2. Endometriose: modelo experimental em ratas Endometriosis: experimental model in rats

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    Eduardo Schor

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: divulgar a metodologia da indução de endometriose experimental em animais de laboratório. Método: utilizamos ratas albinas, virgens, adultas de aproximadamente três meses de idade, que foram inicialmente anestesiadas pelo éter etílico. Aberta a cavidade abdominal, identificamos os cornos uterinos e retiramos um fragmento de aproximadamente 4 cm do corno uterino direito. Esse fragmento foi mergulhado em solução fisiológica e sob lupa estereoscópica foi separado o endométrio do miométrio e feitos retângulos de aproximadamente 4 por 5 mm. Esses foram fixados por meio de fio de sutura, sobre vasos sangüíneos visíveis a olho nu, na parede lateral do abdômen, tomando-se sempre o cuidado de manter a porção do endométrio livre voltada para a luz da cavidade abdominal. Após 21 dias os animais foram novamente operados para verificarmos o tamanho dos implantes e para retirada do endométrio ectópico para análise histológica. Resultados: macroscopicamente observamos crescimento significativo dos implantes endometriais. Ao exame microscópico pudemos observar a presença de epitélio glandular e estroma semelhantes ao do endométrio tópico. Conclusões: o modelo utilizado reproduz a doença, em ratas, sendo método auxiliar de valia para estudar esta afecção, principalmente a ação de medicamentos sobre esses implantes.Purpose: to demonstrate the experimental endometriosis induction in animals. Method: we used adult female Wistar rats weighing 200 - 250 g anesthetized with ethyl ether to open the abdominal cavity. After identifying the uterine horns, we removed an approximately 4 cm fragment from the right uterine horn. This fragment was placed in physiological saline and, with the aid of a stereoscopic magnifying glass, the endometrium was separated from the myometrium and cut into rectangles of approximately 4 x 5 mm. These rectangles were fastened to the lateral abdominal wall near great blood vessels, taking care

  3. Experimental model in rat for sentinel node biopsy

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    Oliveira Filho Renato Santos de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sentinel node procedure has been used world wide, there are many aspects to be defined and better standardized. This study address if the experimental model in rats is appropriate for sentinel node biopsy. In this model, the lymph nodes are showed by lymphoscintigraphy, they are dyed by patent blue and identified by intraoperative gamma probe detection. It isn?t necessary to use magnification for the procedure. The model demonstrated that sentinel node biopsy in rats is feasible. So, besides allowing researches in this field, the model is useful for training and diffusing this technique.

  4. Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats

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    Zotz, T.G.G. [Escola Politécnica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Tecnologia em Saúde, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paula, J.B. de [Médico,Doutor em Engenharia Biomédica, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Moser, A.D.L. [Escola Politécnica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Tecnologia em Saúde, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-04-05

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induced heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats.

  5. Experimental rat models of chronic allograft nephropathy: a review

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    Shrestha B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Badri Shrestha, John HaylorSheffield Kidney Institute, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield, UKAbstract: Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN is the leading cause of late allograft loss after renal transplantation (RT, which continues to remain an unresolved problem. A rat model of CAN was first described in 1969 by White et al. Although the rat model of RT can be technically challenging, it is attractive because the pathogenesis of CAN is similar to that following human RT and the pathological features of CAN develop within months as compared with years in human RT. The rat model of RT is considered as a useful investigational tool in the field of experimental transplantation research. We have reviewed the literature on studies of rat RT reporting the donor and recipient strain combinations that have investigated resultant survival and histological outcomes. Several different combinations of inbred and outbred rat combinations have been reported to investigate the multiple aspects of transplantation, including acute rejection, cellular and humoral rejection mechanisms and their treatments, CAN, and potential targets for its prevention.Keywords: interventions, therapy, late allograft loss, renal transplantation

  6. Experimental model of distraction osteogenesis in edentulous rats

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    Maria Montserrat Pujadas Bigi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis (DO is a surgical technique producing bone lengthening by distraction of the fracture callus. Although a large number of experimental studies on the events associated with DO of craniofacial skeleton have been reported, the few employing rat mandibular bone DO used complicated designs and produced a small volume of newly formed bone. Thus, this study aims to present an original experimental model of mandibular DO in edentulous rats that produces a sufficient quantity and quality of intramembranous bone. Eight male Wistar rats, weighing 75 g, underwent extraction of lower molars. With rats weighing 350 g, right mandibular osteotomy was performed and the distraction device was placed. The distraction device was custom made using micro-implants, expansion screws, and acrylic resin. Study protocol: latency: 6 days, distraction: ¼ turn (0.175 mm once a day during 6 d, consolidation: 28 d after distraction phase, sacrifice. DO-treated and contralateral hemimandibles were dissected and compared macroscopically and using radiographic studies. Histological sections were obtained and stained with H&E. A distraction gap filled with newly formed and mature bone tissue was obtained. This model of mandibular DO proved useful to obtain adequate quantity and quality of bone to study bone regeneration.

  7. Evaluation of two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in rats

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    L.M. García-Moreno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The serious neuropsychological repercussions of hepatic encephalopathy have led to the creation of several experimental models in order to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease. In the present investigation, two possible causes of hepatic encephalopathy, cholestasis and portal hypertension, were chosen to study the behavioral impairments caused by the disease using an object recognition task. This working memory test is based on a paradigm of spontaneous delayed non-matching to sample and was performed 60 days after surgery. Male Wistar rats (225-250 g were divided into three groups: two experimental groups, microsurgical cholestasis (N = 20 and extrahepatic portal hypertension (N = 20, and a control group (N = 20. A mild alteration of the recognition memory occurred in rats with cholestasis compared to control rats and portal hypertensive rats. The latter group showed the poorest performance on the basis of the behavioral indexes tested. In particular, only the control group spent significantly more time exploring novel objects compared to familiar ones (P < 0.001. In addition, the portal hypertension group spent the shortest time exploring both the novel and familiar objects (P < 0.001. These results suggest that the existence of portosystemic collateral circulation per se may be responsible for subclinical encephalopathy.

  8. Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats

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    Bernhard Kraemer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1, brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2, sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3, ischemic buttons by grasping the parietal peritoneum and ligating the base with Vicryl suture (group 4, bipolar electrocoagulation of the peritoneum (group 5, and traumatisation by electrocoagulation followed by closure of the resulting peritoneal defect using Vicryl sutures (group 6. Upon second look, there were significant differences in the adhesion incidence between the groups (P<0.01. Analysis of the fraction of adhesions showed that groups 2 (0% and 5 (4% were significantly less than the other groups (P<0.01. Furthermore, group 6 (69% was significantly higher than group 1 (48% (P<0.05 and group 4 (47% (P<0.05. There was no difference between group 3 (60% and group 6 (P=0.2. From a clinical viewpoint, comparison of different electrocoagulation modes and pharmaceutical adhesion barriers is possible with standardised models.

  9. An improved experimental model for peripheral neuropathy in rats

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    Q.M. Dias

    Full Text Available A modification of the Bennett and Xie chronic constriction injury model of peripheral painful neuropathy was developed in rats. Under tribromoethanol anesthesia, a single ligature with 100% cotton glace thread was placed around the right sciatic nerve proximal to its trifurcation. The change in the hind paw reflex threshold after mechanical stimulation observed with this modified model was compared to the change in threshold observed in rats subjected to the Bennett and Xie or the Kim and Chung spinal ligation models. The mechanical threshold was measured with an automated electronic von Frey apparatus 0, 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and this threshold was compared to that measured in sham rats. All injury models produced significant hyperalgesia in the operated hind limb. The modified model produced mean ± SD thresholds in g (19.98 ± 3.08, 14.98 ± 1.86, and 13.80 ± 1.00 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively similar to those obtained with the spinal ligation model (20.03 ± 1.99, 13.46 ± 2.55, and 12.46 ± 2.38 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively, but less variable when compared to the Bennett and Xie model (21.20 ± 8.06, 18.61 ± 7.69, and 18.76 ± 6.46 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively. The modified method required less surgical skill than the spinal nerve ligation model.

  10. An improved experimental model for peripheral neuropathy in rats

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    Dias, Q.M.; Rossaneis, A.C.; Fais, R.S.; Prado, W.A. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    A modification of the Bennett and Xie chronic constriction injury model of peripheral painful neuropathy was developed in rats. Under tribromoethanol anesthesia, a single ligature with 100% cotton glace thread was placed around the right sciatic nerve proximal to its trifurcation. The change in the hind paw reflex threshold after mechanical stimulation observed with this modified model was compared to the change in threshold observed in rats subjected to the Bennett and Xie or the Kim and Chung spinal ligation models. The mechanical threshold was measured with an automated electronic von Frey apparatus 0, 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and this threshold was compared to that measured in sham rats. All injury models produced significant hyperalgesia in the operated hind limb. The modified model produced mean ± SD thresholds in g (19.98 ± 3.08, 14.98 ± 1.86, and 13.80 ± 1.00 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively) similar to those obtained with the spinal ligation model (20.03 ± 1.99, 13.46 ± 2.55, and 12.46 ± 2.38 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively), but less variable when compared to the Bennett and Xie model (21.20 ± 8.06, 18.61 ± 7.69, and 18.76 ± 6.46 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively). The modified method required less surgical skill than the spinal nerve ligation model.

  11. Sildenafil after cardiac arrest and infarction; an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennander, Ari A; Vuohelainen, Vilma; Aanismaa, Riikka S; Narkilahti, Susanna; Paavonen, Timo; Tarkka, Matti

    2013-02-01

    Resuscitation after cardiac arrest may lead to ischemia-reperfusion injury and infarction. We evaluated whether sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, has an impact on recovery after cardiac arrest in a rat cardiac transplantation model. Sixty-one Fischer344 rats underwent syngeneic heterotopic cardiac transplantation after ischemia and ligation of the left anterior coronary artery of the heart to yield myocardial infarction (IRI + MI). Of these, 22 rats received subcutaneously injected sildenafil (1 mg/kg/day) (IRI +MI + S). Twenty-three additional grafted animals with transplantation only served as controls with ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). After 2 days, immunohistochemistry for eNOS, and RT-PCR for iNOS and Aquaporin-7 were performed after graft harvesting and histology. Two days after transplantation, remote intramyocardial arteries were more preserved in IRI + MI + S as compared with IRI +MI and IRI (0.74 ± 0.14, 0.56 ± 0.23 and 0.55 ± 0.22, PSU, p cardiac arrest and ischemia.

  12. A SIMPLE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF HEAT SHOCK RESPONSE IN RATS

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    Tufi Neder Meyer

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain a simple model for the elicitation of the heat shock response in rats. Design: Laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratories. Sample: Seventy-nine adult male albino rats (weight range 200 g to 570 g. Procedures: Exposure to heat stress by heating animals in a warm bath for 5 min after their rectal temperatures reached 107.60 F (420 C. Liver and lung samples were collected for heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70 detection (Western analysis. Results: Western analysis was positive for HSP70 in the liver and in the lungs of heated animals. There was a temporal correlation between heating and HSP70 detection: it was strongest 1 day after heating and reduced afterwards. No heated animals died. Conclusion: These data show that heating rats in a warm (45o C bath, according to parameters set in this model, elicits efficiently the heat shock response.OBJETIVO: Obter um modelo simples para tentar esclarecer a resposta ao choque térmico em ratos. LOCAL: Laboratório de pesquisa da Universidade. MÉTODO: Amostra: 79 ratos albinos, adultos, entre 200g a 570g. Procedimentos: Exposição ao calor, em banho quente, por 5 minutos, após a temperatura retal chegar a 42 graus centigrados. Biópsias de fígado e pulmão foram obtidas para detectar a proteina 70 (HSP 70, pelo "Western blot". RESULTADOS: As análises foram positivas nos animais aquecidos, com uma correlação entre aquecimento e constatação da HSP 70. Foi mais elevada no primeiro dia e não houve óbitos nos animais aquecidos. CONCLUSÃO: Os ratos aquecidos a 45 graus centígrados respondem eficientemente ao choque térmico.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

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    Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  14. The Healing Effect of Licorice on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infected Burn Wounds in Experimental Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tanideh, Nader; Rokhsari, Pedram; Mehrabani, Davood; Mohammadi Samani, Soleiman; Sabet Sarvestani, Fatemeh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Koohi Hosseinabadi, Omid; Shamsian, Shahram; AHMADI, Nasrollah

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burn is still one of the most devastating injuries in emergency medicine while improvements in wound healing knowledge and technology have resulted into development of new dressings. This study was undertaken to evaluate the healing effect of licorice in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected burn wounds of experimental rat model. METHODS One hundred and twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to 4 equal groups. Group A received silver sulfadiazine ointment, Group B rece...

  15. Differential effects of B7-1 blockade in the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallon, L; Chandraker, A; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1997-01-01

    Blocking the CD28-B7 T cell costimulatory activation pathway protects animals from developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the mouse EAE model, selective blockade of B7-1 by specific mAbs has been shown to protect animals from EAE. In the Lewis rat model, we have shown that...

  16. Young Sprague Dawley rats infected by Plasmodium berghei: A relevant experimental model to study cerebral malaria.

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    Sokhna Keita Alassane

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria (CM is the most severe manifestation of human malaria yet is still poorly understood. Mouse models have been developed to address the subject. However, their relevance to mimic human pathogenesis is largely debated. Here we study an alternative cerebral malaria model with an experimental Plasmodium berghei Keyberg 173 (K173 infection in Sprague Dawley rats. As in Human, not all infected subjects showed cerebral malaria, with 45% of the rats exhibiting Experimental Cerebral Malaria (ECM symptoms while the majority (55% of the remaining rats developed severe anemia and hyperparasitemia (NoECM. These results allow, within the same population, a comparison of the noxious effects of the infection between ECM and severe malaria without ECM. Among the ECM rats, 77.8% died between day 5 and day 12 post-infection, while the remaining rats were spontaneously cured of neurological signs within 24-48 hours. The clinical ECM signs observed were paresis quickly evolving to limb paralysis, global paralysis associated with respiratory distress, and coma. The red blood cell (RBC count remained normal but a drastic decrease of platelet count and an increase of white blood cell numbers were noted. ECM rats also showed a decrease of glucose and total CO2 levels and an increase of creatinine levels compared to control rats or rats with no ECM. Assessment of the blood-brain barrier revealed loss of integrity, and interestingly histopathological analysis highlighted cyto-adherence and sequestration of infected RBCs in brain vessels from ECM rats only. Overall, this ECM rat model showed numerous clinical and histopathological features similar to Human CM and appears to be a promising model to achieve further understanding the CM pathophysiology in Humans and to evaluate the activity of specific antimalarial drugs in avoiding/limiting cerebral damages from malaria.

  17. Young Sprague Dawley rats infected by Plasmodium berghei: A relevant experimental model to study cerebral malaria.

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    Keita Alassane, Sokhna; Nicolau-Travers, Marie-Laure; Menard, Sandie; Andreoletti, Olivier; Cambus, Jean-Pierre; Gaudre, Noémie; Wlodarczyk, Myriam; Blanchard, Nicolas; Berry, Antoine; Abbes, Sarah; Colongo, David; Faye, Babacar; Augereau, Jean-Michel; Lacroux, Caroline; Iriart, Xavier; Benoit-Vical, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe manifestation of human malaria yet is still poorly understood. Mouse models have been developed to address the subject. However, their relevance to mimic human pathogenesis is largely debated. Here we study an alternative cerebral malaria model with an experimental Plasmodium berghei Keyberg 173 (K173) infection in Sprague Dawley rats. As in Human, not all infected subjects showed cerebral malaria, with 45% of the rats exhibiting Experimental Cerebral Malaria (ECM) symptoms while the majority (55%) of the remaining rats developed severe anemia and hyperparasitemia (NoECM). These results allow, within the same population, a comparison of the noxious effects of the infection between ECM and severe malaria without ECM. Among the ECM rats, 77.8% died between day 5 and day 12 post-infection, while the remaining rats were spontaneously cured of neurological signs within 24-48 hours. The clinical ECM signs observed were paresis quickly evolving to limb paralysis, global paralysis associated with respiratory distress, and coma. The red blood cell (RBC) count remained normal but a drastic decrease of platelet count and an increase of white blood cell numbers were noted. ECM rats also showed a decrease of glucose and total CO2 levels and an increase of creatinine levels compared to control rats or rats with no ECM. Assessment of the blood-brain barrier revealed loss of integrity, and interestingly histopathological analysis highlighted cyto-adherence and sequestration of infected RBCs in brain vessels from ECM rats only. Overall, this ECM rat model showed numerous clinical and histopathological features similar to Human CM and appears to be a promising model to achieve further understanding the CM pathophysiology in Humans and to evaluate the activity of specific antimalarial drugs in avoiding/limiting cerebral damages from malaria.

  18. A novel experimental model of erectile dysfunction in rats with heart failure using volume overload.

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    Fábio Henrique Silva

    Full Text Available Patients with heart failure (HF display erectile dysfunction (ED. However, the pathophysiology of ED during HF remains poorly investigated.This study aimed to characterize the aortocaval fistula (ACF rat model associated with HF as a novel experimental model of ED. We have undertaken molecular and functional studies to evaluate the alterations of the nitric oxide (NO pathway, autonomic nervous system and oxidative stress in the penis.Male rats were submitted to ACF for HF induction. Intracavernosal pressure in anesthetized rats was evaluated. Concentration-response curves to contractile (phenylephrine and relaxant agents (sodium nitroprusside; SNP, as well as to electrical field stimulation (EFS, were obtained in the cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM strips from sham and HF rats. Protein expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS and phosphodiestarese-5 in CSM were evaluated, as well as NOX2 (gp91phox and superoxide dismutase (SOD mRNA expression. SOD activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs were also performed in plasma.HF rats display erectile dysfunction represented by decreased ICP responses compared to sham rats. The neurogenic contractile responses elicited by EFS were greater in CSM from the HF group. Likewise, phenylephrine-induced contractions were greater in CSM from HF rats. Nitrergic response induced by EFS were decreased in the cavernosal tissue, along with lower eNOS, nNOS and phosphodiestarese-5 protein expressions. An increase of NOX2 and SOD mRNA expression in CSM and plasma TBARs of HF group were detected. Plasma SOD activity was decreased in HF rats.ED in HF rats is associated with decreased NO bioavailability in erectile tissue due to eNOS/nNOS dowregulation and NOX2 upregulation, as well as hypercontractility of the penis. This rat model of ACF could be a useful tool to evaluate the molecular alterations of ED associated with HF.

  19. A novel experimental model for studying transverse orthodontic tooth movement in the rat mandible.

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    Alsagheer, Ayad; Kline, Loren W; Doschak, Michael R; Major, Paul W

    2013-09-01

    To establish a rat model of a one-piece mandible using the principles of gingivoperiosteoplasty and guided bone regeneration to fuse the midline symphyseal area. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into two groups: 12 experimental and 12 control. Both groups were imaged using in vivo micro-computed tomography at baseline and at end point (5 months). The experimental group received regenerative surgery at the symphysis area; the control group received no treatment. Outcomes were evaluated by radiographic examination of gross and volumetric bony changes in the symphyseal region of interest marked between the mental foramina bilaterally and the two central incisors near the most coronal margin of the alveolar crests. These landmarks were chosen as they can be reproduced on the computed tomography images at baseline and end point. Histologic examination was performed on all samples at a level 5 mm apical to the alveolar bone crest. Radiologic and histologic examinations of the experimental group revealed complete bony fusion of the symphyseal area in three subjects, partial fusion in five subjects, and thickening of the alveolar bony socket in three subjects; one rat died of anesthesia-related complications. No evidence of fusion or alveolar bone thickening was found in any of the controls. This surgical animal model demonstrates that a rat mandible can be surgically manipulated to mimic the one-piece human mandible. This novel model may prove useful in studying mandibular bone remodeling and orthodontic mandibular tooth movement.

  20. Alteration of parafollicular (C cells activity in the experimental model of hypothyroidism in rats.

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    Zbigniew Puchalski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study has shown the alteration of C cells activity in rats with experimental model of hyperthyroidism. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of parafollicular cells activity in rats with hypothyroidism evoked by propylthiouracil (PTU given in drinking water over 21 days. Histological, ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies using specific antibodies against calcitonin and CGRP were performed on thyroid glands taken from experimental and control groups of rats. Moreover, in all animals the calcitonin plasma levels were evaluated by radioimmunoassay. After chronic administration of PTU, thyroid image showed predominant microfollicular hyperplasia and attenuated density of parafollicular cells. The intensity of immunocytochemical reactions for CT and CGRP were weaker in the majority of C cells in comparison to the control rats, in which strong immunocytochemical reaction was observed. Examination in the electron microscope reveals the features of hypoactivity both in follicular and parafollicular cells, in which the quantity and electron density of secretory granules were smaller in comparison to the control group. These microscopic changes were accompanied by a significant decrease of calcitonin plasma concentration. Alteration of C cells activity in the experimental model of hypothyroidism, accompanied by microfollicular hypertrophy, may point to the mutual cooperation between parafollicular and follicular cells.

  1. Traditional Chinese medicine Yisui Tongjing relieved neural severity in experimental autoimmune neuritis rat model.

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    Zhang, Erli; Li, Mingquan; Zhao, Jianjun; Dong, Yuxiang; Yang, Xueqin; Huang, Jingbo

    2016-01-01

    To study the effect of Yisui Tongjing (YSTJ) prescription on motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and microstructure of the sciatic nerve in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) rats, the Guillain-Barré syndrome classic animal models. In this study, we established an EAN model in Lewis rats by immunization. We evaluated the potential clinical application of a traditional Chinese medicine YSTJ by intragastric administration and compared its effect with immunoglobulin. The sciatic MNCV was measured by electrophysiology experiment. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscope analysis were used to determine the pathologically morphological changes before and after YSTJ application. We found that application of YSTJ could significantly alleviate the clinical signs in EAN rats. The treatment also increased MNCV in the sciatic nerve compared to that in the untreated nerve. Demyelination in the sciatic nerve in EAN rats was significantly ameliorated, and newly generated myelinated nerve fibers were observed with treatment of high dose of YSTJ. This study showed that the traditional Chinese medicine YSTJ was likely to serve as a therapeutic medicine in autoimmune neuropathies, providing an effective and economic means to the treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  2. Pain hypersensitivity in rats with experimental autoimmune neuritis, an animal model of human inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy.

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    Moalem-Taylor, Gila; Allbutt, Haydn N; Iordanova, Mihaela D; Tracey, David J

    2007-07-01

    Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a T cell mediated autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system that serves as an animal model of the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). Although pain is a common symptom of GBS occurring in 55-85% of cases, it is often overlooked and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we examined whether animals with EAN exhibit signs of neuropathic pain including hyperalgesia and allodynia, and assessed their peripheral nerve autoimmune inflammation. We immunized Lewis rats with peripheral myelin P2 peptide (amino acids 57-81) emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant, or with adjuvant only as control. P2-immunized rats developed mild to modest monophasic EAN with disease onset at day 8, peak at days 15-17, and full recovery by day 28 following immunization. Rats with EAN showed a significant decrease in withdrawal latency to thermal stimuli and withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli, in both hindpaws and forepaws, during the course of the disease. We observed a significant infiltration of T cells bearing alphabeta receptors, and a significant increase in antigen-presenting cells expressing MHC class II as well as macrophages, in EAN-affected rats. Our results demonstrate that animals with active EAN develop significant thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, accompanied by pronounced autoimmune inflammation in peripheral nerves. These findings suggest that EAN is a useful model for the pain seen in many GBS patients, and may facilitate study of neuroimmune mechanisms underlying pain in autoimmune neuropathies.

  3. Experimental model of mesenteric ischemia: reperfusion by abdominal aorta clamping in Wistar rats.

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    Rocha, Bruno da Costa; Mendes, Rogério Rafael da Silva; Lima, Gabriel Varjão; Albuquerque, Gabriel de Souza; Araújo, Lucas Lacerda; de Jesus, Mateus Neves da Silva; Dos Santos, Washington Luís Conrado; Carreiro, Mário Castro

    2012-01-01

    To develop an experimental model of global normothermic ischemia able to demonstrate the transient ischemia and reperfusion periods required for development of ischemia/reperfusion injury in the small intestines of Wistar rats by clamping the abdominal aorta. Twenty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-350g were randomly divided into five groups with four rats each and submitted to increasing times of ischemia (0 - 30 - 45 - 60 - 90 minutes). Within each group, except the control one, two rats underwent 60 minutes of reperfusion and two 90 minutes. After the procedures, histological analysis was conducted by measurement of areas of necrosis. The degree of intestinal necrosis ranged from 15% to 54% (p = 0.0004). There was progressive increase in the degree of injury related to increase in ischemic time. However, greater degrees of injury were observed in the lowest times of reperfusion. The analysis of the coefficient of variation of necrosis among the ten groups of ischemia/reperfusion showed a statistically significant difference in 15 areas, 13 related to the control group. The model was able to show the periods required for the occurrence of ischemia/reperfusion injury by aortic clamping and can serve as a basis to facilitate the development of studies that aim at understanding this kind of injury.

  4. Aloe vera gel protects liver from oxidative stress-induced damage in experimental rat model.

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    Nahar, Taslima; Uddin, Borhan; Hossain, Shahdat; Sikder, Abdul Mannan; Ahmed, Sohel

    2013-05-07

    Aloe vera is a semi-tropical plant of Liliaceae family which has a wide range of applications in traditional medicine. In the present study, we sought to investigate the heptaoprotective potential of Aloe vera gel as a diet supplement. To achieve this goal, we have designed in vitro and in vivo experimental models of chemical-induced liver damage using male Sprague-Dawley rat. In the in vitro model, its effect was evaluated on Fenton's reaction-induced liver lipid peroxidation. Co-incubation with gel significantly reduced the generation of liver lipid peroxide (LPO). Next, to see the similar effect in vivo, gel was orally administered to rats once daily for 21 successive days. Following 1 hour of the last administration of gel, rats were treated with intra-peritoneal injection of CCl4. Dietary gel showed significant hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced damage as evident by restoration of liver LPO, serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin towards near normal. The beneficial effects were pronounced with the doses used (400 and 800 mg/kg body weight). Besides, we did not observe any significant drop in serum albumin, globulin as well as total protein levels of gel-administered rats. Histopathology of the liver tissue further supported the biochemical findings confirming the hepatoprotective potential of dietary gel.

  5. The impact of subconjuctivally injected EGF and VEGF inhibitors on experimental corneal neovascularization in rat model.

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    Sener, Ender; Yuksel, Nusen; Yildiz, Demir Kursat; Yilmaz, Bulent; Ozdemir, Ozdemir; Caglar, Yusuf; Degirmenci, Esra

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of subconjunctival application of VEGF antibodies bevacizumab, ranibizumab, pegaptanib, and HER2 antibody trastuzumab on corneal neovascularization in a rat model of experimental corneal neovascularization. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were included in the study. A chemical burn was induced in central cornea of one eye of the rats by a 75% silver nitrate and 25% potassium nitrate stick. Rats were randomly divided into five groups so that each group contained 6 subjects. Right after the chemical burn, 0.1 ml serum physiologic was injected subconjuctivally in control group (group 1). 1.25 mg/0.05 ml bevacizumab was injected in group 2; 1.2 mg/0.1 ml trastuzumab was injected in group 3; 0.5 mg/0.05 ml ranibizumab was injected in group-4; and 0.3 mg/0.1 ml pegaptanib was injected in group 5. On the 8th day of the experiment, rat corneas were photographed by digital photo-camera. Later, eyes of the sacrificed rats were enucleated and corneal speciements were histopathologically analyzed. The percentages of neovascularization on corneal photographs were examined with digital image analysis. The percentage of corneal neovascularization in all treatment groups was found to be significantly lower than the control group (p  0.05). In all treatment groups, fibroblast intensity was significantly lower than the control group. In terms of corneal thickness, no significant difference was observed between treatment and control groups (p > 0.05). Bevacizumab, ranibizumab, pegaptanib, and trastuzumab were found effective for the inhibition of corneal NV. In our study we detected that the most effective agent was bevacizumab.

  6. Regression of experimental endometriotic implants in a rat model with the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan.

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    Cakmak, Bulent; Cavusoglu, Turker; Ates, Utku; Meral, Ayfer; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Erbaş, Oytun

    2015-04-01

    Endometriosis is a common disease in women of reproductive age, and many different treatments have been developed, although none has provided a cure. In this study, the efficacy of losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and an antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory agent, on regression of experimental endometriotic implants in a rat model was investigated. Peritoneal endometriosis was surgically induced in 16 mature female Sprague-Dawley rats. The peritoneal endometriotic implant was confirmed after 28 days, and the animals were divided randomly into two groups. The control group (n = 8) was given 4 mL/day tap water by oral gavage, and the losartan group (n = 8) was given 20 mg/kg per day losartan p.o. We compared endometriotic implant size, extent and severity of adhesion, as well as plasma and peritoneal lavage fluid cytokine levels including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, plasma inflammatory factor pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the treatment groups. Mean surface endometriotic area, histological score of implants, adhesion formation, plasma VEGF, TNF, PTX-3 and CRP levels were significantly lower in the losartan group compared with control (P losartan group than in the control group (P 0.05). Losartan suppressed the implant surface area of experimental endometriosis in rats and reduced the levels of plasma VEGF, TNF-α, PTX-3 and CRP. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on endometrial implants in an experimental rat model.

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    Pınar, Neslihan; Soylu Karapınar, Oya; Özcan, Oğuzhan; Özgür, Tümay; Bayraktar, Suphi

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in the treatment of endometriosis in an experimental rat model by evaluating biochemical and histopathologic parameters. Experimental endometriosis was induced by the peritoneal implantation of autologous endometrial tissue. The rats were randomly divided into two groups with eight rats each. Group I was intraperitoneally administered ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Group II was intraperitoneally administered saline solution at the same dosage and over the same period. Endometrial implant volume was measured in both groups both pre- and post-treatment. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was measured in peritoneal fluid. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were assessed in serum. The implants were histopathologically evaluated. In the ALA group, the serum TOS and OSI levels, the endometrial implant volumes, the TNF-α levels in serum and peritoneal fluid, and the histopathologic scores were significantly lower compared to the control group (P Alpha-lipoic acid may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of endometriosis due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  8. The effect of ethyl cyanoacrylate on experimental posterior lateral spinal fusion in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezici, Ali Riza; Ergün, Rüçhan; Yilmaz, Fahri; Gürel, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    Cyanoacrylates (CAs) are a type of tissue adhesives which are currently the most commonly used for cutaneous closings. The use of CAs was reported in other clinical procedures such as odontology, neurological surgery, maxillary surgery, orthopaedics, plastic surgery, etc. In this experimental study the authors carried out posterolateral spinal fusion in a rat model to test the usefulness of ethyl-cyanoacrylate (ECA) in fixation of allograft/autograft fusions. 25 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two study groups. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process spinal fusion was performed with both autograft and allograft in both groups. ECA gel was dropped in the fusion area in a rat model in group II. The fusion rates as determined by manual palpation were 75% in controls and 46% in the ECA group (p = 0.322). According to radiographic score, the spinal segment was considered to be fused radiographically in 66% of controls and in 46% of animals in the ECA group (p = 0.43). The mean histological scores were 5.58 +/- 0.14 and 4.53 +/- 0.18 for the control and treatment group, respectively (p = 0.001). The mean bone density of the fusion masses was 101.3 +/- 2.5 in the control group and 92.0 +/- 3.3 in the ECA treatment group (p = 0.044). Ethyl-cyanoacrylate appeared to retard the osteogenic fusion but was well tolerated and did not induce necrosis, allergic reaction, infection, necrosis or neurological deficit in a rat model of posterolateral spinal fusion.

  9. Effect of Hypericum perforatum Extract in an Experimental Model of Binge Eating in Female Rats

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    Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study evaluated the effect of Hypericum perforatum dry extract in an experimental model of binge eating (BE. Methods. BE for highly palatable food (HPF was evoked in female rats by three 8-day cycles of food restriction/re-feeding and acute stress on the test day (day 25. Stress was induced by preventing access to HPF for 15 min, while rats were able to see and smell it. Hypericum perforatum dry extract was given by gavage. Results. Only rats exposed to both food restrictions and stress exhibited BE. The doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum extract significantly reduced the BE episode, while 125 mg/kg was ineffective. The same doses did not affect HPF intake in the absence of BE. The dose of 250 mg/kg did not significantly modify stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels, suggesting that the effect on BE is not due to suppression of the stress response The combined administration of 125 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum together with Salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea, produced a synergic effect on BE. Conclusions. The present results indicate for the first time that Hypericum perforatum extracts may have therapeutic properties in bingeing-related eating disorders.

  10. Mannitol has a protective effect on testicular torsion: An experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Omer; Yazici, Cenk Murat; Erboga, Mustafa; Turan, Cuneyt; Bozdemir, Yeliz; Akbas, Alpaslan; Turker, Polat; Aktas, Cevat; Aydin, Murat; Yesildag, Ebru

    2016-06-01

    Testicular torsion is an emergency condition that causes testicular injury. Any treatment opportunity reducing the destructive effect of testicular torsion is important for the future life of patients. In this experimental study we investigated the protective effect of mannitol on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a rat testes torsion model. In total, 32 male Sprague Dawley rats were included. Four experimental groups included eight rats each. Group A was a sham group in which the right testis was brought out through a scrotal incision and then replaced in the scrotum without torsion. In Group B, the right testis was torsioned, by rotating 720° clockwise and fixed to the scrotum with no treatment. In Group C, the same testicular torsion process was performed with saline infusion just after testicular torsion. In group D, mannitol infusion was used just after testicular torsion. Testicles were detorsioned after 3 h and left inside for more than 2 h before orchiectomy. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were performed. Testicular architecture was disturbed significantly in the torsion groups without mannitol infusion. However, testicular tissue structure was significantly better in the mannitol-treated group, demonstrating a protective effect. Similar findings were also shown for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) index and antioxidant activity; both were higher in the mannitol group than in the no-treatment and saline groups (p mannitol-treated group compared with the no treatment and saline groups (p mannitol treatment was significantly disturbed, whereas the structural disruption was considerably less in the mannitol group. Mannitol treatment also decreased reactive oxygen radical levels significantly and was able to decrease apoptosis. These results were consistent with other organ model studies that evaluated the protective effects of mannitol treatment in I/R injury. Mannitol infusion had a protective effect

  11. Ultrasound imaging in an experimental model of fatty liver disease and cirrhosis in rats

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    Campos de Carvalho Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic dogs and cats are very well known to develop chronic hepatic diseases, including hepatic lipidosis and cirrhosis. Ultrasonographic examination is extensively used to detect them. However, there are still few reports on the use of the ultrasound B-mode scan in correlation with histological findings to evaluate diffuse hepatic changes in rodents, which represent the most important animal group used in experimental models of liver diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of ultrasound findings in the assessment of fatty liver disease and cirrhosis when compared to histological results in Wistar rats by following up a murine model of chronic hepatic disease. Results Forty Wistar rats (30 treated, 10 controls were included. Liver injury was induced by dual exposure to CCl4 and ethanol for 4, 8 and 15 weeks. Liver echogenicity, its correlation to the right renal cortex echogenicity, measurement of portal vein diameter (PVD and the presence of ascites were evaluated and compared to histological findings of hepatic steatosis and cirrhosis. Liver echogenicity correlated to hepatic steatosis when it was greater or equal to the right renal cortex echogenicity, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 76.9% respectively, and accuracy of 92.5%. Findings of heterogeneous liver echogenicity and irregular surface correlated to liver cirrhosis with a sensitivity of 70.6%, specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 82.1% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%. PVD was significantly increased in both steatotic and cirrhotic rats; however, the later had greater diameters. PVD cut-off point separating steatosis from cirrhosis was 2.1 mm (sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 90.5%. One third of cirrhotic rats presented with ascites. Conclusion The use of ultrasound imaging in the follow-up of murine diffuse liver disease

  12. Determination of micronutrients and oxidative stress status in the blood of STZ-induced experimental diabetic rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragbetli, Cennet; Dede, Semiha; Tanritanir, Pinar; Yoruk, Ibrahim Hakki; Ragbetli, Murat Cetin

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to research the effect of streptozotocin (STZ) at different doses on the serum micronutrients and oxidative stress status in diabetic rat models. Twenty male rats averaged 250 g and 3-4 months old were used as experimental models. They were put in four groups composed of five rats each. Diabetic was induced by administering STZ 55 and 65 mg/kg intraperitonally. The serum micronutrients including minerals and vitamins (Cu, Zn, Mg, Fe, vitamins D, E, and C) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, MDA) were determined. Cu, Zn, and Vitamin D3 levels were found to increase significantly in STZ groups (p micronutrients were affected significantly.

  13. Experimental model of gastroesophageal reflux in rats Modelo experimental de refluxo gastroesofágico em ratos

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    Edmilson Vieira Gaia Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of gastroesophageal reflux in rats. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats underwent surgery and were assigned to one of the three groups of twenty animals each. The animals in group A underwent total esophageal myectomy and, in group (B, underwent partial myectomy. The third group was the control group (C. A contrast radiographic study of the esophagus was performed to evaluate gastroesophageal reflux. The anatomopathological study of the esophagus was used to evaluate esophagitis. RESULTS: During the 30-day postoperative follow-up, 14 animals in group A presented with reflux of barium in the esophagus. The presence of barium in the esophagus was observed in 7 animals in group B and in 2 animals in the control group. The result of the histopathology examination was controversial. A marked weight loss in the rats undergoing total myectomy was observed, however there was no significant statistical difference. CONCLUSION: Total myectomy in the lower third of the esophagus caused gastroesophageal reflux in the majority of the animals.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo experimental de refluxo gastroesofágico em ratos. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos, Wistar, foram operados e distribuídos em três grupos de vinte animais. Os animais foram submetidos a miectomia total do esôfago em um grupo(A, e em outro grupo foram submetidos a miectomia parcial(B. O terceiro grupo foi o grupo controle(C. Para avaliar o refluxo gastroesofágico realizou-se o estudo radiológico contrastado do esôfago. O estudo anátomo-patológico do esôfago foi utilizado para avaliar esofagite. RESULTADOS: Durante os 30 dias de pós-operatório, 14 animais do grupo A apresentaram refluxo de Bário no esôfago. Em 07 animais do grupo B e em 02 do grupo controle, foram observados a presença de Bário no esôfago. O resultado do histopatológico foi controverso. Observou-se perda ponderal importante nos ratos submetidos a miectomia total, porém não existiu

  14. Resveratrol prevents alveolar bone loss in an experimental rat model of periodontitis.

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    Bhattarai, Govinda; Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Kook, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenol. Periodontitis is induced by oral pathogens, where a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by oxidative stress is the major event initiating disease. We investigated how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs). We also explored whether resveratrol protects rats against alveolar bone loss in an experimental periodontitis model. Periodontitis was induced around the first upper molar of the rats by applying ligature infused with LPS. Stimulating hGFs with 5μg/ml LPS augmented the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and Toll-like receptor-4. LPS treatment also stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation of several protein kinases in the cells. However, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) was inhibited by the addition of LPS. Resveratrol treatment almost completely inhibited all of these changes in LPS-stimulated cells. Specifically, resveratrol alone augmented HO-1 induction via Nrf2-mediated signaling. Histological and micro-CT analyses revealed that administration of resveratrol (5mg/kg body weight) improved ligature/LPS-mediated alveolar bone loss in rats. Resveratrol also attenuated the production of inflammation-related proteins, the formation of osteoclasts, and the production of circulating ROS in periodontitis rats. Furthermore, resveratrol suppressed LPS-mediated decreases in HO-1 and Nrf2 levels in the inflamed periodontal tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol protects rats from periodontitic tissue damage by inhibiting inflammatory responses and by stimulating antioxidant defense systems. The aims of this study were to investigate how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in

  15. Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats Modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos Wistar

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    Baldomero Antonio Kato da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P dilution in alcohol 70%, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely known by its power of tumoral induction. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70%; B[a]P Group 10 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 20mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 08, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been colored by hematoxilin-eosin (HE and submitted to the morphometrical analysis to describe the tissue alterations. RESULTS: The presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in all groups, however, at the analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the experimental groups, it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia, and in one of the animals of the experimental group 20mg/kg (12 weeks, it was noticed the presence of cellular epithelial tracheal pleomorphism, suggesting the adenocarcinoma formation in situ. CONCLUSION: The main secondary alterations to the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P in Wistar rats were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees and nodular lymphoid hyperplasias. The association of an activator agent of the pulmonary metabolic reply is necessary to establish the ideal reply-dose to the development of the lung cancer.OBJETIVO: Elaborar um modelo experimental de carcinogênese pulmonar em ratos wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70% de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P, um hidrocarboneto aromático policíclico amplamente conhecido por seu poder de indução tumoral. Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70%; Grupo B[a]P 10 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 20mg/kg, submetidos a

  16. Experimental models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Otto; Cervinkova, Zuzana

    2014-07-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world, and it persists at a high prevalence. NAFLD is characterised by the accumulation of triglycerides in the liver and includes a spectrum of histopathological findings, ranging from simple fatty liver through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis, which may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is closely related to the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of NAFLD in humans has currently been limited by the lack of satisfactory animal models. The ideal animal model for NAFLD should reflect all aspects of the intricate etiopathogenesis of human NAFLD and the typical histological findings of its different stages. Within the past several years, great emphasis has been placed on the development of an appropriate model for human NASH. This paper reviews the widely used experimental models of NAFLD in rats. We discuss nutritional, genetic and combined models of NAFLD and their pros and cons. The choice of a suitable animal model for this disease while respecting its limitations may help to improve the understanding of its complex pathogenesis and to discover appropriate therapeutic strategies. Considering the legislative, ethical, economical and health factors of NAFLD, animal models are essential tools for the research of this disease.

  17. Mandibular branch of the facial nerve in wistar rats: new experimental model to assess facial nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Salomone, Raquel; Nascimento, Silvia Bona do; Ferreira, Ricardo Jose Rodriguez; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar rats to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies.

  18. Mandibular Branch of the Facial Nerve in Wistar Rats: New Experimental Model to Assess Facial Nerve Regeneration

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    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar rats to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies.

  19. Design and Testing of an Experimental Steam-Induced Burn Model in Rats

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    Vlad Porumb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most of the current models for experimental burns pose difficulties in ensuring consistency and standardization. Aim of Study. We aimed to develop an automated, reproducible technique for experimental burns using steam-based heat transfer. Methods. The system developed for steam exposure was based on a novel, integrated, computer-controlled design. Three groups of rats were exposed to steam for 1, 3, and 7 seconds. The lesions were evaluated after 20 minutes, 48 hours, and 72 hours after burn induction. Results. One-second steam application produced a superficial second-degree burn; three-second application induced deep second-degree burn; and seven-second application led to a third-degree burn. Conclusion. The high level of automation of our integrated, computer-controlled system makes the difference between our system and other models, by ensuring the control of the duration of exposure, temperature, and pressure and eliminating as many potential human generated errors as possible. The automated system can accurately reproduce specific types of burns, according to histological assessment. This model could generate the reproducible data needed in the study of burn pathology and in order to assess new treatments.

  20. Effect of Nigella sativa on reproductive system in experimental menopause rat model

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    Saadat Parhizkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. Materials and Methods: A series of experiments wasconducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment, various extracts of N. sativa (second experimentand some of its ingredients (third experiment on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX rats. Forty different OVX rats were equally divided into 5 groups and administered with one of the following treatments for 21 days: conjugated equine estrogen (positive control, distilled water or olive oil (negative control, treatment groups  (N. sativa300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg in the first experiment, (300mg/kg methanol, hexane and SFE extracts of N. sativa in the second experiment and (linoleic acid 50 mg/kg, gamma linolenic acid 10mg/kg, and thymoquinone 15mg/kg in the third experiment. Results: The results demonstrated that N.sativa exert estrogenic effect were exhibited through uterotrophic assay and vaginal cell cornification as well as blood estrogen level. Furthermore, low dose N. sativa, methanol extract and linoleic acid had prominent estrogenic like effects which were significantly different from those of control group (p

  1. Effect of Pentoxifylline Administration on an Experimental Rat Model of Femur Fracture Healing With Intramedullary Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashghani Farahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Mostafavinia, Ataroalsadat; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Pouriran, Ramin; Noruzian, Mohammad; Ghoreishi, Seyed Kamran; Aryan, Arefe; Bayat, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally, musculoskeletal injuries comprise a major public health problem that contributes to a large burden of disability and suffering. Pentoxifylline (PTX) has been originally used as a hemorheologic drug to treat intermittent claudication. Previous test tube and in vivo studies reported the beneficial effects of PTX on bony tissue. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the effects of different dosages of PTX on biomechanical properties that occur during the late phase of the fracture healing process following a complete femoral osteotomy in a rat model. We applied intramedullary pin fixation as the treatment of choice. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. We used the simple random technique to divide 35 female rats into five groups. Group 1 received intraperitoneal (i.p.) PTX (50 mg/kg, once daily) injections, starting 15 days before surgery, and group 2, group 3, and group 4 received 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg i.p. PTX injections, respectively, once daily after surgery. All animals across groups received treatment for six weeks (until sacrificed). Complete surgical transverse osteotomy was performed in the right femur of all rats. At six weeks after surgery, the femurs were subjected to a three-point bending test. Results: Daily administration of 50 mg/kg PTX (groups 1 and 2) decreased the high stress load in repairing osteotomized femurs when compared with the control group. The highest dose of PTX (200 mg/kg) significantly increased the high stress load when compared with the control group (P = 0.030), group 1 (P = 0.023), group 2 (P = 0.008), and group 3 (P = 0.010), per the LSD findings. Conclusions: Treatment with 200 mg/kg PTX accelerated fracture healing when compared with the control group. PMID:26756019

  2. Association between probiotics and enteral nutrition in an experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baal, M.C.P.M. van; Rens, M.J. van; Geven, C.B.; Pol, F.M. van de; Brink, I. van den; Hannink, G.J.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Peters, W.H.M.; Rijkers, G.T.; Gooszen, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recently, a randomized controlled trial showed that probiotic prophylaxis was associated with an increased mortality in enterally fed patients with predicted severe pancreatitis. In a rat model for acute pancreatitis, we investigated whether an association between probiotic

  3. Angiogenesis inhibition impairs testicular morphology in experimental left varicocele rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökhan-Köse, M; Erdem, Ş R; Peşkircioğlu, Ç L; Çaylak, B

    2014-09-01

    It has been reported that varicocele might promote angiogenesis. However, it is not clearly identified how angiogenesis affect testicular morphology or spermatogenic activity. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of spironolactone, as an angiogenesis inhibitor, on the ipsilateral testis morphology in left varicocele-induced rats. Twenty four adult (12-14 mo), male Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n=6, for each): 1. Control group, 2. Sham-operated group, 3. Experimental left varicocele group and, 4. Spironolactone (20mg/kg/day)-treated experimental left varicocele group. Histopathological findings in rat testis were investigated. Microvessel density increased in varicocele group and spironolactone inhibited angiogenesis neither by antimineralocorticoid, nor by antiandrogenic effect. However, spermatogenesis impaired in spironolactone treated varicocele group. Angiogenesis seems to be a protective process in varicocele. Spironolactone treatment, probably by inhibiting angiogenesis, impairs testicular morphology. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. "Tie over ring" sutureless compression based gastrointestinal anastomotic method: experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Zabolinejad, Nona; Gharavifard, Mohammad; Sabzevari, Alireza; Joodi, Marjan; Yal, Nazila; Saeedi Sharifabad, Parisa; Hajian, Sara; Nazarzadeh, Reza; Lotfinejad, Nasim

    2014-03-01

    Giving the ever-rising trend of pediatric minimally invasive surgery besides early neonatal surgical interventions, intestinal anastomosis turns out to be a time consuming stage due to several anatomical as well as technical difficulties. A perfect bowel anastomosis method should be easy, rapid, safe and reliable in creation of bowel continuity with minimal tissue damage. In this light, sutureless anastomotic methods have been introduced, using compression based anastomosis with biofragmentable rings or powerful magnets. Accordingly, this experimental animal model study has evaluated the result of an easy, rapid intestinal sutureless anastomotic technique via simple tying over an intraluminal ring, in comparison with conventional handsewn bowel anastomosis. Thirty Wistar-Albino male rats were enrolled and small bowel was transected via a midline laparotomy. A grooved plastic ring was inserted into the ileal lumen and both intestinal cutting ends were fixed over the ring with a simple tie in the first group. On the other hand, enteroenterostomy was performed by the conventional method of handsewn anastomosis in the second group. After 14 days, rats were sacrificed to evaluate for intraperitoneal adhesion and abscess formation in addition to other evidences of anastomotic leakage. Furthermore, the anastomotic site integrity, tensile strength and healing stage were assessed microscopically. The mean operative time and intraoperative bleeding in the tie over ring group were significantly less than those in the handsewn anastomosis group. Anastomotic stricture was more common in the conventional anastomosis group while the anastomotic tensile strength was significantly higher in the tie over ring group. Histopathological healing parameters and final healing score were almost similar in both groups but mean inflammatory cell infiltration in handsewn anastomosis was significantly higher. "Tie over ring" is a simple method of anastomosis that is feasible, fast, safe and

  5. Increased Sperm DNA Damage in Experimental Rat Varicocele Model and The Beneficial Effect of Varicocelectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin İshak Öztürk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Varicocele, the abnormal dilatation of the veins in the pampiniform plexusis commonly seen in infertile patients. In this study, we aim to examine sperm DNAdamage after the creation of experimental varicocele in rats and to observe the changeof this damage after a varicocelectomy.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 30 adult male Wistar albinorats were divided into three groups. The 10 rats in group 1 underwent a sham operation, anexperimental varicocele was created in both the10 rats in group 2 and the 10 rats in group 3 (atotal of 20 rats. While the rats of group 2 were sacrificed after four weeks, the rats in group 3underwent a varicocelectomy after four weeks and were sacrificed four weeks after the varicocelectomyto observe its effects. Sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed with a Halomax®kit. The DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI was calculated and the groups were compared accordingto their DFI. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test.Results: Median sperm DFI was 17.6 (range: 7.6 in the right testicle and 18.3 (range: 6.8in the left testicle in the control group; 30.7 (range: 8.8 in the right testicle and 31.8 (range:9.6 in the left testicle in the varicocele group; 27.1 (range: 8.1 in the right testicle and 28.6(range: 8.9 in the left testicle in the varicocelectomy group. DNA damage in both right andleft testicles was statistically significant between the three groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study show that varicocele leads to increased spermDNA damage and this damage is decreased by varicocelectomy.

  6. Effect of probiotic administration on the immune response: a systematic review of experimental models in rats

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    Viviam de Oliveira Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic influence on the immune system, especially under pathogenic challenge conditions, still remains controversial. To address this, a systematic review of current studies concerning the efficacy of probiotics on the immune response of rats subjected to experimental challenges was conducted. The survey was conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Scielo databases. Only studies which tested probiotics in vivo in rats were included. The experimental design, methodological quality, and results of the articles were analyzed. In total 21 articles were selected for this study. The most commonly used microorganisms in the experiments were those of the genus Lactobacillus, which was reported in 12 articles. The second most often used genus was Bifidobacterium (B. animalis and B.longum. In general, the probiotics use against experimental pathogenic challenges was successful: 86% of the selected articles reported a beneficial effect on the immune response associated with the use of probiotics.

  7. G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor Levels After Peripheral Nerve Injury in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Idris; Kurutaş, Ergül Belge

    2015-12-01

    To assess whether G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) levels were altered during crush-induced peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. Male Wistar rats (N = 80) were allocated to 1 sham and 6 study groups, and crush-type peripheral nerve injury was performed using a clamp on the sciatic nerves of study groups. In the sham group, the sciatic nerve was exposed only, and the wound was closed primarily without any surgical interventions. Peripheral nerve samples were obtained at 1 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days. After analysis of nerve tissues by protein analysis and Western blotting, the groups were compared in terms of expression of GPER levels. The average levels of GPER in the sham group and study groups at 1 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days were 15.06 ng/mL ± 2.91, 3.31 ng/mL ± 0.91, 4.06 ng/mL ± 0.87, 11.94 ng/mL ± 1.15, 10.76 ng/mL ± 1.76, 9.16 ng/mL ± 2.60, and 8.49 ng/mL ± 3.55. All study groups displayed significantly lower levels of GPER compared with the sham group. Our results demonstrate that a basal level of GPER expression occurs in peripheral nerve tissue. The lowest level was detected 1 hour after crush injury, and the highest levels of GPER were detected 12 hours and 24 hours after trauma. Further trials on larger series are required to elucidate the role of GPER in terms of protection and treatment after nerve injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Mesenteric flow in an experimental model of ischaemia-reperfusion in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, F; Castañon, M; Lerena, J; Cusi, V; Badosa, J; Morales, L

    2014-03-01

    Maintained acute occlusion followed by reperfusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) in a few hours can trigger irreversible bowel damage. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in mesenteric flow measured by colour Doppler Ultrasound and correlating with histological lesions in an experimental model of ischaemia-reperfusion. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley 17 day-old rats were studied (control, ischemia and reperfusion). The model used was ischaemia-reperfusion over the SMA. Intra-abdominal ultrasound was then performed. The parameters recorded were: Maximum systolic velocity (MSV), pulsatility index (PI), resistance (RI) and systole-diastole (S/D). The histological variables were: intestinal lesion (Wallace/Keenan-Chiu scale), morphometrics (mean villus height [MVH]), and goblet cells. The Spearman (rs) correlation was used. The MSV in the reperfusion group was 74.3 cm/s, the PI 7.33 and S/D 25.75 in the SMA, which were higher than the controls (41.35 cm/s; 3.12 and 12.45, respectively). A direct association (Pmesenteric flow expressed by the MSV and PI and could significantly predict the potential bowel damage at macroscopic and microscopic level. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of healing effect of aloe vera extract and silver sulfadiazine in burn injuries in experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoondinasab, Mohammad Reza; Akhoondinasab, Motahhare; Saberi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is widely discussed in the medical literature. This study compared the healing effect of aloe vera extract and silver sulfadiazine in burn injuries in experimental rat model. Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each group 8 rats. A deep second-degree burn on the lower back and 3(rd) degree burn on upper back of each rat were created with a standard burning procedure. Burns were dressed daily with aloe vera extract in group 2 and silver sulfadiazine in group 1. Response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during treatment until day 32. Histological parameters (PMN, epithelialization, fibrosis and angiogenesis) were assessed after biopsy of scar at the end of research. Wound healing was more visible in aloe vera group. Also the speed of healing in aloe vera group was better than silver sulfadiazine group. Based on our findings, aloe vera can be a therapy of choice for burn injuries.

  10. [Development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in an experimental model in cirrhotic rats. Relationship with intestinal bacterial translocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; Sánchez, E; Casafont, F; Agüero, J; Ledesma, P; Nevado, N; Pons Romero, F

    1995-09-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of the most important complication in cirrhotic patients with ascites, but is pathogenesis is not well known. It is thought that the impaired host defences and the passage of enteric bacteria into the mesenteric lymph nodes, named bacterial translocation, may be two important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of SBP. We have studied this phenomenon in an experimental model with oral CC14 induced cirrhotic rats. SBP occurred in 36% of ascitic rats, all cases being produced by enteric Gram (-) bacteria. Bacterial translocation was observed in 100% of rats with SBP but in 53% of rats without SBP (p < 0.05). In all cases the same organism was isolated in ascitic fluid and in mesenteric lymph nodes. These results suggest that bacterial translocation could play an important role in the pathogenesis of SBP.

  11. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: An experimental model in the old rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, I. [Laboratoire de Biophysique, Paris (France); Chen, Q.M.; Poisson, M. [Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p {le} 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p {le} 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p {le} 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Experimental tuberculosis in the Wistar rat: a model for protective immunity and control of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Singhal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of many animal models for tuberculosis (TB research, there still exists a need for better understanding of the quiescent stage of disease observed in many humans. Here, we explored the use of the Wistar rat model for the study of protective immunity and control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The kinetics of bacillary growth, evaluated by the colony stimulating assay (CFU and the extent of lung pathology in Mtb infected Wistar rats were dependent on the virulence of the strains and the size of the infecting inoculums. Bacillary growth control was associated with induction of T helper type 1 (Th1 activation, the magnitude of which was also Mtb strain and dose dependent. Histopathology analysis of the infected lungs demonstrated the formation of well organized granulomas comprising epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells and foamy macrophages surrounded by large numbers of lymphocytes. The late stage subclinical form of disease was reactivated by immunosuppression leading to increased lung CFU. CONCLUSION: The Wistar rat is a valuable model for better understanding host-pathogen interactions that result in control of Mtb infection and potentially establishment of latent TB. These properties together with the ease of manipulation, relatively low cost and well established use of rats in toxicology and pharmacokinetic analyses make the rat a good animal model for TB drug discovery.

  13. Teriflunomide Attenuates Immunopathological Changes in the Dark Agouti Rat Model of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ringheim, Garth E.; Lan eLee; Lynn eLaws-Ricker; Thomas eDelohery; Li eLiu; Donghui eZhang; Nicholas eColletti; Soos, Timothy J.; Kendra eSchroeder; Barbara eFanelli; Nian eTian; Arendt, Christopher W; Deborah eIglesias-Bregna; Margaret ePetty; Zhongqi eJi

    2013-01-01

    Teriflunomide is an oral disease-modifying therapy recently approved in several locations for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To gain insight into the effects of teriflunomide, immunocyte population changes were measured during progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Dark Agouti rats. Treatment with teriflunomide attenuated levels of spinal cord-infiltrating T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Teriflunomide also mitigated the disease-induce...

  14. Neuroprotective and behavioral efficacy of intravenous transplanted adipose stem cells in experimental Parkinsonian rat models

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    Malihe Nakhaeifard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease is a deficiency of dopamine in the striatum, characterized by bradykinesis, rigidity and resting tremor. Adipose tissue-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs have many advantages for cell therapy because of the easy availability and pluripotency without ethical problems. In this research, the effects of ADSCs transplantation on motor impairment of rat Parkinsonian models were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Parkinson model was constructed by the unilateral lesion of striatum of male Wistar rats using 20µg of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA as lesion group. Cell and α-MEM (α-minimal essential medium groups were lesioned animals that received intravenous injection of 3×106 cells suspended in medium and medium repectively. All rats were evaluated behaviorally with rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests, at 4 and 8 weeks after cell transplantation. Results: Lesion and α-MEM groups showed increased contralateral turns while cell group significantly ameliorated both in rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests. There was a significant difference of contralateral turns between cell and lesioned groups at 8 weeks after transplantation. Lesioned rats showed significant decrease of staying on the rod as compared to control, but in cell group there was a significant increase in comparision with the lesioned animals. Conclusion: ADSCs injected intravenously promote functional recovery in Parkinsonian rats.

  15. Is montelukast effective in regression of endometrial implants in an experimentally induced endometriosis model in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiykac Altinbas, Sadiman; Tapisiz, Omer Lutfi; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Simsek, Gulcin; Oguztuzun, Serpil; Goktolga, Umit

    2015-01-01

    Montelukast, a selective antagonist of Type 1 cysteinyl leukotriene receptors (CysLT1Rs), antagonizes the proinflammatory and proasthmatic activities of CysLT1Rs. We investigated the effect of montelukast on a surgically induced endometriosis rat model. Thirty-two sexually mature, cycling, female Wistar-Albino rats, in which endometriotic implants were surgically induced, were randomly divided into three groups. Group I [Montelukast (M), 10 rats)] was given 1.6 mg/kg/day of oral montelukast sodium. Group II [Leuprolide acetate (L), 11 rats] was given 1 mg/kg single dose of s.c.leuprolide acetate. Group III [Control (C), 11 rats] received saline solution through an orogastric tube and served as controls. After a 3-weeks medication, the rats were sacrificed to investigate the endometriotic implants for size and morphological and histological characteristics, including immunoreactivity of MMP-2 and VEGF. The mean area of implants decreased from 48.2 ± 24.7 to 29.3 ± 15.8mm(2) in Group I (M) (P = 0.008) and from 62 ± 32.1 to 39.9 ± 18.1mm(2) in Group II (L) (P=0.003). In Group III (C), the mean area increased from 41.1 ± 31.1 to 60.4 ± 37.1mm(2) (P = 0.025). Histopathological analysis showed statistically significant lower scores in rats treated with montelukast compared to leuprolide and controls. MMP H scores were not different between the groups in both epithelial and stromal MMP-2 immunostaining. VEGF H scores were statistically lower in Group 1 (M) in epithelial VEGF immunostaining when compared to Group II (L) and Group III (C) (P=0.006). Montelukast may effectively cause a significant decrease in the area of endometriotic implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effects of mildronate in an experimental model of type 2 diabetes in Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepinsh, Edgars; Vilskersts, Reinis; Zvejniece, Liga; Svalbe, Baiba; Skapare, Elina; Kuka, Janis; Cirule, Helena; Grinberga, Solveiga; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija

    2009-08-01

    Mildronate [3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium) propionate] is an anti-ischaemic drug whose mechanism of action is based on its inhibition of L-carnitine biosynthesis and uptake. As L-carnitine plays a pivotal role in the balanced metabolism of fatty acids and carbohydrates, this study was carried out to investigate whether long-term mildronate treatment could influence glucose levels and prevent diabetic complications in an experimental model of type 2 diabetes in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. GK rats were treated orally with mildronate at doses of 100 and 200 mg.kg(-1) daily for 8 weeks. Plasma metabolites reflecting glucose and lipids, as well as fructosamine and beta-hydroxybutyrate, were assessed. L-carnitine concentrations were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. An isolated rat heart ischaemia-reperfusion model was used to investigate possible cardioprotective effects. Pain sensitivity was measured with a tail-flick latency test. Mildronate treatment significantly decreased L-carnitine concentrations in rat plasma and gradually decreased both the fed- and fasted-state blood glucose. Mildronate strongly inhibited fructosamine accumulation and loss of pain sensitivity and also ameliorated the enhanced contractile responsiveness of GK rat aortic rings to phenylephrine. In addition, in mildronate-treated hearts, the necrosis zone following coronary occlusion was significantly decreased by 30%. These results demonstrate for the first time that in GK rats, an experimental model of type 2 diabetes, mildronate decreased L-carnitine contents and exhibited cardioprotective effects, decreased blood glucose concentrations and prevented the loss of pain sensitivity. These findings indicate that mildronate treatment could be beneficial in diabetes patients with cardiovascular problems.

  17. The effects of levamisole on experimental endometriosis: a randomized controlled trial in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimirad, Afshin; Alborzi, Saeed; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda; Zarei, Afsoon; Azimirad, Mina

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effects of levamisole on experimental endometriosis in rats through the histopathology of the implants, the blood leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and the concentrations of interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor-A and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the peritoneal environment at the three healthy, endometriotic and post-treatment milestones. Twenty-two 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats with normal estrus cycles were recruited in a prospective, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind, stratified-randomized animal trial with the equal allocation ratio of 1:1 challenging the efficacy of levamisole. Endometriosis was induced. After 6 weeks, laparotomy was performed to randomly excise one implant for histopathology assessment. Based on the results, they were stratified randomized and allocated (by software) to two groups of nine: levamisole (5 mg/rat/day) or placebo. After 6 weeks, necropsy was done. Two days before each laparotomy, blood samples and during the procedure, peritoneal wash were collected for ELISA. Seven rats showed success in treatment in the levamisole group, while three did in the other group. The histopathology results descriptively revealed a drop in the levamisole group, which was not meaningful statistically (0.66 ± 1.32 vs. 2.00 ± 1.50, p = 0.065). The comparisons of the post-treatment leukocytes and lymphocytes in the groups showed significant differences (11088.88 ± 5869.50 vs. 4677.77 ± 3476.98, p = 0.008, and 8588.88 ± 5721.32 vs. 3511.11 ± 2835.24, p = 0.014, respectively). The results of the cytokines were mostly, but not completely, in favor of the efficacy of levamisole. This study indicates a possible successful role for levamisole in the treatment of experimental endometriosis. Further studies to assess the effects of high dose levamisole on endometriosis are recommended.

  18. Anti-ulcer actions of the bark methanol extract of Voacanga africana in different experimental ulcer models in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P V; Penlap, V B; Nyasse, B; Nguemo, J D

    2000-12-01

    The antiulcerogenic effects of the bark methanol extract of Voacanga africana were studied using various experimental ulcer models in rats. The effects of the extract on the volume of gastric juice, gastric pH, acid output, mucus production and peptic activity were recorded, as well as the preventive action against lesions caused by HCl/ethanol and indomethacin. Oral administration of the extract (500-750 mg/kg) inhibited the formation of gastric lesions induced by HCl/ethanol (40-63% inhibition). The inhibitory effect against HCl/ethanol was significantly (P<0.01) suppressed by pre-treatment of the rats with indomethacin (30 mg/kg, i.p.). The extract significantly reduced gastric lesion formation in pylorus ligated rats, but this was not associated with an increase in gastric mucus production or with a reduction in acid content, volume of gastric secretion or pepsin activity of the gastric juice.

  19. Teriflunomide attenuates immunopathological changes in the Dark Agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth E. Ringheim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Teriflunomide is an oral disease-modifying therapy recently approved in several locations for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. To gain insight into the effects of teriflunomide, immunocyte population changes were measured during progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Dark Agouti rats. Treatment with teriflunomide attenuated levels of spinal cord-infiltrating T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Teriflunomide also mitigated the disease-induced changes in immune cell populations in the blood and spleen suggesting an inhibitory effect on pathogenic immune responses.

  20. Teriflunomide attenuates immunopathological changes in the dark agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringheim, Garth E; Lee, Lan; Laws-Ricker, Lynn; Delohery, Tomas; Liu, Li; Zhang, Donghui; Colletti, Nicholas; Soos, Timothy J; Schroeder, Kendra; Fanelli, Barbara; Tian, Nian; Arendt, Christopher W; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Petty, Margaret; Ji, Zhongqi; Qian, George; Gaur, Rajula; Weinstock, Daniel; Cavallo, Jean; Telsinskas, Juventas; McMonagle-Strucko, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Teriflunomide is an oral disease-modifying therapy recently approved in several locations for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To gain insight into the effects of teriflunomide, immunocyte population changes were measured during progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Dark Agouti rats. Treatment with teriflunomide attenuated levels of spinal cord-infiltrating T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Teriflunomide also mitigated the disease-induced changes in immune cell populations in the blood and spleen suggesting an inhibitory effect on pathogenic immune responses.

  1. Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap (TRAM flap - experimental model in rats Modelo experimental do retalho musculocutâneo abdominal transverso de músculo reto do abdome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bins Ely

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to report the use of an experimental model of the Transverse Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous flap (TRAM flap, in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 180 to 220 g were submitted to the TRAM flap procedure. This article reports on the use of the caudally based, right unipedicled TRAM flap.Este artigo relata e divulga um modelo experimental do retalho musculocutâneo abdominal transverso de músculo reto do abdome (TRAM flap, em ratos. Foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia machos, adultos, com peso individual variando entre 180 e 220 gramas. Os animais foram submetidos ao procedimento operatório do retalho musculocutâneo abdominal transverso de músculo reto do abdome (TRAM flap, de base caudal com pedículo do músculo reto do abdome unilateral à direita.

  2. Determination of effective miRNAs in wound healing in an experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskunpinar, E; Arkan, H; Dedeoglu, B G; Aksoz, I; Polat, E; Araz, T; Aydos, A; Oztemur, Y; Akbas, F; Onaran, I

    2015-12-24

    The larvae of Lucilia sericata have been used for centuries as medicinal maggots in the healing of wounds. The present study aimed to screen potential microRNAs related to ES-induced wound healing in rat skin wounds and to investigate the potential mechanisms contributing to accelerated wound healing. Healthy, male, 12 weeks old Wistar albino rats weighing 250-300 g were supplied by the Animal Experimental Center. All animal studies were performed in accordance with the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Wistar albino rats were treated by ES after post wounding and the differentially expressed miRNAs in wound biopsies were screened by microarray analysis at the end of treatments for 4,7 and 10 days. In addition, bioinformatics approaches were used to identify the potential target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs and the functions of their target genes. We found a significant up-regulation of rno-miR-99a* and rno-mir-877 in response to ES treatment. Further investigation of rno-miR-99a* and rno-mir-877 and their target genes (TGFa, TNF, TAGLN, MAPK1, MMP-9) implicated in present study could provide new insight for an understanding lead to the development of new treatment strategies. The identified miRNAs can be new biomarkers for ES- induced wound healing.

  3. Evaluation of Anti-ulcer Activity of Echinops Persicus on Experimental Gastric Ulcer Models in Rats

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    Ahmad Farajzadeh-Sheikh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Echinops persicus is traditionally used for a long time in Iran for treatment of cough and constipation. This extract is produced by activity of bug (Situphilus spp. on the plant. We documented its anti-tussive effect in rats in our previous study.The aim of this study was to assess the anti-ulcer effect of Echinops persicus in an animal model. In this study we evaluated anti-ulcer effect of Echinops persicus by Shay's method in rats. In 3 groups of rats, pylorus was ligatured under anesthesia. The rats were euthanized after 19 hours later and number and level of ulcer in stomach was measured. In group 2 the extract was orally administered 45 minutes before pyloric ligature, and in group 3, it was administered intraperitoneally 20 minutes before pyloric ligature. The number of ulcers in stomach was significantly low in group 2 (P = 0.01 and 3 (P = 0.037 in comparison with group 1. The level of ulcer was significantly decreased in group 2 (P = 0.047 with comparison to group 1. We conclude that, Echinops extract can exhibit potentially cytoprotective and anti-ulcer activity.

  4. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Salmon, C.E.G. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H. [Divisão de Radiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Bel, E. Del [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Sistema Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  5. Establishing an experimental rat model of photodynamically-induced retinal vein occlusion using erythrosin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To develop a reliable, reproducible rat model of retinal vein occlusion (RVO with a novel photosensitizer (erythrosin B and study the cellular responses in the retina.METHODS:Central and branch RVOs were created in adult male rats via photochemically-induced ischemia. Retinal changes were monitored via color fundus photography and fluorescein angiography at 1 and 3h, and 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21d after irradiation. Tissue slices were evaluated histopathologically. Retinal ganglion cell survival at different times after RVO induction was quantified by nuclear density count. Retinal thickness was also observed.RESULTS:For all rats in both the central and branch RVO groups, blood flow ceased immediately after laser irradiation and retinal edema was evident at one hour. The retinal detachment rate was 100% at 3h and developed into bullous retinal detachment within 24h. Retinal hemorrhages were not observed until 24h. Clearance of the occluded veins at 7d was observed by fluorescein angiography. Disease manifestation in the central RVO eyes was more severe than in the branch RVO group. A remarkable reduction in the ganglion cell count and retinal thickness was observed in the central RVO group by 21d, whereas moderate changes occurred in the branch RVO group.CONCLUSION: Rat RVO created by photochemically-induced ischemia using erythrosin B is a reproducible and reliable animal model for mimicking the key features of human RVO. However, considering the 100% rate of retinal detachment, this animal model is more suitable for studying RVO with chronic retinal detachment.

  6. [Stomach ulcers in rats. New experimental model and protection by a triterpene healing agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefournier, C; Poizot, A; Saint-Maur, P

    1977-05-16

    An experimental model using restricted diet and exposure to cold for several weeks was devised. Following a two-week treatment with a triterpen healing agent, the rate of ulcerative lesion was significantly decreased.

  7. A new experimental model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de las Heras Kozma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the cigarette smoke group, comprising 12 rats exposed to smoke from 12 commercial filter cigarettes three times a day (a total of 36 cigarettes per day every day for 30 weeks; and the control group, comprising 12 rats exposed to room air three times a day every day for 30 weeks. Lung function was assessed by mechanical ventilation, and emphysema was morphometrically assessed by measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm. RESULTS: The mean weight gain was significantly (approximately ten times lower in the cigarette smoke group than in the control group. The Lm was 25.0% higher in the cigarette smoke group. There was a trend toward worsening of lung function parameters in the cigarette smoke group. CONCLUSIONS: The new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and the methodology employed in the present study are effective and reproducible, representing a promising and economically viable option for use in studies investigating the pathophysiology of and therapeutic approaches to COPD.

  8. Protective effect of hydrogen rich saline solution on experimental ovarian ischemia reperfusion model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokalp, Nurcan; Basaklar, Abdullah Can; Sonmez, Kaan; Turkyilmaz, Zafer; Karabulut, Ramazan; Poyraz, Aylar; Gulbahar, Ozlem

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of hydrogen rich saline solution (HRSS) in a rat model of ovarian ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty-six female Wistar-albino rats were grouped randomly, into six groups of six rats. The groups were classified as: sham (S), hydrogen (H), torsion (T), torsion/detorsion (TD), hydrogen-torsion (HT), and hydrogen-torsion/detorsion (HTD). Bilateral adnexal torsion was performed for 3h in all torsion groups. HRSS was given 5ml/kg in hydrogen groups intraperitoneally. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) levels were measured in both the plasma and tissue samples. Tissue sections were evaluated histopathologically, and the apoptotic index was detected by TUNEL assay. The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson chi-square tests using computer software, SPSS Version 20.0 for Windows. The MDA levels were higher and GST levels were lower in the torsion and detorsion groups when compared to other groups, but the differences were insignificant (P>0.05). The MDA levels were lower and GST levels were higher in the HT and HTD groups compared with the T and TD groups (P>0.05). Follicular injury, edema, vascular congestion, loss of cohesion and apoptotic index were higher in the torsion groups but decreased in the groups that received HRSS. According to histopathological and biochemical examinations, HRSS is effective in attenuating ischemia-reperfusion induced ovary injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative bone marrow responses of albino rats experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It involved laboratory based experimental infection of albino rats as research models. A total of 32 adult albino rats of mixed sexes were used for this investigation. The rats were randomly grouped into three groups, A, B, C made up of 8 rats each, and infected with T. congolense, T brucei and mixed infection of these species ...

  10. Treatment of hemorrhagic gastritis by Ankaferd blood stopper versus Omeprazole: experimental randomized rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batgi, Hikmetullah; Akbal, Erdem; Koçak, Erdem; Akyürek, Ömer; Köklü, Seyfettin; Dönmez, Melahat; Güneş, Fahri

    2016-12-01

    Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) is a herbal extract that enhances mucosal healing. It has therapeutic potential in the management of external hemorrhage and controlling gastrointestinal bleeding associated with various benign lesions refractory to conventional antihemorrhagic measures. The aim of this experimental study was to assess the effects of ABS on hemorrhagic lesions and compare them with omeprazole. The study was conducted on 30 rats. Rats were divided into five groups: group A (only indomethacin), group B (ABS administration 60 min before indomethacin-induced injury), group C (ABS administration 30 min after indomethacin-induced injury), group D (omeprazole administration 60 min before indomethacin-induced injury), group E (omeprazole administration 30 min after indomethacin-induced injury). Gastric mucosal lesions were produced by indomethacin in all three groups. The effect was studied morphologically 6 h after oral administration of the drug. Subsequently, affected tissue was examined histologically. Based on the number and the total size of hemorrhagic lesions, the hemorrhagic lesion scores were significantly better in Group C compared to other groups (p acute gastric mucosal lesions.

  11. Serial MR Imaging of Intramuscular Hematoma: Experimental Study in a Rat Model with the Pathologic Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Jong Ok; Choi, Eun Seok [Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam National University, School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We wanted to demonstrate the temporal changes of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in experimentally-induced intramuscular hematomas in rats and to correlate these data with the concurrent pathologic observations. Intramuscular hematoma was induced in 30 rats. The MR images were obtained at 1, 4, 7 and 10 days and at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after muscle injury. The characteristic serial MRI findings were evaluated and the relative signal intensities were calculated. Pathologic specimens were obtained at each time point. On the T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), the intramuscular hematomas exhibited isointensity compared to that of muscle or the development of a high signal intensity (SI) rim on day one after injury. The high SI persisted until eight weeks after injury. On the T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), the hematomas showed high SI or centrally low SI on day one after injury, and mainly high SI after four days. A dark signal rim was apparent after seven days, which was indicative of hemosiderin on the pathology. The gradient echo (GRE) imaging yielded dark signal intensities at all stages. Unlike brain hematomas, experimentally-induced intramuscular hematomas show increased SI on both the T1WI and T2WI from the acute stage onward, and this is pathologically correlated with a rich blood supply and rapid healing response to injury in the muscle. On the T2WI and GRE imaging, high SI with a peripheral dark signal rim is apparent from seven days to the chronic stage

  12. Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Suman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus is on the rise globally. Objective. The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs. Materials and Methods. A combination of High-Fat Diet (HFD and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ at 30, 35, and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome in the setting of diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results. The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for the study to induce diabetes mellitus. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia (increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and decreased HDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus (blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, and C-peptide, and hypertension {systolic blood pressure} were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition to significant cardiac injury, atherogenic index, inflammation (hs-CRP, decline in hepatic and renal function were observed in the HF-DC group when compared to NC group rats. The histopathological assessment confirmed presence of edema, necrosis, and inflammation in heart, pancreas, liver, and kidney of HF-DC group as compared to NC. Conclusion. The present study has developed a unique rodent model of metabolic syndrome, with diabetes as an essential component.

  13. Inhibitory effects of a standardized extract of Justicia pectoralis in an experimental rat model of airway hyper-responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Carlos T M; Batista-Lima, Francisco J; Brito, Teresinha S; Silva, Alfredo A V; Ferreira, Luan C; Roque, Cássia R; Aragão, Karoline S; Havt, Alexandre; Fonseca, Francisco N; Leal, Luzia K A M; Magalhães, Pedro J C

    2017-06-01

    Justicia pectoralis is a plant useful for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Here, we studied the antiasthmatic properties of a standardized extract of J. pectoralis (Jp). Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rats were actively challenged with saline or OVA to study airway hyper-responsiveness after oral treatment with saline or Jp. The ability of Jp to inhibit hyper-reactivity was evaluated in isolated trachea mounted in isolated organ bath chamber. Using KCl or carbachol as contractile agents, tracheal rings of OVA-challenged rats contracted with higher magnitude than trachea of rats challenged with saline. Such hyper-responsive phenotype of OVA-challenged tissues decreased with Jp administration. In Ca + -free medium, Jp or its major constituent coumarin inhibited preferentially the contractions induced by Ca 2+ addition in tissues of OVA-challenged rats stimulated with KCl or acetylcholine. In tissues depleted of their internal Ca + stores in the presence of thapsigargin, Jp inhibited the contraction induced by capacitative Ca 2+ entry. By gavage, Jp abolished the increase caused by challenge with OVA on the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar fluid and also impaired the changes in gene expression of canonical transient receptor proteins. Jp has antiasthmatic properties in an experimental model that reproduces tracheal hyper-reactivity. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Manganese-enhanced MRI (ME MRI) in evaluation of the auditory pathway in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zuohua; Wu, Lingjie; Xiao, Zebin; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Sun, Xinghuai; Tang, Weijun; Wang, Jie; Jin, Lixin

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the optimal dose and manner of administration for visualization of the auditory pathway on manganese-enhanced MRI (ME MRI). Twenty-four healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 8 for Groups A, B and C). The rats in Groups A, B and C were subjected to MnCl2 injection through the tympanum, inner ear endolymph and perilymph, respectively (0.2 M for four rats and 0.4 M for the others in each group) and observed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 10 days after the operation with 3.0 T MRI. The signal intensity (SI) and dynamic changes of the auditory pathways at various times, and at two doses through three injection routes, were compared by statistical analysis. Administration of MnCl2 through the perilymph best showed the complete auditory pathway (P ME MRI best demonstrated the whole auditory pathway at 24 h after the injection of 0.4 M MnCl2 through the perilymph in the rat, which provided an optimal method for the study of ME MRI of the auditory pathway in the animal model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Comparison of Healing Effect of Aloe Vera Extract and Silver Sulfadiazine in Burn Injuries in Experimental Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoondinasab, Mohammad Reza; Akhoondinasab, Motahhare; Saberi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Wound healing is widely discussed in the medical literature. This study compared the healing effect of aloe vera extract and silver sulfadiazine in burn injuries in experimental rat model. METHODS Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each group 8 rats. A deep second-degree burn on the lower back and 3rd degree burn on upper back of each rat were created with a standard burning procedure. Burns were dressed daily with aloe vera extract in group 2 and silver sulfadiazine in group 1. Response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during treatment until day 32. Histological parameters (PMN, epithelialization, fibrosis and angiogenesis) were assessed after biopsy of scar at the end of research. RESULTS Wound healing was more visible in aloe vera group. Also the speed of healing in aloe vera group was better than silver sulfadiazine group. CONCLUSIONS Based on our findings, aloe vera can be a therapy of choice for burn injuries. PMID:25489521

  16. Medical ozone therapy reduces oxidative stress and testicular damage in an experimental model of testicular torsion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusat, Mustafa; Mentese, Ahmet; Demir, Selim; Alver, Ahmet; Imamoglu, Mustafa

    2017-06-14

    Testicular torsion (TT) refers to rotation of the testis and twisting of the spermatic cord. TT results in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involving increased oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, and can even lead to infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ozone therapy on testicular damage due to I/R injury in an experimental torsion model. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; sham-operated, torsion/detorsion (T/D), and T/D+ozone. Ozone (1mg/kg) was injected intraperi-toneally 120 minutes before detorsion and for the following 24h. Blood and tissue samples were collected at the end of 24h. Johnsen score, ischemia modified albumin (IMA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were determined. Levels of IMA, TOS, OSI, and histopathological scores increased in the serum/tissue of the rats in the experimental T/D group. Serum IMA, TOS, and OSI levels and tissue histo-pathological scores were lower in the rats treated with ozone compared with the T/D group. Our study results suggest that ozone therapy may exhibit beneficial effects on both biochemical and histopathological findings. Clinical trials are now necessary to confirm this. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  17. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model for proteomic biomarker studies : From rat to human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenling, Therese; Attali, Amos; Luider, Theo M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MScl) is defined by central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage. Some of the disease mechanisms are known but the cause of this complex disorder stays an enigma. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model mimicking many

  18. [Evaluation of calcium dobesilate for its anti-cataract potential in experimental rat models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guang-ying; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Rui-na; Hao, Li-li; Xu, Dong

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the preventive and therapeutic effects of agent calcium dobesilate(CDO) with different doses on the galactose cataract of rats. We chose fifty Wistar rats at 20- day old. Then, they were divided into 3 groups at random. Choose 10 rats as the control group and gave normal diet; 10 rats as the model group and fed with Gal solution ( drink 12.5% Gal solution from 1 to 7 days and 10%Gal solution from 8 to 21 days except for normal diet ) ; 30 rats as the treatment group and fed with the same Gal solution as the model group, besides they were divided into high dosage group, medium dosage group and low dosage group equally and gave 300 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1), 150 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1), 75 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1) dose of calcium dobesilate respectively from the first day to the end of experiment. The experiment lasts 21 days. Lens opacity were observed and recorded by slit-lamp examination regularly. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined to estimate the effect of CDO . Lens fibers changes and Histological changes were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscope (LM) separately. The apoptosis rate of lens epithelium were determined by TUNEL assay. The appearance of Lens opacity in model group was more quickly than that in treatment group in model group, 3 eyes in degree IV, 7 eyes in degree V, while in treatment group, 5 eyes in degree III, 3 eyes in degree IV, 2 eyes in degree V (H = 7.12, P < 0.05). The activity of SOD and GSH-px in treatment group is higher than mode group, but lower than control group on 8th day, there was difference noticed in the activity of SOD (50.01 ± 1.19), (39.39 ± 1.70) , treatment group (46.57 ± 1.09, 46.42 ± 0.87, 45.70 ± 1.46) U/mgProt (F = 88.70, P < 0.05) and the activity of GSH-px (42.92 ± 0.97) , (12.70 ± 1.17) , treatment group (29.16 ± 1.05, 29.08 ± 0.98, 28.25 ± 0.98) nmol/mgprot (F = 1071.89, P < 0.05) ]in 3

  19. Effect of honey bee venom on lewis rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Akbar; Ahmadi, Farhad; Parivar, Kazem; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Haghighi, Saied; Imani, Sohrab; Afrouzi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive and autoimmune neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). This disease is recognized through symptoms like inflammation, demyelination and the destruction of neurological actions. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely accepted animal model for MS. EAE is created in animals by injecting the tissue of myelin basic protein (MBP), CNS, or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) along with the adjuvant. EAE and MS are similar diseases. Honey Bee venom (Apis mellifera) contains a variety of low and high molecular weight peptides and proteins, including melittin, apamin, adolapin, mast cell degranulating peptide and phospholipase A2. Bee venom (BV) could exert anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects on the inflammatory reactions. The guinea pig spinal cord homogenate (GPSCH) is with the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA), consisting of 1 mg/mL Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It was used for inducting EAE in Lewis rats for creating the MS model. The hematoxylin and eosin and luxol fast blue methods were used respectively in analyses of inflammation and detection of demyelination in the central nervous system. Furthermore, the ELISA and the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for the assessment of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitrate in rats serum. In this study, we indicated that the treatment of EAE with Bee venom decreased the symptoms of clinical disorder, pathological changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, demyelination in the central nervous system, level of serum TNF-α, and the serum nitrates in rat EAE induced through GPSCH.

  20. Hemostatic Efficacy and Histopathological Effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper in an Experimental Rat Model of Cyclophosphamide-induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ozcan; Akand, Murat; Karabagli, Pinar; Piskin, Mehmet Mesut

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the hemostatic efficacy and histopathological effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) in an experimental rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced (CYP) hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the study. Firstly, 10 rats were divided equally into 2 groups where the first group was administered only an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline to constitute the negative control group (CON). The remaining 5 rats were administered only a single i.p. injection of CYP (without any further treatment) for induction of HC to constitute the positive control group (HC). Subsequently, the remaining 30 rats, which also received i.p. CYP for induction of HC, were divided into 3 groups to which intravesical saline (SAL group), epinephrine (EPN group), and ABS (ANK group) were administered for 3 consecutive days. Ten days after the third instillation, cystectomy was performed for histopathological examination. Specimens were evaluated for presence of congestion, edema, necrosis, ulceration, and regenerated epithelium, and scores were given for each parameter according to the severity. No statistically significant difference was observed for congestion, edema, necrosis, and ulceration between HC-SAL, and also between CON-ANK groups (all P values >.05). There was a significant difference for total scores between EPN and ANK groups (P = .009). There was statistically significant difference for regenerating epithelium between CON-EPN, CON-ANK, HC-ANK, and SAL-ANK groups. Intravesical administration of ABS is at least as efficacious as EPN in terms of congestion, edema, necrosis, and ulceration. Moreover, ABS can be considered as a better option in inducing regenerating epithelium than EPN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ghrelin Attenuates Retinal Neuronal Autophagy and Apoptosis in an Experimental Rat Glaucoma Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ke; Zhang, Meng-Lu; Liu, Shu-Ting; Li, Xue-Yan; Zhong, Shu-Min; Li, Fang; Xu, Ge-Zhi; Wang, Zhongfeng; Miao, Yanying

    2017-12-01

    Ghrelin, a natural ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), may protect retinal neurons against glaucomatous injury. We therefore characterized the underlying mechanism of the ghrelin/GHSR-1a-mediated neuroprotection with a rat chronic intraocular hypertension (COH) model. The rat COH model was produced by blocking episcleral veins. A combination of immunohistochemistry, Western blot, TUNEL assay, and retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was used. Elevation of intraocular pressure induced a significant increase in ghrelin and GHSR-1a expression in retinal cells, including RGCs and Müller cells. Western blot confirmed that the protein levels of ghrelin exhibited a transient upregulation at week 2 after surgery (G2w), while the GHSR-1a protein levels were maintained at high levels from G2w to G4w. In COH retinas, the ratio of LC3-II/LC-I and beclin1, two autophagy-related proteins, were increased from G1w to G4w, and the cleavage product of caspase3, an apoptotic executioner, was detected from G2w to G4w. Intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin significantly increased the number of surviving RGCs; inhibited the changes of LC3-II/LC-I, beclin1, and the cleavage products of caspase3; and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in COH retinas. Ghrelin treatment also reversed the decreased levels of p-Akt and p-mTOR, upregulated GHSR-1a protein levels, and attenuated glial fibrillary acidic protein levels in COH retinas. All these results suggest that ghrelin may provide neuroprotective effect in COH retinas through activating ghrelin/GHSR-1a system, which was mediated by inhibiting retinal autophagy, ganglion cell apoptosis, and Müller cell gliosis.

  2. Striated muscle fiber apoptosis after experimental tendon lesion in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Carla; Rovesta, Claudio; Ferretti, Marzia

    2012-10-01

    Tendon lesions induce muscular atrophy, the nature of which has not yet been clearly related to lesion etiology and entity. In the present study, tendon and muscle alterations were assessed after experimental tendon lesion of the Infraspinatus muscle in young rats. The consequences of lesions differed on the basis of both extension and injured tissue vascularization, that is apoptosis and/or degeneration, differing mainly by energy demands: apoptosis requires high energy levels (proportional to vascular supply), but degeneration does not. It is well known that tendons are poorly supplied with blood compared with muscular masses, which are abundantly vascularized. Five weeks after tendon surgical section, tendon/muscle samples were taken for TUNEL and transmission electron microscopy. The structural results reported here identified different tendon/muscle alterations: degeneration of tendon without signs of apoptosis, and atrophy of muscle fibers due only to apoptosis. This led to the formulation of the following hypothetical sequence of events: a tendon lesion, not recovering quickly due to the poor tendon blood supply, results in degeneration of the injured tendon, which, in turn, induces a partial disuse of the muscle mass, which consequently atrophies (proportionally to the severity of tendon lesion) by striated muscular fiber apoptosis. The authors suggest that the different behavior of the two tissues depends on the marked difference in their vascularization. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  3. [Histopathological and autoradiographical studies of experimental brain tumors after continuous local chemotherapy--acute stage in rat models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, T; Teramoto, A; Aihara, K

    1997-04-01

    Continuous local chemotherapy has been evaluated as being an effective administration method and as a possible adjuvant therapy in the sensitivity aspect of the cell cycle for malignant glioma. However, neurotoxicity of anti-cancer agents in the normal brain and non-effective methods for the deeper part of the tumor seem to be the most serious problems. This study was initiated to evaluate histological findings, the uptake distribution, and neurotoxicity of the continuous local administration of isotope labeled anti-cancer agents in the brain tumor of rats. The experimental brain tumor of rats and the method of continuous local chemotherapy were as follows. The tumor was produced by intracerebral inoculation of cultured cells derived from rat brain tumor induced by Rous sarcoma virus (Kumanishi et al. strain). One week later Fluorouracil (5-6-3H) (17.7 Ci/m mol) and methotrexate (L-glutamyl 3-4-3H) (41.0 Ci/m mol) were administered into the brain tumors of rats utilizing a mini osmotic pump (Alzet Model 2001), respectively. We used five rats of various groups. The rats were sacrificed at various time intervals (6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs and 7 days). The tumor tissues for light microscopic autoradiography were fixed in 10% formalin for 24 hours. Sections for the light microscopic autoradiography were cut at 4 mu thick and coated with Sakura NR-M2 drips. Following exposure for one week at 4 degrees C, the sections were stained with Konidol X. Six hours after administration, slight radioactivity was distributed in the subarachnoid space and subpial brain tissue in the vicinity of the inserted tube. Twenty-four hours after administration, high radioactivity was clearly present in many tumor cells and phagocytes at the tube tip, but no radioactivity was observed in the deeper part of the tumor or normal brain tissue. In the vicinity of necrosis foci, acute toxic inflammation was also observed. In conclusion, this experimental study shows that these anti

  4. Different experimental approaches in modelling cataractogenesis: An overview of selenite-induced nuclear cataract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyselova, Zuzana

    2010-03-01

    Cataract, the opacification of eye lens, is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. At present, the only remedy is surgical removal of the cataractous lens and substitution with a lens made of synthetic polymers. However, besides significant costs of operation and possible complications, an artificial lens just does not have the overall optical qualities of a normal one. Hence it remains a significant public health problem, and biochemical solutions or pharmacological interventions that will maintain the transparency of the lens are highly required. Naturally, there is a persistent demand for suitable biological models. The ocular lens would appear to be an ideal organ for maintaining culture conditions because of lacking blood vessels and nerves. The lens in vivo obtains its nutrients and eliminates waste products via diffusion with the surrounding fluids. Lens opacification observed in vivo can be mimicked in vitro by addition of the cataractogenic agent sodium selenite (Na(2)SeO(3)) to the culture medium. Moreover, since an overdose of sodium selenite induces also cataract in young rats, it became an extremely rapid and convenient model of nuclear cataract in vivo. The main focus of this review will be on selenium (Se) and its salt sodium selenite, their toxicological characteristics and safety data in relevance of modelling cataractogenesis, either under in vivo or in vitro conditions. The studies revealing the mechanisms of lens opacification induced by selenite are highlighted, the representatives from screening for potential anti-cataract agents are listed.

  5. The Effects of Apelin on Mesenteric Ischemia and Reperfusion Damage in an Experimental Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Burak Sayhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There is ongoing research to find an effective preventive or treatment agent. We aimed to evaluate the effects of apelin 13 (AP on intestinal I/R injury in a rat model. Material and Methods: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 6-8 weeks and weighing 280±20 g were equally divided into three groups (control, I/R and I/R+AP. The control group underwent superior mesenteric artery (SMA mobilization alone without any clamping. In the I/R and I/R+AP groups, an atraumatic microvascular bulldog clamp was placed across the SMA at its point of origin from the aorta. In the I/R+AP group, 2 µg/kg/d apelin was administered intraperitoneally. After 60 minutes of ischemia, relaparotomy was performed to remove the microvascular clamp on the SMA for 3 hours of reperfusion. After 3 hours, tissue samples were obtained for biochemical [malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels] and histopathological analyses.Results: MDA levels were significantly higher in the I/R group compared to the control group. Although MDA levels were lower in the I/R+AP group compared tothe I/R group, the difference was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference between the I/R+AP and I/R groups regarding GSH levels. The median histopathological grade was significantly lower in the I/R+AP group compared to the I/R group (p=0.001.Conclusion: Apelin appeared to have a positive effect on oxidative injury; this did not reach statistical significance. Thus, the role of apelin and associated findings in the initial treatment of intestinal ischemia needs further large-scale animal studies before human use.

  6. Association between probiotics and enteral nutrition in an experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Mark C; van Rens, Michiel J; Geven, Christopher B; van de Pol, Francien M; van den Brink, Ilona W; Hannink, Gerjon; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Peters, Wilbert H; Rijkers, Ger T; Gooszen, Hein G

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a randomized controlled trial showed that probiotic prophylaxis was associated with an increased mortality in enterally fed patients with predicted severe pancreatitis. In a rat model for acute pancreatitis, we investigated whether an association between probiotic prophylaxis and enteral nutrition contributed to the higher mortality rate. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to four groups: 1) acute pancreatitis (n = 9), 2) acute pancreatitis and probiotic prophylaxis (n = 10), 3) acute pancreatitis and enteral nutrition (n = 10), and 4) acute pancreatitis, probiotic prophylaxis and enteral nutrition (n = 11). Acute pancreatitis was induced by intraductal glycodeoxycholate and intravenous cerulein infusion. Enteral nutrition, saline, probiotics and placebo were administered through a permanent jejunal feeding. Probiotics or placebo were administered starting 4 days before induction of pancreatitis and enteral nutrition 1 day before start until the end of the experiment, 6 days after induction of pancreatitis. Tissue samples and body fluids were collected for microbiological and histological examination. In all animals, serum amylase was increased six hours after induction of pancreatitis. After fulfilling the experiment, no differences between groups were found in histological severity of pancreatitis, degree of discomfort, weight loss, histological examination of small bowel and bacterial translocation (all p > 0.05). Overall mortality was 10% without differences between groups (p = 0.54). No negative association was found between prophylactic probiotics and enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis. No new clues for a potential mechanism responsible for the higher mortality and bowel ischaemia in the PROPATRIA study were found. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental models of partial lesion of rat spinal cord to investigate neurodegeneration, glial activation, and behavior impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadi, G; Andrade, M S; Leme, R J; Gomide, V C

    2001-01-01

    The article demonstrates two experimental models of spinal cord partial injury in rats: a contuse model promoted by the NYU impactor system and a partial hemitransection model achieved by a stereotaxic-positioned adjustable wire knife. By means of a defined impact weight (10 g) and a digital optical potentiometer linked to a computer, the impactor transferred and registered a moderate or a severe contusion to the rat spinal cord at a low thoracic level after dropping the weight from distances of 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively, to the dorsal surface of the exposed dura spinal cord. Impact curve was calculated and the parameters of the trauma, like impact velocity, cord compression distance and cord compression rates were obtained in order to demonstrate trauma severity. To promote partial hemitransection, rats were positioned in a spinal cord unit of a stereotaxic apparatus and lesion was made with the adjustable wire knife spatially oriented. By means of a computerized infrared motion sensor-home cage activity monitor and a noncomputerized evaluation of motor behavior using the inclined plane and the motor score of Tarlov tests, behavior was analyzed in an acute period postlesion. Rats were sacrificed and spinal cords were processed for routine staining to show neurons and for GFAP and OX42 immunohistochemistry to demonstrate glial cells. The tissue labelings were quantified using computer assisted stereology by means of an optical disector and microdensitometric image analysis by means of quantification of gray values of discriminated profiles. While partial hemitransection model favored a more accurate control of the lesion location, the contuse model allowed us to perform different degrees of lesion severity. A close correlation between behavioral impairment and severity of trauma was seen in the rats submitted to spinal cord contusion. The stereologic lesion index showed a correlation between severity of trauma and tissue damage by 7 days and demonstrated a time

  8. Prenatal intestinal obstruction affects the myenteric plexus and causes functional bowel impairment in fetal rat experimental model of intestinal atresia.

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    Naziha Khen-Dunlop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal atresia is a rare congenital disorder with an incidence of 3/10,000 birth. About one-third of patients have severe intestinal dysfunction after surgical repair. We examined whether prenatal gastrointestinal obstruction might effect on the myenteric plexus and account for subsequent functional disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied a rat model of surgically induced antenatal atresia, comparing intestinal samples from both sides of the obstruction and with healthy rat pups controls. Whole-mount preparations of the myenteric plexus were stained for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT and nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to analyze mRNAs for inflammatory markers. Functional motility and permeability analyses were performed in vitro. Phenotypic studies were also performed in 8 newborns with intestinal atresia. In the experimental model, the proportion of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons was similar in proximal and distal segments (6.7±4.6% vs 5.6±4.2%, p = 0.25, but proximal segments contained a higher proportion of ChAT-immunoreactive neurons (13.2±6.2% vs 7.5±4.3%, p = 0.005. Phenotypic changes were associated with a 100-fold lower concentration-dependent contractile response to carbachol and a 1.6-fold higher EFS-induced contractile response in proximal compared to distal segments. Transcellular (p = 0.002 but not paracellular permeability was increased. Comparison with controls showed that modifications involved not only proximal but also distal segments. Phenotypic studies in human atresia confirmed the changes in ChAT expression. CONCLUSION: Experimental atresia in fetal rat induces differential myenteric plexus phenotypical as well as functional changes (motility and permeability between the two sides of the obstruction. Delineating these changes might help to identify markers predictive of motility dysfunction and to define guidelines for post

  9. Effects of bromocriptine on serum prolactin levels, pituitary weight and immunoreactive prolactin cells in estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats: an experimental model of estrogen-dependent hyperprolactinemia

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    M.F. Ribeiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the effects of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, on pituitary wet weight, number of immunoreactive prolactin cells and serum prolactin concentrations in estradiol-treated rats. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with sunflower oil vehicle or estradiol valerate (50 or 300 µg rat-1 week-1 for 2, 4 or 10 weeks. Bromocriptine (0.2 or 0.6 mg rat-1 day-1 was injected daily during the last 5 or 12 days of estrogen treatment. Data were compared with those obtained for intact control rats. Administration of both doses of estrogen increased serum prolactin levels. No difference in the number of prolactin cells in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate was observed compared to intact adult animals. In contrast, rats treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate showed a significant increase in the number of prolactin cells (P<0.05. Therefore, the increase in serum prolactin levels observed in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate, in the absence of morphological changes in the pituitary cells, suggests a "functional" estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemia. Bromocriptine decreased prolactin levels in all estrogen-treated rats. The administration of this drug to rats previously treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate also resulted in a significant decrease in pituitary weight and number of prolactin cells when compared to the group treated with estradiol alone. The general antiprolactinemic and antiproliferative pituitary effects of bromocriptine treatment reported here validate the experimental model of estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemic rats

  10. Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on ischemia and neuronal damage in an experimental traumatic brain-injury model in rats

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    Hanci Volkan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head trauma is one of the most important clinical issues that not only can be fatal and disabling, requiring long-term treatment and care, but also can cause heavy financial burden. Formation or distribution of free oxygen radicals should be decreased to enable fixing of poor neurological outcomes and to prevent neuronal damage secondary to ischemia after trauma. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, a component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is a strong antioxidant that plays a role in membrane stabilization. In this study, the role of CoQ10 in the treatment of head trauma is researched by analyzing the histopathological and biochemical effects of CoQ10 administered after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats. A traumatic brain-injury model was created in all rats. Trauma was inflicted on rats by the free fall of an object of 450 g weight from a height of 70 cm on the frontoparietal midline onto a metal disc fixed between the coronal and the lambdoid sutures after a midline incision was carried out. Results In the biochemical tests, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA levels were significantly higher in the traumatic brain-injury group compared to the sham group (p 10 after trauma was shown to be protective because it significantly lowered the increased MDA levels (p 10 group had SOD levels ranging between those of sham group and traumatic brain-injury group, and no statistically significant increase was detected. Histopathological results showed a statistically significant difference between the CoQ10 and the other trauma-subjected groups with reference to vascular congestion, neuronal loss, nuclear pyknosis, nuclear hyperchromasia, cytoplasmic eosinophilia, and axonal edema (p Conclusion Neuronal degenerative findings and the secondary brain damage and ischemia caused by oxidative stress are decreased by CoQ10 use in rats with traumatic brain injury.

  11. Luminal and parenteral TFF2 and TFF3 dimer and monomer in two models of experimental colitis in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Kissow, Hannelouise; Hare, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    % dextran sodium sulphate in the drinking water or by one intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin C, 3.75 mg/kg. TFF peptides were administered as subcutaneous injections or directly into the lumen via a catheter placed in the proximal colon. Treatments were saline, TFF2, TFF3 monomer or TFF3 dimer 5 mg......2 had positive effect only in DSS-induced colitis. The TFF3 monomer was without any effects in both models. Treatment effect was most pronounced in the middle part of the colon, closest to the tip of the catheter. Injected TFF peptides, especially the TFF3 monomer, aggravated the colitis score...... in both colitis models. CONCLUSIONS: Intracolonic administration of TFF3 dimer and TFF2 improves experimentally induced colitis in rats. The TFF3 monomer has no effect. Parenteral administration of TFF peptides aggravates the colitis especially the TFF3 monomer....

  12. Urolithin A Mitigates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity by Inhibiting Renal Inflammation and Apoptosis in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guada, Melissa; Ganugula, Raghu; Vadhanam, Manicka; Ravi Kumar, Majeti N V

    2017-10-01

    Cumulative kidney toxicity associated with cisplatin is severe and there is no clear consensus on the therapeutic management of the same. The pathogenesis involves activation of inflammatory and apoptotic pathways; therefore, regulating these pathways offers protection. Given the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of urolithin A, a gut microbial metabolite of ellagic acid, our aim was to explore the potential use of urolithin A in the prevention of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in an experimental rat model. For this purpose, animals received a single intraperitoneal dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight). Six hours prior to cisplatin administration, rats were orally treated with either ellagic acid or urolithin A (50 mg/kg body weight), followed by a daily dose of these compounds during the next 5 days. At the end, plasma and kidneys were collected for analysis. Cisplatin-induced kidney damage was revealed by a significant rise in the plasma creatinine levels accompanied by significant morphologic changes in tubules, T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing protein-1, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1, as well as a marked increase in the number of apoptotic cells localized in tubules. Cisplatin also reduced nitric oxide synthase 3 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells resulting in regulation of various inflammatory cytokines. Urolithin A effectively attenuated cisplatin-induced kidney damage and showed significantly greater effect than its precursor ellagic acid on preserving the normal kidney architecture by downregulating the proinflammatory cytokines. In summary, urolithin A mitigates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats by modulation of the inflammatory cascade and inhibition of the proapoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. An allogenic site-specific rat model of bone metastases for nuclear medicine and experimental oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, Barbara; Yilmaz, Bengü; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Bausbacher, Nicole; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Thews, Oliver

    2012-05-01

    Bone metastases are a major problem in several tumor entities affecting the therapeutic decision and the patient's prognosis. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are promising techniques for identifying bone tumors using gamma- or positron-emitting labeled radiotracers, but the same tracers if labeled with beta-emitters may also be used to apply therapeutic radionuclides for localized irradiation. For the tracer development specifically accumulating in osseous lesions, animal models of bone metastasis are needed. A technique was developed for tumor cell injection into the circulation of the hind limb of rats. For tumor implantation, the arteria epigastrica caudalis superficialis (a branch of the femoral artery) was cannulated, and 2×10(5) cells were injected. By using the allogenic Walker 256 mammary carcinoma cell line, isolated bone metastases were induced. For visualizing of the tumor growth, PET with 18F-fluoride was performed weekly on a μ-PET system. After 2-3 weeks, tumor invasion was confirmed by histology. Three weeks after tumor cell inoculation, PET images showed signs of bone metastases in 9 out of 11 animals. The tumors were located either in the proximal tibia/fibula or in the distal femur. At this time, the animals showed no restrictions in mobility. The tumors grew constantly over time. The final histological analysis showed tumors growing invasively into the bone matrix. With this model, new SPECT or PET tracers can be evaluated for their potency of accumulating in bone metastases in vivo and to determine which are therefore suitable for diagnosis and/or therapy. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The Preventive Effect of Oxytocin to Cisplatin-Induced Neurotoxicity: An Experimental Rat Model

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    Tulay Akman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neurotoxicity is a frequent dose-limiting side effect of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effect of oxytocin (OT on cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Forty-four adult female rats were included in the study. Thirty-six rats were administered intraperitoneally (i.p. single dose cisplatin 10 mg/kg and divided in to 3 groups. The first group (n=12 received saline i.p., whereas the second group (n=12 and the third group (n=12 were injected with 80 µg/kg and 160 µg/kg OT, respectively, for 10 days. The remaining 8 rats served as the control group. Electromyography (EMG studies were recorded and blood samples were collected for the measurement of plasma lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde; MDA, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and glutathione (GSH levels. EMG findings revealed that compound muscle action potential amplitude was significantly decreased and distal latency was prolonged in the nontreated cisplatin-injected rats compared with the control group (P<0.005. Also, nontreated cisplatin-injected rats showed significantly higher TNF-α and MDA levels and lower GSH level than control group. The administration of OT significantly ameliorated the EMG alterations, suppressed oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters, and increased antioxidative capacity. We suggest that oxytocin may have beneficial effects against cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity.

  15. Antiulcerogenic effect of Securigera securidaca L. seed extract on various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mard, S A; Bahari, Z; Eshaghi, N; Farbood, Y

    2008-12-01

    Securigera securidaca belongs to the family Fabaceae is used in Iranian folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the Securigera securidaca seed hydroalcoholic extract (SSE) and its subfractions for their gastroprotective effect in rat. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of ethanol (100%; 1 mL/200 g of body weight) or water immersion restraint-stress (5 h, water immersion restraint stress at 20-22 degrees C). Ranitidine (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) was used as the reference antiulcer drug. After ethanol administration, the gastric wall mucus was examined. Chronic gastric ulceration was produced by injection of acetic acid in rat gastric subserosa. The antisecretory effect of the extract and its subfractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and aqueous fractions) were investigated in pylorus-ligated rats. Administration of SSE significantly inhibited gastric mucosa damage induced by ethanol, water immersion restraint-stress and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. In pylorus ligature rats, SSE and its subfractions significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion and total acidity; moreover, it inhibited the increase in total acidity induced by carbachol. However, the antisecretory effect of the chloroform fraction was more potent than two other fractions. Administration of SSE did not affect the gastric mucus production. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the SSE has gastroprotective and antisecretory effects on gastric mucosa in rats.

  16. Intravenous xenotransplantation of human placental mesenchymal stem cells to rats: comparative analysis of homing in rat brain in two models of experimental ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodenko, I V; Yarygin, K N; Gubsky, L V; Konieva, A A; Tairova, R T; Povarova, O V; Kholodenko, R V; Burunova, V V; Yarygin, V N; Skvortsova, V I

    2012-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from human placenta obtained after term natural delivery were cultured and labeled with vital dye Dil of magnetic fluorescing microparticles. The labeled cells were transplanted intravenously to rats with occlusion of the median cerebral artery. Penetration of cells through the brain-blood barrier and their distribution in the brain of experimental animals were studied on serial cryostat sections. Two models of cerebral artery occlusion associated with different traumatic consequences were used. The efficiency of crossing the blood-brain barrier by transplanted cells, the number of mesenchymal cells attaining the ischemic focus and neurogenic zones, and the time of death of transplanted cells largely depended on the degree and nature of injury to the central nervous system, which should be taken into account when planning the experiments for evaluation of the effects of cell therapy on the models of neurological diseases and in clinical studies in the field of regenerative neurology.

  17. Culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells attenuate cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat osteoarthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Li; Shen, Bojiang; Ling, Peixue; Liu, Shaoying; Xue, Jiajun; Liu, Fuyan; Shao, Huarong; Chen, Jianying; Ma, Aibin; Liu, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cell therapy is a promising avenue for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of intra-articular injections of culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) induced rat OA model. The paracrine effects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unmatched ADSCs on chondrocytes were investigated in vitro. Rats were divided into an OA group that underwent ACLT surgery and a sham-operated group that did not undergo ACLT surgery. Four weeks after surgery mild OA was induced in the OA group. Subsequently, the OA rats were randomly divided into ADSC and control groups. A single dose of 1 × 106 ADSCs suspended in 60 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was intra-articularly injected into the rats of the ADSC group. The control group received only 60 μL PBS. OA progression was evaluated macroscopically and histologically at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. ADSC treatment did not cause any adverse local or systemic reactions. The degeneration of articular cartilage was significantly weaker in the ADSC group compared to that in the control group at both 8 and 12 weeks. Chondrocytes were co-cultured with MHC-unmatched ADSCs in trans-wells to assess the paracrine effects of ADSCs on chondrocytes. Co-culture with ADSCs counteracted the IL-1β-induced mRNA upregulation of the extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in chondrocytes. Importantly, ADSCs increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in chondrocytes. The results of this study indicated that the intra-articular injection of culture-expanded allogenic ADSCs attenuated cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat OA model without inducing any adverse reactions. MHC-unmatched ADSCs protected chondrocytes from inflammatory factor-induced damage. The paracrine effects of ADSCs on

  18. Culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells attenuate cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat osteoarthritis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mei

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-based cell therapy is a promising avenue for osteoarthritis (OA treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of intra-articular injections of culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT induced rat OA model. The paracrine effects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC-unmatched ADSCs on chondrocytes were investigated in vitro. Rats were divided into an OA group that underwent ACLT surgery and a sham-operated group that did not undergo ACLT surgery. Four weeks after surgery mild OA was induced in the OA group. Subsequently, the OA rats were randomly divided into ADSC and control groups. A single dose of 1 × 106 ADSCs suspended in 60 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS was intra-articularly injected into the rats of the ADSC group. The control group received only 60 μL PBS. OA progression was evaluated macroscopically and histologically at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. ADSC treatment did not cause any adverse local or systemic reactions. The degeneration of articular cartilage was significantly weaker in the ADSC group compared to that in the control group at both 8 and 12 weeks. Chondrocytes were co-cultured with MHC-unmatched ADSCs in trans-wells to assess the paracrine effects of ADSCs on chondrocytes. Co-culture with ADSCs counteracted the IL-1β-induced mRNA upregulation of the extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in chondrocytes. Importantly, ADSCs increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in chondrocytes. The results of this study indicated that the intra-articular injection of culture-expanded allogenic ADSCs attenuated cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat OA model without inducing any adverse reactions. MHC-unmatched ADSCs protected chondrocytes from inflammatory factor-induced damage. The paracrine effects

  19. Modelo de carcinogênese gástrica utilizando piloroplastia de Finney: estudo experimental em ratos Gastric carcinogenesis model using Finney pyloroplasty: experimental study in rats

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    Eliane de Marco Ferreira Kaminski

    2011-12-01

    estudados. CONCLUSÃO: 1 A piloroplastia à Finney é modelo experimental adequado de carcinogênese gástrica; 2 ela induziu refluxo duodenogástrico; 3 o refluxo duodenogástrico atuou como carcinógeno para o estômago; 4 não houve relação entre o pH gástrico e o desenvolvimento de carcinoma; 5 o nitrito de sódio não atuou como carcinógeno para o estômago dos ratos.BACKGROUND: The duodenogastric reflux has been implicated as a potential carcinogen for the stomach and esophagus and is one of the factors that may explain the development of gastric stump cancer. Experimental models of carcinogenesis in the stomach stump or in the duodenogastric anastomosis are well defined. AIM: To develop an experimental model of gastric carcinogenesis through the Finney pyloroplasty, evaluate the influence of ingestion of sodium nitrite in this model, analyze the concentrations of bile acids and the pH of the stomach. METHODS: A hundred and ten Wistar rats were operated and divided into four groups: Group I (15 rats underwent laparotomy (Sham group; Group II (15 rats underwent laparotomy (Sham and ingestion of sodium nitrite in drinking water; Group III (40 rats submitted to the Finney pyloroplasty and Group IV (40 rats submitted to the Finney pyloroplasty and ingestion of sodium nitrite in drinking water. After 50 weeks of surgery, the rats were sacrificed and samples collected for analysis of gastric pH, dosing of bile acids and histological analysis. RESULTS: The immediate postoperative mortality was 9%, and during the experiment, 10 rats died. The control group (I did not show gastric lesions; the control group with sodium nitrite (II developed papillomas in the pre-stomach in 16.6%; the operated groups with pyloroplasty had adenomas in 10.3% in Group III and 14.2 % in Group IV, and adenocarcinoma in 55.1% in group III and 14.2% in Group IV. The implementation of glands into the submucosa and muscle in the area of anastomosis (mucosa deployment was not sufficient criterion for

  20. Etanercept protects myocutaneous flaps from ischaemia reperfusion injury: An experimental study in a rat tram flap model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Burak; Çevik, Özge; Çilingir, Özlem Tuğçe

    2016-08-01

    Background Being an inevitable component of free tissue transfer, ischemia-reperfusion injury tends to contribute to flap failure. TNF-α is an important proinflammatory cytokine and a prominent mediator of the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Etanercept, a soluble TNF-α binding protein, has shown anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in animal models of renal and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. We have designed an experimental study to investigate the effect of etanercept on myocutaneous ischemia-reperfusion injury on transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap model in rats. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: In group 1 (sham), the TRAM flap was raised and sutured back without further intervention. In group 2 (control), the flap was raised and the ischemia-reperfusion protocol was followed. In group 3, etanercept (10 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered 10 minutes before reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion period, biochemical and histolopathological evaluations were performed on serum and tissue samples. Results In the etanercept group the IMA and 8-OHdG levels (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively) were found significantly lower, and the GSH and SOD levels (p = 0.01 and p etanercept group compared to the control group. Conclusion The results of our experimental study indicate that etanercept offers protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle tissue, enhancing the TRAM flap viability. The ability of etanercept to induce ischemic tolerance suggests that it may be applicable in free-flap surgery.

  1. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Truffle on Estrogen and Progesterone Levels in Experimental Model of Multiple Sclerosis (MS in Female Rats

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    Eslam Zabihi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. Since the level of sex hormone and multiple sclerosis (MS disease affects one another, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the hydroalcoholic extract of truffle on the hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone administered in experimental model of MS-induced rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 42 Wistar female rats, weighing 180±10 grams selected into 6 groups each consisting of 7 rats. Normal control didn’t receive any treatment and experimental group was given Cuprizone toxin (as a MS model inducer for 40 days. The experimental groups (2, 3, 4 and 5 in addition to Cuprizone received the normal saline, 110, 220 and 330 mg/kg/0.2ml (i.p. of Hydroalcoholic extract of truffle for 12 days too. Blood samples were taken at the end of the twelfth day from all groups involved and levels of sex hormones were measured. Results: Cuprizone decreases estrogen, progesterone levels and also causes weight loss, while injection of hydroalcoholic extract of truffle increased serum levels of estrogen (in experimental group 4 and progesterone (in experimental group 4 & 5 compared to MS-induced group. Conclusion: Results of the study revealed that the hydroalcoholic extract of truffle (at dosages of 220 and 330 mg/kg could increase estrogen and progesterone levels in rats experienced experimental multiple sclerosis.

  2. Gastroprotective effects of essential oil from Protium heptaphyllum on experimental gastric ulcer models in rats

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    Deborah A. O. Valim Araujo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcers are a common disorder of the entire gastrointestinal tract, its etiology has not been completely elucidated. The basic physiopathological of peptic ulcers result from an imbalance between some endogenous aggressive factor and cytoprotective factors. The treatment of this disease is usually done with antacids or proton pump, but are currently being used plants derivated compounds. We evaluated the gastroprotective properties and its possible mechanisms of action of the essential oil from Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand, Burseraceae (BB. The formation of ulcers, were evaluated in three experimental models, through the induction of gastric lesions by ethanol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetic acid. The mechanisms of action were evaluated through the pylorus ligature experiment, western blot, GSH, GR, SOD, GPx, MDA and MPO activities. BB significantly inhibited the formation of ulcers induced by the three different models, increased the GSH and GR levels and maintained the same levels of SOD and GPx of the sham group, inhibited MPO and MDA, did not produce significant modification in gastric juice content and showed increased COX-2 and EGF. BB exerts its gastroprotective activity, possibly, by increasing COX-2 and EGF expression and due to its possible antioxidant property.

  3. Use of Ozone to Treat Ileostomy Dermatitis in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Şenol; Sayar, İlyas; Gürsul, Cebrail; Işık, Arda; Aydın, Merve; Peker, Kemal; Demiryilmaz, İsmail

    2016-03-07

    Dermatitis associated with ileostomy is an important problem that affects many people, especially children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of ozone on dermatitis due to ileostomy, and to develop an alternative treatment option. A total of 28 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, ileostomy, ozone, and zinc oxide. Ileostomy was performed in all rats except the control group. After a 1-week waiting time, the ozone group was administered ozone therapy and the zinc oxide group was administered zinc oxide cream locally once a day for a total of 7 days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of this period. The efficacy of treatment was examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical parameters. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (tGSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured from tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were examined immunohistochemically. Dermatitis occurred pathologically in all rats that underwent ileostomy surgery. The lowest dermatitis score was in the ozone treatment group (pOzone treatment resulted in reduced MDA and TOS levels, while the levels of tGSH and TAC were increased (pozone treatment group (pozone application may be a good alternative compared to the conventional treatment methods for the prevention of skin lesions that develop after ileostomy.

  4. Teriflunomide reduces behavioral, electrophysiological, and histopathological deficits in the Dark Agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jean E; Hanak, Susan; Pu, Su-Fen; Liang, Jinjun; Dang, Chelsea; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Harvey, Brian; Zhu, Bin; McMonagle-Strucko, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Teriflunomide is an orally available anti-inflammatory drug that prevents T and B cell proliferation and function by inhibition of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. It is currently being developed for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). We report here for the first time the anti-inflammatory effects of teriflunomide in the Dark Agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Neurological evaluation demonstrated that prophylactic dosing of teriflunomide at 3 and 10 mg/kg delayed disease onset and reduced maximal and cumulative scores. Therapeutic administration of teriflunomide at doses of 3 or 10 mg/kg at disease onset significantly reduced maximal and cumulative disease scores as compared to vehicle treated rats. Dosing teriflunomide at disease remission, at 3 and 10 mg/kg, reduced the cumulative scores for the remaining course of the disease. Teriflunomide at 10 mg/kg significantly reduced inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss when dosed prophylactically or therapeutically. In electrophysiological somatosensory evoked potential studies, therapeutic administration of teriflunomide, at the onset of disease, prevented both a decrease in waveform amplitude and an increase in the latency to waveform initiation in EAE animals compared to vehicle. Therapeutic dosing with teriflunomide at disease remission prevented a decrease in evoked potential amplitude, prevented an increase in latency, and enhanced recovery time within the CNS.

  5. Detection of hepatocarcinoma in rats by integration of the fluorescence spectrum: Experimental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcassa, J. C.; Ferreira, J.; Zucoloto, S.; Castro E Silva, O., Jr.; Marcassa, L. G.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    The incorporation of spectroscopic techniques into diagnostic procedures may greatly improve the chances for precise diagnostics. One promising technique is fluorescence spectroscopy, which has recently been used to detect many different types of diseases. In this work, we use laser-induced tissue fluorescence to detect hepatocarcinoma in rats using excitation light at wavelengths of 443 and 532 nm. Hepatocarcinoma was induced chemically in Wistar rats. The collected fluorescence spectrum ranges from the excitation wavelength up to 850 nm. A mathematical procedure carried out on the spectrum determines a figure of merit value, which allows the detection of hepatocarcinoma. The figure of merit involves a procedure which evaluates the ratio between the backscattered excitation wavelength and the broad emission fluorescence band. We demonstrate that a normalization allowed by integration of the fluorescence spectra is a simple operation that may allow the detection of hepatocarcinoma.

  6. Effect of spinach aqueous extract on wound healing in experimental model diabetic rats with streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahati, Sara; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ebrahimi, Abdolali; Pishva, Hamideh

    2016-05-01

    Chronic ulcer is still a serious issue for diabetic patients. Diabetes is a prevalent cause of ulcer regeneration delay and (or) disruption. Since Spinacia oleracea extract contains compounds with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, this may be effective in accelerating the healing process of ulcers, especially diabetic ulcers. Hence, this study examined the effect of Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract on ulcer regeneration in an experimental animal model. Macroscopic examination of the wounds of the control group and spinach aqueous extract group between 7 and 21 days compared with diabetic group, significant changes were observed (P spinach aqueous extract group and non-diabetic group compared to the diabetic group showed significant improvements (P < 0.05). Also, significant differences in vascular endothelial growth factor were observed between groups on days 3 and 7 (P < 0.05). The Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract can be effective in regenerating diabetic ulcers. It affects the speed and structure of the ulcer. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Fetal hydrocephalus, intrauterine diagnosis and therapy considerations: an experimental rat model.

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    Babapour, Babak; Oi, Shizuo; Boozari, Bita; Tatagiba, Marcos; Bleck, Jörg; Hussein, Sami; Samii, Madjid

    2005-05-01

    Fetal hydrocephalus is induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 8 mg/kg 6-aminonikotinamide (6-AN), a niacinamide antagonist, in Sprague-Dawley rats on day 13 of gestation. Laparotomy was carried out in some rats 3, 6, 7 and 8 days after the intraperitoneal injection. The fetuses were collected by uterotomy and fixed in a formalin solution after measuring head circumference and body length for further histological investigations. The ventricular areas and volumes of the lateral ventricles were measured using a computer morphometric technique after all fetuses were serially sectioned sagittally or coronally. Furthermore, 8 maternal rats (4 treated with 6-AN and 4 controls) were used for ultrasound investigation. The fetal ventricular system and the central canal were demonstrated and compared by transabdominal ultrasound in the 6-AN and control groups. On day 19 of gestation the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained in some fetuses for 18 h through a thin micro-catheter, which was inserted into the lateral ventricle. In some other fetuses the intracranial pressure (ICP) and the intra-amniotic pressure (IAP) were measured after Doppler sonography of the cerebral blood flow (CBF). These measurements were carried out using a transuterine approach following the laparotomy. Hydrocephalus was produced due to the closure of all outlets of the fourth ventricle. Macrocephalus was clear on day 17 (4 days after 6-AN injection). The entire ventricular system was dilated, including the aqueduct and foramen of Monro, and cerebellar hypoplasia was revealed. Increased ICP in 6-AN fetuses was associated with decreasing CBF. The cerebral mantel was better developed after CSF drainage. The intra-amniotic pressure was increased in all pregnant rats and was either similar to or higher than ICP.

  8. Use of Ozone to Treat Ileostomy Dermatitis in an Experimental Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Şenol; Sayar, İlyas; Gürsul, Cebrail; Işık, Arda; Aydın, Merve; Peker, Kemal; Demiryilmaz, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Background Dermatitis associated with ileostomy is an important problem that affects many people, especially children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of ozone on dermatitis due to ileostomy, and to develop an alternative treatment option. Material/Methods A total of 28 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, ileostomy, ozone, and zinc oxide. Ileostomy was performed in all rats except the control group. After a 1-week waiting time, the ozone group was administered ozone therapy and the zinc oxide group was administered zinc oxide cream locally once a day for a total of 7 days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of this period. The efficacy of treatment was examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical parameters. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (tGSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured from tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were examined immunohistochemically. Results Dermatitis occurred pathologically in all rats that underwent ileostomy surgery. The lowest dermatitis score was in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Ileostomy dermatitis caused increased levels of MDA and TOS. Ozone treatment resulted in reduced MDA and TOS levels, while the levels of tGSH and TAC were increased (p<0.05). Both VEGF and PCNA immunostaining were augmented in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Conclusions Local ozone application may be a good alternative compared to the conventional treatment methods for the prevention of skin lesions that develop after ileostomy. PMID:26947591

  9. MR-angiography allows defining severity grades of cerebral vasospasm in an experimental double blood injection subarachnoid hemorrhage model in rats.

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    Vesna Malinova

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been used for the detection of cerebral vasospasm (VSP related infarction in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (eSAH in rats. Conventional angiography is generally used to visualize VSP, which is an invasive technique with a possible increase in morbidity and mortality. In this study we evaluated the validity of MR-angiography (MRA in detecting VSP and its feasibility to define VSP severity grades after eSAH in rats.SAH was induced using the double-hemorrhage model in 12 rats. In two rats, saline solution was injected instead of blood (sham group. MR was performed on day 1, 2 and on day 5. T1-, T2-, T2*-weighted and time-of-flight MR sequences were applied, which were analyzed by two blinded neuroradiologists. Vessel narrowing of 25-50% was defined as mild, 50-75% as moderate and >75% as severe VSP.We performed a total of 34 MRAs in 14 rats. In 14 rats, MRA was performed on day 2 and day 5. In six rats MRA was additionally performed on day1 before the blood injection. A good visualization of cerebral vessels was possible in all cases. No VSP was seen in the sham group neither on day 2 nor on day 5. We found vasospasm on day 2 in 7 of the 14 rats (50% whereas all 7 rats had mild and one rat had additionally moderate and severe vasospasm in one vessel, respectively. On day 5 we found vasospasm in 8 of the 14 rats (60% whereas 4 rats had severe vasospasm, 1 rat had moderate vasospasm and 3 rats demonstrated mild vasospasm. In 4 of the 14 rats (30% an ischemic lesion was detected on day 5. Three of these rats had severe vasospasm and one rat had mild vasospasm. Severe vasospasm on day 5 was statistically significant correlated with the occurrence of ischemic lesions (Fisher's Exact test, OR 19.5, p = 0.03.MRA is a noninvasive diagnostic tool, which allows a good visualization of the cerebral vasculature and provides reproducible results concerning the detection of VSP and the differentiation into three severity

  10. Avaliação de um modelo experimental de enterocolite necrosante neonatal em ratos Evaluation of an experimental model of necrotizing enterocolitis in rats

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    Karine Furtado Meyer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar um modelo experimental de enterocolite necrosante em ratos proposto por Okur e colaboradores em 1995. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 28 ratos da raça EPM-Wistar no primeiro dia de vida, com peso entre 4 a 6 gramas. Os animais foram submetidos a hipóxia (H colocando os filhotes em uma câmara de gás CO2 para sacrifício de roedores onde receberam um fluxo de ar contendo 100% de CO2 durante 5 minutos. Após a hipóxia os animais foram reanimados (R com fluxo de ar contendo O2 a 100%, também durante 5 minutos. Os animais divididos em dois grupos: G1: controle (n=12: ratos não submetidos a H-R; G2: (n=16: ratos submetidos a H-R. Segmentos de intestino delgado e cólon foram preparados para análise histológica. O restante do intestino foi utilizado para dosagem de malondialdeído tecidual. RESULTADOS: Dosagem de malondialdeído do G1 foi em média 1,05 (0,44-2,03 e do G2 foi em média 2,60 (0,59- 6,4 nmol MDA/mg proteína. O G2 teve média significativamente maior do que a do grupo controle (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate an experimental model of necrotizing enterocolitis in rats proposed by OKUR e col. in 1995. METHODS: On their first day of life, 28 EPM-Wistar rats weighing between 4 and 6 grams were submitted to hypoxia (H by placing them in a CO2 gas chamber for rodents' sacrifice, where they received a 100% CO2 air flow for 5 minutes. After the hypoxia the animals were reanimated (R with a 100% O2 air flow, also for 5 minutes. The animals were allocated in two groups: G1: control (n=12: rats not submitted to H-R; G2: (n=16: rats submitted to H-R. Segments of the small intestine and colon were prepared for histological analysis. The remaining intestine was used to measure tissular malondialdehyde. RESULTS: Mean malondialdehyde dosages were 1.05 (0.44-2.03 and 2.60 (0.59- 6.4 nmol MDA/mg protein for G1 and G2, respectively. G2's mean value was significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.002. Significant statistical difference

  11. Development of an experimental diet model in rats to study hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance, markers for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Renuka P; Joshi, Samidha G; Rane, Bhagyeshri N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an experimental model of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance (IR), markers of coronary heart disease (CHD) using high fat and high sugar (HFHS) diet and to evaluate the efficacy of the model using atorvastatin, a known antihyperlipidemic drug, pioglitazone, a known insulin sensitizer, and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc), an antidiabetic plant. Following Institutional Animal Ethics Committee permission, the study was conducted in male Wistar rats (200-270 g). The model was developed using a high fat (vanaspati ghee: coconut oil, 3:1) oral diet along with 25% fructose (high sugar) added in drinking water over a period of 6 weeks. Atorvastatin (2.1 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (2.7 mg/kg/day) and Tc (200 mg/kg/day) were administered 3 weeks after initiation of HFHS diet and continued for another 3 weeks. Parameters assessed were weight, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, insulin, and gastric emptying. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase were assessed as markers of oxidative stress. Administration of HFHS diet demonstrated a significant increase in blood glucose, insulin, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides with a decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Treatment with test drugs decreased blood sugar, insulin, lipid parameters, increased gastric emptying rate, decreased MDA levels, and catalase activity when compared to HFHS diet group, confirming the efficacy of the model. Atherogenic index of all the test drugs (0.48, 0.57, and 0.53) was significantly lower as compared to HFHS diet group (1.107). This study confirms the development of a diet based cost-effective and time efficient experimental model, which can be used to study two important markers of cardiovascular disease that is, hyperlipidemia and IR and to explore the efficacy of new molecules in CHD.

  12. Standardization of the experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) model by immunization of rats with Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptors--Recommendations for methods and experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Mario; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar; Molenaar, Peter C; Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Tzartos, Socrates; Brenner, Talma; Duan, Rui-Sheng; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon; Kusner, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is characterized by a chronic, fatigable weakness of voluntary muscles. The production of autoantibodies involves the dysregulation of T cells which provide the environment for the development of autoreactive B cells. The symptoms are caused by destruction of the postsynaptic membrane and degradation of the AChR by IgG autoantibodies, predominantly of the G1 and G3 subclasses. Active immunization of animals with AChR from mammalian muscles, AChR from Torpedo or Electrophorus electric organs, and recombinant or synthetic AChR fragments generates a chronic model of MG, termed experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). This model covers cellular mechanisms involved in the immune response against the AChR, e.g. antigen presentation, T cell-help and regulation, B cell selection and differentiation into plasma cells. Our aim is to define standard operation procedures and recommendations for the rat EAMG model using purified AChR from the Torpedo californica electric organ, in order to facilitate more rapid translation of preclinical proof of concept or efficacy studies into clinical trials and, ultimately, clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of PTFE, pericardium bovine and fascia lata for repair of incisional hernia in rat model, experimental study.

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    Kapan, S; Kapan, M; Goksoy, E; Karabicak, I; Oktar, H

    2003-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a frequent complication of abdominal surgery developing in 11-20 % of patients undergoing an abdominal operation. Regarding morbidity and loss of manpower, incisional hernias continue to be a fundamental problem for surgeons. In this experimental study, three commonly used mesh materials (Goretex PTFE; Tutoplast Fascia lata; Tutopatch Pericardium bovine) were compared according to effectiveness, strength, adhesion formation, histological changes, and early complications. Three groups, each consisting of 14 rats, have been formed as group A: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), group B: pericardium bovine and group C: fascia lata. Evaluations were achieved at the end of the first and second postoperative week, respectively. Adhesion formation, wound maturation, bursting pressure, and tensile strength were evaluated. No statistically significant difference regarding adhesion formation was observed between groups although adhesion formation was less significant in PTFE and pericardium bovine groups than in the fascia lata group. Bursting pressure and tensile strength values were significantly higher in PTFE group than in the fascia lata group ( P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was observed between groups regarding wound maturation. In this experimental model, PTFE and pericardium bovine were found to be superior to fascia lata in abdominal wall repair.

  14. Effect of Whole-Body Cryotherapy on Antioxidant Systems in Experimental Rat Model

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    Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC in rats on their antioxidant systems, lipid peroxidation products, and their total oxidative status at different exposure times and temperatures. Methods. Antioxidants in serum, plasma, liver, and erythrocytes were evaluated in two study groups following 1 min of exposure to −60°C and −90°C, for 5 and 10 consecutive days. Results. WBC increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase in the group subjected to 5 and 10 days exposure, −60°C. The glutathione S-transferase activity increased in the groups subjected to 10 days WBC sessions. Total antioxidant capacity increased after 5 and 10 days of 1 min WBC, −60°C; a decrease was observed at −90°C. A decreased level of erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration was observed at −60°C after 5 and 10 days of cryostimulation. An increased concentration was measured at −90°C after 10 days, and increase of erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration after 5 days, −90°C. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research showing the effect of WBC in rats at different exposure times and temperatures. The effect of cryotherapy on enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems was observed in the serum of animals exposed to a temperature of −60°C in comparison to control.

  15. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Omer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Oztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-α levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study.

  16. Comparison of montelukast and cabergoline for prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Levent; Sahin, Gulnaz; Erbas, Oytun; Aktug, Huseyin; Akdogan, Aysin; Goker, Ege Nazan Tavmergen; Taskiran, Dilek; Tavmergen, Erol

    2015-05-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a serious iatrogenic complication that can occur during assisted reproductive techniques. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the leukotriene receptor antagonist (montelukast) treatment in prevention of OHSS and compare to cabergoline treatment. Twenty-four immature female Wistar rats were assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group. In the remaining three groups, OHSS was induced through ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins. No treatment was given to Group 2. Group 3 was administered a low-dose 100 mg/kg cabergoline treatment and Group 4 was received 20 mg/kg montelukast. Body weight, ovarian weight, vasculary permability (VP), peritoneal fluid vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) values and VEGF immune-expression were compared between the groups. Both cabergoline and montelukast prevented progression of OHSS compared to the OHSS group. Body weight, ovarian weight, VP, peritoneal fluid VEGF values and VEGF expression were significantly lower in both cabergoline- and montelukast-treated rats than in those not treated OHSS group. In conclusion, montelukast is an effective option for prevention of OHSS, as well as cabergoline. Montelukast may be a new treatment option to prevent and control the OHSS.

  17. Efficiency of Ozone Therapy in a Rat Model of Experimental Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Abdullah; Sonmez, Murat; Kar, Taner; Haholu, Aptullah; Yildirim, Yıldıray; Müftüoğlu, Tuba; Ünal, Melih Hamdi

    2017-10-01

    To investigate efficiency of ozone therapy in uveitis. A total of 24 albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 6); (a) control group; (b) sham group; (c) infliximab treatment group; (d) ozone therapy group. Vitreous haze scores of all groups were evaluated. Vitreous cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6) measured by ELISA and eyes were enucleated for histopathologic examination. According to vitreous haze scores, there was statistically significant inflammation in Group (b) compared with Group (a), and there was less inflammation in infliximab and ozone groups compared with Group (b) (p 0.05). There was significantly less inflammation in histopathologic examination in treatment groups when compared with the sham group (p < 0.05). Clinical and histopathologic examination results indicate that systemic application of ozone may be efficient in the treatment of uveitis.

  18. TRANEXAMIC ACID ACTION ON LIVER REGENERATION AFTER PARTIAL HEPATECTOMY: EXPERIMENTAL MODEL IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Felipe Antonio; Daga, Henrique; Rasera, Henrique Nogueira; Pinheiro, Matheus da Rocha; Cella, Igor Furlan; Morais, Igor Henrique; Marques, Luciana de Oliveira; Collaço, Luiz Martins

    2016-01-01

    Different lesions may affect the liver resulting in harmful stimuli. Some therapeutic procedures to treat those injuries depend on liver regeneration to increase functional capacity of this organ. Evaluate the effects of tranexamic acid on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats. 40 rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia mammalia) of Wistar-UP lineage were randomly divided into two groups named control (CT) and tranexamic acid (ATX), with 20 rats in each. Both groups were subdivided, according to liver regeneration time of 32 h or seven days after the rats had been operated. The organ regeneration was evaluated through weight and histology, stained with HE and PCNA. The average animal weight of ATX and CT 7 days groups before surgery were 411.2 g and 432.7 g, and 371.3 g and 392.9 g after the regeneration time, respectively. The average number of mitotic cells stained with HE for the ATX and CT 7 days groups were 33.7 and 32.6 mitosis, and 14.5 and 14.9 for the ATX and CT 32 h groups, respectively. When stained with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, the numbers of mitotic cells counted were 849.7 for the ATX 7 days, 301.8 for the CT 7 days groups, 814.2 for the ATX 32 hand 848.1 for the CT 32 h groups. Tranexamic acid was effective in liver regeneration, but in longer period after partial hepatectomy. Muitas são as injúrias que acometem o fígado e levam a estímulo lesivo. Alguns procedimentos terapêuticos para tratamento dessas lesões dependem da regeneração hepática para aumentar a sua capacidade funcional. Avaliar o efeito do ácido tranexâmico na regeneração hepática após hepatectomia parcial em ratos. Foram utilizados 40 ratos (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia mammalia) convencionais da linhagem Wistar-UP. Foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de 20: grupo controle (CT) e grupo ácido tranexâmico (ATX). Cada um deles foi divido em dois subgrupos para avaliar a regeneração hepática no tempo de 32 h e 7 dias do p

  19. Heart disease induced by AAS abuse, using experimental mice/rats models and the role of exercise-induced cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riezzo, I; De Carlo, D; Neri, M; Nieddu, A; Turillazzi, E; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are all synthetic derivates of testosterone and are commonly used as sport performance enhancers in athletes. The heart is one of the organs most frequently affected by administration of anabolic steroids. A direct myocardial injury caused by AAS is supposed to determine marked hypertrophy in myocardial cells, extensive regional fibrosis and necrosis. A number of excellent studies, using animal models, were performed to evaluate the cardiac effects of AAS. It is known that exogenous administration induced cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo, and when combined with exercise, anabolic steroid use has been shown to change exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy to pathophysiological cardiac hypertrophy. However the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. It's described that sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarct; ventricular remodelling and cardiomyopathy do to AAS is related to apoptosis and oxidative stress when associated with exercise. Mechanical stimuli and circulating humoral factors (TNF-α, HSP-70, IL-1β) released by the heart and peripheral organs are responsible. Testosterone and derivates can work through genomic (activation of specific androgen receptor, interaction with coactivators and co-repressors transcription factors, gene regulation) and non-genomic mechanism (membrane-receptor-second messenger cascades). Chronic AAS abuse results in different patterns of pathologic alterations, which depend on type, dose, frequency, and mode of use. The difficulty in interpreting experimental data on animals (mice and rats) lies in the diversity of experiments (the diversity of substances, which show different properties, different mice / rats by sex and age, duration of treatment with AAS, dosages used, type, scope and exercise duration).

  20. Clinical course, immune response, and histopathology of a simplified model of experimental lens induced endophthalmitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, T; Nakajima, A; Yamaki, K; Sakuragi, S

    1995-01-01

    YAG laser capsulotomy 14 days after one-shot immunization of bovine lens soluble protein with Freund's complete adjuvant and simultaneous intravenous injection of Bordettella pertussis caused lens induced endophthalmitis (LIE) in Lewis rats. Exudate first appeared in the anterior chamber eight hours after capsulotomy. In the cases of low dose (20μg/rat) immunization, exudative change was localized around the ruptured lens surface. On the other hand, the anterior chamber was filled with thick exudate in high dose (200μg/rat) immunized rats. By ELISA and lymphocyte proliferation assay, serum and lymphocyte from LIE rats reacted with bovine uvea as well as bovine lens, but showed no cross-reactivity with bovine retina. Histopathological finding in the low-dose immunized rats was granulomatous inflammation localized to the anterior eye segment, but high dose-immunized rats developed severe panophthalmitis and showed epithelioid granulomas in disorganized retina. The authors think this low dose model can contribute to therapeutic or suppressive studies.

  1. Experimental model of ultrasound thermotherapy in rats inoculated with Walker-236 tumor Modelo experimental de termoterapia ultrassônica em ratos inoculados com tumor de Walker-236

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    José Antonio Carlos Otaviano David Morano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop a model to evaluate the effects of focal pulsed ultrasound (US waves as a source of heat for treatment of murine subcutaneous implanted Walker tumor. METHODS: An experimental, controlled, comparative study was conducted. Twenty male Wistar rats (160-300 g randomized in 2 equal groups (G-1: Control and G-2: Hyperthermia were inoculated with Walker-256 carcinosarcoma tumor. After 5 days G-2 rats were submitted to 45ºC hyperthermia. Heat was delivered directly to the tumor by an ultrasound (US equipment (3 MHz frequency, 1,5W/cm³. Tumor temperature reached 45º C in 3 minutes and was maintained at this level for 5 minutes. Tumor volume was measured on days 5, 8, 11, 14 e 17 post inoculation in both groups. Unpaired t-test was used for comparison. POBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo para avaliar os efeitos do ultra-som focal pulsado como fonte de calor para o tratamento de tumores de Walker subcutâneos implantados em ratos. MÉTODOS: Um estudo experimental, controlado, comparativo foi realizado. Vinte ratos Wistar machos (160-300 g divididos em dois grupos (G-1: Controle e G-2: hipertermia foram inoculados com tumor de Walker carcinossarcoma-256. Após cinco dias os ratos do grupo G-2 ratos foram submetidos a hipertermia (45ºC. O calor foi aplicado diretamente no tumor por um equipamento de ultrassonografia (3 MHz, 1,5 W/cm³. A temperatura no tumor atingiu 45ºC em 3 minutos e foi mantida nesse nível por 5 minutos. O volume do tumor foi medido nos dias 5, 8, 11, 14 e 17 após a inoculação, em ambos os grupos. Teste t não pareado foi utilizado para comparação. P <0,05 foi considerado significante. RESULTADOS: O volume do tumor foi significativamente maior no 5º dia e diminuiu nos dias 11, 14 e 17 nos ratos tratados. Animais submetidos à hipertermia sobreviveram mais tempo que os animais do grupo controle. No 29º dia após a inoculação do tumor, 40% dos ratos do grupo controle e 77,78% dos ratos tratados com

  2. Beneficial influence of topical extra virgin olive oil application on an experimental model of penile fracture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Mustafa; Ozkol, Halil; Pirincci, Necip; Gecit, Ilhan; Bilici, Salim; Yildirim, Serkan

    2015-08-01

    Penile fracture (PF) is known as a traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea of corpus cavernosum. In this study, we aimed to investigate the healing influence of topical extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on PF through evaluating levels of some oxidative stress biomarkers for the first time. Histopathological evaluation was also realized. A total of 18 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of six rats each as control group, in PF (alone) group, and PF + EVOO group. Experimental PF was formed via incising from the proximal dorsal side of the penis in the rats of all groups except control. While in PF (alone) group, fracture was formed and the incision was primarily closed, in PF + EVOO group in addition to foregoing processes, EVOO was also administrated topically twice a day for 3 weeks. At the end of the experiment, all rats were killed and penectomy was carried out. While malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, lipid hyroperoxide, and total oxidant status significantly (p EVOO group. Levels of these parameters were reversed to nearly normal values by topical EVOO application. Protection by EVOO is further substantiated via the improved histological findings in PF + EVOO group as against degenerative changes in the rats of PF (alone) group. Our data revealed that EVOO has protective effect in penile cavernosal tissue through probably its antioxidant, free radical defusing, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. EVALUATION OF DIPYRIDAMOLE ON ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MODELS OF INFLAMMATION IN MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angadi Netravathi B, Hiremath Shrishail V , Suranagi Vijayalakshmi V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis and its complications remains the major cause of death and premature disability. Atherogenesis involves elements of inflammation, a process that now provides a unifying theme in the pathogenesis of the disease. Anti-platelet drugs are currently used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and its complications. Our study evaluated the influence of dipyridamole on acute and sub-acute models of inflammation in male Wistar rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (150-200g were divided into three groups i.e. control, Aspirin and dipyridamole (n=6 animals in each group. The effect of dipyridamole, administered orally, on inflammation was studied using acute (carrageenan induced rat paw edema and sub-acute (cotton pellet granuloma and histopathological examination of grass piths models. Experiment was conducted according to the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA guidelines. Analysis was done using one way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc Test of Dunnets. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Dipyridamole showed significant inhibition of rat paw edema in acute model (P<0.01 and granuloma dry weight, in sub acute model of inflammation when compared to control (P<0.01. Histopathological examination of grass pith revealed markedly reduced fibroblasts, granulation tissue, fibrous tissue and collagen in dipyridamole group when compared to control. Conclusion: Dipyridamole exhibited a significant anti inflammatory activity in acute and sub-acute models of inflammation.

  4. Medical ozone therapy reduces oxidative stress and intestinal damage in an experimental model of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Ahmet; Gundogdu, Gokhan; Vurucu, Sabahattin; Uysal, Bulent; Oztas, Emin; Ozturk, Haluk; Korkmaz, Ahmet

    2009-09-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a major cause of morbidity and death in neonates. Evidence suggests that an imbalance between activated proinflammatory response with inadequate antiinflammatory protection results in NEC. Ozone has been proposed as an antioxidant enzyme activator, immunomodulator, and cellular metabolic activator. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether medical ozone therapy is effective on neonatal rat model of NEC. Thirty-eight newborn Sprague-Dawley pups were randomly divided into 3 groups of NEC, NEC + ozone, and control (left to breast feed). Necrotizing enterocolitis was induced by enteral formula feeding and exposure to 100% carbon dioxide inhalation for 10 minutes after +4 degrees C cold exposures for 5 minutes and 97% oxygen for 5 minutes 2 times daily. The NEC + ozone group received 0.7 mg/kg per day ozone/oxygen mixture intraperitoneally for a total of 3 days after first day of NEC procedure. The pups were killed at fourth day, and their intestinal tissues were harvested for biochemical and histopathologic analysis. Blood sample from pups were also obtained. The mortality rate and the weight loss were significantly higher in NEC group than control and treatment groups. Oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content) significantly increased and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly decreased in NEC group. All these biochemical changes were ameliorated in NEC + ozone group. Nitrate plus nitrite levels and serum tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in NEC group and reduced in treatment group. In addition, histopathologic injury score of NEC group was significantly higher than NEC + ozone group. Ozone treatment significantly reduced the severity of NEC by modulating antioxidative defense and antiinflammatory protection in our experimental animal model.

  5. Tumor hypoxia - A confounding or exploitable factor in interstitial brachytherapy? Effects of tissue trauma in an experimental rat tumor model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, AP; van Geel, CAJF; van Hooije, CMC; van der Kleij, AJ; Visser, AG

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential effects of tumor hypoxia induced by afterloading catheter implantation on the effectiveness of brachytherapy in a rat tumor model. Methods and Materials: Afterloading catheters (4) Here implanted in subcutaneously growing R1M rhabdomyosarcoma in female Wag/Rij

  6. [Vitamins in rat experimental diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of full semisynthetic diets used in different laboratories has shown that its vitamin content covers physiological requirements of rats in these micronutrients. The significant fluctuations in group B vitamin concentrations may take place when one uses brewer's yeast as a source of these vitamins. A preliminary assessment of vitamin content in brewer's yeasts is required in this case. An essential contribution of basic components in diet vitamin content must be taken in consideration when one creates a vitamin-deficient diet. Casein contains substantial amounts of group B vitamins and vitamin D. Therefore decontamination of casein from water and / or fat-soluble vitamins or the use of commercial purified casein is required. Vegetable oils are usually used as a fatty component of a diet and they simultaneously serve as an additional source of vitamin E. A choice of naturally containing vitamin E oil as a fat component of a diet is crucial for the creating an alimentary deficiency of vitamin E. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in the diet of control group (group of comparison) and vitamin level in the diet of experimental group of animals must be equivalent in investigations with modified (quality and quantitative) fat diet component. Caloric restriction by simple reducing of food without increasing the amount of vitamins to an adequate level is incorrect. With these considerations in mind proper attention to the equivalence of vitamin content in the diet of animals in experimental and control groups should be paid during experiments scheduling. Otherwise, the studies carried out under deficient or excessive intake of vitamins can lead to incorrect interpretation of the results and difficulties in their comparison with the data obtained under different conditions.

  7. Rat an experimental model for burns: A systematic review Rato como modelo experimental de queimadura: Revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Kiyoshi Mitsunaga Junior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To revise and systematize scientific knowledge of the experimental model for cutaneous burns in rats. METHODS: A bibliographical review from 2008 up to January 2011 in PubMed, EMBASE and LILACS was undertaken. Were used the keywords: animal models, burns and rats. 221 studies were identified, and 116 were selected. RESULTS: It was found that: 54/86 (62.7% had third degree burns; 55/73 (75.3% studied the back; 45/78 (57.6% used heated water and 27/78 (35.9% incandescent instruments; 39/78 (50% studied systemic effects; 22/71 (31% used ketamine associated with xylazine; 61/64 (95.3% performed depilation with appropriate equipment; 36/72 (50% used microscopy; more than 50% did not describe analgesia or antibiotics during the postoperative period; in 42/116 (36.2% postoperative fluid therapy was performed; and the time interval after the burn, up to the beginning of the results analysis varied from 7s up to four weeks. Legislation issues on burn experiments are discussed. CONCLUSION: The hot water was the main method to induce burns those of third degree on the back, with anesthesia using ketamine and xylazine, after depilation. These were evaluated microscopically, without using analgesia or an antibiotic during the postoperative period. The studies were not very reproducible.OBJETIVO: Revisar e sistematizar o conhecimento científico do modelo experimental em queimadura da pele em ratos. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura foi realizada de 2008 a Janeiro de 2011 na PubMed, EMBASE e LILACS. Os descritores usados foram: modelo animal, queimadura e ratos. 221 estudos foram identificados e 116 foram selecionados. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrado que: 54/86 (62,7% tinham queimadura de terceiro grau; 55/73 (75,3% estudaram o dorso; 45/78 (57.6% usaram líquido aquecido e 27/78 (35,9% usaram instrumento incandescente; 39/78 (50% estudaram efeitos sistêmicos; 22/71 (31% usaram ketamina associada a xilazina; 61/64 (95,3% realizaram depilação com

  8. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal dried fruit in experimental rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Datta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of antidiabetic potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal dried fruit (WCDF alone and in combination with glipizide, in streptozotocin-induced diabetes, and evaluation of possible antihyperlipidemic activity of the same extract in high-cholesterol diet-induced hyperlipidemia, in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced in 30 albino rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg. The rats were divided into five groups receiving the following treatments orally for 4 weeks: Vehicle, glipizide (2.5 mg/kg, WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg, WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg plus glipizide (1 mg/kg and WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg plus0 glipizide (2.5 mg/kg. Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured every week for 4 weeks. Endocrine pancreas histopathology was done at the end. In a separate set of experiment, five groups of six albino rats each, received orally for 4 weeks, vehicle, cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day, cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day plus atorvastatin (7.2 mg/kg/day, cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day plus WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg/day and no treatment, respectively. Estimation of serum lipid profile and liver histopathology was done at the end of 4 weeks. Statistical Analysis: Between-group and within-group comparisons were respectively done by analysis of variance (ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA, followed by post hoc Tukey′s test, with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: The 4-week treatment with WCDF extract significantly reversed hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes that was comparable to glipizide. When combined with glipizide (2.5 mg/kg, WCDF extract produced a synergistic antihyperglycemic effect as well as improvement in pancreatic histopathology. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract of WCDF was effective and comparable to atorvastatin in controlling the high-cholesterol diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

  9. Blue light induced A2E oxidation in rat eyes--experimental animal model of dry AMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgus, A R; Collier, R J; Martin, E; Lih, F B; Tomer, K B; Chignell, C F; Roberts, J E

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that short-wavelength blue visible light induces retinal injury and may be a risk factor for age related macular degeneration. A2E is a blue light absorbing retinal chromophore that accumulates with age. Our previous in vitro studies have determined that, although A2E itself has a low phototoxic efficiency, the oxidation products of A2E that are formed in the presence of visible light can contribute to observed retinal pigment epithelial photodamage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of blue light on retinal phototoxicity and its relationship to A2E, oxidized A2E and its isomers. Sprague-Dawley albino rats were dark adapted for 24 h. Control rats remained in the dark while experimental rats were exposed to blue light (λ = 450 nm, 3.1 mW cm(-2)) for 6 h. Isolated retinas were homogenized in Folch extraction mixture and then in chloroform. The dried extracts were reconstituted and divided for determination of organic soluble compound. Esters of fatty acids were determined with GC-MS, A2E and other chromophores using HPLC, and A2E oxidation products with LC-MS. Exposure of rat eyes to blue light did not significantly change the fatty acid composition of the retina. The A2E concentration (normalized to fatty acid content) in blue light exposed animals was found to be lower than the A2E concentration in control rats. The concentrations of all-trans-retinal-ethanolamine adduct and iso-A2E a precursor and an isomer of A2E respectively, were also lower after blue-light exposure than in the retinas of rats housed in the dark. On the other hand, the amount of oxidized forms of A2E was higher in the animals exposed to blue light. We conclude that in the rat eye, blue-light exposure promotes oxidation of A2E and iso-A2E to the products that are toxic to retinal tissue. Although high concentrations of A2E may be cytotoxic to the retina, the phototoxicity associated with blue light damage to the retina is in part a result of

  10. An experimental model of acute encephalopathy after total body irradiation in the rat: effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761); Effet de l'extrait de Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) chez le rat sur un modele experimental d'encephalopathie aigue apres irradiation corporelle totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, I.; Bok, B. [Hopital Bichat, 75 - Paris (France); Boisserie, G.; Mazeron, J.J.; Baillet, F. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Drieu, K. [IHB-IPSEN, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-06-01

    To define the therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in an experimental model of acute encephalopathy following total body irradiation in rats. Ninety four-month-old rats received 4.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) at day 1 while 15 rats received sham irradiation. A behavioural study based on a conditioning test of negative reinforcement, the one-way avoidance test, was performed test, was performed after irradiation. Orally treatment was started one day (study A) or twenty two days (study B) after irradiation and repeated daily for twelve days. In the irradiated group, three subgroups were defined according to the treatment received: EGb 761 (50 mg/kg), EGb 761 (100 mg/kg), water. This work comprised two consecutive studies. In study A (45 rats) the one-way avoidance test was administered daily from day 7 to day 14. In study B (45 rats) the behavioural test was performed from day 28 to day 35. Study A (three groups of 15 rats): following TBI, irradiated rats treated with water demonstrated a significant delay in a learning the one-way avoidance test in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (P < 0.0002) or irradiated rats treated with EGb 761 (50 mg/kg; P < 0.007) or EGb 761 (100 mg/kg; P < 0.0002). The irradiated rats, treated with EGb 761 (50 or 100 mg/kg) did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. Study B (three groups of 15 rats): the irradiated rats, treated with water of EGb 761 (50 or 100 mg/kg) did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. (authors)

  11. The liver protective effect of methylprednisolone on a new experimental acute-on-chronic liver failure model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Shen, Shiqiang; Zhang, Aimin; Ren, Bo; Lin, Fusheng

    2014-10-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a severe, life-threatening entity and the comprehension of this disease is incomplete. Currently, a reasonable surgical model of acute-on-chronic liver failure is still lacking. The aim of this study was to establish a new model of acute-on-chronic liver failure in rats and to investigate the protective effects of methylprednisolone on this model. An obstructive jaundice model in rats was established. Two weeks later, the animals were subjected to a choledochoduodenostomy and a reduced-size hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Animals were randomly divided into a control group, a methylprednisolone injected via the tail vein group and a methylprednisolone injected via the portal vein group. The survival rates and serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma of the rats were measured and the pathological changes in liver tissues were observed. The survival rate was significantly improved in the methylprednisolone treatment groups. Serum levels of the biochemical indexes were the lowest in the portal vein injection group. Liver tissues under microscopy presented severe pathological injury in the control group. This model could be useful for further research into acute-on-chronic liver failure and methylprednisolone may be a potential therapeutic agent for this disease. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Variability in Tidal Volume Affects Lung and Cardiovascular Function Differentially in a Rat Model of Experimental Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio G. R. S. Wierzchon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In experimental elastase-induced emphysema, mechanical ventilation with variable tidal volumes (VT set to 30% coefficient of variation (CV may result in more homogenous ventilation distribution, but might also impair right heart function. We hypothesized that a different CV setting could improve both lung and cardiovascular function. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different levels of VT variability on cardiorespiratory function, lung histology, and gene expression of biomarkers associated with inflammation, fibrogenesis, epithelial cell damage, and mechanical cell stress in this emphysema model. Wistar rats (n = 35 received repeated intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase to induce emphysema. Seven animals were not ventilated and served as controls (NV. Twenty-eight animals were anesthetized and assigned to mechanical ventilation with a VT CV of 0% (BASELINE. After data collection, animals (n = 7/group were randomly allocated to VT CVs of 0% (VV0; 15% (VV15; 22.5% (VV22.5; or 30% (VV30. In all groups, mean VT was 6 mL/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure was 3 cmH2O. Respiratory system mechanics and cardiac function (by echocardiography were assessed continuously for 2 h (END. Lung histology and molecular biology were measured post-mortem. VV22.5 and VV30 decreased respiratory system elastance, while VV15 had no effect. VV0, VV15, and VV22.5, but not VV30, increased pulmonary acceleration time to pulmonary ejection time ratio. VV22.5 decreased the central moment of the mean linear intercept (D2 of Lm while increasing the homogeneity index (1/β compared to NV (77 ± 8 μm vs. 152 ± 45 μm; 0.85 ± 0.06 vs. 0.66 ± 0.13, p < 0.05 for both. Compared to NV, VV30 was associated with higher interleukin-6 expression. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 expression was higher in all groups, except VV22.5, compared to NV. IL-1β expression was lower in VV22.5 and VV30 compared to VV0. IL-10 expression was higher

  13. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...

  14. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells in combination with xanthan gum attenuate osteoarthritis progression in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Li; Shen, Bojiang; Xue, Jiajun; Liu, Shaoying; Ma, Aibin; Liu, Fuyan; Shao, Huarong; Chen, Jianying; Chen, Qixin; Liu, Fei; Ying, Yong; Ling, Peixue

    2017-12-09

    The current study explored the efficacy of an intra-articular (IA) injection of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) combined with xanthan gum (XG) in a rat osteoarthritis (OA) model. We confirmed that XG significantly inproved proliferation of ADSCs in a dose dependent manner in vitro. The rat OA model was induced by an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT), and at 4 weeks after surgery, rats were divided into four groups: the XG-ADSCs group, the ADSCs group, the XG group and the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group. A single dose of 1 × 10 6 allogeneic ADSCs suspended in 1% XG, ADSCs suspended in PBS, 1% XG alone or PBS alone was injected into the OA joint of rats in the respective treatment groups. Rats were sacrificed at 8 weeks after surgery. Treatment outcomes were evaluated by weight-bearing control of the hind limbs, gross morphological analysis, histological analysis and specific staining of articular cartilage, and measurement of inflammatory factors in synovial fluid. For the rats in the XG-ADSC-s and ADSCs-treated groups, the weight-bearing percentage of the right hind limb was significantly increased compared to that in the PBS group and was sustained over 4 weeks. However, the positive effect in the XG-ADSCs group was significantly greater than that in the ADSCs group. For the rats in the XG group, the efficacy decreased during the third week after surgery. The articular cartilage was relatively normal in the XG-ADSCs group, and moderate degeneration was observed in the ADSCs and XG groups. ADSCs and XG-ADSC treatments significantly decreased the concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-3 and MMP-13 in synovial fluid; however, the attenuating effect of the XG-ADSCs treatment was significantly enhanced compared with that of the ADSCs treatment alone. These results indicate that a single IA injection of allogeneic ADSCs combined with XG efficiently attenuated OA progression with a therapeutic effect that was significantly

  15. [Experimental research on substance P content of hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglia in rats with lumbar vertebrae Gucuofeng model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Lin, Xun; Pang, Jian; Kong, Ling-jun; Zhan, Hong-sheng; Cheng, Ying-wu; Shi, Yin-yu

    2015-01-01

    To detect the effects of lumbar vertebrae Gucuofeng on the substance P content of hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglia in rat models. A hundred and twenty SPF level SD male rats with the weight of 350 to 450 g were randomly divided into rotary fixation group (RF group), simple fixation group (SF group) and sham-operation group (Sham group). The external link fixation system was implanted into the L4-L6 of rats in RF group and SF group; and in RF group, that the L5 spinous process was rotated to the right resulted in L4, L5, L6 spinous process not collinear; in SF group, the external link fixation system was simply implanted and not rotated. The rats of Sham group were not implanted the external link fixation system and only open and suture. The substance P content of hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglia were detected at 1, 4, 8, 12 weeks after operation. Substance P content of hypothalamus in RF group and SF group was lower than Sham group at 1, 4, 8 weeks after operation (Phypothalamus among three groups at 12 weeks after operation (P>0.05). Lumbar vertebrae Gucuofeng can inhibit the analgesic activity of substance P in hypothalamus and promote the synthesis and transmission of substance P in dorsal root ganglia, so as to cause or aggravate the pain.

  16. The dark phase intraocular pressure elevation and retinal ganglion cell degeneration in a rat model of experimental glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jacky M K; Vo, Nancy; Quan, Ann; Nam, Michael; Kyung, Haksu; Yu, Fei; Piri, Natik; Caprioli, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    analysis showed statistical significance for the relationships between the total cumulative IOP elevation and RGC body loss (P = 0.009), and axonal injury (P = 0.016). To examine the role of light and dark IOP elevation in RGC body loss and axonal injury, analyses for the association between different light/dark IOP factors and percentage of RGC body loss/axonal injury grading were performed and only the association between the cumulative dark IOP elevation and axonal injury showed statistical significance (P = 0.033). The findings demonstrated that the cumulative total (light and dark) IOP elevation is a risk factor to RGC degeneration in a rat model of experimental glaucoma using modified partial laser photocoagulation at 330° trabecular meshwork. Further investigations are required to understand the role of longer term light and dark phase IOP elevation contributing to the progression of degeneration in different compartments of RGCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Variable ventilation improves pulmonary function and reduces lung damage without increasing bacterial translocation in a rat model of experimental pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Raquel F; Samary, Cynthia S; Santos, Raquel S; de Oliveira, Milena V; Rocha, Nazareth N; Santos, Cintia L; Kitoko, Jamil; Silva, Carlos A M; Hildebrandt, Caroline L; Goncalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano F; Silva, Adriana R; Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Martins, Vanessa; Capelozzi, Vera L; Huhle, Robert; Morales, Marcelo M; Olsen, Priscilla; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Rocco, Patricia R M; Silva, Pedro L

    2016-11-25

    Variable ventilation has been shown to improve pulmonary function and reduce lung damage in different models of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Nevertheless, variable ventilation has not been tested during pneumonia. Theoretically, periodic increases in tidal volume (VT) and airway pressures might worsen the impairment of alveolar barrier function usually seen in pneumonia and could increase bacterial translocation into the bloodstream. We investigated the impact of variable ventilation on lung function and histologic damage, as well as markers of lung inflammation, epithelial and endothelial cell damage, and alveolar stress, and bacterial translocation in experimental pneumonia. Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive intratracheal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) or saline (SAL) (n = 16/group). After 24-h, animals were anesthetized and ventilated for 2 h with either conventional volume-controlled (VCV) or variable volume-controlled ventilation (VV), with mean VT = 6 mL/kg, PEEP = 5cmH2O, and FiO2 = 0.4. During VV, tidal volume varied randomly with a coefficient of variation of 30% and a Gaussian distribution. Additional animals assigned to receive either PA or SAL (n = 8/group) were not ventilated (NV) to serve as controls. In both SAL and PA, VV improved oxygenation and lung elastance compared to VCV. In SAL, VV decreased interleukin (IL)-6 expression compared to VCV (median [interquartile range]: 1.3 [0.3-2.3] vs. 5.3 [3.6-7.0]; p = 0.02) and increased surfactant protein-D expression compared to NV (2.5 [1.9-3.5] vs. 1.2 [0.8-1.2]; p = 0.0005). In PA, compared to VCV, VV reduced perivascular edema (2.5 [2.0-3.75] vs. 6.0 [4.5-6.0]; p < 0.0001), septum neutrophils (2.0 [1.0-4.0] vs. 5.0 [3.3-6.0]; p = 0.0008), necrotizing vasculitis (3.0 [2.0-5.5] vs. 6.0 [6.0-6.0]; p = 0.0003), and ultrastructural lung damage scores (16 [14-17] vs. 24 [14-27], p < 0.0001). Blood colony-forming-unit (CFU) counts

  18. Improvement and application of an acute blood stasis rat model aligned with the 3Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) of humane animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yin-Ye; Shang, Ming-Ying; Wang, Chao-Qun; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2014-12-23

    To establish a novel cardiocentesis method for withdrawing venous blood from the right atrium, and to improve an acute blood stasis rat model using an ice bath and epinephrine hydrochloride (Epi) while considering the 3Rs (reduction, refinement, and replacement) of humane animal experimentation. An acute blood stasis model was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection (s.c.) Epi (1.2 mg/kg) administration at 0 h, followed by a 5-min exposure to an ice-bath at 2 h and s.c. Epi administration at 4 h. Control rats received physiological saline. Rats were fasted overnight and treated with Angelicae Sinensis Lateralis Radix (ASLR) and Pheretima the following day. Venous blood was collected using our novel cardiocentesis method and used to test whole blood viscosity (WBV), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen (FIB) content. The rats survived the novel cardiocentesis technique; WBV value returned to normal while hematological parameters such as hemoglobin level and red blood cell count were restored to >94% of the corresponding values in normal rats following a 14-day recovery. Epi (1.2 mg/kg, s.c.) combined with a 5-min exposure to the ice bath replicated the acute blood stasis rat model and was associated with the highest WBV value. In rats showing acute blood stasis, ASLR treatment [4 g/(kg·d) for 8 days] decreased WBV by 9.98%, 11.09%, 9.34%, 9.00%, 7.66%, and 7.03% (P<0.05), while Pheretima treatment [2.6 g/(kg·d), for 8 days] decreased WBV by 25.49%, 25.94%, 16.28%, 17.76%, 11.07%, and 7.89% (P<0.01) at shear rates of 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, and 180 s-1, respectively. Furthermore, Pheretima treatment increased APTT significantly (P<0.01). We presented a stable, reproducible, and improved acute blood stasis rat model, which could be applied to screen drugs for promoting blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis.

  19. Neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene in a rat model of vascular dementia: Experimental study and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarabadi, Mustafa; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Amoueian, Sakineh; Mehri, Soghra; Motamedshariaty, Vahideh Sadat; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-06-03

    Vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease are most common type of dementia. These diseases have been associated with cognitive decline and affected personal behavioral activities. Moreover, the pattern of cerebral blood flow in mild cognitive disorder has appeared as a predictive indication for the development into Alzheimer's disease. Permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) is a standard animal model to study vascular dementia and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In present study neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene (AUR), a citrus coumarin, were studied in 2VO rats. Different doses (25, 8 & 4mg/kg) of AUR were administered orally. The spatial memory performance was tested with Morris water maze after 2VO induction. Biochemical experiments and histopathological evaluations were also applied to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AUR in brain tissue. In comparison with 2VO group, AUR could significantly decrease the scape latency time in treated rats. Also AUR increased the percentage of time spent and traveled pathway in target quadrant on final trial test day. All behavioral results were confirmed by biochemical and histopathological data. Biochemical data indicated that AUR could decrease malondialdehyde (MDA), as lipid peroxidation indicator, and increase glutathione (GSH) content in cortex and hippocampus tissues. Histopathological data showed that AUR could protect cerebrocortical and hippocampus neurons against ischemia. This study demonstrated the memory enhancing effect and neuroprotective activity of AUR after induction of brain ischemia in a rat model of vascular dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelo experimental de tumor na cavidade oral de ratos com carcinossarcoma de Walker 256 Experimental model of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma developed in the oral cavity of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental de desenvolvimento tumoral na cavidade oral de ratos, permitindo, assim, o estudo da osteólise induzida pelo tumor nos ossos do complexo maxilomandibular como também nas estruturas dentais, através da caracterização histomorfológica da reabsorção óssea e dentária. MÉTODOS: Uma suspensão de células tumorais (0,1mL do Carcinossarcoma de Walker 256, na concentração de 10(6 células/mL foi implantado na cavidade alveolar de ratos previamente aberta por exodontia. Os animais foram observados durante 12 (doze dias consecutivos para determinação da curva de peso corpóreo, sendo posteriormente sacrificados e as mandíbulas removidas para exames radiográfico e histológico. RESULTADOS: No exame radiográfico foi verificada área lítica, sem evidência de reparo, na região dos alvéolos. No exame microscópico foi identificada infiltração óssea, periférica e central, de pequenas células hipercromáticas e pleomórficas, com leve infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear associado e áreas de necrose. O índice de pega foi de 100%. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo animal de invasão óssea, do tumor de Walker na cavidade oral, possibilita a avaliação in vivo de drogas antitumorais e esquemas terapêuticos no tratamento do câncer bucal.PURPOSE: To estabilish an experimental model of tumor development in the oral cavity of rats, that would enable to study the tumor-induced autolysis in the maxillomandibular bone complex as well as of the dental structures, through histomorphological characterization of bone and dental resorption. METHODS: Walker 256 carcinossarcoma cell suspension (0,1 mL containing 10(6 cell/mL was implanted in the alveoli of first and second molars. The animals were observed during twelve consecutive days and the body weigth were determined. Later, the animals were sacrificed and their mandibles removed to radiographic and hystologic analysis. RESULTS: The radiographic image

  1. Hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in the water maze is preserved in an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in rats.

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    Marion Inostroza

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a major concern in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. While different experimental models have been used to characterize TLE-related cognitive deficits, little is known on whether a particular deficit is more associated with the underlying brain injuries than with the epileptic condition per se. Here, we look at the relationship between the pattern of brain damage and spatial memory deficits in two chronic models of TLE (lithium-pilocarpine, LIP and kainic acid, KA from two different rat strains (Wistar and Sprague-Dawley using the Morris water maze and the elevated plus maze in combination with MRI imaging and post-morten neuronal immunostaining. We found fundamental differences between LIP- and KA-treated epileptic rats regarding spatial memory deficits and anxiety. LIP-treated animals from both strains showed significant impairment in the acquisition and retention of spatial memory, and were unable to learn a cued version of the task. In contrast, KA-treated rats were differently affected. Sprague-Dawley KA-treated rats learned less efficiently than Wistar KA-treated animals, which performed similar to control rats in the acquisition and in a probe trial testing for spatial memory. Different anxiety levels and the extension of brain lesions affecting the hippocampus and the amydgala concur with spatial memory deficits observed in epileptic rats. Hence, our results suggest that hippocampal-dependent spatial memory is not necessarily affected in TLE and that comorbidity between spatial deficits and anxiety is more related with the underlying brain lesions than with the epileptic condition per se.

  2. Potential therapeutic benefit of C1-esterase inhibitor in neuromyelitis optica evaluated in vitro and in an experimental rat model.

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    Lukmanee Tradtrantip

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which binding of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4 autoantibodies (NMO-IgG to astrocytes causes complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC and inflammation resulting in oligodendrocyte and neuronal injury. There is compelling evidence for a central role of complement in NMO pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the potential of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh for complement-targeted therapy of NMO. C1-inh is an anti-inflammatory plasma protein with serine protease inhibition activity that has a broad range of biological activities on the contact (kallikrein, coagulation, fibrinolytic and complement systems. C1-inh is approved for therapy of hereditary angioedema (HAE and has been studied in a small safety trial in acute NMO relapses (NCT 01759602. In vitro assays of NMO-IgG-dependent CDC showed C1-inh inhibition of human and rat complement, but with predicted minimal complement inhibition activity at a dose of 2000 units in humans. Inhibition of complement by C1-inh was potentiated by ∼10-fold by polysulfated macromolecules including heparin and dextran sulfate. In rats, intravenous C1-inh at a dose 30-fold greater than that approved to treat HAE inhibited serum complement activity by <5%, even when supplemented with heparin. Also, high-dose C1-inh did not reduce pathology in a rat model of NMO produced by intracerebral injection of NMO-IgG. Therefore, although C1r and C1s are targets of C1-inh, our in vitro data with human serum and in vivo data in rats suggest that the complement inhibition activity of C1-inh in serum is too low to confer clinical benefit in NMO.

  3. Molecular basis for the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis: An experimental study in the Sprague-dawley rat model

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    Alexander E Omu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat. Materials and Methods: Three groups of eight adult male SD rats were maintained for 4 weeks on a normal diet as control, zinc deficient diet and zinc deficient diet with zinc supplementation of 28 mg zinc/kg body weight respectively. Using standard techniques, the following parameters were compared between the three groups of experimental animals at the end of 4 weeks: (a Serum zinc, magnesium (Mg, copper (Cu, selenium (Se and cadmium (Cd, (b serum sex hormones, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, (c interleukin-4 (IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 expression in the testes, (d assessment of apoptosis of testicular cells using electron microscopy and (e testicular volume and histology using the orchidometer and Johnsen score, respectively. Results: The zinc deficient group showed a reduction of testicular volume, serum concentrations of Zn, Cu, Se, Mg, SOD, GPX, IL-4, Bcl-2 and testosterone (P < 0.05, as well as increased levels of serum Cd, MDA and tissue TNF-α, Bax, caspase-3 and apoptosis of the germ cells (P < 0.05 compared with control and zinc supplementation groups. Conclusion: Zinc deficiency is associated with impaired spermatogenesis because of reduced testosterone production, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. These findings suggest that zinc has a role in male reproduction.

  4. Role of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in rats

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    Raghavendra, M; Maiti, Rituparna; Kumar, Shafalika; Acharya, SB

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by multiple cognitive deficits, is often accompanied by behavioral disorders and mood changes. Because of the non-availability of proper curative/preventive therapy for AD, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of Azadirachta indica in experimental AD in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental AD in rats was produced by nucleus basalis magnacellularis lesion with ibotenic acid (IB) and intacerebroventricular administration of colchicine (Col). Different behavioral tests and biochemical analysis were performed to explore the role to A. indica in AD. Results: A. indica exhibited anxiolytic activity in the open field test in Col lesion animals, which was comparable to that of diazepam. In the Elevated plus maze test, A. indica significantly alleviated IB and Col-induced anxiety. IB and Col-induced depression was mitigated by A. indica, and the results were comparable to that of imipramine. In Morris’ water maze test, A. indica pre-treatment improved reference memory, working memory and spatial learning, which are at par with the effects of donepezil. Both IB and Col-induced deficits in active avoidance learning and retention of learned behavior were significantly reversed by A. indica. IB and Col-induced increased lipid peroxidase activity was significantly reversed by A. indica (reductions in malondialdehyde level). A. indica stabilized rise in superoxide dismutase and a decreasing trend in acetylcholine-esterase (AChE) activity was seen with IB and Col lesions. A. indica had no effect over the AChE activity. Conclusion: A. indica might be effective in clinical AD by virtue of its cognition enhancement, antidepressant and antianxiety properties. PMID:23776838

  5. Role of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, M; Maiti, Rituparna; Kumar, Shafalika; Acharya, Sb

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by multiple cognitive deficits, is often accompanied by behavioral disorders and mood changes. Because of the non-availability of proper curative/preventive therapy for AD, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of Azadirachta indica in experimental AD in rats. Experimental AD in rats was produced by nucleus basalis magnacellularis lesion with ibotenic acid (IB) and intacerebroventricular administration of colchicine (Col). Different behavioral tests and biochemical analysis were performed to explore the role to A. indica in AD. A. indica exhibited anxiolytic activity in the open field test in Col lesion animals, which was comparable to that of diazepam. In the Elevated plus maze test, A. indica significantly alleviated IB and Col-induced anxiety. IB and Col-induced depression was mitigated by A. indica, and the results were comparable to that of imipramine. In Morris' water maze test, A. indica pre-treatment improved reference memory, working memory and spatial learning, which are at par with the effects of donepezil. Both IB and Col-induced deficits in active avoidance learning and retention of learned behavior were significantly reversed by A. indica. IB and Col-induced increased lipid peroxidase activity was significantly reversed by A. indica (reductions in malondialdehyde level). A. indica stabilized rise in superoxide dismutase and a decreasing trend in acetylcholine-esterase (AChE) activity was seen with IB and Col lesions. A. indica had no effect over the AChE activity. A. indica might be effective in clinical AD by virtue of its cognition enhancement, antidepressant and antianxiety properties.

  6. [Effects of the overlapping between an experimental model of neuroendocrine obesity with arterial hypertension under blood pressure, body weight and metabolic and renal parameters in rats].

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    Ferreira, Lara Beatriz Delfino; Cesaretti, Mario Luis Ribeiro; Voltera, Aline Francisco; Ginoza, Milton; Kohlmann, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    Increased body mass index and the metabolic syndrome are associated with decreased renal function and the development of end-stage kidney disease. To evaluate the effect of the overlap between an experimental model of obesity and genetic hypertension on the blood pressure, body weight and metabolic and kidney parameters of rats. We studied male rats of the Wistar (WST) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) strains. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) was administered in the neonatal period to both strains, to make up two groups: WST + MSG and SHR + MSG. Animals in the control groups (WST and SHR) received saline. After completing three months of life, a 12-week follow-up period ensued, during which bi-weekly measurements of body weight (BW) and tail-cuff blood pressure (TCBP) were obtained. Microalbuminuria was analyzed at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. At the end of the follow-up period, blood was obtained for fasting glucose, plasma creatinine, and lipid profile determinations. The kidneys were removed, stained, and the glomerular sclerosis index was calculated. The administration of MSG produced higher percentage body weight gain, higher fasting blood glucose and a higher degree of glomerular injury in WST-MSG and MSG-SHR rats, compared to their controls. Greater urinary albumin excretion was observed in SHR + MSG rats, when compared to SHR. There was no statistical difference in the TCBP, creatinine, and lipid profile. The association of neuroendocrine obesity and arterial hypertension promoted morphological and functional changes in the glomerulus. These changes were more severe than those observed in hypertensive-only rats.

  7. THE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF OSTEONECROSIS

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    G. I. Netylko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigation for the purpose of modeling of knee osteonecrosis were performed in 36 rats. The chronic renal insufficiency by means of left nephrectomy and electrocoagulation in 25% cortical substance of right kidney was induced before 6 months till experiment with subsequent introduction of 0,1% adrenalin solution and methylprednisolone in paraarticular structures. The results of experiment showed the polyetiologic feature of disease.

  8. A cellular dynamics model of experimental bladder cancer: analysis of the effect of sodium saccharin in the rat.

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    Ellwein, L B; Cohen, S M

    1988-06-01

    To make the methodology of risk assessment more consistent with the realities of biological processes, a computer-based model of the carcinogenic process may be used. A previously developed probabilistic model, which is based on a two-stage theory of carcinogenesis, represents urinary bladder carcinogenesis at the cellular level with emphasis on quantification of cell dynamics: cell mitotic rates, cell loss and birth rates, and irreversible cellular transitions from normal to initiated to transformed states are explicitly accounted for. Analyses demonstrate the sensitivity of tumor incidence to the timing and magnitude of changes to these cellular variables. It is demonstrated that response in rats following administration of nongenotoxic compounds, such as sodium saccharin, can be explained entirely on the basis of cytotoxicity and consequent hyperplasia alone.

  9. Isolated lung perfusion with gemcitabine for the treatment of pulmonary metastases : Experimental study in a rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, B.P. van

    2003-01-01

    Isolated lung perfusion is an experimental surgical technique for the treatment of pulmonary metastases in order to improve the current 5-year survival of approximately 40 % after surgical resection of manually palpable metastases. Several drugs have been tested in animals models and five phase I

  10. Stemodia maritima L. Extract Decreases Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Periodontitis Rat Model

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    Alrieta H. Teixeira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is very prevalent worldwide and is one of the major causes of tooth loss in adults. About 80% of the worldwide population use medicinal plants for their health care. Stemodia maritima L. (S. maritima antioxidant and antimicrobial effects in vitro as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Herein, the potential therapeutic effect of S. maritima was assessed in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP. EP was induced in female Wistar rats by nylon thread ligature around 2nd upper left molars for 11 days. Animals received (per os S. maritima (0.2; 1 or 5 mg/kg or vehicle (saline + DMSO 1 h before ligature and then once daily for 11 days. The naive group had no manipulation. After this time-point, the animals were terminally anesthetized, and the maxillae were removed for morphometric and histological analyzes (HE. Gingival tissues were dissected to cytokine levels detection (TNF-α, IL1-β, CINC-1, and IL-10, enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT analysis, as well as gene expression (TNF-α, IL-1β, RANK, and iNOS by qRT-PCR. Systemic parameters (weight variation, plasma levels of hepatic enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP were performed. Histological analysis of the stomach, liver, kidney, and heart was also performed. S. maritima (5 mg/kg decreased alveolar bone loss, TNF-α and CINC-1 gingival levels, oxidative stress, and transcription of TNF-α, IL1-β, RANK, and iNOS genes. It elevated both BALP activity and IL-10 gingival levels. The animals showed no any signs of toxicity. In conclusion, S. maritima reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, oxidative stress, and alveolar bone loss in a pre-clinical trial of periodontitis. S. maritima is a potential tool for controlling the development of periodontitis.

  11. Experimental and Pathalogical study of Pistacia atlantica, butyrate, Lactobacillus casei and their combination on rat ulcerative colitis model.

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    Gholami, Mahdi; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Maqbool, Faheem; Baeeri, Maryam; Memariani, Zahra; Pousti, Iraj; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Pistacia atlantica (P. atlantica), butyrate, Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and especially their combination therapy on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis model. Rats were divided into seven groups. Four groups received oral P. atlantica, butyrate, L. casei and the combination of three agents for 10 consecutive days. The remaining groups were negative and positive controls and a sham group. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were carried out along with determination of the specific biomarker of colonic oxidative stress, the myeloperoxidase (MPO). Compared with controls, the combination therapy exhibited a significant alleviation of colitis in terms of pathological scores and reduction of MPO activity (55%, p=0.0009). Meanwhile, the macroscopic appearance such as stool consistency, tissue and histopathological scores (edema, necrosis and neutrophil infiltration) were improved. Although single therapy by each P. atlantica, butyrate, and L. casei was partially beneficial in reduction of colon oxidative stress markers, the combination therapy was much more effective. In conclusion, the combination therapy was able to reduce the severity of colitis that is clear from biochemical markers. Future studies have to focus on clinical effects of this combination in management of human ulcerative colitis. Further molecular and signaling pathway studies will help to understand the mechanisms involved in the treatment of colitis and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect of lectin from Lonchocarpus sericeus seeds in an experimental rat model of infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, N M N; Cavalcante, C F; Vasconcelos, M P; Leite, K B; Aragão, K S; Assreuy, A M S; Nogueira, N A P; Cavada, B S; Vale, M R

    2005-07-01

    We have investigated the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect of the lectin from Lonchocarpus sericeus seeds (LSL) in a model of infectious peritonitis in adult Wistar rats. Animals were treated with saline or LSL (10 mg kg(-1), i.v) immediately and 6 h after the induction of peritonitis via cecal ligation and single puncture. Twelve hours after surgery, animals were killed and the infectious process was monitored by total and differential count of cells from blood and peritoneal washing liquid, adenosine deaminase activity, antibiogram and the number of viable bacteria of the peritoneal cavity. LSL treatment decreased the inflammatory response evoked by the induction of peritonitis, as seen by the inhibition of neutrophil migration into peritoneal cavities, leucocytosis and reduction of adenosine deaminase activity in the peritoneal fluid. All these effects were reversed by the lectin association to N-acetyl-glucosamine. LSL in-vitro did not show any antimicrobial action, but promoted a marked decrease of the viable bacterial population in peritoneal cavities. In conclusion, LSL inhibited the inflammatory response and the bacterial colonization of infectious peritonitis in rats.

  13. Effect of clove and cinnamon extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats: Immunopathological and antimicrobial study.

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    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H; Abdelhafez, S; Ismail, T A

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts on some pathogenic microorganisms so we evaluated antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of clove and cinnamon using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 40 adult healthy male albino rats divided into four groups: Group 1: negative control group (received intragastric saline solution daily); Group 2: injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S. aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis then received intragastric saline solution daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension then received intragastric clove extract 500 mg/kg/day; and Group (4): injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received intragastric cinnamon 500 mg/kg/day. Five rats from each group were sacrificed after 1 and 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozymes activity and nitric oxide production, lymphocyte transformation test, as well as counting of both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirmed the efficacy of clove extract as natural antimicrobials and suggested the possibility of its use in treatment of such bacterial infections. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. [Auto- and xenotransplantation of testicular organ culture to castrated rats and rats with experimental hypogonadism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potikha, O P; Chelnakova, I S; Turchin, I S

    1993-01-01

    The organ culture from the testes of newborn pigs able to produce the basic androgens such as testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione and androstenediol has been obtained. CdCl2 administration to the rats in a dose of 0.055 mg/100 g of body weight and gonadectomy resulted in the development of two experimental models of hypogonadism. Autotransplantation of organ culture from the rat testes and xenotransplantation of the testes from newborn pigs to the rats with experimental hypogonadism provoked an increase in blood plasma testosterone for 1.5 and 3 months, respectively. Organ cultures from the testes of newborn pigs can be recommended for clinical purposes.

  15. Antineuroinflammatory and neurotrophic effects of CNTF and C16 peptide in an acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rat model

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    Marong eFang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimentalallergic encephalomyelitis (EAE is an animal model for inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease, i.e., multiple sclerosis (MS. In the present study, we investigated the antineuroinflammatory/neuroprotective effects of C16, an ανβ3 integrin-binding peptide, and recombinant rat ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, a cytokine that was originally identified as a survival factor for neurons, in an acute rodent EAE model. In this model, C16 peptide was injected intravenously every day for 2 weeks, and CNTF was delivered into the cerebral ventricles with Alzet miniosmotic pumps. Disease severity was assessed weekly using a scale ranging from 0 to 5. Multiple histological and molecular biological assays were employed to assess inflammation, axonal loss, neuronal apoptosis, white matter demyelination, and gliosis in the brain and spinal cord of different groups. Our results showed that the EAE induced rats revealed a significant increase in inflammatory cells infiltration, while C16 treatment could inhibit the infiltration of leukocytes and macrophages down to 2/3-1/3 of vehicle treated EAE control (P<0.05. The delayed onset of disease, reduced clinical score (P<0.01 in peak stage and more rapid recovery also were achieved in C16 treated group. Besides impairing inflammation, CNTF treatment also exerted direct neuroprotective effects, decreasing demyelination and axon loss score (P<0.05 Vs vehicle treated EAE control, and reducing the neuronal death from 40%-50% to 10%-20% (P<0.05. Both treatments suppressed the expression of cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-when compared with the vehicle control (P<0.05. Combined treatment with C16 and CNTF produced more obvious functional recovery and neuroprotective effects than individually treatment (P<0.05. These results suggested that combination treatment with C16 and CNTF, which target different neuroprotection pathways, may be an effective therapeutic alternative to

  16. Blast-induced biomechanical loading of the rat: an experimental and anatomically accurate computational blast injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Alai, Aaron; Ganpule, Shailesh; Holmberg, Aaron; Plougonven, Erwan; Chandra, Namas

    2012-09-01

    Blast waves generated by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) cause traumatic brain injury (TBI) in soldiers and civilians. In vivo animal models that use shock tubes are extensively used in laboratories to simulate field conditions, to identify mechanisms of injury, and to develop injury thresholds. In this article, we place rats in different locations along the length of the shock tube (i.e., inside, outside, and near the exit), to examine the role of animal placement location (APL) in the biomechanical load experienced by the animal. We found that the biomechanical load on the brain and internal organs in the thoracic cavity (lungs and heart) varied significantly depending on the APL. When the specimen is positioned outside, organs in the thoracic cavity experience a higher pressure for a longer duration, in contrast to APL inside the shock tube. This in turn will possibly alter the injury type, severity, and lethality. We found that the optimal APL is where the Friedlander waveform is first formed inside the shock tube. Once the optimal APL was determined, the effect of the incident blast intensity on the surface and intracranial pressure was measured and analyzed. Noticeably, surface and intracranial pressure increases linearly with the incident peak overpressures, though surface pressures are significantly higher than the other two. Further, we developed and validated an anatomically accurate finite element model of the rat head. With this model, we determined that the main pathway of pressure transmission to the brain was through the skull and not through the snout; however, the snout plays a secondary role in diffracting the incoming blast wave towards the skull.

  17. Changes in serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels in progression of liver inflammation in an experimental rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    DING Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the changes in serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA levels in the progression of liver inflammation in a rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. MethodsThe rat model of NAFLD was established through high-fat cream by gavage and these rats were considered the experimental group (group M, and the rats in the normal control group (group C were given normal saline by gavage within the same period of time. Liver samples and serum samples were collected from these rats. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and ADMA levels and the content of nitric oxide (NO in liver tissue homogenate were measured at 4, 8, and 12 weeks for group M (M4, M8, and M12 and 12 weeks for group C (C12, and NAFLD activity score (NAS was evaluated for both groups at the same time point. As for the data that were normally distributed and had homogeneity of variance, one-way analysis of variance was applied for comparison between multiple groups, and the least significant difference (LSD t-test was applied for comparison within the same group; as for the data that were normally distributed and had heterogeneity of variance, Kruskal-Wallis H test was applied for comparison between multiple groups. Pearson correlation analysis was applied for correlation analysis. ResultsCompared with the C12 group, the M12 group had significantly increased serum ADMA and ALT levels and content of NO in liver tissue homogenate (P=0.010, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively. Serum ADMA level was not significantly correlated with serum ALT level (r=0.195, P=0.228, and was positively correlated with the content of NO in liver tissue homogenate and NAS in rats (r=0.631, P<0.001; r=0.782, P<0.001. ConclusionIn rats with NAFLD, serum ADMA level gradually increases with the progression of liver inflammation, and is positively correlated with the content of NO and NAS. The role of ADMA as a new inflammatory factor for evaluating the grade of chronic liver

  18. Energetic, oxidative and ionic exchange in rat brain and liver mitochondria at experimental audiogenic epilepsy (Krushinsky-Molodkina model).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venediktova, Natalya I; Gorbacheva, Olga S; Belosludtseva, Natalia V; Fedotova, Irina B; Surina, Natalia M; Poletaeva, Inga I; Kolomytkin, Oleg V; Mironova, Galina D

    2017-04-01

    The role of brain and liver mitochondria at epileptic seizure was studied on Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rats which respond to sound with an intensive epileptic seizure (audiogenic epilepsy). We didn't find significant changes in respiration rats of brain and liver mitochondria of KM and control rats; however the efficiency of АТР synthesis in the KM rat mitochondria was 10% lower. In rats with audiogenic epilepsy the concentration of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde in mitochondria of the brain (but not liver) was 2-fold higher than that in the control rats. The rate of H 2 O 2 generation in brain mitochondria of КМ rats was twofold higher than in the control animals when using NAD-dependent substrates. This difference was less pronounced in liver mitochondria. In KM rats, the activity of mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channel was lower than in liver mitochondria of control rats. The comparative study of the mitochondria ability to retain calcium ions revealed that in the case of using the complex I and complex II substrates, permeability transition pore is easier to trigger in brain and liver mitochondria of KM and КМs rats than in the control ones. The role of the changes in the energetic, oxidative, and ionic exchange in the mechanism of audiogenic epilepsy generation in rats and the possible correction of the epilepsy seizures are discussed.

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of Lycopodium clavatum 30CH on experimental model of paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique da Silva, Gustavo; Barros, Pedro Paulo; Silva Gonçalves, Gisele Mara; Landi, Matheus Arnosti

    2015-01-01

    Homeopathic Lycopodium clavatum is indicated for disorders of the digestive system and its accessory organs, including atony of the liver and liver tissue failure. Tis suggests that it may have action on drug-induced hepatitis, as occurs in paracetamol overdose. To evaluate the effectiveness of Lycopodium clavatum 30C (Lyc) as a hepatoprotector against liver damage experimentally induced by paracetamol (Pct) in Wistar rats. Thirty animals subdivided into 6 groups were used. Animals from the treated groups were pretreated for 8 days with Lyc 30c (0.25 ml/day), receiving a dose of 3 g/kg of Pct on the 8th day. A positive control group received similar treatment, replacing Lyc 30c with 30% ethanol and a negative control received only 30% ethanol. After 24 and 72 h, the animals were sacrificed for tissue and blood sample collection. Subsequently, enzyme serum measurements indicative of liver damage (aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine-aminotransferase (ALT)) and liver histological and morphometric analyses were performed. Pretreatment with Lyc 30c reduced hepatic lesions produced by Pct overdose as evidenced by a significant reduction (p hepatitis, mainly shown by a histological decrease in necrosis and inflammatory foci, preserved glycogen and other 1,2-glycols in zone 3 and reduced serum levels of ALT and AST. Copyright © 2014 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary blast causes mild, moderate, severe and lethal TBI with increasing blast overpressures: Experimental rat injury model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vikas; Skotak, Maciej; Schuetz, Heather; Heller, Abi; Haorah, James; Chandra, Namas

    2016-06-01

    Injury severity in blast induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI) increases with blast overpressure (BOP) and impulse in dose-dependent manner. Pure primary blast waves were simulated in compressed gas shock-tubes in discrete increments. Present work demonstrates 24 hour survival of rats in 0-450 kPa (0-800 Pa•s impulse) range at 10 discrete levels (60, 100, 130, 160, 190, 230, 250, 290, 350 and 420 kPa) and determines the mortality rate as a non-linear function of BOP. Using logistic regression model, predicted mortality rate (PMR) function was calculated, and used to establish TBI severities. We determined a BOP of 145 kPa as upper mild TBI threshold (5% PMR). Also we determined 146-220 kPa and 221-290 kPa levels as moderate and severe TBI based on 35%, and 70% PMR, respectively, while BOP above 290 kPa is lethal. Since there are no standards for animal bTBI injury severity, these thresholds need further refinements using histopathology, immunohistochemistry and behavior. Further, we specifically investigated mild TBI range (0-145 kPa) using physiological (heart rate), pathological (lung injury), immuno-histochemical (oxidative/nitrosative and blood-brain barrier markers) as well as blood borne biomarkers. With these additional data, we conclude that mild bTBI occurs in rats when the BOP is in the range of 85-145 kPa.

  1. Chronic partial urethral obstruction in female rats: description of an experimental model and initial results Obstrução parcial uretral crônica em ratos: descrição de um modelo experimental e resultados iniciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Jr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of infravesical urinary obstruction in female rats. METHODS: After median caudal laparotomy, the urethra of 14 female rats was delicately separated from the vagina and loosely wrapped with cellophane tape measuring 0.4 x 1.0 cm. The animals were evaluated 4 (n=7 and 8 (n=7 weeks later. Five additional control animals were only subjected to separation of the urethra and vagina and monitored for 12 weeks. RESULTS: After four weeks, three rats presented vesical dilation associated with discrete ureteral ectasis in 2 animals, with the third presenting discrete hydronephrosis in one kidney. After eight weeks, five rats (71.4% presented vesical distension with bilateral ureterohydronephrosis. No significant changes (p>0.05 in serum urea or creatinine occurred in any group compared to preoperative values. CONCLUSION: We present here an inexpensive and simple method for the slow induction of urethral obstruction in adult female rats, with the development of progressive vesical hypertrophy and ureterohydronephrosis, which may be used as an experimental model for the study of different aspects of obstructive nephropathy.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver modelo experimental de obstrução urinária infravesical em ratas. MÉTODOS: Após laparotomia caudal mediana, as uretras de 14 ratas foram delicadamente separadas da vagina e frouxamente envoltas com fita de celofane medindo 0.4 x 1.0 cm. Os animais foram avaliados 4 (n=7 e 8 (n=7 semanas depois. Cinco animais adicionais (controle foram submetidos apenas à separação da uretra e da vagina e monitoradas por 12 semanas. RESULTADOS: Após quatro semanas, três ratas apresentaram dilatação vesical associada a discreta ectasia ureteral em 2 animais, com o terceiro apresentando discreta hidronefrose em um rim. Após oito semanas, cinco ratas (71.4% apresentaram distensão vesical com ureterohidronefrose bilateral. Não ocorreram alterações significativas (p>0.05 nos valores

  2. The low level laser therapy (LLLT) operating in 660 nm reduce gene expression of inflammatory mediators in the experimental model of collagenase-induced rat tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Silva, Romildo; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Frigo, Lucio; Rahouadj, Rachid; Arnold, Gilles; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Magdalou, Jacques; Pallotta, Rodney; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat

    2015-09-01

    Tendinopathy is a common disease with a variety of treatments and therapies. Laser therapy appears as an alternative treatment. Here, we investigate the effects of laser irradiation in an experimental model of tendinitis induced by collagenase injection on rats' Achilles tendon, verifying its action in important inflammatory markers. Male Wistar rats were used and divided into five groups: control saline (C), non-treated tendinitis (NT) and tendinitis treated with sodium diclofenac (D) or laser (1 J) and (3 J). The tendinitis was induced by collagenase (100 μg/tendon) on the Achilles tendon, which was removed for further analyses. The gene expression for COX-2; TNF-α; IL-6; and IL-10 (RT-PCR) was measured. The laser irradiation (660 nm, 100 mW, 3 J) used in the treatment of the tendinitis induced by collagenase in Achilles tendon in rats was effective in the reduction of important pro-inflammatory markers such as IL-6 and TNF-α, becoming a promising tool for the treatment of tendon diseases.

  3. Controlled release of ascorbic acid from gelatin hydrogel attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in rat experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Morimoto, Keisuke; Bao, Wulan; Yu, Jie; Okita, Yutaka; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Okada, Kenji

    2014-09-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. We investigated the hypothesis that the known antioxidant ascorbic acid, which can also promote elastin and collagen production by smooth muscle cells, would prevent AAA formation in a rat model. An intraluminal elastase and extraluminal calcium chloride-induced rat AAA model was used, and the animals were divided into three groups: control (group C, n = 18), the aorta wrapped with a saline-impregnated gelatin hydrogel sheet (group G, n = 18), and the aorta wrapped with a gelatin hydrogel sheet incorporating ascorbic acid (group A, n = 18). Wrapping of the sheet was completed at the end of treatment for AAA creation. The aortic dilatation ratio was measured, and aortic tissues were further examined for oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage using biochemical and histologic techniques. Aortic dilatation at both 4 and 8 weeks was inhibited in group A (dilatation ratio [%] at 4 weeks: 186.2 ± 21.8 in group C, 152.3 ± 10.2 in group G, 126.8 ± 11.6 in group A; P < .0001; dilatation ratio [%] at 8 weeks: 219.3 ± 37.5 in group C, 194.0 ± 11.6 in group G, 145.7 ± 8.3 in group A; P = .0002). Elastin and collagen content were significantly preserved in group A (elastin, P = .0015; collagen, P < .0001). The messenger RNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-1β, and tissue necrosis factor-α (P = .0024, P < .0001, P < .0001, and P < .0001, respectively) were downregulated in group A (P = .0024), whereas tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 were both upregulated in group A (TIMP-1, P = .0014; TIMP-2, P < .0001). Gelatin zymography showed activities of pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly suppressed in group C (P < .0001 for each). Reactive oxygen species expression and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and cluster of differentiation 68 staining were significantly suppressed in group A (reactive

  4. Role of Multidrug-Resistance Protein 2 in coproporphyrin transport: results from experimental studies in bile fistula rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, V; Marchini, S; Di Gangi, P; Ferrari, M C; Nascimbeni, F; Rocchi, E; Ventura, P

    2009-07-01

    Coproporphyrin (CP) is one of the main by-products of heme biosynthesis and its abnormal accumulation is associated with different forms of porphyria. Indirect data obtained from animal and human models have suggested a possible role for Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein 2 (MRP2) and other MRPs in hepatocyte excretion of CP. Using normal, MRP2-deficient and a cholestatic rat model, we have assessed the role of MRPs in CP disposition. MRP levels were assayed using immunofluorescence. Biliary and urinary excretion patterns of CP and conjugate bilirubin were measured during equimolar infusions of CP isomers with and without phenoldibromopthalein sulfonate (BSP), a well-known MRP2 substrate. Our results suggest a role for the MRP system as a possible regulator of CP traffic and accumulation in normal and pathological conditions. Alteration in this systems (as observed in cholestatic disease) may play an important role in triggering clinical expression of porphyria in individuals with underlying mutations leading to porphyrin accumulation and may help explain the phenotypic heterogeneity in patients affected by different forms of porphyrias.

  5. Experimental Model of Zymosan-Induced Arthritis in the Rat Temporomandibular Joint: Role of Nitric Oxide and Neutrophils

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    Hellíada Vasconcelos Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To establish a new model of zymosan-induced temporomandibular joint (TMJ arthritis in the rat and to investigate the role of nitric oxide. Methods. Inflammation was induced by an intra-articular injection of zymosan into the left TMJ. Mechanical hypernociception, cell influx, vascular permeability, myeloperoxidase activity, nitrite levels, and histological changes were measured in TMJ lavages or tissues at selected time points. These parameters were also evaluated after treatment with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitors L-NAME or 1400 W. Results. Zymosan-induced TMJ arthritis caused a time-dependent leucocyte migration, plasma extravasation, mechanical hypernociception, and neutrophil accumulation between 4 and 24 h. TMJ immunohistochemical analyses showed increased inducible NOS expression. Treatment with L-NAME or 1400 W inhibited these parameters. Conclusion. Zymosan-induced TMJ arthritis is a reproducible model that may be used to assess both the mechanisms underlying TMJ inflammation and the potential tools for therapies. Nitric oxide may participate in the inflammatory temporomandibular dysfunction mechanisms.

  6. Alterations in the Interplay between Neurons, Astrocytes and Microglia in the Rat Dentate Gyrus in Experimental Models of Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Daniele; Ugolini, Filippo; Nosi, Daniele; Wenk, Gary L.; Giovannini, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampus is negatively affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases leading to impaired learning and memory abilities. A diverse series of progressive modifications in the intercellular communication among neurons, astrocytes and microglia occur in the hippocampus during aging or inflammation. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological modifications that contribute to hippocampal dysfunction may reveal new targets for therapeutic intervention. The current study focussed on the interplay between neurons and astroglia in the Granule Layer (GL) and the Polymorphic Layer (PL) of the Dentate Gyrus (DG) of adult, aged and LPS-treated rats. In GL and PL of aged and LPS-treated rats, astrocytes were less numerous than in adult rats. In GL of LPS-treated rats, astrocytes acquired morphological features of reactive astrocytes, such as longer branches than was observed in adult rats. Total and activated microglia increased in the aged and LPS-treated rats, as compared to adult rats. In the GL of aged and LPS-treated rats many neurons were apoptotic. Neurons decreased significantly in GL and PL of aged but not in rats treated with LPS. In PL of aged and LPS-treated rats many damaged neurons were embraced by microglia cells and were infiltrated by branches of astrocyte, which appeared to be bisecting the cell body, forming triads. Reactive microglia had a scavenging activity of dying neurons, as shown by the presence of neuronal debris within their cytoplasm. The levels of the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) increased in hippocampal homogenates of aged rats and rats treated with LPS, and CX3CL1 immunoreactivity colocalized with activated microglia cells. Here we demonstrated that in the DG of aged and LPS-treated rats, astrocytes and microglia cooperate and participate in phagocytosis/phagoptosis of apoptotic granular neurons. The differential expression/activation of astroglia and the alteration of their intercommunication may be responsible for the different

  7. Alterations in the Interplay between Neurons, Astrocytes and Microglia in the Rat Dentate Gyrus in Experimental Models of Neurodegeneration

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    Daniele Lana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is negatively affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases leading to impaired learning and memory abilities. A diverse series of progressive modifications in the intercellular communication among neurons, astrocytes and microglia occur in the hippocampus during aging or inflammation. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological modifications that contribute to hippocampal dysfunction may reveal new targets for therapeutic intervention. The current study focussed on the interplay between neurons and astroglia in the Granule Layer (GL and the Polymorphic Layer (PL of the Dentate Gyrus (DG of adult, aged and LPS-treated rats. In GL and PL of aged and LPS-treated rats, astrocytes were less numerous than in adult rats. In GL of LPS-treated rats, astrocytes acquired morphological features of reactive astrocytes, such as longer branches than was observed in adult rats. Total and activated microglia increased in the aged and LPS-treated rats, as compared to adult rats. In the GL of aged and LPS-treated rats many neurons were apoptotic. Neurons decreased significantly in GL and PL of aged but not in rats treated with LPS. In PL of aged and LPS-treated rats many damaged neurons were embraced by microglia cells and were infiltrated by branches of astrocyte, which appeared to be bisecting the cell body, forming triads. Reactive microglia had a scavenging activity of dying neurons, as shown by the presence of neuronal debris within their cytoplasm. The levels of the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1 increased in hippocampal homogenates of aged rats and rats treated with LPS, and CX3CL1 immunoreactivity colocalized with activated microglia cells. Here we demonstrated that in the DG of aged and LPS-treated rats, astrocytes and microglia cooperate and participate in phagocytosis/phagoptosis of apoptotic granular neurons. The differential expression/activation of astroglia and the alteration of their intercommunication may be responsible for

  8. Effects of prophylactic and therapeutic teriflunomide in transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potentials in the dark agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Hanak, Susan; Ji, Zhongqi; Petty, Margaret; Liu, Li; Zhang, Donghui; McMonagle-Strucko, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Teriflunomide is a once-daily oral immunomodulatory agent recently approved in the United States for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). This study investigated neurophysiological deficits in descending spinal cord motor tracts during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE; a model of multiple sclerosis) and the functional effectiveness of prophylactic or therapeutic teriflunomide treatment in preventing the debilitating paralysis observed in this model. Relapsing-remitting EAE was induced in Dark Agouti rats using rat spinal cord homogenate. Animals were treated with oral teriflunomide (10 mg/kg daily) prophylactically, therapeutically, or with vehicle (control). Transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials were measured throughout the disease to provide quantitative assessment of the neurophysiological status of descending motor tracts. Axonal damage was quantified histologically by silver staining. Both prophylactic and therapeutic teriflunomide treatment significantly reduced maximum EAE disease scores (P teriflunomide treatment regimens prevented a delay in wave-form latency and a decrease in wave-form amplitude compared with that observed in vehicle-treated animals. A significant reduction in axonal loss was observed with both teriflunomide treatment regimens compared with vehicle (P teriflunomide can prevent the deficits observed in this animal model in descending spinal cord motor tracts. The mechanism behind reduced axonal loss and improved motor function may be primarily the reduced inflammation and consequent demyelination observed in these animals through the known effects of teriflunomide on impairing proliferation of stimulated T cells. These findings may have significant implications for patients with RMS.

  9. Experimental deep brain stimulation in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sonny Kh; Vlamings, Rinske; Lim, Leewei; Sesia, Thibault; Janssen, Marcus Lf; Steinbusch, Harry Wm; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Temel, Yasin

    2010-10-01

    DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION (DBS) as a therapy in neurological and psychiatric disorders is widely applied in the field of functional and stereotactic neurosurgery. In this respect, experimental DBS in animal models is performed to evaluate new indications and new technology. In this article, we review our experience with the concept of experimental DBS, including its development and validation. An electrode construction was developed using clinical principles to perform DBS unilaterally or bilaterally in freely moving rats. The stimulation parameters were adjusted for the rat using current density calculations. We performed validation studies in 2 animal models: a rat model of Parkinson's disease (bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine infusion in the striatum) and a rat model of Huntington's disease (transgenic rats). The effects of DBS were evaluated in different behavioral tasks measuring motor and cognitive functions. The electrode construction developed allows experimental DBS to be performed in freely moving rats. With the current setup, electrodes are placed in the target in 70% to 95% of the cases. Using a rat model, we showed that bilateral DBS of the subthalamic nucleus improves parkinsonian motor disability, but can induce behavioral side effects, similar to the clinical situation. In addition, we showed that DBS of the globus pallidus can improve motor and cognitive symptoms in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Nevertheless, during the process of the development and validation of experimental DBS, we encountered specific problems. These are discussed in detail. Experimental DBS in freely moving animals is an adequate tool to explore new indications for DBS and to refine DBS technology.

  10. Specific Gene- and MicroRNA-Expression Pattern Contributes to the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in a Rat Model of Experimental Colitis

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    Éva Boros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the gene- and microRNA-expression profile contributing to epithelial to mesenchymal transition in a rat model of experimental colitis. For this, inflammation was induced by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid to the colon of male Wistar rats. Samples were taken from both inflamed and uninflamed regions of the same colon, total RNA was isolated, and the mRNA and microRNA expressions were monitored. We have determined that the expression of genes responsible for inducing mesenchymal phenotype, such as Egr1, Fgf2, Fgf7, Jak2, Notch2, Hif1α, Zeb2, Mmp9, Lox, and Vim, was all significantly induced in the inflamed regions of the affected colons while the epithelial marker E-cadherin (Cdh1 was downregulated. In contrast, the expression of microRNAs miR-192, miR-143, miR-375, miR-30a, miR-107, and miR-200b responsible for the regulation of the above mentioned genes was significantly downregulated in inflamed colon. Importantly, we detected moderate induction in the expression of five out of six tested microRNAs in the uninflamed regions. In summary, we identified numerous interacting genes and microRNAs with mutually exclusive expression pattern in inflamed regions of colitis-induced rats. These findings suggest that—among others—an important step in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in experimental colitis is the dysregulated microRNA expression.

  11. Silk fibroin nanoparticles constitute a vector for controlled release of resveratrol in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Pérez, Antonio Abel; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Ortiz-Cullera, Víctor; Algieri, Francesca; Garrido-Mesa, José; Zorrilla, Pedro; Rodriguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Utrilla, M Pilar; De Matteis, Laura; de la Fuente, Jesús Martínez; Cenis, José Luis; Gálvez, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the intestinal anti-inflammatory properties of silk fibroin nanoparticles, around 100 nm in size, when loaded with the stilbene compound resveratrol, in an experimental model of rat colitis. Methods Nanoparticles were loaded with resveratrol by adsorption. The biological effects of the resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles were tested both in vitro, in a cell culture of RAW 264.7 cells (mouse macrophages), and in vivo, in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis, when administered intracolonically. Results The resveratrol liberation in 1× phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4) was characterized by fast liberation, reaching the solubility limit in 3 hours, which was maintained over a period of 80 hours. The in vitro assays revealed immunomodulatory properties exerted by these resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles since they promoted macrophage activity in basal conditions and inhibited this activity when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The in vivo experiments showed that after evaluation of the macroscopic symptoms, inflammatory markers, and intestinal barrier function, the fibroin nanoparticles loaded with resveratrol had a better effect than the single treatments, being similar to that produced by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Conclusion Silk fibroin nanoparticles constitute an attractive strategy for the controlled release of resveratrol, showing immunomodulatory properties and intestinal anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25285004

  12. Gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Taha, Mona M; Younis, Nahla N; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Hamouda, Hamdi A; Eldosouky, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hala

    2010-10-01

    Gastritis, an inflammation of gastric mucosa, may be due to many pathological factors and infection, such as with Helicobacter pylori. The use of experimental models of gastritis is important to evaluate the biochemical changes and study chemotherapeutic intervention. In a previous study we demonstrated an acute gastritis model induced by iodoacetamide. Our objective in this study was to evaluate a new gastritis model induced by H. pylori infection in experimental rats in terms of certain biomarkers in serum and mucosal tissues in addition to histopathological examination. Gastritis was induced in 20 albino Wistar rats by H. pylori isolated from antral biopsy taken from a 49-year-old male patient endoscopically diagnosed as having H. pylori infection. Another ten rats were used as controls. Serum gastrin, pepsinogen I activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and gastric mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were measured. Immunostaining for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine and DNA fragmentation were used to further evaluate H. pylori-induced gastritis. Serum gastrin, IL-6, mucosal MPO activity, and PGE(2) demonstrated significant increases joined with a decreased serum pepsinogen I activity (P gastritis models demonstrated massive oxidative stress and pronounced injury in mucosal tissue. Since our model in rats reflected the clinical picture of H. pylori infection, it can be considered as a consistent model to study chemotherapeutic intervention for this type of gastritis.

  13. Photodynamic therapy using chloro-aluminum phthalocyanine decreases inflammatory response in an experimental rat periodontal disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Maiara; Vasconcelos, Roseane Carvalho; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; de Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; de Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes; Araujo, Aurigena Antunes; de Lisboa Lopes Costa, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that photodynamic therapy (PDT) can exhibit immunomodulatory activity. The purpose of the present study was to analyse cytokine profiles after application of PDT in gingival tissues of rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease (PD). Periodontal disease was induced through the introduction of a cotton thread around the first left mandibular molar, while the right side molars did not receive ligatures. After 7days of PD evolution, ligatures were removed from the left side, and the animals were randomically divided into the following treatment groups: I, rats without treatment; II, rats received chloro-aluminum phthalocyanine (AlClPc); III, rats received low-level laser alone; and IV, rats received AlClPc associated with low-level laser (PDT). The animals were killed 7days after the treatments, and the mandibles were histologically processed to assess morphological and immunohistochemical profile, while gingival tissues were removed for quantification of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL-)1β and IL-10 expression (by ELISA). Histomorphological analysis of periodontal tissues demonstrated that PDT-treated animals show tissue necrosis, as well as lower TNF- α expression, compared to ligatured animals treated with AlClPc alone. It was concluded that PDT using AlClPc entrapped in a lipid nanoemulsion may be useful in therapies, because of immunomodulatory effects that decreased the inflammatory response and cause tissue destruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental liver protection of n-butanolic extract of Astragalus monspessulanus L. on carbon tetrachloride model of toxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Rumyana; Bratkov, Viktor M; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Vitcheva, Vessela; Manov, Vassil; Krasteva, Ilina

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of n-butanolic extract of Astragalus monspessulanus L. (EAM) against in-vitro/in-vivo carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. Silymarin was used as a positive control. The in-vitro experiments were carried out in primary isolated rat hepatocytes first incubated with CCl4 (86 µmol/l). Hepatic injury was discerned by a decrease in cell viability and cell glutathione (GSH) levels, an increase in lactate dehydrogenase leakage into the medium, and an elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) quantity. Cell pre-incubation with EAM (1 µg/ml and 10 µg/ml) significantly ameliorated the CCl4-induced liver damage. In-vivo rats were challenged orally with CCl4 (10% solution in olive oil) alone and after 7 days pre-treatment with EAM (100 mg/kg body weight per day, oral gavage). CCl4 damage was judged by an increased production of MDA, depletion of cell GSH, and a decrease in cell antioxidant defense system. EAM pre-treatment normalizes the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the levels of GSH and MDA. These data are supported by the histopathological examination. These results indicate that EAM has a similar significant protective effect, in vitro and in vivo, against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rat as silymarin.This may be due to its antioxidant and membrane stabilizing properties.

  15. Effectiveness of an aquatic exercise program and low-level laser therapy on articular cartilage in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milares, Luiz Paulo; Assis, Lívia; Siqueira, Amanda; Claudino, Vitoria; Domingos, Heloisa; Almeida, Thais; Tim, Carla; Renno, Ana Claudia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic exercise program and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (associated or not) on degenerative modifications and inflammatory mediators on the articular cartilage using an experimental model of knee OA. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: knee OA - without treatment (OA); OA plus exercise program group (OAE); OA plus LLLT (OAL); OA plus exercise program associated with LLLT (OAEL). Trained rats performed a water-jumping program carrying a load equivalent to 50-80 % of their body mass strapped to their chest. The laser irradiation was used either as the only method or after the exercise training had been performed, at 2 points contact mode (medial and lateral side of the left joint). The treatments started 4 weeks after the surgery, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The results revealed that all treated groups (irradiated or not) exhibited a better pattern of tissue organization, with less fibrillation and irregularities along the articular surface and improved chondrocytes organization. Also, a lower cellular density and structural damage (OARSI score) and higher thickness values were observed in all treated groups. Additionally, OAE and OAEL showed a reduced expression in IL-1β and caspase-3 as compared with OA. Furthermore, a statistically lower MMP-13 expression was only observed in OAEL as compared with OA. These results suggest that aquatic exercise program and LLLT were effective in preventing cartilage degeneration. Also, physical exercise program presented anti-inflammatory effects in the knees in OA rats.

  16. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims

  17. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed: an experimental study in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppula Sushruta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6 were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic, antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and

  18. The effect of spironolactone on experimental periodontitis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauballe, Morten Christian Bay; Bentzen, Benny; Björnsson, M

    2005-01-01

    Elevated levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) have been found in patients with adult periodontitis. Animal studies have shown that TNF plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. New findings suggest that the aldosterone-inhibitor spironolactone possesses an anti-TNF effect....... The purpose of the study was to determine the anti-TNF effect of spironolactone in an endotoxic shock rat model and to disclose the effect of oral administration of spironolactone on the development of experimental periodontitis in rats....

  19. Activation of peripheral leukocytes in rat pregnancy and experimental preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Linton, EA; Sargent, IL; Redman, CWG

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to search for activation markers of peripheral leukocytes in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental preeclampsia was induced in 14-day-pregnant rats by infusion of endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg body weight). For comparison, rats with normal

  20. Effect of Citrullus colocynthis hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats model: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Barzegar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrullus colocynthis (CCT is used as the anti-diabetic and antioxidant agent. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a reproductive disorder which level of gonadotropins and sexual hormones are imbalanced. Objective: We evaluated the effect of CCT hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats’ model. Materials and Methods: 40 female adult Wistar rats divided into five groups (n=8each: Group I (control only injected by sesame oil as estradiol valerate solvent, group II (Sham was orally received normal saline after estradiol valerate- induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (4 mg/rat estradiol valerate, intramuscularly, and three experimental groups, that after induction of PCOS within 60 days, received orally 50 mg/kg CCT extract (group III, 50mg/kg metformin (group IV, and CCT extract+ metformin (group V for 20 days. The serum concentration level of luteinizing, testosterone and follicle stimulating hormones were measured using ELISA method and the serum concentration level of glucose were measured using the oxidative method (glucose meter. Histological study of ovary tissue carried out by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: There was a significant reduction in luteinizing hormone and testosterone in III-V groups compared to Sham group, whereas follicle stimulating hormone in III-V groups was not significantly changed in comparison with Sham group. Histological investigations showed a significant increase in number of preantral and antral follicles and corpus luteum in the experimental groups compared to group II. Conclusion: Marked improvement in hormonal and histological symptoms of PCOS may be due to CCT effects hence, CCT can potentially be considered as an effective drug for treatment of PCOS

  1. Cysteinyl 1 Receptor Antagonist Montelukast, Does Not Prevent Peritoneal Membrane Damage in Experimental Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis Model in Rats

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    Sibel Koçak Yucel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD induces structural changes in the peritoneal membrane such as fibrosis, vasculopathy and angioneogenesis with a reduction in ultrafiltration capacity. Leukotriene (LT receptor antagonists have been found to be effective to prevent fibrosis in some nonperitoneal tissues. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible beneficial effect of montelukast, a LT receptor antagonist, on peritoneal membrane exposed to hypertonic peritoneal dialysis in uremic rats. Methods: Of the 48 male, 5/6 nephrectomized Wistar rats 29 remained alive and were included in the study. These studied rats were divided into 3 groups: Group I (n=7 was the control group, Group II (n=8 was treated with 20 ml hypertonic PDF intraperitoneally daily and Group III was treated with montelukast and similar PDF treatment protocol. The morphological and functional changes in the peritoneal membrane as well as cytokine expression were compared between groups. Results: Submesothelial thickness and the severity of the degree of hyaline vasculapathy were more prominent in group III when compared to group I. There were no significant differences between group II and other groups in terms of submesothelial thickness and the severity of the degree of hyaline vasculapathy. Increased expressions of TGF-β and VEGF in parietal peritoneal membrane were found in group II and group III when compared to group I. The amount of TGF-β and VEGF expression were similar in group II and group III. Conclusion: This study suggests that montelukast treatment does not prevent the peritoneal membrane from deleterious effects of hyperosmolar PDF in the uremic environment.

  2. Achados otomicroscópicos e histológicos da miringoesclerose induzida em ratos: estudo crítico de um modelo experimental Otomicroscopic and histologic findings of induced myringosclerosis in rats: a critical study of an experimental model

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    Patrícia F. Santos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A miringoesclerose é caracterizada por hialinização da lâmina própria da membrana timpânica. Trabalhos experimentais têm utilizado a otomicroscopia ou a histologia para estudar a miringoesclerose em animais, porém sem correlacionar precisamente estes dois métodos de avaliação. OBJETIVO: Este estudo procura avaliar a acurácia da otomicroscopia no diagnóstico de miringoesclerose em modelo experimental com ratos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi induzida miringoesclerose por inoculação transtimpânica de Streptococcus pneumoniae em 25 ratos Wistar, que foram examinados quinzenalmente por otomicroscopia e sacrificados após oito semanas, tendo suas membranas timpânicas examinadas por histologia. RESULTADOS: Da confrontação das alterações otomicroscópicas com os achados histológicos, houve uma sensibilidade de 80% e especificidade de 75%. CONCLUSÃO: Pelos resultados obtidos neste estudo, a otomicroscopia não representou um bom método para avaliar a miringoesclerose neste modelo experimental.Myringosclerosis is characterized by hyaline changes of the lamina propria of the tympanic membrane. Experimental studies have used otomicroscopy or histology to evaluate myringosclerosis in animals, but they do not correlate precisely these two methods. AIM: The present study evaluates the accuracy of otomicroscopy in the diagnosis of myringosclerosis in rats. STUDY DESIGN: experimental. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Myringosclerosis was induced by transtympanic inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 25 Wistar rats, which were examined weekly through otomicroscopy and sacrificed after eight weeks for histologic study of their tympanic membranes. RESULTS: From the comparison of the otomicroscopic data in relation to the histologic findings, we could observe sensibility of 80% and specificity of 75% for the otomicroscopy. CONCLUSION: Considering the results in this study, otomicroscopy did not represent a good method to

  3. Modelo experimental de infarto do miocárdio induzido por isoproterenol em ratos Experimental model of myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats

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    Heraldo Guedis Lobo Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e validar, em nosso meio, o modelo de infarto do miocárdio induzido por isoproterenol em ratos por meio de análises de parâmetros hematológicos, bioquímicos, de marcadores do estresse oxidativo e histopatológicos. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos jovens, machos, da linhagem Wistar (145 a 230 g, foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo Simulado, submetido à falsa indução de infarto do miocárdio, e grupo Infarto, submetido à indução do infarto do miocárdio com isoproterenol. As aplicações, para indução do infarto, foram realizadas durante dois dias consecutivos, com intervalo de 24 horas entre elas. Após 24 horas da última aplicação, os ratos de ambos os grupos foram anestesiados e sacrificados para realização de coleta de sangue para hemograma e análise bioquímica (TGO, TGP, troponina I, ureia e creatinina e coleta de fragmento do miocárdio para avaliação de marcadores do estresse oxidativo (atividade da catalase e concentração de glutationa e exame histopatológico. RESULTADOS: Não houve mortalidade no grupo Simulado, enquanto a mortalidade no grupo Infarto foi de 25%. A indução do infarto do miocárdio com isoproterenol causou elevação das contagens de leucócitos e neutrófilos, dos níveis de TGO, troponina I e ureia, reduziu a atividade da catalase e os níveis teciduais de glutationa e causou alterações histopatológicas. Não acarretou alterações nas concentrações de hemoglobina, TGP e creatinina. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo de infarto do miocárdio induzido por isoproterenol em ratos foi adequadamente reproduzido em nosso laboratório, acarretando alterações em parâmetros hematológicos, bioquímicos, de marcadores de estresse oxidativo e histopatológicos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and validate, in our laboratory, the essay of myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats by means of analysis of hematological, biochemical, oxidative stress markers and histopathological

  4. Protective Effects of Angiotensin II AT1 Receptors Blockade against Brain Injury in Experimental Model of Stroke in Rat

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    Hamdollah Panahpour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Ischemic stroke remains the third leading cause of invalidism and death in industrialized countries. It is suggested that renin–angiotensin system (RAS may contribute in stroke related pathogenic mechanisms and involve in the ischemic brain damage. This study designed to investigate the role of angiotensin II (Ang II in conjunction with AT1 receptors in treatment of the brain injuries following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.   Methods: Forty eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in four groups. Sham group, ischemic control group and two ischemic groups that received candesartan (0.1mg/kg, or 0.5mg/kg at the beginning of reperfusion period. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 60 minutes occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, followed by 24 hours reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion period, neurological deficit score (NDS was performed. Total cortical and striatal infarct volumes were determined using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining technique.   Results: Animals in sham operated group had normal motor function and no ischemic lesions were observed in cortical or striatal regions. Occurring ischemia in ischemic control group that received vehicle produced considerable infarction in cortex (253±15mm3 and striatum (92±7mm3, as well as these animals had sever impaired motor dysfunctions. Blocking of AT1 receptors with candesartan (0.1mg/kg or 0.5mg/kg improved neurological outcome and significantly lowered cortical and striatal infarct volumes relative to ischemic control group.   Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated that stimulation of AT1 receptors by Ang II involved in ischemia/reperfusion injuries and blocking of AT1 receptors can decrease ischemic brain injury and improve neurological outcome.

  5. [Effects of T helper 1 cells and T helper 17 cells secreting cytokines on rat models of experimental periodontitis].

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    Wang, Z X; Yang, L; Tan, J Y; Chen, L L

    2017-12-09

    Objectvie: To investigate the effects of secreting cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) of T helper 1 cells (Th1) and T helper 17 cells (Th17) on the peripheral blood and alveolar bone destruction, so as to provide a new explanation for cellular immunity-mediated alveolar bone destruction. Methods: Eighteen eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided, randomly and equally, into 3 groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, ligation group and normal control group. In the LPS group, Escherichia coli LPS was injected into the alveolar mucosa on the buccalmedian site of the left upper first molar, while the right upper first molar was injected with equal volume of physiological saline as self-controls. The injections were performed every other day for four times totally. In the ligation group, the left upper first molars were ligatured with 0.2 mm orthodontic cords, while the right upper first molars were left untreated as self-controls, and supplemented with high-sugar diet to promote the periodontitis status. The rats in normal control group were fed normally. The concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-17 in peripheral blood were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method at the fourth week after the start of injection and at the eighth week after ligation. The histological of periodontal tissues were observed after hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and osteoclast count was performed under light microscope. The histological of osteoclasts were observed after tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were detected by immunohistochemical assay. Results: The concentrations of IFN-γ in peripheral blood of LPS group [(185.0±50.7) ng/L] and ligation group [(202.9±60.4) ng/L] were significantly higher than that of normal control group [(106.3±17.2) ng/L]( Pperiodontitis and alveolar bone resorption could be successfully established by means of ligationand LPS injection, respectively

  6. Comparison of two methods for alveolar bone loss measurement in an experimental periodontal disease model in rats

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    Diego Nique Liberman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that evaluate possible risk factors for periodontal diseases in animals. Most of them have focused only on the biological aspects of disease occurrence; therefore, it has been difficult to compare studies of the different methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to compare different methods - linear and area - of the evaluation of morphometrical alveolar bone loss. Sixty hemimaxillae, defleshed and stained with 1% methylene blue to delineate the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest, were obtained from a previous study that induced periodontal disease by means of ligatures in two groups of fifteen Wistar rats during 9 weeks. Ligatures were placed around the right upper second molars, and the contra-lateral teeth remained as intra-group controls. Digital photographs were taken from the specimens and submitted to a single, calibrated, blind examiner who performed the morphometrical evaluation of alveolar bone loss using both linear and area methods. Mean values of linear and area measurements were obtained from each side - buccal and palatal - of the specimens. The degree of association between the two methods was determined by Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. An almost perfect association (0.98 was determined between the linear and area evaluations. A mathematical formula was subsequently created to estimate the total area of alveolar bone loss, from linear mean measurements. Both methods were suitable for detecting bone level alterations. The results of the present study allow for the transformation of data and better compilation of results from different studies.

  7. Perillyl Alcohol Protects against Fe-NTA-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Early Tumor Promotional Events in Rat Experimental Model

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    Tamanna Jahangir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been widely used as protective agents against a wide variety of processes and compounds that damage tissues via free radical mechanisms. Perillyl alcohol (PA is a naturally occurring monoterpene found in the essential oils of numerous species of plants including mints, cherries and celery seeds. This monocyclic monoterpene has shown antioxidant and therapeutic activity in various studies against various xenobiotics. In this study, we have analyzed the effects of PA against single intraperitoneal dose of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA (9 mg iron per kg body weight-induced nephrotoxicity and early tumor promotional events. The pretreatment of Fe-NTA-treated rats with 0.5% per kg body weight dose and 1% per kg body weight dose of PA for seven consecutive days significantly reversed the Fe-NTA-induced malondialdehyde formation, xanthine oxidase activity (P < 0.001, ornithine decarboxylase activity (P < 0.001 and 3[H]thymidine incorporation in renal DNA (P < 0.001 with simultaneous significant depletion in serum toxicity markers blood urea nitrogen and creatinine (P < 0.001. Significant restoration at both the doses was recorded in depleted renal glutathione content, and its dependent enzymes with prophylactic treatment of PA. Present results suggest that PA potentially attenuates against Fe-NTA-induced oxidative damage and tumor promotional events that preclude its development as a future drug to avert the free radical-induced toxicity.

  8. Therapeutic effect of ozone and rutin on adriamycin-induced testicular toxicity in an experimental rat model.

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    Salem, E A; Salem, N A; Hellstrom, W J

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the cytoprotective effects of rutin, ozone and their combination on adriamycin (ADR)-induced testicular toxicity, 50 male albino rats were classified into five groups of ten animals each as follows: placebo group; ADR group; ADR + rutin group; ADR + ozone group and ADR + rutin + ozone group. Sperm functions, testosterone (T), luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testicular enzymes, oxidant/antioxidant status, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant proteins-1 and leukotriene B4 were determined. After ADR injection, a decline in sperm functions was observed. FSH and LH levels were increased, T level and testicular enzymes were decreased, significant enhancement in oxidative stress with subsequent depletion in antioxidants was detected and inflammatory markers were significantly elevated. Treatment with rutin and/or ozone, however, improved the aforementioned parameters. Ozone therapy alone almost completely reversed the toxic effects of ADR and restored all parameters to normal levels. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Models of experimental epilepsy

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    Fatih Ekici

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological conditionin the world, with an estimated prevalence of 1% ofthe population. A large number of experimental modelsof seizure and epilepsy have been developed. These experimentalmodels are elicited by chemical convulsants,electrical stimulation, genetic models, structural lesions,physical stimuli (cold, pressure, hyperthermia, electricalin animals. Well-characterized animal models may allowthe understanding of the basic mechanisms underlyingepileptogenesis (it refers to the alteration of a normalneuronal network into a hyperexcitable network in whichrecurrent, spontaneous seizures occur. Moreover, thesemodels might also prove useful in identifying novel therapeuticapproaches to treatment of epilepsy. J Clin ExpInvest 2011; 2(1: 118-123

  10. 17 beta-Estradiol may affect vulnerability of striatum in a 3-nitropropionic acid-induced experimental model of Huntington's disease in ovariectomized rats.

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    Túnez, Isaac; Collado, Juan A; Medina, Francisco J; Peña, José; Del C Muñoz, María; Jimena, Ignacio; Franco, Francisco; Rueda, Ignacio; Feijóo, Montserrat; Muntané, Jordi; Montilla, Pedro

    2006-04-01

    The aim of present study was to clarify the role of female sex hormones in the development and course of neurodegenerative disease in an experimental model of Huntington's disease induced by 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA) (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)/day for 4 days) in ovariectomized rat. Gonadectomy prompted oxidative stress and cell death evaluated by the detection of caspase-3, whereas 3-nitropropionic acid enhanced the oxidative stress induced by ovariectomy and it triggered cell damage characterized by increases of LDH levels. These changes were prevented by administration of 17 beta-estradiol. Our findings suggested that: (i) ovariectomy induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain; (ii) 3-nitropropionic acid exacerbated oxidative stress induced by ovariectomy and shifting cell to cell death; and (iii) 17 beta-estradiol administration decreased oxidative stress and cell death induced by ovariectomy and 3-nitropropionic acid. These results revealed that sex ovarian hormones play a important role in onset and development of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as neuroprotective effects of 17 beta-estradiol against the changes induced ovariectomy and ovariectomy plus 3-nitropropionic acid.

  11. Feasibility of 99mTc-annexin V for repetitive detection of apoptotic tumor response to chemotherapy: an experimental study using a rat tumor model.

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    Kuge, Yuji; Sato, Masayuki; Zhao, Songji; Takei, Toshiki; Nakada, Kunihiro; Seki, Koh-ich; Strauss, H William; Blankenberg, Francis G; Tait, Jonathan F; Tamaki, Nagara

    2004-02-01

    Annexin V (annexin A5), a human protein with a high affinity for phosphatidylserine, labeled with (99m)Tc can detect apoptosis in vivo. In the repetitive detection of apoptosis with (99m)Tc-annexin V, however, the specific binding of annexin V to phosphatidylserine might affect the subsequent detection of apoptosis with this compound. To determine whether there is interference with repetitive doses of annexin V, we evaluated the effects of previous administration of cold annexin V on accumulation of (99m)Tc-annexin V in tumors in an experimental tumor model. Rats bearing hepatoma received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 11 d after the tumor inoculation. Cold annexin V (20 microg/kg, intravenously) was administered 24 h before or after the cyclophosphamide treatment (n = 7/group). (99m)Tc-Annexin V was injected intravenously (radioactive dose, 5-23 MBq/kg; mass dose, 20 microg/kg), and radioactivity in tissues was determined 6 h later. Accumulation of (99m)Tc-annexin V in tumors was not significantly affected by previous treatment with cold annexin V before or after chemotherapy. These results demonstrate the feasibility of (99m)Tc-annexin V imaging for repetitive detection of apoptosis, which is highly required in the clinical setting.

  12. The Effect of Ethanolic The effect of ethanolic extract of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. on improving the spatial memory parameters in the experimental models of Parkinson disease in male rats

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    Homeyra Hatami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The axial role of the oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease has been identified. On the other hand, the learning and memory impairment in Parkinson disease has a distinguished outlook. Since Saffron has antioxidative stress effects, the aim of the present study is to investigate the improving effects of Saffron extract on the spatial memory parameters in the experimental models of Parkinson disease in male rats. Methods & Materials: In this experimental study, 35 male rats weighing approximately 250±50 gram were randomly divided in five equal groups: control, sham (saline + ascorbat, Parkinson's model (injection of 6-OHDA, 2/5 μg/ μl and 2 groups of Parkinson's model + saffron extract pretreatment (5 and 10 μg/rat for 5 days. The Parkinson’s induction model was made by intracerebral injection of 6 – hydroxy dopamine. The Morris Water maze was used for studying the spatial learning and memory.  The data analysis was performed by using One-Way ANOVA. Results: Intracerebral injection of 6- hydroxy dopamine increased the time latency required for finding the hidden platform and damaged the spatial memory (P<0.05. The pretreatment of Saffron extract (5 and 10 μg/rat, 5 days improved the reduced spatial memory in Parkinson's rats (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The Saffron extract is able to restore the spatial memory parameters such as the time latency and the distance travelled for finding the hidden platform in Parkinson's rats as compared to the level of the control group.

  13. Experimental model of smoking and simulation of reflux with acid and pepsin in rats Modelo experimental de tabagismo e simulação de refluxo com ácido e pepsina em ratos

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    José Hélio Zen Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop experimental models to evaluate the effects of hydrochloric acid associated with the pepsin instilled in the mucosa of the upper esophagus and the esophagogastric junction of young male rats Wistar, simulating injury caused by gastroesophageal reflux on the mucosa of aero-digestive tract in humans as well as the action of the risk exposure of mucosa to cigarette smoke. METHODS: Fifty young male Wistar rats divided in 5 groups with 10 animals each one, respectively simulating pharyngo-laryngeal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux, pharyngo-laryngeal reflux and smoking, smoking only, gastroesophageal reflux and control group. RESULTS: The histopathologic studies no recorded neoplasias, only mild changes and no significant alterations. The hemo-oximetry (carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobim and CO2 concentration confirm that the animals were submitted to high intensity of exposure to carcinogens in tobacco and its derivatives. CONCLUSION: The experimental models were highly efficient, practical, easy to use and economical and can be employed in other similar studies to determine the harmful effects by smoking and reflux.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver modelos experimentais para avaliar os efeitos do ácido clorídrico associado a pepsina, instilados na mucosa da parte superior do esôfago e da junção esofagogástrica de jovens ratos Wistar, simulando lesão causada por refluxo gastroesofágico na mucosa do trato aero-digestivo em humanos, bem como a ação da exposição ao risco de mucosa, como a fumaça de cigarro. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta jovens ratos Wistar divididos em cinco grupos com 10 animais cada um, respectivamente, simulando o refluxo faringo-laríngeo e refluxo gastroesofágico, refluxo faringo-laríngeo e tabagismo, tabagismo só, refluxo gastroesofágico e grupo controle. RESULTADOS: os estudos histopatológicos não registraram neoplasias, apenas leves alterações e não significativas. O hemo-oximetria (carboxiemoglobina e

  14. VENOUS THROMBOSIS IN FREE FLAPS: A STUDY OF THE PHENOMENOLOGY, HISTORY AND CLINICAL SIGNS IN AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF RATS.

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    Luigi Montesano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of free flaps with microsurgical vascular anastomosis has made reconstructions, that would have been considered impossible forty years ago, possible. The limitations of this technique are mainly due to necrosis of the transplanted tissue caused by blockage of the vessels of the flap’s vascular pedicle due to the formation of thrombi at the level of the surgical anastomosis. Thrombosis is handled by removing the thrombus in the shortest possible time, thus allowing restoration of the blood flow. Currently clinical observation is the best way to evaluate the survival of a flap but, being subjective, it is dependent on the observer’s experience. The purpose of this study is to identify the first sure sign of venous thrombosis in a murine model of complete venous occlusion of the pedicle of an inguinal flap, postoperatively and after the restoration of blood flow following a period of stasis; so as to simulate the monitoring of re-thrombosis after recanalization of a thrombosed anastomosis.

  15. Differential Selection of Multidrug Efflux Mutants by Trovafloxacin and Ciprofloxacin in an Experimental Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acute Pneumonia in Rats

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    Join-Lambert, O. F.; Michéa-Hamzehpour, M.; T. Köhler; Chau, F.; Faurisson, F; Dautrey, S; Vissuzaine, C.; Carbon, C.; PECHÈRE, J.-C

    2001-01-01

    The ability of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin to select efflux mutants in vivo was studied in a model of acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats. Twelve hours after intratracheal inoculation of 106 CFU of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 enmeshed in agar beads, two groups of 12 rats were treated by three intraperitoneal injections of each antibiotic given every 5 h. Dosing regimens were chosen to obtain a comparable area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity/MIC ratio of 27.9...

  16. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  17. Groove model of tibia-femoral osteoarthritis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, H.M.; Weinans, H.H.; Coeleveld, K.; van Rijen, M.H.P.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.; Mastbergen, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Several experimental models of osteoarthritis in rats are used to study the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. Many mechanically induced models have the limitation that permanent joint instability is induced by, for example, ligament transection or meniscal damage. This permanent instability will

  18. Effects of low-power LED and therapeutic ultrasound in the tissue healing and inflammation in a tendinitis experimental model in rats.

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    Moura Júnior, Manoel de Jesus; Arisawa, Emilia Ângela Loschiavo; Martin, Airton Abrahão; de Carvalho, Janderson Pereira; da Silva, José Mário Nunes; Silva, José Figueiredo; Silveira, Landulfo

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the anti-inflammatory response of low-power light-emitting diode (LED) and ultrasound (US) therapies and the quality and rapidness of tendon repair in an experimental model of tendinitis, employing histomorphometry and Raman spectroscopy. Tendinitis was induced by collagenase into the right tendon of 35 male Wistar rats with an average weight of 230 g. The animals were randomly separated into seven groups of five animals each: tendinitis without treatment-control (TD7 and TD14, where 1 and 2 indicated sacrifice on the 7th and 14th day, respectively), tendinitis submitted to US therapy (US7 and US14) and tendinitis submitted to LED therapy (LED7 and LED14). Contralateral tendons of the TD group at the 14th day were used as the healthy group (H). US treatment was applied in pulsed mode at 10 %, 1 MHz frequency, 0.5 W/cm(2), 120 s. LED therapy parameters were 4 J/cm(2), 120 s, daily dose at the same time and same point. Sacrifice was performed on the 7th or 14th day. Histomorphometric analysis showed lower number of fibroblasts on the 14th day of therapy for the US-treated group, compared to the TD and LED, indicating lower tissue inflammation. Raman showed that the LED group had an increase in the amount of collagen I and III from the 7th to the 14th day, which would indicate more organized fibers and a better quality of the healing, and US showed lower collagen I synthesis in the 14th day compared to H, indicating a lower tissue reorganization.

  19. Up-regulated ephrinB3/EphB3 expression in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy patients and pilocarpine induced experimental epilepsy rat model.

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    Huang, Hao; Li, Ruohan; Yuan, Jinxian; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xi; Ou, Shu; Xu, Tao; Chen, Yangmei

    2016-05-15

    EphB family receptor tyrosine kinases, in cooperation with cell surface-bound ephrinB ligands, play a critical role in maintenance of dendritic spine morphogenesis, axons guidance, synaptogenesis, synaptic reorganization and plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the expression pattern of ephrinB/EphB in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and the underlying molecular mechanisms during epileptogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the expression pattern and cellular distribution of ephrinB/EphB in intractable TLE patients and lithium chloride-pilocarpine induced TLE rats using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemistry, double-labeled immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Compared to control groups, ephrinB3 and EphB3 mRNA expression were significantly up-regulated in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats, while the mRNA expression trend of ephrinB1/2 and EphB1/2/4/6 in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats were inconsistent. Western blot analysis and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry confirmed that ephrinB3 and EphB3 protein level were up-regulated in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats. At the same time, double-labeled immunofluorescence indicate that ephrinB3 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm and protrusions of glia and neurons, while EphB3 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of neurons. Taken together, up-regulated expression of ephrinB3/EphB3 in intractable TLE patients and experimental TLE rats suggested that ephrinB3/EphB3 might be involved in the pathogenesis of TLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards Precision Medicine for Hypertension: A Review of Genomic, Epigenomic, and Microbiomic Effects on Blood Pressure in Experimental Rat Models and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Joe, Bina

    2017-10-01

    Compelling evidence for the inherited nature of essential hypertension has led to extensive research in rats and humans. Rats have served as the primary model for research on the genetics of hypertension resulting in identification of genomic regions that are causally associated with hypertension. In more recent times, genome-wide studies in humans have also begun to improve our understanding of the inheritance of polygenic forms of hypertension. Based on the chronological progression of research into the genetics of hypertension as the "structural backbone," this review catalogs and discusses the rat and human genetic elements mapped and implicated in blood pressure regulation. Furthermore, the knowledge gained from these genetic studies that provide evidence to suggest that much of the genetic influence on hypertension residing within noncoding elements of our DNA and operating through pervasive epistasis or gene-gene interactions is highlighted. Lastly, perspectives on current thinking that the more complex "triad" of the genome, epigenome, and the microbiome operating to influence the inheritance of hypertension, is documented. Overall, the collective knowledge gained from rats and humans is disappointing in the sense that major hypertension-causing genes as targets for clinical management of essential hypertension may not be a clinical reality. On the other hand, the realization that the polygenic nature of hypertension prevents any single locus from being a relevant clinical target for all humans directs future studies on the genetics of hypertension towards an individualized genomic approach. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Diazinon and Cadmium Neurotoxicity in Rats after an Experimental Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Róbert Toman; Svätoslav Hluchý; Jozef Golian; Michal Cabaj; Mária Adamkovičová

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the changes in cholinesterase activity in separate doses and after coadministration of cadmium and diazinon intraperitoneally and to assess toxicity and interactions of diazinon and cadmium on the nervous system in male rats. 40 male rats were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group (10 rats in each group). Blood analyzes were performed 36 hours after an intraperitoneal administration of observed compounds. The statistical evaluatio...

  2. Proposal of non-invasive experimental model to induce scoliosis in rats Proposta de modelo experimental não-invasivo para indução de escoliose em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the literature, there are several experimental models that induce scoliosis in rats; however, they make use of drugs or invasive interventions to generate a scoliotic curve. OBJECTIVES: To design and apply a non-invasive immobilization model to induce scoliosis in rats. METHODS: Four-week old male Wistar rats (85±3.3g were divided into two groups: control (CG and scoliosis (SG. The animals in the SG were immobilized by two vests (scapular and pelvic made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC and externally attached to each other by a retainer that regulated the scoliosis angle for twelve weeks with left convexity. After immobilization, the abdominal, intercostal, paravertebral, and pectoral muscles were collected for chemical and metabolic analyses. Radiographic reports were performed every 30 days over a 16-week period. RESULTS: The model was effective in the induction of scoliosis, even 30 days after immobilization, with a stable angle of 28±5º. The chemical and metabolic analyses showed a decrease (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Encontram-se na literatura diversos modelos experimentais de indução de escoliose em ratos, porém evidencia-se o uso de drogas ou intervenções invasivas para a geração da curvatura escoliótica. OBJETIVOS: Projetar e aplicar um modelo de imobilização não-invasiva para a indução de escoliose em ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos com idade inicial de quatro semanas (85±3,3g foram divididos nos grupos controle (GC e escoliose (GE. Os animais do GE foram imobilizados por dois cintos (escapular e pélvico de policloreto de vinila (PVC, interligados externamente por um limitador que regulava o ângulo da escoliose durante 12 semanas, com convexidade à esquerda. Após a imobiliza��ão, os músculos abdominais, intercostais, paravertebrais e peitorais bilateralmente foram coletados para as análises químio-metabólicas. Os registros radiológicos foram realizados a cada 30 dias, num total de 16 semanas

  3. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups

  4. Liver retinol and carotenoid concentration of rats experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the liver retinol and carotenoid concentration of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Results of the liver retinol determination showed that T. brucei infection led to a progressively significant (P < 0.01) depletion of liver retinol concentration (body vitamin A status) of infected rats from ...

  5. Differential selection of multidrug efflux mutants by trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin in an experimental model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute pneumonia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join-Lambert, O F; Michéa-Hamzehpour, M; Köhler, T; Chau, F; Faurisson, F; Dautrey, S; Vissuzaine, C; Carbon, C; Pechère, J

    2001-02-01

    The ability of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin to select efflux mutants in vivo was studied in a model of acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats. Twelve hours after intratracheal inoculation of 10(6) CFU of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 enmeshed in agar beads, two groups of 12 rats were treated by three intraperitoneal injections of each antibiotic given every 5 h. Dosing regimens were chosen to obtain a comparable area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity/MIC ratio of 27.9 min for trovafloxacin (75 mg/kg of body weight) and of 32.6 min for ciprofloxacin (12.5 mg/kg). Twelve rats were left untreated and served as controls. Rats were sacrificed 12 h after the last injection (34 h after infection) for lung bacteriological studies. Selection of resistant bacteria was determined by plating lung homogenates on Trypticase soy agar plates containing antibiotic. In untreated animals, the frequency of resistant colonies was 10-fold higher than in agar beads. Compared to controls, both treatment regimens resulted in a 2-log reduction of lung bacterial load. The frequency of resistant colonies was 10-fold less with trovafloxacin than with ciprofloxacin at twice the MIC (7.4 x 10(-5) versus 8.4 x 10(-4), respectively) (P < 0.05) and at four times the MIC (6.2 x 10(-4) versus 5.0 x 10(-5), respectively) (P < 0.05). A multidrug resistance phenotype typical of efflux mutants was observed in all 41 randomly tested colonies obtained from treated and untreated rats. In agreement with in vitro results, trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin preferentially selected MexCD-OprJ and MexEF-OprN overproducers, respectively. These results demonstrate the differential ability of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin to select efflux mutants in vivo and highlight the rapid emergence of those mutants, even without treatment.

  6. An experimental model of prolonged esophagitis with sphincter failure in the rat and the therapeutic potential of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Igor; Dobric, Ivan; Drvis, Petar; Shejbal, Drazen; Brcic, Luka; Blagaic, Alenka Boban; Batelja, Lovorka; Kokic, Neven; Tonkic, Ante; Mise, Stjepan; Baotic, Tomislav; Staresinic, Mario; Radic, Bozo; Jakir, Ana; Vuksic, Tihomir; Anic, Tomislav; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2006-11-01

    We report a simple novel rat model that combines prolonged esophagitis and parallel sphincters failure. The anti-ulcer gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, which was found to be stable in gastric juice, and is being evaluated in inflammatory bowel disease trials, is an anti-esophagitis therapy that recovers failed sphincters. Twelve or twenty months after the initial challenge (tubes sutured into sphincters for one week and then spontaneously removed by peristalsis), rats exhibit prolonged esophagitis (confluent hemorrhagic and yellowish lesions, thinner epithelium and superficial corneal layer, with stratification derangement); constantly lowered pressure of both sphincters (assessed by using a water manometer connected to the drainage port of a Foley catheter implanted into the stomach either through esophageal or duodenal incision); and both lower esophageal and pyloric sphincter failure. Throughout the esophagitis experiment, BPC 157 was given at either 10 micro g/kg, i.p., once a day (last application 24 h before assessment) or alternatively, it was given continuously in drinking water at 0.16 micro g/ml (12 ml/rat). This treatment recovers i) esophagitis (macroscopically and microscopically, at either region or investigated time period) and ii) pressure in both sphincters (cmH2O). In addition, BPC 157 (10 micro g/kg) or saline (1 ml/rat, 5 ml/kg) was specifically given directly into the stomach; pressure assessment was performed at 5 min thereafter. The effect of BPC 157 is specific because in normal rats, it increases lower esophageal sphincter-pressure, but decreases pyloric sphincter-pressure. Ranitidine, given as the standard drug using the same protocol (50 mg/kg, i.p., once daily; 0.83 mg/ml in drinking water; or 50 mg/kg directly into the stomach) had no effect.

  7. Intervention of sodium aescinate on experimental pneumonedema of rats

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    Le HAI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To probe into the intervention of sodium aescinate on the experimental pneumonedema of rats.Methods A total of 40 SD rats were divided into three groups,including the control group(n=8,experimental plateau pneumochysis group(HAPE group,n=16,and sodium aescinate group(SA group,n=16.The experimental plateau pneumochysis model was established to move at a speed of 20 m/min.The rats were placed into the hypobaric chamber(6000 m of simulative altitude with low oxygen for 6 h after a 2-h movement.The process was repeated three times each day for 2 d.After the model was completed,the rats in the control and HAPE groups were injected with 0.5 ml/kg of physiological saline through the caudal vein,whereas the rats in the SA group were injected with 5 mg/kg of sodium aescinate.The rats in the HAPE and SA groups were then put to death after being placed into the hypobaric chamber with low oxygen for 6 h and 12 h(a total of 42 h and 48 h hypoxia exposure,respectively,to observe the arterial partial pressure of oxygen(PaO2,partial pressure of carbon dioxide(PaCO2,pH value,lung tissue pathology,W/D ratio of the lungs,and the change of serum and tumor necrosis factor of lung tissue(TNF-α.Results The pathological section shows that interstitial tissue and alveolus edema were present in the HAPE group,as well as serous effusion,lots of inflammatory cells,and dialysed hematid in alveolar space,Compared with the HAPE group,the effusion of inflammatory cells in the alveolar space of the SA group,was lighter.Compared with the control group,the PaO2 and PaCO2 of the HAPE group decreased obviously on all time points(P < 0.01or P < 0.05,whereas the PaO2 and PaCO2(except for PaCO2 on the time point of 48 h in the SA group was still lower than that of the control group(P < 0.01 or P < 0.05.The PaO2 and PaCO2(except for PaCO2 on the time point of 42 h in the SA group increased significantly(P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 compared with that of the HAPE group.The pH value

  8. Extensive FDG uptake and its modification with corticosteroid in a granuloma rat model: an experimental study for differentiating granuloma from tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Songji; Takei, Toshiki; Zhao, Yan; Tamaki, Nagara [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Department of Patho-functional Bioanalysis, Kyoto (Japan); Kohanawa, Masashi [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Microbiology, Sapporo (Japan); Takahashi, Toshiyuki [Hokkaido Gastroenterology Hospital, Department of Pathology, Sapporo (Japan); Kawashima, Hidekazu; Temma, Takashi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Department of Patho-functional Bioanalysis, Kyoto (Japan); Seki, Koh-ichi [Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2007-12-15

    Increased {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in inflammatory lesions, particularly in granulomatous inflammation (e.g., sarcoidosis), makes it difficult to differentiate malignant tumors from benign lesions and is the main source of false-positive FDG-PET findings in oncology. Here, we developed a rat granuloma model and examined FDG uptake in the granuloma. The effects of corticosteroid on FDG uptake in the granuloma were compared with those in a malignant tumor. Rats were inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or allogenic hepatoma cells, and subdivided into control and pretreated (methylprednisolone acetate, 8 mg/kg i.m.) groups. Radioactivity in tissues was determined 1 h after the FDG injection. FDG-PET was performed in rats bearing BCG granulomas or tumors before and after prednisolone treatment. Mature epithelioid cell granuloma-formation and massive lymphocyte-infiltration were observed in the control group of granuloma, histologically similar to sarcoidosis. The mean FDG uptake in the granuloma was comparable to that in the hepatoma. Prednisolone reduced epithelioid cell granuloma-formation and lymphocyte-infiltration. Prednisolone significantly decreased the level of FDG uptake in the granuloma (52% of control), but not in the hepatoma. The FDG uptake levels in the granulomas and tumors were clearly imaged with PET. We developed an intramuscular granuloma rat model that showed a high FDG uptake comparable to that of the tumor. The effect of prednisolone pretreatment on FDG uptake was greater in the granuloma than in the tumor. These results suggest that BCG-induced granuloma may be a valuable model and may provide a biological basis for FDG studies. (orig.)

  9. Ovariectomized rats as a model of postmenopausal osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh-Andersen, Pernille; Tankó, László B; Andersen, Thomas L

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of ovariectomy on cartilage turnover and degradation, to evaluate whether ovariectomized (OVX) rats could form an experimental model of postmenopausal osteoarthritis. The effect of ovariectomy on cartilage was studied using two cohorts of female Sprague-Dawley rats...... a useful experimental model for the evaluation of the chondroprotective effects of estrogens and estrogen-like substances and the model may be an in vivo representation of osteoarthritis in postmenopausal women....

  10. Direct muscle neurotization after end-to end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy: An experimental study in the rat forelimb model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Igor; Ronchi, Giulia; Muratori, Luisa; Mazzucco, Alessandra; Magaudda, Ludovico; Geuna, Stefano

    2012-10-15

    The need for the continuous research of new tools for improving motor function recovery after nerve injury is justified by the still often unsatisfactory clinical outcome in these patients. It has been previously shown that the combined use of two reconstructive techniques, namely end-to-side neurorrhaphy and direct muscle neurotization in the rat hindlimb model, can lead to good results in terms of skeletal muscle reinnervation. Here we show that, in the rat forelimb model, the combined use of direct muscle neurotization with either end-to-end or end-to-side neurorrhaphy to reinnervate the denervated flexor digitorum muscles, leads to muscle atrophy prevention over a long postoperative time lapse (10 months). By contrast, very little motor recovery (in case of end-to-end neurorrhaphy) and almost no motor recovery (in case of end-to-side neurorrhaphy) were observed in the grasping activity controlled by flexor digitorum muscles. It can thus be concluded that, at least in the rat, direct muscle neurotization after both end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy represents a good strategy for preventing denervation-related muscle atrophy but not for regaining the lost motor function.

  11. Effects of obesity on IL-33/ST2 system in heart, adipose tissue and liver: study in the experimental model of Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, Rosetta; Cabiati, Manuela; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; D'Amico, Andrea; Giannessi, Daniela; Del Ry, Silvia; Caselli, Chiara

    2017-04-01

    Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) mediates the effect of Interleukin-33 (IL-33). Few data are reported on the relationship between IL-33/ST2 and obesity. We aimed to investigate effects of obesity on IL-33/ST2 system in heart, adipose tissue and liver in a rodent model of obesity. The relationship of cardiac expression of IL-33/ST2 system with natriuretic peptides (NPs) system and inflammatory mediators was also studied. mRNA expression of IL-33/ST2 system was evaluated in cardiac, adipose and hepatic biopsies from obese Zucker rats (O) and controls (CO). Expression levels of sST2 was significantly lower in O rats compared with CO (pobesity. The strong relationships with NP systems and inflammatory mediators could suggest an involvement for IL-33/ST2 in molecular pathways leading to cardiac dysfunction and inflammation associated with obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. O modelo experimental de carcinogênese gástrica induzido por n-methyl-n-nitrosourea em ratos F344 e camundongos C3H é válido para os ratos Wistar? Experimental model of gastric carcinogenesis with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea for F344 rats and C3H mices is valid for Wistar rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissandro Tarso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O N-metil-N-nitrosourea (MNU tem ação cancerígena direta, induzindo tumores em várias espécies em uma variedade de órgãos, incluindo o estômago de ratos. Tratamento do MNU na água de beber por 25-42 semanas, seletivamente, induz carcinoma gástrico glandular de ratos F344 e camundongos C3H. OBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental para indução seletiva de câncer no estômago glandular de ratos Wistar com MNU. MÉTODOS: Um total de 48 ratos Wistar machos com oito semanas, foram utilizados no presente estudo. MNU (Sigma-Aldrich foi dissolvido em DMSO e liberada água potável ad libitum por um período variando de 16 a 70 semanas. Após 16 semanas, quatro ratos foram selecionados aleatoriamente e mortos. Depois, de seis em seis semanas, quatro animais também foram mortos até 70 semanas. RESULTADOS: A taxa de sobrevivência foi superior a 90%. Ocorreu a indução de dois adenocarcinomas, um carcinoma espinocelular e um sarcoma. A incidência de adenocarcinoma gástrico foi de 4,5% (0,5 a 15. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo experimental de carcinogênese gástrica em ratos Wistar, utilizando MNU dissolvido na água, não mostrou viabilidade prática neste estudo, devido à baixa taxa de adenocarcinoma gástrico que ocorreu.BACKGROUND: The N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU is a direct acting carcinogen, inducing tumors in several species in a variety of organs, including stomach of rats. Treatment of MNU in the drinking water for 25-42 weeks selectively induced glandular gastric carcinoma in F344 rats and C3H mice. AIM: To establish an experimental model for selective MNU induction of glandular stomach cancer in Wistar rats. METHODS: A total of 48 males eight-week-old Wistar rats were used in the present study. MNU (Sigma-Aldrich was dissolved in DMSO and provided as the drinking water ad libitum for a period ranging from 16 to 70 weeks. After 16 weeks, four rats were randomly selected and killed. After every six weeks four animals

  13. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    and discuss techniques for handling and representing uncertainty when modelling in experimental system development. These techniques are centred on patterns and styles for handling uncertainty in object-oriented software architectures. Tools We present the Knight tool designed for collaborative modelling......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...... through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...

  14. Curcumin alleviates diabetic cardiomyopathy in experimental diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM, characterized by myocardial structural and functional changes, is an independent cardiomyopathy that develops in diabetic individuals. The present study was sought to investigate the effect of curcumin on modulating DCM and the mechanisms involved.An experimental diabetic rat model was induced by low dose of streptozoticin(STZ combined with high energy intake on rats. Curcumin was orally administrated at a dose of 100 or 200 mg · kg(-1 · d(-1, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated by serial echocardiography. Myocardial ultrastructure, fibrosis area and apoptosis were assessed by histopathologic analyses. Metabolic profiles, myocardial enzymes and oxidative stress were examined by biochemical tests. Inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA, and interrelated proteins were measured by western blot.Rats with DCM showed declined systolic myocardial performance associated with myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, which were accompanied with metabolism abnormalities, aberrant myocardial enzymes, increased AGEs (advanced glycation end products accumulation and RAGE (receptor for AGEs expression, elevated markers of oxidative stress (MDA, SOD, the ratio of NADP(+/NADPH, Rac1 activity, NADPH oxidase subunits expression of gp91(phox and p47(phox , raised inflammatory factor (TNF-α and IL-1β, enhanced apoptotic cell death (ratio of bax/bcl-2, caspase-3 activity and TUNEL, diminished Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Remarkably, curcumin attenuated myocardial dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, AGEs accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the heart of diabetic rats. The inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β was also restored by curcumin treatment.Taken together, these results suggest that curcumin may have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DCM, and perhaps other cardiovascular disorders, by attenuating fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. Furthermore, Akt

  15. Uso do laser, 670 nm, no quadro álgico de ratos submetidos à modelo experimental de ciatalgia Use of laser, 670 nm, in painful episodes of rats submitted to experimental model of sciatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Broetto Cunha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A ciatalgia deve-se a compressão do nervo isquiático em algum ponto de seu trajeto, e seu tratamento consiste em solucionar a causa da compressão nervosa, seja por tratamento cirúrgico ou conservador. Alguns recursos fisioterapêuticos atuam basicamente na redução dos sintomas ocasionados por este distúrbio. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a eficácia do laser 670 nm, em duas diferentes densidades de energia, na redução do quadro álgico, em ratos submetidos a modelo experimental de ciatalgia. Foram utilizados 18 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos: G1 (n=6 submetidos à ciatalgia e simulado o tratamento (grupo placebo, G2 (n=6 submetido à ciatalgia e tratados com laser 2 J/cm², G3 (n=6 submetidos à ciatalgia e irradiados com laser 4 J/cm². O nervo isquiático do membro posterior direito dos animais foi exposto e compressão com fio catgut em 4 pontos ao redor do nervo foi realizada. No 3° dia pós-operatório, iniciou-se o tratamento com laser na região do procedimento cirúrgico do membro posterior direito durante 10 dias consecutivos. Verificou-se por meio da marcha, o tempo em que o membro permanecia no ar nos períodos: anterior à ciatalgia, pré e pós-tratamento. Os resultados demonstraram que o laser não foi eficaz na redução do quadro álgico, porém com 4 J/cm² houve efeito positivo, sem restabelecimento completo da funcionalidade.Sciatica is caused by the sciatic nerve compression in some point of its course, and its treatment consists of solving the nervous compression cause, either by surgical or conservative treatment. Some physiotherapeutic resources act basically in the reduction of the symptoms caused by this disturbance. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of the laser 670 nm, in two different energy densities, in the pain reduction, in rats submitted to a sciatica experimental model. Eighteen rats, divided in 3 groups were used: G1 (n=6 submitted to sciatica and simulated treatment (placebo

  16. Swertiamarin: An Active Lead from Enicostemma littorale Regulates Hepatic and Adipose Tissue Gene Expression by Targeting PPAR-γ and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Experimental NIDDM Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar P. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enicostemma littorale (EL Blume is one of the herbs widely used for treating and alleviating the effects of both type I and type II diabetes. However, lack of understanding of mechanism precludes the use of the herb and its molecules. In this study, we attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism of action of swertiamarin, a compound isolated form EL, by comparing its molecular effects with those of aqueous EL extract in alleviating the insulin resistance in type II diabetes. We further investigated hypolipidemic and insulin sensitizing effect of swertiamarin in experimentally induced noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM in rats. Swertiamarin (50 mg/kg and aqueous extract (15 grams dried plant equivalent extract/kg were administered to rats orally for 40 days and tight regulation of serum glucose, insulin, and lipid profile was found in both groups. Their mode of action was by restoring G6Pase and HMG-CoA reductase activities to normal levels and restoring normal transcriptional levels of PEPCK, GK, Glut 2, PPAR-γ, leptin, adiponectin, LPL, SREBP-1c, and Glut 4 genes. This suggests that both treatments increased insulin sensitivity and regulated carbohydrate and fat metabolism. This is the first report on the role of SM in regulating the PPARγ-mediated regulation of candidate genes involved in metabolism in peripheral tissues in vivo.

  17. Effect of Transplantation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelets Rich Plasma on Experimental Model of Radiation Induced Oral Mucosal Injury in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma Elsaadany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tissue damage following radiotherapy is still a major problem in cancer treatment. Therefore, the current work aimed at exploring the possible role of systemically injected bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and/or locally injected platelet rich plasma (PRP in ameliorating the side effects of ionizing radiation on the rat’s tongue. Twelve rats served as control group (N and 48 rats received a single radiation dose of 13 Gy to the head and neck region; then, they were equally divided into 4 experimental groups: irradiated only (C, irradiated + MSCs (S, irradiated + (PRP (P, and combined group (PS. Animal scarification occurred in 3 and 7 days after radiation. Then, tongues were dissected and examined histologically and for expression of bcl-2 by RT-PCR. Histological examination of the treated groups (S, (P, and (PS revealed an obvious improvement in the histological structure of the tongue, compared to group (C, in addition to upregulated expression of bcl-2, indicating decreased apoptotic activity. Conclusion. BM-MSCs and PRP have shown positive effect in minimizing the epithelial atrophy of normal oral mucosa after regional radiotherapy, which was emphasized by decreasing apoptotic activity in these tissues. Nevertheless, combined use of BM-MSCs and PRP did not reveal the assumed synergetic effect in oral tissue protection.

  18. Degenerative effects in rat eyes after experimental ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scarsella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was used to evaluate the degenerative effects on the retina and eye-cup sections after experimental induction of acute ocular hypertension on animal models. In particular, vascular events were directly focused in this research in order to assess the vascular remodeling after transient ocular hypertension on rat models. After local anaesthesia by administration of eye drops of 0.4% oxibuprocaine, 16 male adult Wistar rats were injected in the anterior chamber of the right eye with 15 µL of methylcellulose (MTC 2% in physiological solution. The morphology and the vessels of the retina and eye-cup sections were examined in animals sacrificed 72 h after induction of ocular hypertension. In retinal fluorescein angiographies (FAGs, by means of fluorescein isothiocyanate-coniugated dextran (FITC, the radial venules showed enlargements and increased branching, while the arterioles appeared focally thickened. The length and size of actually perfused vessels appeared increased in the whole superficial plexus. In eye-cup sections of MTC-injected animals, in deep plexus and connecting layer there was a bigger increase of vessels than in controls. Moreover, the immunolocalization of astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP revealed its increased expression in internal limiting membrane and ganglion cell layer, as well as its presence in Müller cells. Finally, the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was found to be especially expressed by neurones of ganglion cell layer, both in control and in MTC-injected eyes. The data obtained in this experimental model on the interactions among glia, vessels and neurons should be useful to evaluate if also in glaucomatous patients the activation of vessel-adjacent glial cells might play key roles in following neuronal dysfunction.

  19. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  20. Characterization of tissue from the bone-polymethylmethacrylate interface in a rat experimental model. Demonstration of collagen-degrading activity and bone-resorbing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, M R; Fechner, R E; Jeffrey, J J; Balian, G; Whitehill, R

    1989-07-01

    In previous studies, we described a layer of tissue that formed around methylmethacrylate cement that had been implanted into the posterior cervical spine of dogs. We are now reporting on a rat model in which we induced, in the interface between the bone of the posterior elements of the dorsal spine and methylmethacrylate, the formation of a layer of tissue that was morphologically similar to the tissue that had been produced in the dogs. As in the dogs, we noted macrophages and giant cells and we demonstrated that the interface tissue synthesized several basement-membrane components (type-IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin). In addition, we demonstrated the synthesis of an additional extracellular-matrix protein--type-VI collagen. We also showed that extracts of organ cultures of tissue from the rat model degraded type-I collagen into three-quarter and one-quarter-length fragments. Such enzymatic activity is characterized of mammalian collagenase, an enzyme that is known to play a critical role in the resorption of bone.

  1. Sleep deprivation attenuates experimental stroke severity in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Constantinescu, Alexandra Oana; Balseanu, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Indirect epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that the severity of injury during stroke is influenced by prior sleep history. The aim of our study was to test the effect of acute sleep deprivation on early outcome following experimental stroke. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20......) were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia by reversible right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min. In 10 rats, MCAO was performed just after 6-h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) by "gentle handling", whereas the other rats served as controls. Neurological function during the first week...... after stroke was monitored using a battery of behavioral tests investigating the asymmetry of sensorimotor deficit (tape removal test and cylinder test), bilateral sensorimotor coordination (rotor-rod and Inclined plane) and memory (T-maze and radial maze). Following MCAO, control rats had impaired...

  2. Effect of DATS on experimental corneal neovascularization induced by corneal suture in rats cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of diallyl trisulfide(DATSon experimental corneal neovascularization(CNVin rats induced by corneal suture and detect the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFand p-AKT in rats cornea. METHODS: The rat model of corneal neovascularization(CNVwas induced by corneal suture. Rats were randomly divided into Group A: physiological saline control group containing DMSO(10 rats; Group B: 25μmol/L DATS treatment group(10 rats; Group C: 50μmol/L DATS treatment group(10 rats; Group D: 100μmol/L DATS treatment group(10 rats; Group E: 200μmol/L DATS treatment group(10 rats. The occurrence and development of CNV were observed by slit-lamp microscope at 7d after suture, and the area of CNV were calculated.Two weeks later, HE staining was used to observe the pathological organization form of each cornea, and RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of VEGF mRNA and protein expression of VEGF and p-AKT between each groups. RESULTS: The blood vessel area of Group C, D and E was compared with that of Group A, the difference was statistically significant(PPPCONCLUSION: DATS can inhibit corneal neovascularization of the rats induced by suture. Its mechanism may be associated with suppression of VEGF secretion, down-regulation of VEGF and inactivation of p-AKT.

  3. Experimental models of longitudinal abdominal incisional hernia in rats Modelos experimentais de hérnias incisionais abdominais longitudinais, em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo N. S. Paulo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal incisional hernias in rats has been produced after resection of a segment of abdominal muscle. In a attempt to create a model of incisional hernia in rats, without resection of abdominal muscle, the following surgical procedures were performed: (a Rats anesthetized with ether were submitted to a 4 cm long median incision, supra and infraumbilical, followed by dissection of the subcutaneous tissue 1.5 cm laterally to the median line in each side; after, one incision was performed in the linea alba and peritoneum, with the same extension of the skin incision; the skin incision was sutured. (b Rats were submited to a suprapubic transversal incision and a scissors introduced through this incision and used to dissect the subcutaneous tissue at least 1.5 cm for each side of median line; after, the linea alba and peritoneoum were incised and the transversal skin incision sutured. (c For control, rats were submitted to a resection of a 2.5 x 4 cm of the abdominal muscles, creating a large defect in the abdominal wall. All the animal, submitted to the three different procedures, developed similar well constituted hernias. We concluded that abdominal incisonal hernias are easily induced in rats after an incision of the abdominal wall, without partial resection of abdominal muscle, since the subcutaneous have been dissected at least 1.5 cm laterally to the median line.Hérnias incisionais abdominais no rato têm sido produzidas pela ressecção de fragmento dos músculos de parede abdominal. Na tentativa de criar um modelo de hérnia incisional abdominal no rato, sem ressecção de fragmentos de músculo de parede abdominal, os seguintes procedimentos cirúrgicos foram realizados: (a Ratos anestesiados com vapores de éter foram submetidos à uma incisão longitudinal mediana supra e infra umbilical, de 4 cm de comprimento, seguida do descolamento do tecido celular subcutaneo em uma extensão de 1,5 cm lateralmente à linha mediana; de cada lado

  4. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures.

  5. Stretch Injuries of Skeletal Muscles: Experimental Study in Rats` Soleus Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    PACHIONI, Celia Aparecida Stellutti; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Claudio Henrique; Camargo, Marcela Regina de [UNESP; Fregonesi, Cristina Elena Prado Teles [UNESP; Carmo, Edna Maria do; NOZABIELLI, Andrea Jeanne Lourenco; Martinelli, Alessandra Rezende

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to verify the physiological injury behavior by stretching the soleus muscle of rats, using a noninvasive experimental model. Twenty-four rats were used and divided into three groups of eight animals: control group (A), group that performed tetanus followed by electrical stimulation and a sudden dorsiflexion of the left paw performed by a device equipped with a mechanism of muscle soleus rapid stretching (B); and a group that only received the tetanus (C). Three days later, the...

  6. The relationship between plasma free fatty acids and experimentally induced hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. J.; Bosman, D. K.; Jörning, G. G.; de Haan, J. G.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in the rat have been investigated in order to study the postulated relationship between plasma free fatty acids concentration (C6 - C22:0) and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy. As a model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy, porta caval shunted

  7. [Experimental varicocele affects the ipsilateral testis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Cheng, Fan; Zhou, Ben-Zheng; Rao, Ting; Fei, An-Hua

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the impact of experimental varicocele (EV) on the ipsilateral testis in rats. EV was induced by partial ligation of the left renal vein in male SD rats, the control rats subjected to sham operation, and the testes of the EV models and controls were extirpated 6, 12, and 18 weeks later. Johnson's score, ultrastructure of seminiferous tubules, intratesticular testosterone concentration (ITC) and germ cell apoptotic index (AI) of each left testis were evaluated. Johnson's scores were (6.92 +/- 0.52), (4.83 +/- 0.41) and (2.95 +/- 0.26), ITCswere (6.32 +/- 0.85), (5.17 +/- 0.76) and (4.11 +/- 0.69) and AIs were (5.32 +/- 1.23), (15.21 +/- 0.97) and (21.13 +/- 1.12) respectively in the 6 w , 12 w and 18 w EV groups, significantly lower than in the corresponding control groups, (9.56 +/- 0.35, 9.63 +/- 0.31, 9.39 +/- 0.46), (9.64 +/- 1.23, 9.38 +/- 0.69, 9.73 +/- 0.49) and (3.21 +/- 1.15, 3.43 +/- 1.21, 3.61 +/- 1. 15) (P < 0.05), the former two showing a gradual decline while the latter a significant elevation with the increasing duration of varicocele. The damage to the ultrastructure of seminiferous tubules was aggravated with the prolonging of varicocele. EV can cause a progressive decline of ITC, dyszoospermia and increased AI of germ cells.

  8. Experimental Animal Models in Periodontology: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struillou, Xavier; Boutigny, Hervé; Soueidan, Assem; Layrolle, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    In periodontal research, animal studies are complementary to in vitro experiments prior to testing new treatments. Animal models should make possible the validation of hypotheses and prove the safety and efficacy of new regenerating approaches using biomaterials, growth factors or stem cells. A review of the literature was carried out by using electronic databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Science). Numerous animal models in different species such as rats, hamsters, rabbits, ferrets, canines and primates have been used for modeling human periodontal diseases and treatments. However, both the anatomy and physiopathology of animals are different from those of humans, making difficult the evaluation of new therapies. Experimental models have been developed in order to reproduce major periodontal diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis), their pathogenesis and to investigate new surgical techniques. The aim of this review is to define the most pertinent animal models for periodontal research depending on the hypothesis and expected results. PMID:20556202

  9. Cytogenetics and experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toretsky, J A; Helman, L J

    1997-07-01

    The use of cytogenetics has led to significant improvement in the diagnoses and classification of sarcomas. Many of the major sarcomas have been to have characteristic tumor-specific chromosomal translocations that are currently used in the diagnosis of these tumors. In the past year, a subset of Ewing's family of tumors and myxoid liposarcomas, which lack one of the characteristic translocations, were found to carry related translocations. New technologies such as a spectral karyotyping will likely increase out ability to identify additional tumor-specific translocations. The emergence of genetic alterations as prognostic factors, as illustrated by Ewing's family of tumors, osteosarcoma, and p53 expression in soft tissue sarcomas in general, is discussed. The review concludes with laboratory applications derived from either tumor cytogenetic or gene function abnormalities that are related to tumor-specific translocations. It is anticipated that advances in diagnosis, prognosis, and modeling will translate into future therapeutic advances.

  10. Inhalable dry-emulsion formulation of cyclosporine A with improved anti-inflammatory effects in experimental asthma/COPD-model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Kumiko; Kojo, Yoshiki; Aoki, Yosuke; Kawabata, Yohei; Wada, Koichi; Mizumoto, Takahiro; Yamada, Shizuo

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to develop a novel respirable powder (RP) formulation of cyclosporine A (CsA) using a spray-dried O/W-emulsion (DE) system. DE formulation of CsA (DE/CsA) was prepared by spray-drying a mixture of erythritol and liquid O/W emulsion containing CsA, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and glyceryl monooleate as emulsifying agent. The DE/CsA powders were mixed with lactose carriers to obtain an RP formulation of DE/CsA (DE/CsA-RP), and its physicochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacokinetic properties were evaluated. Spray-dried DE/CsA exhibited significant improvement in dissolution behavior with ca. 4500-fold increase of dissolution rate, and then, nanoemulsified particles were reconstituted with a mean diameter of 317 nm. Laser diffraction analysis on the DE/CsA-RP suggested high dispersion of DE/CsA on the surface of the lactose carrier. Anti-inflammatory properties of the inhaled DE/CsA-RP were characterized in antigen-sensitized asthma/COPD-model rats, in which the DE/CsA-RP was more potent than the RP formulation of physical mixture containing CsA and erythritol in inhibiting inflammatory responses, possibly due to the improved dissolution behavior. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that systemic exposure of CsA after intratracheal administration of the DE/CsA-RP at a pharmacologically effective dose (100 μg-CsA/rat) was 50-fold less than that of the oral CsA dosage form at a toxic dose (10 mg/kg). From these findings, use of inhalable DE formulation of CsA might be a promising approach for the treatment of airway inflammatory diseases with improved pharmacodynamics and lower systemic exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of LigaSure™ on bile duct in rats: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, Antonio; Pintozzi, Lucia

    2017-08-01

    The closure of a cystic duct during cholecystectomy by means of radiofrequency is still controversial. We report our preliminary experimental results with the use of LigaSure™ on common bile duct in rats. Thirty Wistar rats weighing 70 to 120 g were employed for this study. The animals were all anesthetized with intraperitoneal ketamine and then divided into three groups. The first group (10 rats, Group C) underwent only laparotomy and isolation of the common bile duct. The second (10 rats, Group M) underwent laparotomy and closure of the common bile duct (CBD) with monopolar coagulation. The third group (10 rats, Group L) underwent laparotomy and sealing of the common bile duct with two application of LigaSureTM. Afterwards, all rats were kept in comfortable cages and were administered dibenzamine for five days. They were all sacrificed on day 20. Through a laparotomy, the liver and bile duct were removed for histological examination. Blood samples were obtained to dose bilirubin, amylase and transaminase levels. Mortality rate was 0 in the control group (C), 3/10 rats in group M and 0 in group L. In group L, the macroscopic examination showed a large choledochocele (3-3.5 × 1.5 cm) with few adhesions. At the histological examination there was optimal sealing of the common bile duct in 9/10 rats. In group M, 2/10 rats had liver abscesses, 3/10 rats had choledochocele and 5/10 rats, biliary peritonitis. There was intense tissue inflammation and the dissection was difficult. Analyses of blood samples showed an increase in total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in groups M and L. The preliminary results of our study confirm that radiofrequency can be safely used for the closure of the common bile duct. The choledochocele obtained with this technique could represent a good experimental model. These results could be a further step for using the LigaSureTM in clipless cholecystectomy.

  12. Experimental Trichinellosis in rats: Peritoneal macrophage activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruden-Movsesijan Alisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Trichinella spiralis infection on macrophage activity in rats during the first 28 days of infection was examined by measuring the production of NO and IL-6, as well as the expression of mannose receptor on the surface of peritoneal macrophages. During the course of a dynamic shift in the 3 life-cycle stages of the parasite, intermittent variations in NO production were observed but ended with increased values that coincided with the highest values for IL-6 release in the final, muscle phase of infection. No change in mannose receptor expression was observed during the course of infection. These results confirm that the Trichinella spiralis infection provokes changes in macrophage activity that could influence not only the course of the parasitic disease but also the overall immune status of the host.

  13. An Automated, Experimenter-Free Method for the Standardised, Operant Cognitive Testing of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalan, Marion; Munawar, Humaira; Fuchs, Anna; Winter, York

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of human pathology are essential for biomedical research. However, a recurring issue in the use of animal models is the poor reproducibility of behavioural and physiological findings within and between laboratories. The most critical factor influencing this issue remains the experimenter themselves. One solution is the use of procedures devoid of human intervention. We present a novel approach to experimenter-free testing cognitive abilities in rats, by combining undisturbed group housing with automated, standardized and individual operant testing. This experimenter-free system consisted of an automated-operant system (Bussey-Saksida rat touch screen) connected to a home cage containing group living rats via an automated animal sorter (PhenoSys). The automated animal sorter, which is based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology, functioned as a mechanical replacement of the experimenter. Rats learnt to regularly and individually enter the operant chamber and remained there for the duration of the experimental session only. Self-motivated rats acquired the complex touch screen task of trial-unique non-matching to location (TUNL) in half the time reported for animals that were manually placed into the operant chamber. Rat performance was similar between the two groups within our laboratory, and comparable to previously published results obtained elsewhere. This reproducibility, both within and between laboratories, confirms the validity of this approach. In addition, automation reduced daily experimental time by 80%, eliminated animal handling, and reduced equipment cost. This automated, experimenter-free setup is a promising tool of great potential for testing a large variety of functions with full automation in future studies.

  14. An Automated, Experimenter-Free Method for the Standardised, Operant Cognitive Testing of Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Rivalan

    Full Text Available Animal models of human pathology are essential for biomedical research. However, a recurring issue in the use of animal models is the poor reproducibility of behavioural and physiological findings within and between laboratories. The most critical factor influencing this issue remains the experimenter themselves. One solution is the use of procedures devoid of human intervention. We present a novel approach to experimenter-free testing cognitive abilities in rats, by combining undisturbed group housing with automated, standardized and individual operant testing. This experimenter-free system consisted of an automated-operant system (Bussey-Saksida rat touch screen connected to a home cage containing group living rats via an automated animal sorter (PhenoSys. The automated animal sorter, which is based on radio-frequency identification (RFID technology, functioned as a mechanical replacement of the experimenter. Rats learnt to regularly and individually enter the operant chamber and remained there for the duration of the experimental session only. Self-motivated rats acquired the complex touch screen task of trial-unique non-matching to location (TUNL in half the time reported for animals that were manually placed into the operant chamber. Rat performance was similar between the two groups within our laboratory, and comparable to previously published results obtained elsewhere. This reproducibility, both within and between laboratories, confirms the validity of this approach. In addition, automation reduced daily experimental time by 80%, eliminated animal handling, and reduced equipment cost. This automated, experimenter-free setup is a promising tool of great potential for testing a large variety of functions with full automation in future studies.

  15. Intra-Articular Injection of Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid-Dexamethasone Hydrogel Attenuates Osteoarthritis: An Experimental Study in a Rat Model of Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked hyaluronic acid hydrogel (cHA gel and dexamethasone (Dex have been used to treat knee osteoarthritis (OA in clinical practice owing to their chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare the treatment effects of the cHA gel pre-mixed with/without Dex in a surgery-induced osteoarthritis model in rats. Anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT surgery was performed on the right knee of rats to induce OA. Male 2-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/per group: (1 ACLT + saline; (2 ACLT + cHA gel; (3 ACLT + cHA-Dex (0.2 mg/mL gel; (4 ACLT + cHA-Dex (0.5 mg/mL gel; (5 Sham + saline. Intra-joint injections were performed four weeks after ACLT in the right knee. All animals were euthanized at 12 weeks post-surgery. Cartilage damage and changes in the synovial membrane were assessed by micro X-ray, Indian ink articular surface staining, Safranin-O/Fast Green staining, immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin and eosin staining of the synovial membrane, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for changes in gene expression. Micro X-ray revealed that the knee joint treated with the cHA-Dex gel was wider than those treated with cHA gel alone or saline. The cHA-Dex gel group had less Indian ink staining (indicator of cartilage fibrillation than the cHA gel or saline injection groups. Safranin-O/Fast Green staining indicated that increased proteoglycan staining and less cartilage damage were found in the cHA-Dex gel group compared with the cHA gel or saline injection groups. Quantification of histology findings from saline, cHA gel, cHA-Dex (0.2 mg/mL gel, cHA-Dex (0.5 mg/mL gel, and sham groups were 5.84 ± 0.29, 4.50 ± 0.87, 3.00 ± 1.00, 2.00 ± 0.48, and 0.30 ± 0.58 (p < 0.05, respectively. A strong staining of type II collagen was found in both the cHA-Dex gel groups compared with saline group or cHA alone group

  16. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor alleviates sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction by decreasing the expression of γ- and α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in an experimental rat model of neuromyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Min, Su; Xie, Fei; Yang, Jun; Li, Liang; Chen, Jingyuan

    2018-02-05

    Sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction results from up-regulation of the expression of γ- and α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Although glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been implicated in repairing and supporting neurons, little is known about the effects of GDNF on demyelination of nerves in sepsis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that GDNF could alleviate sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction by decreasing the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR in an experimental rat model of neuromyopathy. Rats were randomly divided into a sham group and a sepsis group. Levels of inflammatory factors, muscle function, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were tested in rats after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). At 24 h after CLP, GDNF was injected around the sciatic nerve of sepsis rats, cytokines were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of nAChRs. GDNF and its downstream effector (Erk1/2 and GFR-α), neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) and γ- and α7-nAChR were measured using Western blot analysis. The expression of GDNF reached a minimum at 24 h after CLP. Compared with the sham group, the release of cytokines and the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR were significantly increased in the sepsis group. The administration of GDNF significantly alleviated sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction, as well as reducing the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR. In addition, the expression of Erk1/2, GFR-α, NRG-1 were significantly increased after GDNF treatment. GDNF administration may improve patient outcomes by reducing the demyelination of nerves and the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Veronica A. Trivilin; Lucas L. Colombo; Andrea Monti Hughes; Silvia I. Thorp; Jorge E. Cardoso; Marcel A. Garabalino; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Paula Curotto; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 +/- 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 +/- 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 +/- 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 +/- 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 +/- 480 mg for Sham, 960 +/- 620 mg for Beam only, 380 +/- 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 +/- 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Trivillin, Verónica A; Colombo, Lucas L; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Thorp, Silvia I; Cardoso, Jorge E; Garabalino, Marcela A; Molinari, Ana J; Heber, Elisa M; Curotto, Paula; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Schwint, Amanda E

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 ± 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 ± 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 ± 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 ± 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 ± 480 mg for Sham, 960 ± 620 mg for Beam only, 380 ± 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 ± 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  19. An experimental test of stroke recovery by implanting a hyaluronic acid hydrogel carrying a Nogo receptor antibody in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jun [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tian Weiming [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hou Shaoping [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100054 (China); Xu Qunyuan [Beijing Institute of Neuroscience, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100054 (China); Spector, Myron [Tissue Engineering, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cui Fuzhai [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-12-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a hyaluronic-acid-based (HA-based) hydrogel implant, carrying a polyclonal antibody to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR), on adult rats that underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Behavioral tests of a forelimb-reaching task suggested that the disabled function of the impaired forelimb in this stroke model was ameliorated by the implant to a certain extent. These behavioral findings were correlated with immunohistochemical results of investigating the distribution of NgR antibody, neurofilaments (NF) and neuron-specific class III {beta}-tubulin (TuJ1) in the brain sections. The porous hydrogel functioned as a scaffold to deliver the NgR antibody, support cell migration and development. In addition, it was found NF-positive and TuJ1-positive expressions were distributed in the implanted hydrogel. Collectively, the results demonstrate the promise of the HA hydrogel as a scaffold material and the delivery vehicle of the NgR antibody for the repair of defects and the support of neural regeneration in the brain.

  20. AtlA Mediates Extracellular DNA Release, Which Contributes to Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation in an Experimental Rat Model of Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chiau-Jing; Hsu, Ron-Bin; Shun, Chia-Tung; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Chia, Jean-San

    2017-09-01

    Host factors, such as platelets, have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by oral commensal streptococci, inducing infective endocarditis (IE), but how bacterial components contribute to biofilm formation in vivo is still not clear. We demonstrated previously that an isogenic mutant strain of Streptococcus mutans deficient in autolysin AtlA (ΔatlA) showed a reduced ability to cause vegetation in a rat model of bacterial endocarditis. However, the role of AtlA in bacterial biofilm formation is unclear. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that extracellular DNA (eDNA) was embedded in S. mutans GS5 floes during biofilm formation on damaged heart valves, but an ΔatlA strain could not form bacterial aggregates. Semiquantification of eDNA by PCR with bacterial 16S rRNA primers demonstrated that the ΔatlA mutant strain produced dramatically less eDNA than the wild type. Similar results were observed with in vitro biofilm models. The addition of polyanethol sulfonate, a chemical lysis inhibitor, revealed that eDNA release mediated by bacterial cell lysis is required for biofilm initiation and maturation in the wild-type strain. Supplementation of cultures with calcium ions reduced wild-type growth but increased eDNA release and biofilm mass. The effect of calcium ions on biofilm formation was abolished in ΔatlA cultures and by the addition of polyanethol sulfonate. The VicK sensor, but not CiaH, was found to be required for the induction of eDNA release or the stimulation of biofilm formation by calcium ions. These data suggest that calcium ion-regulated AtlA maturation mediates the release of eDNA by S. mutans, which contributes to biofilm formation in infective endocarditis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Experimental alveolitis in rats: microbiological, acute phase response and histometric characterization of delayed alveolar healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Tadeu Vicente Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of alveolitis is not well known and therefore experimental situations that mimic some features of this disease should be developed. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the evolution of the experimentally induced infection in rat sockets is characterized, which leads to clinical signs of suppurative alveolitis with remarkable wound healing disturbs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Non-infected (Group I and experimentally infected sockets in Rattus novergicus (Group II were histometrically evaluated regarding the kinetics of alveolar healing. In addition, the characterization of the present bacteria in inoculation material and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP were performed. The detected species were Capnocytophaga ochracea, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus anginosus, Treponema socranskii and Streptococcus sanguis. RESULTS: All experimentally infected rats developed suppurative alveolitis, showing higher levels of CRP in comparison to those non-infected ones. Furthermore, infected rats presented a significant delayed wound healing as measured by the histometric analysis (higher persistent polymorphonuclear infiltrate and lower density of newly formed bone. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that rat sockets with experimentally induced infection produced higher levels of serum CRP, showing the potential of disseminated infection and a disturb in the alveolar repair process in an interesting experimental model for alveolitis studies.

  2. Mechanisms of blast induced brain injuries, experimental studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risling, M; Plantman, S; Angeria, M; Rostami, E; Bellander, B-M; Kirkegaard, M; Arborelius, U; Davidsson, J

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) potentially induced by blast waves from detonations result in significant diagnostic problems. It may be assumed that several mechanisms contribute to the injury. This study is an attempt to characterize the presumed components of the blast induced TBI. Our experimental models include a blast tube in which an anesthetized rat can be exposed to controlled detonations of explosives that result in a pressure wave with a magnitude between 130 and 260 kPa. In this model, the animal is fixed with a metal net to avoid head acceleration forces. The second model is a controlled penetration of a 2mm thick needle. In the third model the animal is subjected to a high-speed sagittal rotation angular acceleration. Immunohistochemical labeling for amyloid precursor protein revealed signs of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in the penetration and rotation models. Signs of punctuate inflammation were observed after focal and rotation injury. Exposure in the blast tube did not induce DAI or detectable cell death, but functional changes. Affymetrix Gene arrays showed changes in the expression in a large number of gene families including cell death, inflammation and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus after both acceleration and penetration injuries. Exposure to the primary blast wave induced limited shifts in gene expression in the hippocampus. The most interesting findings were a downregulation of genes involved in neurogenesis and synaptic transmission. These experiments indicate that rotational acceleration may be a critical factor for DAI and other acute changes after blast TBI. The further exploration of the mechanisms of blast TBI will have to include a search for long-term effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PEMFC modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, J.V.C. [Federal University of Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br; Ordonez, J.C.; Martins, L.S. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Center for Advanced Power Systems], Emails: ordonez@caps.fsu.edu, martins@caps.fsu.edu

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a simplified and comprehensive PEMFC mathematical model introduced in previous studies is experimentally validated. Numerical results are obtained for an existing set of commercial unit PEM fuel cells. The model accounts for pressure drops in the gas channels, and for temperature gradients with respect to space in the flow direction, that are investigated by direct infrared imaging, showing that even at low current operation such gradients are present in fuel cell operation, and therefore should be considered by a PEMFC model, since large coolant flow rates are limited due to induced high pressure drops in the cooling channels. The computed polarization and power curves are directly compared to the experimentally measured ones with good qualitative and quantitative agreement. The combination of accuracy and low computational time allow for the future utilization of the model as a reliable tool for PEMFC simulation, control, design and optimization purposes. (author)

  4. Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense Schumach et Thonn) attenuates carbohydrate hydrolyzing, blood pressure regulating and cholinergic enzymes in experimental type 2 diabetes rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Oboh, Ganiyu; Adefegha, Omowunmi Monisola

    2017-01-01

    Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense Schumach et Thonn) seed is well known in folkloric medicine in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with little or no scientific documentation for its action. This study investigated the effect of Ashanti pepper seed on some enzymes relevant to carbohydrate hydrolysis, blood regulation and the cholinergic system, as well as the blood glucose level, lipid profile, antioxidant parameters, and hepatic and renal function markers in T2DM rats. T2DM was induced by feeding rats with high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 days followed by a single intraperitoneal dose of 35 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (STZ). Three days after STZ induction, diabetic rats were placed on a dietary regimen containing 2%-4% Ashanti pepper. Reduced blood glucose level with decreased α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activities were observed in Ashanti pepper seed and acarbose-treated rat groups when compared to that of the diabetic control rat group. Furthermore, the results revealed that inclusion of 2%-4% Ashanti pepper seed in diabetic rat fed group diets may ameliorate the lipid profile, antioxidant status, and hepatic and renal function in T2DM rats as much as in the acarbose-treated groups. In addition, a chromatographic profile of the seed revealed the presence of quercitrin (116.51 mg/g), capsaicin (113.94 mg/g), dihydrocapsaicin (88.29 mg/g) and isoquercitrin (74.89 mg/g). The results from this study clearly suggest that Ashanti pepper could serve as a promising source of phenolic compounds with great alternative therapeutic potentials in the management of T2DM.

  5. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten Haack

    2006-01-01

    An engineering course, Simulation and Experimental Modeling, has been developed that is based on a method for direct estimation of physical parameters in dynamic systems. Compared with classical system identification, the method appears to be easier to understand, apply, and combine with physical...

  6. Bioactive compound loaded stable silver nanoparticle synthesis from microwave irradiated aqueous extracellular leaf extracts of Naringi crenulata and its wound healing activity in experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, T; Thiyagarajan, M; Geetha, N; Venkatachalam, P

    2014-07-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles was developed using Naringi crenulata leaf extracts via microwave irradiation method. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by treating N. crenulata leaf extracts with 1mM of aqueous silver nitrate solution. An effective bioactive compound such as alkaloids, phenols, saponins and quinines present in the N. crenulata reduces the Ag(+) into Ag(0). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometer and further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 390nm due to surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. From FESEM results, an average crystal size of the synthesized nanoparticle was 72-98nm. FT-IR results showed sharp absorption peaks and they were assigned to phosphine, alkyl halides and sulfonate groups. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical and cubic shape. Topical application of ointment prepared from silver nanoparticles of N. crenulata were formulated and evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model on Wistar albino rats. The measurement of the wound areas was performed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th days and the percentage of wound closures was calculated accordingly. By the 15th day, the ointment base containing 5% (w/w) of silver nanoparticles showed 100% wound healing activity compared with that of the reference as well as control bases. The results strongly suggested that the batch C ointment containing silver nanaoparticles synthesized from the leaf extracts of N. crenulata was found to be very effective in wound repair and encourages harnessing the potentials of the plant biomolecules loaded silver nanoparticle in the treatment of tropical diseases including wound healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Experimental in Vivo Models of Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Segal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is a multifaceted fungal disease including mucosal-cutaneous, visceral, and disseminated infections caused by yeast species of the genus Candida. Candida infections are among the most common human mycoses. Candida species are the third to fourth most common isolates from bloodstream infections in neutropenic or immunocompromised hospitalized patients. The mucosal-cutaneous forms—particularly vaginal infections—have a high prevalence. Vaginitis caused by Candida species is the second most common vaginal infection. Hence, candidiasis is a major subject for research, including experimental in vivo models to study pathogenesis, prevention, or therapy of the disease. The following review article will focus on various experimental in vivo models in different laboratory animals, such as mammals (mice, rats, rabbits, the fruit fly–Drosophila melanogaster, the larvae of the moth Galleria mellonella, or the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The review will describe the induction of the different clinical forms of candidiasis in the various models and the validity of such models in mimicking the human clinical situations. The use of such models for the assessment of antifungal drugs, evaluation of potential vaccines to protect before candidiasis, exploration of Candida virulence factors, and comparison of pathogenicity of different Candida species will be included in the review. All of the above will be reported as based on published studies of numerous investigators as well as on the research of the author and his group.

  8. Experimental inoculation model of Walker 256 carcinoma into vagina and cervix uteri of female rats Modelo experimental de Tumor de Walker 256 em vagina e colo de útero de ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Macedo Botelho Brito

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish an inoculation model of Walker 256 carcinoma on cervix uteri and vagina of rats. METHODS: Fifteen female rats were used, and assigned to three groups each one with five rats: group A - rats with 4x10(6 cells of Walker 256 carcinoma without acid acetic inoculation; group B - rats with 2x10(6 cells of Walker 256 carcinoma with acid acetic inoculation and group C: rats with 4x10(6 cells of Walker 256 carcinoma with acid acetic inoculation. The day before tumor cells inoculation the rats from groups B and C were anaesthetized with diethylether and 0,3 ml of acetic acid was inoculated into their vaginas. Tumor cell inoculation into the vagina and cervix was done under general anesthesia with diethylether. Then a endocervical brush was used to scrape the vaginal wall and after that 0,3 ml of the liquid containing tumor cells was inoculated on the vagina and cervix. For the tumor analysis, animals were euthanized at day 12 following tumor cell implantation by an excessive inhalation of diethylether. Tumor was resected entirely and weighed and the tumors were then sectioned and counter stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic evaluation. It was also calculated the percentage of tumor equivalent to the body weight by the formula: P= tumor weight / body weight x 100. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance - ANOVA. P values OBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo de inoculação de Tumor de Walker 256 em vagina e colo de útero de ratas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 15 ratas fêmeas, virgens, adultas, pesando entre 200-250g, distribuídas em três grupos de estudo com cinco animais cada: grupo A (GA: ratas com tumor de Walker 256 em concentração de 4x10(6 sem ácido acético; grupo B (GB: ratas com tumor de Walker 256 em concentração de 2x10(6 células com ácido acético; grupo C (GC: ratas com tumor de Walker 256 em concentração de 4x10(6 células com ácido acético. No dia anterior à inoculação do tumor

  9. Pathogenesis of rhinitis in rats with experimentally induced hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyigor, Hulya; Basak, Sema; Kozaci, Didem; Culhaci, Nil; Dost, Turhan; Ulutas, Pinar

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is accepted as one of the hormonal factors leading to non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal obstruction and runny nose due to an increase in submucosal connective tissue and mucous gland hypertrophy are the prominent symptoms in hypothyroidism-induced rhinitis at humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the biochemical and histopathological changes in the nasal mucosa of the rats with thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism and to compare them with those of a control group. A total of 60 adult male Wistar Albino rats were included in the study. The rats constituting the test and the control groups were randomly divided into 3 subgroups (T1-3 and C 1-3). While the rats in the test group underwent thyroidectomy, in the control group the incision was sutured without any interventions after exposure of thyroid tissues of the rats. The nasal and paranasal sinus regions of all the rats were carefully dissected and tissue samples were obtained for pathological examinations. In the rats in T1, T2, and T3, the decrease in serum glucuronic acid levels before and after thyroidectomy was statistically significant (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.002, respectively). The difference between the test and the control groups was statistically significant in terms of inflammation at the end of 12 weeks (p = 0.002). An increase in acid mucopolysaccharidase production due to TSH has been suggested to cause congestion in tissues. Although our study supports the data in the literature up to date, we consider that further clinical and experimental studies are necessary for this verification.

  10. Rapidly resorbable vs. non-resorbable suture for experimental colonic anastomoses in rats--a randomized experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Gögenur, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Anastomotic dehiscence remains an important challenge for colorectal surgeons worldwide. Extensive research focused on performing a safe anastomosis is conducted with rats being the most used model when examining colorectal anastomoses. In daily clinical practice resorbable sutures are used when...... hand-sewn anastomoses are performed. However, in the experimental studies examining colorectal anastomoses, non-resorbable sutures have predominantly been used. The aim of this study was to compare a rapidly resorbable suture with a non-resorbable suture in experimental colorectal anastomoses....

  11. [CHANGES IN THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION OF GUT MICROBIOTA IN RATS DURING EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurasulova, I N; Tarasova, E A; Matsulevich, A V; Eliseev, A V; Ermolenko, E I; Suvorov, A N; Klimenko, V M

    2015-11-01

    In this study, on the model of multiple sclerosis - experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), the dynamics of changes in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the intestinal microbiota in rats with symptoms of the disease and asymptomatic course were compared. It was found that the composition of the intestinal microbiota in rats with the clinical symptoms of EAE is shifted towards gram-negative opportunistic microorganisms of the genus Citrobacter, Prote- us, Klebsiella and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. It has been shown that rats without clinical signs of EAE have higher levels of Faecalibacteriumprausnitzii. The significance of the complex changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, indicating long-lasting dysbiosis in rats during the development of EAE is discussing.

  12. Use of the histopathology in the differential diagnosis of drowning in fresh and salty water: an experimental model establishment in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Fagionato Locali; Marcos Almeida; Itamar Souza de Oliveira-Júnior

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a method of differential diagnosis to drowning, due to analysis of the alveolar macrophages quantitative, in rats submitted to induced drowning in fresh water and salty water. METHODS: Were used 15 male adult rats Wistar EPM-1, weight 360g (SD=21,3), randomized in three groups: G1- Control; G2- Fresh water; G3- Salty water, each one with n=5. The animals have been anesthetized and tracheostomized to insert a cannula inside the trachea, for drowning induction. The lungs hav...

  13. Periodontal CGRP contributes to orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hu; Liao, Lina; Gao, Meiya; Ma, Wenqiang; Zhou, Yang; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2015-08-01

    Calcitonin-related gene peptide (CGRP) plays an important role in orofacial inflammatory pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether periodontal CGRP contributes to orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Closed coil springs were used to deliver forces. Rats were euthanized on 0d, 1d, 3d, 5d, 7d, and 14d following experimental tooth movement. Then, alveolar bones were obtained for immunostaining of periodontal tissues against CGRP. Two hours prior to euthanasia on each day, orofacial pain levels were assessed through rat grimace scale. CGRP and olcegepant (CGRP receptor antagonist) were injected into periodontal tissues to verify the roles of periodontal CGRP in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement. Periodontal CGRP expression levels and orofacial pain levels were elevated on 1d, 3d, 5d, and 7d following experimental tooth movement. The two indices were significantly correlated with each other and fitted into a dose-response model. Periodontal administration of CGRP could elevate periodontal CGRP expressions and exacerbate orofacial pain. Moreover, olcegepant administration could decrease periodontal CGRP expressions and alleviate orofacial pain. Therefore, periodontal CGRP plays an important role in pain transmission and modulation following experimental tooth movement. We suggest that it may participate in a positive feedback aiming to amplify orofacial pain signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Different Subsets of Enteric Bacteria Induce and Perpetuate Experimental Colitis in Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Heiko C.; Schultz, Michael; Freitag, René; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Li, Fengling; Linde, Hans-Jörg; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Sartor, R. Balfour

    2001-01-01

    Resident bacteria are incriminated in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated the relative roles of various enteric bacteria populations in the induction and perpetuation of experimental colitis. HLA-B27 transgenic rats received antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, or vancomycin-imipenem) in drinking water or water alone in either prevention or treatment protocols. Mice were treated similarly with metronidazole or vancomycin-imipenem before or after receiving 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Germfree transgenic rats were colonized with specific-pathogen-free enteric bacteria grown overnight either in anaerobic or aerobic atmospheres. Nontransgenic rats colonized with anaerobic bacteria served as negative controls. Although preventive metronidazole significantly attenuated colitis in transgenic rats and DSS-treated mice, it had no therapeutic benefit once colitis was established. Ciprofloxacin also partially prevented but did not treat colitis in B27 transgenic rats. In both animal models vancomycin-imipenem most effectively prevented and treated colitis. Germfree transgenic rats reconstituted with enteric bacteria grown under anaerobic conditions had more aggressive colitis than those associated with aerobic bacteria. These results suggest that a subset of resident luminal bacteria induces colitis, but that a complex interaction of commensal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria provides the constant antigenic drive for chronic immune-mediated colonic inflammation. PMID:11254584

  15. Diagnosis of the strongyloid nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis in experimentally infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, P D; Malta, F M; Meisel, D M C L; Corral, M A; Pinho, J R; Costa-Cruz, J M; Chieffi, P P; Gryschek, R C B; Paula, F M

    2016-07-01

    Strongyloides venezuelensis is an intestinal nematode of rats, frequently used as a model for studying human and animal strongyloidiasis. In the present study, we evaluated parasitological, serological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of experimental S. venezuelensis in rats, Rattus norvegicus. Blood and faecal samples were collected and analysed up to 60 days post infection (pi) with adult worm recovery occurring from 5 to 45 days pi. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), serum levels of IgG antibodies increased up to 28 days pi, thereafter decreasing by day 60 pi. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays detected S. venezuelensis DNA in faecal samples of rats from 5 to 21 days pi. The present study therefore represents the first step towards improving the diagnosis of experimental strongyloidiasis.

  16. Experimental Study of Angeng Prescription for Climacteric Syndrome in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Da-shuai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of Angeng Formula on climacteric syndrome in rats. Methods: The ovaries of female SD rats were removed for the establishment of menopausal syndrome rat models. After drug delivery for 30 d, serum sex hormone levels and indexes of uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary were detected. Meanwhile, the effects of drugs on the histopathology of uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary in rats were observed. Results: Angeng prescription could increase the level of estradiol (E2 in castrated rat (P<0.01 and had a tendency to increase the level of progestin (P, lower the level of luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH as well as increase the indexes of the uterus and adrenal gland. Moreover, Angeng prescription could improve the pathologic condition of the uterus, adrenal gland and pituitary in castrated rats. Conclusion: Angeng prescription has a therapeutic effect on climacteric syndrome, the mechanism of which might be related with the function of regulating sex hormone.

  17. Experimental model of capsular contracture in silicone implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos Érika Malheiros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The breast implant procedure is one of the most performed into Plastic Surgery and the contracture that occurs the capsule formed around the breast implants one of most frequent complication. We describe here one experimental model of capsule contracture in rats.

  18. Advances on genetic rat models of epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kuramoto, Takashi; Voigt, Birger; Ohno, Yukihiro; Sasa, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Considering the suitability of laboratory rats in epilepsy research, we and other groups have been developing genetic models of epilepsy in this species. After epileptic rats or seizure-susceptible rats were sporadically found in outbred stocks, the epileptic traits were usually genetically-fixed by selective breeding. So far, the absence seizure models GAERS and WAG/Rij, audiogenic seizure models GEPR-3 and GEPR-9, generalized tonic-clonic seizure models IER, NER and WER, and Canavan-disease related epileptic models TRM and SER have been established. Dissection of the genetic bases including causative genes in these epileptic rat models would be a significant step toward understanding epileptogenesis. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis provides a systematic approach which allowed us to develop two novel epileptic rat models: heat-induced seizure susceptible (Hiss) rats with an Scn1a missense mutation and autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) model rats with an Lgi1 missense mutation. In addition, we have established episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) model rats with a Kcna1 missense mutation derived from the ENU-induced rat mutant stock, and identified a Cacna1a missense mutation in a N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mutant rat strain GRY, resulting in the discovery of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) model rats. Thus, epileptic rat models have been established on the two paths: ‘phenotype to gene’ and ‘gene to phenotype’. In the near future, development of novel epileptic rat models will be extensively promoted by the use of sophisticated genome editing technologies. PMID:25312505

  19. Advances on genetic rat models of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kuramoro, Takashi; Voigt, Birger; Ohno, Yukihiro; Sasa, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Considering the suitability of laboratory rats in epilepsy research, we and other groups have been developing genetic models of epilepsy in this species. After epileptic rats or seizure-susceptible rats were sporadically found in outbred stocks, the epileptic traits were usually genetically-fixed by selective breeding. So far, the absence seizure models GAERS and WAG/Rij, audiogenic seizure models GEPR-3 and GEPR-9, generalized tonic-clonic seizure models IER, NER and WER, and Canavan-disease related epileptic models TRM and SER have been established. Dissection of the genetic bases including causative genes in these epileptic rat models would be a significant step toward understanding epileptogenesis. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis provides a systematic approach which allowed us to develop two novel epileptic rat models: heat-induced seizure susceptible (Hiss) rats with an Scn1a missense mutation and autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) model rats with an Lgi1 missense mutation. In addition, we have established episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) model rats with a Kcna1 missense mutation derived from the ENU-induced rat mutant stock, and identified a Cacna1a missense mutation in a N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mutant rat strain GRY, resulting in the discovery of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) model rats. Thus, epileptic rat models have been established on the two paths: 'phenotype to gene' and 'gene to phenotype'. In the near future, development of novel epileptic rat models will be extensively promoted by the use of sophisticated genome editing technologies.

  20. New rat model that phenotypically resembles autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nauta (Jeroen); M.A. Goedbloed (Miriam); H.V. Herck; D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); P. Visser (Pim); R. Willemsen (Rob); R.P.E. van Dokkum (Richard); C.J. Wright; L.M. Guay-Woodford

    2000-01-01

    textabstractNumerous murine models of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) have been described. While mouse models are particularly well suited for investigating the molecular pathogenesis of PKD, rats are well established as an experimental model of renal physiologic

  1. Closed head injury in rats: histopathological aspects in an experimental weight drop model Trauma craniano fechado em ratos: aspectos histopatológicos em um modelo experimental de queda de peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo dos Santos Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study histopathological findings due to a model of closed head injury by weight loss in rats. METHODS: A platform was used to induce closed cranial lesion controlled by weight loss with a known and predefined energy. 25 male Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus albinus were divided in five equal groups which received different cranial impact energy levels: G1, G2, G3 and G4 with 0.234J, 0.5J, 0.762J and 1J respectively and G5 (Sham. Under the effect of analgesia, the brain of each group was collected and prepared for histopathological analysis by conventional optic microscopy. RESULTS: It was observed greater number of injured neurons in animals of group 4, however neuronal death also could be noticed in animals of group 5. Intraparenchymal hemorrhages were more frequent in animals of group 4 and the cytotoxic brain swelling and vascular congestion were more intense in this group CONCLUSION: The histopathological analysis of these findings allowed to observe typical cranial trauma alterations and these keep close relation with impact energy.OBJETIVO: Investigar as alterações histopatológicas produzidas por um modelo de trauma craniano fechado por queda de peso em ratos. MÉTODOS: Utilizando uma plataforma para produção de lesão craniana fechada controlada por queda de peso com energia pré-definida e conhecida, 25 ratos Wistar machos (Rattus norvegicus albinus foram divididos em cinco grupos iguais que receberam níveis diferentes de energia de impacto craniano: G1, G2, G3 e G4 com 0,234J, 0,5J, 0,762J e 1J respectivamente e G5 (Sham. Sob analgesia, cada grupo teve seus encéfalos coletados e processados para análise histopatológica por microscopia óptica convencional. RESULTADOS: Houve maior número de neurônios lesados em animais do grupo 4, mas morte neuronal também pôde ser constatada nos animais do grupo 5. Hemorragias parenquimatosas foram mais frequentes nos animais do grupo 4 e o inchaço cerebral citotóxico e congest

  2. The updated experimental proteinoid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.; Nakashima, T.; Przybylski, A.; Syren, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental proteinoid model includes new results indicating that polymers sufficiently rich in basic amino acid catalyze the synthesis of peptides from ATP and amino acids and of oligonucleotides from ATP. The need for simulation syntheses of amino acids yielding significant proportions of basic amino acids is now in focus. The modeled simultaneous protocellular synthesis of peptides and polynucleotides is part of a more comprehensive proposal for the origin of the coded genetic mechanism. The finding of membrane and action potentials in proteinoid microspheres, with or without added lecithin, is reported. The crucial nature of a nonrandom matrix for protocells is developed.

  3. An experimental model for the transplantation of fetal central nervous system cells to the injured spinal cord in rats Modelo experimental de transplante de células do sistema nervoso central fetal para lesão de medula espinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de Barros Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Traumatic spinal cord injury is one of the most disabling conditions occurring in man and thus stimulates a strong interest in its histopathological, biochemical, and functional changes, primarily as we search for preventive and therapeutic methods. PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model for transplantation of cells from the fetal rat central nervous system to the site of an injured spinal cord of an adult rat in which the transplanted cells survive and become integrated. This experimental model will facilitate investigations of factors that promote regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen adult Wistar rats underwent laminectomy, and an spinal cord lesion was made with microdissection. Fetal spinal cord tissue was then transplanted to the site of the injury. The rats were monitored over a 48-hour period, and then their vertebral column was completely removed for histological analysis. RESULTS: In 60% of transplanted rats, the fetal tissue at the injured site remained viable in the site of the lesion.INTRODUÇÃO: A lesão traumática da medula espinal consiste numa das mais incapacitantes lesões que o ser humano pode sofrer e tem despertado grande interesse no conhecimento das alterações histopatológicas, bioquímicas, funcionais e principalmente na busca de métodos de prevenção e tratamento. OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo experimental de transplante de células do sistema nervoso fetal de ratos para o sítio de lesão medular de ratos adultos que permitisse sua sobrevivência e integração para possibilitar protocolos de pesquisa para identificar outros fatores de regeneração e recuperação funcional pós trauma raquimedular. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 15 ratos adultos que foram submetidos a laminectomia e lesão de 5mm de hemimelula realizada com auxílio de microscópio óptico. Os ratos tiveram seu sítio de lesão medular transplantado com células do

  4. Effect of novel curcumin-encapsulated chitosan-bioglass drug on bone and skin repair after gamma radiation: experimental study on a Wistar rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebahi, S; Saoudi, M; Farhat, L; Oudadesse, H; Rebai, T; Kabir, A; El Feki, A; Keskes, H

    2015-04-01

    Radiation therapy contributes to a significant increase in bone osteoporosis and skin loss. Various natural health products might be beneficial to reduce bone and skin alterations. Curcumin (CUR) medicines derived from natural plants have played an important role in health care. This study aims at synthesizing and evaluating the performance therapy of CUR-encapsulated bioglass-chitosan (CUR-BG-CH). In vitro, the antioxidant assay was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical (DPPH) scavenging and the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. The CUR-BG-CH antimicrobial effects were tested in liquid media. In vivo, after rat (60) Co γ-radiation, the tissue wound-healing process was studied by grafting CUR and CUR-BG-CH in femoral condyle and dorsal skin rat tissue. The antioxidant studies indicated that CUR-BG-CH quenches free radicals more efficiently than unmodified CUR and had effective DPPH (91%) and superoxide anion (51%) radical scavenging activities. The CUR-BG-CH biomaterial exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The histomorphometric parameters showed amelioration in CUR-BG-CH-treated rats. An improved mechanical property was noticed (33.16 ± 5.0 HV) when compared with that of unmodified CUR group (23.15 ± 4.9 HV). A significant decrease in tumour necrosis factor-α cytokine production was noted in the CUR-BG-CH rats (90 pg/ml) as compared with that of unmodified CUR group (240 pg/ml). The total amount of hydroxyproline was significantly enhanced (33.5%) in CUR-BG-CH group as compared with that of control. Our findings suggested that CUR-BG-CH might have promising potential applications for wound healing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Infrared (810 nm) low-level laser therapy in experimental model of strain-induced skeletal muscle injury in rats: effects on functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luciano; Leal Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Pallotta, Rodney Capp; Frigo, Lucio; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão

    2012-01-01

    Muscle strains are among the most prevalent causes for athletes' absence from sport activities. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has recently emerged as a potential contender to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in muscle strain treatment. In this work we investigated effects of LLLT and diclofenac on functional outcomes in the acute stage after muscle strain injury in rats. Muscle strain was induced by overloading the tibialis anterior muscle of rats during anesthesia. The injured groups received either no treatment, or a single treatment with diclofenac 30 min prior to injury, or LLLT (810 nm, 100 mW) with doses of 1, 3, 6 or 9 J, at 1 h after injury. Functional outcome measures included a walking index and assessment of electrically induced muscle performance. All treatments (except 9 J LLLT) significantly improved the walking index 12 h postinjury compared with the untreated group. The 3 J group also showed a significantly better walking index than the drug group. All treatments significantly improved muscle performance at 6 and 12 h. LLLT dose of 3 J was as effective as the pharmacological agent in improving functional outcomes in the early phase after a muscle strain injury in rats. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  6. Modelo experimental de lesão medular e protocolo de avaliação motora em ratos wistar Spinal cord injury experimental model and motion evaluation protocol in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bispo dos Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar modelo de contusão medular padronizado e método de avaliação motora em ratos com quadro de paraplegia. MÉTODOS: Utilizados 20 ratos Wistar divididos em quatro grupos, diferenciado o nível de gravidade da lesão raquimedular; realizadas lesões intermediárias padronizadas, através do sistema "MASCIS IMPACTOR" (Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study: grupo 1 - 12,5 mm (lesão leve; grupo 2 - 25 mm (lesão moderada; grupo 3 - 50 mm (lesão grave; grupo 4 - animais que não sofreram lesão (grupo controle. Após 48 horas foi avaliada função motora, segundo escala proposta por Basso, Beattie e Bresnahan. RESULTADOS: Utilizando o modelo, notamos que as contusões leves (12,5mm de altura foram efetivas, e os animais apresentaram infecção urinária na fase aguda uma semana após a contusão. As contusões intermediárias (25 mm de altura foram efetivas, os animais apresentaram infecção urinária até duas semanas após a contusão. As contusões graves (50mm de altura foram efetivas, os animais apresentaram infecção urinária durante três a quatro semanas e autofagia. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo de lesão medular utilizando o sistema MASCIS IMPACTOR e a avaliação funcional proposta por Basso, Beattie e Bresnahan é reprodutível, podendo ser utilizada, propiciando troca de informações entre os diferentes pesquisadores.OBJECTIVES: To determine a standardized spinal cord contusion model and a method for motor assessment in rats with paraplegia. METHODS: This study used 20 Wistar rats divided into 4 groups according to level of severity of spinal cord injury; standardized intermediate lesions were made through system MASCIS IMPACTOR (Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study: group 1, 12.5mm (mild injury; group 2,25mm (moderate injury; group 3,50mm (severe injury; in the group 4 the animals suffered no injury (control group. Motor function was assessed after 48 hours, using the scale proposed by Basso, Beattie and

  7. Metformin Protects against Experimental Acrylamide Neuropathy in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Samah S

    2017-11-01

    Preclinical Research To investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of metformin against experimental acrylamide neuropathy in rats, 24 rats were distributed into four equal groups (6 each). Group 1 was kept as a control. Group 2 (MET) was orally given metformin (200 mg/kg BW/day). Group 3 (ACR) was injected IP with acrylamide (50 mg/kg BW/day). Animals in group 4 (ACR + MET) were administered both MET and ACR at the same dose and route used in groups 2 and 3. Treatments were administered three times a week for three weeks. ACR induced an increase in lipid peroxidation in brain and spinal cord. This was associated with down regulation of bcl2 and up regulation of caspase3 in cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord, and sciatic nerve in the ACR-treated group. ACR-treated rats revealed neuronal degeneration and glial cell reaction in brain and spinal cord with axonal degeneration and myelin sheath irregularities in sciatic nerve. MET restored lipid peroxidation in brain and spinal cord, decreased caspase3 activity and up regulated bcl2 expression in cerebrum and sciatic nerve. Histopathological findings in ACR + MET group were lesser severe than those established in ACR-group indicating that MET ameliorates the neuropathic effects of ACR in rats. Drug Dev Res 78 : 349-359, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Activity of glial cells in trigeminal nervous system in rats with experimental pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Liu, Na; Liu, Hongchen

    2014-04-29

    To observe the activity change of astrocyte in related nucleus caused by acute pulpitis in rats. Rat acute pulpitis model was induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). And, according to processing time, a total of 30 rats were divided into 5 groups of control, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to detect the dynamic expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve (Vc). The relative gray value of ipsilateral Vc GFAP expression in experimental groups was 153 ± 11 at 12 h. And it significantly increased versus the control group (100 ± 4)(P pulpitis model, activated glial cells are probably involved in the processes of pulpitis and hyperalgesia.

  9. Blockade of RAGE in Zucker obese rats with experimental periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauballe, M B; Østergaard, J A; Schou, S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are two interrelated chronic diseases. Periodontitis is more prevalent in patients with T2D than in healthy subjects, and studies indicate that periodontitis impacts the metabolic control of patients with T2D. Hyperglycemia...... on the interrelationship between periodontitis and T2D in a rat model of both diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Zucker obese rats (HsdHlr:ZUCKER-Lepr (fa/fa) ) and their lean littermates were divided into five treatment groups, with and without periodontitis. Monoclonal anti-RAGE IgG3 were injected into the rats three times...... evaluated in plasma. Kidney complications were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, the creatinine clearance rate, the albumin excretion rate and kidney hypertrophy. Periodontitis was evaluated by morphometric registration of alveolar bone loss and radiographic recording of bone support. RESULTS...

  10. Comparação de diferentes métodos para medida do tamanho do infarto experimental crônico em Ratos Comparison of different methods to measure experimental chronic infarction size in the rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. Minicucci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as diferenças entre três métodos para medida do infarto experimental em ratos, em relação ao método tradicional. MÉTODOS: A área infartada por histologia (AREA, o perímetro interno da cavidade infartada por histologia (PER e o perímetro interno por ecocardiograma (ECO foram comparados ao método tradicional (análise histológica das circunferências epicárdicas e endocárdicas da região infartada - CIR. Utilizaram-se ANOVA de medidas repetidas, complementada com o teste de comparações múltiplas de Dunn, o método de concordância de Bland & Altman e o teste de correlação de Spearman. A significância foi p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences between three methods for the measurement of experimental infarction in rats in comparison to the traditional method. METHODS: Histological analysis of the infarction area (AREA, histological analysis of the internal cavity perimeter (PER and echocardiogram analysis of the internal perimeter (ECHO were compared to the traditional method (histological analysis of the epicardial and endocardial circumferences of the infarction region - CIR. Repeated ANOVA measurements were used in conjunction with the Dunn multiple comparison test, the Bland and Altman concordance method and the Spearman correlation test. Significance was established as p < 0.05. RESULTS: The data of 122 animals were analyzed, 3 to 6 months after the infarction. Infarction size assessments revealed differences between CIR and the other three methods (p < 0.001: CIR = 42.4% (35.9-48.8, PER = 50.3% (39.1-57.0, AREA = 27.3% (20.2-34.3, ECHO = 46.1% (39.9-52.6. Therefore, measurement by area underestimated the infarct size by 15%, whereas the echocardiogram and histological internal perimeter measurements overestimated the infarct size by 4% and 5%, respectively. In relation to ECHO and PER, even though the difference between the methods was only 1.27%, the concordance interval ranged from 24.1% to -26

  11. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna CBP; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio OC

    2013-01-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis. PMID:23715031

  12. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Experimental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, E; Burdette, JE; Kenny, HA; Matei, D; Pilrose, J; Haluska, P.; Nephew, KP; Hales, DB; Stack, MS

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (OvCa) is associated with high mortality and, as the majority (>75%) of women with OvCa have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, rates of survival have not changed appreciably over 30 years. A mechanistic understanding of OvCa initiation and progression is hindered by the complexity of genetic and/or environmental initiating events and lack of clarity regarding the cell(s) or tissue(s) of origin. Metastasis of OvCa involves direct extension or exfoliation of cells and cellular aggregates into the peritoneal cavity, survival of matrix-detached cells in a complex ascites fluid phase, and subsequent adhesion to the mesothelium lining covering abdominal organs to establish secondary lesions containing host stromal and inflammatory components. Development of experimental models to recapitulate this unique mechanism of metastasis presents a remarkable scientific challenge and many approaches used to study other solid tumors (lung, colon, and breast, for example) are not transferable to OvCa research given the distinct metastasis pattern and unique tumor microenvironment. This review will discuss recent progress in the development and refinement of experimental models to study OvCa. Novel cellular, three-dimensional organotypic, and ex vivo models are considered and the current in vivo models summarized. The review critically evaluates currently available genetic mouse models of OvCa, the emergence of xenopatients, and the utility of the hen model to study OvCa prevention, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance. As these new approaches more accurately recapitulate the complex tumor microenvironment, it is predicted that new opportunities for enhanced understanding of disease progression, metastasis and therapeutic response will emerge. PMID:23934194

  13. Rat penis as a replantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamürsel, Sebat; Karamürsel, Tamer; Celebioğlu, Selim

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of rat penile replantation as a new microsurgical training model. The study was performed in 2 parts. ANATOMIC STUDIES: Fifteen Wistar albino rats were used to study and document the penile vascular anatomy. In 5 rats, dissections were performed after colored silicone injections, while 5 rats were operated under anesthesia to develop the strategy of flap elevation. In the remaining 5 rats, microangiographic study was performed with silicone-lead oxide mixture. FLAP STUDIES: As flap studies in 5 rats, penis were elevated based on right-side internal pudendal artery and internal pudendal vein and resutured. In 6 rats, penis were elevated as free flaps, and in 3 rats the penis were implanted in right thigh of the rats being the femoral artery and vein recipient. In the remaining 3 rats, penis were resutured in their original place, with saphenous artery and vein being the recipient and rerouted to the pubic region. At postoperative fifth day, the penis were examined for viability, and selected ones were histologically examined. Rat penis has a dual blood supply from bilateral internal pudendal arteries. Venous drainage is via both crural veins and dorsal vein. One side of the internal pudendal artery and anastomotic vein (branch of pudendal plexus) may be used as the vascular pedicle of the flap. Rat penis may be successfully elevated as a free flap and also may be replanted in its original place.

  14. Oxytocin and vasopressin in rat hypophysial portal blood: experimental studies in normal and Brattleboro rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, A M; Robinson, I C; Fink, G

    1985-02-01

    from the fibres that terminate in the pars nervosa (PN), the findings in Brattleboro rats show that the VP fibres of the ME system originate in neurones with a genomic mechanism for VP synthesis similar to that of the VP neurones that project to the PN. The lack of effect of adrenalectomy and the administration of 5-HT synthesis and uptake blockers must be interpreted with caution since the results obtained with electrical stimulation suggest that when the pituitary stalk is cut the release of OT and VP into portal blood approaches a maximum and may therefore be difficult to alter by experimental manipulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  15. Montelukast is as effective as penicillin in treatment of acute otitis media: An experimental rat study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Seçil; Huseynov, Tural; Çoban, Melahat; Sarıoğlu, Sülen; Şerbetçioğlu, Bülent; Yalcin, Arzu Didem

    2013-01-01

    Background Leukotrienes are the major factors in the formation of edema and mucus, as well as development of tuba Eustachii dysfunction in acute otitis media. We developed an experimental acute suppurative otitis media model and compared the responses of rats to penicillin and combinations of leukotriene antagonist with respect to histopathological observations conducted in early and late phases. Material/Methods A total of 83 ears from 56 Wistar rats were used in this study. Pneumococcus suspension was injected trans-tympanically into all rats. Subjects were classified into 4 different groups with 14 rats in each. In Group A, intramuscular penicillin G was injected for a period of 5 days. In Group B, intraperitoneal montelukast was injected for 21 days in addition to penicillin. In Group C, intraperitoneal montelukast isotonic NaCl in Group D was injected into rats for 21 days. Results No significant difference was found between the groups, except for mucosal vascularization with respect to mucosal and TM parameters in early phases. Furthermore, considerable deviations were observed for the recuperation of TM and mucosal inflammation for groups in which subjects were injected with montelukast as compared to other groups of the study in the late phases. Conclusions When the parameters of inflammation in the rat middle ear were compared with each other, most of these parameters did not show any statistically significant beneficial effects in montelukast and penicillin groups. PMID:24048018

  16. The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on plasma lipid composition in rats with experimental insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Onopchenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A model of insulin resistance (IR, induced by prolonged high fat diet with high content of saturated fats was used to investigate the effect of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE on the composition of free fatty acids (FFA, plasma lipoprotein spectrum and content of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα in rats. The results of this work showed a rise in the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (18:1 n-9 and a reduction in the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (20:4 n-6 in plasma of rats with experimental IR. These findings are accompanied by the increased TNFα production and significant changes in plasma lipoprotein profile of rats with the fat overload. Particularly, a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol level and increased low-density (LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol level were detected. The NSE administration to obese rats with IR restored the content of mono- and polyunsaturated FFA, increased HDL cholesterol content and reduced LDL cholesterol level. In addition, the IR rats treated with NSE showed normalization in the serum TNFα level. Our results showed the restoration of plasma lipid profile under NSE administration in rats with obesity-induced IR. Considering the fact that plasma lipid composition displays the lipid metabolism in general, the NSE actions may play a significant role in the prevention of IR-associated complications.

  17. Bixa orellana (annatto) exerts a sustained hypoglycemic effect in experimental diabetes mellitus in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Teles,Flávio; Anjos, Felipe Silveira dos; Machado, Tarcilo; Lima, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bixa orellana (annatto) is a natural pigment and food colorant that has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes. It has been suggested that annatto could have the property of reducing blood glucose levels. However, most previous studies have demonstrated a hypoglycemic effect in non-diabetic animals. We evaluated the impact of annatto on blood glucose levels in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus. METHOD: Male Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single dose of60 mg/...

  18. Experimental animal models of osteonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Meng; Peng, Jiang; Qin, Ling; Lu, Shibi

    2011-08-01

    Osteonecrosis (ON) or avascular necrosis (AVN) is a common bone metabolic disorder, mostly affecting femoral head. Although many biological, biophysical, and surgical methods have been tested to preserve the femoral head with ON, none has been proven fully satisfactory. It lacks consensus on an optimal approach for treatment. This is due, at least in part, to the lack of ability to systematically compare treatment efficacy using an ideal animal model that mimics full-range osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) in humans with high incidence of joint collapse accompanied by reparative reaction adjacent to the necrotic bone in a reproducible and accessible way. A number of preclinical animal ON models have been established for testing potential efficacy of various modalities developed for prevention and treatment of ON before introduction into clinics for potential applications. This paper describes a number of different methods for creating animal experimental ON models. Advantages and disadvantages of such models are also discussed as reference for future research in battle against this important medical condition.

  19. Antiinflammatory effect of BPC 157 on experimental periodontitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremi, B; Lohinai, Z; Komora, P; Duhaj, S; Borsi, K; Jobbagy-Ovari, G; Kallo, K; Szekely, A D; Fazekas, A; Dobo-Nagy, C; Sikiric, P; Varga, G

    2009-12-01

    The pentadecapeptide BPC 157 has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects on multiple target tissues and organs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of BPC 157 on inflammation and bone resorption in experimental periodontitis in rats. First the acute effect of BPC was tested on gingival blood flow by laser doppler flowmetry. Then periodontitis was produced by a silk ligature placed around the lower left first molar. Rats were treated with BPC 157 (once daily for 12 days) or vehicle. At day 13, the gingivomucosal tissues encircling the molars were removed on both sides. Inflammation was assessed by Evans blue plasma extravasation technique and by histology. Alveolar bone loss was analyzed by microCT. BPC 157 had no effect on gingivomucosal blood flow. Twelve day ligature caused a significantly increased Evans blue extravasation in the gingivomucosal tissue, histological signs of inflammation, and alveolar bone destruction. BPC 157 treatment significantly reduced both plasma extravasation, histological alterations and alveolar bone resorption. In conclusion, systemic application of BPC 157 does not alter blood circulation in healthy gingiva. Chronic application of the peptide has potent antiinflammatory effects on periodontal tissues in ligature induced periodontitis in rats. Taken together, this proof of concept study suggests that BPC 157 may represent a new peptide candidate in the treatment of periodontal disease.

  20. Systemic treatment with resveratrol and/or curcumin reduces the progression of experimental periodontitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, M G; Pires, P R; Ribeiro, F V; Pimentel, S Z; Casarin, R C V; Cirano, F R; Tenenbaum, H T; Casati, M Z

    2017-04-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of periodontal tissues that leads to the destruction of bone and other connective tissues. Resveratrol and curcumin are plant-derived substances with biological properties that may have immunomodulatory properties. This study investigated the effect of continuous administration of resveratrol and curcumin and the association of resveratrol and curcumin on the progression of experimental periodontitis in rats. Forty Wistar rats were assigned randomly to the following groups: group 1, experimental periodontitis + placebo (PL) (n = 10); group 2, experimental periodontitis + resveratrol (RSV) (n = 10); group 3, experimental periodontitis + curcumin (C) (n = 10); and group 4, experimental periodontitis + resveratrol + curcumin (COMBI) (n = 10). Periodontitis was induced in rats by tying a silk suture, as a ligature, around one of the first molars. Daily administration of the placebo solution, 10 mg/kg of resveratrol, 100 mg/kg of curcumin or 10 mg/kg of resveratrol plus 100 mg/kg of curcumin was carried out from day 0 to day 30. At the end of the relevant experimental periods, rats were killed and the specimens obtained were processed for morphometric analysis of bone loss. Gingival tissues surrounding the first molar were collected for quantification of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) using a Luminex/MAGPIX assay. Intergroup comparisons of the morphometric outcomes revealed higher bone-loss values in the PL group (p 0.05). The immunoenzymatic assay of the gingival tissue showed a lower concentration of IL-1β in the COMBI group in comparison with the PL group (p 0.05). Resveratrol and curcumin are capable of reducing alveolar bone loss in an animal model of periodontitis. This occurred when these agents were added singly or in combination with one another, but there did not appear to be either synergistic or additive effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A

  1. TNF-α neutralization improves experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Zhi; Liu, Jiabao; Feng, Yingmei; Jiang, Huiqing; Han, Delan

    2012-07-01

    TNF-α is increased in hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). Pentoxifylline (PTX) mitigated experimental HPS through the inhibition of TNF-α. However, PTX has pleiotropic effects besides the inhibition of TNF-α. This study is to neutralize TNF-α with specific monoclonal antibody to TNF-α (TNF-α McAb) to investigate the effect of TNF-α on HPS. Hepatopulmonary syndrome was induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL); controls were sham operated. The endpoints were 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after surgery. (99m) Technetium-macroaggregated albumin (Tc-MAA) was to evaluate intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunts; Portal venous pressure, cardiac output and mean blood pressure (MAP) were also measured. Serum was for Alanine transaminase (ALT), endotoxin, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) measurements, liver for histology, lung for histology and iNOS, PI3K/Akt expression assay. Portal vein pressure was significantly elevated and MAP decreased in CBDL rats. Tc-MAA was mainly located in lung and very weak in brain in sham group and mainly in brain of CBDL rats. TNF-α McAb significantly decreased the radioactivity in the brain, reduced cardiac output, increased MAP and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) in CBDL animals. Serum ALT, endotoxin, TNF-α and NO were significantly increased. TNF-α McAb significantly decreased these serum indices in CBDL rats. TNF-α McAb significantly alleviated liver damage, decreased alveolar-arterial gradient and inhibited iNOS, PI3K/Akt and p-Akt expression in lung tissue. Furthermore, TNF-α McAb significantly attenuated the inflammatory response in lung. TNF-α McAb improves HPS in cirrhotic rats; this effect is likely mediated through the inhibition of TNF-α PI3K/Akt-NO pathway. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. An experimental model to study the effects of a senna extract on the blood constituent labeling and biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Elizabeth Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na99mTcO4 and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na99mTcO4 in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na99mTcO4 are conducted in patients who are using senna extract.

  3. An experimental model to study the effects of a senna extract on the blood constituent labeling and biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Deise Elizabeth; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Carmo, Fernanda Santos, E-mail: marciaoliveira.13@terra.com.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa

    2011-07-01

    Cassia angustifolia Vahl (senna) is a natural product that contains sennosides, which are active components that affect the intestinal tract and induce diarrhea. Authors have shown that senna produces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) lesions in Escherichia coli cultures and can act as an antifungal agent. Natural drugs can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) and can affect the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we have evaluated the influence of a senna extract on the radiolabeling of blood constituents and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) in Wistar rats. Twelve animals were treated with senna extract for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from the animals and the radiolabeling procedure was carried out. The senna extract did not modify the radiolabeling of the blood constituents. A biodistributional assay was performed by administering Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} and determining its activity in different organs and in blood. The senna extract altered the biodistribution of Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} in the thyroid, liver, pancreas, lungs and blood. These results are associated with properties of the chemical substances present in the aqueous senna extract. Although these assays were performed in animals, our findings suggest that caution should be exercised when nuclear medicine examinations using Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} are conducted in patients who are using senna extract. (author)

  4. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. III. Study of gastric retention of a sodium citrate solution using an experimental model of metabolic acidosis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracat, E C; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of sodium citrate solution 0.25 mEq/ml was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by orogastric infusion of 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water. The 3 solutions content was 2 ml/100 g weight of the animal. Six hours after the infusion, there was a moderate metabolic acidosis in the group with ammonium citrate. This 6 hour interval marked the beginning of the gastric emptying study. The test meal (sodium citrate 0.25 mEq/ml) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric emptying of sodium citrate was studied at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the infusion, and the results showed no differences between the 3 groups. The data suggest that the duodenal receptors to pH were more effective do determine the pattern of gastric response than the acidosis.

  5. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. II. Study, in an experimental model in rats, of gastric retention of a sodium bicarbonate solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belangero, V M; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of a 0.25 M sodium bicarbonate solution was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by a previous (6 hours) orogastric infusion of a 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one previously infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water, in the same volume that further solutions. Every animal was fed with 2 ml/100 g of its weight of these solutions. The test meal (bicarbonate solution) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric retentions were determined 6 hours after those first meals at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The results demonstrated that the gastric retentions of the bicarbonate solution were significantly lower in the acidotic group than that one of water group (at 20 minutes) and that one of the sodium chloride (at 10, 20 and 30 minutes). The data here presented suggest that metabolic acidosis accelerates the gastric emptying of a sodium bicarbonate solution.

  6. Effects of Morinda officinalis Polysaccharide on Experimental Varicocele Rats

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    Lihong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda officinalis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has been used to tonify the kidney and strengthen yang for a long time in China. In this study, the effects of M. officinalis Polysaccharide (MOP on experimental varicocele adolescent rats were investigated. The result showed that varicocele destroyed the structure of the seminiferous epithelium and decreased the TJ protein expression (Occludin, Claudin-11, and ZO-1, testosterone (T concentration in the left testicular tissue and serum, and serum levels of inhibin B (INHB, while increasing the levels of cytokines (TGF-β3 and TNF-α in the left testicular tissue, as well as serum levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and antisperm antibody (AsAb. MOP repaired the damaged seminiferous epithelium and TJ and reduced the levels of cytokines (TGF-β3 and TNF-α as well as serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, and AsAb, while upregulating TJ protein expression, T level in the left testicular tissue and serum, and serum INHB levels. In summary, we conclude that MOP promotes spermatogenesis and counteracts the varicocele-induced damage to the seminiferous epithelium and TJ, probably via decreasing cytokines (TGF-β3 and TNF-α levels and regulating the abnormal sex hormones levels in experimental varicocele rats.

  7. Penile autotransplantation in rats: An animal model

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    Raouf M Seyam

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Penile autotransplantation in rats is feasible and provides the basis for evaluation of the corpora cavernosa in an allotransplantation model. Long-term urethral continuity and dorsal neurovascular bundle survival in this model is difficult to establish.

  8. Efeitos do Tratamento Crônico com Sinvastatina na Função Renal de Ratos Submetidos a um Modelo Experimental de Doença Renal Crônica Effects of Chronic Treatment with Sinvastatin on Renal Function in Rats Subjected to an Experimental Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

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    André Luiz Rios dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Avaliar os efeitos do tratamento crônico com sinvastatina na função renal de ratos submetidos a um modelo experimental de doença renal crônica. Metodologia: Foram utilizados 30 ratos, machos, adultos jovens, da linhagem Wistar, com peso entre 200 e 250 g e idade entre 60 e 90 dias. Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos com 10 ratos cada. Foi realizada a cirurgia seguindo o modelo experimental de doença renal crônica moderada (DRC-M baseado na metodologia descrita por Ormrod & Miller, 1980. Após os procedimentos cirúrgicos, os animais receberam os referidos tratamentos, por um período de duas semanas: Grupo 1 - Animais com DRC-M tratados com água destilada VO (Gavagem (n=10. Grupo 2 - Animais com DRC-M tratados com 5mg/Kg de sinvastatina VO (n=10. Grupo 3 - Animais com DRC-M tratados com 10mg/Kg de sinvastatina VO (n=10. Resultados: A indução de DRC-M não produziu alterações significativas sobre o débito urinário, ingesta hídrica, ingesta alimentar e parâmetros da função renal estudados, quando comparados o grupo controle com sinvastatina 5mg/Kg ou com sinvastatina 10mg/Kg ou quando comparados os grupos sinvastatinas entre si. Conclusão: Esses dados demonstram que o tratamento com sinvastatina, independente da dosagem do trabalho, não produziu melhora da função renal de ratos submetidos a um modelo experimental de Doença Renal Crônica Moderada (DRC-M. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with sinvastatin on renal function in rats subjected to an experimental model of chronic renal disease. Methods: 30 male rats were young adults, the Wistar strain, weighing between 200 and 250 g and aged between 60 and 90 days were used. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 rats in each. Surgery was performed following the experimental moderate chronic (CKD-M model of kidney disease based on the methodology described by Miller & Ormrod, 1980. After the surgical

  9. Effects of the Treatment with ‍Nigella sativa Oil on Brain Injury and Edema in Experimental Model of Stroke in Rats

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    H Panahpour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Stroke is third leading cause of death and disability in the most of human communities. The use of herbs and medicinal plants in different countries is increasing. Today, herbal medicine is used as alternative or complementary therapies with a fewer side effects. Nigella sativa has a rich medical and religious history. Oxidative stress has important role in the pathophysiology of stroke. As Nigella sativa has antioxidant effects, its administration may produce a protective effect against complications of this disease. We examined the effects of the treatment with Nigella sativa oil on the cerebral infarction and edema. Methods: 48 Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, sham, control ischemic and Nigella sativa oil treated (2 ml/kg ischemic groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 90-min-long occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery followed by 24-h-long reperfusion. Neurological deficit score was evaluated at the end of the reperfusion period. Thereafter, the animals were randomly selected and used for two projects: (i Measurement of the infarct volumes and neurological outcome (ii investigation of ischemic brain edema formation using a wet/dry method. Results: Induction of cerebral ischemia in the control group produced considerable brain infarction in conjunction with impaired motor functions and severely brain edema. Treatment with Nigella sativa oil significantly reduced the infarct volume and improved the motor functions. The water content in the left (lesioned hemisphere was considerably elevated in the control ischemic group. Administration of the Nigella sativa oil significantly lowered the water content in the ischemic lesioned hemisphere. Conclusion: Treatment with Nigella sativa oil can noticeably decrease the ischemic brain injury, attenuate edema formation and improve motor disabilities.

  10. Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models

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    Amin Al-awar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. Diabetes mellitus disease, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels for a prolonged time. To avoid late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic symptoms, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies. We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes in relation to its complications in type 1 and type 2 mice along with rat models, including Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats, BB rats, LEW 1AR1/-iddm rats, Goto-Kakizaki rats, chemically induced diabetic models, and Nonobese Diabetic mouse, and Akita mice model. The advantages and disadvantages that these models comprise were also addressed in this review. This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans.

  11. Experimental model of lead nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil-Manesh, F.; Gonick, H.C. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Cohen, A. (UCLA-Harbor General Hospital, Torrance, CA (United States)); Bergamaschi, E.; Mutti, A. (Univ. of Parma (Italy))

    1992-06-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to high-dose (0.5%) lead acetate for periods ranging from 1 to 9 months; then lead exposure was discontinued, and animals were sacrificed after 12 months. Two additional groups of low-dose (0.01%) and high-dose (0.5%) rats were exposed to lead for 6 months, then lead was discontinued and the rats were treated with three 5-day courses of 0.5% DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) over the next 6 months. Low-dose lead-treated rats showed no significant pathological changes with or without DMSA treatment, but exhibited a significant increase in GFR after DMSA. High-dose lead-treated animals showed no functional or pathological changes when lead exposure was discontinued after 1 month. However, when duration of exposure was 6 or 9 months, GFR was decreased and serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were increased as compared to controls. Tubulointerstitial disease was severe. Administration of DMSA resulted in an improvement in GFR and a decrease in albuminuria, together with a reduction in size and number of nuclear inclusion bodies in proximal tubules. However, tubulointerstitial scarring was only minimally reduced. It may be concluded that, except for brief initial exposure, discontinuation of high-dose lead exposure fails to reverse lead-induced renal damage. Treatment with the chelator, DMSA, improves renal function but has less effect on pathological alterations. As GFR improved after DMSA treatment in both low-dose and high-dose lead-treated rats, irrespective of the degree of pathological alterations, it may be concluded that the DMSA effect is most likely mediated by hemodynamic changes.

  12. Effect and Mechanism of QiShenYiQi Pill on Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shichao; Wu, Meifang; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Background To observe the effect of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) on experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats, and to explore its mechanism of action. Material/methods Lewis rats underwent the injection of myocardial myosin mixed with Freund’s complete adjuvant were randomized into 3 groups: model, valsartan, and QSYQ groups. Rats injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) mixed with Freund’s complete adjuvant were used as the control group. Rats were euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks, and we weighed rat body mass, heart mass, and left ventricular mass. Myocardium sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome. Myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF mRNA expression was detected by real-time qPCR. Results QSYQ reduced HMI and LVMI, as well as the histological score of hearts and CVF, which further decreased over time, and its effect was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 4 and 8 weeks. After 4 weeks, QSYQ inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF, and its effect on lowering CTGF was significantly greater than that of valsartan. In addition, after 8 weeks, QSYQ also inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of CTGF, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of myocardial TGF-β1. Conclusions This study provides evidence that QSYQ can improve cardiac remodeling of experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats. It also effectively improved the degree of myocardial fibrosis, which is related to the mechanism of regulation of TGF-β1 CTGF. PMID:26946470

  13. Increase in seizure susceptibility in sepsis like condition explained by spiking cytokines and altered adhesion molecules level with impaired blood brain barrier integrity in experimental model of rats treated with lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewal, Rakesh K; Modi, Manish; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Chakrabarti, Amitava; Medhi, Bikash

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Sepsis is a condition which initiates a cascade of a surge of inflammatory mediators. Interplay between seizures and inflammation other than of brain origin is yet to be explored. The present study was designed to evaluate the seizure susceptibility in experimental models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sepsis. Experimental sepsis was induced using lipopolysaccharides in Wistar rats. Valproic acid, dexametasone were given to two different groups of animals along with LPS. Two groups of animals were subjected to administration of vehicle and LPS respectively with no other treatment. 24h later, animals were subjected to seizures by using either maximal electro shock or pentylenetetrazole. Seizures related parameters, oxidative stress and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, MMP-9 level in serum and brain samples were evaluated. Histopathological and blood brain barrier permeability studies were conducted. Seizures were decreased in valproic acid treated animals. Reduced oxidative stress was seen in dexamethasone plus valproic acid treated groups as compared to LPS alone treated group. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9 levels were found increased in LPS treated animals whereas a reverse observation was noted for ICAM-2 level in brain and serum. Histopathological findings confirmed the successful establishment of sepsis like state in animals. Blood brain barrier permeability was found increased in LPS treated groups of animals. Seizure susceptibility may escalate during the sepsis like inflammatory conditions and curbing the inflammatory state might reverse the phenomenon. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Gravitational Biology: The Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP3, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Morphology of brain, pituitary and thyroid in the rats exposed to altered gravity; Biochemical Properties of B Adrenoceptors After Spaceflight (LMS-STS78) or Hindlimb Suspension in Rats; Influence of Hypergravity on the Development of Monoaminergic Systems in the Rat Spinal Cord; A Vestibular Evoked Potentials (VsEPs) Study of the Function of the Otolith Organs in Different Head Orientations with respect to Earth Gravity Vector in the Rat; Quantitative Observations on the Structure of Selected Proprioceptive Components in Adult Rats that Underwent About Half of their Fetal Development in Space; Effects of a Nine-Day Shuttle Mission on the Development of the Neonatal Rat Nervous System, A Behavioral Study; Muscle Atrophy Associated to Microgravity in Rat, Basic Data For Countermeasures; Simulated Weightlessness by Unloading in the Rat, Results of a Time Course Study of Biochemical Events Occurring During Unloading and Lack of Effect of a rhBNP-2 Treatment on Bone Formation and Bone Mineral Content in Unloading Rats; and Cytological Mechanism of the Osteogenesis Under Microgravity Conditions.

  15. An experimental model of hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis

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    Saruc M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that acute pancreatitis is a complication of massive hemolysis with a prevalence of about 20%. We describe an experimental model of hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis. Hemolytic anemia was induced in rats by a single ip injection of 60 mg/kg of 20 mg/ml acetylphenylhydrazine (APH in 20% (v/v ethanol on the first experimental day (day 0. One hundred and fifty Wistar albino rats weighing 180-200 g were divided into three groups of 50 animals each: groups 1, 2 and 3 were injected ip with APH, 20% ethanol, and physiological saline, respectively. Ten rats from each group were sacrificed on study days 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Serum amylase, lipase levels and pancreatic tissue tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF contents were determined and a histological examination of the pancreas was performed. No hemolysis or pancreatitis was observed in any of the rats in groups 2 and 3. In group 1, massive hemolysis was observed in 35 (70% of 50 rats, moderate hemolysis in seven (14%, and no hemolysis in eight (16%. Thirty-three of 35 (94.2% rats with massive hemolysis had hyperamylasemia, and 29 of these rats (82.8% had histologically proven pancreatitis. The most severe pancreatitis occurred on day 3, as demonstrated by histology. Tissue TNF-alpha and PAF levels were statistically higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Acute massive hemolysis induced acute pancreatitis, as indicated by histology, in almost 80% of cases. Hemolysis may induce acute pancreatitis by triggering the release of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines.

  16. Proteomic Profiling Analysis Reveals a Link between Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis and Complement Activation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, D D; Hu, B; Tang, H Y; Sun, Y Y; Liu, B; Tian, Q M; Bi, H S

    2017-05-01

    Uveitis is an autoimmune disease that usually damages the vision function, leading to poor visual quality in patients. As an autoimmune ocular inflammatory disease, the pathogenesis of uveitis is associated with abnormal expression of some proteins and aberrant regulation of multiple signalling pathways. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we induced an experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) model in rats. We determined the levels of C3a and membrane attack complex C5b-9 (soluble C5b-9, sC5b-9) in both plasma and aqueous humour, identified the differentially expressed proteins in plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and employed bioinformatics algorithms to analyse differentially expressed proteins in EAU rat plasma. The results demonstrate that there were 168 differentially expressed plasma proteins in EAU rats versus control subjects. The levels of sC5b-9 and C3a were elevated in the plasmas and aqueous humours of EAU rats. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed proteins in EAU rat plasma were mainly involved in metabolic and immune processes. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation, database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID) and protein-protein interaction analyses revealed that the differentially expressed proteins in EAU rat plasmas were closely associated with complement and coagulation cascades, metabolic pathways, NF-kappa B, PI3K-Akt, Toll-like receptors and autophagy. Overall, the differentially expressed proteins in EAU rat plasmas are mainly involved in the complement and coagulation cascades. The pathogenesis of uveitis closely correlates with complement activation. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  17. The utility of Apc-mutant rats in modeling human colon cancer

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    Amy A. Irving

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the advent of genetic engineering in the mouse, the rat was the model of choice for investigating the etiology of cancer. Now, recent advances in the manipulation of the rat genome, combined with a growing recognition of the physiological differences between mice and rats, have reignited interest in the rat as a model of human cancer. Two recently developed rat models, the polyposis in the rat colon (Pirc and Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD strains, each carry mutations in the intestinal-cancer-associated adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc gene. In contrast to mouse models carrying Apc mutations, in which cancers develop mainly in the small intestine rather than in the colon and there is no gender bias, these rat models exhibit colonic predisposition and gender-specific susceptibility, as seen in human colon cancer. The rat also provides other experimental resources as a model organism that are not provided by the mouse: the structure of its chromosomes facilitates the analysis of genomic events, the size of its colon permits longitudinal analysis of tumor growth, and the size of biological samples from the animal facilitates multiplexed molecular analyses of the tumor and its host. Thus, the underlying biology and experimental resources of these rat models provide important avenues for investigation. We anticipate that advances in disease modeling in the rat will synergize with resources that are being developed in the mouse to provide a deeper understanding of human colon cancer.

  18. The utility of Apc-mutant rats in modeling human colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Amy A.; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Hart, Marcia L.; Parker, Taybor; Clipson, Linda; Ford, Madeline R.; Kuramoto, Takashi; Dove, William F.; Amos-Landgraf, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the advent of genetic engineering in the mouse, the rat was the model of choice for investigating the etiology of cancer. Now, recent advances in the manipulation of the rat genome, combined with a growing recognition of the physiological differences between mice and rats, have reignited interest in the rat as a model of human cancer. Two recently developed rat models, the polyposis in the rat colon (Pirc) and Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) strains, each carry mutations in the intestinal-cancer-associated adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene. In contrast to mouse models carrying Apc mutations, in which cancers develop mainly in the small intestine rather than in the colon and there is no gender bias, these rat models exhibit colonic predisposition and gender-specific susceptibility, as seen in human colon cancer. The rat also provides other experimental resources as a model organism that are not provided by the mouse: the structure of its chromosomes facilitates the analysis of genomic events, the size of its colon permits longitudinal analysis of tumor growth, and the size of biological samples from the animal facilitates multiplexed molecular analyses of the tumor and its host. Thus, the underlying biology and experimental resources of these rat models provide important avenues for investigation. We anticipate that advances in disease modeling in the rat will synergize with resources that are being developed in the mouse to provide a deeper understanding of human colon cancer. PMID:25288683

  19. Experimental models of Reye's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratikov, A S; Vengerovskii, A I; Arbuzov, A G; Chuchalin, V S; Chervyakova, M B; Sukhodolo, I V

    2000-04-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of 4-pentenoic acid (20 mg/kg/day for seven days or ten doses of 50 mg/kg with 4 h intervals) or acetylsalicylic acid (50 mg/kg 1 hour after single pyrogenal injection) to rats reproduced metabolic disorders characteristic of Reye's syndrome: hyperenzymemia, hyperbilirubinemia, decreased levels of ketone bodies and urea, hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, accumulation of ammonia and phenol, and acidosis. Necroses and microvesicular steatosis were found in the liver.

  20. No association between periodontitis, preterm birth, or intrauterine growth restriction: experimental study in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogacci, Mariana Fampa; Barbirato, Davi da Silva; Amaral, Cristine da Silva Furtado; da Silva, Priscilla Gonçalves; Coelho, Mariana de Oliveira; Bertozi, Giuliana; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Leão, Anna Thereza Thomé

    2016-06-01

    The biologic plausibility of the possible association between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been assessed with the use of different experimental models. However, most experimental studies did not induce periodontitis in the animals but promoted an acute microbial challenge with selected periodontal pathogens or their products subcutaneous or intravenous or intraamniotic. The present study was then conducted to verify the biologic plausibility of such association by experimentally inducing periodontitis in Wistar rats. An experimental study on an animal model by the induction of periodontitis in 50% of sites and assessment of the presence of cytokines in the gingival tissue, serum, placenta, cord, and amniotic fluid was designed to test the null hypothesis that experimental periodontitis that is induced on rats does not result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Forty female Wistar rats were included in 2 groups: a periodontally healthy (without ligatures) and an experimentally induced periodontitis group (test, with ligatures). Forty-five days after the induction, the mating was initiated. Males were placed with females in the ratio of 1:2 for a period of 12 hours. The bodyweight of the female, from then on, was recorded daily. When the pregnancy was confirmed on day 20, laparotomy was performed. The amniotic fluid, placenta, umbilical cord, blood (serum) and maternal and gingival tissue samples were subjected to quantitative analysis for interleukin 1α, -6, -10, -4, -12p70, and -17a, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ by multiplex methods. Mean scores, standard deviations, and standard errors for estimated measures were calculated. For cytokines analyses, the Mann-Whitney test was conducted to compare the concentration of the analytes from control and test groups in the different tissues samples. For comparison of cytokines reduction from gingival tissue to serum and from serum to placenta, the Wilcoxon Test was performed. Spearman

  1. model in female wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... cyclodextrin on wister rats : histopathologic analoges. Fundan Clin. Pharmacol.; 23(6) :747-755. Sandor, V., Cuparencu, B., Dumitrascu, L.D., Birt, A.M. and Krausz, L.T. (2006). Protective effects of amphetamine on gastric ulcerations induced by indomethacin in rats. World J. Gastroenterol.; 12(44): ...

  2. Neurodegenrative changes in retina of rats with streptozotocin diabetes under different conditions of experimental treatment

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    N. V. Kresyun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy pathogenesis includes mechanisms of free radical generation and intensification of lipid peroxidation. It was shown that electrical stimulation (ES of cerbellar structures as well as administration of delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP is able both to alleviate intensified lipid peroxidation and cause neuroprotective action in neuronal tissue. The aim of research was to investigate the effectiveness of combined usage of DSIP and ES of paleocerebellar cortex upon neurodegenerative manifestations in retina of rats suffered from streptozotocin (STZ- induced diabetes. Methods of investigations. In Wistar rats diabetes have been modeled via i.p. STZ administration (55,0 mg/kg, i.p.. Electrical stimulations (ES (100 Hz, 0,25 ms, 80-120 mcA, 2,5 s of paleocerebellar cortex (V-VII lobules, which have been delivered during ten weeks two times daily (9.00; 19.00, started on 15th day from the moment of STZ injection. DSIP («Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH», Germany have been administered every third day during ten weeks in a dosage of 50 mcg/ kg, i.p. Separate group of STZ-treated rats have been provided with combined usage of DSIP and ES in mentioned dosage and regimen during ten weeks. Retinal hemotoxylin eosin painted slices (5 mcm have been used for light microscopy and calculation of the number of neurons in retinal layers using digital photos. Results have been expressed as number of cells/mm2+SEM. Results. Histological investigation of retina of rats with STZ diabetes revealed the net neurons vacuolization, along with edematic and picnotic deteriorations of neurons. Such disturbances were absent in intact rats and also less pronounced in groups of rats treated with DSIP and paleocerebellar ES. In rats with STZ-induced diabetes the outer nuclear layer contained less number of neurons – by 35,4% when compared with the same index in intact animals (P0,05. The number of neurons in the retinal inner nuclear layer of STZ

  3. Protective effect of dietary nitrate on experimental gastritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larauche, Muriel; Anton, Pauline M; Garcia-Villar, Rafaël; Theodorou, Vassilia; Frexinos, Jacques; Buéno, Lionel; Fioramonti, Jean

    2003-06-01

    Nitrates have long been considered as harmful dietary components and judged responsible for deleterious effects on human health, leading to stringent regulations concerning their levels in food and water. However, recent studies demonstrate that dietary nitrate may have a major role in human health as a non-immune mechanism for host defence, through its metabolism to NO in the stomach. NO is a versatile molecule and although evidence exists showing that administration of low doses of exogenous NO protects against gastrointestinal inflammation, higher NO doses have been shown to exacerbate injury. So, the effect of an ingestion of nitrates in doses corresponding to a normal diet in human consumers on an experimental gastritis induced by iodoacetamide in rats was investigated. During gastritis one of the following compounds was given orally: water; KNO3; the NO donor sodium nitroprusside; the NO scavenger haemoglobin given with either water or KNO3. N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor, was administered with either water, iodoacetamide alone, or combined with KNO3. After killing, the stomach was resected and microscopic damage scores, myeloperoxidase and NO synthase activities were determined. Iodoacetamide-induced gastritis was significantly reduced by KNO3 administration, an effect which was reproduced by sodium nitroprusside and reversed by haemoglobin. l-NAME induced gastric mucosal damage in itself, and KNO3 did not prevent the gastritis induced by iodoacetamide associated with l-NAME. In conclusion, dietary nitrate exerts a protective effect against an experimental gastritis in rats by releasing NO in the stomach but such an effect requires the production of endogenous NO.

  4. Efeitos do Tratamento Crônico com Celecoxibe ou Indometacina na Função Renal de Ratos Submetidos a um Modelo Experimental de Doença Renal Crônica / Effects of Chronic Treatment with Celecoxib or Indomethacin on Renal Function in Rats Subjected to an Experimental Model of Chronic Kidney Diseas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Maduro Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos do tratamento crônico com Celecoxibe e Indometacina sobre a função renal de ratos. Materiais e Métodos: Os ratos foram submetidos a um modelo experimental de doença renal crônica moderada (nefrectomia ¾, randomizados em três grupos, alocados em gaiolas metabólicas individuais e receberam administrações distintas durante quatorze dias por gavagem: 1- Água destilada, 2- Celecoxibe 200mg/Kg e 3- Indometacina 5mg/Kg. Foram avaliados diariamente parâmetros como peso, ingesta hídrica, alimentar, débito urinário e ao final do experimento, foram coletadas amostras de urina e sangue para dosagens de ureia, creatinina sérica e urinária, glicemia e clearance de creatinina. Resultados: Apesar de não haver diferença significativa no clearance de creatinina entre os grupos, a maior mortalidade no grupo indometacina pode evidenciar que seus efeitos adversos na função renal são mais importantes se comparados aos do celecoxibe. Conclusão: O celecoxibe demostrou, sob as condições experimentais utilizadas, ser seguro em ratos submetidos à doença renal crônica moderada. Observou-se aumento significativo na mortalidade do grupo Indometacina. Objectives: to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment with Celecoxib and indomethacin on renal function in rats. Methodology: The rats were subjected to an experimental model of moderate chronic kidney disease ( ¾ nephrectomy were randomized into three groups allocated in individual metabolic cages and received separate administrations during fourteen days by gavage : 1- Distilled water, 2- Celecoxib 200mg/Kg and 3- Indomethacin 5mg/Kg . Parameters such as body weight, water intake, food , urine , and urine output was evaluated at the end of the experiment , blood and urine samples were collected for serum urea , serum and urinary creatinine, glucose and creatinine clearance were assessed daily . Results: Although there was no significant difference in creatinine

  5. Máxima fase estável de lactato é ergômetro-dependente em modelo experimental utilizando ratos Máxima fase de estabilidad de lactato es ergómetro-dependiente en modelo experimental utilizando ratones The maximal lactate steady state is ergometer-dependent in experimental model using rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvia de Barros Manchado

    2006-10-01

    0,22 mM. Para el ejercicio en faja ergo métrica, se observó MFEL a 20 m.min-1, en concentración de 3,87 ± 0,33 mM. De esa forma, es posible concluir que la MFEL también es ergómetro-dependiente en modelos experimentales utilizando animales.The maximal lactate steady state (MLSS is considered the gold standard method for determination of aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition during continuous exercise, but the blood lactate response at this intensity is ergometer-dependent in human beings. An important tool for exercise physiology and correlated fields is the use of animal models. However, investigation on evaluation protocols in rats is scarce. The aim of the present study was to verify if the MLSS is ergometer-dependent for the evaluation of the aerobic conditioning of rats. Therefore, 40 adult male Wistar rats were evaluated in two different exercise types: swimming and treadmill running. In both, the MLSS was obtained with 4 continuous 25 minutes tests, at different intensities, performed at 48 hours intervals. In all tests, blood samples were collected from a cut at the tail tip every 5 minutes for blood lactate analysis. The swimming tests occurred in a deep cylindrical tank, with water temperature at 31 ± 1°C. The loads used in the tests were 4.5; 5.0; 5.5 and 6.0% of the body weight tied to the animal's back. For MLSS determination in running exercise, there was selection of running rats and velocities used in the tests were 15, 20, 25, 30 m.min-1. The MLSS was interpreted as an increase not exceeding 1.0 mM of blood lactate, from the 10th to the 25th minute of exercise. The MLSS in swimming exercise occurred at 5.0% of body weight (bw, with blood lactate at 5.20 ± 0.22 mM. The running rats presented MLSS at the 20 m.min-1 velocity, with blood lactate of 3.87 ± 0.33 mM. The results indicated that the MLSS is ergometer-dependent in experimental models using animals, as it is in human beings.

  6. Fibrosis in tubularized skin flaps in rats, using silicon catheters with two different degrees of flexibility: experimental model Fibrose em retalhos tubulizados de pele de ratos usando cateteres de diferentes flexibilidades como molde: modelo experimental

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    Antonio Henrique Rodrigues dos Passos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Microscopically evaluate the intensity of fibrosis in tubularized skin flaps on the back of Wistar rats, using silicon molds with different degrees of flexibility. METHODS: Twenty rats were submitted to three tubularized skin flaps on their backs. In two tubular flaps, we placed, as a mold, silicon catheters with different degrees of flexibility and removed them on the seventh day after the surgery. They were divided into two groups and euthanized, on the seventh and twenty-first days respectively after the surgery for the collection of the pieces, coloration with Masson tricromic, quantification of the area of each sample and comparison among the groups. RESULTS: Fibrosis was less intense on the tubular flaps where a catheter was not used as a mold. No significant difference was verified among the pieces with the silicon catheters, but there was a tendency of less fibrosis on the tubules with the most flexible catheter. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference among the two catheter types. Fibrosis was less intense in the flaps where the mold was not used.OBJETIVO: Avaliar microscopicamente a intensidade da fibrose em retalhos tubulares de pele do dorso de ratos Wistar em uso de moldes de silicone de diferentes flexibilidades. MÉTODOS: Vinte animais foram submetidos à confecção de três retalhos tubulizados de pele na região dorsal. Em dois túbulos foram colocados, como molde, cateteres de silicone com flexibilidades diferentes e retirados no sétimo dia após a cirurgia. Foram divididos em dois grupos e sacrificados, respectivamente, no sétimo e vigésimo primeiro dia após a cirurgia para a coleta das peças, coloração pelo tricrômico de Masson, quantificação da área de cada amostra e comparação entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: A fibrose foi menos intensa nos retalhos tubulares em que não se usou cateter como molde. Não se verificou diferença significativa entre os retalhos com os cateteres de silicone, mas sim

  7. Establishment of a rat model for canine necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E-S; Uchida, K; Nakayama, H

    2014-11-01

    The pathogenesis of necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), necrotizing leukoencephalitis (NLE), and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME) is still uncertain, although they are considered immune-mediated diseases. The purpose of the present study is to generate a rodent model(s) of these diseases. Rats were injected with rat cerebral or cerebellar homogenate. Rats injected with cerebral homogenate (Cbr) exhibited vacuolar or malacic changes mainly in the cerebral cortex. CD3-positive T cells and Iba-1-positive and CD163-negative microglia infiltrated and activated around the lesions. IgG deposited in the glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)-positive glia limitans from the early phase, and CD3-positive T cells attached to GFAP-positive astrocytes. Autoantibodies against GFAP were detected in the sera. These pathological features of Cbr rats were consistent with those of canine NME. In contrast, rats injected with cerebral homogenate (Cbe) exhibited demyelinating lesions with inflammatory reactions in the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. The presence of demyelination and autoantibodies against myelin proteins in Cbe rats was similar to murine experimental autoimmune encephalitis and differed from NME, NLE, and GME. All the present findings indicate that autoantibodies together with microglia and T cells may play a major role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic canine meningoencephalomyelitis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Achilles tendinosis: a morphometrical study in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael Duarte; Glazebrook, Mark Anthony; Campos, Vinicius Castro; Vasconcelos, Anilton Cesar

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the morphopathogenesis of Achilles tendinosis, using a rat model and presenting quantitative analysis of time-dependent histological changes. Thirty Wistar rats were used, randomly split in experimental and control groups. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to a treadmill running scheme. Five animals of each group were euthanized at four, eight and sixteen weeks. Achilles tendons were collected and processed routinely for histopath sections. Slides were stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin, Picrosirius Red, Alcian Blue, AgNOR, TUNEL and evaluated morphometrically. Cellular density decreased slightly along the time and was higher in the experimental group than in controls at fourth, eighth and sixteenth weeks. Fiber microtearing, percentual of reticular fibers and glycosaminoglycans content increased along the time and were higher in experimental group than in controls at all-time intervals. AgNOR labeling here interpreted as a marker of transcription activity was higher in the experimental groups than in controls at all-time intervals. Apoptotic cells were more frequent and diffusely distributed in tendinosis samples than in control groups. These results suggest that as mechanical overload is becoming chronic, cellular turnover and matrix deposition increases leading to tendinosis. The combination of staining techniques and morphometry used here to describe the evolution of lesions occurring in a rat model system has proved to be suited for the study of induced Achilles tendinosis.

  9. Animal model of the abdominal compartment syndrome as a single insult and as a second insult in rats Modelo experimental de síndrome de compartimento abdominal como insulto único e como um segundo insulto, em ratos

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    João Baptista de Rezende-Neto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to develop a clinically relevant abdominal compartment syndrome experimental model, as a single insult and as a second insult flowing hemorrhagic shock. In the single insult model, Sprague-Dawley male-rats are anesthetized, invasively monitored (central venous pressure and mean arterial pressure, and mechanically ventilated during intraperitoneal injection of air to provoke the abdominal compartment syndrome (25 mmHg for 60 minutes. In the two insult model, Sprague-Dawley male-rats are anesthetized, invasively monitored (mean arterial pressure and bled to a mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg for 45 minutes. Fluid resuscitation is accomplished by infusing 0.9% sodium chloride solution (0.9% NaCl 33.2 ml/kg plus 75% of shed blood volume. During this phase a laparotomy is performed. Two hours after the beginning of the hemorrhagic shock phase the animals are anesthetized, intubated (orotracheal, mechanically ventilated (mean arterial pressure, and the intra-abdominal pressure is increased to 25 mmHg for 60 minutes, as a second insult. A 0.9% NaCl solution is infused during this phase (45 ml/kg/h. Hemorrhagic shock and the abdominal compartment syndrome behave as clinically relevant additive insults.Este artigo propõe o desenvolvimento de um modelo experimental, clinicamente relevante, de síndrome de compartimento abdominal como insulto único e como segundo insulto após choque hemorrágico. No modelo de insulto único, ratos Sprague-Dawley machos, anestesiados, sob monitorização invasiva da pressão venosa central, pressão arterial média e ventilação mecânica são submetidos a síndrome de compartimento abdominal (25 mmHg por 60 minutos através da injeção de ar na cavidade peritoneal. No modelo de dois insultos ratos Sprague-Dawley machos, anestesiados, sob monitorização invasiva da pressão arterial média, são submetidos a choque hemorrágico (30 mmHg por 45 minutos seguido de reposição vol

  10. Surgical Anatomy and Microvascular Surgical Technique Relevant to Experimental Renal Transplant in Rat Employing Aortic and Inferior Venacaval Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man; Haylor, John

    2017-11-15

    Rat models of renal transplant are used to investigate immunologic processes and responses to therapeutic agents before their translation into routine clinical practice. In this study, we have described details of rat surgical anatomy and our experiences with the microvascular surgical technique relevant to renal transplant by employing donor inferior vena cava and aortic conduits. For this study, 175 rats (151 Lewis and 24 Fisher) were used to establish the Fisher-Lewis rat model of chronic allograft injury at our institution. Anatomic and technical details were recorded during the period of training and establishment of the model. A final group of 12 transplanted rats were studied for an average duration of 51 weeks for the Lewis-to-Lewis isografts (5 rats) and 42 weeks for the Fisher-to-Lewis allografts (7 rats). Functional measurements and histology confirmed the diagnosis of chronic allograft injury. Mastering the anatomic details and microvascular surgical techniques can lead to the successful establishment of an experimental renal transplant model.

  11. [THE CONTENT OF LIPIDS AND PRODUCTS OF THEIR PEROXIDATION OF RAT THYMOCYTES IN EXPERIMENTAL ULCEROGENESIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, V A; Shelest, D V; Ostapchenko, L I

    2015-01-01

    The work is dedicated to the research of the content of lipids and products of their peroxidation in rats thymocytes in experimental ulceration. It was found significant increase of the content of lipid peroxidation products diene conjugates (DC), malondialdehyde (MDA), schiff base (SB) in experimental models of gastric ulcers (ethanol and stress). It was established that under ethanol gastric the contents of DC increases by 1.8 times, MDA by 2.1 and SB by 1.3 times relative to control values. Under stress model it was observed an increase in the number of DC by 2 times, MDA by 1.9 and SB by 1.3 times relative to control. When ethanol and stress ulcers cholesterol increased by 1.7 and 1.5 times, triacylglycerol by 2 and 2.3 times and fatty acids by 2.2 and 1.9 times, respectively, relative to controls. Phosphatidylethanolamine content decreases by 1.5 and 1.3 times compared to control. Also, the stress model, it was observed reduction of phosphatidylinositol by 1.3 times and increased lizofosfatydylholinu by 1.7 times compared to control. Therefore, our studies indicate quantitative changes of lipid content (neutral- and phospholipids) in rats' thymocytes under experimental (ethanol and stress) ulceration. The reason of this changes may be activation of lipid peroxidation, as shown by the increase of lipid peroxidation products' (DK, MDA, SB) content.

  12. ideal hepatotoxicity model in rats using carbon tetrachloride (ccl4)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. A study to produce ideal Hepatotoxicity rats' models using varying concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was carried out. A total of seventy five rats were divided into five (5) groups of twenty five (25) rats each; rats in group I are negative control, were not induced with lipid peroxidation. Rats in groups II, ...

  13. The Impact of Different Plasma Glucose Levels on Heart Rate in Experimental Rats With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guo-Zhong; Xie, Jing; Tian, Xiao-Fang; Yang, Shi-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Jie

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of different plasma glucose levels on heart rate (HR) in experimental rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). One hundred and twenty-one male Wistar rats were randomly divided into AMI group (n = 70) and sham-operation group (n = 51). Both groups had low, normal and high glucose levels, respectively. In the former group, hypertonic glucose was injected into the rats to make their blood glucose levels above 16 mmol/L and insulin below 3.3 mmol/L; then, the left anterior descending artery was ligated. In the later group, the models of different blood glucose levels were the same as the former ones, but false operations, thread without ligating, were given to the rats. Electrocardiogram and troponin I (TnI) confirmed that the models were prepared successfully. Electrocardiogram expression of AMI was the formation of Q-wave in over three adjacent leads and abnormal elevation of TnI. The HR of the rats in the hypoglycemic group is higher than that of the hyperglycemic group and normal blood glucose group before AMI (P < 0.05). The HR of the hyperglycemic rats is higher than that of the hypoglycemic group and normal blood glucose group after AMI (P < 0.05). In the hypoglycemic group, the HR of the rats who suffered from AMI was lower than that of the rats of the sham group (P < 0.05). Hypoglycemia allows faster HR and the HR in the rats with hyperglycemia is higher than that in the rats with hypoglycemia among the AMI rats.

  14. Influence of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, rosiglitazone and antagonist, biphenol-A-diglicydyl ether (BADGE) on the course of inflammation in the experimental model of colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworzanski, T; Celinski, K; Korolczuk, A; Slomka, M; Radej, S; Czechowska, G; Madro, A; Cichoz-Lach, H

    2010-12-01

    PPAR-γ plays a role in the development of immune response, particularly in inflammation. The inflammatory reaction may be stimulated or suppressed by the presence of PPAR ligands. Some researchers suggest positive influence of the PPAR-γ agonist on suppression of the intestinal inflammatory process, yet there has not been much evidence showing that the antagonist of PPAR-γ can affect the inflammatory process. The aim of the present study was to define the mechanism by which PPAR-γ ligands affect the course of experimentally induced colitis in rats. Colitis was induced in rats by rectal administration of TNBS (trinitrobenzene sulfonate). Rosiglitazone was administrated to animals at the dose of 8 mg/kg four times via an intra-gastric probe. Biphenol-A-diglicydyl ether (BADGE) was administrated intraperitoneally at the dose of 120 mg/kg, three times every second day. One group of animals received rosiglitazone together with BADGE before the induction of inflammation. Histological and ELISA examinations of large intestine samples were performed. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α cytokines were determined in serum and homogenates. Rats exposed to rosiglitazone had higher body weight yet lower large intestine weight. Histological findings showed less ulceration, lower expression of crypts' loss and smaller oedema. Animals, which did not receive rosiglitazone, and those receiving it together with BADGE, developed more severe inflammatory changes. Rosiglitazone decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, both in serum and in intestinal homogenates. BADGE used with TNBS did not increase the expression of inflammatory cytokines; however, applied together with rosiglitazone, it caused inflammation similar to that observed among rats with experimentally induced colitis. Rosiglitazone reduces inflammation by decreasing the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. BADGE administered with rosiglitazone blocks the activity of PPAR-γ and abolishes the

  15. [Features of pathological changes in the non-myelin sheath of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Feng; Huang, Rong; Yang, Yu-Jia; Xu, Jun; Jin, Shi-Jie

    2012-04-01

    To study the pathological changes in the non-myelin sheath by observing histological damages to the neurofilament protein and apoptosis of neurons in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Forty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and EAE (24 rats in each group). Behavioral changes were observed. Inflammation reactions and demyelination were observed by hematoxylin eosin staining and LOYEZ staining.The level of neurofilament was detected by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis of the neuron in the spinal cord was detected by TUNEL. Behavioral and histological results confirmed that the model of EAE rats was prepared successfully. In the EAE group, typical morphological features of axonal damage (sparsed axonal density, axonal distortion, axonal transection and even axonal disappearance) were found from the seventh day after immunization and the morphological changes were the most obvious on the fourteenth day. Neurofilament density in the EAE group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.01) at 7, 14 and 21 days after immunization. The neuronal apoptosis index in the EAE group at 7, 14 and 21 days after immunization was significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.01). In addition to inflammatory demyelination, axonal damage and neuronal apoptosis can be observed in the early stage of EAE. Pathological changes may be associated with neurological dysfunction.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of tetracyclines on blunt head trauma: An experimental study on rats

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    Ozhan Merzuk Uckun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of primary damage caused by head trauma may be avoided with protective measures and techniques which is a public health concern. Experimental and clinical studies about treatment of head trauma were all centered to prevent secondary damage caused by physiopathological changes following primary injury. Neuroprotective features of tetracyclines were the focus of several experimental studies in the last decade. In the present study we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of tetracycline in an experimental model of blunt brain injury in rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four experimental groups (n = 8. Head trauma was not performed in control group (group 1, craniectomy only. In the second group, head trauma and craniectomy were performed. Intraperitoneal saline was used in addition to trauma and craniectomy for treatment in group 3 whereas intraperitoneal tetracycline and saline were used for treatment in group 4. Results: When histological examinations performed by transmission electron microscopy were evaluated, injury at ultrastructural level was demonstrated to be less pronounced in tetracycline group with decreased lipid peroxidation levels. Conclusion: In accordance with these findings, we conclude that systemic tetracycline administration is effective in reduction of secondary brain damage and brain edema and thus it may be considered as a therapeutic option.

  17. Therapeutic effect of nucleoside analogs on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in dark agouti rats

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    Stojkov Danijela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is a commonly used animal model of the human neurological disorder multiple sclerosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of combined treatment with two nucleoside analogs, ribavirin and tiazofurin, on development of EAE actively induced in highly susceptible dark agouti rats. The obtained results showed that ribavirin and tiazofurin applied either separately or in combination from the onset of the firstsymptoms of EAE after its induction (therapeutic treatment significantly suppressed EAE’s clinical symptoms. However, the most pronounced effect was gained with combined treatment, probably as a result of synergistic/additive action.

  18. Correlation of gut microbiota composition with resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Stanisavljevic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It is widely accepted that autoimmune response against the antigens of the CNS is the essential pathogenic force in the disease. It has recently become increasingly appreciated that activated encephalitogenic cells tend to migrate towards gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT and that interrupted balance between regulatory and inflammatory immunity within the GALT might have decisive role in the initiation and propagation of the CNS autoimmunity. Gut microbiota composition and function has the major impact on the balance in the GALT. Thus, our aim was to perform analyses of gut microbiota in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Albino Oxford (AO rats that are highly resistant to EAE induction and Dark Agouti (DA rats that develop EAE after mild immunization were compared for gut microbiota composition in different phases after EAE induction. Microbial analyses of the genus Lactobacillus and related lactic acid bacteria showed higher diversity of Lactobacillus spp. in EAE-resistant AO rats, while some members of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (Undibacterium oligocarboniphilum were detected only in faeces of DA rats at the peak of the disease (between 13 and 16 days after induction. Interestingly, Turicibacter sp. that was found exclusively in non-immunized AO, but not in DA rats in our previous study was detected in DA rats that remained healthy 16 days after induction. Similar observation was obtained for the members of Lachnospiraceae. As dominant presence of the members of Lachnospiraceae family in gut microbial community has been linked with mild symptoms of various diseases, it is tempting to assume that Turicibacter sp. and Lachnospiraceae contribute to the prevention of EAE development and the alleviation of the disease symptoms. Further, production of a typical regulatory cytokine interleukin-10 was

  19. GM-CSF-Producing Th Cells in Rats Sensitive and Resistant to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Pilipović, Ivan; Vujnović, Ivana; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Given that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is identified as the key factor to endow auto-reactive Th cells with the potential to induce neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models, the frequency and phenotype of GM-CSF-producing (GM-CSF+) Th cells in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spinal cord (SC) of Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats immunized for EAE were examined. The generation of neuroantigen-specific GM-CSF+ Th lymphocytes was impaired in dLNs of AO rats (relatively resistant to EAE induction) compared with their DA counterparts (susceptible to EAE) reflecting impaired CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation and less supportive of GM-CSF+ Th cell differentiation dLN cytokine microenvironment. Immunophenotyping of GM-CSF+ Th cells showed their phenotypic heterogeneity in both strains and revealed lower frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ+, IL-17+IFN-γ-, and IL-17-IFN-γ+ cells accompanied by higher frequency of IL-17-IFN-γ- cells among them in AO than in DA rats. Compared with DA, in AO rats was also found (i) slightly lower surface density of CCR2 (drives accumulation of highly pathogenic GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cells in SC) on GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 lymphocytes from dLNs, and (ii) diminished CCL2 mRNA expression in SC tissue, suggesting their impaired migration into the SC. Moreover, dLN and SC cytokine environments in AO rats were shown to be less supportive of GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cell differentiation (judging by lower expression of mRNAs for IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23/p19). In accordance with the (i) lower frequency of GM-CSF+ Th cells in dLNs and SC of AO rats and their lower GM-CSF production, and (ii) impaired CCL2 expression in the SC tissue, the proportion of proinflammatory monocytes among peripheral blood cells and their progeny (CD45hi cells) among the SC CD11b+ cells were reduced in AO compared with DA rats. Collectively, the results indicate that the strain specificities in efficacy of several mechanisms

  20. Role of Nitric Oxide Pathway in Development and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats Sensitive and Resistant to its Occurrence in an Experimental Model of 5/6 Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracyn, Marek; Czarzasta, Katarzyna; Brytan, Marek; Murawski, Piotr; Lewicki, Sławomir; Ząbkowski, Tomasz; Zdanowski, Robert; Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska, Agnieszka; Kamiński, Grzegorz Wiktor; Wańkowicz, Zofia

    2017-10-11

    BACKGROUND Understanding the mechanisms conditioning development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the intrarenal nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the context of sensitivity or resistance of different animal strains to the development and degree of renal failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two rat strains were used: Wistar (WR) and Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) in a model of CKD - 5/6 nephrectomy. We assessed parameters of renal failure and expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in renal cortex and medulla. RESULTS We did not observe renal failure in WR, and CKD developed in SDR with increase of creatinine and urea concentration as well as decrease of diuresis and glomerular filtration. In the renal cortex, baseline expression of NOS2 was higher in WR than in SDR. 5/6 nephrectomy resulted in reduction of NOS2 in both strains and NOS3 in WR. In the renal medulla, baseline NOS2 expression was higher in SDR, and nephrectomy resulted in its decrease only in SDR. Although baseline NOS3 expression was higher in SDR, the NOS3 expression after nephrectomy was higher in WR rats. CONCLUSIONS In model of CKD - 5/6 nephrectomy, SDR proved to be sensitive and WR resistant to development of CKD. The intrarenal activity of the nitric oxide pathway was the factor that differentiated both strains. This mechanism may be responsible for insensitivity of WR to development of renal failure in this model of CKD.

  1. Evaluation of the efficacy of curcumin in experimentally induced acute sinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdane, Leman; Cingi, Cemal; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; San, Turhan; Burukoglu, Dilek

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the possible beneficial effects of curcumin (CMN) in the treatment of sinusitis. An experimentally induced sinusitis model was created in rats, and the results were evaluated histologically. Thirty-two healthy, female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 270 to 310 g each, were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group. In Groups 2 to 4, experimentally induced acute sinusitis was developed, and the rats in those groups were given saline, sulbactam-ampicillin, and CMN, respectively, for 10 days. Then all rats were dissected, and samples of sinus mucosa were taken. Histologic examination was performed via light microscopy. In the sinusitis + antibiotic group, values of inflammation, vascular congestion, vascular dilatation, and subepithelial glandular atrophy were significantly higher; and values of mucosal damage and cilia loss, and hyperplasia of goblet cells, were not significantly different from those in the control group. In the sinusitis + CMN group, values of inflammation, vascular congestion, and vascular dilatation were significantly higher; and values of mucosal damage and cilia loss, hyperplasia of goblet cells, and subepithelial glandular atrophy were not significantly different from those of the control group. Histologic examination revealed that in the sinusitis + CMN group, a nearly normal appearance of the epithelial tissue and reduced cellular inflammation in connective tissue were observed. Minimal vascular congestion in connective tissue remained. The efficacy of CMN in acute sinusitis may be related to its potent anti-inflammatory effects on modulation of various inflammatory cytokines. When low side effects are taken into account, CMN therapy may be a promising option in the treatment of acute sinusitis.

  2. Experimental vaccination of rats with Dermatophilus congolensis zoospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D

    1988-05-01

    The number of zoospores recoverable from the skin of rats five days after challenge with Dermatophilus congolensis, was reduced if the rats had been injected intradermally with zoospores of this bacterium two weeks previously. The difference between zoospore recovery in vaccinated and control rats was increased when the challenge was applied to scarified skin. Assays involving a 24-hour delay between scarification and challenge gave the greatest difference in zoospore recovery. In rats which had been vaccinated 12 weeks before challenge protection was reduced.

  3. New model systems for experimental evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sinéad

    2013-07-01

    Microbial experimental evolution uses a few well-characterized model systems to answer fundamental questions about how evolution works. This special section highlights novel model systems for experimental evolution, with a focus on marine model systems that can be used to understand evolutionary responses to global change in the oceans. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. LIEER OF WISTAR RAT MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homeostasis synthesised in the liver, has been raised in cases of impaired liver. fimcflun. ... Bil rats served as co:|rtrols, while Eflmts more test animals. The .... between 13D-15tJg were used. These anin1alswe1'edividedlntotwo[2]n1eiJ1 groups: the control group and the test animals. Each group comprised sixty [60].

  5. Oral administration of oxalate-enriched spinach extract as an improved methodology for the induction of dietary hyperoxaluric nephrocalcinosis in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Abhishek; Tiwari, Vidhi; Paul, Eldho; Ponnusamy, Sasikumar; Ganesan, Divya; Prabhakaran, Rajkumar; Mariaraj Sivakumar, Selvi; Govindan Sadasivam, Selvam

    2018-03-01

    Experimental induction of hyperoxaluria by ethylene glycol (EG) administration is disapproved as it causes metabolic acidosis while the oral administration of chemically synthesized potassium oxalate (KOx) diet does not mimic our natural system. Since existing models comprise limitations, this study is aimed to develop an improved model for the induction of dietary hyperoxaluria, and nephrocalcinosis in experimental rats by administration of naturally available oxalate rich diet. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group I, control; group II rats received 0.75% EG, group III rats fed with 5% KOx diet and group IV and V rats were administered with spinach extract of 250 and 500 mg soluble oxalate/day respectively, for 28 d. Urine and serum biochemistry were analyzed. After the experimental period, rats were sacrificed, liver and kidney tissue homogenates were used for antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assay. Relative change in expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and crystal modulators genes in kidney tissues were evaluated. Tissue damage was assessed by histology studies of liver and kidney. Experimental group rats developed hyperoxaluria and crystalluria. Urine parameters, serum biochemistry, antioxidant profile, lipid peroxidation levels and gene expression analysis of experimental group II and III rats reflected acute kidney damage compared to group V rats. Histopathology results showed moderate hyperplasia in liver and severe interstitial inflammation in kidneys of group II and III than group V rats. Ingestion of naturally available oxalate enriched spinach extract successfully induced dietary hyperoxaluria and nephrocalcinosis in rats with minimal kidney damage.

  6. A novel rat contact lens model for Fusarium keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Shousha, Mohamed; Santos, Andrea Rachelle C; Oechsler, Rafael A; Iovieno, Alfonso; Maestre-Mesa, Jorge; Ruggeri, Marco; Echegaray, Jose J; Dubovy, Sander R; Perez, Victor L; Miller, Darlene; Alfonso, Eduardo C; Bajenaru, M Livia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a new contact lens-associated fungal keratitis rat model and to assess the ability of non-invasive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to detect pathological changes in vivo in fungal keratitis. We used SD-OCT to image and measure the cornea of Sprague Dawley rats. Fusarium infection was initiated in the rat eye by fitting Fusarium solani-soaked contact lenses on the experimental eye, while the control animals received contact lenses soaked in sterile saline. The fungal infection was monitored with periodic slit-lamp examination and in vivo SD-OCT imaging of the rat eye, and confirmed by histology, counting of viable fungi in the infected rat cornea, and PCR with specific primers for Fusarium sp. We imaged and measured the rat cornea with SD-OCT. Custom-made contact lenses were developed based on the OCT measurements. Incubation of contact lenses in a F. solani suspension resulted in biofilm formation. We induced contact lens-associated Fusarium keratitis by fitting the rat eyes for 4 h with the Fusarium-contaminated contact lenses. The SD-OCT images of the cornea correlated well with the slit-lamp and histopathological results and clearly defined clinical signs of infection, namely, increased corneal thickening, loss of epithelial continuity, hyper-reflective areas representing infiltrates, and endothelial plaques characteristic of fungal infection. Moreover, in three cases, SD-OCT detected the infection without any clear findings on slit-lamp examination. Infection was confirmed with histological fungal staining, PCR, and microbiological culture positivity. We developed a highly reproducible rat contact lens model and successfully induced contact lens-associated Fusarium keratitis in this model. The clinical presentation of contact lens-associated Fusarium keratitis in the rat model is similar to the human condition. SD-OCT is a valuable tool that non-invasively revealed characteristic signs

  7. A novel rat contact lens model for Fusarium keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Shousha, Mohamed; Santos, Andrea Rachelle C.; Oechsler, Rafael A.; Iovieno, Alfonso; Maestre-Mesa, Jorge; Ruggeri, Marco; Echegaray, Jose J.; Dubovy, Sander R.; Perez, Victor L.; Miller, Darlene; Alfonso, Eduardo C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a new contact lens–associated fungal keratitis rat model and to assess the ability of non-invasive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to detect pathological changes in vivo in fungal keratitis. Methods We used SD-OCT to image and measure the cornea of Sprague Dawley rats. Fusarium infection was initiated in the rat eye by fitting Fusarium solani–soaked contact lenses on the experimental eye, while the control animals received contact lenses soaked in sterile saline. The fungal infection was monitored with periodic slit-lamp examination and in vivo SD-OCT imaging of the rat eye, and confirmed by histology, counting of viable fungi in the infected rat cornea, and PCR with specific primers for Fusarium sp. Results We imaged and measured the rat cornea with SD-OCT. Custom-made contact lenses were developed based on the OCT measurements. Incubation of contact lenses in a F. solani suspension resulted in biofilm formation. We induced contact lens–associated Fusarium keratitis by fitting the rat eyes for 4 h with the Fusarium-contaminated contact lenses. The SD-OCT images of the cornea correlated well with the slit-lamp and histopathological results and clearly defined clinical signs of infection, namely, increased corneal thickening, loss of epithelial continuity, hyper-reflective areas representing infiltrates, and endothelial plaques characteristic of fungal infection. Moreover, in three cases, SD-OCT detected the infection without any clear findings on slit-lamp examination. Infection was confirmed with histological fungal staining, PCR, and microbiological culture positivity. Conclusions We developed a highly reproducible rat contact lens model and successfully induced contact lens–associated Fusarium keratitis in this model. The clinical presentation of contact lens–associated Fusarium keratitis in the rat model is similar to the human condition. SD-OCT is a valuable tool that

  8. Experimental hypothyroidism increases plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in rat plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padró, T.; Hoogen, C.M. van den; Emeis, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hypothyroidism would affect the components of the rat plasma fibrinolytic system. Hypothyroidism was induced by feeding rats a thiouracil-containing diet for 2 weeks. During this period, half of the animals received subcutaneous injections of

  9. A rat model for hepatitis E virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Debing

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is one of the prime causes of acute viral hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis E is increasingly recognized as an important problem in the transplant setting. Nevertheless, the fundamental understanding of the biology of HEV replication is limited and there are few therapeutic options. The development of such therapies is partially hindered by the lack of a robust and convenient animal model. We propose the infection of athymic nude rats with the rat HEV strain LA-B350 as such a model. A cDNA clone, pLA-B350, was constructed and the infectivity of its capped RNA transcripts was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a subgenomic replicon, pLA-B350/luc, was constructed and validated for in vitro antiviral studies. Interestingly, rat HEV proved to be less sensitive to the antiviral activity of α-interferon, ribavirin and mycophenolic acid than genotype 3 HEV (a strain that infects humans. As a proof-of-concept, part of the C-terminal polymerase sequence of pLA-B350/luc was swapped with its genotype 3 HEV counterpart: the resulting chimeric replicon replicated with comparable efficiency as the wild-type construct, confirming that LA-B350 strain is amenable to humanization (replacement of certain sequences or motifs by their counterparts from human HEV strains. Finally, ribavirin effectively inhibited LA-B350 replication in athymic nude rats, confirming the suitability of the rat model for antiviral studies.

  10. Inhibitory effects of alprazolam on the development of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Iglesias, María J; Novío, Silvia; Almeida-Dias, Antonio; Freire-Garabal, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    The progression and development of multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been hypothesized to be associated with stress. Benzodiazepines have been observed to reduce negative consequences of stress on the immune system in experimental and clinical models, but there are no data on their effects on MS, or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for human MS. We designed experiments conducted to ascertain whether alprazolam could modify the clinical, histological and neuroendocrine manifestations of acute EAE in Lewis rats exposed to a chronic auditory stressor. EAE was induced by injection of an emulsion of MBP and complete Freund's adjuvant containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Stress application and treatment with drugs (placebo or alprazolam) were initiated 5days before inoculation and continued daily for the duration of the experiment (days 14 or 34 postinoculation).Our results show significant increases in the severity of neurological signs, the histological lesions of the spinal cord (inflammation), and the corticosterone plasmatic levels in stressed rats compared to those non-stressed ones. Treatment with alprazolam reversed the adverse effects of stress. These findings could have clinical implications in patients suffering from MS treated with benzodiazepines, so besides the psychopharmacological properties of alprazolam against stress, it has beneficial consequences on EAE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental gestational hypothyroidism evokes hypertension in adult offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sheyla Oliveira; Loureiro, Saulo Makerran Araújo; Alves, Iura Gonzalez Nogueira; Jesus, Camila Santos de; Santos, Patrícia Rabelo dos; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana dos; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; Badauê-Passos, Daniel

    2012-09-25

    Gestational hypothyroidism is a prevalent disorder in pregnant women. We aimed to investigate the impact of experimental gestational hypothyroidism (EGH) on cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) in the offspring of rats. EGH was induced with methimazole (MMI) 0.02% in drinking water from day 9 of gestation until birth. Sixty day old offspring from MMI-treated dams (OMTD, n=13) or water-treated dams (OWTD, n=13) had femoral arteries surgically assessed for the measurements of heart rate (HR), mean (MAP), systolic (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). To investigate the balance of ANS, we established the high (HF) and low frequency (LF) bands of pulse interval (PI) and LF band of SAP spectrum. OMTD had increased MAP (130.2 ± 2.0 vs 108.8 ± 3.0 mmHg, p<0.001), SAP (157.3 ± 2.9 vs 135.7 ± 4.5mm Hg, p<0.001) and DAP (109.7 ± 1.9 vs 88.4 ± 2.6 mmHg, p<0.001) when compared to OWTD, and had lower HR (355.1 ± 8.9 vs 386.8 ± 9.2 bpm, p<0.05). After spectral analysis of PI and SAP, only LF band of SAP spectrum was higher (7.2 ± 0.8 vs 4.0 ± 0.6 mmHg(2), p<0.01) in OMTD under spontaneous condition. Despite bradycardia, EGH promotes spontaneous hypertension in 60 day old offspring, probably due to increased sympathetic modulation of vessels, which is suggested by the higher LF of SAP. These findings suggest a critical role of maternal THs in the development of fetal cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. State of antioxidant system of rat thymocytes in experimental ulcerogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kovaleva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Features of free radical processes and their impact on the implementation of immunocompetent cells of their functions under conditions of peptic ulcer are insufficiently studied today. Reduced activity of catalase 1.7 and 3.4 times and that of glutathione peroxidise ~ 2.0 times, accordingly, were observed in both models of gastric ulceration (stress ulcer and ethanol one. Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase decreased 1.5 times and activity of glutathione transferase increased 1.8 times in the stress model in contrast to the ethanol model of stomach ulcer. Obtained results indicate the exhaustion of antioxidant system in rats’ thymocytes under experimental ulcerogenesis. These data confirm complex negative effect of ulcer on the organism.

  13. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-01-01

    unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance......A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  14. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance......A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  15. Minocycline effects on the cerebrospinal fluid proteome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, M.P.; Rosenling, T.; Attali, A.; Meesters, R.J.; Stingl, C.; Dekker, L.J.; Aken, H. van; Suidgeest, E.; Hintzen, R.Q.; Tuinstra, T.; Gool, A.J. van; Luider, T.M.; Bischoff, R.

    2012-01-01

    To identify response biomarkers for pharmaceutical treatment of multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and treated symptomatic animals with minocycline. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected 14 days after EAE induction at the peak of

  16. Minocycline Effects on the Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, Marcel P.; Rosenling, Therese; Attali, Amos; Meesters, Roland J. W.; Stingl, Christoph; Dekker, Lennard J.; van Aken, Hans; Suidgeest, Ernst; Hintzen, Rogier Q.; Tuinstra, Tinka; van Gool, Alain; Luider, Theo M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    To identify response biomarkers for pharmaceutical treatment of multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and treated symptomatic animals with minocycline. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected 14 days after EAE induction at the peak of

  17. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  18. Polydeoxyribonucleotide administration improves the intra-testicular vascularization in rat experimental varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Salvatore; Minutoli, Letteria; Arena, Francesco; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Romeo, Carmelo; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Morgia, Giuseppe; Magno, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of PDRN on angiogenesis in a model of varicocele in rats. After the creation of experimental varicocele, rats were randomized to one of the four treatments: vehicle, PDRN, DMPX, and PDRN plus DMPX. Twenty-one days after randomization, all animals were euthanized and the left testis was harvested. Academic hospital. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. A clamp was passed behind the left renal vein distally to the spermatic vein insertion. A silk ligature was placed around the left renal vein at this site and was tied over the top of a probe. The latter was then withdrawn and the vein was allowed to expand. In shams, a suture was placed but it was not tied. To assess testicular microvascular density using CD34 immunostaining. Microvascular density in the varicocele plus PDRN group was significantly higher than in other groups. PDRN could represent a novel therapeutic strategy for varicocele treatment in subfertile patients, improving the innate pathophysiologic mechanism of neoangiogenesis, through compensatory oxygen and metabolite supply to tubular and extratubular testicular compartments. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective effects of Urtica dioica L. on experimental testicular ischaemia reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, C; Erboga, M; Fidanol Erboga, Z; Bozdemir Donmez, Y; Topcu, B; Gurel, A

    2017-05-01

    In this study, it was aimed to examine the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UD) that has antioxidant feature in the experimental testicular I/R model in rats in terms of anti-apoptotic and antioxidative effects. In our study, 24 male rats were divided into three groups: control group, I/R group and I/R + UD (2 mg kg(-1) ) group. Seminiferous tubule calibre measurement, Johnson score, haematoxylin-eosin staining, proliferative cell nucleus antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining and TUNEL as histopathological have been conducted. The structural deterioration in the testicular on I/R group has reduced after the treatment of UD. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL), and there was a rise in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in testis tissues of UD-treated rats in the I/R group. The I/R + UD group showed a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in comparison with the I/R group. It could be concluded that protective effects of UD on the I/R testicles are via reduction of histological damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Experimental models of demyelination and remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre-Fuentes, L; Moreno-Jiménez, L; Pytel, V; Matías-Guiu, J A; Gómez-Pinedo, U; Matías-Guiu, J

    2017-08-29

    Experimental animal models constitute a useful tool to deepen our knowledge of central nervous system disorders. In the case of multiple sclerosis, however, there is no such specific model able to provide an overview of the disease; multiple models covering the different pathophysiological features of the disease are therefore necessary. We reviewed the different in vitro and in vivo experimental models used in multiple sclerosis research. Concerning in vitro models, we analysed cell cultures and slice models. As for in vivo models, we examined such models of autoimmunity and inflammation as experimental allergic encephalitis in different animals and virus-induced demyelinating diseases. Furthermore, we analysed models of demyelination and remyelination, including chemical lesions caused by cuprizone, lysolecithin, and ethidium bromide; zebrafish; and transgenic models. Experimental models provide a deeper understanding of the different pathogenic mechanisms involved in multiple sclerosis. Choosing one model or another depends on the specific aims of the study. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer: Model in Female Wistar Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer: Model in Female Wistar Rats. ... In this regard, an animal model experiment was carried-out to determine the ulcer-dose of indomethacin on female Wistar rats. Based on this objective, ... from 32 Countries:.

  2. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE: EXPERIMENTAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francesco Corno

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION.Surgically induced, combined volume and pressure overload has been used in rabbits to create a simplified and reproducible model of acute left ventricular (LV failure.MATERIALS AND METHODS.New Zealand white male rabbits (n=24, mean weight 3.1±0.2kg were randomly assigned to either the Control group (n=10 or to the Heart Failure group (HF, n=14. Animals in the Control group underwent sham procedures. Animals in the HF group underwent procedures to induce LV volume overload by inducing severe aortic valve regurgitation with aortic cusp disruption and pressure overload using an occlusive silver clip positioned around the pre-renal abdominal aorta.RESULTS.Following Procedure-1 (volume overload echocardiography confirmed severe aortic regurgitation in all animals in the HF group, with increased mean pulse pressure difference from 18±3mmHg to 38±3mmHg (P

  3. Evaluating the effects of pentoxifylline administration on experimental pressure sores in rats by biomechanical examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Velaei, Kobra; Bayat, Mohammad; Torkman, Giti; Rezaie, Fatemealsadat; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Tavassol, Azaedh; Bayat, Mehernoush

    2012-01-01

    This study used a biomechanical test to evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline administration on the wound healing process of an experimental pressure sore induced in rats. Under general anesthesia and sterile conditions, experimental pressure sores generated by no. 25 Halsted mosquito forceps were inflicted on 12 adult male rats. Pentoxifylline was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily from the day the pressure sore was generated, for a period of 20 days. At the end of 20 da...

  4. Therapeutic Effects of Melatonin on Alveolar Bone Resorption After Experimental Periodontitis in Rats: A Biochemical and Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabacı, Taner; Kermen, Eda; Özkanlar, Seçkin; Köse, Oğuz; Kara, Adem; Kızıldağ, Alper; Duman, Şuayip Burak; Ibişoğlu, Ebru

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of systemic melatonin administration on alveolar bone resorption in experimental periodontitis in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (control, experimental periodontitis [Ped], and experimental periodontitis treated with melatonin [Mel-Ped]). For periodontitis induction, first molars were ligatured submarginally for 4 weeks. After ligature removal, rats in the Mel-Ped group were treated with a daily single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight melatonin for 15 consecutive days. At the end of the study, intracardiac blood samples and mandible tissues were obtained for histologic, biochemical, and radiographic analysis. Serum markers related to bone turnover, calcium, phosphorus, bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), and terminal C telopeptide of collagen Type I (CTX) were analyzed. Myeloperoxidase levels were determined in gingival tissue homogenates, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) activation was analyzed in the mandible samples stereologically. Alveolar bone loss was also evaluated radiographically in the mandible samples of each group. Melatonin treatment decreased serum CTX levels and increased b-ALP levels. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were not statistically different among groups (P >0.05). Alveolar bone resorption and myeloperoxidase activity were statistically higher in the Ped group compared to the Mel-Ped group (P periodontal healing in an experimental periodontitis rat model.

  5. Experimental diabetes and the epididymis of Wistar rats: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyperglycemia was induced in 30 overnight-fasted rats with a single i.p injection of STZ (70 mg/kg bw/day). Hyperglycemia was confirmed 48 h later and thereafter allowed to stabilize for 5 days. 300 mg/kg bw/day of ethanolic extract of A. occidentale was administered orally to a group of diabetic rats (n = 10). Insulin was ...

  6. Growth control of the cranial base. A study with experimentally bipedal male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit-Vis, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study the postnatal development of the skull, particularly that of the cranial base, was studied in experimentally bipedal male rats, up to the age of 46 weeks. A total of 81 bipedal rats and a control group of 90 animals were studied. It was found that, as compared with control rats, the bipedal rats had a definitely more spherical skull. This was the result of an increased height and a stronger dorsal flexion of the anterior cranial base. As to the chondrocranial elements, the basi-occipital bone reached, on the average, the same length in bipedal rats as in controls. However, the basisphenoid bone was significantly shorter. Arguments are given to relate the latter phenomenon to the altered shape of the neurocranium. The conclusion is drawn that, in this experimental approach, chondrocranial growth at the intersphenoidal synchondrosis is controlled not only by intrinsic genetic factors but also by local epigenetic and/or environmental factors.

  7. Groove model of tibia‐femoral osteoarthritis in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Huub M.; Weinans, Harrie; Coeleveld, Katja; van Rijen, Mattie H. P.; Lafeber, Floris P. J. G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several experimental models of osteoarthritis in rats are used to study the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. Many mechanically induced models have the limitation that permanent joint instability is induced by, for example, ligament transection or meniscal damage. This permanent instability will counteract the potential beneficial effects of therapy. The groove model of osteoarthritis uses a one‐time trigger, surgically induced cartilage damage on the femoral condyles, and has been validated for the canine tibia‐femoral compartment. The present study evaluates this model for the rat knee joint. The articular cartilage of the weight bearing surface of both femoral condyles and trochlea were damaged (grooved) without damaging the underlying subchondral bone. Severity of joint degeneration was histologically assessed, in addition to patella cartilage damage, and subchondral bone characteristics by means of (contrast‐enhanced) micro‐CT. Mild histological degeneration of the surgically untouched tibial plateau cartilage was observed in addition to damage of the femoral condyles, without clear synovial tissue inflammation. Contrast enhanced micro‐CT demonstrated proteoglycan loss of the surgically untouched patella cartilage. Besides, a more sclerotic structure of the subchondral bone was observed. The tibia‐femoral groove model in a rat results in mild knee joint degeneration, without permanent joint instability and joint inflammation. This makes the rat groove model a useful model to study the onset and progression of post‐traumatic non‐inflammatory osteoarthritis, creating a relatively sensitive model to study disease modifying osteoarthritic drugs. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 35:496–505, 2017. PMID:27183198

  8. Improving the physiological realism of experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Cha, Chae Y; Rorsman, Patrik; Balaban, Robert S; La Gerche, Andre; Wade-Martins, Richard; Beard, Daniel A; Jeneson, Jeroen A L

    2016-04-06

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) project aims to develop integrative, explanatory and predictive computational models (C-Models) as numerical investigational tools to study disease, identify and design effective therapies and provide an in silico platform for drug screening. Ultimately, these models rely on the analysis and integration of experimental data. As such, the success of VPH depends on the availability of physiologically realistic experimental models (E-Models) of human organ function that can be parametrized to test the numerical models. Here, the current state of suitable E-models, ranging from in vitro non-human cell organelles to in vivo human organ systems, is discussed. Specifically, challenges and recent progress in improving the physiological realism of E-models that may benefit the VPH project are highlighted and discussed using examples from the field of research on cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes and Parkinson's disease.

  9. Inhibition of the recombinant human endostatin adenavirus on experimental choroidal neovascularization in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the inhibition of the recombinant human endostatin adenavirus(Ad-Eson the experimental choroidal neovascularization(CNVmodels by intravitreous injection. METHODS: Experimental CNV models were induced by semiconductor laser in 30 male Brown Norway(BNrats and randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 rats in each group. At 21d after photocoagulation, the single administration group were given intravitreous injection with Ad-Es 0.01mL; the repeated administration group were given intravitreous injection with Ad-Es 0.01mL and a repeated injection 7d later; the saline control group were given intravitreous injection with saline 0.01mL. At 7d after final administration, the leakage of fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAwas observed. Various CNV areas were measured by using laser confocal microscopy of choroidal flatmount method. Pathology and ultrastructure were observed with light microscopy, the expressions of CD105 were measured by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The leakage of CNV of the administration group abviously decreased as compared with those in the saline group, the leakage of repeated administration group decreased compared with that of single administration group(PPCONCLUSION: Ad-Es can effectively inhibit semiconductor laser induced CNV in BN rats, and the inhibition effect of repeated administration group is better than that of single administration group. It may be a useful new method in the treatment of CNV.

  10. Untangling dopamine-adenosine receptor-receptor assembly in experimental parkinsonism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Fernández-Dueñas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a dopaminergic-related pathology in which functioning of the basal ganglia is altered. It has been postulated that a direct receptor-receptor interaction – i.e. of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R with adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR (forming D2R-A2AR oligomers – finely regulates this brain area. Accordingly, elucidating whether the pathology prompts changes to these complexes could provide valuable information for the design of new PD therapies. Here, we first resolved a long-standing question concerning whether D2R-A2AR assembly occurs in native tissue: by means of different complementary experimental approaches (i.e. immunoelectron microscopy, proximity ligation assay and TR-FRET, we unambiguously identified native D2R-A2AR oligomers in rat striatum. Subsequently, we determined that, under pathological conditions (i.e. in a rat PD model, D2R-A2AR interaction was impaired. Collectively, these results provide definitive evidence for alteration of native D2R-A2AR oligomers in experimental parkinsonism, thus conferring the rationale for appropriate oligomer-based PD treatments.

  11. COMP-Angiopoietin-1 Promotes Cavernous Angiogenesis in a Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Ahn, Kyuyoun; Park, Kwangsung

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein-angiopoietin-1 (COMP-Ang1) is an angiogenic factor for vascular angiogenesis. The aim was to investigate the effect of an intracavernosal injection of COMP-Ang1 on cavernosal angiogenesis in a diabetic rat model. Male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats made up the experimental group (1 yr old) and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats made up the control group. The experimental group was divided into vehicle only, 10 ?g COMP-Ang1, and 20 ?g CO...

  12. Combating Combination of Hypertension and Diabetes in Different Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talma Rosenthal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rat experimental models are used extensively for studying physiological mechanisms and treatments of hypertension and diabetes co-existence. Each one of these conditions is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and the combination of the two conditions is a potent enhancer of CVD. Five major animal models that advanced our understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches in humans are discussed in this review: Zucker, Goto-Kakizaki, SHROB, SHR/NDmcr-cp and Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive (CRDH rats. The use of various drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs, various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, to combat the effects of concomitant pathologies on the combination of diabetes and hypertension, as well as the non-pharmacological approach are reviewed in detail for each rat model. Results from experiments on these models indicate that classical factors contributing to the pathology of hypertension and diabetes combination—Including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia—can now be treated, although these treatments do not completely prevent renal complications. Animal studies have focused on several mechanisms involved in hypertension/diabetes that remain to be translated into clinical medicine, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation. Several target molecules have been identified that need to be incorporated into a treatment modality. The challenge continues to be the identification and interpretation of the clinical evidence from the animal models and their application to human treatment.

  13. Desenvolvimento e Caracterização de um Modelo Experimental de Obesidade por Injeção Subcutânea de Glutamato Monossódico em Ratos/Development and Characterization of na Experimental Model of Obesity by Subcutaneous Injection of Monosodium Glutamate in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Teixeira Junqueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Desenvolver e caracterizar um modelo experimental de obesidade em ratos. Materiais e Métodos: Foram utilizados 41 ratos da linhagem Wistar, recém-nascidos divididos em fêmeas e machos, nos respectivos grupos: controle, tratamento 4mg/g e tratamento 8mg/g, nos quais foram aplicadas injeções de soro fisiológico, glutamato monossódico a 4mg/g e a 8mg/g, respectivamente por via subcutânea, em dose única diária por via subcutânea pela manhã, durante os quatro primeiros dias de vida e acompanhados por 40 semanas. Após o tratamento, foram feitas análises laboratoriais (glicemia, colesterol total e frações e triglicérides de medidas corporais (comprimento, peso e circunferência abdominal e anatomopatológicas. Resultados: A análise dos parâmetros laboratoriais mostraram um aumento da glicemia e dos triglicérides e diminuição do HDL-colesterol. Houve alterações nas medidas corporais e IMC, sem alterar o perfil renal. Na análise histopatológica, foram observadas alterações inerentes à síndrome plurimetabólica, como esteatose hepática, aumento das ilhotas pancreáticas além de outros achados. Conclusão: A administração de glutamato monossódico em ratos nas doses de 4mg/g e 8mg/g foi capaz de induzir alterações em vários parâmetros laboratoriais e histopatológicos na determinação de síndrome metabólica e obesidade, sem obter uma relação direta entre dose e efeito esperado. Objective: To develop and characterize an experimental model of obesity in rats. Materials and Methods: 41 Wistar rats, divided in newborn females and males in their respective groups: control, treatment, treatment 4mg/g 8mg / g, which received injections of saline, monosodium glutamate to 4 mg / g and 8 mg / g, respectively subcutaneously once daily subcutaneously in the morning during the first four days and followed for 40 weeks. After treatment, laboratory tests were performed (blood glucose, total cholesterol and

  14. Histometric assessment of the effect of diabetes mellitus on experimentally induced periodontitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepelassi, Eudoxie; Xynogala, Ioanna; Perrea, Despina; Agrogiannis, George; Pantopoulou, Alkistis; Patsouris, Efstratios; Vrotsos, Ioannis

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this interventional animal study was to assess histologically the effect of experimental diabetes in rats with experimental periodontitis in terms of alveolar bone loss and the effect of experimental periodontitis on glucose levels in diabetes. Forty-seven Wistar rats were studied: 12 healthy controls (C), 10 with experimental diabetes (D), 12 with experimental diabetes and experimental periodontitis (DP) and 13 with experimental periodontitis (P). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection and periodontitis was induced at the right second maxillary molar by ligation. Serum glucose levels were measured at specific time points. Sixty-one days after ligation, the rats were sacrificed. Histometric analysis assessed alveolar crest level. For ligated groups, alveolar bone loss was expressed as the difference in alveolar crest level between right and left maxillary molars. Diabetes alone did not statistically significantly affect alveolar crest level. The combination of diabetes and periodontitis caused greater alveolar bone loss (946.1 +/- 719.9 microm) than periodontitis alone (639.7 +/- 294.2 microm); however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Periodontitis did not significantly increase glucose levels in diabetic rats. The average glucose levels were 545.4 (499 - 563) and 504.5 (445 - 560) mg/dL for diabetic and diabetic ligated rats, respectively. Within its limits, this study demonstrated that the severity of alveolar bone loss in periodontitis was not significantly aggravated by diabetes and the serum glucose levels in diabetes were not affected by periodontitis.

  15. Does nitric oxide protect from microcirculatory disturbances in experimental acute pancreatitis in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, M; Hać, S; Wajda, Z

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential role of nitric oxide (NO) on the microcirculation in experimental acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into the following groups: group A (5 rats) = control; group B (5 rats) = acute pancreatitis induced by retrograde taurocholate infusion into the pancreatobiliary duct without treatment; group C (5 rats) = acute pancreatitis treated with the NO donor L-arginine; group D (5 rats) = acute pancreatitis treated with the NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA); group E (5 rats) = without pancreatitis receiving L-NNA. The animals were observed throughout 4 h. The microcirculatory values of the pancreas, liver, colon, stomach and kidney were measured by means of laser Doppler flowmetry. Three animals of group D died after the third hour of the experiment. In rats with pancreatitis, a rapid decrease in microcirculatory values was observed. The most pronounced drop in capillary blood flow within all the organs was observed in rats treated with the NO synthase inhibitor L-NNA, L-arginine administration in rats with acute pancreatitis slightly improved the microcirculatory values, although the improvement was significant in colon perfusion only. We conclude that NO may have a beneficial influence on the capillary organ perfusion in acute pancreatitis. The administration of an NO synthase inhibitor seems to have a detrimental effect on acute pancreatitis.

  16. Signal attenuation as a rat model of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltseker, Koral; Yankelevitch-Yahav, Roni; Albelda, Noa S; Joel, Daphna

    2015-01-09

    In the signal attenuation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), lever-pressing for food is followed by the presentation of a compound stimulus which serves as a feedback cue. This feedback is later attenuated by repeated presentations of the stimulus without food (without the rat emitting the lever-press response). In the next stage, lever-pressing is assessed under extinction conditions (i.e., no food is delivered). At this stage rats display two types of lever-presses, those that are followed by an attempt to collect a reward, and those that are not. The latter are the measure of compulsive-like behavior in the model. A control procedure in which rats do not experience the attenuation of the feedback cue serves to distinguish between the effects of signal attenuation and of extinction. The signal attenuation model is a highly validated model of OCD and differentiates between compulsive-like behaviors and behaviors that are repetitive but not compulsive. In addition the measures collected during the procedure eliminate alternative explanations for differences between the groups being tested, and are quantitative, unbiased and unaffected by inter-experimenter variability. The major disadvantages of this model are the costly equipment, the fact that it requires some technical know-how and the fact that it is time-consuming compared to other models of OCD (11 days). The model may be used for detecting the anti- or pro-compulsive effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological manipulations and for studying the neural substrate of compulsive behavior.

  17. Studies on sensitivity of zebrafish as a model organism for Parkinson's disease: Comparison with rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Dinesh T.; Jagtap, Aarti G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the utility of zebra fish as an animal model for Parkinson's disease (PD) in comparison with rat model. Materials and Methods: MTT assay was performed on rat and zebrafish brain synaptosomal fractions using rotenone as a neurotoxic agent. Quercetin and resveratrol were used as standards to compare anti-apoptotic activity in both organisms. Catalepsy was induced in zebrafish by exposing them to haloperidol (9 μM) solution. Drug-treated groups were exposed to bromocriptine and pramipexole, 30 min prior to haloperidol exposure at the dose of 2, 5, and 10 μg/mL. Swimming speed, time spent in the bottom of the tank, and complete cataleptic time were evaluated to assess behavioral changes. In rats, catalepsy was induced using haloperidol (1.25 mg/kg i.p.). Drug-treated groups received bromocriptine (2.5 mg/kg.) and pramipexole (1 mg/kg) orally. Bar test, block test, and locomotor activity were carried out to assess behavioral changes. Results: Resveratrol and quercetin showed comparable inhibition of apoptosis in rats and zebrafish. In anti-cataleptic study, bromocriptine and pramipexole-treated groups showed significant difference (P behavioral parameters as compared to haloperidol control group in both the experimental organisms. Results obtained from fish model were in correlation with rat model. Conclusion: Findings of the present study revealed that zebrafish model is highly sensitive and can be used for basic screening of drugs against PD. PMID:24554909

  18. Understanding Leadership: An Experimental-Experiential Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, George T.

    2014-01-01

    Books about leadership are dangerous to readers who fantasize about being leaders or apply leadership ideas as if they were proven formulas. As an antidote, I offer an experimental framework in which any leadership-management model can be tested to gain experiential understanding of the model. As a result one can gain reality-based insights about…

  19. Occlusal trauma accelerates attachment loss at the onset of experimental periodontitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, S; Yoshinaga, Y; Kuramoto, A; Nagano, F; Ichimura, I; Oshino, K; Yoshimura, A; Yano, Y; Hara, Y

    2014-06-01

    Occlusal trauma is an important factor that influences the progression of periodontitis, but it is unclear whether occlusal trauma influences periodontal destruction at the onset of periodontitis. We established an experimental periodontitis model with both site-specific loss of attachment and alveolar bone resorption. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of occlusal trauma on periodontal destruction, particularly loss of attachment, at the onset of experimental periodontitis. Sixty rats were used in the present study. Forty-eight rats immunized with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally were divided into four groups. In the trauma (T) group, occlusal trauma was induced by placing an excessively high metal wire in the occlusal surface of the mandibular right first molar. In the inflammation (I) group, periodontal inflammation was induced by topical application of LPS into the palatal gingival sulcus of maxillary right first molars. In the trauma + inflammation (T+I) group, both trauma and periodontal inflammation were simultaneously induced. The PBS group was administered phosphate-buffered saline only. Another 12 nonimmunized rats (the n-(T+I) group) were treated as described for the T+I group. All rats were killed after 5 or 10 d, and their maxillary first molars with surrounding tissues were observed histopathologically. Loss of attachment and osteoclasts on the alveolar bone crest were investigated histopathologically. To detect immune complexes, immunohistological staining for C1qB was performed. Collagen fibers were also observed using the picrosirius red-polarization method. There were significant increases in loss of attachment and in the number of osteoclasts in the T+I group compared with the other groups. Moreover, widespread distribution of immune complexes was observed in the T + I group, and collagen fibers oriented from the root surface to the alveolar bone crest had partially disappeared in the T, T+I and n

  20. NADPH Oxidase-Related Pathophysiology in Experimental Models of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several experimental studies have indicated that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidases (Nox exert detrimental effects on ischemic brain tissue; Nox-knockout mice generally exhibit resistance to damage due to experimental stroke following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Furthermore, our previous MCAO study indicated that infarct size and blood-brain barrier breakdown are enhanced in mice with pericyte-specific overexpression of Nox4, relative to levels observed in controls. However, it remains unclear whether Nox affects the stroke outcome directly by increasing oxidative stress at the site of ischemia, or indirectly by modifying physiological variables such as blood pressure or cerebral blood flow (CBF. Because of technical problems in the measurement of physiological variables and CBF, it is often difficult to address this issue in mouse models due to their small body size; in our previous study, we examined the effects of Nox activity on focal ischemic injury in a novel congenic rat strain: stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats with loss-of-function in Nox. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the role of Nox in focal ischemic injury and discuss critical issues that should be considered when investigating Nox-related pathophysiology in animal models of stroke.

  1. The rat as a model for orthodontic tooth movement--a critical review and a proposed solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to perform a systematic review of the use of rats as a model for experimental tooth movement, to give a critical evaluation of the use of elastics as a force delivery system, and to describe a newly designed well-defined model for tooth movement in rats. The literature

  2. The rat as a model for orthodontic tooth movement--a critical review and a proposed solution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Maltha, J.C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to perform a systematic review of the use of rats as a model for experimental tooth movement, to give a critical evaluation of the use of elastics as a force delivery system, and to describe a newly designed well-defined model for tooth movement in rats. The literature

  3. Metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid reveals changes in the central nervous system metabolism in a rat model of multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noga, M.J.; Dane, A.; Shi, S.; Attali, A.; Aken, H. van; Suidgeest, E.; Tuinstra, T.; Muilwijk, B.; Coulier, L.; Luider, T.; Reijmers, T.H.; Vreeken, R.J.; Hankemeier, T.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly used animal model for Multiple Sclerosis (MScl). CSF metabolomics in an acute EAE rat model was investigated using targetted LC-MS and GC-MS. Acute EAE in Lewis rats was induced by co-injection of Myelin Basic Protein with Complete

  4. Metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid reveals changes in the central nervous system metabolism in a rat model of multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Noga (Marek); A. Dane (Adrie); S. Shi (Shanna); A. Attali (Amos); H. van Aken (Hans); E. Suidgeest (Ernst); T. Tuinstra (Tinka); B. Muilwijk (Bas); L. Coulier (Leon); T.M. Luider (Theo); R.M. Reijmers (Rogier); R. Vreeken (Rob); T. Hankemeier (Thomas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractExperimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly used animal model for Multiple Sclerosis (MScl). CSF metabolomics in an acute EAE rat model was investigated using targetted LC-MS and GC-MS. Acute EAE in Lewis rats was induced by co-injection of Myelin Basic Protein

  5. Ischemia and reperfusion in skin flaps: effects of mannitol and vitamin C in reducing necrosis area in a rat experimental model Isquemia e reperfusão de retalhos cutâneos: efeitos do manitol e vitamina C na redução de áreas de necrose em modelo experimental no rato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Bonetti Yoshida

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to develop an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat skin flap and to verify the effect of mannitol and vitamin C on reducing necrosis area. METHODS: A 6-x 3-cm groin skin flap was raised and submitted to 8 hours of ischemia by clamping the vascular pedicle and to 7 days of reperfusion. The animals were divided in four groups: S1 and S2 (10 animals each and C and T (14 animals each. In groups S1 and S2 skin flaps were not submitted to ischemia and animals received lactated Ringer's solution (S1 and antioxidant solution (S2 . In groups C and T, flaps were subjected to 8 hours of warm ischemia and animals received Lactated Ringer's solution (Group C and antioxidant solution immediately before reperfusion, (Group T. Flap survival was evaluated on the seventh day using a paper template technique and computer-assistant imaging analysis of necrotic and normal areas. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed no area differences between groups C and T. CONCLUSION: The experimental model provided consistent necrotic area in control groups and drugs used were not effective in improving skin flap survival.OBJETIVO: Neste trabalho foi padronizado modelo experimental de isquemia e reperfusão em retalho cutâneo em ratos no qual estudou-se possibilidade de uma solução antioxidante, composta por Ringer lactato, vitamina C e manitol de reduzir a área de necrose. MÉTODOS: O modelo consistiu de levantamento de retalho cutâneo axial de 6,0 x 3,0cm, submetido à isquemia de 8 horas e reperfusão de 7 dias. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: grupos S1, S2 (10 animais cada, C e T (14 animais cada. Nos grupos S1 e S2 todos os procedimentos dos demais grupos foram efetuados, exceto a isquemia e reperfusão: S1 recebeu apenas Ringer lactato e S2 a solução antioxidante. Os grupos C e T foram submetidos à isquemia. O grupo C recebeu somente Ringer lactato e o grupo T a solução antioxidante. No 7

  6. A systematic review of animal models for experimental neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, Francesca; Giesen, Thomas; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral neuromas can result in an unbearable neuropathic pain and functional impairment. Their treatment is still challenging, and their optimal management is to be defined. Experimental research still plays a major role, but - although numerous neuroma models have been proposed on different animals - there is still no single model recognised as being the reference. Several models show advantages over the others in specific aspects of neuroma physiopathology, prevention or treatment, making it unlikely that a single model could be of reference. A reproducible and standardised model of peripheral neuroma would allow better comparison of results from different studies. We present a systematic review of the literature on experimental in vivo models, analysing advantages and disadvantages, specific features and indications, with the goal of providing suggestions to help their standardisation. Published models greatly differ in the animal and the nerve employed, the mechanisms of nerve injury and the evaluation methods. Specific experimental models exist for terminal neuromas and neuromas in continuity (NIC). The rat is the most widely employed animal, the rabbit being the second most popular model. NIC models are more actively researched, but it is more difficult to generate such studies in a reproducible manner. Nerve transection is considered the best method to cause terminal neuromas, whereas partial transection is the best method to cause NIC. Traditional histomorphology is the historical gold-standard evaluation method, but immunolabelling, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and proteomics are gaining increasing popularity. Computerised gait analysis is the gold standard for motor-recovery evaluation, whereas mechanical testing of allodynia and hyperalgesia reproducibly assesses sensory recovery. This review summarises current knowledge on experimental neuroma models, and it provides a useful tool for defining experimental protocols

  7. Gene expression in the spinal cord in female lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced with myelin basic protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley R Inglis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the best available model of multiple sclerosis, can be induced in different animal strains using immunization with central nervous system antigens. EAE is associated with inflammation and demyelination of the nervous system. Micro-array can be used to investigate gene expression and biological pathways that are altered during disease. There are few studies of the changes in gene expression in EAE, and these have mostly been done in a chronic mouse EAE model. EAE induced in the Lewis with myelin basic protein (MBP-EAE is well characterised, making it an ideal candidate for the analysis of gene expression in this disease model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MBP-EAE was induced in female Lewis rats by inoculation with MBP and adjuvants. Total RNA was extracted from the spinal cords and used for micro-array analysis using AffimetrixGeneChip Rat Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Gene expression in the spinal cords was compared between healthy female rats and female rats with MBP-EAE. Gene expression in the spinal cord of rats with MBP-EAE differed from that in the spinal cord of normal rats, and there was regulation of pathways involved with immune function and nervous system function. For selected genes the change in expression was confirmed with real-time PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: EAE leads to modulation of gene expression in the spinal cord. We have identified the genes that are most significantly regulated in MBP-EAE in the Lewis rat and produced a profile of gene expression in the spinal cord at the peak of disease.

  8. Modelo experimental de perfusão pulmonar ex vivo em ratos: avaliação de desempenho de pulmões submetidos à administração de prostaciclina inalada versus parenteral An experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion for the assessment of lungs after prostacyclin administration: inhaled versus parenteral routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar um modelo experimental de administração de prostaglandina I2 (PGI2 por via inalatória vs. parenteral e avaliar o desempenho funcional dos pulmões em um sistema de perfusão pulmonar ex vivo. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos Wistar foram anestesiados, ventilados, submetidos a laparotomia com ressecção do esterno e anticoagulados. O tronco da artéria pulmonar foi canulado. Todos os animais foram submetidos a ventilação mecânica. Os animais foram randomizados em quatro grupos (10 ratos/grupo: salina nebulizada (SN; salina parenteral (SP; PGI2 nebulizada (PGI2N; e PGI2 parenteral (PGI2P. A dose de PGI2 nos grupos PGI2N e PGI2P foi de 20 e 10 µg/kg, respectivamente. Os blocos cardiopulmonares foram submetidos in situ a perfusão anterógrada com solução de baixo potássio e dextrana a 4ºC via artéria pulmonar, extraídos em bloco e armazenados a 4ºC por 6 h. Os blocos foram ventilados e perfundidos em um sistema ex vivo por 50 min, sendo obtidas medidas de mecânica ventilatória, hemodinâmica e trocas gasosas. RESULTADOS: Houve redução da pressão arterial pulmonar média após a nebulização em todos os grupos (p OBJECTIVE:To present a model of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2 administration (inhaled vs. parenteral and to assess the functional performance of the lungs in an ex vivo lung perfusion system. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were anesthetized and placed on mechanical ventilation followed by median sterno-laparotomy and anticoagulation. The main pulmonary artery was cannulated. All animals were maintained on mechanical ventilation and were randomized into four groups (10 rats/group: inhaled saline (IS; parenteral saline (PS; inhaled PGI2 (IPGI2; and parenteral PGI2 (PPGI2. The dose of PGI2 used in the IPGI2 and PPGI2 groups was 20 and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The heart-lung blocks were submitted to antegrade perfusion with a low potassium and dextran solution via the pulmonary artery, followed by en bloc extraction and

  9. Development of an experimental albino rat ( Rattus norvegicus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The selected group was tested for reproducibility in experiment 2 using the remaining thirty rats randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C). ... weight every other day for 20 days ranked topmost among others with the highest reductions in the RBC counts (46.62%), Hb (55.25%) and PCV (46.20%), and no mortality.

  10. Methyglyoxal administration induces modification of hemoglobin in experimental rats: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sauradipta

    2017-02-01

    Methylglyoxal, a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde, increases in diabetic condition and reacts with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) following Maillard-like reaction. In the present study, the effect of methylglyoxal on experimental rat hemoglobin in vivo has been investigated with respect to structural alterations and amino acid modifications, after external administration of the α-dicarbonyl compound in animals. Different techniques, mostly biophysical, were used to characterize and compare methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin with that of control, untreated rat hemoglobin. In comparison with methylglyoxal-untreated, control rat hemoglobin, hemoglobin of methylglyoxal-treated rats (32mg/kgbodywt.dose) exhibited slightly decreased absorbance around 280nm, reduced intrinsic fluorescence and lower surface hydrophobicity. The secondary structures of hemoglobin of control and methylglyoxal-treated rats were more or less identical with the latter exhibiting slightly increased α-helicity compared to the former. Compared to control rat hemoglobin, methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin showed higher stability. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis revealed modifications of Arg-31α, Arg-92α and Arg-104β of methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin to hydroimidazolone adducts. The modifications thus appear to be associated with the observed structural alterations of the heme protein. Considering the increased level of methylglyoxal in diabetes mellitus as well as its high reactivity, AGE-induced modifications may have physiological significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling of Experimental Adsorption Isotherm Data

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    Xunjun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is considered to be one of the most effective technologies widely used in global environmental protection areas. Modeling of experimental adsorption isotherm data is an essential way for predicting the mechanisms of adsorption, which will lead to an improvement in the area of adsorption science. In this paper, we employed three isotherm models, namely: Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich to correlate four sets of experimental adsorption isotherm data, which were obtained by batch tests in lab. The linearized and non-linearized isotherm models were compared and discussed. In order to determine the best fit isotherm model, the correlation coefficient (r2 and standard errors (S.E. for each parameter were used to evaluate the data. The modeling results showed that non-linear Langmuir model could fit the data better than others, with relatively higher r2 values and smaller S.E. The linear Langmuir model had the highest value of r2, however, the maximum adsorption capacities estimated from linear Langmuir model were deviated from the experimental data.

  12. Synergistic growth inhibiting effect of nitrous oxide and cycloleucine in experimental rat leukaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kroes, A. C.; Lindemans, J.; Abels, J.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) inactivates the vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthetase with subsequent impairment of folate metabolism and a reduction of cellular proliferation. Indications exist that this effect is antagonized by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and it was investigated whether combination with an inhibitor of SAM synthesis, cycloleucine, would result in increased inhibition of growth in rat leukaemia model (BNML). Leukaemic growth was compared in untreated rats, in rats treated w...

  13. Altered explorative strategies and reactive coping style in the FSL rat model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore eMagara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling depression in animals is based on the observation of behaviors interpreted as analogue to human symptoms. Typical tests used in experimental depression research are designed to evoke an either-or outcome. It is known that explorative and coping strategies are relevant for depression, however these aspects are generally not considered in animal behavioral testing. Here we investigate the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL, a rat model of depression, compared to the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat in three independent tests where the animals are allowed to express a more extensive behavioral repertoire. The multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF and the novel cage tests evoke exploratory behaviors in a novel environment and the home cage change test evokes social behaviors in the re-establishment of a social hierarchy. In the MCSF test, FSL rats exhibited less exploratory drive and more risk-assessment behavior compared to SD rats. When re-exposed to the arena, FSL, but not SD rats, increased their exploratory behavior compared to the first trial and displayed risk-assessment behavior to the same extent as SD rats. Thus, the behavior of FSL rats was more similar to that of SDs when the rats were familiar with the arena. In the novel cage test FSL rats exhibited a reactive coping style, consistent with the reduced exploration observed in the MCSF. Reactive coping is associated with less aggressive behavior. Accordingly, FSL rats displayed less aggressive behavior in the home cage change test. Taken together, our data show that FSL rats express altered explorative behavior and reactive coping style. Reduced interest is a core symptom of depression, and individuals with a reactive coping style are more vulnerable to the disease. Our results support the use of FSL rats as an animal model of depression and increase our understanding of the FSL rat beyond the behavioral dimensions targeted by the traditional depression-related tests.

  14. Cannabinoid HU210 Protects Isolated Rat Stomach against Impairment Caused by Serum of Rats with Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ming-hua; Li, Yong-yu; Xu, Jing; Feng, Ya-jing; Lin, Xu-hong; Li, Kun; Han, Tong; Chen, Chang-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP), especially severe acute pancreatitis often causes extra-pancreatic complications, such as acute gastrointestinal mucosal lesion (AGML) which is accompanied by a considerably high mortality, yet the pathogenesis of AP-induced AGML is still not fully understood. In this report, we investigated the alterations of serum components and gastric endocrine and exocrine functions in rats with experimental acute pancreatitis, and studied the possible contributions of these alterations in the pathogenesis of AGML. In addition, we explored the intervention effects of cannabinoid receptor agonist HU210 and antagonist AM251 on isolated and serum-perfused rat stomach. Our results showed that the AGML occurred after 5 h of AP replication, and the body homeostasis was disturbed in AP rat, with increased levels of pancreatic enzymes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proinflammtory cytokines and chemokines in the blood, and an imbalance of the gastric secretion function. Perfusing the isolated rat stomach with the AP rat serum caused morphological changes in the stomach, accompanied with a significant increment of pepsin and [H+] release, and increased gastrin and decreased somatostatin secretion. HU210 reversed the AP-serum-induced rat pathological alterations, including the reversal of transformation of the gastric morphology to certain degree. The results from this study prove that the inflammatory responses and the imbalance of the gastric secretion during the development of AP are responsible for the pathogenesis of AGML, and suggest the therapeutic potential of HU210 for AGML associated with acute pancreatitis. PMID:23285225

  15. Experimental Concepts for Testing Seismic Hazard Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, W.; Jordan, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic hazard analysis is the primary interface through which useful information about earthquake rupture and wave propagation is delivered to society. To account for the randomness (aleatory variability) and limited knowledge (epistemic uncertainty) of these natural processes, seismologists must formulate and test hazard models using the concepts of probability. In this presentation, we will address the scientific objections that have been raised over the years against probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Owing to the paucity of observations, we must rely on expert opinion to quantify the epistemic uncertainties of PSHA models (e.g., in the weighting of individual models from logic-tree ensembles of plausible models). The main theoretical issue is a frequentist critique: subjectivity is immeasurable; ergo, PSHA models cannot be objectively tested against data; ergo, they are fundamentally unscientific. We have argued (PNAS, 111, 11973-11978) that the Bayesian subjectivity required for casting epistemic uncertainties can be bridged with the frequentist objectivity needed for pure significance testing through "experimental concepts." An experimental concept specifies collections of data, observed and not yet observed, that are judged to be exchangeable (i.e., with a joint distribution independent of the data ordering) when conditioned on a set of explanatory variables. We illustrate, through concrete examples, experimental concepts useful in the testing of PSHA models for ontological errors in the presence of aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty. In particular, we describe experimental concepts that lead to exchangeable binary sequences that are statistically independent but not identically distributed, showing how the Bayesian concept of exchangeability generalizes the frequentist concept of experimental repeatability. We also address the issue of testing PSHA models using spatially correlated data.

  16. Rat gastric banding model for bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Kiyama, Teruo; Fujita, Itsuo; Kato, Shunji; Yoshiyuki, Toshiro; Tajiri, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    Adjustable gastric banding is a surgical approach to weight reduction. In this study we created a gastric banding model in rats to better understand the mechanism of body weight loss. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 260 to 280 g were subjected to gastric banding (band group) (n=8) or to a sham operation (control group) (n=8). Body weights were monitored for 14 days, and daily food and water intake and nitrogen balance were monitored for 7 days. Two rats in the band group died of malnutrition due to gastric stomal stenosis and obstruction caused by the gastric banding. Body weight gain during the 14 days after the operation was less in the band group than in the control group (pwater intake during the 7 days after the operation was significantly less in the band group than in the control group (pbalance was significantly less in the band group than in the control group (p<0.01). Gastric banding decreased the body weight gain of rats by decreasing the amount of food intake because of the creation of a small gastric pouch.

  17. Antifungal Efficacy of GM237354, a Sordarin Derivative, in Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Immunosuppressed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Antonio; Regadera, Javier; Jimenez, Elena; Santos, Inmaculada; Gargallo-Viola, Domingo

    2001-01-01

    GM237354 is a novel sordarin derivative with a broad spectrum of potent activity against a wide range of fungi. The members of this new class of antifungal agents act as potent inhibitors of fungal protein synthesis. In this study, the therapeutic effects of GM237354 were investigated in a novel experimental oral Candida albicans infection model in immunosuppressed rats. The animals were immunosuppressed with dexamethasone in their drinking water and infected on three alternate days. GM237354 was given three times per day for seven consecutive days at 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg of body weight per dose. In addition, to provide a preliminary idea of the correlation between regimen administration and therapeutic efficacy, GM237354 was administered to two additional groups of rats at 5 mg/kg once or twice a day for 7 days. The drug efficacy was assessed microbiologically, histologically, and by a morphometric study of lesions. Evident agreement was observed among results obtained by the different methods in all of the animals studied. Microbiologically, the efficacy of GM237354 was determined by measuring the number of C. albicans organisms in the oral cavities of rats in the middle (day 4) and at the end (day 7) of the treatment. GM237354 administered at 5, 7.5, 10, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day for 7 days significantly reduced the number of CFU in the oral cavities of treated rats compared with the number of CFU in the oral cavities of the untreated controls. A significant reduction was also observed when GM237354 was administered at 7.5, 10, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Furthermore, C. albicans was not detected in oral swabs from any infected rats after 1 week of treatment when GM237354 was administered at 15 or 30 mg/kg/day or after 4 days of treatment at 30 mg/kg/day. Histologically, untreated control animals showed extensive colonization of the epithelium of the dorsal tongue by numerous hyphae. Animals treated with GM237354 at 7.5 mg/kg/day showed small areas with

  18. Translational mixed-effects PKPD modelling of recombinant human growth hormone - from hypophysectomized rat to patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, A; Thygesen, P; Agersø, H

    2016-01-01

    and validated through simulations relative to patient data. KEY RESULTS: The final model described rhGH PK as a two compartmental model with parallel linear and non-linear elimination terms, parallel first-order absorption with a total s.c. bioavailability of 87% in rats. Induction of IGF-1 was described...... s.c. administration was over predicted. After correction of the human s.c. absorption model, the induction model for IGF-1 well described the human PKPD data. CONCLUSIONS: A translational mechanistic PKPD model for rhGH was successfully developed from experimental rat data. The model links...

  19. Sex Difference in Oxidative Stress Parameters in Spinal Cord of Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Relation to Neurological Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Vujnović, Ivana; Pilipović, Ivan; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana

    2017-02-01

    The study examined (a) whether there is sex difference in spinal cord and plasma oxidative stress profiles in Dark Agouti rats immunised for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal experimental model of multiple sclerosis, and (b) whether there is correlation between the oxidative stress in spinal cord and neurological deficit. Regardless of rat sex, with the disease development xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression increased in spinal cord, whereas glutathione levels decreased. This was accompanied by the rise in spinal cord malondialdehyde level. On the other hand, with EAE development superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased, while O2(-) concentration increased only in spinal cord of male rats. Consequently, SOD activity was lower, whereas O2(-) concentration was higher in spinal cord of male rats with clinically manifested EAE. XO activity and iNOS mRNA expression were also elevated in their spinal cord. Consistently, in the effector phase of EAE the concentration of advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) was higher in spinal cord of male rats, which exhibit more severe neurological deficit than their female counterparts. In as much as data obtained in the experimental models could be translated to humans, the findings may be relevant for designing sex-specific antioxidant therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, the study indicated that the increased pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in plasma may be an early indicator of EAE development. Moreover, it showed that plasma AOPP level may indicate not only actual activity of the disease, but also serve to predict severity of its course.

  20. A new experimental model to study preneoplastic lesions in achalasia of the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vespúcio Marcelo Vinícius Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Develop an experimental model to study esophageal preneoplastic lesions induced by diethylnitrosamine in rats with achalasia. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control - C (n=8; rats with megaesophagus - B (n=8; rats treated with DEN - D (n=15 and rats with megaesophagus plus DEN - BD (n=15. Megaesophagus can be experimentally obtained in rats by topical application of benzalkonium choride. The morphology and PCNA labeling index of the epithelium were evaluated. RESULTS: The morphometric analysis showed an increase in epithelial thickness in the animals of group BD (2166?1012mm² when compared to the other groups (C = 878?278mm²; B = 1746?144mm² and D = 1691?697mm², mainly due to basal layer hyperplasia, besides an increase in the keratin of the superficial layer. The PCNA labeling index in the basal layer was significantly higher in the group BD (0,695?0,111 when compared to the other groups (C = 0,490?0,132; B = 0,512?0,215 and D = 0,477?0,198. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm in an experimental model the previous observation in humans of increased epithelial cell proliferation during the esophageal carcinogenic process in achalasia and may be useful to further studies on the mechanisms of the esophageal carcinogenesis and the the design of follow-up endoscopic studies for patients with achalasia.

  1. Detección precoz por Tomografía Computada Cuantitativa Multicorte de alteraciones en la densidad mineral ósea, inducidas por una dieta aterogénica, en un modelo experimental en ratas en crecimiento Multislice Quantitative Computed Tomography allozos early detectíon of bone mineral density alterations induced by atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Joaquín Gubert

    2012-03-01

    atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model. Materials and Methods. Male weanling Wistar rats (n =16 were divided by body weight (Wt into 2 groups: control (C and experimental (E, with no significant differences in the mean initial Wt (p>0.05. C was fed rodent stock diet ad libitum, and E an atherogenic diet for 3 weeks (3w. Zoometry (body weight and length and diet intake (g/lOOg rat/day were monitored. At 3 w in serum (mg/dL lipid-lipoprotein profile was studied: total cholesterol (t-C, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C and MS-QCT (Philips 64 CT, quantified with the eFilm Workstation 2.1 in seven mandibular áreas (MA: n°lto 4: from chin to mandibular foramen, n° 5: coronoid process, n° 6: condylar process, n° 7: angular process. Statistics: Pearson's correlation between BMD in each MA and serum t-C. p0.05. Correlation coefficients (r and their significance levéis (p were relevant in 5/7 MA. MA1-.-0.580 (p=0.019, MA2:-0.709 (p=0.002, MA3:-0.635 (p=0.008, MA5:-0.674 (p=0.004, MA6:-0.564 (p=0.023. Conclusions. These results suggest that MS-QCT is an imaging diagnostic method that allows the early detection of mandible bone architecture alterations induced by an atherogenic diet. Inverse correlation between BMD and t-C would indícate an association between an atherogenic diet intake and potential temporomandibular disorders.

  2. The effect of various drugs on experimentally induced ulcers in immobilized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, H.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments related to the importance of functional disorders in the central nervous system in connection with stomach diseases were performed on Wistar rats. Assuming that severe mental strains may be triggering factors for such disorders, testing of the effects of different drugs on experimentally induced ulcers in these rats was done. The immobilization method described by Bonfils was used. Particular importance was placed on the sex related difference which appeared.

  3. Evaluating resveratrol as a therapeutic bone agent: preclinical evidence from rat models of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet C

    2015-08-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring plant polyphenol that has potential to attenuate osteoporosis with distinct pathologies. This review evaluates preclinical evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of RSV as a therapeutic bone agent using different rat models. Limitations of these animal models are discussed, and suggestions for strengthening the experimental design of future studies are provided. The ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis reported that RSV supplementation attenuated estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and trabecular structural deterioration. RSV safety was indicated by the absence of stimulation of estrogen-sensitive tissue. Providing RSV to rats aged >6 months attenuated age-related bone mass loss and structural deterioration but produced inconsistent effects on bones in rats aged osteoporosis reported that RSV attenuated bone loss in old rats, but higher doses and longer duration supplementation before mechanical loading were required for younger rats. Limitations common to studies using rat models of osteoporosis include requirements to include animals that are skeletally mature, longer study durations, and to adjust for potential confounding effects due to altered body weight and endocrine function. Strengthening experimental design can contribute to translation of animal results to clinically relevant recommendations for humans. Published 2015. This article is U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Prospects of experimentally reachable beyond Standard Model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-06

    Jan 6, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 2. Prospects of experimentally reachable beyond Standard Model physics in inverse see-saw motivated SO(10) GUT. Ram Lal Awasthi. Special: Supersymmetric Unified Theories and Higgs Physics Volume 86 Issue 2 February 2016 pp 223- ...

  5. Prospects of experimentally reachable beyond Standard Model ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-06

    Jan 6, 2016 ... also fit perfectly in the model framework. Despite the fact that SM has unravelled the gauge origin of fundamental forces and the structure of Universe while successfully confronting numerous experimental tests, it has various limitations. For a good summary on its excellencies and compulsions see [1], and.

  6. Effects of the Combination Therapy with ‍Candesartan and Alpha Tocopherol on Brain injury and Edema Following Brain Ischemia in Experimental Model of Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Panahpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Stroke is third leading cause of death and disability in the most of human communities. Several experimental studies have shown that combination therapy with drugs that act via different mechanisms can produce amplified protective effects. We examined the effects of combination therapy with candesartan and alpha tocopherol against cerebral ischemia. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n=24: sham, control ischemic, candesartan treated (0.3 mg/kg, alpha tocopherol treated (30 mg/kg and combined treated ischemic groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 90-min-long occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery followed by 24-h-long reperfusion. Neurological deficit score was evaluated at the end of the reperfusion period. Thereafter, the animals were randomly used for measurement of the infarct volumes and investigation of ischemic brain edema formation using a wet/dry method. Results: Induction of cerebral ischemia produced considerable brain infarction in conjunction with severely impaired motor functions and edema formation. Combined treatment with candesartan and alpha tocopherol significantly reduced the infarct volume and lowered the water content in the ischemic lesioned hemisphere. These effects on brain edema and oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly more than the monotherapy with candesartan. Conclusion: The combination therapy with candesartan and alpha tocopherol can noticeably decrease ischemic brain injury and attenuate edema formation likely via increasing the antioxidant activity.

  7. [THE QUANTIFICATION OF SULPHATED GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS IN RAT URINE IN EXPERIMENTAL HEMORRHAGIC CYSTITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, V E; Shmurak, V I

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the study of the excretion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the urine of rats in experimental hemorrhagic cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide and treated with glycosaminoglycan replacement therapy. Rats were given intraperitoneal injections of cyclophosphamide at a dose of 100 mg per 1 kg body weight and subsequently treated with intragastric administration of the combined preparation of glycosaminoglycans containing glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate at a dose of 10 and 100 mg per 1 kg of body weight. Within 24 or 72 hours after cystitis induction there was a statistically significant increase in urinary GAG excretion. The study also found a decrease (from 1.34 to 1.22 mg/dL) in urinary GAG within 0 to 72 hours following induction of acute cystitis without glycosaminoglycan therapy. In the subchronic model of inflammation in the bladder, upon repeated administration of low doses of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg), decrease in urinary GAG within 0 to 72 hours (1,32±0,13 mg/dL) as well as increased excretion after 96 hours at a concentration of 2,29±0,13 mg/L after initiation cystitis were found.

  8. Influence of High-Fat Diet on Bone Tissue: An Experimental Study in Growing Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende Yanagihara, G; Carminati Shimano, R; Atsuko Tida, J; Suzuki Yamanaka, J; Yasuyo Fukada, S; Mardegan Issa, J P; Shimano, A C; Tavares, J M

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and bone tissue remains contradictory, especially when the effect of high-fat diet is assessed in experimental models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-fat diet on bone metabolism of growing rats. Twenty weaned female Wistar rats were equally divided into two groups: SD (standard diet) and HFD (high-fat diet with 60 % of energy as fat). After five weeks of the two diets, the rats were euthanized, and the liver, blood and bones extracted. The liver was analysed for malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations. Blood was analysed by the ELISA method for osteoprotegerin (OPG) and tumour necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11/RANKL). The bone tissue was analysed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), mechanical tests, computed microtomography, histological quantitative analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The gene expressions of PPAR-γ Runx-2, RANKL and Cathepsin-K were also evaluated. HFD caused an increase in the MDA concentration, indicating oxidative stress. It also increased the expression of PPAR-γ, which is the gene that is related to adipocyte differentiation. There was an increase in BMD of the tibia of animals fed with the HFD, but other microstructural and mechanical properties were maintained unaltered. In addition, there were no changes in the gene expressions related to the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, as well as no changes to the biochemical markers of bone formation and bone resorption. Liver and gene parameters are changed in response to the HFD. However, although there was an increase in BMD, the microstructure and function of the bone did not change after a 5-week HFD.

  9. Characteristics of benzodiazepine receptors in rats differing in predisposition to experimental alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, Yu.V.; Maiskii, A.I.; Yukhananov, R.Yu.

    1986-02-01

    This paper studies the number and affinity of benzodiazepine receptors for diazepam in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats differently predisposed to the development of experimental alcoholism. Ethanol was injected once intraperitoneally, in a dose of 2.5 g/kg. Control animals received the same volume of physiological saline. Bound and free N-methyl-tritium-diazepam were separated by means of GF/B filters. The characteristics of benzodiazepine receptors are shown in rats differing in predisposition to the development of experimental alcoholism and in rats during voluntary chronic alcoholization. It is shown that weakening of functional acitivity of the GABA-benzodiazepam complex in animals predisposed to the development of experimental alcoholism is one of the neurochemical mechanisms of development of the abstinence syndrome.

  10. The groove model of tibia-femoral osteoarthritis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, Huub M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41398561X; Weinans, Harrie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087198622; Coeleveld, Katja; van Rijen, Mattie Hp|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817856; Lafeber, Floris Pjg; Mastbergen, Simon C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290932599

    Several experimental models of osteoarthritis in rats are used to study the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. Many mechanically induced models have the limitation that permanent joint instability is induced by e.g. ligament transection or meniscal damage. This permanent instability will counteract

  11. Electrochemical desalination of bricks - Experimental and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Chlorides, nitrates and sulfates play an important role in the salt-decay of porous materials in buildings and monuments. Electrochemical desalination is a technology able to remove salts from such porous materials in order to stop or prevent the decay. In this paper, experimental and numerical......-contaminated bricks with respect to the monovalent ions is discussed. Comparison between the experimental and the simulation results showed that the proposed numerical model is able to predict electrochemical desalination treatments with remarkable accuracy, and it can be used as a predictive tool...

  12. Diabetes and hypertension: experimental models for pharmacological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Since hypertensive and diabetes-mellitus frequently occur simultaneously there exists a requirement for animal models where both pathological entities are combined. The streptozotocin (STZ)-spontaneously hypertensive rat (STZ-SHR) and the obese Zucker rat are examples of animal models where

  13. Experimental models of hepatectomy and liver regeneration using newborn and weaning rats Modelos experimentais de hepatectomia e regeneração hepática em ratos recém-nascidos e recém-desmamados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Aoun Tannuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Liver regeneration is a complex process that has not been completely elucidated. The model most frequently used to study this phenomenon is 70% hepatectomy in adult rats; however, no papers have examined this effect in developing animals. The aims of the present study were: 1 to standardize two models of partial hepatectomy and liver regeneration in newborn suckling and weaning rats, and 2 to study the evolution of remnant liver weight and histological changes of hepatic parenchyma on the days that follow partial hepatectomy. METHODS: Fifty newborn and forty-four weaning rats underwent 70% hepatectomy. After a midline incision, compression on both sides of the upper abdomen was performed to exteriorize the right medial, left medial and left lateral hepatic lobes, which were tied inferiorly and resected en bloc. The animals were sacrificed on days 0 (just after hepatectomy, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 after the operation. Body and liver weight were determined, and hepatic parenchyma was submitted to histological analysis. RESULTS: Mortality rates of the newborn and weaning groups were 30% and 0%, respectively. There was a significant decrease in liver mass soon after partial hepatectomy, which completely recovered on the seventh day in both groups. Newborn rat regenerating liver showed marked steatosis on the second day. In the weaning rat liver, mitotic figures were observed earlier, and their amount was greater than in the newborn. CONCLUSIONS: Suckling and weaning rat models of partial hepatectomy are feasible and can be used for studies of liver regeneration. Although similar, the process of hepatic regeneration in developing animals is different from adults.OBJETIVOS: A regeneração hepática é um processo complexo não completamente elucidado. O modelo mais utilizado para o estudo desse fenômeno é a hepatectomia a 70% em ratos adultos. Não há trabalhos utilizando modelos em animais em crescimento. Desta forma, os objetivos deste

  14. Efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in experimental rat pneumonia: antibiotic treatment schedules in rats with impaired phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker-Woudenberg, I A; van Gerwen, A L; Michel, M F

    1979-07-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia in rats with intact host defense mechanisms could be successfully cured by penicillin. The efficacy of this antibiotic therapy was lost in cobra venom factor-treated rats which had selectively impaired phagocytic functions. In these animals the effect of penicillin therapy was improved by increasing the daily dose and the frequency of injections and by earlier initiation of the therapy. The efficacy of penicillin in the cobra venom facttor-treated rats was restored either by markedly increasing the daily dose of penicillin or by increasing the daily dose in combination with a reduced interval of the penicillin injections.

  15. Evoked bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve of white rats in experimental menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodinsky A.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was analysis of the bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve in experimental menopause condition. Experiments were performed on 25 female white rats, divided into experimental and control groups. Menopause was modeled by total ovariohysterectomy. In 120 days after modeling we had recorded evoked action potentials of fibers of isolated ventral root L5 induced by stimulation of sciatic nerve with rectangular pulses. Threshold, chronaxia, latency, amplitude and duration of the action potential (AP were analysed. Refractory phenomenon was investigated by applying paired stimuli at intervals of 2 to 20 ms. In the context of long-term hypoestrogenemy threshold of AP appearance was 55,32±7,69%, chronaxy – 115,09±2,67%, latent period – 112,62±1,74% as compared with the control animals (p<0.01. In conditions of paired stimuli applying the amplitude of response to the testing stimulus in animals with ovariohysterectomy at intervals 3 and 4 ms was 61,25±36,45% and 53,48±18,64% (p<0.05 respectively.

  16. Experimental oral iron administration: Histological investigations and expressions of iron handling proteins in rat retina with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jha, Kumar Abhiram; Dey, Sanjay Kumar; Kathpalia, Poorti; Maurya, Meenakshi; Gupta, Chandan Lal; Bhatia, Jagriti; Roy, Tara Sankar; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2017-12-01

    Iron is implicated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of this study was to see if long-term, experimental iron administration with aging modifies retinal and choroidal structures and expressions of iron handling proteins, to understand some aspects of iron homeostasis. Male Wistar rats were fed with ferrous sulphate heptahydrate (500mg/kg body weight/week, oral; elemental iron availability: 20%) from 2 months of age onward until they were 19.5 month-old. At 8, 14 and 20 months of age, they were sacrificed and serum and retinal iron levels were detected by HPLC. Oxidative stress was analyzed by TBARS method. The retinas were examined for cell death (TUNEL), histology (electron microscopy) and the expressions of transferrin, transferrin receptor-1 [TFR-1], H- and L-ferritin. In control animals, at any age, there was no difference in the serum and retinal iron levels, but the latter increased significantly in 14- and 20 month-old iron-fed rats, indicating that retinal iron accumulation proceeds with progression of aging (>14 months). The serum and retinal TBARS levels increased significantly with progression of aging in experimental but not in control rats. There was significant damage to choriocapillaris, accumulation of phagosomes in retinal pigment epithelium and increased incidence of TUNEL+ cells in outer nuclear layer and vacuolation in inner nuclear layer (INL) of 20 month-aged experimental rats, compared to those in age-matched controls. Vacuolations in INL could indicate a long-term effect of iron accumulation in the inner retina. These events paralleled the increased expression of ferritins and transferrin and a decrease in the expression of TFR-1 in iron-fed rats with aging, thereby maintaining iron homeostasis in the retina. As some of these changes mimic with those happening in eyes with AMD, this model can be utilized to understand iron-induced pathophysiological changes in AMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardioprotective effect of amlodipine in oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhira Begum

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the administration of amlodipine ameliorates oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats. Adrenaline was administered and myocardial damage was evaluated biochemically [significantly increased serum aspertate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels of myocardial tissue] and histologically (morphological changes of myocardium. Amlodipine was administered as pretreatment for 14 days in adrenaline treated rats. Statistically significant amelioration in all the biochemical parameters supported by significantly improved myocardial morphology was observed in amlodipine pretreatment. It was concluded that amlodipine afforded cardioprotection by reducing oxidative stress induced in experimental myocardial infarction of catecholamine assault.

  18. Cardiac Body Surface Potentials in Rats with Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension during Ventricular Depolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslonova, O V; Smirnova, S L; Roshchevskaya, I M

    2016-11-01

    The spatial and the amplitude-temporal parameters of cardiac body surface potentials were examined in female Wistar rats with experimental pulmonary hypertension during ventricular depolarization. The cardiac body surface potentials have been led from 64 subcutaneous electrodes evenly distributed across the chest surface prior to and 4 weeks after subcutaneous injection of a single dose of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg). Right ventricular hypertrophy and electrophysiological remodeling of the heart developed in rats with experimental pulmonary hypertension in 4 weeks after monocrotaline injection; these changes led to a significant increase in amplitude and temporal characteristics of the cardioelectric field on the body surface in comparison with the initial state.

  19. Experimental osteonecrosis: development of a model in rodents administered alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Nicolau; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Andrade, Cleverton Roberto de; Esteves, Jônatas Caldeira; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2016-08-22

    The main objective of this study was to cause bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws to develop in a rodent model. Adult male Holtzman rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups to receive alendronate (AL; 1 mg/kg/week; n = 6) or saline solution (CTL; n = 6). After 60 days of drug therapy, all animals were subjected to first lower molar extraction, and 28 days later, animals were euthanized. All rats treated with alendronate developed osteonecrosis, presenting as ulcers and necrotic bone, associated with a significant infection process, especially at the inter-alveolar septum area and crestal regions. The degree of vascularization, the levels of C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, as well as the bone volume were significantly reduced in these animals. Furthermore, on radiographic analysis, animals treated with alendronate presented evident sclerosis of the lamina dura of the lower first molar alveolar socket associated with decreased radiographic density in this area. These findings indicate that the protocol developed in the present study opens new perspectives and could be a good starting model for future property design.

  20. Experimental osteonecrosis: development of a model in rodents administered alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau CONTE NETO

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this study was to cause bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws to develop in a rodent model. Adult male Holtzman rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups to receive alendronate (AL; 1 mg/kg/week; n = 6 or saline solution (CTL; n = 6. After 60 days of drug therapy, all animals were subjected to first lower molar extraction, and 28 days later, animals were euthanized. All rats treated with alendronate developed osteonecrosis, presenting as ulcers and necrotic bone, associated with a significant infection process, especially at the inter-alveolar septum area and crestal regions. The degree of vascularization, the levels of C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, as well as the bone volume were significantly reduced in these animals. Furthermore, on radiographic analysis, animals treated with alendronate presented evident sclerosis of the lamina dura of the lower first molar alveolar socket associated with decreased radiographic density in this area. These findings indicate that the protocol developed in the present study opens new perspectives and could be a good starting model for future property design.

  1. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the common marmoset: a novel animal model for multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P.M. Brok (Herbert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a major cause of disability in young adults affecting approximately 15,000 people in The Netberlands. Critical aspects of the disease have been modeled by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animals. The vast majority of investigators use rats

  2. The effect of experimental glaucoma and optic nerve transection on amacrine cells in the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielczewski, Jennifer L; Pease, Mary Ellen; Quigley, Harry A

    2005-09-01

    To detect alterations in amacrine cells associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) depletion caused by experimental optic nerve transection and glaucoma. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was elevated unilaterally in 18 rats by translimbal trabecular laser treatment, and eyes were studied at 1 (n = 6), 2 (n = 5), and 3 (n = 7) months. Complete optic nerve transection was performed unilaterally in nine rats with survival for 1 (n = 4) and 3 (n = 5) months. Serial cryosections (five per eye) were immunohistochemically labeled with rabbit anti-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and anti-glycine antibodies. Cells in the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers that labeled for GABA or glycine were counted in a masked fashion under bright-field microscopy. Additional labeling with other RGC and amacrine antigens was also performed. RGC loss was quantified by axon counts. Amacrine cells identified by GABA and glycine labeling were not significantly affected by experimental glaucoma, with a mean decrease of 15% compared with bilaterally untreated control cells (557 +/- 186 neurons/mm [glaucoma] versus 653.9 +/- 114.4 neurons/mm [control] of retina; P = 0.15, t-test). There was no significant trend for amacrine cell counts to be lower in eyes with fewer RGCs (r = -0.39, P = 0.11). By contrast, there was highly significant loss of GABA and glycine staining 3 months after nerve transection, both in the treated and the fellow eyes (P neurotransmitters. After nerve transection, neurotransmitter presence declines, but many amacrine cell bodies remain. Differences among optic nerve injury models, as well as effects on "untreated" fellow eyes, should be recognized.

  3. Microscopic changes in rat tongue following experimental cryosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, B; Papert, A I; Shear, M

    1979-04-01

    Histological changes were studied in the rat tongue for varying periods of time up to 14 days following the application of a cryoprobe to the dorsal surface of rat tongue. Within minutes of the application, focal subepithelial vesiculation and hyperemia occurred. At 3 h there was evidence of damage to capillary walls, resulting in hemorrhage. Arterioles and venules were thrombosed and there were degenerative changes in the muscle layer of their walls. At 6 h ventral epithelium showed evidence of damage. At this stage vessel walls were pavemented with neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and some of the latter were seen in the vessel walls. At 24 h abundant PMN, many of them necrotic, were present in the vessel walls, apparently unable to pass through them. At 48 h numerous PMN were seen adhering to degenerating muscle fibers. By 4 days necrotic changes extended through the full thickness of the tongue, but concurrently it was observed that the larger thrombosed vessels were becoming recanalized. At 5 days repair by granulation tissue was taking place and at 6 days the vasculature was virtually reconstituted. By 14 days healing was complete.

  4. The effect of menthol on acute experimental colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Pirbaluti, Masoumeh; Motaghi, Ehsan; Bozorgi, Homan

    2017-06-15

    Menthol is an aromatic compound with high antiinflammatory activity. The purpose of the current research is to investigate the effectiveness of menthol on acetic acid induced acute colitis in rats. Animals were injected with menthol (20 and 50 and 80mg/kg, i.p.) 24h prior to induction of colitis for 3 consecutive days. Menthol at medium and higher doses similar to dexamethasone as a reference drug significantly reduced body weight loss, macroscopic damage score, ulcer area, colon weight, colon length and improved hematocrit in rats with colitis. The histopathological examination also confirmed anti-colitic effects of menthol. Menthol also reduced significantly the colonic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in inflamed colons. Thus, the findings of the current study provide evidence that menthol may be beneficial in patients suffering from acute ulcerative colitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental study on developing rat kidney after Naja haje envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Hessy, H; Abdel Rahman, S; Iskander, F; Nassar, A; el Maghraby, M

    1987-01-01

    In the present experiment 164 pregnant white Wistar rats were used to study the effect of Naja haje (Egyptian cobra) venom on the developing kidney. The rats were divided into 3 groups; a control group, a group receiving one LD50 of N. haje venom and the third injected with 1/8 of LD50. The injection was performed at different stages of gestation. After birth, the neonates of group I and III and embryos of group II were examined histologically, histochemically and electron-microscopically. Both lethal and sublethal doses of N. haje venom produced haemorrhages and vascular congestion of the developing kidney. The lethal dose had degenerative effects on the podocytes and endothelium. Tubular damage appeared mainly as mitochondrial degeneration and bud-like extension, protrusions of cytoplasm and vacuolization. The succinic dehydrogenase enzyme showed decreased activity. The sublethal dose had an effect on the glomerular basement membrane in the form of splitting, increased mesangial cells and matrix, mitochondrial degeneration and fusion of podocyte processes. Tubulization of the parietal epithelium, vacuolization of the proximal tubules, mitochondrial degeneration and apical budding were evident.

  6. Hippocampus and Retrograde Amnesia in the Rat Model: A Modest Proposal for the Situation of Systems Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Robert J.; Sparks, Fraser T.; Lehmann, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    The properties of retrograde amnesia after damage to the hippocampus have been explicated with some success using a rat model of human medial temporal lobe amnesia. We review the results of this experimental work with rats focusing on several areas of consensus in this growing literature. We evaluate the theoretically significant hypothesis that…

  7. Antibody response against Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected rats is dose dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Domestic pigs are the main representatives of the domestic cycle of Trichinella spiralis that play a role in transmission to humans. In Europe, backyard pigs of small household farms are the most important risks for humans to obtain trichinellosis. Rats might play a role in the transmission of Trichinella spiralis from domestic to sylvatic animals and vice versa. In order to be able to investigate the role of wild rats in the epidemiology of T. spiralis in The Netherlands, we studied the dynamics of antibody response after T. spiralis infections in experimental rats, using infection doses ranging from very low (10 muscle larvae, ML, per rat) to very high (16 000 ML per rat). To evaluate the feasibility of rats surviving high infection doses with T. spiralis, clinical and pathological parameters were quantified. Serological tools for detecting T. spiralis in rats were developed to quantitatively study the correlation between parasite load and immunological response. The results show that an infection dose-dependent antibody response was developed in rats after infection with as low as 10 ML up to a level of 10 000 ML. A positive correlation was found between the number of recovered ML and serum antibody levels, although specific measured antibody levels correspond to a wide range of LPG values. Serum antibodies of rats that were infected even with 10 or 25 ML could readily be detected by use of the T. spiralis western blot 2 weeks post infection. We conclude that based on these low infection doses, serologic tests are a useful tool to survey T. spiralis in wild rats. PMID:22129040

  8. Camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Sunita; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Pandey, Amit K; Sharma, Rajan; Singh, Raghvendar

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to assess anti-diabetic potential of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 48 rats were taken for the study where one group was kept as non-diabetic control group (8 rats) while others (40 rats) were made diabetic by STZ (50 mg/kg of body weight) injection. Among diabetic rats, a control group (8 rats) was kept and referred as diabetic control whereas other four groups (8 rats each) of diabetic rats were fed on 50 ml of goat or camel or cow or buffalo milk for 4 weeks. All the rats (non-diabetic and diabetic) were maintained on standard diet for four weeks. STZ administration resulted in enhancement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c and reduction in high density lipoprotein in plasma and lowering of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) activities in pancreas, kidney, liver and RBCs, coupled with enhanced levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls in pancreas, kidney, liver and plasma. OGTT carried out at the end of 4 week milk feeding indicated that all milks helped in early maintenance of glucose level. All milks reduced atherogenic index. In camel milk fed diabetic group, insulin concentration enhanced to level noted for non-diabetic control while goat, cow and buffalo milk failed to restore insulin level. HbA1c level was also restored only in camel milk fed diabetic group. The level of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, GPx and SOD) in pancreas enhanced in all milk fed groups. Camel milk and to a reasonable extent goat milk reduced formation of TBARS and PCs in tissues and blood. It can be concluded that camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats. Further, only camel milk completely ameliorated oxidative damage in pancreas and normalised insulin level.

  9. Immune responsiveness associated with experimental Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in immunocompetent rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omalu ICJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Microsporidial infections have been recognized as an increasingly important infection in immuncompromised patients, particularly those infected with HIV/AIDS. This study was designed to study immune responses associated with experimental Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in immunocompetent rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four Rats in 3 groups, A (Control, B (Intraperitoneal and C (Oral were given injections of 0.5 ml of 2 x 10 6 of purified spores of Encephalitotozoon intestinalis spores and were observed for serum specific IgG for 21 days using both direct and indirect ELISA. Results: In indirect ELISA, specific lgG were detected on days 7, 14 and 21 for the group B rats and on day 21 for group C and in direct ELISA method, specific lgG were detected in-group B rats on days 7 and 21, for group C rats on day 21 only, while in the control rats, specific lgG were not detected. There was no significant difference between the direct and indirect methods (df=1, X 2 , P>0.05. E. intestinalis was observed in stool samples of rats in 1/12 (08.33% on days 14 and 21 in group B, and in 4/10 (33.33%, 3/10 (25.00% and 2/10 (16.67% on days 7, 14 and 21 respectively in group C. In group A, which is the control rats, no microsporidia were observed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. Conclusions: There were no changes in the T-lymphocyte counts of rats prior to and after inoculation with spores. Extensive lesions were observed along the intestinal walls especially on the middle and lower sections of group C rats only.

  10. Intestinal flora imbalance results in altered bacterial translocation and liver function in rats with experimental cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Gu, Yurong; Chen, Youming; Deng, Hong; Chen, Lubiao; Chen, Sui; Zhang, Genglin; Gao, Zhiliang

    2010-12-01

    The intestinal microflora plays a major role in human health. Intestinal flora imbalances are seen in clinical settings, such as cirrhosis, in which bacterial translocation (BT) results in migration of bacteria or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to extraintestinal sites. In this study, we explored the effect of alterations in gut flora on BT and liver function in cirrhotic rats. In this study, we used a carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhotic rat model to compare the abundance of major aerobic and anaerobic bacterial species in healthy and cirrhotic rats. We used antibiotic (norfloxacin) and different probiotic treatments to change the status of gut flora in the cirrhotic rats and evaluated BT, liver function, and endotoxemia in the different models. We found higher levels of Enterobacteriaceae in cirrhotic rats when compared with healthy rats. Bifidobacteria treatment resulted in lower levels of Enterobacteriaceae along with increased levels of Lactobacillus when compared with the normal saline group. Both Bifidobacteria and Enterococcus treatments resulted in lower endotoxin levels than in the normal saline group. Gut flora imbalances in cirrhotic rats result in significant changes in BT and liver function in cirrhotic rats.

  11. Different experimental approaches in modelling cataractogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyselova, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    Cataract, the opacification of eye lens, is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. At present, the only remedy is surgical removal of the cataractous lens and substitution with a lens made of synthetic polymers. However, besides significant costs of operation and possible complications, an artificial lens just does not have the overall optical qualities of a normal one. Hence it remains a significant public health problem, and biochemical solutions or pharmacological interventions that will maintain the transparency of the lens are highly required. Naturally, there is a persistent demand for suitable biological models. The ocular lens would appear to be an ideal organ for maintaining culture conditions because of lacking blood vessels and nerves. The lens in vivo obtains its nutrients and eliminates waste products via diffusion with the surrounding fluids. Lens opacification observed in vivo can be mimicked in vitro by addition of the cataractogenic agent sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) to the culture medium. Moreover, since an overdose of sodium selenite induces also cataract in young rats, it became an extremely rapid and convenient model of nuclear cataract in vivo. The main focus of this review will be on selenium (Se) and its salt sodium selenite, their toxicological characteristics and safety data in relevance of modelling cataractogenesis, either under in vivo or in vitro conditions. The studies revealing the mechanisms of lens opacification induced by selenite are highlighted, the representatives from screening for potential anti-cataract agents are listed. PMID:21217865

  12. Morphological and immunohistochemical comparison of three rat prostate lobes (lateral, dorsal and ventral in experimental hyperprolactinemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Gącarzewicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The prolactin plays an important role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of prostate gland besides androgens. The goal of this study was to reveal the influence of elevated prolactin concentration on epithelial cells of prostate. We compared the morphology of epithelial cells of prostate dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes and expression of androgen receptors in these cells in rats with hyperprolactinemia and in control rats. We used sexually mature male Wistar rats. The experimental rats received metoclopramide; the control group received saline in the same way. The prostate dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes were collected routinely for light and electron microscopy. The intensity of immunohistochemical reaction of androgen receptor in epithelial cells of dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes was evaluated by measure of optical density with computer image analysis. The light and electron (transmission and scanning microscopes were used for morphological observations. Results: In experimental rats twofold increase in prolactin and twofold decrease in testosterone found. In experimental group the expression of androgen receptor was lower in columnar epithelial cells of dorsal and ventral lobes but higher in lateral one. We observed morphological abnormalities in columnar epithelial cells of lateral and dorsal lobes. The columnar epithelial cells of ventral lobes didn't show any morphological changes in hyperprolactinemia.

  13. Experimental superficial candidiasis on tissue models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, J A M S; Samaranayake, L P

    2010-07-01

    Candida species are common pathogens causing superficial mycoses primarily affecting the mucosa and the skin in humans. Crucial steps during pathogenesis of superficial candidiasis comprise fungal adhesion, colonisation and subsequent penetration of the respective tissues. Exploring these pathological events and perhaps fungal and tissue responses towards drug treatment is imperative in the management of this infection. Unfortunately, pathological biopsies of superficial candidiasis do not exhibit the early changes in the host-pathogen interaction as the tissues are already invaded by the fungi. In vivo experimental assessments of pathological processes of superficial candidiasis are also limited because of the difficulties in providing reproducible and comparable conditions in the host environment. Conversely, in vitro models have helped studying fungal-host interactions under more defined and controlled conditions. Some common in vitro models used to simulate superficial candidiasis are chick chorioallantoic membrane, mucosal explants and single layer or multiple layer cell cultures. Interestingly, these experimental approaches share advantages as well as disadvantages when compared with in vivo conditions. Hence, this review intends to discuss about the experimental superficial candidiasis produced in various tissue models and their advantages as well as disadvantages with a particular reference to further improvement of validity and reliability of such experiments.

  14. Dietary whey supplementation in experimental models of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu Ogünç, A; Manukyan, M; Cingi, A; Eksioglu-Demiralp, E; Ozdemir Aktan, A; Süha Yalçin, A

    2008-03-01

    Whey is a dairy product containing milk serum proteins with diverse biological effects. In this study, the effect of dietary whey supplementation on wound healing was investigated. Rats were fed a standard or whey-supplemented diet for three weeks. Wound healing parameters, glutathione, and lipid peroxide levels were determined three days after the application of two different models of wound healing, i.e. laparotomy and colonic anastomosis. Dietary whey supplementation significantly increased glutathione levels and suppressed lipid peroxidation after experimental laparotomy and colonic anastomosis. Bursting pressures, hydroxyproline, and cytokine levels were not changed. Our results show that dietary whey supplementation increases glutathione synthesis and cellular antioxidant defense. Long-term effects of whey feeding on wound healing remains to be investigated.

  15. [The effect of probiotic therapy on development of experimental obesity in rats caused by monosodium glutamate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savcheniuk, O A; Virchenko, O V; Falalieieva, T M; Beregova, T V; Babenko, L P; Lazarenko, L M; Spivak, M Ia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a mixture of probiotic strains (2:1:1 Lactobacillus casei IMVB-7280, Bifidobacterium animalis VKL, Bifidobacterium animalis VKB) on the development of experimental obesity in rats induced by neonatal administration of monosodium glutamate has been studied. It was shown that in rats of 4 months age, the injection of monosodium glutamate (4 mg/g) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 days after birth elicited abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. An intermittent administration of a probiotic mixture to rats treated with monosodium prevented the development of obesity. In the group of rats treated with probiotics, anthropometric parameters (weight and body length, Lee index, body mass index) did not differ from the level of intact rats. Visceral fat mass was decreased by probiotics by 38.5% (P < 0.05) compared to rats treated with water. Probiotics improved lipid metabolism: reduced the level of VLDL by 32.2% (P < 0,05), the level of LDL by 30.6% (P < 0.05), increased HDL by 25.7% (P <0,05) compared to obese control rats. Probiotic strains restored the secretion of adipocytes hormones (leptin and adiponectin) to the normal level of intact animals. The results show the effectiveness of probiotics for the prevention of obesity.

  16. Seclazone Reactor Modeling And Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osinga, T. [ETH-Zuerich (Switzerland); Olalde, G. [CNRS Odeillo (France); Steinfeld, A. [PSI and ETHZ (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    A numerical model is formulated for the SOLZINC solar chemical reactor for the production of Zn by carbothermal reduction of ZnO. The model involves solving, by the finite-volume technique, a 1D unsteady state energy equation that couples heat transfer to the chemical kinetics for a shrinking packed bed exposed to thermal radiation. Validation is accomplished by comparison with experimentally measured temperature profiles and Zn production rates as a function of time, obtained for a 5-kW solar reactor tested at PSI's solar furnace. (author)

  17. Beyond the standard model, experimental summary

    CERN Document Server

    McPherson, R A

    2003-01-01

    An overview of experimental results in searches for physics beyond the Standard Model is presented. It is impossible to cover all topics in this field, so a set of examples is used to highlight the scope and breadth of the results. Selected topics include searches for compositeness, flavour changing neutral currents, SUSY, exotic Higgs particles, low scale gravity in extra dimensions, and non commutative geometry. Current results are presented from the LEP, Tevatron Run I, and HERA I experiments. No convincing evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model has been observed. Prospects for ongoing and upcoming experiments are discussed. (40 refs).

  18. Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, M; Girija, K; Lakshman, K; Divya, T

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M. paradisiaca. The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models.

  19. Testicular biohistochemical alterations following experimental varicocele in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazdak Razi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The exact pathophysiology of testicular degeneration, following varicocele has not been completely understood yet.Objective: The current study was designed to determine the effect of varicocele on germinal epithelium (GE cytoplasmic biohistochmical alterations.Materials and Methods: To follow-up this study, left varicocele was induced in test groups. Non-varicocelized rats were served as control-sham (n=6. Following 4, 6 and 8 months, right and left testes were dissected out and the blood serum sample was taken. The GE cytoplasmic carbohydrate, lipid accumulation, lipase and alkaline-phosphates (ALP ratios were analyzed. Serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone were measured.Results: Observations demonstrated that in varicocele-induced rats, the spermatogenesis cell lineage exhibited lower number of cells with periodic acid shift positive cytoplasm, higher number of cells with lipid and ALP positive stained cytoplasm in comparison to control animals. Lipase enzyme decreased by the time in the test animals. In varicocelized groups the number of Leydig cells decreased in to 2.25±0.41 and 1.16±0.75 per one mm2 in left and right testicles respectively after 8 months, and these cells demonstrated an ALP positive feature. In test groups, the serum levels of LH and FSH reduced into 1.12±0.01 and 2.03±0.05 ng/ml respectively after 8 months. Although testosterone level diminished by the time in the test animals, and this decreasing was significant (p=0.031 after 8 months (3.08±0.10 ng/ml.Conclusion: Our results suggest that following varicocele induction major alterations occur in GE, which may lead to loss of GE cells physiological function and ultimately result in fertility problems.

  20. Experimental models of sepsis and septic shock: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Alejandra G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients and trauma victims, mainly due to sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction. In contrast to preclinical studies, most clinical trials of promising new treatment strategies for sepsis have fails to demonstrate efficacy. Although many reasons could account for this discrepancy, the misinterpretation of preclinical data obtained from experimental studies, and especially the use of animal models that do not adequately mimic human sepsis may have been contributing factors. In this review, the benefits and limitations of various animal models of sepsis are discussed to clarify the extend to which findings are relevant to human sepsis, particularly with respect to the subsequent design and execution of clinical trials. Such models include intravascular infusion of endotoxin or live bacteria, bacterial peritonitis, cecal ligation and perforation, soft tissue infection, pneumonia or meningitis models, using different animal species including rats, mice, rabbits, dogs, pigs, sheep and nonhuman primates. Despite several limitations, animal models remain essential in the development of all new therapies for sepsis and septic shock, because they provide fundamental information about the pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and mechanism of drug action that cannot be duplicated by other methods. New therapeutic agents should be studies in infection models, even after the initiation of the septic process. Furthermore, debility conditions need to be reproduced to avoid the exclusive use of healthy animals, which often do not represent the human septic patient.

  1. Dimethyl Fumarate Ameliorates Lewis Rat Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis and Mediates Axonal Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarokoili, Kalliopi; Ambrosius, Björn; Meyer, Daniela; Schrewe, Lisa; Gold, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Dimethyl fumarate is an immunomodulatory and neuroprotective drug, approved recently for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In view of the limited therapeutic options for human acute and chronic polyneuritis, we used the animal model of experimental autoimmune neuritis in the Lewis rat to study the effects of dimethyl fumarate on autoimmune inflammation and neuroprotection in the peripheral nervous system. Methods and Findings Experimental autoimmune neuritis was induced by immunization with the neuritogenic peptide (amino acids 53–78) of P2 myelin protein. Preventive treatment with dimethyl fumarate given at 45 mg/kg twice daily by oral gavage significantly ameliorated clinical neuritis by reducing demyelination and axonal degeneration in the nerve conduction studies. Histology revealed a significantly lower degree of inflammatory infiltrates in the sciatic nerves. In addition, we detected a reduction of early signs of axonal degeneration through a reduction of amyloid precursor protein expressed in axons of the peripheral nerves. This reduction correlated with an increase of nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-related factor 2 positive axons, supporting the neuroprotective potential of dimethyl fumarate. Furthermore, nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-related factor 2 expression in Schwann cells was only rarely detected and there was no increase of Schwann cells death during EAN. Conclusions We conclude that immunmodulatory and neuroprotective dimethyl fumarate may represent an innovative therapeutic option in human autoimmune neuropathies. PMID:26618510

  2. Dimethyl Fumarate Ameliorates Lewis Rat Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis and Mediates Axonal Protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Pitarokoili

    Full Text Available Dimethyl fumarate is an immunomodulatory and neuroprotective drug, approved recently for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In view of the limited therapeutic options for human acute and chronic polyneuritis, we used the animal model of experimental autoimmune neuritis in the Lewis rat to study the effects of dimethyl fumarate on autoimmune inflammation and neuroprotection in the peripheral nervous system.Experimental autoimmune neuritis was induced by immunization with the neuritogenic peptide (amino acids 53-78 of P2 myelin protein. Preventive treatment with dimethyl fumarate given at 45 mg/kg twice daily by oral gavage significantly ameliorated clinical neuritis by reducing demyelination and axonal degeneration in the nerve conduction studies. Histology revealed a significantly lower degree of inflammatory infiltrates in the sciatic nerves. In addition, we detected a reduction of early signs of axonal degeneration through a reduction of amyloid precursor protein expressed in axons of the peripheral nerves. This reduction correlated with an increase of nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2-related factor 2 positive axons, supporting the neuroprotective potential of dimethyl fumarate. Furthermore, nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2-related factor 2 expression in Schwann cells was only rarely detected and there was no increase of Schwann cells death during EAN.We conclude that immunomodulatory and neuroprotective dimethyl fumarate may represent an innovative therapeutic option in human autoimmune neuropathies.

  3. Histopathological Comparison of Mosquito Net with Polypropylene Mesh for Hernia Repair: An Experimental Study in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Mukesh; Sharma, Deepti Bala; Chandrakar, Shiv Kumar; Sharma, Dhananjaya

    2013-01-01

    Use of mosquito net, in place of polypropylene mesh, had been reported for tension-free hernia repair, as a better cost-effective option. This experimental histopathological study was performed in rats to find out the tissue response and the foreign body reaction and its comparison between commercial polypropylene mesh and the sterilized mosquito net. This experimental study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, Government NSCB, Medical College, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh), India. It was ...

  4. The role of periodontal ASIC3 in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiya; Long, Hu; Ma, Wenqiang; Liao, Lina; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yang; Shan, Di; Huang, Renhuan; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the roles of Acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) in orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the experimental group (40g, n = 30) and the sham group (0g, n = 30). Closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary incisor and molars to achieve experimental tooth movement. Rat grimace scale (RGS) scores were assessed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the placement of the springs. ASIC3 immunostaining was performed and the expression levels of ASIC3 were measured through integrated optical density/area in Image-Pro Plus 6.0. Moreover, 18 rats were divided into APETx2 group (n = 6), amiloride group (n = 6), and vehicle group (n = 6), and RGS scores were obtained compared among them to verify the roles of ASIC3 in orofacial pain following tooth movement. ASIC3 expression levels became significantly higher in the experimental group than in sham group on 1, 3, and 5 days and became similar on 7 and 14 days. Pain levels (RGS scores) increased in both groups and were significantly higher in the experimental group on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days and were similar on 14 days. Periodontal ASIC3 expression levels were correlated with orofacial pain levels following experimental tooth movement. Periodontal administrations of ASIC3 antagonists (APETx2 and amiloride) could alleviate pain. This study needs to be better evidenced by RNA interference of ASIC3 in periodontal tissues in rats following experimental tooth movement. Moreover, we hope further studies would concentrate on the pain perception of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3(-/-)) mice. Our results suggest that periodontal ASIC3 plays an important role in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, V C; Gopala Krishna, B; Viswanatha, G L; Satya Prasad, V; Vinay Babu, S N

    2011-07-01

    Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as 'Radish' is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine.

  6. Neovascular growth in an experimental alkali corneal burn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Ortiz, L C; Martín Rodríguez, O; García-Ben, A; García-Campos, J

    2014-08-01

    To analyse the length and area of corneal surface occupied by vessels, and their location in an experimental model of alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization. An injury to the central cornea of the right eye in 91 Sprague-Dawley rats was induced using a silver nitrate pencil. The rats were divided in 7 groups that were sacrificed 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days post-injury, and then perfused with a mixture of Chinese ink in PBS -phosphate buffer saline-. Corneas were flat-mounted processed and divided in 4 quadrants. Corneal neovascular growth parameters (length and area) and the location of these vessels were performed blind. The results were statistically analysed. Neovascular growth was observed from day 2, reaching its maximum peak in length and area on the 12th day post-injury. A slight reduction in corneal neovascularization was observed after this day. The vessels were initially located in the middle third of the stroma and tended to be observed in the anterior third during the course of the experiment. Neovascularisation was observed on day 2 post-injury in all sectors of corneal surface. Neovascular growth was uniform during the experiment. Neovessels were located in the middle and anterior third of the cornea. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. The characterization of obese polycystic ovary syndrome rat model suitable for exercise intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyan Wu

    Full Text Available To develop a new polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rat model suitable for exercise intervention.Thirty six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: PCOS rats with high-fat diet (PF, n = 24, PCOS rats with ordinary diet (PO, n = 6, and control rats with ordinary diet (CO, n = 6. Two kinds of PCOS rat model were made by adjustment diet structure and testosterone injection for 28 days. After a successful animal model, PF model rats were randomly assigned to three groups: exercise with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-EF, n = 6, sedentary with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-SF, n = 6, exercise with an ordinary diet (PF-EO, n = 6. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and insulin (FINS, estrogen (E2, progesterone (P, and testosterone (T in serum were determined by RIA, and ovarian morphology was evaluated by Image-Pro plus 6.0.Body weight, Lee index, FINS increased significantly in PF rat model. Serum levels of E2 and T were significantly higher in PF and PO than in CO. Ovary organ index and ovarian areas were significant lower in PF than in CO. After intervention for 2 weeks, the levels of 1 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG1, 2 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG2, FINS and the serum levels of T decreased significantly in PF-EF rats and PF-EO rats. The ratio of FBG/FINS was significant higher in PF-EO rats than in PF-SF rats. Ovarian morphology showed that the numbers of preantral follicles and atretic follicles decreased significantly, and the numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased significantly in the rats of PF-EF and PF-EO.By combination of high-fat diet and testosterone injection, the obese PCOS rat model is conformable with the lifestyle habits of fatty foods and insufficient exercise, and has metabolic and reproductive characteristics of human PCOS. This model can be applied to study exercise intervention.

  8. Experimental animal modelling for TB vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere-Joan Cardona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research for a novel vaccine to prevent tuberculosis is an urgent medical need. The current vaccine, BCG, has demonstrated a non-homogenous efficacy in humans, but still is the gold standard to be improved upon. In general, the main indicator for testing the potency of new candidates in animal models is the reduction of the bacillary load in the lungs at the acute phase of the infection. Usually, this reduction is similar to that induced by BCG, although in some cases a weak but significant improvement can be detected, but none of candidates are able to prevent establishment of infection. The main characteristics of several laboratory animals are reviewed, reflecting that none are able to simulate the whole characteristics of human tuberculosis. As, so far, no surrogate of protection has been found, it is important to test new candidates in several models in order to generate convincing evidence of efficacy that might be better than that of BCG in humans. It is also important to investigate the use of “in silico” and “ex vivo” models to better understand experimental data and also to try to replace, or at least reduce and refine experimental models in animals.

  9. Nonlinear hierarchical modeling of experimental infection data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Michael D; Breheny, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear hierarchical model (NLHM) for analyzing longitudinal experimental infection (EI) data. The NLHM offers several improvements over commonly used alternatives such as repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) and the linear mixed model (LMM). It enables comparison of relevant biological properties of the course of infection including peak intensity, duration and time to peak, rather than simply comparing mean responses at each observation time. We illustrate the practical benefits of this model and the insights it yields using data from experimental infection studies on equine arteritis virus. Finally, we demonstrate via simulation studies that the NLHM substantially reduces bias and improves the power to detect differences in relevant features of the infection response between two populations. For example, to detect a 20% difference in response duration between two groups (n=15) in which the peak time and peak intensity were identical, the RM-ANOVA test had a power of just 11%, and LMM a power of just 12%. By comparison, the nonlinear model we propose had a power of 58% in the same scenario, while controlling the Type I error rate better than the other two methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Models for Experimental High Density Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradecki, Tomasz; Swoboda, Julia; Nowak, Katarzyna; Dziechciarz, Klaudia

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the effects of research on models of high density housing. The authors present urban projects for experimental high density housing estates. The design was based on research performed on 38 examples of similar housing in Poland that have been built after 2003. Some of the case studies show extreme density and that inspired the researchers to test individual virtual solutions that would answer the question: How far can we push the limits? The experimental housing projects show strengths and weaknesses of design driven only by such indexes as FAR (floor attenuation ratio - housing density) and DPH (dwellings per hectare). Although such projects are implemented, the authors believe that there are reasons for limits since high index values may be in contradiction to the optimum character of housing environment. Virtual models on virtual plots presented by the authors were oriented toward maximising the DPH index and DAI (dwellings area index) which is very often the main driver for developers. The authors also raise the question of sustainability of such solutions. The research was carried out in the URBAN model research group (Gliwice, Poland) that consists of academic researchers and architecture students. The models reflect architectural and urban regulations that are valid in Poland. Conclusions might be helpful for urban planners, urban designers, developers, architects and architecture students.

  11. Effects of hypertension on maternal adaptations to pregnancy: experimental study on spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Peraçoli

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Animal models for essential hypertension have been used for understanding the human pathological conditions observed in pregnant hypertensive women. OBJECTIVE: To study the possible effects of pregnancy on hypertension and of hypertension on pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, and in their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY counterparts. TYPE OF STUDY: Comparative study using laboratory animals. SETTING: Animal Research Laboratory of Clinical Medicine at the Medical School of Botucatu, São Paulo State University, Brazil. SAMPLE: Ten to twelve-week-old virgin female normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. The animals were separated into four groups: 15 pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-P, 10 non-pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-NP, 15 pregnant normotensive rats (WKY-P, and 10 non-pregnant normotensive rats (WKY-NP. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The blood pressure was evaluated by the tail cuff method, in rats either with or without prior training for the handling necessary for tail cuff measurements. The maternal volemia expansion was indirectly evaluated by weight gain, and by systemic parameters as hematocrit, hemoglobin, total protein, albumin and sodium retention. The perinatal outcome of pregnancy was evaluated by analysis of resorptions, litter size, rate of low weight and number of stillbirths. RESULTS: The late fall in blood pressure in the pregnant SHR strain and in the normotensive WKY strain can only be detected in rats previously trained to accept the handling necessary for the tail cuff measurement. During pregnancy the body weight gain was significantly higher in WKY than in SHR rats. Systemic parameters were significantly lower in pregnant WKY rats than in non-pregnant WKY rats, while no differences were observed between pregnant and non-pregnant SHR groups. In pregnant WKY rats the sodium retention was higher from the 13th day onwards, while in SHR rats this

  12. Immunorestorative effect of thymostimulin on surgery immunodepression: experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lechuz, J M; Navarro, M; Morandeira, M J; Soria, J; Román, A; Güemes, A; Salinas, J C; Lozano, R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to ascertain the immunorestorative effect of two different drugs on immunodepression induced by small bowel surgical resection in an experimental model. The potential immunorestorative effect has been measured by the ability of the drug to avoid the delay of skin allograft rejection induced by surgery and the inhibition of CD4/CD8 index changes induced by surgery in spleen tissue. 120 Wistar-Furth rats (age 12-16 weeks) anesthetized with a single intramuscular dose of ketamine (25 mg), diazepine (4 mg) and atropine (0.1 mg) were allotted to two main groups. One group received a skin graft (SG) from Fisher 344 rats and was treated with placebo, Inmunoferón (AM-3 polypeptidic drug) or TP-1 (thymostimulin) before the experiment (groups I, II, III) or treated with placebo, Inmunoferón or TP-1 before the experiment and underwent enterectomy and anastomosis (groups IV, V, VI). On the 2nd, 5th and 8th postoperative days, biopsies of the SG were taken and the signs of rejection were microscopically studied and evaluated by a pathologist as zero, incipient, moderate or massive. The other group was treated similarly, but the animals did not receive a SG and were splenectomized 5 days later. CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte subpopulations were identified by means of immunoperoxidase technique and monoclonal antibodies. Thymostimulin is able to stimulate the presence of SG rejection signs on the 2nd postoperative day in nonenterectomized animals and on the 8th postoperative day in nonenterectomized animals and on the 8th postoperative day in enterectomized rats and is able to avoid the decrease of the CD4/CD8 index in spleen tissue after surgical immunodepression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is reduced in hippocampus of rats submitted to an experimental model of depression: effect of chronic lithium treatment and possible involvement in learning deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Ana Paula Santana; Zugno, Alessandra Ioppi; Dos Santos, Ana Helena D P; Nietto, Fabiane Batistela; Crema, Leonardo Machado; Gonçalves, Marialva; Franzon, Renata; de Souza Wyse, Angela Terezinha; da Rocha, Elizabete Rocha; Dalmaz, Carla

    2005-09-01

    This study was undertaken to verify the effects of chronic stress and lithium treatments on the hippocampal Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of rats, as well as to investigate the effects of stress interruption and post-stress lithium treatment on this enzyme activity and on spatial memory. Two experiments were carried out; in the first experiment, adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control and submitted to a chronic variate stress paradigm, and subdivided into treated or not with LiCl. After 40 days of treatment, rats were killed, and Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was determined. In the second experiment, rats were stressed during 40 days, and their performance was evaluated in the Water Maze task. The stressed group was then subdivided into four groups, with continued or interrupted stress treatment and treated or not with lithium for 30 additional days. After a second evaluation of performance in the Water Maze, rats were killed and Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was also measured. Results showed an impairment in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity and in Water Maze performance of chronically stressed rats, which were prevented by lithium treatment and reversed by lithium treatment and by stress interruption. These results suggest that the modulation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity may be one of the mechanisms of action of lithium in the treatment of mood disorders.

  14. Rapamycin is neuroprotective in a rat chronic hypertensive glaucoma model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenru Su

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Injury of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs accounts for visual impairment of glaucoma. Here, we report rapamycin protects RGCs from death in experimental glaucoma model and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that treatment with rapamycin dramatically promote RGCs survival in a rat chronic ocular hypertension model. This protective action appears to be attributable to inhibition of neurotoxic mediators release and/or direct suppression of RGC apoptosis. In support of this mechanism, in vitro, rapamycin significantly inhibits the production of NO, TNF-α in BV2 microglials by modulating NF-κB signaling. In experimental animals, treatment with rapamycin also dramatically inhibited the activation of microglials. In primary RGCs, rapamycin was capable of direct suppression the apoptosis of primary RGCs induced by glutamate. Mechanistically, rapamycin-mediated suppression of RGCs apoptosis is by sparing phosphorylation of Akt at a site critical for maintenance of its survival-promoting activity in cell and animal model. These results demonstrate that rapamycin is neuroprotective in experimental glaucoma, possibly via decreasing neurotoxic releasing and suppressing directly apoptosis of RGCs.

  15. [Metabolic changes in pulmonary mitochondria of rats with experimental hyperhomocysteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, D V; Zvyagina, V I; Uryasev, O M; Belskikh, E S; Bulatetskiy, S V; Ryabkov, A N

    2017-05-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for many human diseases, including pulmonary pathologies. In this context much interest attracts secondary mitochondrial dysfunction, which is an important link in pathogenesis of diseases associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. The study was conducted using male Wistar rats. It was found that under conditions of severe hyperhomocysteinemia caused by administration of methionine, homocysteine was accumulated in lung mitochondria thus suggesting a direct toxic effect on these organelles. However, we have not observed any significant changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes involved in tissue respiration (succinate dehydrogenase) and oxidative phosphorylation (H+-ATPase) and of cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase. Also there was no accumulation of lactic acid in the cytoplasm. Animals with severe hyperhomocysteinemia had higher levels of lung mitochondrial protein carbonylation, decreased reserve-adaptive capacity, and increased superoxide dismutase activity. These results indicate that severe hyperhomocysteinemia causes development of oxidative stress in lung mitochondria, which is compensated by activation of antioxidant protection. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of mitochondrial nitric oxide metabolites. Introduction to animals a nonselective NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME caused similar enhancement of mitochondrial protein carbonylation. It demonstrates importance of reducing bioavailability of nitric oxide, which is an antioxidant in physiological concentrations, in the development of oxidative stress in lung mitochondria during hyperhomocysteinemia. Key words: hyperhomocysteinemia, nitric oxide, lung, oxidative stress, mitochondria.

  16. The extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein elicits atypical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rat and Macaque species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D Curtis

    Full Text Available Atypical models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE are advantageous in that the heterogeneity of clinical signs appears more reflective of those in multiple sclerosis (MS. Conversely, models of classical EAE feature stereotypic progression of an ascending flaccid paralysis that is not a characteristic of MS. The study of atypical EAE however has been limited due to the relative lack of suitable models that feature reliable disease incidence and severity, excepting mice deficient in gamma-interferon signaling pathways. In this study, atypical EAE was induced in Lewis rats, and a related approach was effective for induction of an unusual neurologic syndrome in a cynomolgus macaque. Lewis rats were immunized with the rat immunoglobulin variable (IgV-related extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (IgV-MOG in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA followed by one or more injections of rat IgV-MOG in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA. The resulting disease was marked by torticollis, unilateral rigid paralysis, forelimb weakness, and high titers of anti-MOG antibody against conformational epitopes of MOG, as well as other signs of atypical EAE. A similar strategy elicited a distinct atypical form of EAE in a cynomolgus macaque. By day 36 in the monkey, titers of IgG against conformational epitopes of extracellular MOG were evident, and on day 201, the macaque had an abrupt onset of an unusual form of EAE that included a pronounced arousal-dependent, transient myotonia. The disease persisted for 6-7 weeks and was marked by a gradual, consistent improvement and an eventual full recovery without recurrence. These data indicate that one or more boosters of IgV-MOG in IFA represent a key variable for induction of atypical or unusual forms of EAE in rat and Macaca species. These studies also reveal a close correlation between humoral immunity against conformational epitopes of MOG, extended confluent demyelinating plaques in

  17. The Extracellular Domain of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Elicits Atypical Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Rat and Macaque Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Alan D.; Taslim, Najla; Reece, Shaun P.; Grebenciucova, Elena; Ray, Richard H.; Rosenbaum, Matthew D.; Wardle, Robert L.; Van Scott, Michael R.; Mannie, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are advantageous in that the heterogeneity of clinical signs appears more reflective of those in multiple sclerosis (MS). Conversely, models of classical EAE feature stereotypic progression of an ascending flaccid paralysis that is not a characteristic of MS. The study of atypical EAE however has been limited due to the relative lack of suitable models that feature reliable disease incidence and severity, excepting mice deficient in gamma-interferon signaling pathways. In this study, atypical EAE was induced in Lewis rats, and a related approach was effective for induction of an unusual neurologic syndrome in a cynomolgus macaque. Lewis rats were immunized with the rat immunoglobulin variable (IgV)-related extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (IgV-MOG) in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) followed by one or more injections of rat IgV-MOG in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA). The resulting disease was marked by torticollis, unilateral rigid paralysis, forelimb weakness, and high titers of anti-MOG antibody against conformational epitopes of MOG, as well as other signs of atypical EAE. A similar strategy elicited a distinct atypical form of EAE in a cynomolgus macaque. By day 36 in the monkey, titers of IgG against conformational epitopes of extracellular MOG were evident, and on day 201, the macaque had an abrupt onset of an unusual form of EAE that included a pronounced arousal-dependent, transient myotonia. The disease persisted for 6–7 weeks and was marked by a gradual, consistent improvement and an eventual full recovery without recurrence. These data indicate that one or more boosters of IgV-MOG in IFA represent a key variable for induction of atypical or unusual forms of EAE in rat and Macaca species. These studies also reveal a close correlation between humoral immunity against conformational epitopes of MOG, extended confluent demyelinating plaques in spinal cord

  18. Striatal grafts in a rat model of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzman, R; Meyer, M; Lövblad, K O

    1999-01-01

    Survival and integration into the host brain of grafted tissue are crucial factors in neurotransplantation approaches. The present study explored the feasibility of using a clinical MR scanner to study striatal graft development in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Rat fetal lateral ganglionic...... eminences grown as free-floating roller-tube cultures can be successfully grafted in a rat Huntington model and that a clinical MR scanner offers a useful noninvasive tool for studying striatal graft development....

  19. Experimental Model of Intervertebral Disk Mediated Postoperative Epidural Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Sergey N; Sorokovikov, V A; Erdyneyev, K C; Lepekhova, S A; Goldberg, O A

    2016-07-01

    Postoperative epidural fibrosis (EF) after lumbar discectomy is the most common and at the same time controversial issue. The etiology and pathogenesis creates a lot of discussion and selection of methods of treatment and prevention continues. LIV laminectomy with dura mater (DM) exposition was done in 24 rats, and then, 0.3 ml of elements of suspension of autologous intervertebral disk was implicated on DM. As autologous intervertebral disk, we used the intervertebral disk from amputated tail. In all the animals, incisions were closed with 3/0 Vicryl. EF was examined. Fibroblast cell density was calculated in each field at ×40 magnification: Grade 1 - fewer than 100 fibroblasts in each field; Grade 2 - 100-150 fibroblasts in each field; Grade 3 - more than 150 fibroblasts in each field. Based on histological results, we confirmed our model of experiment. On the 30th day of evaluation, there were significant histological evidences of postoperative epidural adhesions in experimental animals, which included the obliteration of epidural space, the presence of adhesions in the dura and nerve roots, the res