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Sample records for experimental rat model

  1. Morphofunctional analysis of experimental model of esophageal achalasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirov, A G; Raginov, I S; Burmistrov, M V; Chelyshev, Y A; Khasanov, R Sh; Moroshek, A A; Grigoriev, P N; Zefirov, A L; Mukhamedyarov, M A

    2010-10-01

    We carried out a detailed analysis of rat model of esophageal achalasia previously developed by us. Manifest morphological and functional disorders were observed in experimental achalasia: hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium, reduced number of nerve fibers, excessive growth of fibrous connective tissue in the esophageal wall, high contractile activity of the lower esophageal sphincter, and reduced motility of the longitudinal muscle layer. Changes in rat esophagus observed in experimental achalasia largely correlate with those in esophageal achalasia in humans. Hence, our experimental model can be used for the development of new methods of disease treatment.

  2. [Experimental study on establishment of a simple model of rats crush injury-crush syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Yuehong; Xu, Wei; Qin, Tingwu; Zhao, Luping; Liu, Shuping; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Yu

    2013-01-01

    To establish a repeatable, simple, and effective model of rat crush injury and crush syndrome. A total of 42 female Sprague Dawley rats (2-month-old, (CS) so as to lay a foundation for further study on CS. weighing 160-180 g) were divided randomly into the control group (n=6) and experimental group (n=36). The rats of the experimental group were used to establish the crush injury and CS model in both lower limbs by self-made crush injury mould. The survival rate and hematuria rate were observed after decompression. The biochemical indexes of blood were measured at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after decompression. The samples of muscle, kidney, and heart were harvested for morphological observation. There was no treatment in the control group, and the same tests were performed. Seven rats died and 15 rats had hematuria during compression in the experimental group. Swelling of the lower limb and muscle tissue was observed in the survival rats after reperfusion. The liver function test results showed that the levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P congestion and swelling, renal tubular epithelial cell degeneration, edema, necrosis, and myoglobin tube type were found in the kidneys; and myocardial structure had no obvious changes. The method of the crush injury and CS model by self-made crush injury mould is a simple and effective procedure and the experimental result is stable. It is a simple method to establish an effective model of rats crush injury and CS.

  3. Radiation-induced hydronephrosis in the rat: a new experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental model for investigating the effects of localized X-irradiation on a single ureter or the bladder trigone in rats is described. Obstruction of the urinary tract in the irradiated region gives rise to hydroureter and hydronephrosis and the development of these, as detected urographically, gives a clear-cut end point. After irradiation of the ureter with a single dose of 37.4 gy many rats died of gut lesions but after 23.4 Gy only one such death occurred while 14 of 16 rats developed hydronephrosis. Irradiation of the bladder trigone was not associated with intercurrent deaths, even after 40 Gy, and after 25 Gy 9 of 11 rats developed hydronephrosis. (author)

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  5. Assessment of efficacy of polaprezinc suppositories against radiation-induced rectal disorders using an experimental rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose/objective of this study was to establish an experimental rat model and examine the efficacy of polaprezinc suppositories against radiation-induced rectal disorders. Female Wister rats (6 weeks old) were used in the present study. The rats were divided into three groups. Group A was irradiated and medicated with polaprezinc suppositories. Group B was irradiated without any medication. Group C had no irradiation or medication. The rat was taped by the tail in the vertical position under anesthesia. Lead shielding was used to cover the rats except the area of the lower pelvis. They were irradiated at 22 Gy by a single fraction. Polaprezinc suppositories were inserted daily into the rat anus for 7 days after irradiation. All rats were evaluated by colonoscopy on the 7th day after irradiation, sacrificed on the 10th day, and evaluated for mucosal damage. In the clinical findings, the endoscopic findings, and the histological findings, the rats not administered polaprezinc suppositories tended to show more severe mucosal damage but there were no significant differences. Our study showed that this model was a useful experimental rat model for radiation-induced rectal disorders and polaprezinc suppositories demonstrated good efficacy against radiation proctitis. (author)

  6. An experimental study on choroidal neovascularization induced by Krypton laser in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jingkai; Yan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the efficacy and safety of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) formation induced by Krypton laser in Brown Norway (BN) rats, and observe the trend of the change of CNV after laser photocoagulation. Twenty-five male BN rats were involved in this study. Two eyes of one rat without any laser photocoagulation were randomly selected as the control group, and the other 48 eyes of 24 rats were selected as the experimental group. Eight eyes of four rats were randomly selected to receive the examinations of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), histopathology, and transmission electron microscopy 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days after laser photocoagulation. After laser photocoagulation, the leakage appeared in burns on day 7 (59%), reached the peak on day 21 (84%), (p0.05). The thickness of CNV increased from day 7 to day 21 (p0.05). The experimental model of CNV can be successfully induced by Krypton laser in rats with a stable, long-lasting, and high success rate. After laser photocoagulation, the leakages appear on day 7, reach the peak on day 21, and remain stable after day 21.

  7. Effects of Paricalcitol and Aliskiren Combination Therapy on Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy Model in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Eren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of combination of aliskiren with paricalcitol on experimental diabetic nephropathy (DN model in rats. Methods: Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each, namely the control (Group C, diabetes (Group D, aliskiren (Group A, paricalcitol (Group P, and aliskiren plus paricalcitol (Group A+P groups. Aliskiren was given by oral-gavage at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day once daily for 12 weeks. Paricalcitol was given by intraperitoneally at a dose of 0,4 µg/kg/three day of week for 12 weeks. Renal function parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers, mRNA expression of renin-angiotensin system parameters and kidney histology were determined. Results: Group A+P had lower mean albümin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR (p=0.004 as well as higher creatinine clearance (CCr (pConclusion: Our data seem to suggest a potential role of aliskiren plus paricalcitol acting synergystically for reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy in an experimental rat model.

  8. Xenograft transplantation of human malignant astrocytoma cells into immunodeficient rats: an experimental model of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Flávio Key; Alves, Maria Jose Ferreira; Rocha, Mussya Cisotto; da Silva, Roseli; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2010-03-01

    Astrocytic gliomas are the most common intracranial central nervous system neoplasias, accounting for about 60% of all primary central nervous system tumors. Despite advances in the treatment of gliomas, no effective therapeutic approach is yet available; hence, the search for a more realistic model to generate more effective therapies is essential. To develop an experimental malignant astrocytoma model with the characteristics of the human tumor. Primary cells from subcutaneous xenograft tumors produced with malignant astrocytoma U87MG cells were inoculated intracerebrally by stereotaxis into immunosuppressed (athymic) Rowett rats. All four injected animals developed non-infiltrative tumors, although other glioblastoma characteristics, such as necrosis, pseudopalisading cells and intense mitotic activity, were observed. A malignant astrocytoma intracerebral xenograft model with poorly invasive behavior was achieved in athymic Rowett rats. Tumor invasiveness in an experimental animal model may depend on a combination of several factors, including the cell line used to induce tumor formation, the rat strains and the status of the animal's immune system.

  9. Angelica Sinensis attenuates inflammatory reaction in experimental rat models having spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hui-Yong; Tian, Jun; Yan, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on experimental rat models in which spinal cord injury was induced by studying different factors. Different factors causing inflammation play a key role in pathophysiology of SCI. Here three groups of rats (n=15, each was used). These included a sham control group where only laminectomy was performed, SCI group where SCI was induced and AS/SCI group where although SCI was induced but Angelica Sinensis was also administered to study its effect and draw a comparison with control. The expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65 was also studied using western blotting and after recording optical density (OD) values of western blots. MPO activity was used to measure the effect of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also studied. As compared with SCI group and sham control it was observed that Angelica Sinensis significantly reduced the expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65, (PSinensis in rat models can attenuate the secondary damage caused by SCI and thus help in controlling the pathology of SCI in rats.

  10. Experimental model of smoking and simulation of reflux with acid and pepsin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen Junior, José Hélio; Del Negro, André; Colli Neto, José Alexandre; Araujo, Marina Rachel; Altemani, Albina Maria; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2012-01-01

    To develop experimental models to evaluate the effects of hydrochloric acid associated with the pepsin instilled in the mucosa of the upper esophagus and the esophagogastric junction of young male rats Wistar, simulating injury caused by gastroesophageal reflux on the mucosa of aero-digestive tract in humans as well as the action of the risk exposure of mucosa to cigarette smoke. Fifty young male Wistar rats divided in 5 groups with 10 animals each one, respectively simulating pharyngo-laryngeal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux, pharyngo-laryngeal reflux and smoking, smoking only, gastroesophageal reflux and control group. The histopathologic studies no recorded neoplasias, only mild changes and no significant alterations. The hemo-oximetry (carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobim) and CO2 concentration confirm that the animals were submitted to high intensity of exposure to carcinogens in tobacco and its derivatives. The experimental models were highly efficient, practical, easy to use and economical and can be employed in other similar studies to determine the harmful effects by smoking and reflux.

  11. A New Experimental Polytrauma Model in Rats: Molecular Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Weckbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The molecular mechanisms of the immune response after polytrauma are highly complex and far from fully understood. In this paper, we characterize a new standardized polytrauma model in rats based on the early molecular inflammatory and apoptotic response. Methods. Male Wistar rats (250 g, 6–10/group were anesthetized and exposed to chest trauma (ChT, closed head injury (CHI, or Tib/Fib fracture including a soft tissue trauma (Fx + STT or to the following combination of injuries: (1 ChT; (2 ChT + Fx + STT; (3 ChT + CHI; (4 CHI; (5 polytrauma (PT = ChT + CHI + Fx + STT. Sham-operated rats served as negative controls. The inflammatory response was quantified at 2 hours and 4 hours after trauma by analysis of “key” inflammatory mediators, including selected cytokines and complement components, in serum and bronchoalveolar (BAL fluid samples. Results. Polytraumatized (PT rats showed a significant systemic and intrapulmonary release of cytokines, chemokines, and complement anaphylatoxins, compared to rats with isolated injuries or selected combinations of injuries. Conclusion. This new rat model appears to closely mimic the early immunological response of polytrauma observed in humans and may provide a valid basis for evaluation of the complex pathophysiology and future therapeutic immune modulatory approaches in experimental polytrauma.

  12. A New Experimental Polytrauma Model in Rats: Molecular Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckbach, Sebastian; Perl, Mario; Heiland, Tim; Braumüller, Sonja; Stahel, Philip F.; Flierl, Michael A.; Ignatius, Anita; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background. The molecular mechanisms of the immune response after polytrauma are highly complex and far from fully understood. In this paper, we characterize a new standardized polytrauma model in rats based on the early molecular inflammatory and apoptotic response. Methods. Male Wistar rats (250 g, 6–10/group) were anesthetized and exposed to chest trauma (ChT), closed head injury (CHI), or Tib/Fib fracture including a soft tissue trauma (Fx + STT) or to the following combination of injuries: (1) ChT; (2) ChT + Fx + STT; (3) ChT + CHI; (4) CHI; (5) polytrauma (PT = ChT + CHI + Fx + STT). Sham-operated rats served as negative controls. The inflammatory response was quantified at 2 hours and 4 hours after trauma by analysis of “key” inflammatory mediators, including selected cytokines and complement components, in serum and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid samples. Results. Polytraumatized (PT) rats showed a significant systemic and intrapulmonary release of cytokines, chemokines, and complement anaphylatoxins, compared to rats with isolated injuries or selected combinations of injuries. Conclusion. This new rat model appears to closely mimic the early immunological response of polytrauma observed in humans and may provide a valid basis for evaluation of the complex pathophysiology and future therapeutic immune modulatory approaches in experimental polytrauma. PMID:22481866

  13. A novel experimental model of erectile dysfunction in rats with heart failure using volume overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fábio Henrique; Veiga, Frederico José Reis; Mora, Aline Gonçalves; Heck, Rodrigo Sader; De Oliveira, Caroline Candida; Gambero, Alessandra; Franco-Penteado, Carla Fernanda; Antunes, Edson; Gardner, Jason D; Priviero, Fernanda Bruschi Marinho; Claudino, Mário Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) display erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the pathophysiology of ED during HF remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to characterize the aortocaval fistula (ACF) rat model associated with HF as a novel experimental model of ED. We have undertaken molecular and functional studies to evaluate the alterations of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, autonomic nervous system and oxidative stress in the penis. Male rats were submitted to ACF for HF induction. Intracavernosal pressure in anesthetized rats was evaluated. Concentration-response curves to contractile (phenylephrine) and relaxant agents (sodium nitroprusside; SNP), as well as to electrical field stimulation (EFS), were obtained in the cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) strips from sham and HF rats. Protein expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) and phosphodiestarese-5 in CSM were evaluated, as well as NOX2 (gp91phox) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA expression. SOD activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were also performed in plasma. HF rats display erectile dysfunction represented by decreased ICP responses compared to sham rats. The neurogenic contractile responses elicited by EFS were greater in CSM from the HF group. Likewise, phenylephrine-induced contractions were greater in CSM from HF rats. Nitrergic response induced by EFS were decreased in the cavernosal tissue, along with lower eNOS, nNOS and phosphodiestarese-5 protein expressions. An increase of NOX2 and SOD mRNA expression in CSM and plasma TBARs of HF group were detected. Plasma SOD activity was decreased in HF rats. ED in HF rats is associated with decreased NO bioavailability in erectile tissue due to eNOS/nNOS dowregulation and NOX2 upregulation, as well as hypercontractility of the penis. This rat model of ACF could be a useful tool to evaluate the molecular alterations of ED associated with HF.

  14. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on endometrial implants in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pınar, Neslihan; Soylu Karapınar, Oya; Özcan, Oğuzhan; Özgür, Tümay; Bayraktar, Suphi

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in the treatment of endometriosis in an experimental rat model by evaluating biochemical and histopathologic parameters. Experimental endometriosis was induced by the peritoneal implantation of autologous endometrial tissue. The rats were randomly divided into two groups with eight rats each. Group I was intraperitoneally administered ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Group II was intraperitoneally administered saline solution at the same dosage and over the same period. Endometrial implant volume was measured in both groups both pre- and post-treatment. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was measured in peritoneal fluid. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were assessed in serum. The implants were histopathologically evaluated. In the ALA group, the serum TOS and OSI levels, the endometrial implant volumes, the TNF-α levels in serum and peritoneal fluid, and the histopathologic scores were significantly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Alpha-lipoic acid may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of endometriosis due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Ideal Experimental Rat Models for Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2011-05-01

    There are many limitations for conducting liver disease research in human beings due to the high cost and potential ethical issues. For this reason, conducting a study that is difficult to perform in humans using appropriate animal models, can be beneficial in ascertaining the pathological physiology, and in developing new treatment modalities. However, it is difficult to determine the appropriate animal model which is suitable for research purposes, since every patient has different and diverse clinical symptoms, adverse reactions, and complications due to the pathological physiology. Also, it is not easy to reproduce identically various clinical situations in animal models. Recently, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has tightened up the regulations, and therefore it is advisable to select the appropriate animals and decide upon the appropriate quantities through scientific and systemic considerations before conducting animal testing. Therefore, in this review article the authors examined various white rat animal testing models and determined the appropriate usable rat model, and the pros and cons of its application in liver disease research. The authors believe that this review will be beneficial in selecting proper laboratory animals for research purposes.

  16. Synergistic effect of estradiol and fluoxetine in young adult and middle-aged female rats in two models of experimental depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Récamier-Carballo, Soledad; Estrada-Camarena, Erika; Reyes, Rebeca; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2012-08-01

    The antidepressant effect of estrogens combined with antidepressants is controversial: some preclinical data showed that estrogens facilitate the effect of antidepressants in the forced swimming test (FST) in young adult rats, while others failed to find such effect in middle-aged rats in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model. In clinics similar differences were reported and may be due to the compounds, the depression model or type of depression, the experimental design, and the age of the subjects or the women's menopause stage. The objective of this study was to analyze the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of 17β-estradiol (E(2)) and fluoxetine (FLX) in young adults (2-4 months) and middle-aged (12-14 months) ovariectomized (OVX) rats in two experimental models: FST and CMS. E(2) (5 and 10 μg/rat) and FLX (2.5 and 10 mg/kg) per se dose-dependently reduced immobility in both age groups and, in young adults both compounds increased swimming, whereas in middle-aged rats they increased swimming and climbing. Analysis of the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of suboptimal doses of FLX (1.25 mg/kg) and E(2) (2.5 μg/rat) showed a decrease in immobility and an increase in swimming in both age groups. In the CMS, chronic E(2) (2.5 μg/rat) with FLX (1.25 mg/kg) augmented relative sucrose intake, but middle-aged rats responded 2 weeks earlier than young adults. These results show that the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of E(2) and FLX in young adult and middle-aged female rats is evidenced in the two animal models of depression: FST and CMS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental model of traumatic ulcer in the cheek mucosa of rats Modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Galyléia Meneses Cavalcante; Renata Janaína Sousa de Paula; Leonardo Peres de Souza; Fabrício Bitu Sousa; Mário Rogério Lima Mota; Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish an experimental model of traumatic ulcer in rat cheek mucosa for utilization in future alternative therapy studies. METHODS: A total of 60 adult male rats (250 - 300g) were used. Ulceration of the left cheek mucosa was provoked by abrasion using a nº 15 scalpel blade. The animals were observed for 10 days, during which they were weighed and their ulcers were measured. The histological characteristics were analyzed and scored according to the ulcer phase. In the statistic...

  18. Resveratrol prevents alveolar bone loss in an experimental rat model of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Govinda; Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Kook, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenol. Periodontitis is induced by oral pathogens, where a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by oxidative stress is the major event initiating disease. We investigated how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs). We also explored whether resveratrol protects rats against alveolar bone loss in an experimental periodontitis model. Periodontitis was induced around the first upper molar of the rats by applying ligature infused with LPS. Stimulating hGFs with 5μg/ml LPS augmented the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and Toll-like receptor-4. LPS treatment also stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation of several protein kinases in the cells. However, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) was inhibited by the addition of LPS. Resveratrol treatment almost completely inhibited all of these changes in LPS-stimulated cells. Specifically, resveratrol alone augmented HO-1 induction via Nrf2-mediated signaling. Histological and micro-CT analyses revealed that administration of resveratrol (5mg/kg body weight) improved ligature/LPS-mediated alveolar bone loss in rats. Resveratrol also attenuated the production of inflammation-related proteins, the formation of osteoclasts, and the production of circulating ROS in periodontitis rats. Furthermore, resveratrol suppressed LPS-mediated decreases in HO-1 and Nrf2 levels in the inflamed periodontal tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol protects rats from periodontitic tissue damage by inhibiting inflammatory responses and by stimulating antioxidant defense systems. The aims of this study were to investigate how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in

  19. Effects of Erdosteine on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapolat, Banu; Karapolat, Sami; Gurleyik, Emin; Yasar, Mehmet

    2017-10-01

    To create acute pancreatitis condition experimentally in rats using cerulein, and to reveal histopathological effects in pancreatic tissue with erdosteine. An experimental study. Department of General Surgery, Duzce University, Turkey, from June to October 2014. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. No procedures were applied to Group 1. The rats in Group 2 and Group 3 were injected cerulein, to establish an experimental pancreatitis model and the blood amylase and lipase values were examined. The rats in Group 3 were given 10 mg/kg erdosteine. This treatment was continued for another 2 days and the rats were sacrificed. The pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically for edema, inflammation, acinar necrosis, fat necrosis, and vacuolization. The lipase and amylase values and the histopathological examination of pancreatic tissues evidenced that the experimental acute pancreatitis model was established and edema, inflammation, acinar necrosis, fat necrosis, and vacuolization were observed in the pancreatic tissues. The statistical results suggest that erdosteine can decrease the edema, inflammation, acinar necrosis, fat necrosis and vacuolization scores in the tissues. The severity of acute pancreatitis, induced by cerulein in rats, is reduced with the use of erdosteine.

  20. Induction of osteoarthritis by injecting monosodium iodoacetate into the patellofemoral joint of an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ikufumi; Matsuzaki, Taro; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Hoso, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the histopathological changes in the patellofemoral joint using a rat model of osteoarthritis that was induced using monosodium iodoacetate, and to establish a novel model of patellofemoral osteoarthritis in a rat model using histopathological analysis. Sixty male rats were used. Osteoarthritis was induced through a single intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate in both knee joints. Animals were equally divided into two experimental groups based on the monosodium iodoacetate dose: 0.2 mg and 1.0 mg. Histopathological changes in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint and the infrapatellar fat pad were examined at 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after the monosodium iodoacetate injection. In the 1.0-mg group, the representative histopathological findings of osteoarthritis were observed in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint over time. Additionally, the Osteoarthritis Research Society International scores of the patellofemoral joint increased over time. The synovitis scores of the infrapatellar fat pad in both groups were highest at 3 days, and then the values decreased over time. The fibrosis score of the infrapatellar fat pad in the 1.0-mg group increased with time, whereas the fibrosis score in the 0.2-mg group remained low. Representative histopathological findings of osteoarthritis were observed in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint in a rat model of osteoarthritis induced using monosodium iodoacetate. With appropriate selection, this model may be regarded as an ideal patellofemoral osteoarthritis model.

  1. An improved experimental model for peripheral neuropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.M. Dias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A modification of the Bennett and Xie chronic constriction injury model of peripheral painful neuropathy was developed in rats. Under tribromoethanol anesthesia, a single ligature with 100% cotton glace thread was placed around the right sciatic nerve proximal to its trifurcation. The change in the hind paw reflex threshold after mechanical stimulation observed with this modified model was compared to the change in threshold observed in rats subjected to the Bennett and Xie or the Kim and Chung spinal ligation models. The mechanical threshold was measured with an automated electronic von Frey apparatus 0, 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and this threshold was compared to that measured in sham rats. All injury models produced significant hyperalgesia in the operated hind limb. The modified model produced mean ± SD thresholds in g (19.98 ± 3.08, 14.98 ± 1.86, and 13.80 ± 1.00 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively similar to those obtained with the spinal ligation model (20.03 ± 1.99, 13.46 ± 2.55, and 12.46 ± 2.38 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively, but less variable when compared to the Bennett and Xie model (21.20 ± 8.06, 18.61 ± 7.69, and 18.76 ± 6.46 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively. The modified method required less surgical skill than the spinal nerve ligation model.

  2. An improved experimental model for peripheral neuropathy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Q.M.; Rossaneis, A.C.; Fais, R.S.; Prado, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    A modification of the Bennett and Xie chronic constriction injury model of peripheral painful neuropathy was developed in rats. Under tribromoethanol anesthesia, a single ligature with 100% cotton glace thread was placed around the right sciatic nerve proximal to its trifurcation. The change in the hind paw reflex threshold after mechanical stimulation observed with this modified model was compared to the change in threshold observed in rats subjected to the Bennett and Xie or the Kim and Chung spinal ligation models. The mechanical threshold was measured with an automated electronic von Frey apparatus 0, 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and this threshold was compared to that measured in sham rats. All injury models produced significant hyperalgesia in the operated hind limb. The modified model produced mean ± SD thresholds in g (19.98 ± 3.08, 14.98 ± 1.86, and 13.80 ± 1.00 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively) similar to those obtained with the spinal ligation model (20.03 ± 1.99, 13.46 ± 2.55, and 12.46 ± 2.38 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively), but less variable when compared to the Bennett and Xie model (21.20 ± 8.06, 18.61 ± 7.69, and 18.76 ± 6.46 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively). The modified method required less surgical skill than the spinal nerve ligation model

  3. An improved experimental model for peripheral neuropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.M. Dias

    Full Text Available A modification of the Bennett and Xie chronic constriction injury model of peripheral painful neuropathy was developed in rats. Under tribromoethanol anesthesia, a single ligature with 100% cotton glace thread was placed around the right sciatic nerve proximal to its trifurcation. The change in the hind paw reflex threshold after mechanical stimulation observed with this modified model was compared to the change in threshold observed in rats subjected to the Bennett and Xie or the Kim and Chung spinal ligation models. The mechanical threshold was measured with an automated electronic von Frey apparatus 0, 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and this threshold was compared to that measured in sham rats. All injury models produced significant hyperalgesia in the operated hind limb. The modified model produced mean ± SD thresholds in g (19.98 ± 3.08, 14.98 ± 1.86, and 13.80 ± 1.00 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively similar to those obtained with the spinal ligation model (20.03 ± 1.99, 13.46 ± 2.55, and 12.46 ± 2.38 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively, but less variable when compared to the Bennett and Xie model (21.20 ± 8.06, 18.61 ± 7.69, and 18.76 ± 6.46 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively. The modified method required less surgical skill than the spinal nerve ligation model.

  4. An improved experimental model for peripheral neuropathy in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Q.M.; Rossaneis, A.C.; Fais, R.S.; Prado, W.A. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    A modification of the Bennett and Xie chronic constriction injury model of peripheral painful neuropathy was developed in rats. Under tribromoethanol anesthesia, a single ligature with 100% cotton glace thread was placed around the right sciatic nerve proximal to its trifurcation. The change in the hind paw reflex threshold after mechanical stimulation observed with this modified model was compared to the change in threshold observed in rats subjected to the Bennett and Xie or the Kim and Chung spinal ligation models. The mechanical threshold was measured with an automated electronic von Frey apparatus 0, 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, and this threshold was compared to that measured in sham rats. All injury models produced significant hyperalgesia in the operated hind limb. The modified model produced mean ± SD thresholds in g (19.98 ± 3.08, 14.98 ± 1.86, and 13.80 ± 1.00 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively) similar to those obtained with the spinal ligation model (20.03 ± 1.99, 13.46 ± 2.55, and 12.46 ± 2.38 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively), but less variable when compared to the Bennett and Xie model (21.20 ± 8.06, 18.61 ± 7.69, and 18.76 ± 6.46 at 2, 7, and 14 days after surgery, respectively). The modified method required less surgical skill than the spinal nerve ligation model.

  5. Modeling volume effects of experimental brachytherapy in the rat rectum: uncovering the limitations of a radiobiologic concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannessen, Hans-Olaf; Dale, Einar; Hellebust, Taran P.; Olsen, Dag R.; Nesland, Jahn M.; Giercksky, Karl-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the significance of volume effects in experimental brachytherapy, based on modeling normal tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Experimental brachytherapy in the rat rectum was based on an eight-step 2.5-mm step size source configuration for 192 Ir, afterloaded into an unshielded polystyrene applicator. Volume effects were studied using a half-circumferential lead-shielded applicator and a shorter (two-step) source configuration. The main end point was rectal stenosis. Results: Rectal stenosis was always caused by a radiation ulcer. With the shielded configuration, single-dose ED 50 (50% incidence of rectal stenosis) increased from 23 Gy to 36.5 Gy. Single-dose ED 50 for the short configuration was 77.9 Gy. The data showed a reasonable fit to a three-parameter version of the biophysical model described by Jackson et al. (1995). This model assumes that organs consist of a large number of radiobiologically independent subunits and that radiation causes a complication if the fraction of the organ damaged is greater than its functional reserve. The fraction of the organ damaged is calculated summing over fractions of the organ damaged at each dose level. The calculated mean functional reserve (ν 50 ) of the rat rectum, assuming a cumulative functional reserve distribution in the group of experimental rats, was 0.53. Conclusions: The volume effect observed within small brachytherapy volumes agreed well with clinical experience of large tolerance doses in contact X-ray therapy. However, the ν 50 value was comparable to the high functional reserve value reported for liver. Experimental volume effects probably reflect repair processes originating in the areas adjacent to small radiation fields of brachytherapy more than the radiobiologic characteristics of the cells in the irradiated volume

  6. Endometriose: modelo experimental em ratas Endometriosis: experimental model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schor

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: divulgar a metodologia da indução de endometriose experimental em animais de laboratório. Método: utilizamos ratas albinas, virgens, adultas de aproximadamente três meses de idade, que foram inicialmente anestesiadas pelo éter etílico. Aberta a cavidade abdominal, identificamos os cornos uterinos e retiramos um fragmento de aproximadamente 4 cm do corno uterino direito. Esse fragmento foi mergulhado em solução fisiológica e sob lupa estereoscópica foi separado o endométrio do miométrio e feitos retângulos de aproximadamente 4 por 5 mm. Esses foram fixados por meio de fio de sutura, sobre vasos sangüíneos visíveis a olho nu, na parede lateral do abdômen, tomando-se sempre o cuidado de manter a porção do endométrio livre voltada para a luz da cavidade abdominal. Após 21 dias os animais foram novamente operados para verificarmos o tamanho dos implantes e para retirada do endométrio ectópico para análise histológica. Resultados: macroscopicamente observamos crescimento significativo dos implantes endometriais. Ao exame microscópico pudemos observar a presença de epitélio glandular e estroma semelhantes ao do endométrio tópico. Conclusões: o modelo utilizado reproduz a doença, em ratas, sendo método auxiliar de valia para estudar esta afecção, principalmente a ação de medicamentos sobre esses implantes.Purpose: to demonstrate the experimental endometriosis induction in animals. Method: we used adult female Wistar rats weighing 200 - 250 g anesthetized with ethyl ether to open the abdominal cavity. After identifying the uterine horns, we removed an approximately 4 cm fragment from the right uterine horn. This fragment was placed in physiological saline and, with the aid of a stereoscopic magnifying glass, the endometrium was separated from the myometrium and cut into rectangles of approximately 4 x 5 mm. These rectangles were fastened to the lateral abdominal wall near great blood vessels, taking care

  7. Exploration of central dopamine D2 receptors by autoradiography, pathology and functional behaviour observation in rat model with experimental parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    1996-01-01

    The rat model with experimental parkinsonism mimic the course of human parkinsonism were made by cerebral-stereotaxic techniques. 125 I-IBZM was used to evaluate the D 2 receptors distribution by autoradiographic analysis of coronal brain section. In 6 parkinsonism model rats, on the lesioned side the striatum/frontal cortex ratio was 5.32 +- 0.37, it was significantly (P 125 I-IBZM as the ligand of D 2 receptor can well reflect the distribution and changes of D 2 receptors, and also as the theoretical basis for the clinical imaging diagnosis

  8. Experimental spinal cord trauma: a review of mechanically induced spinal cord injury in rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Dauda; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; Mohamad, Masro; Aziz, Izzuddin; Sanusi, Junedah

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that animal spinal cord compression (using methods such as clips, balloons, spinal cord strapping, or calibrated forceps) mimics the persistent spinal canal occlusion that is common in human spinal cord injury (SCI). These methods can be used to investigate the effects of compression or to know the optimal timing of decompression (as duration of compression can affect the outcome of pathology) in acute SCI. Compression models involve prolonged cord compression and are distinct from contusion models, which apply only transient force to inflict an acute injury to the spinal cord. While the use of forceps to compress the spinal cord is a common choice due to it being inexpensive, it has not been critically assessed against the other methods to determine whether it is the best method to use. To date, there is no available review specifically focused on the current compression methods of inducing SCI in rats; thus, we performed a systematic and comprehensive publication search to identify studies on experimental spinalization in rat models, and this review discusses the advantages and limitations of each method.

  9. The effect of spironolactone on experimental periodontitis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauballe, M.C.B.; Bentzen, B.H.; Bjornsson, M.

    2005-01-01

    Elevated levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) have been found in patients with adult periodontitis. Animal studies have shown that TNF plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. New findings suggest that the aldosterone-inhibitor spironolactone possesses an anti-TNF effect....... The purpose of the study was to determine the anti-TNF effect of spironolactone in an endotoxic shock rat model and to disclose the effect of oral administration of spironolactone on the development of experimental periodontitis in rats....

  10. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Yin Zhi Huang Soup in an Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longsheng Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of the Chinese herbal medicine Yin Zhi Huang soup (YZS in an experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP rat model. In total, 48 rats were randomly divided into the following four groups (n=12/group: saline group, pathological model group, Qianlietai group, and YZS group. We determined the average wet weight of the prostate tissue, the ratio of the wet weight of the prostate tissue to body weight, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels in the blood serum, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the rats’ prostate tissues, and the pathological changes in the prostate tissue using light microscopy. YZS reduced the rats’ prostate wet weight, the ratio of the prostate wet weight to body weight, and TNF-α levels in the blood serum and inhibited the expression of iNOS in the rats’ prostate tissues (P<0.05. Following YZS treatment, the pathological changes in the rats’ prostates were improved compared with those in the model group (P<0.05. Furthermore, YZS treatment reduced inflammatory changes in the prostate tissue. It also significantly suppressed proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, and chemokines, such as iNOS, in the rat model of EAP.

  11. Effect of high saturated free fatty acids feeding on progression of renal failure in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid O. Ibraheem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the impact of high saturated fat feeding in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were randomized into four groups; the first one received the standard rodents chow for 8 weeks and was treated as control, the second group (HFDreceived an experimental high fat diet rich in palm kernel oil (40% of Calories as fat for the same period. The third group (HFDG was given 80 mg/kg (body weight/day gentamicin sulphate intraperitoneally during the last 24 days of the feeding period while the fourth group was given gentamicin as above along with the standard rodents chow. Renal function was assessed through measuring serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and absolute and fractional excretion of both sodium and potassium. At the end, rats underwent a surgical procedure for blood pressure measurement. Renal function study showed a stronger nephrotoxicity for HFDG group. Hypertension was observed in HFD group while the pressure declined after gentamicin co-administration. Overall, changing the feeding behavior toward using more SAFFAs for rats injected with gentamicin promotes the progression of renal failure.

  12. Effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Ying; Wang Shanju; Xu Tingting; Jiang Miaona; Jia Yujie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis. Methods: SD rat models of liver fibrosis was induced by CCl 4 (n=57). Liver function (GPT, GOT) and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels (HA, LN, C-IV, PC-III, with RIA) were tested in these models and 10 control rats. Eleven model rats were left untreated, the others were treated with Ganfukang of different concentrations and the above hepatic parameters were again determined after completion of treatment. Results: Lever function was much deteriorated and serum markers levels significantly increased in the model rats (vs controls, P<0.01). After treatment with Ganfukang, the improvement was significant (vs untreated models, P<0.01). Conclusion: Ganfukang is of definite therapeutic value for experimental hepatic fibrosis in rat models. (authors)

  13. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: an experimental model in the old rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Chen, QI Ming; Boisserie, Gilbert; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Poisson, Michel; Baillet, Francois; Le Poncin, Monique; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Results: Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p {<=} 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p {<=} 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p {<=} 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Conclusion: Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes.

  14. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: an experimental model in the old rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Chen, QI Ming; Boisserie, Gilbert; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Poisson, Michel; Baillet, Francois; Le Poncin, Monique; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Results: Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p ≤ 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p ≤ 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p ≤ 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Conclusion: Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes

  15. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction: An experimental model in the old rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, I.; Chen, Q.M.; Poisson, M.

    1995-01-01

    To develop a model of radiation-induced behavioral dysfunction. A course of whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) was administered to 26 Wistar rats ages 16-27 months, while 26 control rats received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one-way avoidance, two-way avoidance, and a standard operant conditioning method (press-lever avoidance) were undertaken. In addition, rats were studied in a water maze 7 months postradiation therapy. Prior to radiation therapy, both groups were similar. No difference was found 1 and 3 months postradiation therapy. At 6-7 months postradiation therapy, irradiated rats had a much lower percentage of avoidance than controls for one-way avoidance (23% vs. 55%, p ≤ 0.001) and two-way avoidance (18% vs. 40%, p ≤ 0.01). Seven months postradiation therapy the reaction time was increased (press-lever avoidance, 11.20 s vs. 8.43 s, p ≤ 0.05) and the percentage of correct response was lower (water maze, 53% vs. 82%) in irradiated rats compared with controls. Pathological examination did not demonstrate abnormalities of the irradiated brains at the light microscopic level. Behavioral dysfunction affecting mainly memory can be demonstrated following conventional radiation therapy in old rats. This model can be used to study the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive changes. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. An experimental two-stage rat model of lung carcinoma initiated by radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncy, J.L.; Laroque, P.; Fritsch, P.; Monchaux, G.; Masse, R.; Chameaud, J.

    1992-01-01

    We present the results of a two-stage biological model of lung carcinogenesis in rats. The histogenesis of these tumors was examined, and DNA content of lung cells was measured by flow cytometry during the evolving neoplastic stage. Tumors were induced in rat lungs after radon inhalation (1600 WLM) followed by a promoter treatment; six intramuscular injections of 5,6-benzoflavone (25 mg/kg of body weight/injection) every 2 wk. Less than 3 mo after the first injection of benzoflavone, squamous cell carcinoma was observed in the lungs of all rats exposed to radon. The preneoplastic lesions gradually developed as follows: hyperplastic bronchiolar-type cells migrated to the alveoli from cells that proliferated in bronchioles and alveolar ducts; initial lesions were observed in almost all respiratory bronchioles. From some hyperplasias, epidermoid metaplasias arose distally, forming nodular epidermoid lesions in alveoli, which progressed to form squamous papilloma and, finally, epidermoid carcinomas. The histogenesis of these experimentally induced epidermoid carcinomas showed the bronchioloalveolar origin of the tumor. This factor must be considered when comparing these with human lesions; in humans, lung epidermoid carcinomas are thought to arise mainly in the first bronchial generations. The labeling index of pulmonary tissue after incorporation of 3 H-thymidine by the cells was 0.2% in control rats. This index reached a value of 1 to 2% in the hyperplastic area of the bronchioles and 10 to 15% in epidermoid nodules and epidermoid tumors, respectively. DNA cytometric analysis was performed on cell suspensions obtained after enzymatic treatment of paraffin sections of lungs from rats sacrificed during different stags of neoplastic transformations. Data showed the early appearance of a triploid cell population that grew during the evolution of nodular epidermoid lesions to epidermoid carcinomas

  17. Ultrasound imaging in an experimental model of fatty liver disease and cirrhosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos de Carvalho Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic dogs and cats are very well known to develop chronic hepatic diseases, including hepatic lipidosis and cirrhosis. Ultrasonographic examination is extensively used to detect them. However, there are still few reports on the use of the ultrasound B-mode scan in correlation with histological findings to evaluate diffuse hepatic changes in rodents, which represent the most important animal group used in experimental models of liver diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of ultrasound findings in the assessment of fatty liver disease and cirrhosis when compared to histological results in Wistar rats by following up a murine model of chronic hepatic disease. Results Forty Wistar rats (30 treated, 10 controls were included. Liver injury was induced by dual exposure to CCl4 and ethanol for 4, 8 and 15 weeks. Liver echogenicity, its correlation to the right renal cortex echogenicity, measurement of portal vein diameter (PVD and the presence of ascites were evaluated and compared to histological findings of hepatic steatosis and cirrhosis. Liver echogenicity correlated to hepatic steatosis when it was greater or equal to the right renal cortex echogenicity, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 76.9% respectively, and accuracy of 92.5%. Findings of heterogeneous liver echogenicity and irregular surface correlated to liver cirrhosis with a sensitivity of 70.6%, specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 82.1% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%. PVD was significantly increased in both steatotic and cirrhotic rats; however, the later had greater diameters. PVD cut-off point separating steatosis from cirrhosis was 2.1 mm (sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 90.5%. One third of cirrhotic rats presented with ascites. Conclusion The use of ultrasound imaging in the follow-up of murine diffuse liver disease

  18. Ultrasound imaging in an experimental model of fatty liver disease and cirrhosis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Domestic dogs and cats are very well known to develop chronic hepatic diseases, including hepatic lipidosis and cirrhosis. Ultrasonographic examination is extensively used to detect them. However, there are still few reports on the use of the ultrasound B-mode scan in correlation with histological findings to evaluate diffuse hepatic changes in rodents, which represent the most important animal group used in experimental models of liver diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of ultrasound findings in the assessment of fatty liver disease and cirrhosis when compared to histological results in Wistar rats by following up a murine model of chronic hepatic disease. Results Forty Wistar rats (30 treated, 10 controls) were included. Liver injury was induced by dual exposure to CCl4 and ethanol for 4, 8 and 15 weeks. Liver echogenicity, its correlation to the right renal cortex echogenicity, measurement of portal vein diameter (PVD) and the presence of ascites were evaluated and compared to histological findings of hepatic steatosis and cirrhosis. Liver echogenicity correlated to hepatic steatosis when it was greater or equal to the right renal cortex echogenicity, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 76.9% respectively, and accuracy of 92.5%. Findings of heterogeneous liver echogenicity and irregular surface correlated to liver cirrhosis with a sensitivity of 70.6%, specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 82.1% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%. PVD was significantly increased in both steatotic and cirrhotic rats; however, the later had greater diameters. PVD cut-off point separating steatosis from cirrhosis was 2.1 mm (sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 90.5%). One third of cirrhotic rats presented with ascites. Conclusion The use of ultrasound imaging in the follow-up of murine diffuse liver disease models is feasible and

  19. Experimental rat lung tumor model with intrabronchial tumor cell implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Neto, Antero; Simão, Antônio Felipe Leite; Miranda, Samuel de Paula; Mourão, Lívia Talita Cajaseiras; Bezerra, Nilfácio Prado; Almeida, Paulo Roberto Carvalho de; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rat lung tumor model for anticancer drug testing. Sixty-two female Wistar rats weighing 208 +/- 20 g were anesthetized intraperitoneally with 2.5% tribromoethanol (1 ml/100 g live weight), tracheotomized and intubated with an ultrafine catheter for inoculation with Walker's tumor cells. In the first step of the experiment, a technique was established for intrabronchial implantation of 10(5) to 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, and the tumor take rate was determined. The second stage consisted of determining tumor volume, correlating findings from high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with findings from necropsia and determining time of survival. The tumor take rate was 94.7% for implants with 4 x 10(5) tumor cells, HRCT and necropsia findings matched closely (r=0.953; p<0.0001), the median time of survival was 11 days, and surgical mortality was 4.8%. The present rat lung tumor model was shown to be feasible: the take rate was high, surgical mortality was negligible and the procedure was simple to perform and easily reproduced. HRCT was found to be a highly accurate tool for tumor diagnosis, localization and measurement and may be recommended for monitoring tumor growth in this model.

  20. Lodenafil treatment in the monocrotaline model of pulmonary hypertension in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Polonio, Igor Bastos; Acencio, Milena Marques Pagliareli; Pazetti, Rogério; Almeida, Francine Maria de; Silva, Bárbara Soares da; Pereira, Karina Aparecida Bonifácio; Souza, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the effects of lodenafil on hemodynamics and inflammation in the rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control; monocrotaline (experimental model); and lodenafil (experimental model followed by lodenafil treatment, p.o., 5 mg/kg daily for 28 days) Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was obtained by right heart catheterization. We investigated right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and...

  1. Activation of peripheral leukocytes in rat pregnancy and experimental preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Linton, EA; Sargent, IL; Redman, CWG

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to search for activation markers of peripheral leukocytes in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental preeclampsia was induced in 14-day-pregnant rats by infusion of endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg body weight). For comparison, rats with normal

  2. Histological study of rat masseter muscle following experimental occlusal alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, N; Baba, S; Hori, N; Nishikawa, H

    2001-03-01

    It has been suggested that occlusal interference results in masticatory muscle dysfunction. In our previous study, occlusal interference reduced the rat masseter energy level during masticatory movements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the histological alterations of rat masseter muscles following experimental occlusal alteration with unilateral bite-raising. A total of eight male adult Wistar rats were equally divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental rats wore bite-raising splints on the unilateral upper molar. However, 4 weeks after the operation, the anterior deep masseter muscles were removed and then stained for succinic acid dehydrogenase (SDH), haematoxylin eosin (HE) and myofibrillar ATPase. Most of the muscle fibres in experimental rats remained intact, although partial histological changes were observed, such as extended connective tissue, appearance of inflammatory cells in the muscle fibres and existence of muscle fibres with central nuclei and central cores. Moreover, the fibre area-fibre frequency histograms of experimental muscle indicated a broad pattern than that of controls. These results indicated that occlusal interference caused histological changes in masseter muscles and that this may be related to the fact that the masseter energy level was reduced during masticatory movements in unilateral bite-raised rats.

  3. Renovascular hypertension in spontaneous hypertensive rats: an experimental model of renal artery stenosis superimposed on essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, T; Bass, A; Grossman, E; Shani, M; Griffel, B; Adar, R

    1987-09-01

    Renovascular hypertension superimposed on essential hypertension, a condition encountered in the elderly, was studied. An experimental animal model consisting of a two-kidney one-clip Goldblatt preparation in the spontaneous hypertensive (SHR) rat, that would simulate this condition, was designed. A 0.25 mm silver clip was placed on the left renal artery of SHR male rats. The same procedure performed on WKY rats served as control. All experiments were performed on low, normal, and rich sodium diet. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was measured by tail-cuff method. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) was determined before and after clipping of the renal artery. Results were as follows: Mean systolic BP increased significantly in clipped rats fed with normal and rich sodium diets. SHR showed an increase from 144 +/- 3 (mean + s.e.m.) to 168 +/- 3 mmHg, and WKY rats showed an increase from 120 +/- 2 to 139 +/- 5 mmHg. There was a two- to threefold rise in PRC. A low-salt diet given prior to clipping prevented the appearance of renovascular hypertension despite a significant rise in PRC. We concluded that renal artery narrowing plays a significant role in the rise of BP in the basically essential type of hypertension.

  4. Wendan decoction improves learning and memory deficits in a rat model of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiping Yang; Changchun Cai; Xiaojin Yang; Yanping Yang; Zhigang Zhou; Jianhua Liu; Heping Ye; Hongjiao Wan

    2012-01-01

    An experimental model of schizophrenia was established using dizocilpine (MK-801). Rats were intragastrically administered with Wendan decoction or clozapine for 21 days prior to establishing the model. The results revealed that the latency of schizophrenia model rats to escape from the hidden platform in the Morris water maze was significantly shortened after administration of Wendan decoction or clozapine. In addition, the treated rats crossed the platform significantly more times than the untreated model rats. Moreover, the rate of successful long-term potentiation induction in the Wendan decoction group and clozapine group were also obviously increased compared with the model group, and the population spike peak latency was significantly shortened. These experimental findings suggest that Wendan decoction can improve the learning and memory ability of schizophrenic rats to the same extent as clozapine treatment.

  5. Protective effects of ebselen on sodium-selenite-induced experimental cataract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Orhan; Güler, Mete; Kaya, Mehmet Kaan; Deniz, Nurettin; Üstündağ, Bilal

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether ebselen has a protective effect or antioxidative potential in a sodium-selenite-induced experimental cataract model. Fırat University, Elazığ, Turkey. Experimental study. Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly divided into a control group, a sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group, and an ebselen-treated group; each group contained 7 rat pups. Rats in the control group received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally only and rats in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group received 30 nmol/g body weight sodium selenite subcutaneously and DMSO intraperitoneally 10 days postpartum. Rats in the ebselen group received 30 nmol/g body weight sodium selenite subcutaneously 10 days postpartum and were treated with 5 mg/kg body weight ebselen once a day for 4 consecutive days. Cataract development was assessed weekly for 3 weeks by slitlamp examination and graded using a scale. Reduced glutathione (GSH), total nitrite, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in lens supernatants were measured at the end of 3 weeks. In the control group, all lenses were clear. In the ebselen-treated group, the mean cataract stage was significantly lower than in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group (P = .022). The GSH levels were significantly lower in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group than in the control and ebselen groups (P ebselen group than in the sodium-selenite-induced-cataract group (P ebselen group (P = .001). Ebselen had a protective effect on cataract development in a sodium-selenite-induced experimental model. The protective effect of ebselen appears to be due to inhibition of oxidative stress. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental model of gastroesophageal reflux in rats Modelo experimental de refluxo gastroesofágico em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Vieira Gaia Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of gastroesophageal reflux in rats. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats underwent surgery and were assigned to one of the three groups of twenty animals each. The animals in group A underwent total esophageal myectomy and, in group (B, underwent partial myectomy. The third group was the control group (C. A contrast radiographic study of the esophagus was performed to evaluate gastroesophageal reflux. The anatomopathological study of the esophagus was used to evaluate esophagitis. RESULTS: During the 30-day postoperative follow-up, 14 animals in group A presented with reflux of barium in the esophagus. The presence of barium in the esophagus was observed in 7 animals in group B and in 2 animals in the control group. The result of the histopathology examination was controversial. A marked weight loss in the rats undergoing total myectomy was observed, however there was no significant statistical difference. CONCLUSION: Total myectomy in the lower third of the esophagus caused gastroesophageal reflux in the majority of the animals.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo experimental de refluxo gastroesofágico em ratos. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos, Wistar, foram operados e distribuídos em três grupos de vinte animais. Os animais foram submetidos a miectomia total do esôfago em um grupo(A, e em outro grupo foram submetidos a miectomia parcial(B. O terceiro grupo foi o grupo controle(C. Para avaliar o refluxo gastroesofágico realizou-se o estudo radiológico contrastado do esôfago. O estudo anátomo-patológico do esôfago foi utilizado para avaliar esofagite. RESULTADOS: Durante os 30 dias de pós-operatório, 14 animais do grupo A apresentaram refluxo de Bário no esôfago. Em 07 animais do grupo B e em 02 do grupo controle, foram observados a presença de Bário no esôfago. O resultado do histopatológico foi controverso. Observou-se perda ponderal importante nos ratos submetidos a miectomia total, porém não existiu

  7. Experimental pulmonary fibrosis in rats with chronic gastric acid reflux esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Rintaro; Aoki, Shigehisa; Kuratomi, Yuichiro

    2015-10-01

    To elucidate the association between gastric acid reflux and respiratory diseases by studying the histological changes of the lower airway in rats with chronic acid reflux esophagitis. An experimental rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis was surgically created. The lower airways of these rats were histologically observed for more than 50 weeks. Although there were no histological changes which induced gastric acid reflux at 10 weeks after surgery, thickening of the basal laminae and the proliferation of the collagenous fibers were observed in the alveolar epithelium at 20 weeks after surgery. At 50 weeks after surgery, the collagenous fibers obliterated the pulmonary alveoli and bronchial lumen. These findings observed in the GERD rats are similar to the pathological findings of human pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we reported pathological changes in the lower airways of GERD rat models observed for more than 50 weeks. These results suggest that gastric acid reflux may be one of the pathogenic or exacerbating factors of pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna C B P; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio O C

    2013-07-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis.

  9. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna CBP; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio OC

    2013-01-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis. PMID:23715031

  10. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin in an experimental rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chang-Po; Lu, Chueng-He; Wen, Li-Li; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Wong, Chih-Shung; Borel, Cecil O; Ju, Da-Tong; Chen, Chun-Mei; Wu, Ching-Tang

    2011-12-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes a high mortality rate and morbidity. It was suggested that oxidant stress plays an important role in neuronal injury after SAH. Therefore, we assessed the effect of curcumin on reducing cerebral vasospasm and neurologic injury in a SAH model in rat. A double-hemorrhage model was used to induce SAH in rats. Groups of animals were treated with intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg curcumin (curcumin group, n = 24) or dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle group, n = 33), normal saline (SAH group, n = 34) or normal saline (sham group, n = 22), 3 h after SAH induction and daily for 6 days. Glutamate was measured before SAH induction and once daily for 7 days. Glutamate transporter-1, wall thickness and the perimeter of the basilar artery, neurologic scores, neuronal degeneration, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were assessed. Changes of glutamate levels were lower in the curcumin group versus the SAH and vehicle groups, especially on day 1 (56 folds attenuation vs. vehicle). Correspondingly, glutamate transporter-1 was preserved after SAH in curcumin-treated rats. In the hippocampus and the cortex, malondialdehyde was attenuated (30% and 50%, respectively). Superoxide dismutase (35% and 64%) and catalase (34% and 38%) activities were increased in the curcumin rats compared with the SAH rats. Mortality rate (relative risk: 0.59), wall thickness (30%) and perimeter (31%) of the basilar artery, neuron degeneration scores (39%), and neurologic scores (31%) were improved in curcumin-treated rats. Curcumin in multiple doses is effective against glutamate neurotoxicity and oxidative stress and improves the mortality rate in rats with SAH.

  11. Medical ozone therapy reduces oxidative stress and testicular damage in an experimental model of testicular torsion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tusat

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Testicular torsion (TT refers to rotation of the testis and twisting of the spermatic cord. TT results in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury involving increased oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, and can even lead to infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ozone therapy on testicular damage due to I/R injury in an experimental torsion model. Materials and Methods: 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; shamoperated, torsion/detorsion (T/D, and T/D+ozone. Ozone (1mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 120 minutes before detorsion and for the following 24h. Blood and tissue samples were collected at the end of 24h. Johnsen score, ischemia modified albumin (IMA, total antioxidant status (TAS, total oxidant status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI levels were determined. Results: Levels of IMA, TOS, OSI, and histopathological scores increased in the serum/tissue of the rats in the experimental T/D group. Serum IMA, TOS, and OSI levels and tissue histopathological scores were lower in the rats treated with ozone compared with the T/D group. Conclusion: Our study results suggest that ozone therapy may exhibit beneficial effects on both biochemical and histopathological findings. Clinical trials are now necessary to confirm this.

  12. Periodontal CGRP contributes to orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hu; Liao, Lina; Gao, Meiya; Ma, Wenqiang; Zhou, Yang; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2015-08-01

    Calcitonin-related gene peptide (CGRP) plays an important role in orofacial inflammatory pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether periodontal CGRP contributes to orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Closed coil springs were used to deliver forces. Rats were euthanized on 0d, 1d, 3d, 5d, 7d, and 14d following experimental tooth movement. Then, alveolar bones were obtained for immunostaining of periodontal tissues against CGRP. Two hours prior to euthanasia on each day, orofacial pain levels were assessed through rat grimace scale. CGRP and olcegepant (CGRP receptor antagonist) were injected into periodontal tissues to verify the roles of periodontal CGRP in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement. Periodontal CGRP expression levels and orofacial pain levels were elevated on 1d, 3d, 5d, and 7d following experimental tooth movement. The two indices were significantly correlated with each other and fitted into a dose-response model. Periodontal administration of CGRP could elevate periodontal CGRP expressions and exacerbate orofacial pain. Moreover, olcegepant administration could decrease periodontal CGRP expressions and alleviate orofacial pain. Therefore, periodontal CGRP plays an important role in pain transmission and modulation following experimental tooth movement. We suggest that it may participate in a positive feedback aiming to amplify orofacial pain signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, V.A.; Garabalino, M.A.; Colombo, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases in BDIX rats Introduction: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective tumor uptake of boron compounds, followed by neutron irradiation. BNCT was proposed for the treatment of unresectable, diffuse lung metastases. The aim of the present study was to perform BNCT studies in an experimental model of lung metastases. Materials and Methods: 3 x 106/0.5 ml colon carcinoma cells (DHD/K12/TRb) were injected iv in syngeneic BDIX rats. Three weeks post-inoculation, rats with diffuse lung metastases were used for in vivo BNCT studies in the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Based on previous biodistribution studies and computational dosimetry with Monte Carlo simulation, 2 doses were prescribed, i.e. 4 Gy and 8 Gy minimum absorbed dose to tumor. The animals were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n= 4 to 8) at each dose level: T0 (euthanized pre-treatment), BPA-BNCT, Comb-BNCT (BPA+GB-10), Beam only (background dose) and Sham (same manipulation, no treatment). Boron concentration was measured in a blood sample taken pre-irradiation to verify that the value was in the range established in previous biodistribution studies. The animals were followed clinically for 2 weeks after neutron irradiation and then euthanized to assess the response of tumor and normal lung, macroscopically and histologically. To date we have evaluated the end-point weight of lung (normal lung + metastases) and % lung weight/body weight as an indicator of tumor growth. Results: The statistical analysis (ANOVA) of % lung weight/body weight showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between groups T0 (0.79 ± 0.38) and Sham (1.87 ± 0.91). No statistically significant differences were observed between the Beam only groups (at both dose levels) and Sham. Similar and statistically significant tumor control was induced in the groups BPA-BNCT Low dose (LD) (0.56 ± 0.11), BPA-BNCT High dose (HD) (0.80 ± 0.16), Comb

  14. Experimental alveolitis in rats: microbiological, acute phase response and histometric characterization of delayed alveolar healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Moacyr Tadeu Vicente; Cardoso, Camila Lopes; Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri de; Cestari, Tânia Mary; Feres, Magda; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Ferreira, Osny

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alveolitis is not well known and therefore experimental situations that mimic some features of this disease should be developed. In this study, the evolution of the experimentally induced infection in rat sockets is characterized, which leads to clinical signs of suppurative alveolitis with remarkable wound healing disturbs. Non-infected (Group I) and experimentally infected sockets in Rattus novergicus (Group II) were histometrically evaluated regarding the kinetics of alveolar healing. In addition, the characterization of the present bacteria in inoculation material and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed. The detected species were Capnocytophaga ochracea, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus anginosus, Treponema socranskii and Streptococcus sanguis. All experimentally infected rats developed suppurative alveolitis, showing higher levels of CRP in comparison to those non-infected ones. Furthermore, infected rats presented a significant delayed wound healing as measured by the histometric analysis (higher persistent polymorphonuclear infiltrate and lower density of newly formed bone). These findings indicate that rat sockets with experimentally induced infection produced higher levels of serum CRP, showing the potential of disseminated infection and a disturb in the alveolar repair process in an interesting experimental model for alveolitis studies.

  15. Behavioral Evaluation of hMSC-GFP+ Transplantation in an Hemiparkinson Experimental Model in Wistar Rat

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    Jéssica Paola Alcázar Arzuza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hMSCs-GFP+ transplantation was evaluated in an experimental model of Parkinson's disease (PD in 27 Wistar rats, or in three experimental groups: control (CON  n=7, injured (LES n=10 and transplanted (LES+T n=10. In order to evaluate the influence of the transplantation on the motor behavior, one month after the injury, rotation behavior induced by apomorphine, neurological test, transversal bar and SNpc cells positive to TH were developed. Using the Anova test, there was a decrease in the number of turns in transplanted animals (p=0.005 as well as in the neurological test (p=0.0004 and in the transverse bar that lead to this group in an intermediate position regarding LES and CON groups. There is a possible recovery of the transplantation-mediated nigroestriatal pathway of hMSC-GFP +.

  16. Development of experimental alloxan model of diabetes mellitus

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    V.V. Semenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the main causes that lead to the disability of diabetic patients is diabetic retinopathy (DR. The relevance of the problem of DR necessitates the development of optimal experimental models on experimental animals to find effective ways of correcting this pathology. The purpose of our work was to develop an experimental alloxan model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM for the study of DR, which would not result in the lethal outcome of experimental animals under the action of alloxan; histological examination of changes in the tissues of the eyeball in the reproduction of the DM model for the selection of new effective methods for the metabolic treatment of DR in the early stages. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out on white outbred Wistar rats weighing 180–200 g. The first group consisted of 20 animals that were not subjected to any influence, served as a control; second group — 30 animals, in which DM was modeled by administration of alloxan and fructose. Results. When modeling DR, vessel changes in the form of wall fibrosis, edema of the endothelium and vasospasm were found. There was also a decrease in the amount of pigment granules, dystrophic changes in the cells of the ganglionic layer and a layer of retinal rods and cones, which coincides with the descriptions of damage to the coats of the eyeball in patients with DM. Conclusions. In our studies, we have calculated the optimal dose of alloxan administration, which does not lead to the death of rats (the lethality of rats was absent and is an effective model not only of DM in general, but also of DR.

  17. [Activity of glial cells in trigeminal nervous system in rats with experimental pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Liu, Na; Liu, Hongchen

    2014-04-29

    To observe the activity change of astrocyte in related nucleus caused by acute pulpitis in rats. Rat acute pulpitis model was induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). And, according to processing time, a total of 30 rats were divided into 5 groups of control, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to detect the dynamic expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve (Vc). The relative gray value of ipsilateral Vc GFAP expression in experimental groups was 153 ± 11 at 12 h. And it significantly increased versus the control group (100 ± 4)(P pulpitis model, activated glial cells are probably involved in the processes of pulpitis and hyperalgesia.

  18. Effect of astragalus and dopamine on changes of blood and renal tissue contents of NO, ET in experimental rat models of acute renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yajun; Zheng Bingjie; Shi Lan; Fan Yaping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of intravenous or intra-renal-capsular administration of astragalus and dopamine on the serum NO and renal tissue NO, ET contents in rat models of acute renal failure. Methods: Experimental rat models of acute renal failure induced by intraperitoneal injection of E. Coli endotoxin (lipo-polysaccharide) were prepared (n=60). Treatment with astragalus and dopamine was administered via either intravenous on intra-renal-capsular route (n=20 in each group). Serum NO and renal tissue NO (with nitric acid reductase method), ET (with RIA) contents were determined at 4, 8, 12, 16h after injection of endotoxin. Twenty shock models were left untreated and additional twenty rats receiving saline injection only served as controls. Results: In the intravenously treated group, the increase of serum NO and renal tissue NO, ET contents were significantly less than those in the untreated group (P<0.05). In the group treated via the intracapsular route , the increase of renal tissue NO and ET contents were much less than those in the intravenous group at 12 and 16h (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combined treatment with astragalus and dopamine could abate the abnormally high renal tissue contents of NO and ET after endotoxin shock in experimental rats and treatment with intra capsular administration seems to be more effective. (authors)

  19. Differential effects of B7-1 blockade in the rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallon, L; Chandraker, A; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1997-01-01

    that CD28-B7 blockade by systemic administration of CTLA4Ig prevents actively induced EAE. Since CTLA4Ig binds to both B7-1 and B7-2, we used a mutant form of CTLA4Ig (CTLA4IgY100F) that binds only B7-1, to study the role of B7-1 blockade in this model. Such a reagent avoids the potential of signaling...... treated with systemic CTLA4gY100F did not. More importantly, systemic administration of CTLA4IgY100F abrogated the protective effect of ex vivo treated APCs. These data suggest an important regulatory role for B7-1, perhaps through binding to CTLA4, in this model of EAE. Understanding the role......Blocking the CD28-B7 T cell costimulatory activation pathway protects animals from developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the mouse EAE model, selective blockade of B7-1 by specific mAbs has been shown to protect animals from EAE. In the Lewis rat model, we have shown...

  20. Curcumin Alleviates Diabetic Retinopathy in Experimental Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yu, Jinqiang; Ke, Feng; Lan, Mei; Li, Dekun; Tan, Ke; Ling, Jiaojiao; Wang, Ying; Wu, Kaili; Li, Dai

    2018-03-29

    To investigate the potential protective effects of curcumin on the retina in diabetic rats. An experimental diabetic rat model was induced by a low dose of streptozotocin combined with a high-energy diet. Rats which had blood glucose levels ≥11.6 mmol/L were used as diabetic rats. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: diabetic rats with no treatment (DM), diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg curcumin (DM + Cur 100 mg/kg), and diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg curcumin (DM + Cur 200 mg/kg). Curcumin was orally administered daily for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks of administration, the rats were euthanized, and eyes were dissected. Retinal histology was examined, and the thickness of the retina was measured. Ultrastructural changes of retinal ganglion cells, inner layer cells, retinal capillary, and membranous disks were observed by electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity were measured by ELISA. Expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retina tissues were examined by immunohistochemical staining and ELISA. Expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in retina tissues were determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. Curcumin reduced the blood glucose levels of diabetic rats and decreased diabetes-induced body weight loss. Curcumin prevented attenuation of the retina in diabetic rats and ameliorated diabetes-induced ultrastructure changes of the retina, including thinning of the retina, apoptosis of the retinal ganglion cells and inner nuclear layer cells, thickening of retinal capillary basement membrane and disturbance of photoreceptor cell membranous disks. We also found that curcumin has a strong antioxidative ability in the retina of diabetic rats. It was observed that curcumin attenuated the expression of VEGF in the retina of diabetic rats. We also discovered that curcumin had an antiapoptotic effect by upregulating the expression of Bcl-2 and downregulating

  1. Expansions of the neurovascular scleral canal and contained optic nerve occur early in the hypertonic saline rat experimental glaucoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K; Cepurna, William O; Johnson, Elaine C; Morrison, John C; Burgoyne, Claude F

    2016-04-01

    To characterize early optic nerve head (ONH) structural change in rat experimental glaucoma (EG). Unilateral intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was induced in Brown Norway rats by hypertonic saline injection into the episcleral veins and animals were sacrificed 4 weeks later by perfusion fixation. Optic nerve cross-sections were graded from 1 (normal) to 5 (extensive injury) by 5 masked observers. ONHs with peripapillary retina and sclera were embedded, serial sectioned, 3-D reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall and animal-specific EG versus Control eye ONH parameter differences were assessed globally and regionally by linear mixed effect models with significance criteria adjusted for multiple comparisons. Expansions of the optic nerve and surrounding anterior scleral canal opening achieved statistical significance overall (p < 0.0022), and in 7 of 8 EG eyes (p < 0.005). In at least 5 EG eyes, significant expansions (p < 0.005) in Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) (range 3-10%), the anterior and posterior scleral canal openings (8-21% and 5-21%, respectively), and the optic nerve at the anterior and posterior scleral canal openings (11-30% and 8-41%, respectively) were detected. Optic nerve expansion was greatest within the superior and inferior quadrants. Optic nerve expansion at the posterior scleral canal opening was significantly correlated to optic nerve damage (R = 0.768, p = 0.042). In the rat ONH, the optic nerve and surrounding BMO and neurovascular scleral canal expand early in their response to chronic experimental IOP elevation. These findings provide phenotypic landmarks and imaging targets for detecting the development of experimental glaucomatous optic neuropathy in the rat eye. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protection of estrogen in portal hypertension gastropathy: an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Morgan-Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Portal hypertension is a complication secondary to cirrhosis that is characterized by increased blood flow and/or vascular resistance in the portal system, causing the appearance of a hyperdynamic collateral circulation. Partial portal vein ligation is an experimental model used in rats to study the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in pre-hepatic portal hypertension. Estrogen E2 is an antioxidant molecule with various physiological actions. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of endogenous estrogen in an experimental model of partial portal vein ligation by comparing intact with castrated rats. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats, weighing on average 250 g were used and divided into four groups: sham-operated (SO; intact (I with partial portal vein ligation (I + PPVL, castrated (C and castrated with partial ligation of the vein (C + PPVL. Day 1: castration or sham-operation; day 7, PPVL surgery; on day 15 post-PPVL, portal pressure in the mesenteric vein of rats was measured on polygraph Letica. Lipid peroxidation in the stomach was assessed using the technique of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Statistical analysis was done with ANOVA - Student-Newman-Keuls (mean ± SE, and P<0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: Portal pressure was significantly increased in C + PPVL as compared to the other groups. There was no significant difference in the group of intact rats. TBARS showed significant damage in C and C + PPVL in relation to others. Antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the castrated rats with subsequent PPVL as compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: We suggest that estrogen E2 plays a protective role in intact compared with castrated rats because it presents hydrophenolic radicals in its molecule, thus acting as an antioxidant in this experimental model.

  3. Protection of estrogen in portal hypertension gastropathy: an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Martins, Maria Isabel; Jacques, Simone Iahnig; Hartmann, Renata Minuzzo; Marques, Camila Moraes; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2011-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a complication secondary to cirrhosis that is characterized by increased blood flow and/or vascular resistance in the portal system, causing the appearance of a hyperdynamic collateral circulation. Partial portal vein ligation is an experimental model used in rats to study the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in pre-hepatic portal hypertension. Estrogen E2 is an antioxidant molecule with various physiological actions. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of endogenous estrogen in an experimental model of partial portal vein ligation by comparing intact with castrated rats. Twenty Wistar rats, weighing on average 250 g were used and divided into four groups: sham-operated (SO); intact (I) with partial portal vein ligation (I + PPVL), castrated (C) and castrated with partial ligation of the vein (C + PPVL). Day 1: castration or sham-operation; day 7, PPVL surgery; on day 15 post-PPVL, portal pressure in the mesenteric vein of rats was measured on polygraph Letica. Lipid peroxidation in the stomach was assessed using the technique of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Statistical analysis was done with ANOVA - Student-Newman-Keuls (mean ± SE), and P<0.05 was considered as significant. Portal pressure was significantly increased in C + PPVL as compared to the other groups. There was no significant difference in the group of intact rats. TBARS showed significant damage in C and C + PPVL in relation to others. Antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the castrated rats with subsequent PPVL as compared to the other groups. We suggest that estrogen E2 plays a protective role in intact compared with castrated rats because it presents hydrophenolic radicals in its molecule, thus acting as an antioxidant in this experimental model.

  4. Sleep deprivation attenuates experimental stroke severity in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Constantinescu, Alexandra Oana; Balseanu, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Indirect epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that the severity of injury during stroke is influenced by prior sleep history. The aim of our study was to test the effect of acute sleep deprivation on early outcome following experimental stroke. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20...... after stroke was monitored using a battery of behavioral tests investigating the asymmetry of sensorimotor deficit (tape removal test and cylinder test), bilateral sensorimotor coordination (rotor-rod and Inclined plane) and memory (T-maze and radial maze). Following MCAO, control rats had impaired...

  5. Hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in the water maze is preserved in an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Inostroza

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a major concern in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. While different experimental models have been used to characterize TLE-related cognitive deficits, little is known on whether a particular deficit is more associated with the underlying brain injuries than with the epileptic condition per se. Here, we look at the relationship between the pattern of brain damage and spatial memory deficits in two chronic models of TLE (lithium-pilocarpine, LIP and kainic acid, KA from two different rat strains (Wistar and Sprague-Dawley using the Morris water maze and the elevated plus maze in combination with MRI imaging and post-morten neuronal immunostaining. We found fundamental differences between LIP- and KA-treated epileptic rats regarding spatial memory deficits and anxiety. LIP-treated animals from both strains showed significant impairment in the acquisition and retention of spatial memory, and were unable to learn a cued version of the task. In contrast, KA-treated rats were differently affected. Sprague-Dawley KA-treated rats learned less efficiently than Wistar KA-treated animals, which performed similar to control rats in the acquisition and in a probe trial testing for spatial memory. Different anxiety levels and the extension of brain lesions affecting the hippocampus and the amydgala concur with spatial memory deficits observed in epileptic rats. Hence, our results suggest that hippocampal-dependent spatial memory is not necessarily affected in TLE and that comorbidity between spatial deficits and anxiety is more related with the underlying brain lesions than with the epileptic condition per se.

  6. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  7. Neuroprotective effect of edaravone in experimental glaucoma model in rats: a immunofluorescence and biochemical analysis

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    Arzu Toruk Aksar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the neuroprotective activity of systemically administered edaravone in early and late stage of experimental glaucoma in rats. METHODS: In this study, 60 Wistar albino rats were used. Experimental glaucoma model was created by injecting hyaluronic acid to the anterior chamber once a week for 6wk in 46 of 60 subjects. Fourteen subjects without any medication were included as control group. Edaravone administered intraperitoneally 3 mg/kg/d to the 15 of 30 subjects starting at the onset of glaucoma induction and also administered intraperitoneally 3 mg/kg/d to the other 15 subjects starting at three weeks after the onset of glaucoma induction. The other 16 subjects who underwent glaucoma induction was administered any therapy. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs have been marked with dextran tetramethylrhodamine (DTMR retrograde at the end of the sixth week and after 48h, subjects were sacrificed by the method of cardiac perfusion. Alive RGC density was assessed in the whole-mount retina. Whole-mount retinal tissues homogenized and nitric oxide (NO, malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC values were measured biochemically. RESULTS: RGCs counted with Image-Pro Plus program, in the treatment group were found to be statistically significantly protected, compared to the glaucoma group (Bonferroni, P<0.05. The neuroprotective activity of edaravone was found to be more influential by administration at the start of the glaucoma process. Statistically significant lower NO levels were determined in the glaucoma group comparing treatment groups (Bonferroni, P<0.05. MDA levels were found to be highest in untreated glaucoma group, TAC levels were found to be lower in the glaucoma induction groups than the control group (Bonferroni, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Systemic administration of Edaravone in experimental glaucoma showed potent neuroprotective activity. The role of oxidative stress causing RGC damage in glaucoma was supported by this

  8. Brain scan in cerebral ischemia. An experimental model in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A rapid embolic method for consistent induction of stroke in the rat is described. Brain scans were performed using a micro-pinhole collimator system, and the value of the model for studies in localization of radiopharmaceuticals in cerebral ischemia is demonstrated

  9. Experimental study of neuropharmacological profile of Euphorbia pulcherrima in mice and rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Kr Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Euphorbia pulcherrima (EP belongs to the family: Euphorbiaceae and Genus: Euphorbia. Many species of Euphorbia have been reported as having beneficial properties like anticonvulsive effect, central analgesic properties, antipyretic action, central depressant action and strong sedative effect. However, little study has been done and published on EP. Aims: To observe and evaluate various neuropharmacological effects like antinociceptive effect, anticonvulsant effect, motor in-coordination, pentobarbital induced sleeping time and behavioral responses of EP in mice and rats. Setting and Design: Quantitative experimental study in mice and rats by various experimental models. Materials and Methods: Different experimental models were used to assess the antinociceptive effect (hotplate, tail flick and acetic acid induced writhing test, anticonvulsant effect (Maximal Electroshock Seizure test [MES] and Pentylenetetrazole induced seizures [PTZ], motor in-coordination effect (Rota rod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time and behavioral responses of EP in mice and rats after oral administration of EP crude dried extracts in three different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Statistical Analysis Used: The significance of difference with respect to control was evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. A probability (P-value level less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In MES test model, duration of tonic hind limb extension in mice treated with EP was significantly less as compared to vehicle treated group. EP was most effective in a dose of 1000 mg/kg. There was also significant increase in the latency and decrease in the incidence of convulsions with the use of EP in three different doses in PTZ induced seizure model. Conclusions: This study showed EP (crude dried extracts to possess anticonvulsant properties but no effect on motor co-ordination and anxiety.

  10. Translational mixed-effects PKPD modelling of recombinant human growth hormone - from hypophysectomized rat to patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, A; Thygesen, P; Agersø, H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a mechanistic mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) (PKPD) model for recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in hypophysectomized rats and to predict the human PKPD relationship. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A non-linear mixed-effects model...... was developed from experimental PKPD studies of rhGH and effects of long-term treatment as measured by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and bodyweight gain in rats. Modelled parameter values were scaled to human values using the allometric approach with fixed exponents for PKs and unscaled for PDs...... s.c. administration was over predicted. After correction of the human s.c. absorption model, the induction model for IGF-1 well described the human PKPD data. CONCLUSIONS: A translational mechanistic PKPD model for rhGH was successfully developed from experimental rat data. The model links...

  11. Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Bone Loss in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rhys D; Shultz, Sandy R; Sun, Mujun; Romano, Tania; van der Poel, Chris; Wright, David K; Wark, John D; O'Brien, Terence J; Grills, Brian L; McDonald, Stuart J

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on bone homeostasis; however, pathophysiological mechanisms involved in TBI have potential to be detrimental to bone. The current study assessed the effect of experimental TBI in rats on the quantity and quality of two different weight-bearing bones, the femur and humerus. Rats were randomly assigned into either sham or lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) groups. Open-field testing to assess locomotion was conducted at 1, 4, and 12 weeks post-injury, with the rats killed at 1 and 12 weeks post-injury. Bones were analyzed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), histomorphometric analysis, and three-point bending. pQCT analysis revealed that at 1 and 12 weeks post-injury, the distal metaphyseal region of femora from FPI rats had reduced cortical content (10% decrease at 1 week, 8% decrease at 12 weeks; p in trabecular bone volume ratio at 1 week post-injury and a 27% reduction at 12 weeks post-injury in FPI rats compared to sham (p in bone quantity and mechanical properties of the femoral midshaft between sham and TBI animals. There were no differences in locomotor outcomes, which suggested that post-TBI changes in bone were not attributed to immobility. Taken together, these findings indicate that this rat model of TBI was detrimental to bone and suggests a link between TBI and altered bone remodeling.

  12. A new dietary model to study colorectal carcinogenesis: experimental design, food preparation, and experimental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, P; Liberman, V; Lubin, F; Angel, S; Owen, R; Trostler, N; Shkolnik, T; Kritchevsky, D

    1996-01-01

    Experimental dietary studies of human colorectal carcinogenesis are usually based on the AIN-76A diet, which is dissimilar to human food in source, preparation, and content. The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of preparing and feeding rats the diet of a specific human population at risk for colorectal neoplasia and to determine whether changes in the colonic morphology and metabolic contents would differ from those resulting from a standard rat diet. The mean daily food intake composition of a previously evaluated adenoma patient case-control study was used for the "human adenoma" (HA) experimental diet. Foods were prepared as for usual human consumption and processed by dehydration to the physical characteristics of an animal diet. Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and fed ad libitum the HA or the AIN-76A diet. Every eight weeks, eight rats from each group were sacrificed, and the colons and contents were examined. Analysis of the prepared food showed no significant deleterious changes; food intake and weight gain were similar in both groups. Compared with the controls, the colonic contents of rats fed the HA diet contained significantly less calcium, concentrations of neutral sterols, total lipids, and cholic and deoxycholic acids were increased, and there were no colonic histological changes other than significant epithelial hyperproliferation. This initial study demonstrated that the HA diet can be successfully processed for feeding to experimental animals and is acceptable and adequate for growth but induces significant metabolic and hyperproliferative changes in the rat colon. This dietary model may be useful for studies of human food, narrowing the gap between animal experimentation and human nutritional research.

  13. [Effect of Capsicum annum L (pucunucho, ají mono) in gastric ulcer experimentally induced in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Montero, Rocío; Flores Cortez, Daisy; Villalobos Pacheco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effects of the Capsicum annum L lyophilized fruit extract in experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats. We used the model of indomethacin gastric ulcer-induced and the gastric ulcer model induced by pylorus ligation in rats. The rats were divided in five treatment groups as follow: G1: Distilled water 1 ml/Kg; G2: Ranitidine 50 mg/kg, G3: Capsicum 10mg/kg, G4: Capsicum 100 mg/kg, G5: Capsicum 1000 mg/kg. The results of the first model showed an ulcer inhibition of 60,4% and 66,7% using the doses of Capsicum at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The results of the second model showed that neither the pH nor the volume of the gastric content were modified by the administered extract (p >0.05); however, by using the doses of Capsicum at 100 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, there was clearly an ulcer inhibition of 75.59% and 81.63% respectively, which were even greater than the inhibition obtained by ranitidine (75.51%). Therefore, in this experiment we demonstrated that the Capsicum annum L lyophilized fruit extract has a gastroprotective effect in experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

  14. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  15. Preliminary study of efficacy of hyaluronic acid on caustic esophageal burns in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Muazez; Demir, Tuncer; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Ketani, Muzaffer Aydin; Celik, Hakim; Kaplan, Davut Sinan; Boleken, Mehmet Emin

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid on the prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation after experimental caustic (alkaline) esophageal injury in rats. Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups. A caustic esophageal burn was created following the Gehanno model: Group l (n=7) underwent operation, but no injury; Group 2 (n=7) was injured and left untreated; and Group 3 (n=7) was injured and treated with hyaluronic acid, first topically and then orally by gavage (2×0.3mL; 12.5mg/mL for 7days). The caustic esophageal burn was created by instilling 25% NaOH into the distal esophagus. All rats were euthanized on day 22 for evaluation. The efficacy of hyaluronic acid treatment was assessed histopathologically and biochemically via blood determination of the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and sulfhydryl group (SH) and lipid hydroperoxidase (LOOH) levels. Statistical analyses were performed. Weight gain was significantly lower in Group 2 than in the other two groups (POSI, and SH and LOOH levels were higher in Group 2 than in the other two groups. The mean stenosis index, inflammation, TAS, SH and OSI in Group 2 were significantly different than those in the other two groups (P<0.05). Hyaluronic acid treatment is effective in treating damage and preventing strictures after caustic esophageal burn in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxidative stress in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Verônica S P; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Thomé, Gustavo R; Wolkmer, Patrícia; Castro, Jorge L C; Costa, Márcio M; Graça, Dominguita L; Oliveira, Daniele C; Alves, Sydney H; Schetinger, Maria R C; Lopes, Sonia T A; Stefani, Lenita M; Azevedo, Maria I; Baldissera, Matheus D; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress occurs in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii, and its possible effect on disease pathogenesis. Thirty rats were divided into two groups: the group A (uninfected, n = 18) and the group B (infected by S. schenckii, n=21). Blood samples were collected on days 15, 30 and 40 post-infection (PI). At each sampling time, six rats of the group A, and seven of the group B were bled. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) levels in serum samples were measured to evaluate lipid peroxidation. In addition, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, known as biomarkers of antioxidants levels, were verified in whole blood. Seric pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were measured (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6), which showed that these inflammatory mediators were at higher levels in the infected rats (P sporotrichosis showed significantly higher (p sporotrichosis is a likely mechanism for redox imbalance, and consequently cause the oxidative stress in experimentally infected rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative experimental evaluation of the efficacy of Prostamol Uno and Samprost on rat model of chronic aseptic prostate inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahomova, A V; Borovskaja, T G; Fomina, T I; Ermolaeva, L A; Vychuzhanina, A V; Rumpel, O A; Granstrem, O K; Baranova, O V

    2011-11-01

    Comparative experimental evaluation of the efficiency of prostatotropic drugs Prostamol Uno and Samprost on the model of the chronic aseptic prostate inflammation in rats was performed. It was established that peptide drug Samprost decelerates sclerotic processes in the prostate gland to a greater extent than herbal preparation Prostamol Uno. Both products equally stimulate secretory activity of the gland. Prostamol Uno, unlike Samprost, prevents the development of reduced sexual motivation, one of the complications of chronic prostatitis.

  18. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog, Liraglutide, Delays Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis in Lewis Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DellaValle, Brian; Brix, Gitte S; Brock, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    (GLP-1) family, is also anti-diabetic and weight-reducing and is, moreover, directly neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory in a broad spectrum of experimental models of brain disease. In this study we investigate the potential for this FDA-approved drug, liraglutide, as a treatment for MS by utilizing...... the experimental model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). Methods: EAE was induced in 30 female Lewis rats that subsequently received twice-daily liraglutide (200 μg/kg s.c.) or saline. Healthy controls were included (saline, n = 6, liraglutide, n = 7). Clinical score and weight were assessed daily...... treatment delayed disease onset (group clinical score significantly >0) by 2 days and markedly reduced disease severity (median clinical score 2 vs. 5; p = 0.0003). Fourteen of 15 (93%) of vehicle-treated rats reached the humane endpoint (clinical score ≥4) by day 11 compared to 5 of 15 (33%) of liraglutide...

  19. Sucralfate modulates uPAR and EGFR expression in an experimental rat model of cervicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannari, C; Santi, S; Migliori, M; Filippi, C; Origlia, N; Sansò, M; Boldrini, E; Giovannini, L

    2008-01-01

    Sucralfate is a drug used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer; it is cytoprotective and able to increase the bioavailability of several growth factors, modulating the wound healing process. In this study we tested the possible therapeutic effect of Sucralfate in the treatment of ulcerative lesions occurring in uterine cervix; to investigate such effect we used an experimental rat model of cervicitis in which the uPAR and EGFR expression were evaluated. Cervicitis was induced in wild and ovariectomized Wistar female rats by an acetic acid-soaked tampon. The animals were divided into two main groups (4 and 7 days) and Sucralfate was administered topically until the day they were sacrificed. In order to distinguish physiological and drug-induced healing, quantitative and qualitative uPAR and EGFR expression were evaluated by using Western blot and Immunohistochemistry techniques. Western blot analysis demonstrated an increased expression of both receptors after 4 days from wounding in wild and ovariectomized animals. In particular in ovariectomized animals the expression of uPAR and EGFR increased after 4 days while it reduced following the administration of Sucralfate. In wild rats the same was observed for uPAR expression, while EGFR was different; in fact, its expression increased significantly at day 4 in the animals treated with the drug and only at day 7 in those untreated. Immunohistochemistry highlighted a noteworthy epithelial colocalization of EGFR and uPAR after 4 days in the animals treated with Sucralfate. We conclude that Sucralfate can promote the healing of ulcerative cervicitis and moreover, it reduces the normal healing time because of its modulatory property on uPAR and EGFR expression.

  20. Effect of imatinib on growth of experimental endometriosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Caglar; Kacan, Turgut; Akkar, Ozlem Bozoklu; Karakus, Savas; Seker, Metin; Kacan, Selen Baloglu; Ozer, Hatice; Cetin, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Currently, medical and surgical treatment options for endometriosis are limited due to suboptimal efficacy, and also safety and tolerance issues. Long-term use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogs, androgenes, and the danazol, which are widely used drugs for endometriosis, is usually not possible due to their suboptimal safety and tolerance profile. The lack of an effective, tolerable and safe treatment option for endometriosis makes animal models of experimental endometriosis necessary to study candidate drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of imatinib on the experimental endometriosis in a rat model. Endometriosis was induced by autotransplantation of uterine tissue into the peritoneal cavity. Twenty-four rats, which had visually confirmed endometriotic implants on subsequent laparotomy, were randomized into three groups to receive imatinib (25mg/kg/day, p.o.), anastrozole (0.004 mg/day, p.o.), or normal saline (0.1 mL, i.p.) for 14 days. After removal of endometriotic tissue and H & E staining, endometriosis score was determined according to a semiquantitative histological classification. Also, immunostaining with primary antibodies including VEGF, CD117, and Bax were used for immunohistochemical (IHC) examination. Both anastrozole and imatinib suppressed the growth of endometriotic tissue and reduced the number of ovarian follicles. Although the difference was not statistically significant, imatinib was less effective than anastrozole for treatment of endometriosis. Imatinib effectively treats experimental endometriosis by its inhibitor effects on angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An experimental study of the irradiation effects on rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the irradiation effects on the rat parotid gland, applied to the head and neck region. For this experiment, twenty-four rat, feeded under the even condition, were used as experimental animals. Twenty rat were used for experimental group and the rest were assigned to the control group. The experimental group was singly irradiated with 10 Gray through Cobalt-60 radiotherapy device, Pickre model 4M 60 (Field size; 12x5 cm, SSD; 50 cm, Depth; 1 cm). The experimental animals of both group were sacrificed each four animals in 2 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after irradiation. The specimens were examined through the light microscope using the H-E stain and H stain by routine procedure. The other specimens were observed under the fluorescence microscope using the B-O dichroic mirror and Y 45 5 barrier filter after PA-ACH stain. The results of this study were obtained as follows: 1. The parotid acini were severely degenerated and intraacinar space were widened. Within the acini, retained secretory granules and increased fibrosis were observed. Also the shape and the size of the acini showed very irregular atrophic degeneration. 2. The nuclei showed severe pyknosis, displacement and irregular aggregated appearance. 3. The tissue changes of the parotid acini were initiated after 2 days of irradiation and most severely appeared at the second week of irradiation, but almost returned to normal. 4. The salivary ducts of the parotid gland were severely atrophied, discontinued but initiated to regenerated after 3 weeks of irradiation.

  2. Improvement and application of an acute blood stasis rat model aligned with the 3Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) of humane animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yin-Ye; Shang, Ming-Ying; Wang, Chao-Qun; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2014-12-23

    To establish a novel cardiocentesis method for withdrawing venous blood from the right atrium, and to improve an acute blood stasis rat model using an ice bath and epinephrine hydrochloride (Epi) while considering the 3Rs (reduction, refinement, and replacement) of humane animal experimentation. An acute blood stasis model was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection (s.c.) Epi (1.2 mg/kg) administration at 0 h, followed by a 5-min exposure to an ice-bath at 2 h and s.c. Epi administration at 4 h. Control rats received physiological saline. Rats were fasted overnight and treated with Angelicae Sinensis Lateralis Radix (ASLR) and Pheretima the following day. Venous blood was collected using our novel cardiocentesis method and used to test whole blood viscosity (WBV), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen (FIB) content. The rats survived the novel cardiocentesis technique; WBV value returned to normal while hematological parameters such as hemoglobin level and red blood cell count were restored to >94% of the corresponding values in normal rats following a 14-day recovery. Epi (1.2 mg/kg, s.c.) combined with a 5-min exposure to the ice bath replicated the acute blood stasis rat model and was associated with the highest WBV value. In rats showing acute blood stasis, ASLR treatment [4 g/(kg·d) for 8 days] decreased WBV by 9.98%, 11.09%, 9.34%, 9.00%, 7.66%, and 7.03% (P<0.05), while Pheretima treatment [2.6 g/(kg·d), for 8 days] decreased WBV by 25.49%, 25.94%, 16.28%, 17.76%, 11.07%, and 7.89% (P<0.01) at shear rates of 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, and 180 s -1 , respectively. Furthermore, Pheretima treatment increased APTT significantly (P<0.01). We presented a stable, reproducible, and improved acute blood stasis rat model, which could be applied to screen drugs for promoting blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis.

  3. Neutrophils Infiltrate the Spinal Cord Parenchyma of Rats with Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Newton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal glial cell activation and cytokine secretion have been implicated in the etiology of neuropathic pain in a number of experimental models, including diabetic neuropathy. In this study, streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with gabapentin (50 mg/kg/day by gavage for 2 weeks, from 6 weeks after STZ. At 8 weeks after STZ, hypersensitivity was confirmed in the untreated diabetic rats as a reduced response threshold to touch, whilst mechanical thresholds in gabapentin-treated diabetic rats were no different from controls. Diabetes-associated thermal hypersensitivity was also ameliorated by gabapentin. We performed a cytokine profiling array in lumbar spinal cord samples from control and diabetic rats. This revealed an increase in L-selectin, an adhesion molecule important for neutrophil transmigration, in the spinal cord of diabetic rats but not diabetic rats treated with gabapentin. Furthermore, we found an increase in the number of neutrophils present in the parenchyma of the spinal cord, which was again ameliorated in gabapentin-treated diabetic rats. Therefore, we suggest that dysregulated spinal L-selectin and neutrophil infiltration into the spinal cord could contribute to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy.

  4. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...... became severely septicemic and died within a week of inoculation, irrespective of presence or absence of thymus. In the second experiment the animals were inoculated with 10(6) bacteria, and both euthymic and thymus-grafted animals responded with high titres of anti bacterial antibodies while these were...... very low in the athymic nude animals. Polyclonal antibody production was only observed in the euthymic animals and only regarding IgG. Athymic rats were not able to clear the infection, while the thymus-grafted animals reacted like euthymic rats: Very few animals housed the bacteria four weeks after...

  5. Staging of fibrosis in experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by quantitative molecular imaging in rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabl, Bernd; Farshchi-Heydari, Salman; Loomba, Rohit; Mattrey, Robert F.; Hoh, Carl K.; Sirlin, Claude B.; Brenner, David A.; Behling, Cynthia A.; Vera, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to test the ability of hepatocyte-specific functional imaging to stage fibrosis in experimental rat models of liver fibrosis and progressive NASH. Using ROC analysis we tested the ability of a functional imaging metric to discriminate early (F1) from moderate (F2) fibrosis in the absence and presence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which has not been achieved by any modality other than biopsy. Methods: Galactosyl Human Serum Albumin (GSA) was radiolabeled with the positron-emitter, 68 Ga, and injected (i.v., 45–95 μCi, 1.5 pmol/g TBW) into 44 healthy, 19 DEN-, and 22 CDAA-treated male rats. Quantification of liver function was achieved by calculating T90, defined as the time for the liver to accumulate 90 percent of the [ 68 Ga]GSA plateau value. All livers were excised immediately after imaging and prepared for a “blinded” histologic examination, which included fibrosis and fat content scores. Two sets of fibrosis scores were recorded for all of animals. The dominant fibrosis stage was recorded as the “Dominant Pattern” score and the “Maximum Pattern” score was assigned if a smaller distinct region with a higher fibrosis score was observed. Results: Animals with Dominant Pattern F0–F1 liver fibrosis (D − = 39) demonstrated significantly (P < 0.0001) faster accumulation of [ 68 Ga]GSA (2.40 ± 0.52 min) than those with moderate to advanced Dominant Pattern fibrosis F2 and F4 (D + = 26) (3.48 ± 1.01 min). ROC analysis (F0–F1 vs F2–F4) produced an area under the binormal curve (AUC) of 0.867 ± 0.045. Twenty-seven of the 65 rats had small regions with higher fibrosis scores. Six of these Maximum Pattern scores reclassified the animals from D − to D + . ROC analysis of F0–F1 versus F2–F4 rats without liver fat produced AUCs of 0.881 ± 0.053 for the Dominant Pattern Score and 0.944 ± 0.035 for the Maximum Pattern Score. Conclusions: PET Functional Imaging of [ 68 Ga]GSA accurately discriminates

  6. The relationship between plasma free fatty acids and experimentally induced hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. J.; Bosman, D. K.; Jörning, G. G.; de Haan, J. G.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in the rat have been investigated in order to study the postulated relationship between plasma free fatty acids concentration (C6 - C22:0) and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy. As a model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy, porta caval shunted

  7. Lodenafil treatment in the monocrotaline model of pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonio, Igor Bastos; Acencio, Milena Marques Pagliareli; Pazetti, Rogério; Almeida, Francine Maria de; Silva, Bárbara Soares da; Pereira, Karina Aparecida Bonifácio; Souza, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the effects of lodenafil on hemodynamics and inflammation in the rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control; monocrotaline (experimental model); and lodenafil (experimental model followed by lodenafil treatment, p.o., 5 mg/kg daily for 28 days) Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was obtained by right heart catheterization. We investigated right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and IL-1 levels in lung fragments. The number of cases of RVH was significantly higher in the monocrotaline group than in the lodenafil and control groups, as were mPAP and IL-1 levels. We conclude that lodenafil can prevent monocrotaline-induced PH, RVH, and inflammation.

  8. Lodenafil treatment in the monocrotaline model of pulmonary hypertension in rats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonio, Igor Bastos; Acencio, Milena Marques Pagliareli; Pazetti, Rogério; de Almeida, Francine Maria; da Silva, Bárbara Soares; Pereira, Karina Aparecida Bonifácio; Souza, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the effects of lodenafil on hemodynamics and inflammation in the rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control; monocrotaline (experimental model); and lodenafil (experimental model followed by lodenafil treatment, p.o., 5 mg/kg daily for 28 days) Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was obtained by right heart catheterization. We investigated right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and IL-1 levels in lung fragments. The number of cases of RVH was significantly higher in the monocrotaline group than in the lodenafil and control groups, as were mPAP and IL-1 levels. We conclude that lodenafil can prevent monocrotaline-induced PH, RVH, and inflammation. PMID:25210965

  9. MR-angiography allows defining severity grades of cerebral vasospasm in an experimental double blood injection subarachnoid hemorrhage model in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Malinova

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been used for the detection of cerebral vasospasm (VSP related infarction in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (eSAH in rats. Conventional angiography is generally used to visualize VSP, which is an invasive technique with a possible increase in morbidity and mortality. In this study we evaluated the validity of MR-angiography (MRA in detecting VSP and its feasibility to define VSP severity grades after eSAH in rats.SAH was induced using the double-hemorrhage model in 12 rats. In two rats, saline solution was injected instead of blood (sham group. MR was performed on day 1, 2 and on day 5. T1-, T2-, T2*-weighted and time-of-flight MR sequences were applied, which were analyzed by two blinded neuroradiologists. Vessel narrowing of 25-50% was defined as mild, 50-75% as moderate and >75% as severe VSP.We performed a total of 34 MRAs in 14 rats. In 14 rats, MRA was performed on day 2 and day 5. In six rats MRA was additionally performed on day1 before the blood injection. A good visualization of cerebral vessels was possible in all cases. No VSP was seen in the sham group neither on day 2 nor on day 5. We found vasospasm on day 2 in 7 of the 14 rats (50% whereas all 7 rats had mild and one rat had additionally moderate and severe vasospasm in one vessel, respectively. On day 5 we found vasospasm in 8 of the 14 rats (60% whereas 4 rats had severe vasospasm, 1 rat had moderate vasospasm and 3 rats demonstrated mild vasospasm. In 4 of the 14 rats (30% an ischemic lesion was detected on day 5. Three of these rats had severe vasospasm and one rat had mild vasospasm. Severe vasospasm on day 5 was statistically significant correlated with the occurrence of ischemic lesions (Fisher's Exact test, OR 19.5, p = 0.03.MRA is a noninvasive diagnostic tool, which allows a good visualization of the cerebral vasculature and provides reproducible results concerning the detection of VSP and the differentiation into three severity

  10. MRI and morphological observation in C6 glioma model rats and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ying; Yuan Bo; Wang Hao; Lu Jin; Yuan Changji; Ma Yue; Tong Dan; Zhang Kun; Gao Feng; Wu Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish stable and reliable rat C6 glioma model, and to perform MRI dynamic observation and pathomorphological observation in model animal brain, and to provide experimental basis for pharmaceutical research on anti-glioma drugs. Methods: The C6 glioma cells were cultured and 20 μL cultural fluid containing 1×10 6 C6 cells was sterotactically implanted into the left caudate nuclei in 10 male Wistar rats, respectively. The changes in the behavior of the rats after implantation were observed and recorded. MRI dynamic scanning was performed in 10 rats 2, 3 and 4 weeks after implantation and the brain tissues were taken for general and pathological examination when the 10 rats were naturally dead. The survival period of tumor-bearing rats was calculated. Results: 2 weeks after implantation the rats showed decreased activities and food intake, fur lackluster, and conjunctival congestion and so on; 3 weeks later, some rats appeared nerve symptoms such as body twitch, body hemiplegy, body distortion, rotation and so on. All the 10 rats died in 8-30 d. The median survival period of the tumor-bearing rats was 18 d, the average survival period was (18.3±7.3) d. The pathological examination showed that the tumor cells were arranged irregularly closely and karyokinesis was easy to see; tumor vascular tissue proliferation and tumor invasive growth into surrounding normal tissues were found. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was positive in the tumors. Conclusion: A stable animal model of intracranial glioma is successfully established by stereotactic implantation of C6 cells into the rat caudate nucleus. The results of MRI dynamic observation and pathohistological observation on the model animal brain tissue. Can provide experimental basis for selecting the appropriate time window to perform the pharmaceutical research on anti-glioma drugs. (authors)

  11. Surgical Anatomy and Microvascular Surgical Technique Relevant to Experimental Renal Transplant in Rat Employing Aortic and Inferior Venacaval Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man; Haylor, John

    2017-11-15

    Rat models of renal transplant are used to investigate immunologic processes and responses to therapeutic agents before their translation into routine clinical practice. In this study, we have described details of rat surgical anatomy and our experiences with the microvascular surgical technique relevant to renal transplant by employing donor inferior vena cava and aortic conduits. For this study, 175 rats (151 Lewis and 24 Fisher) were used to establish the Fisher-Lewis rat model of chronic allograft injury at our institution. Anatomic and technical details were recorded during the period of training and establishment of the model. A final group of 12 transplanted rats were studied for an average duration of 51 weeks for the Lewis-to-Lewis isografts (5 rats) and 42 weeks for the Fisher-to-Lewis allografts (7 rats). Functional measurements and histology confirmed the diagnosis of chronic allograft injury. Mastering the anatomic details and microvascular surgical techniques can lead to the successful establishment of an experimental renal transplant model.

  12. Alcohol and acute pancreatitis. An experimental study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalovaara, P; Apaja, M

    1978-01-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol pretreatment and various pancreatobiliary secretions on the severity of experimental pancreatitis was studied in the rat. 95 rats were pretreated with ethanol (20% w/v, 1.1 ml/100 g body weight) five times weekly for 10 to 12 weeks by gastric intubation. 88 rats served as controls. Pancreatic lesions were produced by retograde injection of different pancreatobiliary secretions into the pancreatic ducts. The secretions were collected from both normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats, and each was used for induction of experimental pancreatitis in the control and alcohol pretreated rats. Bile obtained from normal rats was no more toxic to the pancreas than 0.9% saline solution, while bile obtained from the chronically alcohol-fed rats caused significantly more serious lesions to the pancreas than did normal rat bile. Bile-pancreatic juice (mixture of secretions at papilla of Vater) of normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats was as toxic as the bile of the alcohol-fed rats. Alcohol pretreatment had no significant effect on the severity of pancreatitis when control and alcohol-fed groups separately or the whole material according to pretreatment was examined. These results suggest that the metabolic effects of ethanol on the pancreas as such do not sensitize the pancreas to acute pancreatitis. An exogenous mechanism is required. The reflux of toxic alcoholic bile into the pancreas might act as an induction factor in acute alcohol pancreatitis.

  13. A SIMPLE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF HEAT SHOCK RESPONSE IN RATS

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    Tufi Neder Meyer

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain a simple model for the elicitation of the heat shock response in rats. Design: Laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratories. Sample: Seventy-nine adult male albino rats (weight range 200 g to 570 g. Procedures: Exposure to heat stress by heating animals in a warm bath for 5 min after their rectal temperatures reached 107.60 F (420 C. Liver and lung samples were collected for heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70 detection (Western analysis. Results: Western analysis was positive for HSP70 in the liver and in the lungs of heated animals. There was a temporal correlation between heating and HSP70 detection: it was strongest 1 day after heating and reduced afterwards. No heated animals died. Conclusion: These data show that heating rats in a warm (45o C bath, according to parameters set in this model, elicits efficiently the heat shock response.OBJETIVO: Obter um modelo simples para tentar esclarecer a resposta ao choque térmico em ratos. LOCAL: Laboratório de pesquisa da Universidade. MÉTODO: Amostra: 79 ratos albinos, adultos, entre 200g a 570g. Procedimentos: Exposição ao calor, em banho quente, por 5 minutos, após a temperatura retal chegar a 42 graus centigrados. Biópsias de fígado e pulmão foram obtidas para detectar a proteina 70 (HSP 70, pelo "Western blot". RESULTADOS: As análises foram positivas nos animais aquecidos, com uma correlação entre aquecimento e constatação da HSP 70. Foi mais elevada no primeiro dia e não houve óbitos nos animais aquecidos. CONCLUSÃO: Os ratos aquecidos a 45 graus centígrados respondem eficientemente ao choque térmico.

  14. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M.; Salmon, C.E.G.; Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H.; Bel, E. Del; Defino, H.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration

  15. Experimental model of intervertebral disc degeneration by needle puncture in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issy, A.C.; Castania, V.; Castania, M. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Salmon, C.E.G. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, M.H. [Divisão de Radiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Bel, E. Del [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Sistema Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration play an important role in clarifying the physiopathological mechanisms and testing novel therapeutic strategies. The objective of the present study is to describe a simple animal model of disc degeneration involving Wistar rats to be used for research studies. Disc degeneration was confirmed and classified by radiography, magnetic resonance and histological evaluation. Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to percutaneous disc puncture with a 20-gauge needle on levels 6-7 and 8-9 of the coccygeal vertebrae. The needle was inserted into the discs guided by fluoroscopy and its tip was positioned crossing the nucleus pulposus up to the contralateral annulus fibrosus, rotated 360° twice, and held for 30 s. To grade the severity of intervertebral disc degeneration, we measured the intervertebral disc height from radiographic images 7 and 30 days after the injury, and the signal intensity T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and collagen fiber orientation using picrosirius red staining and polarized light microscopy. Imaging and histological score analyses revealed significant disc degeneration both 7 and 30 days after the lesion, without deaths or systemic complications. Interobserver histological evaluation showed significant agreement. There was a significant positive correlation between histological score and intervertebral disc height 7 and 30 days after the lesion. We conclude that the tail disc puncture method using Wistar rats is a simple, cost-effective and reproducible model for inducing disc degeneration.

  16. Topiramate as a neuroprotective agent in a rat model of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Narin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramate (TPM is a widely used antiepileptic and antimigraine agent which has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various experimental traumatic brain injury and stroke models. However, its utility in spinal cord injury has not been studied extensively. Thus, we evaluated effects of TPM on secondary cellular injury mechanisms in an experimental rat model of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. After rat models of thoracic contusive SCI were established by free weight-drop method, TPM (40 mg/kg was given at 12-hour intervals for four times orally. Post TPM treatment, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly reduced and reduced glutathione levels were increased, while immunoreactivity for endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 was diminished in SCI rats. In addition, TPM treatment improved the functional recovery of SCI rats. This study suggests that administration of TPM exerts neuroprotective effects on SCI.

  17. Modelo de carcinogênese gástrica utilizando piloroplastia de Finney: estudo experimental em ratos Gastric carcinogenesis model using Finney pyloroplasty: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Marco Ferreira Kaminski

    2011-12-01

    estudados. CONCLUSÃO: 1 A piloroplastia à Finney é modelo experimental adequado de carcinogênese gástrica; 2 ela induziu refluxo duodenogástrico; 3 o refluxo duodenogástrico atuou como carcinógeno para o estômago; 4 não houve relação entre o pH gástrico e o desenvolvimento de carcinoma; 5 o nitrito de sódio não atuou como carcinógeno para o estômago dos ratos.BACKGROUND: The duodenogastric reflux has been implicated as a potential carcinogen for the stomach and esophagus and is one of the factors that may explain the development of gastric stump cancer. Experimental models of carcinogenesis in the stomach stump or in the duodenogastric anastomosis are well defined. AIM: To develop an experimental model of gastric carcinogenesis through the Finney pyloroplasty, evaluate the influence of ingestion of sodium nitrite in this model, analyze the concentrations of bile acids and the pH of the stomach. METHODS: A hundred and ten Wistar rats were operated and divided into four groups: Group I (15 rats underwent laparotomy (Sham group; Group II (15 rats underwent laparotomy (Sham and ingestion of sodium nitrite in drinking water; Group III (40 rats submitted to the Finney pyloroplasty and Group IV (40 rats submitted to the Finney pyloroplasty and ingestion of sodium nitrite in drinking water. After 50 weeks of surgery, the rats were sacrificed and samples collected for analysis of gastric pH, dosing of bile acids and histological analysis. RESULTS: The immediate postoperative mortality was 9%, and during the experiment, 10 rats died. The control group (I did not show gastric lesions; the control group with sodium nitrite (II developed papillomas in the pre-stomach in 16.6%; the operated groups with pyloroplasty had adenomas in 10.3% in Group III and 14.2 % in Group IV, and adenocarcinoma in 55.1% in group III and 14.2% in Group IV. The implementation of glands into the submucosa and muscle in the area of anastomosis (mucosa deployment was not sufficient criterion for

  18. Lodenafil treatment in the monocrotaline model of pulmonary hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Bastos Polonio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of lodenafil on hemodynamics and inflammation in the rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control; monocrotaline (experimental model; and lodenafil (experimental model followed by lodenafil treatment, p.o., 5 mg/kg daily for 28 days Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP was obtained by right heart catheterization. We investigated right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH and IL-1 levels in lung fragments. The number of cases of RVH was significantly higher in the monocrotaline group than in the lodenafil and control groups, as were mPAP and IL-1 levels. We conclude that lodenafil can prevent monocrotaline-induced PH, RVH, and inflammation.

  19. Avaliação de um modelo experimental de enterocolite necrosante neonatal em ratos Evaluation of an experimental model of necrotizing enterocolitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Furtado Meyer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar um modelo experimental de enterocolite necrosante em ratos proposto por Okur e colaboradores em 1995. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 28 ratos da raça EPM-Wistar no primeiro dia de vida, com peso entre 4 a 6 gramas. Os animais foram submetidos a hipóxia (H colocando os filhotes em uma câmara de gás CO2 para sacrifício de roedores onde receberam um fluxo de ar contendo 100% de CO2 durante 5 minutos. Após a hipóxia os animais foram reanimados (R com fluxo de ar contendo O2 a 100%, também durante 5 minutos. Os animais divididos em dois grupos: G1: controle (n=12: ratos não submetidos a H-R; G2: (n=16: ratos submetidos a H-R. Segmentos de intestino delgado e cólon foram preparados para análise histológica. O restante do intestino foi utilizado para dosagem de malondialdeído tecidual. RESULTADOS: Dosagem de malondialdeído do G1 foi em média 1,05 (0,44-2,03 e do G2 foi em média 2,60 (0,59- 6,4 nmol MDA/mg proteína. O G2 teve média significativamente maior do que a do grupo controle (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate an experimental model of necrotizing enterocolitis in rats proposed by OKUR e col. in 1995. METHODS: On their first day of life, 28 EPM-Wistar rats weighing between 4 and 6 grams were submitted to hypoxia (H by placing them in a CO2 gas chamber for rodents' sacrifice, where they received a 100% CO2 air flow for 5 minutes. After the hypoxia the animals were reanimated (R with a 100% O2 air flow, also for 5 minutes. The animals were allocated in two groups: G1: control (n=12: rats not submitted to H-R; G2: (n=16: rats submitted to H-R. Segments of the small intestine and colon were prepared for histological analysis. The remaining intestine was used to measure tissular malondialdehyde. RESULTS: Mean malondialdehyde dosages were 1.05 (0.44-2.03 and 2.60 (0.59- 6.4 nmol MDA/mg protein for G1 and G2, respectively. G2's mean value was significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.002. Significant statistical difference

  20. The use of recombinant nAG protein In spinal cord crush injury in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qattan, M.M.; Al-Motairi, M.; Ah-Habib, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic properties of nAG protein during the recovery following acute spinal cord injuries in the rat. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from September 2014 to September 2015. Methodology: Eight rats were studied (4 control rats and 4 experimental rats; and hence 50% were controls and 50% were experimental). All rats were subjected to an acute spinal cord injury using the aneurysmal clip injury model. Immediately after the injury, a single intra-dural injection of either normal saline (in the control group) or the nAG protein (in the experimental group) was done. Assessment of both groups was done over a 6-week period with regard to weight maintenance, motor recovery scores, MRI and histopathology of the injury site. Results: Weight maintenance was seen in the experimental and not in the control rats. Starting at 3 weeks after injury, the motor recovery was significantly (p<0.05) better in the experimental group. MRI assessment at 6 weeks showed better maintenance of cord continuity and less fluid accumulation at the injury site in the nAG-treated group. Just proximal to the injury site, there was less gliosis in the experimental group compared to the control group. At the crush injury site, there was less tissue architecture distortion, less vacuole formation, and less granulation tissue formation in the experimental group. Conclusion: The local injection nAG protein enhances neuro-restoration, reduces gliosis, and reduces vacuole/ granulation tissue formation following acute spinal cord crush injury in the rat aneurysmal clip animal model. (author)

  1. A new experimental model to study preneoplastic lesions in achalasia of the esophagus

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    Vespúcio Marcelo Vinícius Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Develop an experimental model to study esophageal preneoplastic lesions induced by diethylnitrosamine in rats with achalasia. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control - C (n=8; rats with megaesophagus - B (n=8; rats treated with DEN - D (n=15 and rats with megaesophagus plus DEN - BD (n=15. Megaesophagus can be experimentally obtained in rats by topical application of benzalkonium choride. The morphology and PCNA labeling index of the epithelium were evaluated. RESULTS: The morphometric analysis showed an increase in epithelial thickness in the animals of group BD (2166?1012mm² when compared to the other groups (C = 878?278mm²; B = 1746?144mm² and D = 1691?697mm², mainly due to basal layer hyperplasia, besides an increase in the keratin of the superficial layer. The PCNA labeling index in the basal layer was significantly higher in the group BD (0,695?0,111 when compared to the other groups (C = 0,490?0,132; B = 0,512?0,215 and D = 0,477?0,198. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm in an experimental model the previous observation in humans of increased epithelial cell proliferation during the esophageal carcinogenic process in achalasia and may be useful to further studies on the mechanisms of the esophageal carcinogenesis and the the design of follow-up endoscopic studies for patients with achalasia.

  2. CADMIUM EXCRETION IN FECES OF RATS AT EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS

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    O. A. Zemlianyi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies demonstrated that the excretions per 1 gof rat weight inthe experimental group usually prevails over the  control group, especially in the second part of the experiment. The increase in the amount of feces in animals of the experimental group was also registered. Such processes may indicate the intense excretory processes and  increase the output of harmful  pollutants from the rats  together with overall stimulation of rat digestive activity. The higher correlations between Cd and other pollutants, namely toxic Ni and Pb (r = 0.84 and 0.91, respectively were calculated for rat feces of experimental group compared to the control. The concentration of Cd and Pb in the excretion of experimental group was maximal in the first day of the experiment, suggesting definite reaction towards rapid output of maximum amount of toxicants from rat body. Subsequently, a decrease in concentration of other pollutants demonstrated their incorporation in metabolic processes and significant accumulation in rat body (kidney and liver, or involvement of other mechanisms for neutralization and removal of intoxicants. Given the increasing amount of excretions  in the second half of the experiment, this may be a solution to this issue. The Cd output per 1 g of rat weight was maximal in the first day, followed by a rapid decline and partial restoration in second half of the experiment. Obviously, it confirms the theory of substitution mechanisms in excretion of significant amount of hazardous toxicants and shifting towards less concentrated excretions in greater amount. Thus, the correlation index between the percentage of excreted pollutant and its concentration in the excretion was 0.75. When we considered only the first 7 days this increased to 0.91 and proved that during the first stage of experiment the percentage of pollutants excretion was dependent upon its concentration in feces. Correlation between Cd output rate and excretion volumes was

  3. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 ?g collagen. ...

  4. [Effects of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on serum lipids and lipoperoxidation in experimental hyperlipidemic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-qiang; Luo, Shao-hong; Ll, Hong-zhi; Yang, Hong

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on blood lipid and lipoperoxidation from the experimental hyperlipidemic rats. 50 rats were randomly divided into normal group, hyperlipidemia control group, experimental group 1, 2 and 3 in which the rats were treated with ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides at dosages of 200 mg x kg(-1) and 400 mg x kg(-1) and 800 mg x kg(-1) respectively. Apart from the rats in control group, all the rats in other groups were fed with high fat forage for 30 days. The blood was collected from the tails of rats for measuring the serum TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, GSH-Px, SOD and LPO. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides could significantly decrease the serum contents of TC, TG, LDL-c in the experimental hyperlipidemic rats (P < 0.01), and markedly increase the level of serum HDL-C (P < 0.05), Mean Level of blood LPO in the experimental groups treated by ganoderma lacidum polysaccharides at different dosages were much lower than that in hyper lipidema group, and the GSH-Px and SOD activities of blood in the group of ganoderma were much higher than those in hyperlipidema group. Ganoderma can regulate lipid metabolism, enhance the antioxidation and reduce the lipid peroxidation in the rats with hyperlipidemia.

  5. Experimental models in the rat for the assessment of local and systemic behaviour and decorporation of MOX after contamination by wounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, N.M.; Van der Meeren, A.; Abram, M.C.; Chau, Q.; Coudert, S.; Renault, D.; Wilk, J.C.; Guichet, C.; Helfer, N.; Angulo-Mora, J.

    2013-11-01

    Accidental contamination of nuclear industry workers by alpha particle-emitting actinides (plutonium; Pu, americium; Am) can occur after wounding. Transfer from the wound depends on contaminant physicochemical properties, wound type and anatomical location. These factors and wound activity levels direct the ensuing medical approaches. The principal objective of this research program, carried out in the Laboratoire de Radio-Toxicologie (CEA/DSV) in collaboration with AREVA NC, was to establish models of actinide-contaminated wounds in the rat using multidisciplinary approaches. Rats were contaminated by MOX (7.1% Pu by mass) or Pu nitrate or Am nitrate, either by subcutaneous implantation of an agarose gel containing the radioelement or following incision of the hind limb muscles. Actinide urinary excretion, wound, tissue levels and effects of decorporant regimens including wound excision were evaluated. In both experimental models following MOX contamination, urinary Am excretion was greater than Pu, and bone Pu and Am retention increased significantly with time. Moreover after Pu or Am nitrate contamination, Am excretion and tissue retention was greater than Pu again reflecting the higher solubility of Am. Coherent with the insoluble nature of oxide forms, tissue Am or Pu levels were much lower after MOX compared to those seen after nitrates. Wound site actinide retention was also much higher after MOX contamination. Repeated systemic DTPA increased actinide urinary excretion and decreased tissue retention, as did single or repeated local DTPA. Pu urinary excretion was transiently increased after wound excision but no further Pu organ retention was observed. In conclusion, several different experimental models have been developed in the rat to simulate actinide wound contamination. Information obtained on Pu and Am behavior either at the wound site or at distant organs allowed the discrimination between different physicochemical actinide forms and evaluation of

  6. Efficacy of Polaprezinc for Acute Radiation Proctitis in a Rat Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Keita; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tanooka, Masao; Nakamura, Takeshi; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Tsujimura, Tohru; Hirota, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to standardize the experimental rat model of radiation proctitis and to examine the efficacy of polaprezinc on radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 54 female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were used. The rats were divided into three groups: those treated with polaprezinc (PZ+), those treated with base alone, exclusive of polaprezinc (PZ-), and those treated without any medication (control). All the rats were irradiated to the rectum. Polaprezinc was prepared as an ointment. The ointment was administered rectally each day after irradiation. All rats were killed on the 10th day after irradiation. The mucosal changes were evaluated endoscopically and pathologically. The results were graded from 0 to 4 and compared according to milder or more severe status, as applicable. Results: According to the endoscopic findings, the proportion of mild changes in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 71.4%, 25.0%, and 14.3% respectively. On pathologic examination, the proportion of low-grade findings in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 80.0%, 58.3%, and 42.9% for mucosal damage, 85.0%, 41.7%, and 42.9% for a mild degree of inflammation, and 50.0%, 33.3%, and 4.8% for a shallow depth of inflammation, respectively. The PZ+ group tended to have milder mucosal damage than the other groups, according to all criteria used. In addition, significant differences were observed between the PZ+ and control groups regarding the endoscopic findings, degree of inflammation, and depth of inflammation. Conclusions: This model was confirmed to be a useful experimental rat model for radiation proctitis. The results of the present study have demonstrated the efficacy of polaprezinc against acute radiation-induced rectal disorders using the rat model.

  7. An experimental model of acute encephalopathy after total body irradiation in the rat: effect of liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Magdelenat, Henri; Boisserie, Gilbert; Baillet, Francois; Mayo, Willy; Fessi, Hatem; Puisieux, Francis; Perderau, Bernard; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an experimental model of acute encephalopathy following total body irradiation in rats and to define the therapeutic effect of liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 4-month-old rats received 4.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) while 120 rats received sham irradiation. A behavioral study based on a conditioning test of negative reinforcement, the one-way avoidance test, was performed 5 hours before irradiation and repeated the following days. Subcutaneous treatment was started 1 hour after irradiation and repeated daily for 2 weeks. In both the irradiated and sham group, three subgroups were defined according to the treatment received: liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (0.5 mg/kg), liposomes only, normal saline. Results: This work comprised two consecutive studies. In study A (90 rats) the one-way avoidance test was administered daily from day 0 to day 4 with a recall session at day 14. In study B (validation phase in 150 rats) the behavioral test was performed only from day 0 to day 6. Before irradiation, all rats showed a similar behavioral response. Study A (6 groups of 15 rats): Following TBI, irradiated rats treated with liposomes only or saline demonstrated a significant delay in learning the one-way avoidance test in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (0.05 < p <0.001 depending upon the day of evaluation and the subgroup type). In contrast, irradiated rats treated with liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase did not differ from sham-irradiated rats. Study B (6 groups of 25 rats): The results were the same as those in study A, demonstrating a significant delay in the learning of the test in the liposome and saline-treated irradiated rats in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (0.02 < p < 0.001). The irradiated rats, treated with liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusion: This study indicates that a relatively

  8. Corn silk extract improves benign prostatic hyperplasia in experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Ra; Ha, Ae Wha; Choi, Hyun Ji; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a corn silk extract on improving benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The experimental animals, 6-week-old male Wistar rats, were divided into sham-operated control (Sham) and experimental groups. The experimental group, which underwent orchiectomy and received subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of testosterone propionate to induce BPH, was divided into a Testo Only group that received only testosterone, a Testo+Fina group that received testosterone and 5 mg/kg finasteride, a Testo+CSE10 group that received testosterone and 10 mg/kg of corn silk extract, and a Testo+CSE100 group that received testosterone and 100 mg/kg of corn silk extract. Prostate weight and concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5α-reductase 2 (5α-R2), and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum or prostate tissue were determined. The mRNA expressions of 5α-R2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in prostate tissue were also measured. Compared to the Sham group, prostate weight was significantly higher in the Testo Only group and decreased significantly in the Testo+Fina, Testo+CSE10, and Testo+CSE100 groups ( P corn silk extract treatment improved BPH symptoms by inhibiting the mRNA expression of 5α-R2 and decreasing the amount of 5α-R2, DHT, and PSA in serum and prostate tissue.

  9. Experimental testing of Mackay's model for functional antagonism in the isolated costo-uterus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P. J.; Lulich, K. M.; Paterson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Several key predictions of a recently developed model for functional antagonism (Mackay, 1981) were experimentally tested using the rat isolated costo-uterine preparation. In the presence of the functional antagonist fenoterol (Fen), the functional constants (KAF) for carbachol and oxotremorine (Oxo) were respectively 9.9 and 3.4 fold greater than their corresponding affinity constants (KA). According to Mackay's model for functional antagonism, the higher KAF/KA ratio for carbachol indicates that this cholinoceptor agonist has a greater efficacy than Oxo. This was confirmed by using conventional pharmacological methods. As predicted from the model of functional antagonism, the plot of KAF/KA-1 against the fraction of cholinoceptors not irreversibly blocked by phenoxybenzamine (Pbz) was linear for both carbachol and Oxo and the lines of best fit crossed the axes at a point not significantly different from the origin. The value of 4.6 for the relative efficacy of carbachol to Oxo estimated from functional antagonism studies was comparable to the value of 5.6 calculated using the method of irreversible antagonism proposed by Furchgott (1966). PMID:3840396

  10. Neuroprotective and behavioral efficacy of intravenous transplanted adipose stem cells in experimental Parkinsonian rat models

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    Malihe Nakhaeifard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease is a deficiency of dopamine in the striatum, characterized by bradykinesis, rigidity and resting tremor. Adipose tissue-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs have many advantages for cell therapy because of the easy availability and pluripotency without ethical problems. In this research, the effects of ADSCs transplantation on motor impairment of rat Parkinsonian models were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Parkinson model was constructed by the unilateral lesion of striatum of male Wistar rats using 20µg of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA as lesion group. Cell and α-MEM (α-minimal essential medium groups were lesioned animals that received intravenous injection of 3×106 cells suspended in medium and medium repectively. All rats were evaluated behaviorally with rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests, at 4 and 8 weeks after cell transplantation. Results: Lesion and α-MEM groups showed increased contralateral turns while cell group significantly ameliorated both in rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests. There was a significant difference of contralateral turns between cell and lesioned groups at 8 weeks after transplantation. Lesioned rats showed significant decrease of staying on the rod as compared to control, but in cell group there was a significant increase in comparision with the lesioned animals. Conclusion: ADSCs injected intravenously promote functional recovery in Parkinsonian rats.

  11. An experimental model of hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis

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    Saruc M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that acute pancreatitis is a complication of massive hemolysis with a prevalence of about 20%. We describe an experimental model of hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis. Hemolytic anemia was induced in rats by a single ip injection of 60 mg/kg of 20 mg/ml acetylphenylhydrazine (APH in 20% (v/v ethanol on the first experimental day (day 0. One hundred and fifty Wistar albino rats weighing 180-200 g were divided into three groups of 50 animals each: groups 1, 2 and 3 were injected ip with APH, 20% ethanol, and physiological saline, respectively. Ten rats from each group were sacrificed on study days 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Serum amylase, lipase levels and pancreatic tissue tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF contents were determined and a histological examination of the pancreas was performed. No hemolysis or pancreatitis was observed in any of the rats in groups 2 and 3. In group 1, massive hemolysis was observed in 35 (70% of 50 rats, moderate hemolysis in seven (14%, and no hemolysis in eight (16%. Thirty-three of 35 (94.2% rats with massive hemolysis had hyperamylasemia, and 29 of these rats (82.8% had histologically proven pancreatitis. The most severe pancreatitis occurred on day 3, as demonstrated by histology. Tissue TNF-alpha and PAF levels were statistically higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Acute massive hemolysis induced acute pancreatitis, as indicated by histology, in almost 80% of cases. Hemolysis may induce acute pancreatitis by triggering the release of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines.

  12. Application of metabonomics on an experimental model of fibrosis and cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, Maria A.; Theocharis, Stamatios E.; Mikros, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Metabonomics has already been used to discriminate different pathological states in biological fields. The metabolic profiles of chronic experimental fibrosis and cirrhosis induction in rats were investigated using 1 H NMR spectroscopy of liver extracts and serum combined with pattern recognition techniques. Rats were continuously administered with thioacetamide (TAA) in the drinking water (300 mg TAA/L), and sacrificed on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd month of treatment. 1 H NMR spectra of aqueous and lipid liver extracts, together with serum were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Liver portions were also subjected to histopathological examination and biochemical determination of malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were progressively induced in TAA-treated rats, verified by the histopathological examination and the alterations of MDA levels. TAA administration revealed a number of changes in the 1 H NMR spectra compared to control samples. The performance of PCA in liver extracts and serum, discriminated the control samples from the fibrotic and cirrhotic ones. Metabolic alterations revealed in NMR spectra during experimental liver fibrosis and cirrhosis induction, characterize the stage of fibrosis and could be illustrated by subsequent PCA of the spectra. Additionally, the PCA plots of the serum samples presented marked clustering during fibrosis progression and could be extended in clinical diagnosis for the management of cirrhotic patients

  13. Degenerative effects in rat eyes after experimental ocular hypertension

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    G. Scarsella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was used to evaluate the degenerative effects on the retina and eye-cup sections after experimental induction of acute ocular hypertension on animal models. In particular, vascular events were directly focused in this research in order to assess the vascular remodeling after transient ocular hypertension on rat models. After local anaesthesia by administration of eye drops of 0.4% oxibuprocaine, 16 male adult Wistar rats were injected in the anterior chamber of the right eye with 15 µL of methylcellulose (MTC 2% in physiological solution. The morphology and the vessels of the retina and eye-cup sections were examined in animals sacrificed 72 h after induction of ocular hypertension. In retinal fluorescein angiographies (FAGs, by means of fluorescein isothiocyanate-coniugated dextran (FITC, the radial venules showed enlargements and increased branching, while the arterioles appeared focally thickened. The length and size of actually perfused vessels appeared increased in the whole superficial plexus. In eye-cup sections of MTC-injected animals, in deep plexus and connecting layer there was a bigger increase of vessels than in controls. Moreover, the immunolocalization of astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP revealed its increased expression in internal limiting membrane and ganglion cell layer, as well as its presence in Müller cells. Finally, the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was found to be especially expressed by neurones of ganglion cell layer, both in control and in MTC-injected eyes. The data obtained in this experimental model on the interactions among glia, vessels and neurons should be useful to evaluate if also in glaucomatous patients the activation of vessel-adjacent glial cells might play key roles in following neuronal dysfunction.

  14. Degenerative effects in rat eyes after experimental ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarsella, G; Nebbioso, M; Stefanini, S; Pescosolido, N

    2012-10-08

    This study was used to evaluate the degenerative effects on the retina and eye-cup sections after experimental induction of acute ocular hypertension on animal models. In particular, vascular events were directly focused in this research in order to assess the vascular remodeling after transient ocular hypertension on rat models. After local anaesthesia by administration of eye drops of 0.4% oxibuprocaine, 16 male adult Wistar rats were injected in the anterior chamber of the right eye with 15 µL of methylcellulose (MTC) 2% in physiological solution. The morphology and the vessels of the retina and eye-cup sections were examined in animals sacrificed 72 h after induction of ocular hypertension. In retinal fluorescein angiographies (FAGs), by means of fluorescein isothiocyanate-coniugated dextran (FITC), the radial venules showed enlargements and increased branching, while the arterioles appeared focally thickened. The length and size of actually perfused vessels appeared increased in the whole superficial plexus. In eye-cup sections of MTC-injected animals, in deep plexus and connecting layer there was a bigger increase of vessels than in controls. Moreover, the immunolocalization of astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed its increased expression in internal limiting membrane and ganglion cell layer, as well as its presence in Müller cells. Finally, the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was found to be especially expressed by neurones of ganglion cell layer, both in control and in MTC-injected eyes. The data obtained in this experimental model on the interactions among glia, vessels and neurons should be useful to evaluate if also in glaucomatous patients the activation of vessel-adjacent glial cells might play key roles in following neuronal dysfunction.

  15. [Glomerular changes in the contralateral kidney in the rat with experimental hydronephrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Bernabéu, R; Gázquez Ortiz, A; Bonillo Morales, A; Sierra Planas, M A; Ocaña Losa, J M; Romanos Lezcano, A

    1985-10-31

    We have studied under optic and electronmicroscopes the alterations of glomeruli in contralateral kidneys of rats with experimental hydronephrosis. Forty-eight Wistar rats, divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used. They were sacrificed 3, 6, 9 and 12 days after ureteral obstruction. There was a slight hypertrophy of glomeruli and hiperplasia of other components accompanied by a increased development of podocytes.

  16. Characteristics of benzodiazepine receptors in rats differing in predisposition to experimental alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, Yu.V.; Maiskii, A.I.; Yukhananov, R.Yu.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the number and affinity of benzodiazepine receptors for diazepam in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats differently predisposed to the development of experimental alcoholism. Ethanol was injected once intraperitoneally, in a dose of 2.5 g/kg. Control animals received the same volume of physiological saline. Bound and free N-methyl-tritium-diazepam were separated by means of GF/B filters. The characteristics of benzodiazepine receptors are shown in rats differing in predisposition to the development of experimental alcoholism and in rats during voluntary chronic alcoholization. It is shown that weakening of functional acitivity of the GABA-benzodiazepam complex in animals predisposed to the development of experimental alcoholism is one of the neurochemical mechanisms of development of the abstinence syndrome

  17. Establishing an experimental rat model of photodynamically-induced retinal vein occlusion using erythrosin B

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    Wei Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To develop a reliable, reproducible rat model of retinal vein occlusion (RVO with a novel photosensitizer (erythrosin B and study the cellular responses in the retina.METHODS:Central and branch RVOs were created in adult male rats via photochemically-induced ischemia. Retinal changes were monitored via color fundus photography and fluorescein angiography at 1 and 3h, and 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21d after irradiation. Tissue slices were evaluated histopathologically. Retinal ganglion cell survival at different times after RVO induction was quantified by nuclear density count. Retinal thickness was also observed.RESULTS:For all rats in both the central and branch RVO groups, blood flow ceased immediately after laser irradiation and retinal edema was evident at one hour. The retinal detachment rate was 100% at 3h and developed into bullous retinal detachment within 24h. Retinal hemorrhages were not observed until 24h. Clearance of the occluded veins at 7d was observed by fluorescein angiography. Disease manifestation in the central RVO eyes was more severe than in the branch RVO group. A remarkable reduction in the ganglion cell count and retinal thickness was observed in the central RVO group by 21d, whereas moderate changes occurred in the branch RVO group.CONCLUSION: Rat RVO created by photochemically-induced ischemia using erythrosin B is a reproducible and reliable animal model for mimicking the key features of human RVO. However, considering the 100% rate of retinal detachment, this animal model is more suitable for studying RVO with chronic retinal detachment.

  18. Rat models of spinal cord injury: from pathology to potential therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A long-standing goal of spinal cord injury research is to develop effective spinal cord repair strategies for the clinic. Rat models of spinal cord injury provide an important mammalian model in which to evaluate treatment strategies and to understand the pathological basis of spinal cord injuries. These models have facilitated the development of robust tests for assessing the recovery of locomotor and sensory functions. Rat models have also allowed us to understand how neuronal circuitry changes following spinal cord injury and how recovery could be promoted by enhancing spontaneous regenerative mechanisms and by counteracting intrinsic inhibitory factors. Rat studies have also revealed possible routes to rescuing circuitry and cells in the acute stage of injury. Spatiotemporal and functional studies in these models highlight the therapeutic potential of manipulating inflammation, scarring and myelination. In addition, potential replacement therapies for spinal cord injury, including grafts and bridges, stem primarily from rat studies. Here, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of rat experimental spinal cord injury models and summarize knowledge gained from these models. We also discuss how an emerging understanding of different forms of injury, their pathology and degree of recovery has inspired numerous treatment strategies, some of which have led to clinical trials. PMID:27736748

  19. Amniotic membranes as prosthetic material: experimental utilization data of a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariou, Z

    1997-10-01

    Prosthetic materials are applied for closing big tissue defects, the repair of traumatized organs, or hernias. Because nonabsorbable synthetic materials are rigid, possess a defined and unchangeable size, and foreign body reaction (FBR) may occur, biological materials may be an alternative. In experimental studies in rats the authors implanted the fetal parts of the human amniotic membranes and examined the utilization and FBR induced in a standardized model. In addition amnion (AM) was combined with vicryl-net (VN) for higher implant stability. Fifteen, 30 and 90 days after implantation, macroscopic appearance was examined, and light microscopy and immunohistology testing of the specimens were performed. Adhesions to parenchymal organs and omentum were present irrespective of the side facing the abdominal cavity. AM induced a rapid FBR, which diminished with time. Chorion (CH) and parts of the AM were resorbed within the examined period after infiltration with recipient cells and neovascularisation. The combined implant, AM, and VN showed best results because disadvantages of one material could be compensated for by the advantages of the other. The studies show that AM, in its anatomic definition, combined with VN proves to be a safe and reliable prosthetic material for the use in tissue defects.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF THE PRIMARY MALE HYPOGONADISM

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    P. A. Kulikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of the new methods of treatment of primary male hypogonadism is an urgent medical problem. Its solution requires a suitable experimental model of the disease. Aim: The creation of new experimental model of primary male hypogonadism. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on the male Wistar rats, hypogonadism was modeled by temporary ligation of the distal part of the spermatic cord. Results: It was shown that three-day ligation of the spermatic cord led to persistent disturbance of the testosterone-producing and reproductive functions. These manifestations were reversible at shorter duration of the exposure. Conclusion: The created model of primary male hypogonadism is characterized by the persistent testosterone-producing and reproductive functions disturbance, technical availability, non-toxicity to the other organs and systems. Availability of the model provides new opportunities for the development of approaches to treating diseases of the reproductive organs in men.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of jojoba liquid wax in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy, Ramy R; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Khalifa, Amani E; Al-Azizi, Mohammed M

    2005-02-01

    Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link 1822) Schneider 1907] is an arid perennial shrub grown in several American and African countries. Jojoba seeds, which are rich in liquid wax, were used in folk medicine for diverse ailments. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of jojoba liquid wax (JLW) was evaluated in a number of experimental models. Results showed that JLW caused reduction of carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In a test for anti-inflammatory potential utilizing the chick's embryo chroioallantoic membrane (CAM), JLW also caused significant lowering of granulation tissue formation. Topical application of JLW reduced ear oedema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, JLW also reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, JLW ameliorated histopathological changes affected by croton oil application. In the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in air pouch in rats, JLW reduced nitric oxide (NO) level and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of JLW in combating inflammation in several experimental models. Further investigations are needed to identify the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of JLW.

  2. Multidimensional study of orofacial chronic neuropathic pain: An experimental study in rats.

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    Claudia Daniela Montes-Angeles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orofacial neuropathic chronic pain (NCP is frequently attributed to lesions caused by orofacial surgeries and dental treatments. There are many experimental models available to study orofacial NCP, however, many are extremely painful for the animal due to the amplitude of the innervated region. A previously proposed mental nerve constriction model, mNC, was used in this project. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: one group included rats with mNC (n=20, and another rats with sham lesions (n=20. Through the use of the fixed ratio program and the progressive program, a decrease of motivation for a sweet substance, caused by the lesion, was evaluated. The possibility of alterations in cognitive learning and adaptation abilities was also assessed using the go/no-go behavioral task. The mNC group showed low induced and spontaneously evoked pain responses, as well as a decrease in the motivation for sucrose, a sign of anhedonia. This decrease does not depend on taste processing. Finally, although no alterations in the learning-memory process were observed, the mNC group did show alterations when adapting to a new rule.

  3. Prediction of the time course of callus stiffness as a function of mechanical parameters in experimental rat fracture healing studies--a numerical study.

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    Tim Wehner

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental fracture healing studies are performed on rats, in which different experimental, mechanical parameters are applied, thereby prohibiting direct comparison between each other. Numerical fracture healing simulation models are able to predict courses of fracture healing and offer support for pre-planning animal experiments and for post-hoc comparison between outcomes of different in vivo studies. The aims of this study are to adapt a pre-existing fracture healing simulation algorithm for sheep and humans to the rat, to corroborate it using the data of numerous different rat experiments, and to provide healing predictions for future rat experiments. First, material properties of different tissue types involved were adjusted by comparing experimentally measured callus stiffness to respective simulated values obtained in three finite element (FE models. This yielded values for Young's moduli of cortical bone, woven bone, cartilage, and connective tissue of 15,750 MPa, 1,000 MPa, 5 MPa, and 1 MPa, respectively. Next, thresholds in the underlying mechanoregulatory tissue differentiation rules were calibrated by modifying model parameters so that predicted fracture callus stiffness matched experimental data from a study that used rigid and flexible fixators. This resulted in strain thresholds at higher magnitudes than in models for sheep and humans. The resulting numerical model was then used to simulate numerous fracture healing scenarios from literature, showing a considerable mismatch in only 6 of 21 cases. Based on this corroborated model, a fit curve function was derived which predicts the increase of callus stiffness dependent on bodyweight, fixation stiffness, and fracture gap size. By mathematically predicting the time course of the healing process prior to the animal studies, the data presented in this work provides support for planning new fracture healing experiments in rats. Furthermore, it allows one to transfer and

  4. Untangling dopamine-adenosine receptor-receptor assembly in experimental parkinsonism in rats

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    Víctor Fernández-Dueñas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a dopaminergic-related pathology in which functioning of the basal ganglia is altered. It has been postulated that a direct receptor-receptor interaction – i.e. of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R with adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR (forming D2R-A2AR oligomers – finely regulates this brain area. Accordingly, elucidating whether the pathology prompts changes to these complexes could provide valuable information for the design of new PD therapies. Here, we first resolved a long-standing question concerning whether D2R-A2AR assembly occurs in native tissue: by means of different complementary experimental approaches (i.e. immunoelectron microscopy, proximity ligation assay and TR-FRET, we unambiguously identified native D2R-A2AR oligomers in rat striatum. Subsequently, we determined that, under pathological conditions (i.e. in a rat PD model, D2R-A2AR interaction was impaired. Collectively, these results provide definitive evidence for alteration of native D2R-A2AR oligomers in experimental parkinsonism, thus conferring the rationale for appropriate oligomer-based PD treatments.

  5. Therapeutic Effect of CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells Amplified In Vitro on Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis in Rats

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    Feng-Jie Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aimed to explore whether the adoptive transfusion of autologous CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+ Tregs has a therapeutic effect on Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN model rats, and it provides new experimental and theoretical bases for the immunotherapy of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS. Methods: CD4+CD25+ Tregs were sorted from the spleens of rats using immunomagnetic bead separation techniques combined with flow cytometry. Their in vitro inhibitory function was determined using a lymphocyte proliferation inhibition test, and their purity was confirmed by flow cytometry. Cells were stimulated using CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies and were cultured in culture medium containing interleukin 2 (IL-2, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β and rapamycin. After 15 days of amplification, CD4+CD25+ Tregs were collected and transfused into EAN model rats. Changes in the pathology and electron microscopical morphology of rat sciatic nerves in the normal group, untreated group, low-dose group (2 × 107 and high-dose group (4 × 107 were observed, and the expression of CD4+CD25+FOXP3 in peripheral blood in the four groups of rats was detected by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with rats in the untreated group, rats in the treatment groups had significantly reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the sciatic nerve, as well as myelin and axonal damage. Additionally, the CD4+CD25+ Tregs levels in peripheral blood were significantly higher than those in the untreated group (P< 0. 05. Moreover, the therapeutic effect became more significant with an increase in the dose of adoptive transfusion. Conclusion: Adoptive transfusion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs into EAN model rats has significant therapeutic effects.

  6. Experimental model of the burn wound topical treatment

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    Amra Čabaravdić

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Clinical research of drugs is a researching step subsequent to the preclinical studies in experimental animals. The aim of our research was to evaluate animal model of wound healing process after the burninducement and effects of the ointment containing natural plants on the process of burn healing.MATERIAL AND METHODS:Burn wounds were experimentally induced in two species of experimental animals which were treated with topically applied herbal preparation with concomitant monitoring of the healing process. Experimental groups (1 of 15 animals each (mice and rats, while control group (2 of 10 animals each (mice and rats that were not being treated with herbal ointment. After the hair removal, burn was induced on the back of animals by heated brass seal. Different clinical symptoms including oedema of surrounding tissue, redness, exudation, size of the burn surface, histological and microbiological findings were monitored on the days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. A statistically significant difference was observed throughout descriptive statistics and paired Student's t-test.CONCLUSION:Physiological healing processes of the acute burn wound following the topical application of herbal preparation can be monitored on the utilized animal model. A three-week treatment resulted in the 90% of completed epithelization in both animal species, indicating the effectiveness of topically applied herbal preparation.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Micro-CT Imaging and Histopathological Signatures of Experimental Arthritis in Rats

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    Matthew D. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT imaging provides a unique opportunity to capture 3-D architectural information in bone samples. In this study of pathological joint changes in a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA, quantitative analysis of bone volume and roughness were performed by micro-CT imaging and compared with histopathology methods and paw swelling measurement. Micro-CT imaging of excised rat hind paws (n = 10 stored in formalin consisted of approximately 600 30-μm slices acquired on a 512 × 512 image matrix with isotropic resolution. Following imaging, the joints were scored from H&E stained sections for cartilage/bone erosion, pannus development, inflammation, and synovial hyperplasia. From micro-CT images, quantitative analysis of absolute bone volumes and bone roughness was performed. Bone erosion in the rat AA model is substantial, leading to a significant decline in tarsal volume (27%. The result of the custom bone roughness measurement indicated a 55% increase in surface roughness. Histological and paw volume analyses also demonstrated severe arthritic disease as compared to controls. Statistical analyses indicate correlations among bone volume, roughness, histology, and paw volume. These data demonstrate that the destructive progression of disease in a rat AA model can be quantified using 3-D micro-CT image analysis, which allows assessment of arthritic disease status and efficacy of experimental therapeutic agents.

  8. Experimental model to induce obesity in rats Modelo experimental para induzir obesidade em ratos

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    Vinicius Von Diemen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of obesity is multifactorial and is becoming a problem of public health, due to its increased prevalence and the consequent repercussion of its comorbidities on the health of the population. The great similarity and homology between the genomes of rodents and humans make these animal models a major tool to study conditions affecting humans, which can be simulated in rats. Obesity can be induced in animals by neuroendocrine, dietary or genetic changes. The most widely used models to induce obesity in rats are a lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH by administering monosodium glutamate or a direct electrical lesion, ovariectomy, feeding on hypercaloric diets and genetic manipulation for obesity.A obesidade tem etiologia multifatorial e está se tornando um problema de saúde pública devido ao aumento da sua prevalência e a conseqüente repercusão das suas comorbidades na saúde da população. A grande similaridade e homologia entre os genomas dos roedores e dos humanos tornam esses modelos animais uma importante ferramenta para o estudo de condições que afetam os humanos e que podem ser simuladas em ratos. A obesidade pode ser induzida em animais com alterações neuroendócrinas, dietéticas ou genéticas. Os modelos mais utilizados para indução de obesidade em ratos são lesão do núcleo hipotalâmico venteromedial (VMH através da administração de glutamato monossódico ou lesão elétrica direta, ooforectomia, alimentação com dietas hipercalóricas e manipulação genética para obesidade.

  9. Effect of Pentoxifylline Administration on an Experimental Rat Model of Femur Fracture Healing With Intramedullary Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashghani Farahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Mostafavinia, Ataroalsadat; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Pouriran, Ramin; Noruzian, Mohammad; Ghoreishi, Seyed Kamran; Aryan, Arefe; Bayat, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Globally, musculoskeletal injuries comprise a major public health problem that contributes to a large burden of disability and suffering. Pentoxifylline (PTX) has been originally used as a hemorheologic drug to treat intermittent claudication. Previous test tube and in vivo studies reported the beneficial effects of PTX on bony tissue. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different dosages of PTX on biomechanical properties that occur during the late phase of the fracture healing process following a complete femoral osteotomy in a rat model. We applied intramedullary pin fixation as the treatment of choice. This experimental study was conducted at the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. We used the simple random technique to divide 35 female rats into five groups. Group 1 received intraperitoneal (i.p.) PTX (50 mg/kg, once daily) injections, starting 15 days before surgery, and group 2, group 3, and group 4 received 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg i.p. PTX injections, respectively, once daily after surgery. All animals across groups received treatment for six weeks (until sacrificed). Complete surgical transverse osteotomy was performed in the right femur of all rats. At six weeks after surgery, the femurs were subjected to a three-point bending test. Daily administration of 50 mg/kg PTX (groups 1 and 2) decreased the high stress load in repairing osteotomized femurs when compared with the control group. The highest dose of PTX (200 mg/kg) significantly increased the high stress load when compared with the control group (P = 0.030), group 1 (P = 0.023), group 2 (P = 0.008), and group 3 (P = 0.010), per the LSD findings. Treatment with 200 mg/kg PTX accelerated fracture healing when compared with the control group.

  10. Antiepileptic effect of fisetin in iron-induced experimental model of traumatic epilepsy in rats in the light of electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jharana; Singh, Rameshwar; Sharma, Deepak

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic epilepsy is defined by episodes of recurring seizures secondary to severe brain injury. Though drugs are found effective to control seizures, their long-term use have been observed to increase reactive oxygen species in animals. Flavonoid fisetin, a natural bioactive phytonutrient reported to exert anticonvulsive effect in experimental seizure models. But, trauma-induced seizures could not be prevented by anticonvulsants was reported in some clinical studies. To study the effect of fisetin on epileptiform electrographic activity in iron-induced traumatic epilepsy and also the probable reason behind the effect in rats. Fisetin pretreatment (20 mg/kg body wt., p.o.) of rats for 12 weeks were chosen followed by injecting iron (5 µl, 100 mM) stereotaxically to generate iron-induced epilepsy. Experimental design include electrophysiological study (electroencephalograph in correlation with multiple unit activity (MUA) in the cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus; spectral analysis of seizure and seizure-associated behavioral study (Morris water maze for spatial learning, open-field test for anxiety) and biochemical study (lipid peroxidation, Na + ,K + -ATPase activity) in both the cortex and the hippocampus. Fisetin pretreatment was found to prevent the development of iron-induced electrical seizure and decrease the corresponding MUA in the cortex (*P˂0.05) as well as in the hippocampus (***P˂0.001). Fisetin pretreatment decreased the lipid peroxides (*P˂0.05) and retained the Na + ,K + -ATPase activity (*P˂0.05) which was found altered in the epileptic animals and also found to attenuate the seizure-associated cognitive dysfunctions. This study demonstrated the antiepileptic action of fisetin in iron-induced model of epileptic rats by inhibiting oxidative stress.

  11. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de

    1994-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs

  12. Modeling of systematic retention of beryllium in rats. Extrapolation to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and other animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with other previously published

  13. Neuroprotective effects of agmatine in experimental peripheral nerve injury in rats: a prospective randomized and placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Aykut; Guclu, Bulent; Kazanci, Burak; Cakir, Murteza; Coban, Mustafa Kemal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the activity of agmatine, an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor and selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, on reducing tissue damage in distal part of traumatic nerve in an experimental rat peripheral nerve injury model. Sciatic nerves of 30 Sprague Dawley male rats were used. Rats were divided into 5 groups; group 1 (n=6), control group; group 2 (n=6), axonotmesis + placebo group; group 3 (n=6), axonotmesis + 50 mg/kg agmatine treatment group; group 4 (n=6), neurotmesis + placebo group; group 5 (n=6), neurotmesis + 50 mg/kg agmatine treatment group. Axonolysis, axon degeneration, edema, hemorrhage, and inflammation were evaluated in histopathologic examinations of all the groups. When group 2 was compared with group 3 in histopathologic sections, axonolysis was less in group 3 (p=0.007), as was axon degeneration (p=0.022) and edema (p=0.018). When group 4 was compared with group 5, axonolysis was less in group 5 (p=0.009), as was axon degeneration (p=0.006) and edema (p=0.021). This study demonstrated agmatine to have antioxidant and antineurotoxic effects in an experimental rat peripheral nerve injury model.

  14. The rat as a model for orthodontic tooth movement--a critical review and a proposed solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to perform a systematic review of the use of rats as a model for experimental tooth movement, to give a critical evaluation of the use of elastics as a force delivery system, and to describe a newly designed well-defined model for tooth movement in rats. The literature

  15. Type 2 Diabetes and Metformin Influence on Fracture Healing in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fontaine, Javier; Chen, Chris; Hunt, Nathan; Jude, Edward; Lavery, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Persons with diabetes have a greater incidence of fractures compared with persons without diabetes. However, very little published information is available concerning the deleterious effect of late-stage diabetes on osseous structure and bone healing. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of diabetes on fracture healing in a rat femur repair model. Thirty-six lean and diabetic Zucker rats were subdivided into 3 groups: (1) 12 lean rats as the control group; (2) 12 diabetic rats without blood glucose control (DM group); and (3) 12 diabetic rats treated with 300 mg/kg metformin to reduce the blood glucose levels (DM + Met group). Radiographs were taken every week to determine the incidence of bone repair and delayed union. All the rats were killed at 6 weeks after surgery. In both the sham-operated and the fractured and repaired femurs, significant decreases in the fracture-load/weight and marginal decreases in the fracture-load between the lean and DM groups were found. Metformin treatment significantly reduced the blood glucose and body weight 12 days postoperatively. Furthermore, a decrease in the fracture-load and fracture-load/weight in the repaired femurs was found in the DM + Met group. Diabetes impairs bone fracture healing. Metformin treatment reduces the blood glucose and body weight but had an adverse effect on fracture repair in diabetic rats. Further investigations are needed to reveal the mechanisms responsible for the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on bone and bone quality and the effect of medications such as metformin might have in diabetic bone in the presence of neuropathy and vascular disease. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Steroid-associated osteonecrosis animal model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhen Zheng

    2018-04-01

    lower at 6 weeks after SAON induction. Histomorphometry revealed significantly lower osteoblast surface and higher marrow fat fraction and oedema area in SAON group. Hepatic oedema appeared 2 weeks after SAON induction, and lipid accumulation appeared in the liver of SAON rats 6 weeks after SAON induction. Conclusion: The present study successfully induced SAON in rats with pulsed injection of LPS and MPS, which was well simulating the clinical feature and pathology. Apart from available large animal models, such as bipedal emus or quadrupedal rabbits, our current SAON small model in rats could be a cost-effective preclinical experimental model to study body metabolism, molecular mechanism of SAON and potential drugs developed for prevention or treatment of SAON. The translational potential of this article: The present study successfully induced SAON in a small animal model in rats with pulsed injection of LPS and MPS. The evaluation protocols with typical histopathologic ON features and advanced evaluation approaches to identify the metabolic disorders of SAON could be used in future rat SAON studies. The SAON rat model is a suitable and cost-effective animal model to study molecular mechanism of SAON and potential drugs developed for prevention and treatment of SAON. Keywords: Animal model, Corticosteroid, Osteonecrosis

  17. Gender differences in organ density in a rat simulated microgravity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettis, Christopher Ryan; Witten, Mark Lee

    2004-01-01

    Research investigating the physiological effects of microgravity on the human body has demonstrated a shift of body fluids in actual spaceflight and in simulated Earth-based microgravity models in both males and females, possibly causing many deleterious physiological effects. Twenty-five anatomically normal female (NF) and 20 ovariectomized (OE) Fischer 344 rats were randomly selected to be in an experimental ( 1 h of 45° head-down tilt, 45HDT) or control ( 1 h of prone position) group. At the end of the hour experimental period, the density of the brain, lungs, heart, liver, and left and right kidneys were measured using spiral computed tomography (SCT) while the rats remained in their experimental positions. A sub-group of OE rats ( N=6) was administered estrogen replacement therapy on a daily basis ( 5 μg/kg body weight, s.c.) for 4 days and then underwent 1 h of 45HDT and SCT analysis at one day, 2 days, and 5 days to determine if estrogen replacement therapy would alter organ densities. Our data demonstrate that 1 h of 45HDT produced significant increases ( pbrain, liver, left kidney, and lung of the OE female group compared to their prone controls. However, only the brain density was significantly increased in the NF group. Estrogen replacement therapy caused a significant decrease in brain organ density at the 5 day time point compared to the 24 h time point. We conclude that estrogen plays a role in fluid distribution in a rat 45HDT model.

  18. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J; Flagel, Shelly B; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of IGFS on blood lipid metabolism in experimental hyperlipidemia rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanwei; Tianjin Medical College of Chinese People's Armed Police Force, Tianjin; Yu Xiaofeng; Xu Huali; Qu Shaochun; Sui Dayuan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of injection of ginseng fruit saponins (IGFS) on total cholesterol (TC), lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism and antioxidative activity in experimental hyperlipidemia rats. Methods: The TC, lipoprotein cholesterol and lipidperoxidation (LPO) contents, prostacycline (PGI 2 ) and thromboxane (TXA 2 ) levels, superoxidedismutase (SOD) activity and blood viscosity were measured respectively in hyperlipidemia rats which had been given IGFS 10, 20 and 40 mg·kg -1 ·d - '1 ip, respectively, for fifteen days. In addition, fat accumulation in liver was observed. Results: The triglyceride (TG), TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) in serum, TXA 2 in plasma, LPO in serum and liver and blood viscosity were decreased significantly, and PGI 2 in plasma and SOD in serum and liver were significantly increased after administration with IGFS (20 and 40 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 ) in experimental hyperlipidemia rats. Moreover, IGFS decreased ratios of TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c, increased the ratio of PGI 2 /TXA 2 and inhibit fat accumulation in liver. The content of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in serum were significantly increased after administration IGFS (40 mg·kg -1 · -1 ) in experimental hyperlipidemia rats. Conclusions: IGFS can inhibit arterioscleros by improving cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism, suppressing LPO and increasing antioxidation. (authors)

  20. Bifidobacterium breve prevents necrotising enterocolitis by suppressing inflammatory responses in a preterm rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T; Izumi, H; Iwabuchi, N; Odamaki, T; Namba, K; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z

    2016-02-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inflammatory responses and barrier dysfunction in the gut. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on factors related to NEC development using an experimental rat model. Caesarean-sectioned rats were given formula milk with or without B. breve M-16V by oral gavage thrice daily, and experimental NEC was induced by exposing the rats to hypoxic conditions. Naturally delivered rats that were reared by their mother were used as healthy controls. The pathological score of NEC and the expression of molecules related to inflammatory responses and the barrier function were assessed in the ileum. B. breve M-16V reduced the pathological scores of NEC and resulted in some improvement in survivability. B. breve M-16V suppressed the increased expression of molecules related to inflammation and barrier function that resulted from NEC induction. B. breve M-16V normalised Toll-like receptor (TRL)4 expression and enhanced TLR2 expression. Our data suggest that B. breve M-16V prevents NEC development by modulating TLR expressions and suppressing inflammatory responses in a rat model.

  1. MCP-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are present in early aneurysmal dilatation in experimental rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Fan; Hao-Tong; Jing Di; Fang Liu; Hai-Hua Zhao; Shu-Ling Bai; Xiang Li; Linlin Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that inflammation actively participates in ascending aortic aneurysm formation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression changes of adhesion molecules and MMPs in an experimental model of ascending aortic aneurysm induced by ascending aorta banding in Wistar rats. Twelve rats developed aortic dilation after ascending aorta banding treatment, while nine normal animals underwent surgery without banding were used as controls. Light microscope and scanning electron microscope showed that the wall of the ascending aorta became disorganized as well as infiltration by inflammatory cells in aneurysmal rats. By using immunohistochemical techniques, a significant increase in the immunostaining of MCP-1 was observed in the aneurysmal wall as compared to the normal aortic wall. Under similar experimental conditions, we also found that the immunostaining of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was markedly increased in the aneurysmal wall. In addition, gelatin zymo graphic analysis showed that the expression and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were remarkably enhanced in the ascending aorta of ascending aortic aneurysmal rats as compared to normal rats. These results demonstrate that MCP-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are involved in the pathogenesis of ascending aortic aneurysm and an increase in the immunostaining and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 may promote the progression of ascending aortic aneurysm. (authors)

  2. No association between periodontitis, preterm birth, or intrauterine growth restriction: experimental study in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogacci, Mariana Fampa; Barbirato, Davi da Silva; Amaral, Cristine da Silva Furtado; da Silva, Priscilla Gonçalves; Coelho, Mariana de Oliveira; Bertozi, Giuliana; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Leão, Anna Thereza Thomé

    2016-06-01

    The biologic plausibility of the possible association between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been assessed with the use of different experimental models. However, most experimental studies did not induce periodontitis in the animals but promoted an acute microbial challenge with selected periodontal pathogens or their products subcutaneous or intravenous or intraamniotic. The present study was then conducted to verify the biologic plausibility of such association by experimentally inducing periodontitis in Wistar rats. An experimental study on an animal model by the induction of periodontitis in 50% of sites and assessment of the presence of cytokines in the gingival tissue, serum, placenta, cord, and amniotic fluid was designed to test the null hypothesis that experimental periodontitis that is induced on rats does not result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Forty female Wistar rats were included in 2 groups: a periodontally healthy (without ligatures) and an experimentally induced periodontitis group (test, with ligatures). Forty-five days after the induction, the mating was initiated. Males were placed with females in the ratio of 1:2 for a period of 12 hours. The bodyweight of the female, from then on, was recorded daily. When the pregnancy was confirmed on day 20, laparotomy was performed. The amniotic fluid, placenta, umbilical cord, blood (serum) and maternal and gingival tissue samples were subjected to quantitative analysis for interleukin 1α, -6, -10, -4, -12p70, and -17a, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ by multiplex methods. Mean scores, standard deviations, and standard errors for estimated measures were calculated. For cytokines analyses, the Mann-Whitney test was conducted to compare the concentration of the analytes from control and test groups in the different tissues samples. For comparison of cytokines reduction from gingival tissue to serum and from serum to placenta, the Wilcoxon Test was performed. Spearman

  3. Both experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase cardiac irisin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atici, E; Menevse, E; Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R

    2018-01-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered myokine and adipokine that increases total body energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the levels of irisin in heart tissue in rats. The study was performed on the 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental groups were designed as; Control, Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroidism+L-Thyroxine, Hyperthyroidism and Hyperthyroidism + PTU. Following 3 weeks experimental period, irisin levels were determined in heart tissues. Hypothyroidism group values of irisin were higher than in the control group, but lower than in the hyperthyroidism group. The hyperthyroidism group had the highest levels of cardiac irisin. The results of the study showed that the experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increased the heart irisin levels, but the increase in the hyperthyroidism group was much higher than in the hypothyroidism group. However, treatment of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism corrected cardiac irisin levels (Fig. 1, Ref. 28).

  4. The distribution of blood group antigens in experimentally produced carcinomas of rat palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, J; Philipsen, H P; Fisker, A V

    1986-01-01

    palate induced by a chemical carcinogen (4NQO). The H antigen, normally expressed on spinous cells in rats, was absent in malignant epithelium, whereas staining for the B antigen, normally expressed on basal cells, was variable. These changes are equivalent to those seen in human squamous cell carcinomas....... The blood group antigen staining pattern in experimentally produced verrucous carcinomas showed an almost normal blood group antigen expression. This may have diagnostic significance. Localized areas of hyperplastic palatal epithelium with slight dysplasia revealed loss of H antigen and the presence of B...... antigen in suprabasal strata equivalent to the pattern seen in human premalignant epithelium. We conclude from these findings, that the rat model is well suited to study changes in cell surface carbohydrates during chemical carcinogenesis....

  5. Step training in a rat model for complex aneurysmal vascular microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microsurgery training is a key step for the young neurosurgeons. Both in vascular and peripheral nerve pathology, microsurgical techniques are useful tools for the proper treatment. Many training models have been described, including ex vivo (chicken wings and in vivo (rat, rabbit ones. Complex microsurgery training include termino-terminal vessel anastomosis and nerve repair. The aim of this study was to describe a reproducible complex microsurgery training model in rats. Materials and methods: The experimental animals were Brown Norway male rats between 10-16 weeks (average 13 and weighing between 250-400g (average 320g. We performed n=10 rat hind limb replantations. The surgical steps and preoperative management are carefully described. We evaluated the vascular patency by clinical assessment-color, temperature, capillary refill. The rats were daily inspected for any signs of infections. The nerve regeneration was assessed by foot print method. Results: There were no case of vascular compromise or autophagia. All rats had long term survival (>90 days. The nerve regeneration was clinically completed at 6 months postoperative. The mean operative time was 183 minutes, and ischemia time was 25 minutes.

  6. The characterization of obese polycystic ovary syndrome rat model suitable for exercise intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyan Wu

    Full Text Available To develop a new polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rat model suitable for exercise intervention.Thirty six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: PCOS rats with high-fat diet (PF, n = 24, PCOS rats with ordinary diet (PO, n = 6, and control rats with ordinary diet (CO, n = 6. Two kinds of PCOS rat model were made by adjustment diet structure and testosterone injection for 28 days. After a successful animal model, PF model rats were randomly assigned to three groups: exercise with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-EF, n = 6, sedentary with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-SF, n = 6, exercise with an ordinary diet (PF-EO, n = 6. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and insulin (FINS, estrogen (E2, progesterone (P, and testosterone (T in serum were determined by RIA, and ovarian morphology was evaluated by Image-Pro plus 6.0.Body weight, Lee index, FINS increased significantly in PF rat model. Serum levels of E2 and T were significantly higher in PF and PO than in CO. Ovary organ index and ovarian areas were significant lower in PF than in CO. After intervention for 2 weeks, the levels of 1 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG1, 2 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG2, FINS and the serum levels of T decreased significantly in PF-EF rats and PF-EO rats. The ratio of FBG/FINS was significant higher in PF-EO rats than in PF-SF rats. Ovarian morphology showed that the numbers of preantral follicles and atretic follicles decreased significantly, and the numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased significantly in the rats of PF-EF and PF-EO.By combination of high-fat diet and testosterone injection, the obese PCOS rat model is conformable with the lifestyle habits of fatty foods and insufficient exercise, and has metabolic and reproductive characteristics of human PCOS. This model can be applied to study exercise intervention.

  7. Evaluation criterions and establishment of dry eye model of rats induced by BTX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To establish dry eye model of rats induced by botulinum toxin B(BTX-Band provide the basis for the pathogenesis and experimental treatment of dry eye caused by inflammation. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy female SD rats were selected and divided into four groups randomly, and the experimental group included three groups, which were individually injected 0.1mL 1.25, 5, and 10mU BTX-B solution on the right lacrimal gland; the control group was injected 0.1mL normal saline on the right lacrimal gland, then received Schirmer Ⅰ test(SⅠtand examination of corneal fluorescein(FLstaining respectively at the 3, 7, 14 and 28d. The other 32 rats were selected and divided into two groups randomly, the rats in the experimental group were injected 0.1mL 1.25mU BTX-B solution on the right lacrimal gland and then five rats were randomly chosen to be removed lacrimal gland tissue respectively at the 3, 7, 14, 21, 42d. The Lacritin protein was detected in the qualitative and quantitative way by immunofluorescence and Western-blot, and the histopathological test was received by routine HE staining. RESULTS: The three groups in the experimental group during the preparation of the model appeared that tear secretions decreased and corneal epithelium got damaged at 3d, but there was no significant difference for each other of two changes(P>0.05. The change was reached the peak at 7d and improved at 14d. The tear secretions returned to normal level at 28d, but the damage of corneal epithelium was still existed. The expression of Lacritin protein was only observed in acinar cells of both experimental group and control group, and the content of Lacritin protein in the experimental group decreased significantly. The decreasing situation appeared at 3d, reached the peak at 7d, improved at 14d, began to recover at 28d, and returned to the normal level at 42d. CONCLUSION: Dry eye model of SD rats can be successfully established by lacrimal gland injection of 1.25mU BTX

  8. Growth control of the cranial base. A study with experimentally bipedal male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit-Vis, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study the postnatal development of the skull, particularly that of the cranial base, was studied in experimentally bipedal male rats, up to the age of 46 weeks. A total of 81 bipedal rats and a control group of 90 animals were studied. It was found that, as compared with control rats, the bipedal rats had a definitely more spherical skull. This was the result of an increased height and a stronger dorsal flexion of the anterior cranial base. As to the chondrocranial elements, the basi-occipital bone reached, on the average, the same length in bipedal rats as in controls. However, the basisphenoid bone was significantly shorter. Arguments are given to relate the latter phenomenon to the altered shape of the neurocranium. The conclusion is drawn that, in this experimental approach, chondrocranial growth at the intersphenoidal synchondrosis is controlled not only by intrinsic genetic factors but also by local epigenetic and/or environmental factors.

  9. Studies on the pathogenicity of anaerobes, especially Prevotella bivia, in a rat pyometra model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikamo, H; Kawazoe, K; Izumi, K; Watanabe, K; Ueno, K; Tamaya, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prevotella bivia is one of the anaerobic bacteria that resides in the flora of the female genital tract. We studied the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. METHODS: The experimental animal (rat) model of pyometra was developed to investigate the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. RESULTS: In the groups inoculated with aerobes alone, the infection rate was 10% (1/10) in the Staphylococcus aureus- or Staphylococcus agalactiae-inoculated group and 20% (2/10) in the Escherichia coli-inoculated group. Infection was not established in the groups inoculated with anaerobes alone. High infection rates were observed in all the mixed-infection groups. In the S. agalactiae- and Bacteroides fragilis-, S. agalactiae- and P. bivia-, F. coli- and B. fragilis-, and E. coli- and P. bivia-inoculated groups, an infection rate of 100% (10/10) was demonstrated. The efficacy of antibiotics such as flomoxef (FMOX) could be determined using a rat pyometra model. In relation to the alteration of vaginal microbial flora during the menstrual cycle, estrogen increased the growth of P. bivia. CONCLUSION: Mixture of aerobic bacteria and P. bivia increased the pathogenicity of P. bivia. Estrogen would be useful for raising up the inflammatory change of the uterus in experimental models of genital tract infection due to P. bivia. PMID:9702587

  10. Effect of Citrullus colocynthis hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats model: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Mohammad Hossein; Khazali, Homayoun; Kalantar, Seyyed Mehdi; Khoradmehr, Arezoo

    2017-10-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (CCT) is used as the anti-diabetic and antioxidant agent. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive disorder which level of gonadotropins and sexual hormones are imbalanced. We evaluated the effect of CCT hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats' model. 40 female adult Wistar rats divided into five groups (n=8each: Group I (control) only injected by sesame oil as estradiol valerate solvent, group II (Sham) was orally received normal saline after estradiol valerate- induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (4 mg/rat estradiol valerate, intramuscularly), and three experimental groups, that after induction of PCOS within 60 days, received orally 50 mg/kg CCT extract (group III), 50mg/kg metformin (group IV), and CCT extract+ metformin (group V) for 20 days. The serum concentration level of luteinizing, testosterone and follicle stimulating hormones were measured using ELISA method and the serum concentration level of glucose were measured using the oxidative method (glucose meter). Histological study of ovary tissue carried out by hematoxylin-eosin staining. There was a significant reduction in luteinizing hormone and testosterone in III-V groups compared to Sham group, whereas follicle stimulating hormone in III-V groups was not significantly changed in comparison with Sham group. Histological investigations showed a significant increase in number of preantral and antral follicles and corpus luteum in the experimental groups compared to group II. Marked improvement in hormonal and histological symptoms of PCOS may be due to CCT effects hence, CCT can potentially be considered as an effective drug for treatment of PCOS.

  11. [ACTION OF L-CARNITINE, CORVITIN AND THEIR COMBINATION ON FUNCTIONAL STATE OF LIVER IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF REYE SYNDROME IN RATS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonghadze, M; Antelava, N; Liluashvili, K; Okujava, M; Pachkoria, K

    2017-02-01

    Administration of Aacetylsalicylic acid in children with viral infections (influence B, chickenpox) can be related with development of Reye syndrome - severe encephalopathy and liver insufficiency with mortality in 50% of cases. During Reye syndrome most important is deficiency of carnitine and hepatocyte damage. Decreased amount of carnitine impairs the energy function of mitochondria and gluconeogenesis as well as production of urea. As a result develops toxic encephalopathy and liver insufficiency. The goal of the research was assessment of efficacy of L-Carnitine, Corvitin and their combination on functional state of liver in experimental model of Reye Syndrome in rats. The study was performed on mature white male Wistar rates with body mass 150-180g. 50 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 rats in each group). The model of Reye syndrome was induced in accordance with A.Vengersky's method. Intraperitoneal administration of 4-pentenoic acid was performed once daily during seven days, the used dosage was 20mg/kg. The treatment of toxic hepatitis was carried with intraperitoneal administration of L-Carnitine 300mg/kg, Corvitine 100mg/kg and concurrent administration of these drugs. Monotherapy with Corvitin and L-Carnitin successfully improved liver function and equally decreased indicators of hepatocyte's cytolyses and increased levels of glucose and urea. The markers of cholestasis was slightly more improved during use of L-Carnitine. Simultaneous use of both drugs was effective in rats with Reye syndrome, indicators of liver damage normalized and herewith, no mortality outcome was observed. The most pronounced hepatoprotective effect of concurrent administration of L-Carnitine and Corvitin may be due to synergic action of these drugs and such regime can be recommended for correction of liver function during Reye syndrome.

  12. Diazinon and Cadmium Neurotoxicity in Rats after an Experimental Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Toman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the changes in cholinesterase activity in separate doses and after coadministration of cadmium and diazinon intraperitoneally and to assess toxicity and interactions of diazinon and cadmium on the nervous system in male rats. 40 male rats were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group (10 rats in each group. Blood analyzes were performed 36 hours after an intraperitoneal administration of observed compounds. The statistical evaluation of the results showed significantly (P < 0.01 reduced activity of cholinesterase in all experimental groups. The enzyme activity decreased from the control value 3.69 μkat/L to 1.81 μkat/L (diazinon group, 1.83 μkat/L (cadmium group and 1.35 μkat/L (cadmium+diazinon group. These results indicate that both cadmium and diazinon are potent to manifest the neurotoxic effects. Moreover, a synergistic effect of the co-administered cadmium and diazinon in the nervous system has been observed.

  13. The predisposing effect of TGF-β1 and serpine-1 on the formation of traumatic deep vein thrombosis: an experimental study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jihong; Wu Xuemei; Li Xingguo; Li Hongkun; Zheng Hongyu; Zhao Xueling; Wang Bing

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of TGF-β1 and serpine-1 expression in femoral vein endothelial tissue in the experimental rat models with traumatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and to study the effect of expression level on the formation of traumatic deep vein thrombosis. Methods: A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into control group (n=10) and experimental group (n=50). Rat model of DVT used in experimental group was established by clamping the femoral vein together with the fixation of the lower extremity with plaster splint. The femoral arteries were dissected at 2.5 and 25 hours after trauma to observe the occurrence of thrombus and its severity. Based on the degree of thrombus formation, the rats in the experimental group was divided into group B (pre-thrombogenesis, 2.5 hours after trauma), group C (thrombogenesis, 25 hours after trauma) and group D (non-thrombogenesis, 25 hours after trauma). Then total RNA was extracted from the local femoral venous tissue. The different expressed genes were screened by adopting a special chip, Rat Genome 2302.0 These gene expressions were further identified by real-time PCR. In addition, these genes were further analyzed by using Pathway technique and other biological information analysis. Results: The results of both gene chip hybridization analysis and real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expressions of both TGF-β1 and serpine-1 in rat femoral vein endothelial tissue were significantly up-regulated at 2.5 hours after trauma, in addition, the expressions of group B were significantly higher than those of group A and group D (P 0.05). Pathway analysis showed that TGF-β1 was the epistatic regulatory gene of serpine-1, as it could induce the over-expression of serpine-1, inhibit fibrinolysis and promote thrombosis. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicate that the up-regulated TGF-β1 and serpine-1 in local femoral venous endothelial tissue may play a crucial role in the formation of

  14. Altered monocyte function in experimental preeclampsia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M.; Broekema, Martine; Moes, Henk; van der Schaaf, Gerda; Heineman, Maas Jan; de Vos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we evaluated functional activity of monocytes in experimental preeclampsia induced by low-dose endotoxin infusion. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant (n = 12) and cyclic rats (n = 12) were equipped with a permanent jugular vein cannula and infused with either low-dose endotoxin

  15. Significance of the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in brain tissue of rat models of experimental intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiami; Liu Shengda

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the brain tissue expression of MMP-9 and brain water content in rat models of experimental ICH. Methods: Rat models of ICH were prepared with intracerebral (caudate nuclei) injection of autologous noncoagulated blood (50 μl). Animals were sacrificed at 6h, 12h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 120h, lw, 2w and the MMP-9 expressions at the periphery of intracerebral hematoma were examined with immunohisto chemistry. The brain water content was also determined at the same time. Control models were prepared with intracerebral sham injection of normal saline. Results: (1) In the ICH models, the number of MMP-9 positive capillaries at the periphery of hematoma began to rise at 6h (vs that of sham group, P < 0.01 ) with peak at 48h, then gradually dropped. At lwk, the number was still significantly higher than that in the sham group (P <0.01 ). However, there were no expression at 2wk. (2) The brain water content in the ICH group was significantly increased at 12h (vs sham group, P < 0.05) with peak at 72h. At lwk, the brain water content was still significantly higher in the ICH group (P <0.01 ) but at 2wk, the brain water content was about the same in both groups. (3) Animals injected with different amounts of blood (30 μl, 50 μl, 100 μl) showed increased expression of MMP-9 along with the increase of dose (P<0.01). (4) The MMP-9 expression was positively correlated with the brain water content (r=0.8291, P<0.05). Conclusion: In the rat models, MMP-9 expression was activated after ICH. The increase paralleled that of the amount of haemorrhage and brain water content. It was postulated that MMP-9 enhanced development of brain edema through degrading of the blood brain barrier component substances. (authors)

  16. Effect of ghrelin on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in experimental rat and mice models of heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF continues to be a challenging condition in terms of prevention and management of the disease. Studies have demonstrated various cardio-protective effects of Ghrelin. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of Ghrelin on mortality and cardiac function in experimental rats/mice models of HF.Data sources: PUBMED, Scopus. We searched the Digital Dissertations and conference proceedings on Web of Science. Search methods: We systematically searched for all controlled trials (upto November 2014 which assessed the effects of Ghrelin (irrespective of dose, form, frequency, duration and route of administration on mortality and cardiac function in rats/ mice models of HF. Ghrelin administration irrespective of dose, form, frequency, duration and route of administration. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed each abstract for eligibility and extracted data on characteristics of the experimental model used, intervention and outcome measures. We assessed the methodological quality by SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for all studies and the quality of evidence by GRADEpro. We performed meta-analysis using RevMan 5.3.A total of 325 animals (rats and mice were analyzed across seven studies. The meta-analysis revealed that the mortality in Ghrelin group was 31.1% and in control group was 40% (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.47 i.e Ghrelin group had 68 fewer deaths per 1000 (from 216 fewer to 188 more as compared to the control group. The meta-analysis reveals that the heart rate in rats/mice on Ghrelin was higher (MD 13.11, 95% CI 1.14 to 25.08, P=0.66 while the mean arterial blood pressure (MD -1.38, 95% CI -5.16 to 2.41, P=0.48 and left ventricular end diastolic pressure (MD -2.45, 95% CI -4.46 to -0.43, P=0.02 were lower as compared to the those on placebo. There were insignificant changes in cardiac output (SMD 0.28, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.80, P=0.29 and left ventricular end systolic pressure (MD 1.48, 95% CI -3.86 to 6

  17. The influence of oxazaphosphorines alkylating agents on autonomic nervous system activity in rat experimental cystitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Baranowska, Agnieszka; Thor, Piotr J

    2013-01-01

    The oxazaphosphorines alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide; CP and ifosfamide; IF) are often used in common clinical practice. However, treatment with CP/IF is burdened with the risk of many adverse drug reactions, especially including hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) that is associated with bladder overactivity symptoms (OAB). The HC pathophysiology is still not fully displayed; it seems that autonomic nervous system (ANS) functional abnormalities play important role in this disturbance. The aim of our study was to reveal the potential ANS differences in rat experimental HC model, evoked by CP and IF by an indirect ANS assessment--heart rate variability (HRV) study. We carried out our experimental research in three essential groups: control group (group 1), cyclophosphamide-induced HC (CP-HC; group 2) one and ifosfamide-induced HC (IF-HC; group 3) one. CP was i.p. administrated four times in dose of 75 mg/kg body weight while IF-treated rats received i.p. five drug doses; 50 mg/kg body weight. Control rats were administrated i.p. vehicle in appropriate volumes as CP/IF treated animals. HRV studies were performed the next day after the last oxazaphosphorines dose. Standard time- and spectral (frequency) domain parameters were estimated. We confirmed the HC development after both CP/IF in macroscopic assessment and bladder wet weight measurement; however, it was more aggravated in CP-HC group. Moreover, we demonstrated HRV disturbances, suggesting ANS impairment after both studied oxazaphosphorines, however, consistent with the findings mentioned above, the autonomic dysfunction was more emphasized after CP. CP treatment was also associated with changes of non-normalized HRV spectral components percentage distribution--a marked very low frequency--VLF [%] increase together with low frequency--LF [%] and high frequency--HF [%] decrease were observed. Taking into consideration the next findings, demonstrating the lack of both normalized power spectral components (nLF and n

  18. Effect of ultrasound on the interleukin content in blood of rats with experimental inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurishchenko, N.Je.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory action of ultrasound by the interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha content in the blood of rats with experimental inflammation. The study was performed using conventional models of inflammation - carrageenan- induced edema of the limbs of rats. Content interleukins Il-6 and Il-8 were determined by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) according to a standard protocol Immunoassay kit, Biosourse (USA). The content of TNF-α was determined by cytotoxic effect on sensitive mouse fibroblast line L- 929. It was shown that in the group of rats with carrageenan-induced edema contents of IL-6 increase in 2.8 times, IL-8 - in 5.6 times, and TNF-α- in 3 times compared to the control. Course influence of ultra sound contributed to reduction of the studied parameters. The content of IL-6 decreased in 1.7 times, IL-8 and TNF-α- in 1.6 times in comparison with inflammation

  19. Experimental, statistical, and biological models of radon carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1991-09-01

    Risk models developed for underground miners have not been consistently validated in studies of populations exposed to indoor radon. Imprecision in risk estimates results principally from differences between exposures in mines as compared to domestic environments and from uncertainties about the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products. Uncertainties in extrapolating miner data to domestic exposures can be reduced by means of a broad-based health effects research program that addresses the interrelated issues of exposure, respiratory tract dose, carcinogenesis (molecular/cellular and animal studies, plus developing biological and statistical models), and the relationship of radon to smoking and other copollutant exposures. This article reviews experimental animal data on radon carcinogenesis observed primarily in rats at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Recent experimental and mechanistic carcinogenesis models of exposures to radon, uranium ore dust, and cigarette smoke are presented with statistical analyses of animal data. 20 refs., 1 fig

  20. Experimental model of traumatic ulcer in the cheek mucosa of rats Modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyléia Meneses Cavalcante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish an experimental model of traumatic ulcer in rat cheek mucosa for utilization in future alternative therapy studies. METHODS: A total of 60 adult male rats (250 - 300g were used. Ulceration of the left cheek mucosa was provoked by abrasion using a nº 15 scalpel blade. The animals were observed for 10 days, during which they were weighed and their ulcers were measured. The histological characteristics were analyzed and scored according to the ulcer phase. In the statistical analysis, a value of pOBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos para utilização em futuros testes de terapias alternativas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 60 ratos, adultos, machos, pesando entre 250 a 300g. A ulceração na mucosa jugal esquerda foi provocada por meio da abrasão desta com uma lâmina de bisturi número 15. Os animais foram observados por um período de 10 dias, sendo estes pesados e suas escoriações mensuradas. As características histológicas foram analisadas e descritas adotando escores para comparação dos estágios da fase da úlcera. Na análise estatística um valor de p<0,01 foi considerado uma resposta estatisticamente significante em todos os casos. RESULTADOS: Durante os cinco primeiros dias os animais perderam peso ("t" Student - p<0,01. A área da úlcera regrediu linearmente com o tempo, estando quase que completamente cicatrizada ao final de dez dias (ANOVA, pós-teste de Tendência - p<0,0001. Os grupos do 1º, 2º e 3º dias tiveram comportamento semelhante havendo uma diminuição dos escores a partir do 4º dia. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo de úlcera na mucosa jugal de ratos proposto pode ser considerado eficaz, apresentando reprodutibilidade confiável e baixo custo.

  1. Detrimental effects of fluvastatin on plasma lipid metabolism in rat breast carcinoma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapinová Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From clinical practice, obvious positive effects of statins on plasma lipid metabolism are well known. On the other hand, there are several experimental rodent studies, where these beneficial effects were not confirmed. The effects of fluvastatin on selected serum lipid parameters in a rat model of experimental breast cancer were determined. The drug was dietary administered at two concentrations of 20 and 200 mg/kg. At the end of the study (experiment duration - 18 weeks the blood from each animal was collected and serum lipid parameters were evaluated. Fluvastatin in both treated groups significantly increased parameters of serum lipids (mostly in a dose dependent manner. Fluvastatin in both treated groups of animals significantly increased serum levels of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and LDL-, HDL-, VLDL-cholesterol when compared to the control group. Our results pointed out to the apparent harmful effects of fluvastatin on plasma lipid metabolism in rat mammary carcinogenesis. Based on our previous results, it seems that rats commonly used in cancer model studies are generally unresponsive to the hypocholesterolemic effects of statins.

  2. Evaluation of Anti-ulcer Activity of Echinops Persicus on Experimental Gastric Ulcer Models in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farajzadeh-Sheikh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Echinops persicus is traditionally used for a long time in Iran for treatment of cough and constipation. This extract is produced by activity of bug (Situphilus spp. on the plant. We documented its anti-tussive effect in rats in our previous study.The aim of this study was to assess the anti-ulcer effect of Echinops persicus in an animal model. In this study we evaluated anti-ulcer effect of Echinops persicus by Shay's method in rats. In 3 groups of rats, pylorus was ligatured under anesthesia. The rats were euthanized after 19 hours later and number and level of ulcer in stomach was measured. In group 2 the extract was orally administered 45 minutes before pyloric ligature, and in group 3, it was administered intraperitoneally 20 minutes before pyloric ligature. The number of ulcers in stomach was significantly low in group 2 (P = 0.01 and 3 (P = 0.037 in comparison with group 1. The level of ulcer was significantly decreased in group 2 (P = 0.047 with comparison to group 1. We conclude that, Echinops extract can exhibit potentially cytoprotective and anti-ulcer activity.

  3. The Protective Effects of Shen-Fu Injection on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Shen-Fu injection (SFI on a caerulein-induced rat pancreatitis (AP model. Methods. SFI was given to rats in the SFI treated group through intraperitoneal injection. Blood and pancreas samples were collected for serological and histopathological studies. Results. Our results showed that AP caused significant decrease in tissue glutathione (GSH and serum IL-4 and IL-10, while pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA and myeloperoxidase (MPO were increased. Furthermore, TNF-α, IL-1β, amylase, and lipase levels were also significantly increased. On the other hand, SFI treatment reserved all these biochemical indices as well as histopathologic alterations that were induced by caerulein. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that the SFI protects against caerulein-induced AP in rats via modulation of cytokines, oxidative stress, and Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB activity.

  4. Development of an anaesthetized-rat model of exercise hyperpnoea: an integrative model of respiratory control using an equilibrium diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Manabe, Kou; Ueda, Shinya; Nakahara, Hidehiro

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? The lack of useful small-animal models for studying exercise hyperpnoea makes it difficult to investigate the underlying mechanisms of exercise-induced ventilatory abnormalities in various disease states. What is the main finding and its importance? We developed an anaesthetized-rat model for studying exercise hyperpnoea, using a respiratory equilibrium diagram for quantitative characterization of the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system. This experimental model will provide an opportunity to clarify the major determinant mechanisms of exercise hyperpnoea, and will be useful for understanding the mechanisms responsible for abnormal ventilatory responses to exercise in disease models. Exercise-induced ventilatory abnormalities in various disease states seem to arise from pathological changes of respiratory regulation. Although experimental studies in small animals are essential to investigate the pathophysiological basis of various disease models, the lack of an integrated framework for quantitatively characterizing respiratory regulation during exercise prevents us from resolving these problems. The purpose of this study was to develop an anaesthetized-rat model for studying exercise hyperpnoea for quantitative characterization of the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system. In 24 anaesthetized rats, we induced muscle contraction by stimulating bilateral distal sciatic nerves at low and high voltage to mimic exercise. We recorded breath-by-breath respiratory gas analysis data and cardiorespiratory responses while running two protocols to characterize the controller and plant of the respiratory chemoreflex. The controller was characterized by determining the linear relationship between end-tidal CO 2 pressure (P ETC O2) and minute ventilation (V̇E), and the plant by the hyperbolic relationship between V̇E and P ETC O2. During exercise, the controller curve shifted upward without change in controller gain, accompanying

  5. Standardization of the experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) model by immunization of rats with Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptors — Recommendations for methods and experimental designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Mario; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar; Molenaar, Peter C.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Tzartos, Socrates; Brenner, Talma; Duan, Rui-Sheng; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon; Kusner, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is characterized by a chronic, fatigable weakness of voluntary muscles. The production of autoantibodies involves the dysregulation of T cells which provide the environment for the development of autoreactive B cells. The symptoms are caused by destruction of the postsynaptic membrane and degradation of the AChR by IgG autoantibodies, predominantly of the G1 and G3 subclasses. Active immunization of animals with AChR from mammalian muscles, AChR from Torpedo or Electrophorus electric organs, and recombinant or synthetic AChR fragments generates a chronic model of MG, termed experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). This model covers cellular mechanisms involved in the immune response against the AChR, e.g. antigen presentation, T cell-help and regulation, B cell selection and differentiation into plasma cells. Our aim is to define standard operation procedures and recommendations for the rat EAMG model using purified AChR from the Torpedo californica electric organ, in order to facilitate more rapid translation of preclinical proof of concept or efficacy studies into clinical trials and, ultimately, clinical practice. PMID:25796590

  6. Model of excitation-contraction coupling of rat neonatal ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Topi; Hänninen, Sandra L; Tavi, Pasi

    2009-02-01

    The neonatal rat ventricular myocyte culture is one of the most popular experimental cardiac cell models. To our knowledge, the excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) of these cells, i.e., the process linking the electrical activity to the cytosolic Ca2+ transient and contraction, has not been previously analyzed, nor has it been presented as a complete system in detail. Neonatal cardiomyocytes are in the postnatal developmental stage, and therefore, the features of their ECC differ vastly from those of adult ventricular myocytes. We present the first complete analysis of ECC in these cells by characterizing experimentally the action potential and calcium signaling and developing the first mathematical model of ECC in neonatal cardiomyocytes that we know of. We show that in comparison to adult cardiomyocytes, neonatal cardiomyocytes have long action potentials, heterogeneous cytosolic Ca2+ signals, weaker sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ handling, and stronger sarcolemmal Ca2+ handling, with a significant contribution by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. The developed model reproduces faithfully the ECC of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with a novel description of spatial cytosolic [Ca2+] signals. Simulations also demonstrate how an increase in the cell size (hypertrophy) affects the ECC in neonatal cardiomyocytes. This model of ECC in developing cardiomyocytes provides a platform for developing future models of cardiomyocytes at different developmental stages.

  7. Evaluating the effects of pentoxifylline administration on experimental pressure sores in rats by biomechanical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaei, Kobra; Bayat, Mohammad; Torkman, Giti; Rezaie, Fatemealsadat; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Tavassol, Azaedh; Bayat, Mehernoush

    2012-09-01

    This study used a biomechanical test to evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline administration on the wound healing process of an experimental pressure sore induced in rats. Under general anesthesia and sterile conditions, experimental pressure sores generated by no. 25 Halsted mosquito forceps were inflicted on 12 adult male rats. Pentoxifylline was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily from the day the pressure sore was generated, for a period of 20 days. At the end of 20 days, rats were sacrificed and skin samples extracted. Samples were biomechanically examined by a material testing instrument for maximum stress (N mm(2)), work up to maximum force (N), and elastic stiffness (N/mm). In the experimental group, maximum stress (2.05±0.15) and work up to maximum force (N/mm) (63.75±4.97) were significantly higher than the control group (1.3±0.27 and 43.3±14.96, P=0.002 and P=0.035, respectively). Pentoxifylline administration significantly accelerated the wound healing process in experimental rats with pressure sores, compared to that of the control group.

  8. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  9. Preservation of Retina Ganglion Cell Function by Morphine in a Chronic Ocular-Hypertensive Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Shahid; Abdul, Yasir; Crosson, Craig E.

    2012-01-01

    Morphine, a broad range opioid-receptors agonist, provides retina neuroprotection against glaucomatous injury in chronic experimental rat model. Morphine-induced retina neuroprotection in glaucoma model is mediated partly via inhibition of TNF-alpha production and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activation.

  10. Luminal and parenteral TFF2 and TFF3 dimer and monomer in two models of experimental colitis in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Kissow, Hannelouise; Hare, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    % dextran sodium sulphate in the drinking water or by one intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin C, 3.75 mg/kg. TFF peptides were administered as subcutaneous injections or directly into the lumen via a catheter placed in the proximal colon. Treatments were saline, TFF2, TFF3 monomer or TFF3 dimer 5 mg......2 had positive effect only in DSS-induced colitis. The TFF3 monomer was without any effects in both models. Treatment effect was most pronounced in the middle part of the colon, closest to the tip of the catheter. Injected TFF peptides, especially the TFF3 monomer, aggravated the colitis score...... in both colitis models. CONCLUSIONS: Intracolonic administration of TFF3 dimer and TFF2 improves experimentally induced colitis in rats. The TFF3 monomer has no effect. Parenteral administration of TFF peptides aggravates the colitis especially the TFF3 monomer....

  11. Experimental study of Triglii semen(巴豆 on the blood in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hyun Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to Experimental study effects of 「Triglii Semen」on the blood in Rats , we have made rats by administering Animal control chamber for two weeks, then have administered. The results were summerized as follows: 1. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and Hct, Hb by generally rats oral ingestion by Triglii semen of the sample group were decreased as compared with those of the control group. 2. GOT, GPT by generally rats oral ingestion were increased as compared those of control group. According to the above results, Triglii Semen showed inhibition on decrease of serum total cholesterol and Hb, Hct, WBC, RBC contents as well as inhibition on increase of GOT, GPT.

  12. [Dinitrosyl iron complexes with glutathione recover rats with experimental endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamian, L V; Burgova, E N; Tkachev, N A; Mikoian, V D; Stepanian, A A; Sonova, M M; Vanin, A F

    2013-01-01

    The effect of binuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with glutathione on endometrioid tumors in rats with experimental endometriosis has been studied. The latter was induced by an autotransplantation model, where two fragments of endometrium with myometrium (2 x 2 mm) from the left uterine horn was grafted to the inner surface of the anterior abdominal wall. The test animals received intraperitoneal injections of 0.5 ml DNIC-glutathione at the dose of 12.5 micromole per kg daily for 12 days 28 days after operation. The injections resulted in more than a 2-fold decrease in the total volume of both large tumors formed from grafts and small additive tumors formed nearby grafts. The disappearance of the additive tumors was also observed in test animals. The EPR signal with g(av) = 2.03 characteristic of protein bound DNIC with thiol-containing ligands was recorded in livers, graft and additive tumors of test and control animals pointing out intensive generation of nitric oxide in rats with experimental endometriosis. Ribonucleotide reductase activation discovered by doublet the EPR signal at g = 2.0 with 2.3 mT hyperfine structure splitting was found in small tumors. The cytotoxic effect of DNIC-glutathione on endometrioid tumors was suggested to be due to DNIC degradation nearby the tumors induced by iron chelating compounds released from the tumors. The degradation resulted in release of a high amount of nitric oxide molecules and nitrosonium ions from DNICs affecting the tumors by way of the cytotoxic effect.

  13. Beneficial influence of topical extra virgin olive oil application on an experimental model of penile fracture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Mustafa; Ozkol, Halil; Pirincci, Necip; Gecit, Ilhan; Bilici, Salim; Yildirim, Serkan

    2015-08-01

    Penile fracture (PF) is known as a traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea of corpus cavernosum. In this study, we aimed to investigate the healing influence of topical extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on PF through evaluating levels of some oxidative stress biomarkers for the first time. Histopathological evaluation was also realized. A total of 18 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of six rats each as control group, in PF (alone) group, and PF + EVOO group. Experimental PF was formed via incising from the proximal dorsal side of the penis in the rats of all groups except control. While in PF (alone) group, fracture was formed and the incision was primarily closed, in PF + EVOO group in addition to foregoing processes, EVOO was also administrated topically twice a day for 3 weeks. At the end of the experiment, all rats were killed and penectomy was carried out. While malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, lipid hyroperoxide, and total oxidant status significantly (p groups markedly (p group when compared with PF + EVOO group. Levels of these parameters were reversed to nearly normal values by topical EVOO application. Protection by EVOO is further substantiated via the improved histological findings in PF + EVOO group as against degenerative changes in the rats of PF (alone) group. Our data revealed that EVOO has protective effect in penile cavernosal tissue through probably its antioxidant, free radical defusing, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Comparison of two models of inflammatory bowel disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Cristina Sorina; Magdas, Cristian; Tabaran, Flaviu Alexandru; Crăciun, Elena Cristina; Deak, Georgiana; Magdaş, Virginia Ana; Cozma, Vasile; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Dumitraşcu, Dan Lucian

    2018-03-26

    There is a need for experimental animal models for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but no proposed model has been unanimously accepted. The aim of this study was to develop 2 affordable models of IBD in rats and to compare them. We produced IBD in rats using either dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The requirements for experimental models were: a predictable clinical course, histopathology and inflammation similar to human ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The effect of acute administration of DSS and TNBS on oxidative stress (as measured by the assessment of glutathione peroxidase - GPx) was verified. The activity of whole blood GPx was measured using a commercially available Randox kit (Crumlin, UK). The administration of DSS increased GPx activity compared to the control and TNBS-treated groups, but not to a statistically significant degree. Histological examination of the colonic mucosa following the administration of DSS showed multifocal erosions with minimal to mild inflammatory infiltrate, mainly by polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), lymphocytes and plasma cells. For TNBS-induced colitis, the histological changes manifested as multifocal areas of ulcerative colitis with mild to severe inflammatory infiltrate. Whole blood GPx values displayed a direct dependence on the chemical agent used. Our results show a correlation between histopathology, proinflammatory state and oxidative stress. The experimental DSSor TNBS-induced bowel inflammation used in this study corresponds to human IBD and is reproducible with characteristics indicative of acute inflammation in the case of the protocols mentioned.

  15. Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Yuthika H.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2001-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is as much the final outcome of the vulnerability of the host as of the virulence of the invading organism. We review here the extensive literature on animal experiments mainly appertaining to the host predisposing factors that initiate and perpetuate these infections. The monkey, rat, and mouse are the choice models for investigating oral candidiasis, but comparisons between the same or different models appear difficult, because of variables such as the study design, the number of animals used, their diet, the differences in Candida strains, and the duration of the studies. These variables notwithstanding, the following could be concluded. (i) The primate model is ideal for investigating Candida-associated denture stomatitis since both erythematous and pseudomembranous lesions have been produced in monkeys with prosthetic plates; they are, however, expensive and difficult to obtain and maintain. (ii) The rat model (both Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) is well proven for observing chronic oral candidal colonization and infection, due to the ease of breeding and handling and their ready availability. (iii) Mice are similar, but in addition there are well characterized variants simulating immunologic and genetic abnormalities (e.g., athymic, euthymic, murine-acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficient models) and hence are used for short-term studies relating the host immune response and oral candidiasis. Nonetheless, an ideal, relatively inexpensive model representative of the human oral environment in ecological and microbiological terms is yet to be described. Until such a model is developed, researchers should pay attention to standardization of the experimental protocols described here to obtain broadly comparable and meaningful data. PMID:11292645

  16. The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on plasma lipid composition in rats with experimental insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Onopchenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A model of insulin resistance (IR, induced by prolonged high fat diet with high content of saturated fats was used to investigate the effect of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE on the composition of free fatty acids (FFA, plasma lipoprotein spectrum and content of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα in rats. The results of this work showed a rise in the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (18:1 n-9 and a reduction in the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (20:4 n-6 in plasma of rats with experimental IR. These findings are accompanied by the increased TNFα production and significant changes in plasma lipoprotein profile of rats with the fat overload. Particularly, a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol level and increased low-density (LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol level were detected. The NSE administration to obese rats with IR restored the content of mono- and polyunsaturated FFA, increased HDL cholesterol content and reduced LDL cholesterol level. In addition, the IR rats treated with NSE showed normalization in the serum TNFα level. Our results showed the restoration of plasma lipid profile under NSE administration in rats with obesity-induced IR. Considering the fact that plasma lipid composition displays the lipid metabolism in general, the NSE actions may play a significant role in the prevention of IR-associated complications.

  17. Multislice quantitative computed tomography allows early detection of bone mineral density alterations induced by atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubert, M.J.; Monforte, F.; Calo, C.; Lylyk, P.; Friedman, M.F.; Gamba, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To demonstrate the utility of Multislice Quantitative Computed Tomography (MS-QCT) in the early detection of mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) alterations induced by an atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model. Materials and Methods. Male weanling Wistar rats (n =16) were divided by body weight (Wt) into 2 groups: control (C) and experimental (E), with no significant differences in the mean initial Wt (p>0.05). C was fed rodent stock diet ad libitum, and E an atherogenic diet for 3 weeks (3w). Zoometry (body weight and length) and diet intake (g/100g rat/day) were monitored. At 3 w in serum (mg/dL) lipidlipoprotein profile was studied: total cholesterol (t-C), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and MSQCT (Philips 64 CT, quantified with the eFilm Workstation 2.1) in seven mandibular areas (MA): n. 1 to 4: from chin to mandibular foramen, n. 5: coronoid process, n. 6: condylar process, n. 7: angular process. Statistics: Pearson's correlation between BMD in each MA and serum t-C. p 0.05). Correlation coefficients (r) and their significance levels (p) were relevant in 5/7 MA. MA1:-0.580 (p=0.019), MA2:-0.709 (p=0.002), MA3:-0.635 (p=0.008), MA5:-0.674 (p=0.004), MA6:-0.564 (p=0.023). Conclusions. These results suggest that MS-QCT is an imaging diagnostic method that allows the early detection of mandible bone architecture alterations induced by an atherogenic diet. Inverse correlation between BMD and t-C would indicate an association between an atherogenic diet intake and potential temporomandibular disorders. (authors)

  18. The mechanism of effective electroacupuncture on T cell response in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Yumei Liu

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA decreased lymphocyte infiltration into the spinal cords of rats presenting with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a disease model used in the study of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of EA on the EAE. Female Lewis rats were divided into either CFA, EAE, EA, or injection with naloxone after electroacupuncture (NAL groups. Electroacupuncture was administered every day for 21 days. To evaluate proliferation and apoptosis, lymphocytes from rats presenting with EAE were collected and cultured with β-endorphin. Immunohistochemisty, flow cytometry and radio-immunity methods were applied to detect the expression of β-endorphin. Results presented in this report demonstrate that the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of EA on EAE were related to β-endorphin production that balances the Thl/Th2 and Th17/Treg responses. These results suggest that β-endorphin could be an important component in the development of EA-based therapies used for the treatment of EAE.

  19. The protective effect of extra-virgin olive oil in the experimental model of multiple sclerosis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, C; Escribano, B M; Luque, E; Aguilar-Luque, M; Feijóo, M; Ochoa, J J; LaTorre, M; Giraldo, A I; Lillo, R; Agüera, E; Santamaría, A; Túnez, I

    2018-05-05

    This study has evaluated the effect of EVOO (Extra-Virgin olive oil), OA (oleic acid) and HT (hydroxytyrosol) in an induced model of MS through experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Dark Agouti 2-month old rats (25 males) were divided into five groups: (i) control group, (ii) EAE group, (iii) EAE+EVOO, (iv) EAE+HT, and (v) EAE+OA. At 65 days, the animals were sacrificed and the glutathione redox system and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein (LBP) products of the microbiota in brain, spinal cord, and blood were evaluated. Gastric administration of EVOO, OA, and HT reduced the degree of lipid and protein oxidation, and increased glutathione peroxidase, making it a diet-based mechanism for enhancing protection against oxidative damage. In addition, it reduced the levels of LPS and LBP, which appeared as being increased in the EAE correlated with the oxidative stress produced by the disease.

  20. Experimental chronic kidney disease attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in an ex vivo rat lung model.

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    Chung-Kan Peng

    Full Text Available Lung ischemia reperfusion injury (LIRI is one of important complications following lung transplant and cardiopulmonary bypass. Although patients on hemodialysis are still excluded as lung transplant donors because of the possible effects of renal failure on the lungs, increased organ demand has led us to evaluate the influence of chronic kidney disease (CKD on LIRI. A CKD model was induced by feeding Sprague-Dawley rats an adenine-rich (0.75% diet for 2, 4 and 6 weeks, and an isolated rat lung in situ model was used to evaluate ischemia reperfusion (IR-induced acute lung injury. The clinicopathological parameters of LIRI, including pulmonary edema, lipid peroxidation, histopathological changes, immunohistochemistry changes, chemokine CXCL1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, heat shock protein expression, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation were determined. Our results indicated that adenine-fed rats developed CKD as characterized by increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and the deposition of crystals in the renal tubules and interstitium. IR induced a significant increase in the pulmonary arterial pressure, lung edema, lung injury scores, the expression of CXCL1 mRNA, iNOS level, and protein concentration of the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF. The tumor necrosis factor-α levels in the BALF and perfusate; the interleukin-10 level in the perfusate; and the malondialdehyde levels in the lung tissue and perfusate were also significantly increased by LIRI. Counterintuitively, adenine-induced CKD significantly attenuated the severity of lung injury induced by IR. CKD rats exhibited increased heat shock protein 70 expression and decreased activation of NF-κB signaling. In conclusion, adenine-induced CKD attenuated LIRI by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway.

  1. Effects of a Mikania laevigata extract on bone resorption and RANKL expression during experimental periodontitis in rats

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    Bruno B. Benatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Mikania laevigata extract (MLE (popularly known in Brazil as "guaco" possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study we tested the effects of MLE in a periodontitis experimental model in rats. We also investigated possible mechanisms underlying such effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal disease was induced by a ligature placed around the mandibular first molars of each animal. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: non-ligated animals treated with vehicle; non-ligated animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily; ligature-induced animals treated with vehicle and ligature-induced animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily. Thirty days after the induction of periodontal disease, the animals were euthanized and mandibles and gingival tissues removed for further analysis. RESULTS: Morphometric analysis of alveolar bone loss demonstrated that MLE-treated animals presented a decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower expression of the activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL measured by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, gingival tissues from the MLE-treated group showed decreased neutrophil migration myeloperoxidase (MPO assay. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that MLE may be useful to control bone resorption during progression of experimental periodontitis in rats.

  2. [Establishment of rat model of psychical erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-lin; Wang, Shu-ren; Duan, Jin

    2006-01-01

    To set up a method of establishing the animal model of psychical erectile dysfunction with emotional stress. All thirty-six male rats with normal sexual function were divided into three groups, i. e. normal group, model group and demasculinized group randomly according to their weights. The rats in the model group were suspended upside down in midair over the water and irritated repeatedly. Two weeks later, the sexual abilities of all rats, i. e. the times of mounting and intromitting the estrus female rats, the latent period of mounting, intromission and ejaculation, were recorded, and the number of rats that had sexual activities was also counted. And the hemorheology indices of the rats were measured. Compared with the normal rats, the latency of mounting [(152.5 +/- 24.6) s vs (42.4 +/- 9.6) s] and intromission [(437.0 +/- 67.7) s vs (130.8 +/- 39.1) s] of the model rats were longer (P 0.05). The hemorheology indices, e. g. blood viscosity, hematocrit (Hct) and red cell aggregation (RCA), of the model rats was significant higher than that of the normal and demasculinized rats (P erectile dysfunction can be made ideally with psychical stress.

  3. Comparison of Allogeneic and Syngeneic Rat Glioma Models by Using MRI and Histopathologic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasibetti, Elena; Valazza, Alberto; Capucchio, Maria T; Annovazzi, Laura; Battaglia, Luigi; Chirio, Daniela; Gallarate, Marina; Mellai, Marta; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Peira, Elena; Riganti, Chiara; Schiffer, Davide; Panciani, Pierpaolo; Lanotte, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Research in neurooncology traditionally requires appropriate in vivo animal models, on which therapeutic strategies are tested before human trials are designed and proceed. Several reproducible animal experimental models, in which human physiologic conditions can be mimicked, are available for studying glioblastoma multiforme. In an ideal rat model, the tumor is of glial origin, grows in predictable and reproducible patterns, closely resembles human gliomas histopathologically, and is weakly or nonimmunogenic. In the current study, we used MRI and histopathologic evaluation to compare the most widely used allogeneic rat glioma model, C6-Wistar, with the F98-Fischer syngeneic rat glioma model in terms of percentage tumor growth or regression and growth rate. In vivo MRI demonstrated considerable variation in tumor volume and frequency between the 2 rat models despite the same stereotactic implantation technique. Faster and more reproducible glioma growth occurred in the immunoresponsive environment of the F98-Fischer model, because the immune response is minimized toward syngeneic cells. The marked inability of the C6-Wistar allogeneic system to generate a reproducible model and the episodes of spontaneous tumor regression with this system may have been due to the increased humoral and cellular immune responses after tumor implantation.

  4. Iron metabolism in experimental rickets. I. Intestinal absorption of iron in rat rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronicka, E [Pomorska Akademia Medyczna, Szczecin (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on iron /sup 59/Fe absorption in rats with experimental rickets. It was found that rats with rickets as compared with controls do not show any significant differences in the degree of iron absorption in fasting state. The percent of absorbed iron increases when it is administered after previous feeding of rats. A greater rise in iron absorption after feeding was shown also by rats with rickets. On the other hand, administration of a shock dose of vitamin D at the time of rickets development causes after 7 days a significant decrease in total iron absorption given to fed rats. An excess of calcium in the diet of rats does not seem to impair directly the absorption of iron. The possibility of the causative effect of vitamin D deficiency on the composition of intestinal contents on changes in the degree of iron absorption observed after feeding of rats with rickets, is discussed.

  5. A Whole-Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Colistin and Colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchene, Salim; Marchand, Sandrine; Couet, William; Friberg, Lena E; Gobin, Patrice; Lamarche, Isabelle; Grégoire, Nicolas; Björkman, Sven; Karlsson, Mats O

    2018-04-17

    Colistin is a polymyxin antibiotic used to treat patients infected with multidrug-resistant Gram negative bacteria (MDR-GNB). The objective of this work was to develop a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) model to predict tissue distribution of colistin in rat. The distribution of a drug in a tissue is commonly characterized by its tissue-to-plasma partition coefficient, K p . Colistin and its prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) K p priors were measured experimentally from rat tissue homogenates or predicted in silico. The PK parameters of both compounds were estimated fitting in vivo their plasma concentration-time profiles from six rats receiving an i.v. bolus of CMS. The variability in the data was quantified by applying a non-linear mixed effect (NLME) modelling approach. A WB-PBPK model was developed assuming a well-stirred and perfusion-limited distribution in tissue compartments. Prior information on tissue distribution of colistin and CMS was investigated following three scenarios: K p were estimated using in silico K p priors (I) or K p were estimated using experimental K p priors (II) or K p were fixed to the experimental values (III). The WB-PBPK model best described colistun and CMS plasma concentration-time profiles in scenario II. Colistin predicted concentrations in kidneys in scenario II were higher than in other tissues, which was consistent with its large experimental K p prior. This might be explained by a high affinity of colistin for renal parenchyma and active reabsorption into the proximal tubular cells. In contrast, renal accumulation of colistin was not predicted in scenario I. Colistin and CMS clearance estimates were in agreement with published values. The developed model suggests using experimental priors over in silico K p priors for kidneys to provide a better prediction of colistin renal distribution. Such models might serve in drug development for interspecies scaling and investigating the impact of

  6. Correlation of gut microbiota composition with resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats

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    Suzana Stanisavljevic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It is widely accepted that autoimmune response against the antigens of the CNS is the essential pathogenic force in the disease. It has recently become increasingly appreciated that activated encephalitogenic cells tend to migrate towards gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT and that interrupted balance between regulatory and inflammatory immunity within the GALT might have decisive role in the initiation and propagation of the CNS autoimmunity. Gut microbiota composition and function has the major impact on the balance in the GALT. Thus, our aim was to perform analyses of gut microbiota in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Albino Oxford (AO rats that are highly resistant to EAE induction and Dark Agouti (DA rats that develop EAE after mild immunization were compared for gut microbiota composition in different phases after EAE induction. Microbial analyses of the genus Lactobacillus and related lactic acid bacteria showed higher diversity of Lactobacillus spp. in EAE-resistant AO rats, while some members of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (Undibacterium oligocarboniphilum were detected only in faeces of DA rats at the peak of the disease (between 13 and 16 days after induction. Interestingly, Turicibacter sp. that was found exclusively in non-immunized AO, but not in DA rats in our previous study was detected in DA rats that remained healthy 16 days after induction. Similar observation was obtained for the members of Lachnospiraceae. As dominant presence of the members of Lachnospiraceae family in gut microbial community has been linked with mild symptoms of various diseases, it is tempting to assume that Turicibacter sp. and Lachnospiraceae contribute to the prevention of EAE development and the alleviation of the disease symptoms. Further, production of a typical regulatory cytokine interleukin-10 was

  7. Establishment of an induced rat model of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Dan; Wu Beihai; Yang Hongsheng; Song Guangyi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish a convenient and practical malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) model induced by crocidolite in Da Yao, which has a high induction rate and can be used for imaging and multiple experimental studies and is similar to human MPM. Methods 40 mg of crocidolite suspension was injected into the right chest cavity in 100 Wistar rats in the test group, while same amount of sterilized saline water was injected in 20 rats in the control group. The animals were observed daily , and weighted once a month. CT scanning was performed regularly. When the rats were dead or dying, they were dissected immediately and pathological changes were recorded after CT examination. The experiment lasted for 2 years. Results: The overall induction rate was 71.6%. The survival time of the first MPM rat was 285 days. The mean living span of rats with MPM was (469 ± 21) days. The pathological features of the induced MPMs were multiple morphologically and there were some CT features in different periods. CT imaging could show some MPM features and find the tumour earlier. Conclusion: The cause, positions, tissues and clinical condition of induced tumors were the same as humans. The model had a higher similarity with human MPM in differentiation degree and histological type, and the model can be used to study the mechanism of MPM, to discuss the measures of prevention, and to guide clinical diagnosis and treatment. Multi-morphology of the history from the induced tumors could make up the shortage, which was the difficulty in getting all periods of tissue samples in clinical research and being used in imaging and many kinds of researches. It was a valuable animal model to study MPM. (authors)

  8. Serum expression of HA and LN in lewis rat models of autoimmune myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Li'na; Li Tieling; Zhang Yajing; Yang Tingshu; Ding Yu; Guo Shuli; Zhao Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of dynamic changes of serum expressions of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) in Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Methods: Fifty Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) were established with injection of recombinant cardiac C protein with complete freund adjuvant into two foot-pads plus intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin. At 1w, 2w, 4w, 6w and 8w, 10 models were sacrificed each time;cardiac tissues were examined with HE stain for myocardial inflammatory score and examined with picrosirius red stain for myocardial fibrosis score, also, serum HA and LN expressions were determined with RIA. These examinations were performed in 10 undisturbed animals as controls. Results: The myocardial inflammatory scores of the models at 1w were about the same as those in the controls, but the scores rapidly increased from 2w on to 4w then fell gradually. The myocardial fibrosis scores of the models at 1wk were also not much different from those in controls. The fibrosis scores increased rapidly at 4w and maintained at high level up to 8w. The changes of serum expressions of HA and LN roughly paralleled those of myocardial fibrosis scores i. e. rapidly increased at 4w up to 8w. Conclusion: Serum expressions of HA and LN could faithfully reflect the degree of myocardial fibrosis in rat models of EAM. HA and LN were useful markers of myocardial fibrois and were of prognostic importance. (authors)

  9. Effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy and aerobic exercise training on articular cartilage in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Lívia; Tim, Carla; Martignago, Cintia; Gonçalves, Silma Rodrigues; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2018-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common disease of the knee joints in adults throughout the world. Photobiomodulation (PBM) and physical exercise have been studied for clinical treatment of OA, even though the effects and action mechanisms have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PBM and aerobic exercise (associated or not) on degenerative modifications and inflammatory mediators in articular cartilage using an experimental model of knee OA. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: OA animals without treatment (OAC); OA plus aerobic exercise training (OAT); OA animals plus PBM treatment (OAP); OA plus aerobic exercise training and PBM treatment (OATP). The exercise training (treadmill; 16m/min; 50 min/day) and the PBM treatment started 4 weeks after the surgery, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The results showed that all treated groups showed a lower degenerative process measured by OARSI system and higher thickness values. Moreover, aerobic exercise and PBM (associated or not) decreased iNOS expression and increased IL-10 expression in OAT and OATL compared to OAC. Furthermore, a lower TGF-β expression was observed in associated therapies. These results suggest that PBM and aerobic exercise training were effective in modulating inflammatory process and preventing cartilage degeneration in knees in OA rats.

  10. HYPOLIPEDEMIC EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON ON HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY AND DNA FRAGMENTATION ANALYSIS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERCHOLESTEREMIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Selva Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of Ayurvedic herbal formulation Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) on histopathological study and DNA fragmentation analysis in experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats. Four groups of rats were employed namely control, hypercholesterolemia rats (4% Cholesterol+1% cholic acid), Cynodon dactylon treatment in hypercholesteremic rats and Cynodon dactylon alone treated rats. Re...

  11. Quantitative-profiling of neurotransmitter abnormalities in the disease progression of experimental diabetic encephalopathy rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xueyan; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Han, Xiaowen; Chen, Renguo; Liu, Yaowu; Fan, Hongbin; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2015-11-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy (DE) is one of the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), with neither effective prevention nor proven therapeutic regimen. This study aims to uncover the potential dysregulation pattern of the neurotransmitters in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental DE. For that purpose, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Cognitive performance was detected with the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissues were collected to measure the levels of neurotransmitters. Compared with the control rats, the acetylcholine (ACh) levels in serum, CSF, hippocampus, and cortex were all significantly down-regulated as early as 6 weeks in the STZ treatment group. In contrast, the glutamate (Glu) levels were decreased in CSF and the hippocampus, but unaffected in the serum and cortex of STZ-treated rats. As for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), it was down-regulated in serum, but up-regulated in CSF, hippocampus, and the cortex in the STZ-treated group. The mRNA expressions of neurotransmitter-related rate limiting enzymes (including AChE, GAD1, and GAD2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-1β and TNF-α) were all increased in the DE rats. Our data suggest that DM induces isoform-dependent and tissue-specific neurotransmitter abnormalities, and that neuroinflammation may underlay the nervous system dysfunction observed in the progression of DE.

  12. Effects of estrogen on functional and neurological recovery after spinal cord injury: An experimental study with rats

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    Olavo Biraghi Letaif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the functional and histological effects of estrogen as a neuroprotective agent after a standard experimentally induced spinal cord lesion.METHODS:In this experimental study, 20 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group with rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI at T10 and receiving estrogen therapy with 17-beta estradiol (4mg/kg immediately following the injury and after the placement of skin sutures and a control group with rats only subjected to SCI. A moderate standard experimentally induced SCI was produced using a computerized device that dropped a weight on the rat's spine from a height of 12.5 mm. Functional recovery was verified with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale on the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days after injury and by quantifying the motor-evoked potential on the 42nd day after injury. Histopathological evaluation of the SCI area was performed after euthanasia on the 42nd day.RESULTS:The experimental group showed a significantly greater functional improvement from the 28th to the 42nd day of observation compared to the control group. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the motor-evoked potential compared with the control group. The results of pathological histomorphometry evaluations showed a better neurological recovery in the experimental group, with respect to the proportion and diameter of the quantified nerve fibers.CONCLUSIONS:Estrogen administration provided benefits in neurological and functional motor recovery in rats with SCI beginning at the 28th day after injury.

  13. Effects of estrogen on functional and neurological recovery after spinal cord injury: An experimental study with rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de; Ferreira, Ricardo; Santos, Gustavo Bispo dos; Rocha, Ivan Dias da; Marcon, Raphael Martus

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the functional and histological effects of estrogen as a neuroprotective agent after a standard experimentally induced spinal cord lesion. In this experimental study, 20 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group with rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 and receiving estrogen therapy with 17-beta estradiol (4mg/kg) immediately following the injury and after the placement of skin sutures and a control group with rats only subjected to SCI. A moderate standard experimentally induced SCI was produced using a computerized device that dropped a weight on the rat's spine from a height of 12.5 mm. Functional recovery was verified with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale on the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days after injury and by quantifying the motor-evoked potential on the 42nd day after injury. Histopathological evaluation of the SCI area was performed after euthanasia on the 42nd day. The experimental group showed a significantly greater functional improvement from the 28th to the 42nd day of observation compared to the control group. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the motor-evoked potential compared with the control group. The results of pathological histomorphometry evaluations showed a better neurological recovery in the experimental group, with respect to the proportion and diameter of the quantified nerve fibers. Estrogen administration provided benefits in neurological and functional motor recovery in rats with SCI beginning at the 28th day after injury.

  14. Serial MR Imaging of Intramuscular Hematoma: Experimental Study in a Rat Model with the Pathologic Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Kwon, Soon Tae; Kim, Jong Ok

    2011-01-01

    Objective We wanted to demonstrate the temporal changes of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in experimentally-induced intramuscular hematomas in rats and to correlate these data with the concurrent pathologic observations. Materials and Methods Intramuscular hematoma was induced in 30 rats. The MR images were obtained at 1, 4, 7 and 10 days and at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after muscle injury. The characteristic serial MRI findings were evaluated and the relative signal intensities were calculated. Pathologic specimens were obtained at each time point. Results On the T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), the intramuscular hematomas exhibited isointensity compared to that of muscle or the development of a high signal intensity (SI) rim on day one after injury. The high SI persisted until eight weeks after injury. On the T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), the hematomas showed high SI or centrally low SI on day one after injury, and mainly high SI after four days. A dark signal rim was apparent after seven days, which was indicative of hemosiderin on the pathology. The gradient echo (GRE) imaging yielded dark signal intensities at all stages. Conclusion Unlike brain hematomas, experimentally-induced intramuscular hematomas show increased SI on both the T1WI and T2WI from the acute stage onward, and this is pathologically correlated with a rich blood supply and rapid healing response to injury in the muscle. On the T2WI and GRE imaging, high SI with a peripheral dark signal rim is apparent from seven days to the chronic stage. PMID:21228942

  15. Serial MR Imaging of Intramuscular Hematoma: Experimental Study in a Rat Model with the Pathologic Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Jong Ok; Choi, Eun Seok; Kwon, Soon Tae

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to demonstrate the temporal changes of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in experimentally-induced intramuscular hematomas in rats and to correlate these data with the concurrent pathologic observations. Intramuscular hematoma was induced in 30 rats. The MR images were obtained at 1, 4, 7 and 10 days and at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after muscle injury. The characteristic serial MRI findings were evaluated and the relative signal intensities were calculated. Pathologic specimens were obtained at each time point. On the T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), the intramuscular hematomas exhibited isointensity compared to that of muscle or the development of a high signal intensity (SI) rim on day one after injury. The high SI persisted until eight weeks after injury. On the T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), the hematomas showed high SI or centrally low SI on day one after injury, and mainly high SI after four days. A dark signal rim was apparent after seven days, which was indicative of hemosiderin on the pathology. The gradient echo (GRE) imaging yielded dark signal intensities at all stages. Unlike brain hematomas, experimentally-induced intramuscular hematomas show increased SI on both the T1WI and T2WI from the acute stage onward, and this is pathologically correlated with a rich blood supply and rapid healing response to injury in the muscle. On the T2WI and GRE imaging, high SI with a peripheral dark signal rim is apparent from seven days to the chronic stage

  16. Development and comparison of a minimally-invasive model of autologous clot pulmonary embolism in Sprague-Dawley and Copenhagen rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanapareddy Nina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental models of pulmonary embolism (PE that produce pulmonary hypertension (PH employ many different methods of inducing acute pulmonary occlusion. Many of these models induce PE with intravenous injection of exogenous impervious objects that may not completely reproduce the physiological properties of autologous thromboembolism. Current literature lacks a simple, well-described rat model of autlogous PE. Objective: Test if moderate-severity autologous PE in Sprague-Dawley (SD and Copenhagen (Cop rats can produce persistent PH. Methods blood was withdrawn from the jugular vein, treated with thrombin-Ca++ and re-injected following pretreatment with tranexamic acid. Hemodynamic values, clot weights and biochemical measurements were performed at 1 and 5 days. Results Infusion of clot significantly increased the right ventricular peak systolic pressure to 45-55 mm Hg, followed by normalization within 24 hours in SD rats, and within 5 days in COP rats. Clot lysis was 95% (24 hours and 97% (5 days in SD rats and was significantly lower in COP rats (70%, 24 hours; 87% 5 days. Plasma D-dimer was elevated in surgical sham animals and was further increased 8 hours after pulmonary embolism. Neither strain showed a significant increase in bronchoalveolar chemotactic activity, myeloperoxidase activity, leukocyte infiltration, or chemokine accumulation, indicating that there was no significant pulmonary inflammation. Conclusions Both SD and COP rats exhibited near complete fibrinolysis of autologous clot PE within 5 days. Neither strain developed persistent PH. Experimental models of PE designed to induce sustained PH and a robust inflammatory response appear to require significant, persistent pulmonary vascular occlusion.

  17. Experimental In Vivo Models of Candidiasis

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    Esther Segal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is a multifaceted fungal disease including mucosal-cutaneous, visceral, and disseminated infections caused by yeast species of the genus Candida. Candida infections are among the most common human mycoses. Candida species are the third to fourth most common isolates from bloodstream infections in neutropenic or immunocompromised hospitalized patients. The mucosal-cutaneous forms—particularly vaginal infections—have a high prevalence. Vaginitis caused by Candida species is the second most common vaginal infection. Hence, candidiasis is a major subject for research, including experimental in vivo models to study pathogenesis, prevention, or therapy of the disease. The following review article will focus on various experimental in vivo models in different laboratory animals, such as mammals (mice, rats, rabbits, the fruit fly–Drosophila melanogaster, the larvae of the moth Galleria mellonella, or the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The review will describe the induction of the different clinical forms of candidiasis in the various models and the validity of such models in mimicking the human clinical situations. The use of such models for the assessment of antifungal drugs, evaluation of potential vaccines to protect before candidiasis, exploration of Candida virulence factors, and comparison of pathogenicity of different Candida species will be included in the review. All of the above will be reported as based on published studies of numerous investigators as well as on the research of the author and his group.

  18. Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Rajesh Kumar; Ray Mohanty, Ipseeta; Borde, Manjusha K; Maheshwari, Ujwala; Deshmukh, Y A

    2016-01-01

    Background. The incidence of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus is on the rise globally. Objective. The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs. Materials and Methods. A combination of High-Fat Diet (HFD) and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) at 30, 35, and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome in the setting of diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results. The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for the study to induce diabetes mellitus. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia {(increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and decreased HDL cholesterol)}, diabetes mellitus (blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, and C-peptide), and hypertension {systolic blood pressure} were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition to significant cardiac injury, atherogenic index, inflammation (hs-CRP), decline in hepatic and renal function were observed in the HF-DC group when compared to NC group rats. The histopathological assessment confirmed presence of edema, necrosis, and inflammation in heart, pancreas, liver, and kidney of HF-DC group as compared to NC. Conclusion. The present study has developed a unique rodent model of metabolic syndrome, with diabetes as an essential component.

  19. Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

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    Rajesh Kumar Suman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus is on the rise globally. Objective. The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs. Materials and Methods. A combination of High-Fat Diet (HFD and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ at 30, 35, and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome in the setting of diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results. The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for the study to induce diabetes mellitus. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia (increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and decreased HDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus (blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, and C-peptide, and hypertension {systolic blood pressure} were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition to significant cardiac injury, atherogenic index, inflammation (hs-CRP, decline in hepatic and renal function were observed in the HF-DC group when compared to NC group rats. The histopathological assessment confirmed presence of edema, necrosis, and inflammation in heart, pancreas, liver, and kidney of HF-DC group as compared to NC. Conclusion. The present study has developed a unique rodent model of metabolic syndrome, with diabetes as an essential component.

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, delays onset and reduces severity of experimental autoimmune encephalitis in Lewis rats

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    Brian DellaValle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Recent findings indicate that metabolic disturbances are involved in multiple sclerosis (MS pathology and influence the susceptibility to treatment, directing attention towards anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin and pioglitazone. Liraglutide, a drug of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 family, is also anti-diabetic and weight-reducing and is moreover, directly neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory in a broad spectrum of experimental models of brain disease. In this study we investigate the potential for this FDA-approved drug, liraglutide, as a treatment for MS by utilizing the experimental model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE.Methods: EAE was induced in 30 female Lewis rats that subsequently received twice-daily liraglutide (200 µg/kg s.c. or saline. Healthy controls were included (saline, n=6, liraglutide, n=7. Clinical score and weight were assessed daily by blinded observers. Animals were killed at peak disease severity (day 11 or if exceeding humane endpoint (clinical score ≥4. Protein levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, amyloid precursor protein (APP, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP were determined.Results: Liraglutide treatment delayed disease onset (group clinical score significantly >0 by two days and markedly reduced disease severity (median clinical score 2 vs. 5; p=0.0003. Fourteen of 15 (93% of vehicle-treated rats reached the humane endpoint (clinical score ≥4 by day 11 compared to 5 of 15 (33% of liraglutide-treated rats (p=0.0004. Liraglutide substantially increased the mitochondrial antioxidant MnSOD (p<0.01 and reduced the neurodegenerative marker APP (p=0.036 in the brain. GFAP levels were not significantly changed with drug treatment (p=0.09Conclusion: We demonstrate, for the first time, that liraglutide treatment delays onset of EAE in Lewis rats and is associated with improved protective capacity against oxidative stress. These data suggest GLP-1 receptor

  1. Experimental oral iron administration: Histological investigations and expressions of iron handling proteins in rat retina with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jha, Kumar Abhiram; Dey, Sanjay Kumar; Kathpalia, Poorti; Maurya, Meenakshi; Gupta, Chandan Lal; Bhatia, Jagriti; Roy, Tara Sankar; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2017-12-01

    Iron is implicated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of this study was to see if long-term, experimental iron administration with aging modifies retinal and choroidal structures and expressions of iron handling proteins, to understand some aspects of iron homeostasis. Male Wistar rats were fed with ferrous sulphate heptahydrate (500mg/kg body weight/week, oral; elemental iron availability: 20%) from 2 months of age onward until they were 19.5 month-old. At 8, 14 and 20 months of age, they were sacrificed and serum and retinal iron levels were detected by HPLC. Oxidative stress was analyzed by TBARS method. The retinas were examined for cell death (TUNEL), histology (electron microscopy) and the expressions of transferrin, transferrin receptor-1 [TFR-1], H- and L-ferritin. In control animals, at any age, there was no difference in the serum and retinal iron levels, but the latter increased significantly in 14- and 20 month-old iron-fed rats, indicating that retinal iron accumulation proceeds with progression of aging (>14 months). The serum and retinal TBARS levels increased significantly with progression of aging in experimental but not in control rats. There was significant damage to choriocapillaris, accumulation of phagosomes in retinal pigment epithelium and increased incidence of TUNEL+ cells in outer nuclear layer and vacuolation in inner nuclear layer (INL) of 20 month-aged experimental rats, compared to those in age-matched controls. Vacuolations in INL could indicate a long-term effect of iron accumulation in the inner retina. These events paralleled the increased expression of ferritins and transferrin and a decrease in the expression of TFR-1 in iron-fed rats with aging, thereby maintaining iron homeostasis in the retina. As some of these changes mimic with those happening in eyes with AMD, this model can be utilized to understand iron-induced pathophysiological changes in AMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Combating Combination of Hypertension and Diabetes in Different Rat Models

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    Talma Rosenthal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rat experimental models are used extensively for studying physiological mechanisms and treatments of hypertension and diabetes co-existence. Each one of these conditions is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and the combination of the two conditions is a potent enhancer of CVD. Five major animal models that advanced our understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches in humans are discussed in this review: Zucker, Goto-Kakizaki, SHROB, SHR/NDmcr-cp and Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive (CRDH rats. The use of various drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs, various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, to combat the effects of concomitant pathologies on the combination of diabetes and hypertension, as well as the non-pharmacological approach are reviewed in detail for each rat model. Results from experiments on these models indicate that classical factors contributing to the pathology of hypertension and diabetes combination—Including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia—can now be treated, although these treatments do not completely prevent renal complications. Animal studies have focused on several mechanisms involved in hypertension/diabetes that remain to be translated into clinical medicine, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation. Several target molecules have been identified that need to be incorporated into a treatment modality. The challenge continues to be the identification and interpretation of the clinical evidence from the animal models and their application to human treatment.

  3. Absorption and transport of radioactive 57Co-vitamin B12 in experimental giardiasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deka, N.C.; Sehgal, A.K.; Chnuttani, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of 57 Co-vitamin B 12 in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B 12 was unimpaired. (author)

  4. Cardioprotective effect of amlodipine in oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats

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    Sudhira Begum

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the administration of amlodipine ameliorates oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats. Adrenaline was administered and myocardial damage was evaluated biochemically [significantly increased serum aspertate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels of myocardial tissue] and histologically (morphological changes of myocardium. Amlodipine was administered as pretreatment for 14 days in adrenaline treated rats. Statistically significant amelioration in all the biochemical parameters supported by significantly improved myocardial morphology was observed in amlodipine pretreatment. It was concluded that amlodipine afforded cardioprotection by reducing oxidative stress induced in experimental myocardial infarction of catecholamine assault.

  5. Immune responsiveness associated with experimental Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in immunocompetent rats

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    Omalu ICJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Microsporidial infections have been recognized as an increasingly important infection in immuncompromised patients, particularly those infected with HIV/AIDS. This study was designed to study immune responses associated with experimental Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in immunocompetent rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four Rats in 3 groups, A (Control, B (Intraperitoneal and C (Oral were given injections of 0.5 ml of 2 x 10 6 of purified spores of Encephalitotozoon intestinalis spores and were observed for serum specific IgG for 21 days using both direct and indirect ELISA. Results: In indirect ELISA, specific lgG were detected on days 7, 14 and 21 for the group B rats and on day 21 for group C and in direct ELISA method, specific lgG were detected in-group B rats on days 7 and 21, for group C rats on day 21 only, while in the control rats, specific lgG were not detected. There was no significant difference between the direct and indirect methods (df=1, X 2 , P>0.05. E. intestinalis was observed in stool samples of rats in 1/12 (08.33% on days 14 and 21 in group B, and in 4/10 (33.33%, 3/10 (25.00% and 2/10 (16.67% on days 7, 14 and 21 respectively in group C. In group A, which is the control rats, no microsporidia were observed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. Conclusions: There were no changes in the T-lymphocyte counts of rats prior to and after inoculation with spores. Extensive lesions were observed along the intestinal walls especially on the middle and lower sections of group C rats only.

  6. Recombinant IgG1 Fc hexamers block cytotoxicity and pathological changes in experimental in vitro and rat models of neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Felix, Christian M; Spirig, Rolf; Morelli, Adriana Baz; Verkman, A S

    2018-05-01

    Intravenous human immunoglobulin G (IVIG) may have therapeutic benefit in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (herein called NMO), in part because of the anti-inflammatory properties of the IgG Fc region. Here, we evaluated recombinant Fc hexamers consisting of the IgM μ-tailpiece fused with the Fc region of human IgG1. In vitro, the Fc hexamers prevented cytotoxicity in aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expressing cells and in rat spinal cord slice cultures exposed to NMO anti-AQP4 autoantibody (AQP4-IgG) and complement, with >500-fold greater potency than IVIG or monomeric Fc fragments. Fc hexamers at low concentration also prevented antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity produced by AQP4-IgG and natural killer cells. Serum from rats administered a single intravenous dose of Fc hexamers at 50 mg/kg taken at 8 h did not produce complement-dependent cytotoxicity when added to AQP4-IgG-treated AQP4-expressing cell cultures. In an experimental rat model of NMO produced by intracerebral injection of AQP4-IgG, Fc hexamers at 50 mg/kg administered before and at 12 h after AQP4-IgG fully prevented astrocyte injury, complement activation, inflammation and demyelination. These results support the potential therapeutic utility of recombinant IgG1 Fc hexamers in AQP4-IgG seropositive NMO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Goal-Directed Behavior in a Rat Model of ADHD

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    Joman Y. Natsheh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although attentional and motor alterations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD have been well characterized, less is known about how this disorder impacts goal-directed behavior. To investigate whether there is a misbalance between goal-directed and habitual behaviors in an animal model of ADHD, we tested adult [P75-P105] Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR (ADHD rat model and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain, on an instrumental conditioning paradigm with two phases: a free-operant training phase in which rats separately acquired two distinct action-outcome contingencies, and a choice test conducted in extinction prior to which one of the food outcomes was devalued through specific satiety. To assess the effects of Methylphenidate, a commonly used ADHD medication, on goal-directed behavior, we injected rats with either Methylphenidate or saline prior to the choice test. Both rat strains acquired an instrumental response, with SHR responding at greater rates over the course of training. During the choice test WKY demonstrated goal-directed behavior, responding more frequently on the lever that delivered, during training, the still-valued outcome. In contrast, SHR showed no goal-directed behavior, responding equally on both levers. However, methylphenidate administration prior to the choice test restored goal-directed behavior in SHR, and disrupted this behavior in WKY rats. This study provides the first experimental evidence for selective impairment in goal-directed behavior in rat models of ADHD, and how methylphenidate acts differently on SHR and WKY animals to restore or impair this behavior, respectively.

  8. Effect of nabumetone treatment on vascular responses of the thoracic aorta in rat experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, S; Onal, A; Hatip, F B; Sürücü, A; Alkanat, M; Koşay, S; Evinç, A

    2000-04-01

    Nabumetone is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drug which is known to cause less gastrointestinal damage than other NSAI drugs. This study was performed to evaluate whether nabumetone treatment might alter the vascular aberrations related to inflammation in a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Nabumetone treatment (120 or 240 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1), orally) was initiated on the 15th day of adjuvant inoculation and continued for 14 days. Arthritic lesions, vascular contractile and relaxant responses and gastroduodenal histopathological preparations were evaluated 29 days after adjuvant inoculation. The contractile responses of aortic rings to phenylephrine and KCl were increased in grade 2 arthritic rats. In grade 3 arthritis only the phenylephrine contractility was decreased. The relaxant responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were decreased in grades 2 and 3. In healthy rats, nabumetone did not change the vascular responses. After treatment of arthritic rats with nabumetone, both the contractile and relaxant response of the aortic rings returned to normal, and arthritic score and paw swelling were reduced. Gastroduodenal histopathology did not show erosions or ulcers in any of the groups. In conclusion, nabumetone improved the systemic signs and vascular alterations in experimental arthritis without showing any gastrointestinal side effects. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The changes in levels of C-P and insulin in glucose tolerance test in rats with experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinqiu; Lei Ming

    2001-01-01

    The changes in levels of C-P and insulin were investigated in the GT test in rats with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In order to establish a model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the authors injected rats with small dose streptozocoi (i.v.). Two weeks after the injection, the rats developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Then, they were fed with high energy diet for eight weeks to form NIDDM. The results showed that the highest peak time of C-P and insulin in NIDDM was remarkably later than that in normal subjects, the highest peak time was in two hours (P < 0.05). The data suggest that level of C-P could accurately respond to level of insulin, and this experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus model is ideal

  10. O modelo experimental de carcinogênese gástrica induzido por n-methyl-n-nitrosourea em ratos F344 e camundongos C3H é válido para os ratos Wistar? Experimental model of gastric carcinogenesis with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea for F344 rats and C3H mices is valid for Wistar rats?

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    Lissandro Tarso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O N-metil-N-nitrosourea (MNU tem ação cancerígena direta, induzindo tumores em várias espécies em uma variedade de órgãos, incluindo o estômago de ratos. Tratamento do MNU na água de beber por 25-42 semanas, seletivamente, induz carcinoma gástrico glandular de ratos F344 e camundongos C3H. OBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental para indução seletiva de câncer no estômago glandular de ratos Wistar com MNU. MÉTODOS: Um total de 48 ratos Wistar machos com oito semanas, foram utilizados no presente estudo. MNU (Sigma-Aldrich foi dissolvido em DMSO e liberada água potável ad libitum por um período variando de 16 a 70 semanas. Após 16 semanas, quatro ratos foram selecionados aleatoriamente e mortos. Depois, de seis em seis semanas, quatro animais também foram mortos até 70 semanas. RESULTADOS: A taxa de sobrevivência foi superior a 90%. Ocorreu a indução de dois adenocarcinomas, um carcinoma espinocelular e um sarcoma. A incidência de adenocarcinoma gástrico foi de 4,5% (0,5 a 15. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo experimental de carcinogênese gástrica em ratos Wistar, utilizando MNU dissolvido na água, não mostrou viabilidade prática neste estudo, devido à baixa taxa de adenocarcinoma gástrico que ocorreu.BACKGROUND: The N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU is a direct acting carcinogen, inducing tumors in several species in a variety of organs, including stomach of rats. Treatment of MNU in the drinking water for 25-42 weeks selectively induced glandular gastric carcinoma in F344 rats and C3H mice. AIM: To establish an experimental model for selective MNU induction of glandular stomach cancer in Wistar rats. METHODS: A total of 48 males eight-week-old Wistar rats were used in the present study. MNU (Sigma-Aldrich was dissolved in DMSO and provided as the drinking water ad libitum for a period ranging from 16 to 70 weeks. After 16 weeks, four rats were randomly selected and killed. After every six weeks four animals

  11. Inhibition of the recombinant human endostatin adenavirus on experimental choroidal neovascularization in rats

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    Li-Juan Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the inhibition of the recombinant human endostatin adenavirus(Ad-Eson the experimental choroidal neovascularization(CNVmodels by intravitreous injection. METHODS: Experimental CNV models were induced by semiconductor laser in 30 male Brown Norway(BNrats and randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 rats in each group. At 21d after photocoagulation, the single administration group were given intravitreous injection with Ad-Es 0.01mL; the repeated administration group were given intravitreous injection with Ad-Es 0.01mL and a repeated injection 7d later; the saline control group were given intravitreous injection with saline 0.01mL. At 7d after final administration, the leakage of fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAwas observed. Various CNV areas were measured by using laser confocal microscopy of choroidal flatmount method. Pathology and ultrastructure were observed with light microscopy, the expressions of CD105 were measured by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The leakage of CNV of the administration group abviously decreased as compared with those in the saline group, the leakage of repeated administration group decreased compared with that of single administration group(PPCONCLUSION: Ad-Es can effectively inhibit semiconductor laser induced CNV in BN rats, and the inhibition effect of repeated administration group is better than that of single administration group. It may be a useful new method in the treatment of CNV.

  12. Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy of experimentally induced arthritis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatter, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the hind paws of rats was performed at 1.5 Tesla before and during the course of an experimentally-induced inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of 6-sulfanilamidoindazole, an antibacterial sulfa known to produce an acute, self-limited arthritis and periarthritis in the hind paws of rats. Phosphorus-31 spectra obtained after the development of clinical arthritis showed a significant (p 31 P MRS may permit evaluation of the severity of an inflammatory arthritis with greater accuracy than the bony changes definable by plain roentgenograms. (orig.)

  13. Gut Microbiota Confers Resistance of Albino Oxford Rats to the Induction of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljević, Suzana; Dinić, Miroslav; Jevtić, Bojan; Đedović, Neda; Momčilović, Miljana; Đokić, Jelena; Golić, Nataša; Mostarica Stojković, Marija; Miljković, Đorđe

    2018-01-01

    Albino Oxford (AO) rats are extremely resistant to induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE is an animal model of multiple sclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), with established autoimmune pathogenesis. The autoimmune response against the antigens of the CNS is initiated in the peripheral lymphoid tissues after immunization of AO rats with CNS antigens. Subsequently, limited infiltration of the CNS occurs, yet without clinical sequels. It has recently become increasingly appreciated that gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and gut microbiota play an important role in regulation and propagation of encephalitogenic immune response. Therefore, modulation of AO gut microbiota by antibiotics was performed in this study. The treatment altered composition of gut microbiota in AO rats and led to a reduction in the proportion of regulatory T cells in Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and in lymph nodes draining the site of immunization. Upregulation of interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-17 production was observed in the draining lymph nodes. The treatment led to clinically manifested EAE in AO rats with more numerous infiltrates and higher production of IL-17 observed in the CNS. Importantly, transfer of AO gut microbiota into EAE-prone Dark Agouti rats ameliorated the disease. These results clearly imply that gut microbiota is an important factor in AO rat resistance to EAE and that gut microbiota transfer is an efficacious way to treat CNS autoimmunity. These findings also support the idea that gut microbiota modulation has a potential as a future treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  14. Induction of experimental mammary carcinogenesis in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene Indução da carcinogênese mamária experimental em ratas com 7,12-dimetilbenz(aantraceno

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    Alfredo Carlos S. D. Barros

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test an experimental model of chemical mammary carcinogenesis induction in rats. METHODS: Twenty young virgin Sprague-Dawley female rats, aged 47 days, received 20 mg of 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA intragastrically by gavage. Afterwards, at 8 and 13 weeks, their mammary glands were examined. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed, and the mammary tumors were measured and weighed. Tumor fragments were analyzed using light microscopy. RESULTS: Eight weeks after DMBA injection, 16 rats presented at least 1 breast tumor (80%. After 13 weeks, all of them (100% developed breast carcinomas that were confirmed by histopathological analysis. CONCLUSION: This experimental animal model of chemical mammary induced carcinogenesis is feasible and can be used in further experiments on the role of tumorigenic biomodulator substances.OBJETIVO: Testar um modelo experimental de indução química de carcinogênese mamária em ratas. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Com 47 dias de vida, 20 ratas Sprague-Dawley, jovens e virgens, receberam por gavagem intragástrica 20 mg de 7,12-dimetilbenz(aantraceno (DMBA. Oito e 13 semanas depois da injeção de droga as mamas das ratas foram examinadas. Ao final os animais foram sacrificados e fragmentos dos tumores foram estudados ao microscópio. RESULTADO: Oito semanas depois da injeção de DMBA 16 ratas apresentavam tumor nas mamas (80%. Com 13 semanas todas desenvolveram carcinomas de mama (100%, que foram confirmados por análise histopatológica. CONCLUSÃO: Este modelo experimental de indução química de carcinogênese mamária é factível e pode ser empregado em futuras pesquisas para avaliar o papel de substâncias biomoduladoras da tumorigênese.

  15. Modeling the mechanical properties of liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Siping; Shen, Yuanyuan; Song, Liang

    2016-06-14

    The progression of liver fibrosis changes the biomechanical properties of liver tissue. This study characterized and compared different liver fibrosis stages in rats in terms of viscoelasticity. Three viscoelastic models, the Voigt, Maxwell, and Zener models, were applied to experimental data from rheometer tests and then the elasticity and viscosity were estimated for each fibrosis stage. The study found that both elasticity and viscosity are correlated with the various stages of liver fibrosis. The study revealed that the Zener model is the optimal model for describing the mechanical properties of each fibrosis stage, but there is no significant difference between the Zener and Voigt models in their performance on liver fibrosis staging. Therefore the Voigt model can still be effectively used for liver fibrosis grading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A randomized controlled experimental study of the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid for the prevention of adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Murat; Cetinkaya, Nilufer; Bas, Sevda; Korkmaz, Elmas; Ozgu, Emre; Terzioglu, Gokay Serdar; Buyukkagnici, Umran; Akbay, Serap; Caydere, Muzaffer; Gungor, Tayfun

    2016-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been known to possess an efficacy in tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PRP on post-operative adhesion formation in an experimental rat study. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, hyaluronic acid, and PRP treatment groups and operated on for uterine horn adhesion modeling. Blood was collected to produce a PRP with platelet counts of 688 × 10(3)/μL, and 1 ml of either hyaluronic acid gel or PRP was administered over the standard lesions, while the control group received no medication. The evaluation of post-operative adhesions was done on the 30th post-operative day. The location, extent, type, and tenacity of adhesions as well as total adhesion scores, tissue inflammation, fibrosis and transforming growth factor-1beta (TGF-1β) expressions were evaluated. The total adhesion score was significantly lower in the PRP group (3.2 ± 1.5) compared with the hyaluronic acid (5.0 ± 1.3) and control (8.1 ± 1.7) groups. The extent of the adhesions was significantly lower in the PRP group. There was no significant difference in the type and tenacity of adhesions between the hyaluronic acid and the PRP group. The level of inflammation was significantly higher in the control group than the others, while there was no difference between the PRP and hyaluronic acid groups. TGF-1β expression was significantly lesser in the PRP group than the control and hyaluronic acid groups. PRP is more effective than hyaluronic acid treatment in preventing post-operative adhesion formation in an experimental rat uterine horn adhesion model.

  17. Iron metabolism in experimental rickets. Pt. 1. Intestinal absorption of iron in rat rickets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronicka, E.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on iron 59 Fe absorption in rats with experimental rickets. It was found that rats with rickets as compared with controls do not show any significant differences in the degree of iron absorption in fasting state. The percent of absorbed iron increases when it is administered after previous feeding of rats. A greater rise in iron absorption after feeding was shown also by rats with rickets. On the other hand, administration of a shock dose of vitamin D at the time of rickets development causes after 7 days a significant decrease in total iron absorption given to fed rats. An excess of calcium in the diet of rats does not seem to impair directly the absorption of iron. The possibility of the causative effect of vitamin D deficiency on the composition of intestinal contents on changes in the degree of iron absorption observed after feeding of rats with rickets, is discussed. (author)

  18. Baicalin inhibits toll-like receptor 2/4 expression and downstream signaling in rat experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-Yi; Li, Dong-Ling; Dong, Yan; Zhu, Chun-Hui; Liu, Jin; Li, Jue-Dan; Zhou, Tao; Gou, Jian-Zhong; Li, Ang; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Periodontitis is a severe inflammatory response, leading to characteristic periodontal soft tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption. Baicalin possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity; however, it is still unclear whether baicalin regulates toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/4 expression and downstream signaling during the process of periodontitis. In this study, the cervical area of the maxillary second molars of rats was ligated and inoculated with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) for 4weeks to induce periodontitis. Some rats with periodontitis were treated intragastrically with baicalin (50, 100 or 200mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 4weeks. Compared with the sham group, the levels of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 expression and the p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation were up-regulated in the experimental periodontitis group (EPG), accompanied by marked alveolar bone loss and severe inflammation. Treatment with 100 or 200mg/kg/day baicalin dramatically reduced the alveolar bone loss, the levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and MPO expression, and the numbers of inflammatory infiltrates in the gingival tissues. Importantly, treatment with 100 or 200mg/kg/day baicalin mitigated the periodontitis-up-regulated TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 expression, and the p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation. Hence, the blockage of the TLR2 and TLR4/MyD88/p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling by baicalin may contribute to its anti-inflammatory effects in rat model of periodontitis. In conclusion, these novel findings indicate that baicalin inhibits the TLR2 and TLR4 expression and the downstream signaling and mitigates inflammatory responses and the alveolar bone loss in rat experimental periodontitis. Therefore, baicalin may be a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of periodontitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 µg collagen. All rats with established CIA, with arthritis scores exceeding 1, were orally treated with betamethasone (0.5 mg/ml/kg body weight), curcumin (110 mg/ml/kg body weight) or olive oil (1.0 ml/kg body weight) daily, for two weeks. One remaining group was kept as normal control. Treatment with 110 mg/ml/kg curcumin showed significant mean differences in the average white blood cell (WBC) count (pPannus formation scores showed that curcumin supplementation successfully suppressed the pannus formation process that occurred in the articular cartilage of the CIA joints. The mean difference for histological scores for the curcumin group was insignificant compared to the betamethasone treated group. It is concluded that supplementation of curcumin has protective effect on the histopathological and degenerative changes in the joints of CIA rats which was at par with betamethasone. PMID:27366139

  20. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 µg collagen. All rats with established CIA, with arthritis scores exceeding 1, were orally treated with betamethasone (0.5 mg/ml/kg body weight), curcumin (110 mg/ml/kg body weight) or olive oil (1.0 ml/kg body weight) daily, for two weeks. One remaining group was kept as normal control. Treatment with 110 mg/ml/kg curcumin showed significant mean differences in the average white blood cell (WBC) count (pcurcumin supplementation successfully suppressed the pannus formation process that occurred in the articular cartilage of the CIA joints. The mean difference for histological scores for the curcumin group was insignificant compared to the betamethasone treated group. It is concluded that supplementation of curcumin has protective effect on the histopathological and degenerative changes in the joints of CIA rats which was at par with betamethasone.

  1. New models of experimental parotitis and parotid gland distension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Iwata, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A significant reduction of the escape threshold to mechanical stimulation of the lateral facial skin was observed bilaterally at days 2 and 3 after unilateral complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) administration into parotid gland. A slight reduction of mechanical escape threshold was also observed in rats with saline administration. The parotid gland inflammation was verified and quantified by measuring the tissue Evans' blue dye extravasation. The Evans' blue concentration in the parotid gland tissues was significantly greater in the CFA-injected rats than that of the saline-injected rats at 72 h after treatment. On day 10 after CFA administration into the parotid gland, the Evans' blue concentration was recovered to the control level. The administration of capsaicin into the parotid gland did not alter neuronal activities in the transition zone between the trigeminal spinal subnucleus interpolaris and caudalis (Vi/Vc). In contrast, capsaicin administration induced significant increases in the receptive field size and mechanical and cold responses of neurons located in superficial laminae of the C1/C2. The subgroup of C1/C2 neurons responded to mechanical distension of the parotid gland, whereas no Vi/Vc neurons responded to parotid distension.

  2. Altered explorative strategies and reactive coping style in the FSL rat model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore eMagara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling depression in animals is based on the observation of behaviors interpreted as analogue to human symptoms. Typical tests used in experimental depression research are designed to evoke an either-or outcome. It is known that explorative and coping strategies are relevant for depression, however these aspects are generally not considered in animal behavioral testing. Here we investigate the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL, a rat model of depression, compared to the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat in three independent tests where the animals are allowed to express a more extensive behavioral repertoire. The multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF and the novel cage tests evoke exploratory behaviors in a novel environment and the home cage change test evokes social behaviors in the re-establishment of a social hierarchy. In the MCSF test, FSL rats exhibited less exploratory drive and more risk-assessment behavior compared to SD rats. When re-exposed to the arena, FSL, but not SD rats, increased their exploratory behavior compared to the first trial and displayed risk-assessment behavior to the same extent as SD rats. Thus, the behavior of FSL rats was more similar to that of SDs when the rats were familiar with the arena. In the novel cage test FSL rats exhibited a reactive coping style, consistent with the reduced exploration observed in the MCSF. Reactive coping is associated with less aggressive behavior. Accordingly, FSL rats displayed less aggressive behavior in the home cage change test. Taken together, our data show that FSL rats express altered explorative behavior and reactive coping style. Reduced interest is a core symptom of depression, and individuals with a reactive coping style are more vulnerable to the disease. Our results support the use of FSL rats as an animal model of depression and increase our understanding of the FSL rat beyond the behavioral dimensions targeted by the traditional depression-related tests.

  3. Anti-fibrotic effects of Cuscuta chinensis with in vitro hepatic stellate cells and a thioacetamide-induced experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seoub; Koppula, Sushruta; Yum, Mun Jeong; Shin, Gwang Mo; Chae, Yun Jin; Hong, Seok Min; Lee, Jae Dong; Song, MinDong

    2017-12-01

    Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae) has been used as a traditional herbal remedy for treating liver and kidney disorders. Anti-fibrotic effects of C. chinensis extract (CCE) in cellular and experimental animal models were investigated. HSC-T6 cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were analysed using MTT assay, flow cytometry and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining techniques. Thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis model was established using Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10). Control, TAA, CCE 10 (TAA with CCE 10 mg/kg), CCE 100 (TAA with CCE 100 mg/kg) and silymarin (TAA with silymarin 50 mg/kg). Fibrosis was induced by TAA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) twice per week for 13 weeks. CCE and silymarin were administered orally two times per week from the 7th to 13th week. Fibrotic related gene expression (α-SMA, Col1α1 and TGF-β1) was measured by RT-PCR. Serum biomarkers, glutathione (GSH) and hydroxyproline were estimated by spectrophotometer using commercial kits. CCE (0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL) and silymarin (0.05 mg/mL) treatment significantly (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) induced apoptosis (11.56%, 17.52% for CCE; 16.50% for silymarin, respectively) in activated HSC-T6 cells, compared with control group (7.26%). Further, rat primary HSCs showed changes in morphology with CCE 0.1 mg/mL treatment. In in vivo studies, CCE (10 and 100 mg/kg) treatment ameliorated the TAA-induced altered levels of serum biomarkers, fibrotic related gene expression, GSH, hydroxyproline significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) and rescued the histopathological changes. CCE can be developed as a potential agent in the treatment of hepatofibrosis.

  4. Spatial Memory in the Progeny of Rats Subjected to Different Types of Experimental Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Zhakupova, G A; Lashchenova, L I; Lebedeva, S A; Tyurenkov, I N

    2016-09-01

    Spatial memory was studied in 2-month-old offspring of rats subjected to different types of experimental preeclampsia (replacement of drinking water with 1.8% NaCl from day 1 to 21 of gestation or intraperitoneal administration of non-selective NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME to pregnant rats in a daily dose of 25 mg/kg for 7 days on gestation days 14-20). Spatial memory was evaluated in an elevated 8-arm radial maze. Both types of experimental preeclampsia impaired spatial (long-term and short-term) memory and can be used in the development of drugs correcting negative effects of this pregnancy complication on memory.

  5. Minocycline Effects on the Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, Marcel P.; Rosenling, Therese; Attali, Amos; Meesters, Roland J. W.; Stingl, Christoph; Dekker, Lennard J.; van Aken, Hans; Suidgeest, Ernst; Hintzen, Rogier Q.; Tuinstra, Tinka; van Gool, Alain; Luider, Theo M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    To identify response biomarkers for pharmaceutical treatment of multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and treated symptomatic animals with minocycline. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected 14 days after EAE induction at the peak of

  6. Minocycline effects on the cerebrospinal fluid proteome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, M.P.; Rosenling, T.; Attali, A.; Meesters, R.J.; Stingl, C.; Dekker, L.J.; van Aken, H.; Suidgeest, E.; Hintzen, R.Q.; Tuinstra, T.; Gool, A.J. van; Luider, T.M.; Bischoff, R.

    2012-01-01

    To identify response biomarkers for pharmaceutical treatment of multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and treated symptomatic animals with minocycline. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected 14 days after EAE induction at the peak of

  7. Establishing an experimental model of photodynamic induced anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Runsheng Wang; Xiaodi Wang; Peilin Lü; Jianwei Bai; Jianzhou Wang; Xiaoqin Lei; Xiaoliang Zhou; Hongfen Sun; Aizhu Pan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scholars have supposed to establish animal models of optic neuropathy by pressing and partially amputating optic nerve, increasing intraocular pressure and injecting vasoconstrictor, etc., but the models are greatly different from anterior ischemia optic neuropathy. Therefore, a more ideal method is needed to establish animal model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION).OBJECTIVE: To establish AION models in rats, observe the functional changes of fundus, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), flash visual evoked potential (F-VEP), and histopathologically confirm its reliability.DESIGN: A randomized control trial.SETTINGS: Department of Ophthalmology, Xi'an Fourth Hospital; Xi'an Institute of Ocular Fundus Diseases.MATERIALS: The experiments were carried out in the research room of Xi'an Institute of Ocular Fundus Diseases from February 2005 to May 2006. Thirty healthy male SD rats of 4-5 weeks old, weighing 140-160 g,were provided by the animal experimental center of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA [SCXK (Military)2002-005], and those without eye disease examined by slit lamp and direct ophthalmoscope after mydriasis were enrolled. The conditions for feeding mice without special pathogen were strictly followed.The rats were randomly divided into blank control group (n =5), laser group (n =5), hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) group and AION group (n =15), each group was numbered randomly. For each rat, the right eye was taken as the experimental eye, and the left one as the control one.METHODS: In the AION group, the rats were injected with HPD (10 mg/kg) via caudal vein, and then the optic discs were exposed to krypton red (647 nm, 80 mV) for 120 s, and the rats were in avoidance of light for 2 weeks postoperatively. Rats in the laser group were only exposed to krypton red (647 nm, 80 mV) for 120 s, and in avoidance of light for 2 weeks postoperatively; Those in the HPD group were only

  8. Effect of whole-body gamma radiation on tissue sulfhydryl contents in experimental rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.R.; Singh, L.R.; Uniyal, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    It has been postulated that vital constituents of cell membranes concerned with the maintenance of cellular integrity are affected by ionizing radiation. Sulfhydryl contents, which form an integral component of cell membranes play vital roles in maintaining cellular integrity. The purpose was to evaluate non-protein and protein sulfhydryl contents in tissues of irradiated rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation of 4 Gy and 10 Gy and non-protein and protein sulfhydryl contents of blood, heart and spleen were studied on postirradiation day 1, 3 and 6. Both groups of experimental rats exhibited unchanged blood non-protein sulfhydryl contents on first day after irradiation with significant diminution subsequently. In contrast, blood protein sulfhydryl groups of both groups of rats were increased on first day post exposure, which became normal on sixth day. Myocardial non-protein and protein sulfhydryl contents of both groups of rats remained unchanged in the initial stage of radiation exposure indicating radioresistance nature of rat heart. Both groups of rats demonstrated biphasic nature of non-protein sulfhydryl contents in spleen, asrevealed by initial increase with subsequent decrease. Protein sulfhydryl contents of rats of 4 Gy group showed significant diminution post exposure throughout, while the same of 10 Gy behaved in opposite way. (author)

  9. The rat as animal model in breast cancer research: a histopathological study of radiation- and hormone-induced rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwieten, M.J. van.

    1984-01-01

    One of the goals of this monograph is to present data on the frequency of mammary neoplasms following irradiation and/or hormone administration in intact and castrated female rats of three strains allowed to live their natural life spans. These data are intended to give an overview of the effects of radiation and hormonal manipulation on the mammary gland based on histological examination of necropsied rats and using standard morphological criteria for mammary tumors. The second goal of this monograph is to provide detailed histological descriptions of the mammary tumors found in the various experimental groups as well as in several groups of untreated control rats. The aims are to examine whether possible strain-related and treatment-related differences in morphology or growth patterns exist, as well as to define the pathogensis of radiation-induced rat mammary tumors through the study of early lesions. An attempt will be made to describe tumor characteristics which may be of comparative value in identifying tumor types (and their induction methods) useful as models for specific human breast neoplasms. A rat mammary tumor classification system reflecting the morphological features useful for comparative purposes is also presented. (Auth.)

  10. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Reveals Brain Cortex Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambalo, Stefano; Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Rigolio, Roberta; Fiorini, Silvia; Bontempi, Pietro; Mallucci, Giulia; Balzarotti, Beatrice; Marmiroli, Paola; Sbarbati, Andrea; Cavaletti, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Cortical reorganization occurring in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is thought to play a key role in limiting the effect of structural tissue damage. Conversely, its exhaustion may contribute to the irreversible disability that accumulates with disease progression. Several aspects of MS-related cortical reorganization, including the overall functional effect and likely modulation by therapies, still remain to be elucidated. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of functional cortical reorganization and its brain structural/pathological correlates in Dark Agouti rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely accepted preclinical model of chronic MS. Morphological and functional MRI (fMRI) were performed before disease induction and during the relapsing and chronic phases of EAE. During somatosensory stimulation of the right forepaw, fMRI demonstrated that cortical reorganization occurs in both relapsing and chronic phases of EAE with increased activated volume and decreased laterality index versus baseline values. Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated gray matter (GM) atrophy in the cerebral cortex, and both GM and white matter atrophy were assessed by ex vivo pathology of the sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum. Neuroinflammation persisted in the relapsing and chronic phases, with dendritic spine density in the layer IV sensory neurons inversely correlating with the number of cluster of differentiation 45-positive inflammatory lesions. Our work provides an innovative experimental platform that may be pivotal for the comprehension of key mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of irreversible brain damage and for the development of innovative therapies to reduce disability in EAE/MS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Since the early 2000s, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated profound modifications in the recruitment of cortical areas during motor, cognitive, and sensory tasks in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Experimental autoimmune

  11. Retinal glutamate transporter changes in experimental glaucoma and after optic nerve transection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith R G; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Valenta, Danielle; Baumrind, Lisa; Pease, Mary Ellen; Quigley, Harry A

    2002-07-01

    High levels of glutamate can be toxic to retinal ganglion cells. Effective buffering of extracellular glutamate by retinal glutamate transporters is therefore important. This study was conducted to investigate whether glutamate transporter changes occur with two models of optic nerve injury in the rat. Glaucoma was induced in one eye of 35 adult Wistar rats by translimbal diode laser treatment to the trabecular meshwork. Twenty-five more rats underwent unilateral optic nerve transection. Two glutamate transporters, GLAST (EAAT-1) and GLT-1 (EAAT-2), were studied by immunohistochemistry and quantitative Western blot analysis. Treated and control eyes were compared 3 days and 1, 4, and 6 weeks after injury. Optic nerve damage was assessed semiquantitatively in epoxy-embedded optic nerve cross sections. Trabecular laser treatment resulted in moderate intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in all animals. After 1 to 6 weeks of experimental glaucoma, all treated eyes had significant optic nerve damage. Glutamate transporter changes were not detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis demonstrated significantly reduced GLT-1 in glaucomatous eyes compared with control eyes at 3 days (29.3% +/- 6.7%, P = 0.01), 1 week (55.5% +/- 13.6%, P = 0.02), 4 weeks (27.2% +/- 10.1%, P = 0.05), and 6 weeks (38.1% +/- 7.9%, P = 0.01; mean reduction +/- SEM, paired t-tests, n = 5 animals per group, four duplicate Western blot analyses per eye). The magnitude of the reduction in GLT-1 correlated significantly with mean IOP in the glaucomatous eye (r(2) = 0.31, P = 0.01, linear regression). GLAST was significantly reduced (33.8% +/- 8.1%, mean +/- SEM) after 4 weeks of elevated IOP (P = 0.01, paired t-test, n = 5 animals per group). In contrast to glaucoma, optic nerve transection resulted in an increase in GLT-1 compared with the control eye (P = 0.01, paired t-test, n = 15 animals). There was no significant change in GLAST after transection. GLT-1 and GLAST were significantly

  12. Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, M; Girija, K; Lakshman, K; Divya, T

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M. paradisiaca. The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models.

  13. Tobacco experimental model to induce urinary bladder neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Colli Neto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to develop an experimental model of exposure to tobacco burning (cigarette products to assess the effects of its chronic use in relation to cancers of the bladder. METHODS: the animals were chronically exposed to the burning tobacco products in a semi-open chamber to simulate smoking. Thirty young Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one with 20 animals simulating smoking for six months, and ten not exposed control animals for the same period. After exposure by inhalation of cigarette smoke, animals were euthanized and subjected to histopathological study of the bladder wall. RESULTS: no tumor was found but mild and non significant alterations. The studies of hemo-oximetry (carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin and the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 confirm that the animals were exposed to high concentrations of tobacco smoke and its derivatives. CONCLUSION: no bladder mucosal neoplasia was found in the pathological study of animals. The developed experimental models were highly efficient, practical and easy to use and can be used in other similar studies to determine the harmful effects caused by smoking.

  14. Adrenomedulline improves ischemic left colonic anastomotic healing in an experimental rodent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Karatepe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leakage from colonic anastomosis is a major complication causing increased mortality and morbidity. Ischemia is a well-known cause of this event. This study was designed to investigate the effects of adrenomedullin on the healing of ischemic colon anastomosis in a rat model. METHODS: Standardized left colon resection 3 cm above the peritoneal reflection and colonic anastomosis were performed in 40 Wistar rats that were divided into four groups. To mimic ischemia, the mesocolon was ligated 2 cm from either side of the anastomosis in all of the groups. The control groups (1 and 2 received no further treatment. The experimental groups (3 and 4 received adrenomedullin treatment. Adrenomedullin therapy was started in the perioperative period in group 3 and 4 rats (the therapeutic groups. Group 1 and group 3 rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 3. Group 2 and group 4 rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. After careful relaparotomy, bursting pressure, hydroxyproline, malondialdehyde, interleukin 6, nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were measured. Histopathological characteristics of the anastomosis were analyzed. RESULTS: The group 3 animals had a significantly higher bursting pressure than group 1 (p<0.05. Hydroxyproline levels in group 1 were significantly lower than in group 3 (p<0.05. The mean bursting pressure was significantly different between group 2 and group 4 (p<0.05. Hydroxyproline levels in groups 3 and 4 were significantly increased by adrenomedullin therapy relative to the control groups (p<0.05. When all groups were compared, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were significantly lower in the control groups (p<0.05. When vascular endothelial growth factor levels were compared, no statistically significant difference between groups was observed. Interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly decreased by adrenomedullin therapy (p<0.05. The

  15. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression in experimentally induced liver cirrhosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Syed Muhammad; Fatima, Syeda Nuzhat; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2013-09-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a key player of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS), involved in conversion of active product, angiotensin-II. Alterations in RAS have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various diseases involving heart, kidney, lung and liver. This study is designed to investigate the association of ACE gene expression in induction of liver cirrhosis in rats. Total 12 male albino Wistar rats were selected and divided in two groups. Control group received 0.9% NaCl, where as Test group received thioacidamide (TAA), dissolved in 0.9%NaCl, injected intraperitoneally at a dosage of 200mg/Kg of body weight, twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were decapitated and blood sample was collected at the end of experimental period and used for liver functions, enzyme activity, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation estimations. Genomic DNA was isolated from excised tissue determine the ACE genotypes using specific primers. The ACE gene expression in liver tissue was assessed using the quantitative RT-PCR method. The activity of ALT, total and direct bilirubin, SOD and CAT levels were significantly high (pACE gene expression after 12 weeks TAA treatment in cirrhotic rats was significantly increased (pACE gene expression. The finding of major up-regulation of ACE in the experimental rat liver provides further insight into the complexities of the RAS and its regulation in liver injury. The development of specific modulators of ACE activity and function, in future, will help determine the role of ACE and its genetic variants in the pathophysiology of liver disease.

  16. Changes of blood and myocardial tissue contents of IGF-I after development of acute myocardial infarction in rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Heng; Wei Youquan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of IGF-I contents in blood and myocardium after experimental acute myocardial infarction in rat models. Methods: Rat models of acute myocardial infarction were prepared with intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. Eight models were sacrificed 48h later and another 8 models were sacrificed 14 days after preparation. Serum and myocardium homogenate contents of IGF-I were measured with RIA in these models as well as 8 control rats. Results: The serum and myocardial contents of IGF-I increased in the models sacrificed at 48h, but were not significantly higher than those in the controls (P>0.05). At 14 th day, the levels were significantly higher than those in controls and at 48h (both P<0.05). The serum and myocardial contents of IGF-I were mutually correlated in the controls and 14 day models (r=0.9987, r=0.9992; P<0.01). Conclusion After myocardial infarction, the serum and myocardial IGF-I contents increased along with the course of disease in the rat models. (authors)

  17. A comparative behavioural study of mechanical hypersensitivity in 2 pain models in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Marie-Céline; Hrncic, Dragan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Caspani, Ombretta

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of pain sensitivity in humans has been standardized using quantitative sensory testing, whereas in animals mostly paw withdrawal thresholds to diverse stimuli are measured. This study directly compares tests used in quantitative sensory testing (pinpricks, pressure algometer) with tests used in animal studies (electronic von Frey test: evF), which we applied to the dorsal hind limbs of humans after high frequency stimulation and rats after tibial nerve transection. Both experimental models induce profound mechanical hypersensitivity. At baseline, humans and rats showed a similar sensitivity to evF with 0.2 mm diameter tips, but significant differences for other test stimuli (all P pain models (P pain sensitivity, but probe size and shape should be standardized. Hypersensitivity to blunt pressure-the leading positive sensory sign after peripheral nerve injury in humans-is a novel finding in the tibial nerve transection model. By testing outside the primary zone of nerve damage (rat) or activation (humans), our methods likely involve effects of central sensitization in both species.

  18. Establishment of reproducible osteosarcoma rat model using orthotopic implantation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhe; Sun, Honghui; Fan, Qingyu; Long, Hua; Yang, Tongtao; Ma, Bao'an

    2009-05-01

    In experimental musculoskeletal oncology, there remains a need for animal models that can be used to assess the efficacy of new and innovative treatment methodologies for bone tumors. Rat plays a very important role in the bone field especially in the evaluation of metabolic bone diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a rat osteosarcoma model for evaluation of new surgical and molecular methods of treatment for extremity sarcoma. One hundred male SD rats weighing 125.45+/-8.19 g were divided into 5 groups and anesthetized intraperitoneally with 10% chloral hydrate. Orthotopic implantation models of rat osteosarcoma were performed by injecting directly into the SD rat femur with a needle for inoculation with SD tumor cells. In the first step of the experiment, 2x10(5) to 1x10(6) UMR106 cells in 50 microl were injected intraosseously into median or distal part of the femoral shaft and the tumor take rate was determined. The second stage consisted of determining tumor volume, correlating findings from ultrasound with findings from necropsia and determining time of survival. In the third stage, the orthotopically implanted tumors and lung nodules were resected entirely, sectioned, and then counter stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic evaluation. The tumor take rate was 100% for implants with 8x10(5) tumor cells or more, which was much less than the amount required for subcutaneous implantation, with a high lung metastasis rate of 93.0%. Ultrasound and necropsia findings matched closely (r=0.942; p<0.01), which demonstrated that Doppler ultrasonography is a convenient and reliable technique for measuring cancer at any stage. Tumor growth curve showed that orthotopically implanted tumors expanded vigorously with time-lapse, especially in the first 3 weeks. The median time of survival was 38 days and surgical mortality was 0%. The UMR106 cell line has strong carcinogenic capability and high lung metastasis frequency. The present rat

  19. [The replacement therapy of rPTH(1-84) in established rat model of hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhiwei; Li, Tiancheng; Liu, Yuhe; Xiao, Shuifang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the replacement therapy of rPTH(1-84) (recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-84)) to hypothyroidism in established rat model. Rat model of hypothyroidism was established by resecting parathyroids. A total of 30 rats with removal of parathyroids were divided into 6 groups randomly, 5 in each group, and applied respectively with saline injection (negative control group), calcitriol treatment (positive control group) and quadripartite PTH administration with dose of 20, 40, 80 and 160 µg/kg (experimental groups). Saline and rPTH(1-84) were injected subcutaneously daily. Calcitriol was gavaged once a day. Sham-operation was conducted in 5 rats of negative control group. To verify the authenticity of the rat model with hypothyroidism, the serum was insolated centrifugally from rat blood that was obtained from angular vein at specific time to measure calcium and phosphorus concentration. Urine in 12 hours was collected by metabolic cages and the calcium concentration was measured. After 10-week drug treatment, the experiment was terminated and bilateral femoral bone and L2-5 lumbar vertebra were removed from rats. Bone mineral density (BMD)of bilateral femoral bone and lumbar vertebra was analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The concentration of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) in serum was determined by radioimmunoassay. The rat model with hypothyroidism was obtained by excising parathyroid gland and was verified by monitoring calcium and phosphorus concentration subsequently. Administration of rPTH(1-84) in the dose of 80 or 160 µg/kg made serum calcium and phosphorus back to normal levels, with no significant difference between the doses (P>0.05). The BMD in each group of rats with rPTH(1-84) administration was increased significantly (P0.05). Calcium and phosphorus return to normal level by administration of rPTH(1-84) in the dose of 80 µg/kg or 160 µg/kg, with increase in BMD. Calcitriol can return the level of calcium to normal and

  20. The role of periodontal ASIC3 in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiya; Long, Hu; Ma, Wenqiang; Liao, Lina; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yang; Shan, Di; Huang, Renhuan; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the roles of Acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) in orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the experimental group (40g, n = 30) and the sham group (0g, n = 30). Closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary incisor and molars to achieve experimental tooth movement. Rat grimace scale (RGS) scores were assessed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the placement of the springs. ASIC3 immunostaining was performed and the expression levels of ASIC3 were measured through integrated optical density/area in Image-Pro Plus 6.0. Moreover, 18 rats were divided into APETx2 group (n = 6), amiloride group (n = 6), and vehicle group (n = 6), and RGS scores were obtained compared among them to verify the roles of ASIC3 in orofacial pain following tooth movement. ASIC3 expression levels became significantly higher in the experimental group than in sham group on 1, 3, and 5 days and became similar on 7 and 14 days. Pain levels (RGS scores) increased in both groups and were significantly higher in the experimental group on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days and were similar on 14 days. Periodontal ASIC3 expression levels were correlated with orofacial pain levels following experimental tooth movement. Periodontal administrations of ASIC3 antagonists (APETx2 and amiloride) could alleviate pain. This study needs to be better evidenced by RNA interference of ASIC3 in periodontal tissues in rats following experimental tooth movement. Moreover, we hope further studies would concentrate on the pain perception of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3 -/- ) mice. Our results suggest that periodontal ASIC3 plays an important role in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effect of Citrullus colocynthis hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats model: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Barzegar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrullus colocynthis (CCT is used as the anti-diabetic and antioxidant agent. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a reproductive disorder which level of gonadotropins and sexual hormones are imbalanced. Objective: We evaluated the effect of CCT hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats’ model. Materials and Methods: 40 female adult Wistar rats divided into five groups (n=8each: Group I (control only injected by sesame oil as estradiol valerate solvent, group II (Sham was orally received normal saline after estradiol valerate- induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (4 mg/rat estradiol valerate, intramuscularly, and three experimental groups, that after induction of PCOS within 60 days, received orally 50 mg/kg CCT extract (group III, 50mg/kg metformin (group IV, and CCT extract+ metformin (group V for 20 days. The serum concentration level of luteinizing, testosterone and follicle stimulating hormones were measured using ELISA method and the serum concentration level of glucose were measured using the oxidative method (glucose meter. Histological study of ovary tissue carried out by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: There was a significant reduction in luteinizing hormone and testosterone in III-V groups compared to Sham group, whereas follicle stimulating hormone in III-V groups was not significantly changed in comparison with Sham group. Histological investigations showed a significant increase in number of preantral and antral follicles and corpus luteum in the experimental groups compared to group II. Conclusion: Marked improvement in hormonal and histological symptoms of PCOS may be due to CCT effects hence, CCT can potentially be considered as an effective drug for treatment of PCOS

  2. Effect of platelet-rich plasma on tendon-to-bone healing after rotator cuff repair in rats: an in vivo experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapa, Onur; Cakıcı, Hüsamettin; Kükner, Aysel; Aygün, Hayati; Sarkalan, Nazlı; Baysal, Gökhan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to analyze the effects of local autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection on tendon-to-bone healing in a rotator cuff repair model in rats. Rotator cuff injury was created in 68 left shoulders of rats. PRP was obtained from the blood of an additional 15 rats. The 68 rats were divided into 4 groups with 17 rats in each group; PRP group (Week 2), control group (Week 2), PRP group (Week 4), and control group (Week 4). Platelet-rich plasma or saline was injected to the repair area intraoperatively. Rats were sacrificed 2 and 4 weeks after the surgery. Histological analysis using a semiquantitative scoring was performed on 7 rats per group. Tendon integrity and increases in vascularity and inflammatory cells and the degree of new bone formation were evaluated and compared between the groups. The remaining tendons (n=10) were mechanically tested. Degree of inflammation and vascularity were less in the study group at both time intervals (protator cuff tendon-to-bone healing and enhance initial tendon-to-bone healing remodeling. This may represent a clinically important improvement in rotator cuff repair.

  3. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.

  4. Long-term sequential changes of radiation proctitis and angiopathy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish an experimental rat model for late radiation proctitis, and to examine the assessment strategy for late radiation proctitis. A total of 57 Wistar rats were used. Forty-five of the rats were exposed to selective rectal irradiation with a single fraction of 25 Gy. These rats were sacrificed at the 4th, 12th, 24th, and 37th week following irradiation. The remaining 12 rats comprised the control group without irradiation. The rectal mucosa of each rat was evaluated macroscopically and pathologically. The number of vessels in the rectal mucosa was counted microscopically. In addition, the vascular stenosis was evaluated. In the results, the degree of clinical and macroscopic findings decreased following acute proctitis and developed later. In the pathological examination, mucosal changes and microangiopathy were followed up, as well. The absolute number of vessels in the rectum was the greatest at the 12th week following irradiation and was the lowest in the control group. The severity of the microangiopathy was also well evaluated. To conclude, we established an animal experimental model of late radiation proctitis, and also established an assessment strategy to evaluate objectively the severity of late radiation proctitis with focusing on microangiopathy using an animal experimental model. This model can be used as an animal experimental model of radiation-induced microangiopathy. (author)

  5. Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to explore the role of kidney transporters in renal reabsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers, E-mail: idz7@cdc.gov [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Community Health Investigations, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, 341 Pharmacy South, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey [Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, 341 Pharmacy South, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Food and Drug Administration, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    ABSTRACT: Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in male and female rats to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both male and female rats indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contribute to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. - Highlights: • The PBPK model for PFOA in the rat explores the role of OATs in sex-specific clearance. • Descriptions of OAT kinetics were extrapolated from in vitro studies. • Model predictions showed good fit with experimental data for male and female rats.

  6. Application of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to explore the role of kidney transporters in renal reabsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in male and female rats to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both male and female rats indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contribute to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. - Highlights: • The PBPK model for PFOA in the rat explores the role of OATs in sex-specific clearance. • Descriptions of OAT kinetics were extrapolated from in vitro studies. • Model predictions showed good fit with experimental data for male and female rats.

  7. A study on experimental toxicology of 147Pm in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingyong; Lao Qinhua

    1988-11-01

    The absorb law of 147 Pm by pulmonary compartment, intestines and skin of rat is reported. The metabolic pattern of 147 Pm in rat and its dose model are worked out on the basis of measured data. The injurious effects of the nuclide were observed by using LD 50/60 , micro-nucleus rates of lymphocytes in peripheral blood and activity of SGPT in serum as indices

  8. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model

    OpenAIRE

    Acer, Semra; Pekel, Gökhan; Küçükatay, Vural; Karabulut, Aysun; Yağcı, Ramazan; Çetin, Ebru Nevin; Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Şahin, Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Gro...

  9. Pathological and MRI study on experimental heroin-induced brain damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Yu; Kong Xiangquan; Xu Haibo; Liu Dingxi; Yuan Ren; Yu Qun; Xiong Yin; Deng Xianbo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological characteristics of the heroin-induced brain damage in rats, and to assess the diagnostic value of MRI. Methods: A total of 40 adult Wistar rats were studied, 32 rats were used for injecting heroin as heroin group and 8 were used for injecting saline as control group. The heroin dependent rat model was established by administering heroin (ip) in the ascending dosage schedule (0.5 mg/kg), three times a day (at 8:00, 12:00, and 18:00). The control group was established by the same way by injection with saline. The withdrawal scores were evaluated with imp roved criterion in order to estimate the degree of addiction after administering naloxone. Based on the rat model of heroin dependence, the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established by the same way with increasing heroin dosage everyday. Two groups were examined by using MRI, light microscope, and electron microscope, respectively in different heroin accumulated dosage (918, 1580, 2686, 3064, 4336, and 4336 mg/kg withdrawal after 2 weeks). Results: There was statistically significant difference (t=9.737, P<0.01) of the withdrawal scores between the heroin dependent group and the saline group (23.0 ± 4.4 and 1.4 ± 0.5, respectively). It suggested that the heroin dependent rat model be established successfully. In different accumulated dosage ( from 1580 mg/kg to 4336 mg/kg), there were degeneration and death of nerve cells in cerebrum and cerebellum of heroin intoxicated rats, and it suggested that the rat model of heroin-induced brain damage was established successfully. The light microscope and electron microscope features of heroin-induced brain damage in rats included: (1) The nerve cells of cerebral cortex degenerated and died. According to the heroin accumulated dosage, there were statistically significant difference of the nerve cell deaths between 4336 mg/kg group and 1580 mg/kg group or control group (P=0.024 and P=0.032, respectively); (2) The main

  10. Ghrelin Attenuates Retinal Neuronal Autophagy and Apoptosis in an Experimental Rat Glaucoma Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ke; Zhang, Meng-Lu; Liu, Shu-Ting; Li, Xue-Yan; Zhong, Shu-Min; Li, Fang; Xu, Ge-Zhi; Wang, Zhongfeng; Miao, Yanying

    2017-12-01

    Ghrelin, a natural ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), may protect retinal neurons against glaucomatous injury. We therefore characterized the underlying mechanism of the ghrelin/GHSR-1a-mediated neuroprotection with a rat chronic intraocular hypertension (COH) model. The rat COH model was produced by blocking episcleral veins. A combination of immunohistochemistry, Western blot, TUNEL assay, and retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was used. Elevation of intraocular pressure induced a significant increase in ghrelin and GHSR-1a expression in retinal cells, including RGCs and Müller cells. Western blot confirmed that the protein levels of ghrelin exhibited a transient upregulation at week 2 after surgery (G2w), while the GHSR-1a protein levels were maintained at high levels from G2w to G4w. In COH retinas, the ratio of LC3-II/LC-I and beclin1, two autophagy-related proteins, were increased from G1w to G4w, and the cleavage product of caspase3, an apoptotic executioner, was detected from G2w to G4w. Intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin significantly increased the number of surviving RGCs; inhibited the changes of LC3-II/LC-I, beclin1, and the cleavage products of caspase3; and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in COH retinas. Ghrelin treatment also reversed the decreased levels of p-Akt and p-mTOR, upregulated GHSR-1a protein levels, and attenuated glial fibrillary acidic protein levels in COH retinas. All these results suggest that ghrelin may provide neuroprotective effect in COH retinas through activating ghrelin/GHSR-1a system, which was mediated by inhibiting retinal autophagy, ganglion cell apoptosis, and Müller cell gliosis.

  11. In vivo Dentin Caries Model using Rat Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, HIGASHI; Junji, TAGAMI; Nobuhiro, HANADA; Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Department of Restorative Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Department of Restorative Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Department of Oral Science The National Institute of Infectious Diseases(NIID)

    2000-01-01

    Experimental dentinal caries was induced in rat molars which were inoculated orally with Streptococcus mutans and maintained on a carionenic diet 2000. After 30 days on the diet, the rats were sacrificed. The caries lesions were confirmed with a caries detector, then nanohardness determination of caries dentin were measured with nanoindentation. After hardness measurement, the lesion was examined by SEM and EDS. Dentin caries in sixteen fissures was induced among 20 fissures in the mandibular...

  12. Aberrant self-grooming as early marker of motor dysfunction in a rat model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglione, Anna Maria; Armida, Monica; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Pezzola, Antonella; Popoli, Patrizia; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2016-10-15

    In the study of neurodegenerative diseases, rodent models provide experimentally accessible systems to study multiple pathogenetic aspects. The identification of early and robust behavioural changes is crucial to monitoring disease progression and testing potential therapeutic strategies in animals. Consistent experimental data support the translational value of rodent self-grooming as index of disturbed motor functions and perseverative behaviour patterns in different rodent models of brain disorders. Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by severe degeneration of basal ganglia, cognitive and psychiatric impairments and motor abnormalities. In the rat species, intrastriatal injection of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QA) mimics some of the neuroanatomical and behavioural changes found in HD, including the loss of GABAergic neurons and the appearance of motor and cognitive deficits. We show here that striatal damage induced by unilateral QA injection in dorsal striatum of rats triggers aberrant grooming behaviour as early as three weeks post-lesion in absence of other motor impairments: specifically, both quantitative (frequency and duration) and qualitative (the sequential pattern of movements) features of self-grooming behaviour were significantly altered in QA-lesioned rats placed in either the elevated plus-maze and the open-field. The consistent abnormalities in self-grooming recorded in two different experimental contexts support the use of this behavioural marker in rodent models of striatal damage such as HD, to assess the potential effects of drug and cell replacement therapy in the early stage of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Possible antidepressant effects of vanillin against experimentally induced chronic mild stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Abo-youssef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is a flavoring agent widely used in food and beverages such as chocolates and dairy products and it is also used to mask unpleasant tastes in medicine. It has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of vanillin against experimentally induced stress in rats. Briefly rats were subdivided into four groups. Three groups were subjected to chronic mild stress and the fourth group served as normal control group. One week before induction of stress drugs or saline was administered daily and continued for another nine weeks. At the end of the experimental period behavioral tests including sucrose preference test, forced swim test and elevated plus maze test were assessed. In addition, brain biochemical parameters including MDA, GSH, NO and serotonin were determined. Vanillin succeeded to restore the behavioral and biochemical changes associated with stress. It significantly increased sucrose consumption in sucrose preference test and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze test as compared to stress control group. It also reduced immobility time in forced swim test and time spent in closed arm in elevated plus maze test. Additionally, it significantly decreased brain MDA and NO levels and significantly increased brain GSH and Serotonin levels compared to stress control group. It could be concluded that vanillin showed beneficial protective effects against experimentally induced stress in rats.

  14. Use of Ozone to Treat Ileostomy Dermatitis in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Şenol; Sayar, İlyas; Gürsul, Cebrail; Işık, Arda; Aydın, Merve; Peker, Kemal; Demiryilmaz, İsmail

    2016-03-07

    Dermatitis associated with ileostomy is an important problem that affects many people, especially children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of ozone on dermatitis due to ileostomy, and to develop an alternative treatment option. A total of 28 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, ileostomy, ozone, and zinc oxide. Ileostomy was performed in all rats except the control group. After a 1-week waiting time, the ozone group was administered ozone therapy and the zinc oxide group was administered zinc oxide cream locally once a day for a total of 7 days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of this period. The efficacy of treatment was examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical parameters. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (tGSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured from tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were examined immunohistochemically. Dermatitis occurred pathologically in all rats that underwent ileostomy surgery. The lowest dermatitis score was in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Ileostomy dermatitis caused increased levels of MDA and TOS. Ozone treatment resulted in reduced MDA and TOS levels, while the levels of tGSH and TAC were increased (p<0.05). Both VEGF and PCNA immunostaining were augmented in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Local ozone application may be a good alternative compared to the conventional treatment methods for the prevention of skin lesions that develop after ileostomy.

  15. [Experimental tumors of the central nervous system: standardisation of a model in rats using the 9L glioma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailowsky, Custódio; Niura, Flavio Key; do Valle, Angela C; Sonohara, Shigueko; Meneguin, Thales D'Alessandro; Tsanaclis, Ana Maria C

    2003-06-01

    A number of experimental models have been established during the last decades in order to study tumor biology and the effects of treatment or manipulation of the microenvironment of malignant glial tumors. Even though those models have been well characterised and are, to a certain extent, easily reproducible, there are limitations as to their use and to the interpretation of the results. The aim of this study is to standardize a model of a malignant glial tumor and detect possible events able to modify its development. 9L cells were inoculated intracerebrally in 48 Sprague-Dawley rats; from these, 25 animals were also implanted with a device containing electrodes for the registration of the electroencephalogramm. Animals were daily evaluated by neurologic examination. Twenty four animals developed tumor - 10 animals died either in the immediate pos-operatory period or during evolution; 14 animals did not develop tumor. Macroscopically the tumor was well demarcated from the adjacent brain; by light microscopy the tumor exhibited malignant characteristics as well as extensive infiltration of the brain parenchyma. Diagnosis was that of a malignant astrocytoma. The use of the stereotaxic frame and care to infuse a small volume of liquid containing cells during a period of 120 seconds were the most important procedures to obtain sucess in the model. Additional care should be taken in counting cells in the Neubauer camera and in maintaining cells in constant agitation before injecting the tumor-containing solution. The model here developed was efficient besides being of low cost and of relatively easy execution.

  16. Local application of danazol-loaded hyaluronic acid hydrogel to endometriosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazuhito; Murakami, Koichi; Shozu, Makio; Nakama, Tsuyoshi; Yui, Nobuhiko; Inoue, Masaki

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a drug delivery system composed of danazol-loaded hyaluronic acid for local application to endometriosis. Prospective, randomized study. Academic research unit of the department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Danazol-loaded hyaluronic acid hydrogel (DZ-HA gel) was injected into the rat endometriosis model. Size and histological changes in experimental endometriosis, the concentration of danazol in the cyst wall and plasma, and estrous cycles were examined. Histologically, DZ-HA gel-treated cysts displayed marked atrophy of the endometrial epithelium. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased numbers of proliferative cells were noted with 10 mg/mL DZ-HA gel. Size of treated cysts decreased to approximately 60% at 9 weeks after injection. The estrous cycles were not disturbed during DZ-HA gel treatment. Local injection of DZ-HA gel achieved endometrial atrophy of an experimental model of endometriosis without disturbing the sexual cycle. These results suggest that local application of DZ using this drug delivery system may prove useful for treating endometriosis.

  17. Healing of experimental femoral defects in rats after implantation of collagen-calcium phosphate biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Korenkov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the healing process of experimental defects of the femoral shaft diaphysis of rats after implantation of osteoplastic material Collapan into its cavity. In experi-mental animals, a perforated defect with diameter of 2.5 mm was created in the medullary canal of the femoral shaft and filled with osteoplastic material Collapan. In control rats, the defect was left un-filled. The bone fragments were examined on the 15th and 30th day by light microscopy morphometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that application of osteoplastic material Collapan in the femoral diaphysis defect optimised reparative osteogenesis, showed high biocompatibility, osteo-conductive properties, resorption ability and good integration with tissue-specific structures of the regenerate

  18. Diabetes and hypertension: experimental models for pharmacological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Since hypertensive and diabetes-mellitus frequently occur simultaneously there exists a requirement for animal models where both pathological entities are combined. The streptozotocin (STZ)-spontaneously hypertensive rat (STZ-SHR) and the obese Zucker rat are examples of animal models where

  19. Effects of ginkgo biloba extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of ginkgo biloba extract(EGb 761on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization(CNVin rats.METHODS: Totally 60 BN rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, model group, experimental group, physiological saline group with 15 in each group. All CNV models were made by krypton laser. Rats in experimental group were intraperitoneally injected with 0.35% EGb761(100mg/kgevery day after laser exposure until they were sacrificed. Rats in physiological saline group were intraperitoneally injected physiological saline every day after laser exposure until they were sacrificed. Fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAwas performed on every rat on the 7th day, 14th day and the 21st day after laser exposure, then the rats were sacrificed immediately. The eyes were enucleated and processed for histopathologic examination.RESULTS: There was no choroidal fluorescein leakage staining in normal rats. There were obviously less choroidal fluorescein leakage points in experimental groups than that in the corresponding model groups(PCONCLUSION: EGb761 len inhibit the formation of laser-induced CNV in rats. The longer the time, the better curative effect.

  20. Experimental study of icariin on vascular dementia in rats induced by 2-VO method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-xiaXU; QinWU; Jing-shanSHI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of icariin (ICA) on the learning and memory of ischemic vascular dementia (VD) model of rats,and explore the protective mechanisms. METHODS: ICA was administered to the VD model rats induced by a permanent bilateral occlusion of both common carotids arteries(2-VO method) and by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I10-R 10-110 method). Morris water maze was used to examine the abilities of spatial learning and memory of VD model rats. The activity of SOD, level of

  1. Pulmonary Complications of Gastric Fluid and Bile Salts Aspiration, an Experimental Study in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Samareh Fekri, Mitra; Poursalehi, Hamid Reza; Najafipour, Hamid; Dabiri, Shahriar; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Siahposht Khacheki, Ali; Shahrokhi, Nader; Malekpour Afshar, Reza; Lashkarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is one of the most common digestive disorders that frequently lead to pulmonary complications due to gastric fluid aspiration. In the present experimental study, chronic aspiration of gastric fluid, its components and bile salts in rat lung was performed to find out the main factor(s) causing pulmonary complications of gastric fluid aspiration. Materials and Methods: Forty eight male rats weighted 250-300 g were selected in six groups. Afte...

  2. Experimental COPD induced by solid combustible burn smoke in rats: a study of the emphysematous changes of the pulmonary parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murărescu, Elena Doina; Eloae-Zugun, Fl; Mihailovici, Maria Sultana

    2008-01-01

    According to the GOLD 2006 definition, COPD is a preventable and treatable pathological situation characterized by the partially reversible airflow limitation determined by a variable proportion mixture of small airways disease (obliterative bronchiolitis) and parenchyma destruction (emphysema). A major impediment in the study of the COPD is represented by the fact the fundamental morphological changes that determine the major pulmonary dysfunction take place in the small, peripheral, airways, at the bronchiolo-alveolar attachments. That is why the experimental model of COPD developed progressively to the transgenic mouse. There are many experimental studies on the animal models that have obtained emphysema rapidly through intratraheal instillation of elastasis or bronchitis/bronchiolitis through intratraheal instillation of particles. It is accepted that the unnatural character of aggression, that does not permit the natural evolution of the inflammatory phenomenon, limits these models and tissue remodeling that take place in COPD patients. It is well known that cigarette smoking is a major cause of COPD. There have been reported some cases of COPD in never smoking patients exposed to air pollutants. We aimed to create an experimental model of COPD in rat through exposure to smoke resulted from solid combustibles burn for the same period and in the same conditions of cigarette smoke exposure and to compare the pulmonary morphological changes. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10): (1) the control group (C), (2) the cigarette smoke group (CS), and (3) the solid combustible smoke group (SCS). Apart from the control group, these were treated with solid combustibles smoke (SCS group) or cigarette smoke (CS group) for six months. Morphological and morphometry studies have been assessed. We have established a rat COPD model based on natural cigarette smoke exposure versus solid combustible burn resulted smoke, usable for a further approach in human

  3. Protective effects of Urtica dioica L. on experimental testicular ischaemia reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, C; Erboga, M; Fidanol Erboga, Z; Bozdemir Donmez, Y; Topcu, B; Gurel, A

    2017-05-01

    In this study, it was aimed to examine the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UD) that has antioxidant feature in the experimental testicular I/R model in rats in terms of anti-apoptotic and antioxidative effects. In our study, 24 male rats were divided into three groups: control group, I/R group and I/R + UD (2 mg kg -1 ) group. Seminiferous tubule calibre measurement, Johnson score, haematoxylin-eosin staining, proliferative cell nucleus antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining and TUNEL as histopathological have been conducted. The structural deterioration in the testicular on I/R group has reduced after the treatment of UD. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL), and there was a rise in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in testis tissues of UD-treated rats in the I/R group. The I/R + UD group showed a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in comparison with the I/R group. It could be concluded that protective effects of UD on the I/R testicles are via reduction of histological damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Hepatoprotective Effects of Swimming Exercise against D-Galactose-Induced Senescence Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether a 12-week swimming exercise training can prevent liver damage or senescence associated biomarkers in an experimental aging model in rats. Twenty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: vehicle treatment with sedentary control (C, , aging induction with sedentary (A, , vehicle treatment with swimming exercise (SW, , and aging induction with swimming exercise (A + SW, . Rats in groups A and AS received intraperitoneal D-galactose injections (150 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks to induce aging. Rats in groups SW and A + SW were subjected to swimming exercise training for 12 weeks. Body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat mass, blood biochemistry, and liver pathology were performed at the end of the experiment. Hepatic senescence protein markers such as β-galactosidase, p53, and p21, as well as the inflammatory mediator, IL-6, were examined. The D-galactose-treated rats exhibited increases in AST and γ-GT plasma levels and β-galactosidase protein expression compared to the control group. Swimming exercise significantly reduced BW, epididymal fat mass, γ-GT activity, and p53, p21, and IL-6 protein levels compared to the aging group. These results suggest that a 12-week swimming exercise program suppresses senescence markers and downregulates inflammatory mediator in the liver tissues of D-galactose-induced aging rats.

  5. A novel experimental rat model of peripheral nerve scarring that reliably mimics post-surgical complications and recurring adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lemke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, fibrosis and perineural adhesions with the surrounding tissue are common pathological processes following nerve injury and surgical interventions on peripheral nerves in human patients. These features can reoccur following external neurolysis, currently the most common surgical treatment for peripheral nerve scarring, thus leading to renewed nerve function impairment and chronic pain. To enable a successful evaluation of new therapeutic approaches, it is crucial to use a reproducible animal model that mimics the main clinical symptoms occurring in human patients. However, a clinically relevant model combining both histological and functional alterations has not been published to date. We therefore developed a reliable rat model that exhibits the essential pathological processes of peripheral nerve scarring. In our study, we present a novel method for the induction of nerve scarring by applying glutaraldehyde-containing glue that is known to cause nerve injury in humans. After a 3-week contact period with the sciatic nerve in female Sprague Dawley rats, we could demonstrate severe intra- and perineural scarring that resulted in grade 3 adhesions and major impairments in the electrophysiological peak amplitude compared with sham control (P=0.0478. Immunohistochemical analysis of the nerve structure revealed vigorous nerve inflammation and recruitment of T cells and macrophages. Also, distinct nerve degeneration was determined by immunostaining. These pathological alterations were further reflected in significant functional deficiencies, as determined by the analysis of relevant gait parameters as well as the quantification of the sciatic functional index starting at week 1 post-operation (P<0.01. Moreover, with this model we could, for the first time, demonstrate not only the primary formation, but also the recurrence, of severe adhesions 1 week after glue removal, imitating a major clinical challenge. As a comparison, we tested a

  6. A novel model for NSAID induced gastroenteropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devendra Pratap; Borse, Swapnil P; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Progress in management of Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastrointestinal toxicity requires the availability of appropriate experimental animal models that are as close to humans as feasible. Our objective was to develop a rat model for NSAID-induced gastroenteropathy and also to simulate the common clinical scenario of co-administration of NSAID and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to explore if PPI contribute to exacerbation of NSAID-enteropathy. Rats were treated twice daily with pantoprazole sodium (PTZ; 10mg/kg peroral) or vehicle for a total of 10days. In some experiments, Diclofenac sodium (DCF; 9mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally twice daily for the final 5days of PTZ/vehicle administration. After the last dose on 9th day, rats in all the groups were fasted but water was provided ad libitum. 12h after the last dose on 10th day, rats in all the groups were euthanized and their gastrointestinal tracts were assessed for haemorrhagic lesions, lipid peroxidation, intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal luminal pH alterations. Changes in haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum levels of albumin, total protein, ALT and bilirubin were calculated. The macroscopic and histological evidence suggested that administration of DCF resulted in significant gastroenteropathic damage and co-administration of PTZ resulted in significant exacerbation of NSAID enteropathy, while attenuation of NSAID induced gastropathy was observed. Our results were further supported by the significant decrease in haemoglobin and haematocrit levels and serum levels of albumin and total proteins, an increase in oxidative stress and intestinal permeability with the use of DCF either alone or in combination with PTZ. This model was developed to simulate the human clinical situation during NSAID therapy and indeed the present DCF regimen caused both gastric and small bowel alterations, such as multiple erosive lesions, together with a decrease in haemoglobin, haematocrit

  7. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF improves motor recovery in the rat impactor model for spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjew Dittgen

    Full Text Available Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF improves outcome after experimental SCI by counteracting apoptosis, and enhancing connectivity in the injured spinal cord. Previously we have employed the mouse hemisection SCI model and studied motor function after subcutaneous or transgenic delivery of the protein. To further broaden confidence in animal efficacy data we sought to determine efficacy in a different model and a different species. Here we investigated the effects of G-CSF in Wistar rats using the New York University Impactor. In this model, corroborating our previous data, rats treated subcutaneously with G-CSF over 2 weeks show significant improvement of motor function.

  8. The extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein elicits atypical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rat and Macaque species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D Curtis

    Full Text Available Atypical models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE are advantageous in that the heterogeneity of clinical signs appears more reflective of those in multiple sclerosis (MS. Conversely, models of classical EAE feature stereotypic progression of an ascending flaccid paralysis that is not a characteristic of MS. The study of atypical EAE however has been limited due to the relative lack of suitable models that feature reliable disease incidence and severity, excepting mice deficient in gamma-interferon signaling pathways. In this study, atypical EAE was induced in Lewis rats, and a related approach was effective for induction of an unusual neurologic syndrome in a cynomolgus macaque. Lewis rats were immunized with the rat immunoglobulin variable (IgV-related extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (IgV-MOG in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA followed by one or more injections of rat IgV-MOG in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA. The resulting disease was marked by torticollis, unilateral rigid paralysis, forelimb weakness, and high titers of anti-MOG antibody against conformational epitopes of MOG, as well as other signs of atypical EAE. A similar strategy elicited a distinct atypical form of EAE in a cynomolgus macaque. By day 36 in the monkey, titers of IgG against conformational epitopes of extracellular MOG were evident, and on day 201, the macaque had an abrupt onset of an unusual form of EAE that included a pronounced arousal-dependent, transient myotonia. The disease persisted for 6-7 weeks and was marked by a gradual, consistent improvement and an eventual full recovery without recurrence. These data indicate that one or more boosters of IgV-MOG in IFA represent a key variable for induction of atypical or unusual forms of EAE in rat and Macaca species. These studies also reveal a close correlation between humoral immunity against conformational epitopes of MOG, extended confluent demyelinating plaques in

  9. The extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein elicits atypical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rat and Macaque species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Alan D; Taslim, Najla; Reece, Shaun P; Grebenciucova, Elena; Ray, Richard H; Rosenbaum, Matthew D; Wardle, Robert L; Van Scott, Michael R; Mannie, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Atypical models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are advantageous in that the heterogeneity of clinical signs appears more reflective of those in multiple sclerosis (MS). Conversely, models of classical EAE feature stereotypic progression of an ascending flaccid paralysis that is not a characteristic of MS. The study of atypical EAE however has been limited due to the relative lack of suitable models that feature reliable disease incidence and severity, excepting mice deficient in gamma-interferon signaling pathways. In this study, atypical EAE was induced in Lewis rats, and a related approach was effective for induction of an unusual neurologic syndrome in a cynomolgus macaque. Lewis rats were immunized with the rat immunoglobulin variable (IgV)-related extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (IgV-MOG) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) followed by one or more injections of rat IgV-MOG in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The resulting disease was marked by torticollis, unilateral rigid paralysis, forelimb weakness, and high titers of anti-MOG antibody against conformational epitopes of MOG, as well as other signs of atypical EAE. A similar strategy elicited a distinct atypical form of EAE in a cynomolgus macaque. By day 36 in the monkey, titers of IgG against conformational epitopes of extracellular MOG were evident, and on day 201, the macaque had an abrupt onset of an unusual form of EAE that included a pronounced arousal-dependent, transient myotonia. The disease persisted for 6-7 weeks and was marked by a gradual, consistent improvement and an eventual full recovery without recurrence. These data indicate that one or more boosters of IgV-MOG in IFA represent a key variable for induction of atypical or unusual forms of EAE in rat and Macaca species. These studies also reveal a close correlation between humoral immunity against conformational epitopes of MOG, extended confluent demyelinating plaques in spinal cord and

  10. The effect of impaired dentin formation on dental caries:an experimental study in the molars of growing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Huumonen, S. (Sisko)

    1999-01-01

    Abstract The effects of dietary sucrose and systemic glucocorticoid treatment on the response of the pulpodentinal complex to dental caries were examined in an experimental rat model. The possible role of dentinal caries on dentin formation was also examined. After 5-6 weeks of a dietary and/or medication period, the areas of dentin formation and dentinal caries were quantified in the molars of growing animals. Also the number and severity of caries lesions were estimated. Th...

  11. A Novel Wistar Rat Model of Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by Sucrose-Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luíza R. P. Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is not fully understood, and experimental models are an alternative to study this issue. We investigated the effects of a simple carbohydrate-rich diet on the development of obesity-related NAFLD and the impact of physical training on the metabolic abnormalities associated with this disorder. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly separated into experimental and control groups, which were fed with sucrose-enriched (18% simple carbohydrates and standard diet, respectively. At the end of each experimental period (5, 10, 20, and 30 weeks, 6 animals from each group were sacrificed for blood tests and liver histology and immunohistochemistry. From weeks 25 to 30, 6 animals from each group underwent physical training. The experimental group animals developed obesity and NAFLD, characterized histopathologically by steatosis and hepatocellular ballooning, clinically by increased thoracic circumference and body mass index associated with hyperleptinemia, and metabolically by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased levels of very low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL- cholesterol, depletion of the antioxidants liver enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and increased hepatic levels of malondialdehyde, an oxidative stress marker. Rats that underwent physical training showed increased high-density lipoprotein- (HDL- cholesterol levels. In conclusion, a sucrose-rich diet induced obesity, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and NAFLD in rats.

  12. Modified starch enhances absorption and accelerates recovery in experimental diarrhea in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingertzahn, M A; Teichberg, S; Wapnir, R A

    1999-03-01

    Rice gruels have been used as home remedies to treat dehydration associated with diarrheal illness in developing countries. These preparations have produced conflicting results, most likely due to the heterogeneity of starch used. We investigated whether the modified tapioca starch, Textra (TX), at 5.0 or 10.0 g/L added to a 90 mmol/L Na+-111 mmol glucose oral rehydration solution (ORS) enhanced water and electrolyte absorption in two models of diarrhea. To induce a secretory state (model A), the jejunum of juvenile rats was perfused with 10 mmol/L theophylline (THEO) under anesthesia and then perfused with the solutions indicated above. To produce chronic osmotic-secretory diarrhea (model B), rats had a magnesium citrate-phenolphthalein solution as the sole fluid source for 1 wk, and then were perfused as the THEO-treated rats. Water, electrolyte, and glucose absorption were measured during both perfusions. As an extension of the perfusion studies, we compared how fast rats recovered from chronic osmotic diarrhea by offering them either water, ORS, or ORS containing 5.0 g/L TX along with solid food. Recovery rate markers were measured after 24 h and included weight gain, food and fluid intake, and stool output. In model A, addition of 5.0 g/L TX to ORS reversed Na+ secretion and improved net water as well as K+ and glucose absorption, compared with THEO-treated rats perfused with ORS without TX. In model B, addition of TX to ORS increased water, Na+, K+, and glucose absorption, compared with rats perfused without TX. Increasing TX from 5.0 to 10.0 g/L had no additional benefit. In recovery experiments, animals with free access to ORS with TX had significantly greater weight gain and decreased stool output compared with animals recovering with water or ORS without TX. Our experiments suggest that TX may be a useful additive to standard ORS to promote fluid and electrolyte absorption and may provide additional energy without increasing ORS osmotic load.

  13. The Effect of Experimental Parkinson on Formalin-Induced Pain in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Pain is one of the preceding claims of Parkinson's disease (PD, that its mechanisms have not been fully identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical pain responses induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin in male parkinsonized rats.   Method : In this experimental study, 40 Wistar male rats were used and PD was established by stereotaxic injection of 6-OHDA toxin into the striatum. Parkinson's disease severity determined by apomorphine-induced rotation test and then the pain response of 4 groups, the control, sham and 2 weak or full Parkinson groups, were evaluated using formalin test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test.   Results : In both acute and chronic phases of the formalin test, the symptoms of pain in different groups were same, but at the interphase stage, pain intensity increased more in Parkinson 's rats, especially in full PD group compared to control (p<0.01.   Conclusion: These results suggest that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway have important modulating role on chronic pain.

  14. The ultrastructural alterations in rat corneas with experimentally-induced diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Take, G.; Karabay, G.; Erdogan, D.; Duyar, I.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the ultrastructural changes of rat corneas in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus and the and the follow-up insulin treatment. Sprague-Dawley type rats were used for experimental procedures during the period from January to April 2003 at Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey. Rats were studied in four groups: group 1: controls, group 2 sham controls (single dose IV sodium citrate); group 3 STZ-induced diabetes mellitus (Single dose 45mg/kg STZ intravenously), group 4: diabetes mellitus + insulin treatment (8U/day). We observed degenerative changes in the epithelial layer, stromal keratocytes and endothelial cells in diabetic group. In contrast, the corneal layers have revealed positive alterations in the insulin-treated group. The statistical analysis, showed significant narrowing in the epithelial layer in the diabetic group (p0.02), whereas thickening was observed in the epithelial basement membrane and Descemet's membrane (p=0.002). It was determined that that diabetes mellitus causes degenerative changes in cornea, which are positively influenced by short-term insulin treatment. (author)

  15. Prevaccination with SRL172 (heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae) inhibits experimental periodontal disease in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, T; Rook, G A W

    2000-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a bacterial dental plaque-induced destructive inflammatory condition of the tooth-supporting tissues, which is thought to be mediated by T lymphocytes secreting T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, resulting in recruitment of high numbers of antibody-producing B lymphocytes/plasma cells as well as polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) secreting tissue-destructive components, such at matrix metalloproteinases and reactive oxygen metabolites into the gingival connective tissues. One treatment strategy may be to down-regulate the Th2 response to those dental plaque microorganisms which induce the destructive inflammatory response. In this study we have examined the effects of a potent down-regulator of Th2 responses on ligature-induced periodontal disease in an experimental rat model. A single s.c. injection into Wistar rats of 0·1 or 1 mg of SRL172, a preparation of heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae (NCTC 11659), 13 days before application of the ligature, significantly reduced the subsequent destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, as measured by loss of periodontal attachment fibres (P < 0·001) and bone (P < 0·002). This protective effect occurred not only on the experimental (ligatured) side but also on the control unligatured side. SRL172 has undergone extensive toxicological studies and safety assessments in humans, and it is suggested that it may provide a safe and novel therapeutic approach to periodontal disease. PMID:10844524

  16. Bilirubin provides perforator flap protection from ischaemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model: a preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Young; Rah, Dong Kyun; Chong, Yosep; Lee, Song Hyun; Park, Tae Hwan

    2016-10-01

    The use of bilirubin, a well-known and powerful antioxidant, has gained popularity in recent years because of its role in the prevention of ischaemic heart disease in patients with Gilbert's syndrome. We investigate the effects of bilirubin on ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury using a rat perforator flap model. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (bilirubin) group (n = 24) and control group (n = 24). In each group, elevated bilateral deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps were created. The right (no ischaemia side) and left (ischaemia side) DIEP flaps were separated according to the presence of ischaemia induction. Ischaemia was induced in anaesthetised rats by perforator clamping for 15 or 30 minutes. After surgery, the flap survival was assessed daily on postoperative days 0 to 5, and overall histological changes of DIEP flaps above the perforator were analysed at postoperative day 5. The flap survival rate in the bilirubin group was significantly higher than that in the control group at the ischaemia side following perforator clamping for 15 or 30 minutes (93·42 ± 4·48% versus 89·63 ± 3·98%, P = 0·002; and 83·96 ± 4·23% versus 36·46 ± 6·38%, P bilirubin was found to alleviate perforator flap necrosis caused by I/R injury in this experimental rat model. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...... development: Grounding We develop an empirically based conceptualization of modelling and use of models in system development projects characterized by a high degree of uncertainty in requirements and point to implications for tools and techniques for modelling in such a setting. Techniques We introduce......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...

  18. Persistence of Trichinella spiralis in Rat Carcasses Experimentally Mixed in Different Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloniemi H

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella spiralis infected rat carcasses were incubated for 6 weeks in several animal feeds to assess how long Trichinella can present a risk for an outbreak in contaminated feeds. In groups of 6, 24 infected target rats were placed in silage, grained barley, propionic acid-preserved feed, and also into simulated pasture conditions. Test environments were sampled after one-, 2-, 4-, and 6-week-incubations. Trichinella larvae were recovered by digestion, and their infectivity was evaluated in rats. A two-week incubation reduced the number of recovered larvae, but still after 6 weeks low numbers were isolated from all feeds except from the experimental group simulating pasture conditions. After 2 weeks storage, the larvae were infective in all storage environments. However, up to 4 weeks, they survived only in the propionic acid-fermented feed and there in small numbers with reduced reproductive capability. This indicates the possibility of farm animals to get infection from rats or other infected material being hazardously mixed with hay or other feed. If silage is stored for at least one month before use, however, the risk from this forage appears to be minimized.

  19. Serrapeptase and nattokinase intervention for relieving Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadl, N N; Ahmed, H H; Booles, H F; Sayed, A H

    2013-07-01

    Serrapeptase (SP) and nattokinase (NK) are proteolytic enzymes belonging to serine proteases. In this study, we hypothesized that SP and NK could modulate certain factors that are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology in the experimental model. Oral administration of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) in a dose of 17 mg/kg body weight (bw) daily for 45 days induced AD-like pathology in male rats with a significant increase in brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), Fas and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Meanwhile, AlCl3 supplementation produced significant decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) when compared with control values. Also, AlCl3 administration caused significant decline in the expression levels of disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 9 (ADAM9) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 10 (ADAM10) genes in the brain. Histological investigation of brain tissue of rat model of AD showed neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus and focal hyalinosis with cellular as well as a cellular amyloid plaques formation. Oral administration of SP or NK in a rat model of AD daily for 45 days resulted in a significant decrease in brain AchE activity, TGF-β, Fas and IL-6 levels. Also, the treatment with these enzymes produced significant increase in BDNF and IGF-1 levels when compared with the untreated AD-induced rats. Moreover, both SP and NK could markedly increase the expression levels of ADAM9 and ADAM10 genes in the brain tissue of the treated rats. These findings were well confirmed by the histological examination of the brain tissue of the treated rats. The present results support our hypothesis that the oral administration of proteolytitc enzymes, SP and/or NK, would have an effective role in modulating certain factors characterizing AD. Thus, these enzymes may have a therapeutic application in the treatment of AD.

  20. Modelled microgravity alters the Na+, K+-ATPase activity in rat heart homogenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peana, Alessandra T.; Pippia, Proto; Paci, Silvia; Tognacini, Christina; Assaretti, Anna Rita; Meloni, Antonietta M.; Galleri, Grazia; Bernardini, Federico

    2005-08-01

    This study was aimed at establishing whether modeled microgravity conditions, created in a three-dimensional clinostat (Random Positioning Machine, RPM), influence the membrane-associated Na+, K+- and Mg2+- ATPase activities in heart homogenates from rats (ex- posed to RPM for 48 hours). The experimental data indicate that modeled low g significantly decreased the total ATPase (p<0.01) and Na+, K+ -ATPase activities (p<0.05) with no change of the Mg2+-ATPase activity, compared to the respective rat control groups (ground). This Na+, K+- pump inhibition could cause a digital- like effect in response to several modifications of many physiological processes even if this inhibition might also be causally related to the physiological environment induced by RPM. The exact mechanism by which total A TPase and Na+, K+ -A TPase activities decrease in response to RPM conditions remains to be established. We cannot rule out that a reduced intracellular ATP production, previously demonstrated in other cellular systems submitted to modeled microgravity conditions, could be responsible for the effects reported here.

  1. GM-CSF-Producing Th Cells in Rats Sensitive and Resistant to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Pilipović, Ivan; Vujnović, Ivana; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Given that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is identified as the key factor to endow auto-reactive Th cells with the potential to induce neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models, the frequency and phenotype of GM-CSF-producing (GM-CSF+) Th cells in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spinal cord (SC) of Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats immunized for EAE were examined. The generation of neuroantigen-specific GM-CSF+ Th lymphocytes was impaired in dLNs of AO rats (relatively resistant to EAE induction) compared with their DA counterparts (susceptible to EAE) reflecting impaired CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation and less supportive of GM-CSF+ Th cell differentiation dLN cytokine microenvironment. Immunophenotyping of GM-CSF+ Th cells showed their phenotypic heterogeneity in both strains and revealed lower frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ+, IL-17+IFN-γ-, and IL-17-IFN-γ+ cells accompanied by higher frequency of IL-17-IFN-γ- cells among them in AO than in DA rats. Compared with DA, in AO rats was also found (i) slightly lower surface density of CCR2 (drives accumulation of highly pathogenic GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cells in SC) on GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 lymphocytes from dLNs, and (ii) diminished CCL2 mRNA expression in SC tissue, suggesting their impaired migration into the SC. Moreover, dLN and SC cytokine environments in AO rats were shown to be less supportive of GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cell differentiation (judging by lower expression of mRNAs for IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23/p19). In accordance with the (i) lower frequency of GM-CSF+ Th cells in dLNs and SC of AO rats and their lower GM-CSF production, and (ii) impaired CCL2 expression in the SC tissue, the proportion of proinflammatory monocytes among peripheral blood cells and their progeny (CD45hi cells) among the SC CD11b+ cells were reduced in AO compared with DA rats. Collectively, the results indicate that the strain specificities in efficacy of several mechanisms

  2. A novel model approach for esophageal burns in rats: A comparison of three methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Yildiray; Tumkaya, Levent; Akdogan, Remzi Adnan; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Tomak, Yakup; Sehitoglu, İbrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Kurt, Aysel

    2015-07-01

    Corrosive esophageal injury causes serious clinical problems. We aimed to create a new experimental esophageal burn model using a single catheter without a surgical procedure. We conducted the study with two groups of 12 male rats that fasted for 12 h before application. A modified Foley balloon catheter was inserted into the esophageal lumen. The control group was given 0.9% sodium chloride, while the experimental group was given 37.5% sodium hydroxide with the other part of the catheter. After 60s, esophagus was washed with distilled water. The killed rats were examined using histopathological methods after 28 days. In comparison with the histopathological changes experienced by the study groups, the control groups were observed to have no pathological changes. Basal cell degeneration, dermal edema, and a slight increase in the keratin layer and collagen density of submucosa due to stenosis were all observed in the group subjected to esophageal corrosion. A new burn model can thus, we believe, be created without the involvement of invasive laparoscopic surgery and general anesthesia. The burn in our experiment was formed in both the distal and proximal esophagus, as in other models; it can also be formed optionally in the entire esophagus. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Translational mixed-effects PKPD modelling of recombinant human growth hormone - from hypophysectomized rat to patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Anders; Thygesen, Peter; Agersø, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    was developed from experimental PKPD studies of rhGH and effects of long-term treatment as measured by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and bodyweight gain in rats. Modelled parameter values were scaled to human values using the allometric approach with fixed exponents for PKs and unscaled for PDs...... and validated through simulations relative to patient data. KEY RESULTS: The final model described rhGH PK as a two compartmental model with parallel linear and non-linear elimination terms, parallel first-order absorption with a total s.c. bioavailability of 87% in rats. Induction of IGF-1 was described...... by an indirect response model with stimulation of kin and related to rhGH exposure through an Emax relationship. Increase in bodyweight was directly linked to individual concentrations of IGF-1 by a linear relation. The scaled model provided robust predictions of human systemic PK of rhGH, but exposure following...

  4. Advantages of the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system for the rat colon rupture pressure test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chengdong; Guo, Xuan; Li, Zhen; Qian, Shuwen; Zheng, Feng; Qin, Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on colorectal anastomotic leakage to reduce the incidence of anastomotic leakage. However, how to precisely determine if the bowel can withstand the pressure of a colorectal anastomosis experiment, which is called anastomotic bursting pressure, has not been determined. A task force developed the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system to provide precise measurement of the maximum pressure that an anastomotic colon can withstand, and to compare it with the commonly used method such as the mercury and air bag pressure manometer in a rat colon rupture pressure test. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the manual ball manometry (H) group, the tracing machine manometry pressure gauge head (MP) group, and the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system (ME) group. The rats in each group were subjected to a cut colon rupture pressure test after injecting anesthesia in the tail vein. Colonic end-to-end anastomosis was performed, and the rats were rested for 1 week before anastomotic bursting pressure was determined by one of the three methods. No differences were observed between the normal colon rupture pressure and colonic anastomotic bursting pressure, which were determined using the three manometry methods. However, several advantages, such as reduction in errors, were identified in the ME group. Different types of manometry methods can be applied to the normal rat colon, but the colonic anastomotic bursting pressure test using the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system is superior to traditional methods. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Content of selected amino acids in the gastrocnemius muscle during experimental hypothyroidism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołyński Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid hormones affect protein turnover, and in the case of hypothyroidism a decrease in protein synthesis and reduced release of certain amino acids from skeletal muscles are observed. Changes in the amino acid system of skeletal muscles may be responsible for the occurrence of muscle disorders. Material and Methods: The study measured the content of selected amino acids in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats during experimental hypothyroidism induced by oral administration of methimazole at a concentration of 0.05% in drinking water for 90 d. The rats were divided into four groups: E1 (n = 6 - experimental males, E2 (n = 6 - experimental females, C1 (n = 6 - control males, and C2 (n = 6 control females. Results: A statistically significant reduction occurred in leucine, isoleucine, and 1-methylhistidine levels in males, and 1-methylhistidine in females, in comparison to the control groups. Conclusion: The hypothyroidism-induced changes in amino acid content may be responsible for the occurrence of skeletal muscle function disorders.

  6. Experimental study on the effect of x-irradiation in the rat bone matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Dong Soo

    1979-01-01

    The author studied on the side effects of x-ray irradiation to the developing mandible of the gestation and period of grow the stage rats. For experimental observation, 100 rads, 200 rads, and 300 rads of x-ray were irradiated in regular order at the lower abdomen of the 8th day gestated rats. 5 weeks after conception, their offspring were sacrificed and their mandibles were extracted with intact form. All the extracted mandible were examined for their developing modes histological findings. The results were as followed; 1) In 10 -200 rads irradiated rats offsprings, their mandibles were not revealed any morphological changes except of the irregular pattern of trabeculatum. In accompany with this findings, most of all the fibroblasts and osteoclasts had their nucleus with shrunken and eccentric position. 2) In according to the increasing x-ray irradiation, marked advent of osteoclast and cortical bone remuamsorption were observed. 3) In 300 rads irradiated rats offsprings, there irregular pattern of trabeculae and widening of bone morrow cavity in their alveolar proper.

  7. The Protective Effect of Sesamol in the Selenite-induced Experimental Cataract Model

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    Burak Turgut

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the potential protective effects of sesamol in an experimental cataract model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one Spraque Dawley rat pups were randomly assigned into three groups, seven rats in each. All the rats except for those in the control group were injected subcutaneously with a single dose of sodium selenite on postpartum day 9. On days 10-14, rats in the sham group were intraperitoneally administered 50 mg/kg/day saline solution, while rats in the sesamol group were given 50 mg/kg/day sesamol by the same route. Following cataract grading, the lenses and capsules were extracted and the mean levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant status (TAS and total oxidant status (TOS in lens supernatants were biochemically analyzed. Results: The control group did not show any development of cataract. It was found that the mean cataract grade in the sesamol group was significantly lower than that of the sham group (p<0.05. The mean GSH level and TAS in the sesamol group were significantly higher than those of the sham group while the mean TOS and MDA level in the sesamol group were significantly lower than those of the sham group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Our study shows that sesamol reduces TOS and MDA level and increases TAS and GSH level in the lens and inhibits cataract formation.

  8. Establishment and application of rat model of acute β-irradiated skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Guoliang; Lu Xing'an; Tang Jun; Wang Xiuzhen; Wu Shiliang; Tian Ye

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish an experimental rat model of acute β-irradiated skin injury and to study the effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on wound healing. Methods: Areas of buttock skin (20 mm x 40 mm) of 40 male SD rats were irradiated with 45 Gy/β-rays generated by linear accelerator, and then the forty rats were divided into two groups randomly: treatment group administrated with SOD (n=20) and control group administrated with normal saline (NS) (n=20). The wound healing time and rate were observed. The pathological changes were observed by light microscopy. The expressions of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) were determined by SP immunohistochemical method. Results: The deep second-degree burns was observed following 45 Gy irradiation. The wound healing time in treatment group was shorter than that of the control group (P<0.05). Strongly positive (+ + +) expression of VEGF, bFGF in treatment group and positive (+ +) expression of VEGF, bFGF in the control group were observed 6 weeks, 7 weeks and 8 weeks after the irradiation, while only weakly positive (+) expressions of VEGF and bFGF in both groups 4 weeks, 5 weeks and 9 weeks after the irradiation. Conclusions: The wound model of acute β-irradiated skin injury in rat was established and used in study of the effect of medicine on wound healing. SOD can promote the wound healing of acute β-irradiated skin injury. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of Neonatal Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rat Model for the Development of Cataract

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    Madhoosudan A. Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D generally follows prediabetes (PD conditions such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Although studies reported an association of IGT or IFG with cataract, the experimental basis for PD associated cataract is not known. Hence, we evaluated neonatal streptozotocin (nSTZ induced rat model to study PD associated cataractogenesis by injecting STZ to two-day old rats. While majority (70% of nSTZ injected pups developed IGT (nSTZ-PD by two months but not cataract even after seven months, remaining (30% nSTZ rats developed hyperglycemia (nSTZ-D by two months and mature cataract by seven months. Lens biochemical analysis indicated increased oxidative stress as indicated by increased SOD activity, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl levels in nSTZ-D cataractous lens. There was also increased polyol pathway as assessed by aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels. Though nSTZ-PD animals have not shown any signs of lenticular opacity, insolubilization of proteins along with enhanced polyol pathway was observed in the lens. Further there was increased oxidative stress in lens of IGT animals. These results suggest that oxidative stress along with increased polyol pathway might play a role in IGT-associated lens abnormalities. In conclusion, nSTZ-PD rat model could aid to investigate IGT-associated lens abnormalities.

  10. Simvastatin prevents dopaminergic neurodegeneration in experimental parkinsonian models: the association with anti-inflammatory responses.

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    Junqiang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to their original applications to lowering cholesterol, statins display multiple neuroprotective effects. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors interact closely with the dopaminergic system and are strongly implicated in therapeutic paradigms of Parkinson's disease (PD. This study aims to investigate how simvastatin impacts on experimental parkinsonian models via regulating NMDA receptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Regional changes in NMDA receptors in the rat brain and anxiolytic-like activity were examined after unilateral medial forebrain bundle lesion by 6-hydroxydopamine via a 3-week administration of simvastatin. NMDA receptor alterations in the post-mortem rat brain were detected by [³H]MK-801(Dizocilpine binding autoradiography. 6-hydroxydopamine treated PC12 was applied to investigate the neuroprotection of simvastatin, the association with NMDA receptors, and the anti-inflammation. 6-hydroxydopamine induced anxiety and the downregulation of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, CA1(Cornu Ammonis 1 Area, amygdala and caudate putamen was observed in 6-OHDA(6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats whereas simvastatin significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like activity and restored the expression of NMDA receptors in examined brain regions. Significant positive correlations were identified between anxiolytic-like activity and the restoration of expression of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, amygdala and CA1 following simvastatin administration. Simvastatin exerted neuroprotection in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain and 6-hydroxydopamine treated PC12, partially by regulating NMDA receptors, MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9, and TNF-a (tumour necrosis factor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide strong evidence that NMDA receptor modulation after simvastatin treatment could partially explain its anxiolytic-like activity and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in experimental parkinsonian models. These findings

  11. Experimental Models of Vaginal Candidiasis and Their Relevance to Human Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D.

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a high-incidence disease seriously affecting the quality of life of women worldwide, particularly in its chronic, recurrent forms (RVVC), and with no definitive cure or preventive measure. Experimental studies in currently used rat and mouse models of vaginal candidiasis have generated a large mass of data on pathogenicity determinants and inflammation and immune responses of potential importance for the control of human pathology. However, reflection is necessary about the relevance of these rodent models to RVVC. Here we examine the chemical, biochemical, and biological factors that determine or contrast the forms of the disease in rodent models and in women and highlight the differences between them. We also appeal for approaches to improve or replace the current models in order to enhance their relevance to human infection. PMID:26883592

  12. Piezosurgery prevents brain tissue damage: an experimental study on a new rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, G; Foltán, R; Burian, M; Horká, E; Adámek, S; Hejčl, A; Hanzelka, T; Sedý, J

    2011-08-01

    Piezosurgery is a promising meticulous system for bone cutting, based on ultrasound microvibrations. It is thought that the impact of piezosurgery on the integrity of soft tissue is generally low, but it has not been examined critically. The authors undertook an experimental study to evaluate the brain tissue response to skull bone removal using piezosurgery compared with a conventional drilling method. In Wistar male rats, a circular bone window was drilled to the parietal bone using piezosurgery on one side and a conventional bone drill on the other side. The behavioural performance of animals was evaluated using the motor BBB test and sensory plantar test. The brains of animals were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. The results of MRI showed significantly increased depth and width of the brain lesion in the region of conventional drilling compared with the region where piezosurgery was used. Cresylviolet and NF 160 staining confirmed these findings. There was no significant difference in any of the behavioural tests between the two groups. In conclusion, piezosurgery is a safe method for the performance of osteotomy in close relation to soft tissue, including an extremely injury-sensitive tissue such as brain. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of antiemetic activities of alcoholic extract of grewia asiatica in experimental model dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqeen, Z.; Shail, T.; Rahman, A.U.; Saleem, M.

    2008-01-01

    The fruits of Grewia asiatica were evaluated for the antiemetic activity in the experimental model dogs, whereas, acute oral toxicity test was carried out in mice and rats. Maximum oral dose of 200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg of crude alcoholic extract was found non toxic in mice and rats. Oral dose of crude alcoholic extract (120 mg/kg body weight) caused antiemetic effect in dogs in 3 h and controlled emesis centrally induced by Apomorphine (0.044 mg/kg body weight). This activity of G asiatica was comparable with standard commercial anti-emctic drugs like Maxolon (Metoclopramide) and Largactil tablets 10 mg (Chlorpromazine) of M/s. Aventis Pharma., Pakistan. (author)

  14. New experimental model for single liver lobe hyperthermia in small animals using non-directional microwaves.

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    Ionuț Tudorancea

    Full Text Available Our aim was to develop a new experimental model for in vivo hyperthermia using non-directional microwaves, applicable to small experimental animals. We present an affordable approach for targeted microwave heat delivery to an isolated liver lobe in rat, which allows rapid, precise and stable tissue temperature control.A new experimental model is proposed. We used a commercial available magnetron generating 2450 MHz, with 4.4V and 14A in the filament and 4500V anodic voltage. Modifications were required in order to adjust tissue heating such as to prevent overheating and to allow for fine adjustments according to real-time target temperature. The heating is controlled using a virtual instrument application implemented in LabView® and responds to 0.1° C variations in the target. Ten healthy adult male Wistar rats, weighing 250-270 g were used in this study. The middle liver lobe was the target for controlled heating, while the rest of the living animal was protected.In vivo microwave delivery using our experimental setting is safe for the animals. Target tissue temperature rises from 30°C to 40°C with 3.375°C / second (R2 = 0.9551, while the increment is lower it the next two intervals (40-42°C and 42-44°C with 0.291°C/ s (R2 = 0.9337 and 0.136°C/ s (R2 = 0.7894 respectively, when testing in sequences. After reaching the desired temperature, controlled microwave delivery insures a very stable temperature during the experiments.We have developed an inexpensive and easy to manufacture system for targeted hyperthermia using non-directional microwave radiation. This system allows for fine and stable temperature adjustments within the target tissue and is ideal for experimental models testing below or above threshold hyperthermia.

  15. Extensive FDG uptake and its modification with corticosteroid in a granuloma rat model: an experimental study for differentiating granuloma from tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Songji; Takei, Toshiki; Zhao, Yan; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji; Kohanawa, Masashi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Temma, Takashi; Seki, Koh-ichi

    2007-01-01

    Increased 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in inflammatory lesions, particularly in granulomatous inflammation (e.g., sarcoidosis), makes it difficult to differentiate malignant tumors from benign lesions and is the main source of false-positive FDG-PET findings in oncology. Here, we developed a rat granuloma model and examined FDG uptake in the granuloma. The effects of corticosteroid on FDG uptake in the granuloma were compared with those in a malignant tumor. Rats were inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or allogenic hepatoma cells, and subdivided into control and pretreated (methylprednisolone acetate, 8 mg/kg i.m.) groups. Radioactivity in tissues was determined 1 h after the FDG injection. FDG-PET was performed in rats bearing BCG granulomas or tumors before and after prednisolone treatment. Mature epithelioid cell granuloma-formation and massive lymphocyte-infiltration were observed in the control group of granuloma, histologically similar to sarcoidosis. The mean FDG uptake in the granuloma was comparable to that in the hepatoma. Prednisolone reduced epithelioid cell granuloma-formation and lymphocyte-infiltration. Prednisolone significantly decreased the level of FDG uptake in the granuloma (52% of control), but not in the hepatoma. The FDG uptake levels in the granulomas and tumors were clearly imaged with PET. We developed an intramuscular granuloma rat model that showed a high FDG uptake comparable to that of the tumor. The effect of prednisolone pretreatment on FDG uptake was greater in the granuloma than in the tumor. These results suggest that BCG-induced granuloma may be a valuable model and may provide a biological basis for FDG studies. (orig.)

  16. Changes in erectile organ structure and function in a rat model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-J; Xia, L-L; Xu, T-Y; Zhang, X-H; Zhu, Z-W; Zhang, M-G; Liu, Y; Xu, C; Zhong, S; Shen, Z-J

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing recognition of the association between chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and erectile dysfunction (ED); however, most of the reports are based on questionnaires which cannot distinguish between organic and functional ED. The purpose of this study was to determine the exact relationship between CP/CPPS and ED, and to investigate the changes in erectile organ structure and function in a rat model of CP/CPPS. We established a rat model of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP), which is a valid model for CP/CPPS. Erectile function in EAP and normal rats was comparable after cavernous nerve electrostimulation. The serum testosterone and oestradiol levels, ultrastructure of the corpus cavernosum and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the two groups were similar; however, there was a decrease in smooth muscle-to-collagen ratio and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and an increase in transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression was observed in EAP rats. Thus, organic ED may not exist in EAP rats. We speculate that ED complained by patients with CP/CPPS may be psychological, which could be caused by impairment in the quality of life; however, further studies are needed to fully understand the potential mechanisms underlying the penile fibrosis in EAP rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. [Study on the oxidative stress in the ovaries of a rat model of polycystic ovary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jin; Wu, Dong-bo; Zhang, Lan-lan; Li, Jia; Zhao, Xing; Zhang, Dan

    2015-03-01

    To establish a pathological animal model of polycystic ovary (PCO) by letrozole in rats. Investigate whether PCO were mediated by the effect of oxidative stress by measuring oxidative stress levels in this cohort of rats with PCO, and proceed a new way of treatment for polycystic ovary syndrom (PCOS). 90 SD female rats aged 6 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, including a control group of 45 rats that received vehicle only [19% aqueous solution of carboxmethlycellulose (CMC), 1 mL/d] once daily orally (p.o.), and an experimental group of 45 rats, which were administered letrozole at concentrations of 1 mg/kg p.o. dissolved in 1% CMC (1 mL/d) once daily. The treatment period was 28 d. During this period, vaginal smears were collected daily for estrus cycle determination and body masses were measured every 7 d. On the day subsequent to the last letrozole dose administration, rats were killed; Uteri and ovaries were then excised and weighed for the calculation of organ indexes. Serum hormone levels, SHBG and histologic changes in the ovaries were examined. Then testosterone free index (FAD) was calculated. Oxidant status was evaluated by determination of ovarian total oxidant status (TOS), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, while antioxidant status was evaluated by determination of total antioxidant status (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration. Vaginal smear test showed the estrus cycle began to disappear from day 12 to day 15. A statistically significant difference in growth curves, ovarian weights, uterine weights and organ indexes between the groups were also observed. In rats with PCO serum testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations and free androgen index (FADI) were significantly increased compared with the control group (rats without PCO). However, rats with PCO had decreased levels of estrogen (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), and progesterone (P) compared

  18. Experimental model for composite tissue allotransplantations Modelo experimental para alotransplantes de tecido composto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In homologous transplantation or allotranplantation of limbs, the great tissue diversity causes variability in the rejection process and, consequently, its immunology is very complex. Thus, limb transplantation is the most used prototype of compound tissue transplantation among the protocols of experimental studies. Composite tissue allotransplantation represents the experimental model to study the homologous transplantation (from an individual to another of vascularized, innervated musclecutaneous units, joints, bone or even the whole member. Groups of rats were undergone allogeneic hindlimb transplantation. The receptors were randomized and control groups were established as: Control Group A: Autograft controls (F344 rats had its limbs reimplanted and no immunosuppressive therapy. Control Group B: Allograft controls (BN rats limbs were transplanted to F344. Composite tissue homotransplantation allows the inclusion of innervated muscle-cutaneous units, joint and bone or even the hole limb, is considerably applicable in cases of congenital absence or deformity, trauma or greater resection due to malignant tumor. For many complex deformities, these transplantations would allow a more precise reconstruction than the current reconstruction techniques.Nos transplantes alógenos de membro a grande variabilidade de tecidos (pele, subcutâneo, músculo, osso, medula óssea, gânglios linfáticos, cartilagem, nervo, vasos, tendão, articulação leva a grande variação dentro do processo de rejeição e consequentemente a sua imunologia é bastante complexa. Os transplantes alógenos de tecido composto representam o modelo experimental para se estudar o transplante homólogo (de um indivíduo para outro de unidades músculo cutâneas inervadas, vascularizadas, articulações, osso ou mesmo de todo o membro. Os receptores foram randomizados e os grupos controle foram estabelecidos como: grupo controle A: transplante autógeno de membro em que ratos F344

  19. Health Status of Male Adult Wistar Rats from Two Experimental Animal Houses of UFMG: Leukocyte Counts, Feces and Lung Histological Exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Bruno Horta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare health status of male adult Wistar rats from two Experimental Animal Houses of UFMG with literature data of SPF (free from specific pathogens and conventional rats. The animals were divided into two groups: Group I (n=10, rats from the experimental animal houses of FAFICH and Group II (n=10 from ICB and following aspects were studied: a evident clinical signs (behavior modification, hair loss (alopecia, b leukocyte counts, c feces exam and d histological study of the lungs. The rats did not show clinical signs. However, when compared with SPF and conventional rats, both the groups showed a significant increase (p<0,05 of leukocyte count. On feces exam we detected some parasites and on lung histological exam we observed fungus (Group I and bacteria (Group II. These results showed that the health status of the rats was not satisfactory and required improvements in the conditions of the animal houses.

  20. CDX2 hox gene product in a rat model of esophageal cancer

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    Rizzetto Christian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barrett's mucosa is the precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The molecular mechanisms behind Barrett's carcinogenesis are largely unknown. Experimental models of longstanding esophageal reflux of duodenal-gastric contents may provide important information on the biological sequence of the Barrett's oncogenesis. Methods The expression of CDX2 hox-gene product was assessed in a rat model of Barrett's carcinogenesis. Seventy-four rats underwent esophago-jejunostomy with gastric preservation. Excluding perisurgical deaths, the animals were sacrificed at various times after the surgical treatment (Group A: 30 weeks. Results No Cdx2 expression was detected in either squamous epithelia of the proximal esophagus or squamous cell carcinomas. De novo Cdx2 expression was consistently documented in the proliferative zone of the squamous epithelium close to reflux ulcers (Group A: 68%; Group B: 64%; Group C: 80%, multilayered epithelium and intestinal metaplasia (Group A: 9%; Group B: 41%; Group C: 60%, and esophageal adenocarcinomas (Group B: 36%; Group C: 35%. A trend for increasing overall Cdx2 expression was documented during the course of the experiment (p = 0.001. Conclusion De novo expression of Cdx2 is an early event in the spectrum of the lesions induced by experimental gastro-esophageal reflux and should be considered as a key step in the morphogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  1. Evoked bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve of white rats in experimental menopause

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    Rodinsky A.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was analysis of the bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve in experimental menopause condition. Experiments were performed on 25 female white rats, divided into experimental and control groups. Menopause was modeled by total ovariohysterectomy. In 120 days after modeling we had recorded evoked action potentials of fibers of isolated ventral root L5 induced by stimulation of sciatic nerve with rectangular pulses. Threshold, chronaxia, latency, amplitude and duration of the action potential (AP were analysed. Refractory phenomenon was investigated by applying paired stimuli at intervals of 2 to 20 ms. In the context of long-term hypoestrogenemy threshold of AP appearance was 55,32±7,69%, chronaxy – 115,09±2,67%, latent period – 112,62±1,74% as compared with the control animals (p<0.01. In conditions of paired stimuli applying the amplitude of response to the testing stimulus in animals with ovariohysterectomy at intervals 3 and 4 ms was 61,25±36,45% and 53,48±18,64% (p<0.05 respectively.

  2. Blockade of RAGE in Zucker obese rats with experimental periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauballe, M B; Østergaard, J A; Schou, S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are two interrelated chronic diseases. Periodontitis is more prevalent in patients with T2D than in healthy subjects, and studies indicate that periodontitis impacts the metabolic control of patients with T2D. Hyperglycemia...... on the interrelationship between periodontitis and T2D in a rat model of both diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Zucker obese rats (HsdHlr:ZUCKER-Lepr (fa/fa) ) and their lean littermates were divided into five treatment groups, with and without periodontitis. Monoclonal anti-RAGE IgG3 were injected into the rats three times...... evaluated in plasma. Kidney complications were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, the creatinine clearance rate, the albumin excretion rate and kidney hypertrophy. Periodontitis was evaluated by morphometric registration of alveolar bone loss and radiographic recording of bone support. RESULTS...

  3. A new rat model of portal hypertension induced by intraportal injection of microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Nong; Benjamin, IS; Alexander, B

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To produce a new rat model of portal hypertension by intraportal injection of microspheres. METHODS: Measured aliquots of single or different-sized microspheres (15, 40, 80μm) were injected into the portal vein to block intrahepatic portal radicals. The resultant changes in arterial,portal,hepatic venous and splenic pulp pressures were monitored. The liver and lungs were excised for histological examination. RESULTS: Portal venous pressure was elevated from basal value of 0.89-1.02 kPa to a steady-state of 1.98-3.19 kPa following the sequential injections of single- or different-sized microspheres, with a markedly lowered mean arterial pressure. However, a small-dose injection of 80 μm microspheres (1.8 × 105) produced a steady-state portal venous pressure of 2.53 × 0.17 kPa, and all rats showed normal arterial pressures. In addition, numerous microspheres were found in the lungs in all experimental groups. CONCLUSION: Portal hypertension can be reproduced in rats by intraportal injection of microspheres at a small dose of 80 μm (1.8 × 105). Intrahepatic portal-systemic shunts probably exist in the normal rat liver. PMID:11819236

  4. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of the cyclooxygenase pathway inhibitor and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in the reduction of alveolar bone loss in ligature induced periodontitis in rats: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone loss is the most striking feature of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cyclooxygenase (COX pathway inhibitor and nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor in the reduction of alveolar bone loss in an experimental periodontal disease (EPD model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 Wistar rats divided into three groups of 20 rats each and then subjected to a ligature placement around the left maxillary second molars. Group 1 rats were treated with COX inhibitor (diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg/d, group 2 with NOS inhibitor (aminoguanidine hydrochloride 10 mg/kg/d and group 3 served as controls, receiving only saline, intraperitoneally 1h before EPD induction and daily until the sacrifice on the 11 th day. Leukogram was performed before ligation, at 6 h and at the first, seventh and 11 th days after EPD induction. After sacrifice, all the excised maxillae were subjected to morphometric and histometric analysis to measure the alveolar bone loss. Histopathological analysis was carried out to estimate cell influx, alveolar bone and cementum integrity. Results: Induction of experimental periodontitis in the rat model produced pronounced leucocytosis, which was significantly reduced by the administration of diclofenac sodium and aminoguanidine on the 11 th day. In morphometric and histometric examinations, both the test drugs significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited the alveolar bone loss as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Both COX inhibitor and NOS inhibitor are equally effective in inhibiting the inflammatory bone resorption in an experimental periodontitis model.

  5. [Exocrine function of the pancreas in rats with experimental obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchenko, I V; Shevchuk, V H; Savcheniuk, O A; Falalieieva, T M; Sukhodolia, S A; Berehova, T V

    2014-01-01

    The influence of neonatal administration of hyperosmolar sodium chloride and sodium glutamate on the exocrine function of the pancreas in rats has been investigated. It was observed the development of acute pancreatitis under experimental obesity. The cross-section area of acini reduced by 12%, the cross-section area of acinocytes nuclei increased by 10%, the length between the lobes of the gland has grown by 48%. The level of amylase was increased by 43%, the levels of pancreatic amylase and lipase were increased by 68% and 24%, respectively.

  6. Multiphysics and Thermal Response Models to Improve Accuracy of Local Temperature Estimation in Rat Cortex under Microwave Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Sachiko; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Hirata, Akimasa; Masuda, Hiroshi; Arima, Takuji; Watanabe, Soichi

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of wireless technology has led to widespread concerns regarding adverse human health effects caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields. Temperature elevation in biological bodies is an important factor that can adversely affect health. A thermophysiological model is desired to quantify microwave (MW) induced temperature elevations. In this study, parameters related to thermophysiological responses for MW exposures were estimated using an electromagnetic-thermodynamics simulation technique. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study in which parameters related to regional cerebral blood flow in a rat model were extracted at a high degree of accuracy through experimental measurements for localized MW exposure at frequencies exceeding 6 GHz. The findings indicate that the improved modeling parameters yield computed results that match well with the measured quantities during and after exposure in rats. It is expected that the computational model will be helpful in estimating the temperature elevation in the rat brain at multiple observation points (that are difficult to measure simultaneously) and in explaining the physiological changes in the local cortex region. PMID:28358345

  7. The activation of the kynurenine pathway in a rat model with renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosiewicz, Jacek; Kaminski, Tomasz; Pawlak, Krystyna; Karbowska, Malgorzata; Tankiewicz-Kwedlo, Anna; Pawlak, Dariusz

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is a serious condition that can lead to many health problems. The mechanisms underlying this process are still not fully understood. The kynurenine pathway may be involved in the occurrence and progression of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to examine the activity of peripheral kynurenine pathway in rats with renovascular hypertension in Goldblatt 2K1C model. Hypertension was induced in the experimental groups by constricting the renal artery of the left kidney of the rats. Determination of tryptophan (Trp) and kynurenine pathway metabolites was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma and tissues obtained at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after the surgical intervention or sham surgery. Levels of Ang II were evaluated using commercial immuno-enzymatic ELISA kits. Surgical treatment led to increased values of mean blood pressure and systolic blood pressure, whereas Trp concentrations were decreased in experimental animals compared to appropriate controls. Simultaneously, the considerable increment of kynurenine pathway components and a significant increase in the activity of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase were observed in rats with developed hypertension in comparison with controls. There were no differences between Ang II levels in controls and experimental groups. The inverse relationship was between plasma Trp and both SBP and Ang II values, and Trp independently affected Ang II concentrations in hypertensive rats. In contrast, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity and plasma kynurenine metabolites positively correlated with blood pressure values as well as with Ang II levels in these animals. Moreover, kynurenine was independently connected with MBP. Renovascular hypertension influences kynurenine pathway and leads to an imbalance in Trp and its metabolite levels. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and part of the kynurenine metabolites in plasma and tissues positively correlated with blood pressure values and Ang II levels. Although the

  8. Up-regulated ephrinB3/EphB3 expression in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy patients and pilocarpine induced experimental epilepsy rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Li, Ruohan; Yuan, Jinxian; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xi; Ou, Shu; Xu, Tao; Chen, Yangmei

    2016-05-15

    EphB family receptor tyrosine kinases, in cooperation with cell surface-bound ephrinB ligands, play a critical role in maintenance of dendritic spine morphogenesis, axons guidance, synaptogenesis, synaptic reorganization and plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the expression pattern of ephrinB/EphB in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and the underlying molecular mechanisms during epileptogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the expression pattern and cellular distribution of ephrinB/EphB in intractable TLE patients and lithium chloride-pilocarpine induced TLE rats using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemistry, double-labeled immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Compared to control groups, ephrinB3 and EphB3 mRNA expression were significantly up-regulated in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats, while the mRNA expression trend of ephrinB1/2 and EphB1/2/4/6 in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats were inconsistent. Western blot analysis and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry confirmed that ephrinB3 and EphB3 protein level were up-regulated in intractable TLE patients and TLE rats. At the same time, double-labeled immunofluorescence indicate that ephrinB3 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm and protrusions of glia and neurons, while EphB3 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of neurons. Taken together, up-regulated expression of ephrinB3/EphB3 in intractable TLE patients and experimental TLE rats suggested that ephrinB3/EphB3 might be involved in the pathogenesis of TLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The physiological response of obese rat model with rambutan peel extract treatment

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    Sri Rahayu Lestari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body weight gain, expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1 receptor on obese rat model treated with rambutan peel extract (RPE as a physiological response. Methods: Normal and obese rat feed with normal and high calorie diet around 1 2 weeks and continued to treat with ellagic acid, RPE 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg body weight respectively. Physiological responses observed were weight gain and expression of Igf-1 with its receptor. Body weight of rat was weighed once per week. Expression of Igf-1 and igf-1R observed with fluorescence immunohistochemistry. The intensity of Igf-1 and Igf-1R expression was analysis using FSX-BSW software. Results: The lowest weight gain was obtained on obese rat model treated with RPE 30 mg/kg body weight. The expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1R were reduced on obese rat model treated with RPE compared with obese rat model of non treatment (P<0.05. The low expression of Igf-1 and Igf-1R was found on obese rat model treated with ellagic acid and RPE 30 mg/kg body weight. Conclusions: The RPE was effecting to the physiological response on obese rat model. The RPE 30 mg/kg body weight inhibited body weight gain and decreased the expression of Igf-1 and Igf- 1R of obese rat model.

  10. Comparisons of orthodontic root resorption under heavy and jiggling reciprocating forces during experimental tooth movement in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikida, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Shimizu, Mami; Kikuta, Jun; Yoshino, Tomokazu; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2016-07-01

    Root mobility due to reciprocating movement of the tooth (jiggling) may exacerbate orthodontic root resorption (ORR). "Jiggling" describes mesiodistal or buccolingual movement of the roots of the teeth during orthodontic treatment. In the present study, buccolingual movement is described as "jiggling." We aimed to investigate the relationship between ORR and jiggling and to test for positive cell expression in odontoclasts in resorbed roots during experimental tooth movement (jiggling) in vivo. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, heavy force (HF), optimal force (OF), and jiggling force (JF) groups. The expression levels of cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 protein, interleukin (IL)-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1; an IL-8-related protein in rodents), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin protein in the dental root were determined using immunohistochemistry. On day 21, a greater number of root resorption lacunae, which contained multinucleated odontoclasts, were observed in the palatal roots of rats in the JF group than in rats from other groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the numbers of cathepsin K-positive and MMP-9-positive odontoclasts in the JF group on day 21. Immunoreactivities for IL-6, CINC-1, and RANKL were stronger in resorbed roots exposed to jiggling than in the other groups on day 21. Negative reactivity was observed in the controls. These results suggest that jiggling may induce ORR via inflammatory cytokine production during orthodontic tooth movement, and that jiggling may be a risk factor for ORR.

  11. Evolution of experimental deciduomata in the rat: cellular filiation and morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Henri; Sartor, Pierre; Dupont, M.-A.; Duluc, A.-J.; Mayer, Gaston

    1978-01-01

    The morphogenesis of experimental deciduomata and the genesis of polyploidy in this tissue were studied by radioautographic and ultrastructural techniques in the rat. The growth is effected by mitotic renewal of diploid cells which are in post-synthetic resting period. They themselves organize by forming cellular strings. The level of Polyploidy is determined by the modality of division. Mitotic divisions without cytodieresis lead to a substantial pool of binucleated cells (2n + 2n) in mesometrial and antimesometrial areas. Mitotic divisions for binucleated cells with a single spindle can create tetraploid mononucleated cells. This mitotic type of division limits the polyploidy to 4 n in mesometrial cells. In antimesometrial area the evolution continues above 4 n nuclei by means of endomitosis, without any filiation between mono-and binucleated cells. In some respects, this evolution agrees with results obtained in hepatic tissue in the rat [fr

  12. Dipyridamole reduces penile apoptosis in a rat model of post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction

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    Omer Kutlu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Despite the nerve-sparing technique, many patients suffer from erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy (RP due to cavernous nerve injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate dipyridamole as a potential treatment agent of post-radical prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. Material and methods: A total of 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three experimental Groups (SHAM+DMSO, BCNI+DMSO and BCNI+DIP. An animal model of bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury (BCNI was established to mimic the partial nerve damage during nerve-sparing RP. After creating of BCNI, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO was administered transperitoneally as a vehicle to SHAM+DMSO and BCNI+DMSO Groups. BCNI+DIP Group received dipyiridamole (10mg/kg/day as a solution in DMSO for 15 days. Afterwards, rats were evaluated for in vivo erectile response to cavernous nerve stimulation. Penile tissues were also analyzed biochemically for transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 level. Penile corporal apoptosis was determined by TUNEL method. Results: Erectile response was decreased in rats with BCNI and there was no significant improvement with dipyridamole treatment. TGF-β1 levels were increased in rats with BCNI and decreased with dipyridamole treatment. Dipyridamole led to reduced penile apoptosis in rats with BCNI and there was no significant difference when compared to sham operated rats. Conclusions: Although fifteen-day dipyridamole treatment has failed to improve erectile function in rats with BCNI, the decline in both TGF-β1 levels and apoptotic indices with treatment may be helpful in protecting penile morphology after cavernous nerve injury.

  13. A bioabsorbable membrane (Seprafilm®) may prevent postoperative mediastinal adhesions following mediastinoscopy: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkale, Songül; Çıtak, Necati; İşgörücü, Özgür; Sayar, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the anti-adhesion property of a bioabsorbable membrane following mediastinoscopy in a rat model. The study was conducted in 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Mediastinoscopy was performed all of them. Rats were divided into two groups; control group (n=10); mediastinoscopy alone, study group (n=10); mediastinoscopy and sodiumhyaluronate-carboxymethlycellulose film (Seprafilm®; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, Mass. USA). It was used to the mediastinal surface at the end of the surgical procedure in study group. Re-mediastinoscopy was performed after 7 days. Adhesion and vascularity grade description scores were analyzed. The parameters evaluated were presence of polymorhphonucleer leucocyte, macrophage, lymphocyte, fibroblasts, edema, neovascularisation, collagenisation, and foreing body reaction. All the rats survived uneventfully until being sacrificed without any postoperative complications. The mean adhesion score was found to be significantly higher in control group (n=2.5±0.5) compared with study group (n=1.0±0.1) (P=0.007). Vascularity grade description score was significantly higher in control group (n=2.3±0.6) than in study group (n=1.4±0.6) (P=0.009). There were no statistical differences between the groups with regard to edema, lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, fibroblast proliferation and foreign body reactions (P>0.05). The used of Seprafilm® during the primary procedure can reduce to the mediastinal adhesions. However, further studies are required to assess the precise impact of the anti-adhesive agents on adhesion.

  14. Periodontitis contributes to adipose tissue inflammation through the NF-B, JNK and ERK pathways to promote insulin resistance in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanli; Zeng, Jin; Chen, Guoqing; Xie, Xudong; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which periodontitis affects the inflammatory response and systemic insulin resistance in the white adipose and liver tissues in an obese rat model. The obese model was generated by feeding rats a high fat diet. The periodontitis model was induced by ligatures and injection of "red complex", which consisted of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, for two weeks. When compared with rats without periodontitis, fasting glucose levels and homeostasis model assessment index were significantly increased in rats with periodontitis, suggesting that periodontitis promotes the development of insulin resistance in obese rats. Gene and protein expression analysis in white adipose and liver tissue revealed that experimental periodontitis stimulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factors-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, toll-like receptor 2 and toll-like receptor 4. Signals associated with inflammation and insulin resistance, including nuclear factor- B, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase and extracellular-signal regulated kinase were significantly activated in the white adipose tissue from obese rats with periodontitis compared to obese rats without periodontitis. Taken together, these findings suggest that periodontitis plays an important role in aggravating the development of local white adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance in rat models. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Acoustic noise improves motor learning in spontaneously hypertensive rats, a rat model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Göran B W; Eckernäs, Daniel; Holmblad, Olof; Bergquist, Filip

    2015-03-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat model of ADHD displays impaired motor learning. We used this characteristic to study if the recently described acoustic noise benefit in learning in children with ADHD is also observed in the SH rat model. SH rats and a Wistar control strain were trained in skilled reach and rotarod running under either ambient noise or in 75 dBA white noise. In other animals the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on motor learning was assessed with the same paradigms. To determine if acoustic noise influenced spontaneous motor activity, the effect of acoustic noise was also determined in the open field activity paradigm. We confirm impaired motor learning in the SH rat compared to Wistar SCA controls. Acoustic noise restored motor learning in SH rats learning the Montoya reach test and the rotarod test, but had no influence on learning in Wistar rats. Noise had no effect on open field activity in SH rats, but increased corner time in Wistar. MPH completely restored rotarod learning and performance but did not improve skilled reach in the SH rat. It is suggested that the acoustic noise benefit previously reported in children with ADHD is shared by the SH rat model of ADHD, and the effect is in the same range as that of stimulant treatment. Acoustic noise may be useful as a non-pharmacological alternative to stimulant medication in the treatment of ADHD. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of pharyngocutaneous fistula closure with and without bacterial cellulose in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Berat; Sarı, Murat; Binnetoglu, Adem; Yumusakhuylu, Ali Cemal; Filinte, Deniz; Tekin, İshak Özel; Bağlam, Tekin; Batman, Abdullah Çağlar

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of bacterial cellulose used for closure of pharyngocutaneous fistulae, a complication of total laryngectomy, with those of primary sutures in a rat model. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley underwent experimental pharyngoesophagotomy and were grouped depending on the material used for pharyngocutaneous fistula closure: group I, which received primary sutures alone, group II, which received bacterial cellulose alone; and group III, which received both. After 7 days, the rats were sacrificed. Pharyngocutaneous fistula development was assessed, the gross wound was inspected, and histological examination was conducted. Pharyngocutaneous fistulae developed in 12 rats (41%) in all: 6 from group I (21%), 4 from group II (14%) and 2 from group III (7%). Fibroblast density and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly greater in group III than group I. We concluded that bacterial cellulose may be useful for pharyngocutaneous fistula closure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High regenerative capacity of the liver and irreversible injury of male reproductive system in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Drahulian, Maria V; Buchek, Polina V; Gulko, Tamara P

    2018-03-01

    Liver fibrosis (LF) is a chronic disease, associated with many collateral diseases including reproductive dysfunction. Although the normal liver has a large regenerative capacity the complications of LF could be severe and irreversible. Hormone and sex-related issues of LF development and interactions with male reproductive have not been finally studied. The aim was to study the reproductive function of male rats in experimental CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis rat model, and the capability for restoration of both the liver and male reproduction system. Studies were conducted on 20 3-month old Wistar male rats. The experimental animals were injected with freshly prepared 50% olive oil solution of carbohydrate tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). On the 8th week after injection we noted the manifestations of liver fibrosis. The rats were left to self-healing of the liver for 8 weeks. All male rats underwent ultrasound and biopsy of the liver and testes on the 8th and 16th weeks. The male rats were mated with healthy females before CCl 4 injection, after modeling LF on the 8th week, and after self-healing of the liver. Pregnancy was monitored on ultrasound. On the 8th week of experiment we observed ultrasound manifestation of advanced liver fibrosis, including hepatosplenomegaly, portal hypertension. Ultrasound exam of the rat testes showed testicular degeneration, hydrocele, fibrosis, scarring, petrifications, size reduction, and restriction of testicular descent; testes size decreased from 1.24 ± 0.62 ml to 0.61 ± 0.13, p  reproductive system and altering of fertility: the offspring of male rats with advanced LF was 4.71 ± 0.53 born alive vs 9.55 ± 0.47 born from mating with healthy males, p  reproductive system.

  18. Cardiorespiratory evaluation of juvenile rats experimentally envenomed with Tityus serrulatus venom

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    MCL Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental envenomation caused by Tityus serrulatus scorpions is very common in Brazil and may result in serious cardiorespiratory alterations that are frequently fatal to children. In the present study, the effects of T. serrulatus venom on the cardiorespiratory system of recently weaned male Wistar rats were evaluated. Fifteen animals were distributed into three groups (n = 5. The control group A received 400 μL ultrapure water by subcutaneous injection, while the experimental groups B and C were injected with scorpion venom (100 and 450 μg, respectively, in 400 μL water. Electrocardiogram (ECG traces were obtained prior to the experiment, at five-minute intervals up to 30 minutes after treatment. At 40 minutes after envenomation, the animals had severe acute symptoms and were subsequently anesthetized for blood collection by means of intracardiac puncture. Biochemical profiles for the cardiac muscle were established by colorimetric analysis of creatine kinase (CK and CK-MB isoenzyme. Semiquantitative analysis of troponin was performed using the immunochromatographic assay. Following euthanasia, the lungs and hearts were removed and subjected to histopathological examination. All experimental animals had ECG alterations compatible with electrolytic imbalance, myocarditis and alterations of the cardiac conduction system. Envenomed animals had accentuated bradycardia at 25 and 30 minutes after venom inoculation. All experimental animals had myocardial lesions, which were confirmed by increased serum levels of CK and CK-MB, although there were no alterations in the serum concentration of troponin. Pulmonary hemorrhage was detected in whole lungs and microscopically confirmed by the presence of congested capillaries and erythrocytes in the alveolar parenchyma. In conclusion, T. serrulatus venom caused great cardiorespiratory damage to weaned rats.

  19. Differences in social interaction- vs. cocaine reward in mouse vs. rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Kai K; Hofhansel, Lena; Barwitz, Constanze M; Schardl, Aurelia; Prast, Janine M; Salti, Ahmad; El Rawas, Rana; Zernig, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    We previously developed rat experimental models based on the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in which only four 15-min episodes of dyadic social interaction with a sex- and weight-matched male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat (1) reversed CPP from cocaine to social interaction despite continuing cocaine training, and (2) prevented the reacquisition/re-expression of cocaine CPP. In a concurrent conditioning schedule, pairing one compartment with social interaction and the other compartment with 15 mg/kg cocaine injections, rats spent the same amount of time in both compartments and the most rewarding sensory component of the composite stimulus social interaction was touch (taction). In the present study, we validated our experimental paradigm in C57BL/6 mice to investigate if our experimental paradigm may be useful for the considerable number of genetically modified mouse models. Only 71% of the tested mice developed place preference for social interaction, whereas 85% of the rats did. Accordingly, 29% of the mice developed conditioned place aversion (CPA) to social interaction, whereas this was true for only 15% of the rats. In support of the lesser likelihood of mice to develop a preference for social interaction, the average amount of time spent in direct contact was 17% for mice vs. 79% for rats. In animals that were concurrently conditioned for social interaction vs. cocaine, the relative reward strength for cocaine was 300-fold higher in mice than in rats. Considering that human addicts regularly prefer drugs of abuse to drug-free social interaction, the present findings suggest that our experimental paradigm of concurrent CPP for cocaine vs. social interaction is of even greater translational power if performed in C57BL/6 mice, the genetic background for most transgenic rodent models, than in rats.

  20. Differences in social interaction- vs cocaine reward in rat vs mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai K Kummer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed rat experimental models based on the conditioned place preference (CPP paradigm in which only four 15-min episodes of dyadic social interaction with a sex- and weight-matched male Sprague Dawley rat (1 reversed CPP from cocaine to social interaction despite continuing cocaine training, and (2 prevented the reacquisition/re-expression of cocaine CPP. In a concurrent conditioning schedule, pairing one compartment with social interaction and the other compartment with 15 mg/kg cocaine injections, rats spent the same amount of time in both compartments and the most rewarding sensory component of the composite stimulus social interaction was touch (taction. In the present study, we validated our experimental paradigm in C57BL/6 mice to investigate if our experimental paradigm may be useful for the considerable number of genetically modified mouse models. Only 71% of the tested mice developed place preference for social interaction, whereas 85% of the rats did. Accordingly, 29% of the mice developed conditioned place aversion to social interaction, whereas this was true for only 15% of the rats. In support of the lesser likelihood of mice to develop a preference for social interaction, the average amount of time spent in direct contact was 17% for mice vs 79% for rats. In animals that were concurrently conditioned for social interaction vs cocaine, the relative reward strength for cocaine was 300-fold higher in mice than in rats.Considering that human addicts regularly prefer drugs of abuse to drug-free social interaction, the present findings suggest that our experimental paradigm of concurrent CPP for cocaine vs social interaction is of even greater translational power if performed in C57BL/6 mice, the genetic background for most transgenic rodent models, than in rats.

  1. Metabolomics of the aqueous humor in the rat glaucoma model induced by a series of intracamerular sodium hyaluronate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayordomo-Febrer, A; López-Murcia, M; Morales-Tatay, J M; Monleón-Salvado, D; Pinazo-Durán, M D

    2015-02-01

    Glaucoma models are helpful to study disease characteristics and to design new therapeutic options. Metabolomic profiling approach have been used to elucidating the molecular characteristics of the aqueous humor. Juvenile male Wistar rats experimental (n = 15) and controls (n = 6) were used for these studies. Experimental rats received weekly intracamerular injection of 25 µl of sodium hyaluronate in the left eye and sterile saline solution in the right eye, consecutively for ten weeks. Rats were subjected to anterior/posterior eye segment examinations, intraocular pressure (IOP), and flash electroretinograms (ERG). The aqueous humor was collected at endpoints and analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Elevated IOP and significant reduction of a, b waves and amplitude of oscillatory potential was observed in the left eyes compared to control eyes. The aqueous humor metabolomic profile from control and the experimental eyes were compared. Concentrations of metabolites (amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates) significantly changed after the sodium hyaluronate injections series, compared to the sham-operated eyes. Metabolic changes in the hypertensive eyes correlated with the impaired retinal function. Observed metabolomic changes in aqueous humor in hypertensive state may play a significant role in glaucoma pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Won

    2013-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, and controlled study examined the effects of normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats. The study comprised two control groups (untreated and saline-treated) and three experimental groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental groups received an instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) only, LPS+normal saline (LPS/saline), or LPS+selenium-enriched hot spring water (LPS/selenium). Histopathological changes were identified using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Leakage of exudate was identified using fluorescence microscopy. Microvascular permeability was measured using the Evans blue dye technique. Expression of the Muc5ac gene was measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mucosal edema and expression of the Muc5ac gene were significantly lower in the LPS/saline group than in the LPS group. Microvascular permeability, mucosal edema, and expression of the Muc5ac gene were significantly lower in the LPS/selenium group than in the LPS group. Mucosal edema was similar in the LPS/selenium group and LPS/saline group, but capillary permeability and Muc5ac expression were lower in the LPS/selenium group. This study shows that normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water reduce inflammatory activity and mucus hypersecretion in LPS-induced rhinosinusitis in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Weight loss and brown adipose tissue reduction in rat model of sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Patricia G

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Obesity is related to obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS, but its roles in OSAHS as cause or consequence are not fully clarified. Isocapnic intermittent hypoxia (IIH is a model of OSAHS. We verified the effect of IIH on body weight and brown adipose tissue (BAT of Wistar rats. Methods Nine-month-old male breeders Wistar rats of two groups were studied: 8 rats submitted to IIH and 5 control rats submitted to sham IIH. The rats were weighed at the baseline and at the end of three weeks, after being placed in the IIH apparatus seven days per week, eight hours a day, in the lights on period, simulating an apnea index of 30/hour. After experimental period, the animals were weighed and measured as well as the BAT, abdominal, perirenal, and epididymal fat, the heart, and the gastrocnemius muscle. Results Body weight of the hypoxia group decreased 17 ± 7 grams, significantly different from the variation observed in the control group (p = 0,001. The BAT was 15% lighter in the hypoxia group and reached marginally the alpha error probability (p = 0.054. Conclusion Our preliminary results justify a larger study for a longer time in order to confirm the effect of isocapnic intermittent hypoxia on body weight and BAT.

  4. Development of LC-MS determination method and back-propagation ANN pharmacokinetic model of corynoxeine in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianshe; Cai, Jinzhang; Lin, Guanyang; Chen, Huilin; Wang, Xianqin; Wang, Xianchuan; Hu, Lufeng

    2014-05-15

    Corynoxeine(CX), isolated from the extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla, is a useful and prospective compound in the prevention and treatment for vascular diseases. A simple and selective liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed to determine the concentration of CX in rat plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-C18 (2.1 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm) column with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phase. Selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used for quantification using target ions m/z 383 for CX and m/z 237 for the carbamazepine (IS). After the LC-MS method was validated, it was applied to a back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) pharmacokinetic model study of CX in rats. The results showed that after intravenous administration of CX, it was mainly distributed in blood and eliminated quickly, t1/2 was less than 1h. The predicted concentrations generated by BP-ANN model had a high correlation coefficient (R>0.99) with experimental values. The developed BP-ANN pharmacokinetic model can be used to predict the concentration of CX in rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tumor hypoxia - A confounding or exploitable factor in interstitial brachytherapy? Effects of tissue trauma in an experimental rat tumor model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, AP; van Geel, CAJF; van Hooije, CMC; van der Kleij, AJ; Visser, AG

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential effects of tumor hypoxia induced by afterloading catheter implantation on the effectiveness of brachytherapy in a rat tumor model. Methods and Materials: Afterloading catheters (4) Here implanted in subcutaneously growing R1M rhabdomyosarcoma in female Wag/Rij

  6. Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Rat Carcinogenesis and Assessing the Role Mutagens Play in Model Predictivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquer, C. Alex; Batey, Kaylind; Qamar, Shahid; Cunningham, Albert R.; Cunningham, Suzanne L.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that fragment based cat-SAR carcinogenesis models consisting solely of mutagenic or non-mutagenic carcinogens varied greatly in terms of their predictive accuracy. This led us to investigate how well the rat cancer cat-SAR model predicted mutagens and non-mutagens in their learning set. Four rat cancer cat-SAR models were developed: Complete Rat, Transgender Rat, Male Rat, and Female Rat, with leave-one-out (LOO) validation concordance values of 69%, 74%, 67%, and 73%, respectively. The mutagenic carcinogens produced concordance values in the range of 69–76% as compared to only 47–53% for non-mutagenic carcinogens. As a surrogate for mutagenicity comparisons between single site and multiple site carcinogen SAR models was analyzed. The LOO concordance values for models consisting of 1-site, 2-site, and 4+-site carcinogens were 66%, 71%, and 79%, respectively. As expected, the proportion of mutagens to non-mutagens also increased, rising from 54% for 1-site to 80% for 4+-site carcinogens. This study demonstrates that mutagenic chemicals, in both SAR learning sets and test sets, are influential in assessing model accuracy. This suggests that SAR models for carcinogens may require a two-step process in which mutagenicity is first determined before carcinogenicity can be accurately predicted. PMID:24697549

  7. Experimental studies in the bronchial circulation. Which is the ideal animal model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Ioannis; Tsipas, Panteleimon; Melachrinou, Maria; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of the role of bronchial arteries is notable in modern days thoracic surgery. The significance of their anastomoses with adjusted structures has not yet been sufficiently rated, especially in cases of haemoptysis, heart-lung transplantations and treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. The need of a thorough study is more relevant than ever and appropriate laboratory animals are required. Methods We review the literature in order to highlight the ideal experimental animal for the implementation of pilot programs relative to the bronchial circulation. A comparative analysis of the anatomy of the bronchial arterial system in humans along with these of pigs, dogs, rats, and birds, as being the most commonly used laboratory animals, is presented in details. Results The pig has the advantage that the broncho-oesophageal artery usually originates from the aorta as a single vessel, which makes the recognition and dissection of the artery easy to perform. In dogs, there is significant anatomical variation of the origin of the bronchial arteries. In rats, bronchial artery coming from the aorta is a rare event while in birds the pattern of the bronchial artery tree is clearly different from the human analog. Conclusions The pig is anatomically and physiologically suited for experimental studies on the bronchial circulation. The suitable bronchial anatomy and physiology along with the undeniable usefulness of the pig in experimental research and the low maintenance cost make the pig the ideal model for experiments in bronchial circulation. PMID:25364530

  8. The Pathological Changes of Stomach in Experimental Rats following Single Irradiation of Supervoltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myung Sun; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1984-01-01

    The pathological changes of stomach of the rat following 1,000 rad and 1,800 rad single exposure by Cobalt-60 has been made with 50 experimental rats. The dose of 1,000 rad and 6,000 rad in 6 weeks. Following single exposure, the groups of rat were terminated in 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks intervals and the stomach were fixed to formalin solution immediately after dissection. The pathological changes were as follows: 1. Following 1,000 rad single exposure, the stomach show only mild to moderate submucosal edema in 4, 8, 12 weeks group. 1 and 2 weeks group show no changes. 2. Following 1,800 rad single exposure, 32%(8/25) of rats were dead by radiation effect and all other groups of stomach revealed variable pathological changes such as submucosal edema, squamous dysplasia, squamous papilloma as well as squamous cell carcinoma. 3. Optimal tolerance dose to the stomach was 4,500-5,000 rad when irradiation given by supervoltage. The entire stomach was included within the irradiation field, the dose to the stomach should not exceed 6,000 rad. 4. In conclusion, the radiation injury to the stomach were more direct radiation effects to the gastric mucosa rather than secondary changes of radiation injured vessels

  9. A rat hysteropexy model for evaluating adhesion formation and comparison of two different structured meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokmen-Karasu, Ayse Filiz; Aydin, Serdar; Sonmez, Fatma Cavide; Adanir, Ilknur; Ilhan, Gulsah; Ates, Seda

    2017-11-01

    Peritonization of mesh during sacrohysteropexy is generally advocated to prevent adhesions to the viscera; however, randomized clinical trials are lacking, and peritonization may not be completely possible in a laparoscopic hysteropexy procedure. Our main objective was to describe a basic experimental rat sacrohysteropexy model. We hypothesized that even when peritoneal closure was omitted, using composite mesh would result in less adhesions to the viscera. Twenty in-bred female virgin Wistar Hannover rats were used in this study. Standardized hysteropexy procedure and adhesion model is described step by step with two different mesh materials: polypropylene and a composite polyester. Mesh was anchored between the posterior cervix and anterior longitudinal ligament of the lumbar vertebrae. Macroscopic adhesion scores and histopathological tissue reaction was investigated. Macroscopically, the surface area involved in adhesions was similar between groups. However, adhesions in the polypropylene group were more dense, required sharp dissection for lysis, and yielded higher total macroscopic adhesion scores (p < 0.001). Histologically, a more pronounced host inflammatory response was encountered in the polyester group (p < 0.001). We describe a rat hysteropexy model and a previously established uterine adhesion model. Adhesion scores in the composite mesh group were lower, and bowel involvement was not seen. Our findings are promising, and further research investigating antiadhesive composite mesh use for hysterosacropexy would be appropriate, especially when peritoneal closure is omitted.

  10. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Semra; Pekel, Gökhan; Küçükatay, Vural; Karabulut, Aysun; Yağcı, Ramazan; Çetin, Ebru Nevin; Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Şahin, Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Group 3), and the remaining 10 rats were administered intraperitoneal streptozocin to induce diabetes mellitus (Group 4). Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) measurements of the crystalline lenses were analyzed. The mean OSI was the lowest in group 1 and highest in group 4. Nevertheless, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in terms of OSI (p >0.05). The mean TOS values were similar between the groups (p >0.05), whereas the mean TAC of group 1 was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p <0.001). Our results indicate that menopause may not promote cataract formation.

  11. Mechanistic comparison between gastric bypass vs. duodenal switch with sleeve gastrectomy in rat models.

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    Yosuke Kodama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both gastric bypass (GB and duodenal switch with sleeve gastrectomy (DS have been widely used as bariatric surgeries, and DS appears to be superior to GB. The aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms leading to body weight loss by comparing these two procedures in experimental models of rats. METHODS: Animals were subjected to GB, DS or laparotomy (controls, and monitored by an open-circuit indirect calorimeter composed of comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system and adiabatic bomb calorimeter. RESULTS: Body weight loss was greater after DS than GB. Food intake was reduced after DS but not GB. Energy expenditure was increased after either GB or DS. Fecal energy content was increased after DS but not GB. CONCLUSION: GB induced body weight loss by increasing energy expenditure, whereas DS induced greater body weight loss by reducing food intake, increasing energy expenditure and causing malabsorption in rat models.

  12. Thrombolytic and anticoagulation treatment in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, K; Meden, P

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The effects of pentasaccharide (PENTA), given alone or combined with thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), on infarct size and clinical outcome were evaluated in a rat embolic stroke model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-two rats were embolized unilateral...... alone or combined with rt-PA did not significantly increase mortality or tendency for hemorrhage.......OBJECTIVES: The effects of pentasaccharide (PENTA), given alone or combined with thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), on infarct size and clinical outcome were evaluated in a rat embolic stroke model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-two rats were embolized unilaterally...

  13. Taurine Alleviates the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

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    Jang Hyun Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, the protective effects of taurine on diabetic nephropathy along with its underlying mechanism were investigated. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: LETO rats as normal group (n=10, OLETF rats as diabetic control group (n=10, and OLETF rats treated with taurine group (n=10. We treated taurine (200 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks and treated high glucose (HG, 30 mM with or without taurine (30 mM in mouse cultured podocyte. After taurine treatment, blood glucose level was decreased and insulin secretion was increased. Taurine significantly reduced albuminuria and ACR. Also it decreased glomerular volume, GBM thickness and increased open slit pore density through decreased VEGF and increased nephrin mRNA expressions in renal cortex. The antioxidant effects of taurine were confirmed by the reduction of urine MDA in taurine treated diabetic group. Also reactive oxygen species (ROS levels were decreased in HG condition with taurine treated podocytes compared to without taurine. These results indicate that taurine lowers glucose level via increased insulin secretion and ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy through antifibrotic and antioxidant effects in type 2 diabetes rat model.

  14. PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, T.A.; Holmes, S.; Alekseyenko, A.V.; Shenoy, M.; DeSantis, T.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Winston, J.; Sonnenburg, J.; Pasricha, P.J.; Spormann, A.

    2010-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS.

  15. A new proposal for laparoscopic left colectomy in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Castro Durães

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new technique for laparoscopic segmental colectomy and primary anastomosis in the left colon of rats. METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly assigned to three groups of ten animals each. All animals underwent segmental resection of the left colon and end-to-end anastomosis. In Group I, the animals underwent laparoscopic surgery with carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum at a pressure of 5 mmHg. In Group II, the animals underwent pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide at a pressure of 12 mmHg. In Group III, the control group, the animals underwent open surgery. All animals were reopened on the 7th postoperative day and were evaluated for peritonitis, abscesses, anastomotic dehiscence and bowel obstruction, and the anastomosis bursting pressure was measured. RESULTS: No obstructions, peritonitis or abscesses were found in any of the animals. An animal in Group I exhibited a blocked anastomosis leakage. The average anastomosis bursting pressure in the 30 animals was 187.02 ± 68.35 mmHg. There was no significant difference in the anastomosis bursting pressure among the groups (p = 0.503 CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic experimental model was feasible and safe for segmental colectomy and anastomosis of the left colon in rats.

  16. Experimental models of chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abbondanza, Josephine A; Loch Macdonald, R

    2014-02-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical problem. Most studies of pathogenesis and treatment involve humans. Advances in understanding of human diseases may be made using animal models. We reviewed all animal models of CSDH and report here their results, conclusions and limitations in order to set a baseline upon which further advanced experimental work related to this disease can be made. PubMed, Medline, Embase and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched with no time limits using the keyword 'chronic subdural hematoma' and MeSH term 'hematoma, subdural, chronic'. The authors reviewed all papers written related to this disease and selected all publications involving animals. There were no other restrictions. The findings and conclusions of the papers are summarized here. No formal analysis was done because of the variation in species used, methods for induction of CSDH, times of assessment and reporting of results. Attempts to create CSDH have been made in mice, rats, cats, dogs and monkeys. Methods include injection or surgical implantation of clotted blood or various other blood products and mixtures into the potential subdural space or the subcutaneous space. No intracranial model produced a progressively expanding CSDH. Transient hematoma expansion with liquification could be produced by subcutaneous injections in some models. Spontaneous subdural blood collections were found after creation of hydrocephalus in mice by systemic injection of the neurotoxin, 6-aminonicotinamide. The histology of the hematoma membranes in several models resembles the appearance in humans. None of the models has been replicated since its first description. We did not find a report of a reproducible, well-described animal model of human CSDH.

  17. DECREASED BILIRUBIN TRANSPORT IN THE PERFUSED LIVER OF ENDOTOXEMIC RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROELOFSEN, H; VANDERVEERE, CN; OTTENHOFF, R; SCHOEMAKER, B; JANSEN, PLM; ELFERINK, RPJO

    1994-01-01

    Background/Aims: Hyperbilirubinemia associated with sepsis is frequently observed in humans. In this study, an experimental rat model was developed to study bilirubin metabolism and transport during endotoxemia. Methods: Rats were injected intravenously with a single bolus of lipopolysaccharide (1

  18. Maternal Deprivation of Lewis Rat Pups Increases the Severity of Experi-mental Periodontitis in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Torbjørn; Gundersen, Yngvar; Murison, Robert; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P; Gjermo, Per; Opstad, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Early life adverse events may influence susceptibility/resistance to chronic inflammatory diseases later in life by permanently dysregulating brain-controlled immune-regulatory systems. We have investigated the impact of infant-mother separation during early postnatal life on the severity of experimental periodontitis, as well as systemic stress and immune responses, in adulthood. Pups of periodontitis resistant Lewis rats were separated from their mothers for 3 h daily during postnatal days 2-14 (termed maternal deprivation; MD), separated for 15 min daily during the same time period (termed handling; HD), or left undisturbed. As adults, their behaviour was tested in a novel stressful situation, and ligature-induced periodontitis applied for 21 days. Two h before sacrifice all rats were exposed to a gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge to induce a robust immune and stress response. Compared to undisturbed controls, MD rats developed significantly more periodontal bone loss as adults, whereas HD rats showed a tendency to less disease. MD and HD rats exhibited depression-like behaviour in a novel open field test, while MD rats showed higher glucocorticoid receptor (Gr) expression in the hippocampus, and HD rats had altered methylation of genes involved in the expression of hippocampal Gr. LPS provoked a significantly lower increase in circulating levels of the cytokine TGF-1β in MD and HD rats, but there were no significant differences in levels of the stress hormone corticosterone. Stressful environmental exposures in very early life may alter immune responses in a manner that influences susceptibility/resistance to periodontitis.

  19. The Effect of Progesterone on Lipid Peroxidation and in Rat Alzheimer Model by Local Injection of Streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mozafari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most prevalent brain neurodegenerative diseases and the most common cognitive deficits are memory dysfunction and spatial perception impairment. Progesterone has a neorostroid action in hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic stability and spatial learning and memory and has antioxidant effect. Since oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and conflicting results were reported about the effects of progesterone on therefore in Alzheimer’s, the present study investigated the effect of microinjection of three doses of progesterone on the process of spatial memory and lipid peroxidation and total peroxidation in the hippocampus in the experimental model of AD. Methods: 42 adult male Wistar rats weighting 250±50 g were randomly divided into six main groups (n=7: control group, sham group, Alzheimer’s model (intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin, Alzheimer model + progesterone (0.5, 1.5, 2µg/kg. 2 weeks after injection of streptozotocin (3 mg/kg, Alzheimer's was induced then progesterone injected in different doses. After termination of behavioral testing days, the hippocampus was removed to measure the levels of oxidative stress parameter to measure levels of oxidative stress parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Results showed that intraventricular injection of STZ decreased spatial memory in comparison to control group (P<0.001. Administration progesterone significantly improved spatial memory in experimental models of Alzheimer's rats (P<0.001. MDA and SOD in all doses of progesterone showed a significant reduction compared to the AD animals (P<0.001. Conclusion: Progesterone can prevent a decrease in spatial learning and memory by reducing oxidative stress in the hippocampus of rats with Alzheimer's.

  20. The extent of adhesion induction through electrocoagulation and suturing in an experimental rat study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallwiener, Christian W; Kraemer, Bernhard; Wallwiener, Markus; Brochhausen, Christoph; Isaacson, Keith B; Rajab, Taufiek K

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the effect of three types of peritoneal trauma occurring during surgery (high-frequency bipolar current, suturing, and mechanical damage) on postoperative adhesion formation in a rodent animal model. Randomized, controlled experimental trial in an in vitro animal model. Laboratory facilities of a university department of obstetrics and gynecology. Thirty-five female Wistar rats. Bilateral experimental lesions were created on the abdominal wall in every animal. The effect of minimal electrocoagulation was examined by creating lesions (n = 14) through sweeps of a bipolar forceps with a duration of 1 second and standardized pressure. For extensive electrocoagulation standardized lesions (n = 14) were created using sweeps of a duration of 3 seconds and three times more pressure. For mechanical trauma, standardized lesions (n = 14) were created by denuding the peritoneum mechanically. To study the additive effect of suturing, experimental lesions were created by suturing plus minimal electrocoagulation (n = 14) or mechanical denuding (n = 14). Adhesion incidence, quantity, and quality of the resulting adhesions were scored 14 days postoperatively. Adhesions were studied histopathologically. Mechanical denuding of the peritoneum did not result in adhesion formation. After minimal electrocoagulation, mean adhesion quantity of the traumatized area averaged 0%. This contrasted with extensive electrocoagulation, where there was 50% adhesion. Additional suturing increased mean adhesion quantity to 73% and 64% for superficial electrocoagulation and mechanical denuding, respectively. We conclude that superficial trauma limited mostly to the parietal peritoneum may be a negligible factor in adhesion formation in this model. This appears to be irrespective of the mode of trauma. However, additional trauma to the underlying tissues, either by deeper electrocoagulation or suturing, leads to significantly increased adhesion formation. These data also show that there

  1. The role of nitric oxide in an experimental necrotising enterocolitis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazez Cevik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC causes a significant life-threatening gastrointestinal system (GIS disease with severe mortality and morbidity, particularly in premature infants. Nitric oxide (NO has many functions in the GIS. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of NO in experimentally induced NEC of newborn 1-day-old rats following hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR. Materials and Methods: Thirty Wistar albino rats (weight, 5-8 g were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (HR, group 2 (HR + nitroglycerine, and group 3 (control. HR was achieved by placing the rat in carbon dioxide (CO2 for five minutes at 22°C, which was followed by five minutes of 100% oxygen. After HR, nitroglycerine was administered for three days at 50 μg/Kg/day. On day 4, the rats were decapitated and the intestines between the duodenum and sigmoid colon were resected and histopathologically examined. Results: The histopathological findings of groups 1 and 2 were characteristic of NEC. Intestinal injury in group 1 was significantly more prevalent than that in group 2 (χ2 = 21.55, P = 0.000. The intestinal injury score in group 3 was significantly lower than that in the other groups (P < 0.05. Conclusions: NO treatment was effective for treating experimentally induced NEC.

  2. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, R.; Gould, M.; Cuppen, E.; Smits, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach

  3. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for ethylene oxide in mouse, rat, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, T R; Brown, C D

    2001-06-15

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is widely used as a gaseous sterilant and industrial intermediate and is a direct-acting mutagen and carcinogen. The objective of these studies was to develop physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) models for EO to describe the exposure-tissue dose relationship in rodents and humans. We previously reported results describing in vitro and in vivo kinetics of EO metabolism in male and female F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. These studies were extended by determining the kinetics of EO metabolism in human liver cytosol and microsomes. The results indicate enzymatically catalyzed GSH conjugation via cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (cGST) and hydrolysis via microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) occur in both rodents and humans. The in vitro kinetic constants were scaled to account for cytosolic (cGST) and microsomal (mEH) protein content and incorporated into PB-PK descriptions for mouse, rat, and human. Flow-limited models adequately predicted blood and tissue EO levels, disposition, and elimination kinetics determined experimentally in rats and mice, with the exception of testis concentrations, which were overestimated. Incorporation of a diffusion-limited description for testis improved the ability of the model to describe testis concentrations. The model accounted for nonlinear increases in blood and tissue concentrations that occur in mice on exposure to EO concentrations greater than 200 ppm. Species differences are predicted in the metabolism and exposure-dose relationship, with a nonlinear relationship observed in the mouse as a result of GSH depletion. These models represent an essential step in developing a mechanistically based EO exposure-dose-response description for estimating human risk from exposure to EO. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Intraosseous repair of the inferior alveolar nerve in rats: an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, N J; Trickett, R I; Owen, E; Lanzetta, M

    1998-08-01

    A reliable method of exposure of the inferior alveolar nerve in Wistar rats has been developed, to allow intraosseous repair with two microsurgical techniques under halothane inhalational anaesthesia. The microsuturing technique involves anastomosis with 10-0 nylon sutures; a laser-weld technique uses an albumin-based solder containing indocyanine green, plus an infrared (810 nm wavelength) diode laser Seven animals had left inferior alveolar nerve repairs performed with the microsuture and laser-weld techniques. Controls were provided by unoperated nerves in the repaired cases. Histochemical analysis was performed utilizing neuron counts and horseradish peroxidase tracer (HRP) uptake in the mandibular division of the trigeminal ganglion, following sacrifice and staining of frozen sections with cresyl violet and diaminobenzidene. The results of this analysis showed similar mean neuron counts and mean HRP uptake by neurons for the unoperated controls and both microsuture and laser-weld groups. This new technique of intraosseous exposure of the inferior alveolar nerve in rats is described. It allows reliable and reproducible microsurgical repairs using both microsuture and laser-weld techniques.

  5. Evaluation of inflammatory biomarkers associated with oxidative stress and histological assessment of magnetic therapy on experimental myopathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignola, María Belén; Dávila, Soledad; Cremonezzi, David; Simes, Juan C; Palma, José A; Campana, Vilma R

    2012-12-01

    The effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy, also called magnetic therapy, upon inflammatory biomarkers associated with oxidative stress plasma fibrinogen, nitric oxide (NO), L-citrulline, carbonyl groups, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was evaluated through histological assessment, in rats with experimental myopathy. The groups studied were: (A) control (intact rats that received PEMF sham exposures); (B) rats with myopathy and sacrificed 24 h later; (C) rats with myopathy; (D) rats with myopathy and treated with PEMF; and (E) intact rats treated with PEMF. Groups A, C, D, and E were sacrificed 8 days later. Myopathy was induced by injecting 50 μl of 1% carrageenan λ (type IV) once sub-plantar. Treatment was carried out with PEMF emitting equipment with two flat solenoid disks for 8 consecutive days in groups D and E, at 20 mT and 50 Hz for 30 min/day/rat. The biomarkers were determined by spectrophotometry. The muscles (5/8) were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and examined by optic microscopy. Quantitative variables were statistically analyzed by the Fisher test, and categorical applying Pearson's Chi Squared test at p < 0.05 for all cases. In Groups B and C, the biomarkers were significantly increased compared to A, D, and E groups: fibrinogen (p < 0.001); NO, L-citrulline and carbonyl groups (p < 0.05); SOD (p < 0.01) as well as the percentage of area with inflammatory infiltration (p < 0.001). PEMF caused decreased levels of fibrinogen, L-citrulline, NO, SOD, and carbonyl groups and significant muscle recovery in rats with experimental myopathies.

  6. E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities in rats experimental infected by Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Ferreiro, Laerte; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Tonin, Alexandre A; Ruchel, Jader B; Rezer, João F P; França, Raqueli T; Zimmermann, Carine E P; Leal, Daniela B R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Lopes, Sonia T A; Flores, Mariana M; Fighera, Rafael; Santurio, Janio M

    2014-11-07

    Cryptococcus neoformans, the etiological agent of cryptococcosis, is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activities of E-NTPDase and E-ADA in rats experimentally infected by C. neoformans var. grubii. Adult rats (35) were divided in two groups: 18 for the control group (uninfected) (A), and 17 for the infected group (B). Each group was separated into three sub-groups (A1, A2, A3-B1, B2, B3), and samples were collected on 10, 20, and 30 days post-infection (PI). Leukocyte counts, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IgM, IgG levels, and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were analyzed. It was possible to observe that IgG and IgM seric levels of infected rats were significantly elevated (PADA activity had a significant reduction (PADA activity in lymphocytes increased significantly (PADA), concomitantly with an inflammatory response (increased levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins) associated with inflammatory infiltrates and histological lesions in the lung. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and diclofenac (topical and intramuscular) as single and combined therapy in experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Carvalho, Rodrigo Leal; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Petrellis, Maria Carla; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli; De Nucci, Gilberto; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2013-01-01

    Muscle injuries represent ca 30% of sports injuries and excessive stretching of muscle causes more than 90% of injuries. Currently the most used treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), however, in last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is becoming an interesting therapeutic modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single and combined therapies (LLLT, topical application of diclofenac and intramuscular diclofenac) on functional and biochemical aspects in an experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats. Muscle strain was induced by overloading tibialis anterior muscle of rats. Injured groups received either no treatment, or a single treatment with topical or intramuscular diclofenac (TD and ID), or LLLT (3 J, 810 nm, 100 mW) 1 h after injury. Walking track analysis was the functional outcome and biochemical analyses included mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and blood levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ). All treatments significantly decreased COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression compared with injury group (P levels and walking track analysis (P topical and intramuscular diclofenac in treatment of muscle strain injury in acute stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  8. Highly active antiretroviral therapy during gestation: effects on a rat model of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, L P F; Simões, R S; Araujo Júnior, E; Oliveira Filho, R M; Kulay Júnior, L; Nakamura, M U

    2014-04-01

    To assess the adverse effects of the chronic use of zidovudine/lopinavir/ritonavir in a rat pregnancy model.Type of article: Original paper. A prospective experimental study. Department of Obstetrics, São Paulo Federal University (UNIFESP). 40 pregnant EPM-1 albino rats were randomly allocated into four groups of 10 animals each: control (Ctrl) group (untreated) and three experimental groups (Exp1, Exp2 and Exp3), which received zidovudine/lopinavir/ritonavir in the corresponding doses of 10/13.3/3.3; 30/39.9/9.9 and 90/119.7/29.7 mg/Kg/day from the first up to the 20th day of pregnancy, respectively. The rats were treated by gavage daily. Body weights were recorded on days 0, 7, 14 and 20. At term, the rats were sacrificed and the implantation sites, number of live and dead fetuses and placentas, resorptions and fetal and placental weights were recorded. The fetuses were evaluated for external abnormalities under a stereomicroscope. The chi-square test was used to compare death rates between groups. Weight gain during pregnancy no showed significant differences between groups. Average weight gains between the 7th and 20th day were 45.70 ± 5.27 g for Ctrl; 48.49 ± 3.64 g for Exp1; 45.39 ± 6.22 g for Exp2 and 44.19 ± 6.78 g for Exp3. However, the percentage weight gain in the 7th was lower in groups Exp2 and Exp3 and in the 14th in the Group Exp2. All other parameters assessed did not differ significantly between groups. Exp2 and Exp3 in relation of the others. The chronic exposure of pregnant rats to high doses of zidovudine/lopinavir/ritonavir in association resulted in a significant reduction in maternal body weight gain but was not associated with significant adverse fetal parameters.

  9. An experimental study on barium peritonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Barium sulfate is universally used contrast media in gastrointestinal roentgenology, and spillage of barium into peritoneal cavity can occur. The references on effect of barium sulfate in the peritoneal cavity have been scattered and the results are varied. In 80 rats, body weight of 130 gm to 150 gm, sterile pure barium, sterile commercial barium, intestinal content, and mixed pure barium and intestinal content were experimentally injected into the peritoneal cavity. Consecutive weekly laparotomy and microscopic examination were done for 4 weeks. The results are as followings: 1. Mind inflammatory reaction and mild adhesion after sterile pure barium injection. 2. Mild inflammatory reaction and moderate adhesion after sterile commercial barium injection. 3. Acute peritonitis and abscess formation after intestinal content injection. 4. High mortality due to severe acute peritonitis, and severe adhesion in survivors after injection of both pure barium and intestinal content.

  10. Proteolytic activity of IgGs from blood serum of wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Ya. Kit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the proteolytic activity of IgGs purified from blood serum of Wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis (ERA induced by an injection of bovine collagen of type II. Twenty rats were immunized with a preparation of bovine collagen II (Sigma-Aldrich, USA in the presence of complete Freund’s adjuvant. ERA development was determined by inflammation in limbs of treated animals. IgG preparations were isolated from blood serum of immunized and non-immunized animals by precipitation of antibodies with 33% ammonium sulfate followed by chromatography on the Protein G-Sepharose column. Human histone H1, bovine collagen II, calf thymus histones, myelin basic protein (MBP, bovine serum albumin (BSA, and bovine casein were used as substrates of the proteolytic activity of IgGs. It was found that IgG preparations from blood serum of rats with ERA were capable of cleaving histone H1 and MBP, however, they were catalytically inactive towards collagen II, casein, BSA, and core histones. IgGs from blood serum of non-immunized rats were proteolytically inactive towards all used protein substrates. Thus, we demonstrated that immunization of rats with bovine collagen II induced IgG-antibodies possessing the proteolytic activity towards histone H1 and MBP. This activity might be associated with the development of inflammatory processes in the immunized rats.

  11. Decreased bilirubin transport in the perfused liver of endotoxemic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H.; van der Veere, C. N.; Ottenhoff, R.; Schoemaker, B.; Jansen, P. L.; Oude Elferink, R. P.

    1994-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia associated with sepsis is frequently observed in humans. In this study, an experimental rat model was developed to study bilirubin metabolism and transport during endotoxemia. Rats were injected intravenously with a single bolus of lipopolysaccharide (1 mg/kg); after 18 hours, the

  12. The effects of acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on glucose and lipid profile in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rabie P; Namjoo AR

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Ovariectomy is a standard experimental model of menopause in rodent to investigate postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on lipid profile and glucose serum in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: In this experimental study, Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight rats. The first group: sham-control, Second group: ovariectomized rats (for five weeks), Third group: Ova...

  13. Effects of fatigue from sleep deprivation on experimental periodontitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, T; Kato, T; Numabe, Y

    2015-02-01

    and increased gingival inflammation and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. In conclusion, our results suggest that fatigue is a modifying factor for periodontal disease in rats. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. An experimental study of the effect of Co-60 irradiation on the healing process of extraction wounds in white rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Young Jun; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Dental Radiology, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-11-15

    Because of the development of rampant caries, osteomyelitis and osteoradionecrosis that occur after radiation therapy of oral cancers, extraction of teeth at or near the malignant lesion has been done in the past. Few, however, have studied the radiation effect on the healing of extraction wounds. The study is concerned with the effect of Co-60 irradiation on the healing process of extraction wounds in rats. Fifty six, male, Sprague-Dawley rats are used. The right first molar of the mandible is extracted from all animals. They are divided into three experimental groups of 14 each and a control group of 14. There experimental groups are irradiated respectively with 200 rad, 400 rad and 600 rad and a pair of rats in each group are killed on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after irradiation. Two animals from the control group are killed on the day when the experimental rats are killed. The irradiated hemimandibles are fixed in 10% neutral formalin, decalcified in 5% trichloroacetic acid, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. The sections are stained in hematoxylin and eosin, van Gison, Masson's trichrome or silver nitrate. Results show that in general radiation effects on healing extraction wounds are dose dependent; i.e., the higher is the dose, the greater is the histologic changes observed: 1. Irradiation tends to retard blood clot organization and epithelial regeneration. 2. An increase in the number of giant cells and osteoclasts is noted after irradiation. 3. Formation of regenerating connective tissues around and within the extraction site is compromised, and a clear reduction of primitive mesenchymal type connective cells is noted. 4. The healing process begins along the lateral aspect of the extraction socket in the control, while irregular histologic appearances of the trabecular pattern is present in the experimental rats.

  15. [Therapeutic efficacy of compound Xuanju capsule on autoimmune prostatitis in rats: an experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Fu; Wu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Cui; Li, Na; Shang, Xue-Jun; Xia, Xin-Yi; Xu, Hao-Qin; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Compound Xuanju Capsule (CXC) on autoimmune prostatitis in rat models. Sixty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of equal number: blank control, low-concentration purified prostate protein (low-conc PPP), low-conc PPP + CXC treatment, high-concentration PPP (hi-con PPP), and hi-conc PPP + CXC treatment. Autoimmune prostatitis models were established by intragastric administration of PPP solution at 15 mg/ml (low concentration) and 80 mg/ml, respectively. At 30 days after modeling, the rats in the blank control and low-conc and hi-conc PPP model groups were treated with normal saline, and those in the other two groups with CXC at a daily dose of 0.068 g/ml. At 30, 45, and 60 days, all the animals were sacrificed for observation of pathological changes in the prostate tissue and determination of the levels of IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in the serum. Compared with the PPP models, the hi-conc PPP + CXC group showed significantly reduced levels of IL-8 and TNF-alpha in the serum at 45 days ([148.54 +/- 17.23] and [62.14 +/- 5.59] pg/ml vs [100.77 +/- 11.08] and [32.63 +/- 2.91] pg/ml, P microscope. Compound Xuanju Capsule is efficacious on autoimmune prostatis in rats by reducing inflammatory changes in the prostate tissue and improving the expression of inflammatory factors.

  16. Regenerative Capacity and Histomorphometric Changes in Rat Sciatic Nerve Following Experimental Neurotmesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lós, Deniele Bezerra; Novaes, Karyne Albino; de Miranda, Filipe Barbosa Cunha; Lira, Kamilla Dinah Santos de; Andrade, Rodrigo Fragoso de; Moraes, Sílvia Regina Arruda de

    2015-01-01

    Through a wide range of cellular and molecular events, the peripheral nervous system is endowed with great regenerative capacity, responding immediately to injuries that occur along the length of the nerve. The aim of this study was to histomorphometrically assess the degree of maturity of the nervous tissue and possible microscopic changes in newly formed nerve segments 60 days after experimental neurotmesis of the sciatic nerve in rats. Control Group (CG) and an Injury Group (IG) were used....

  17. Appraisal on the wound healing activity of different extracts obtained from Aegle marmelos and Mucuna pruriens by in vivo experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppo, F A; Pawar, R S

    2016-01-01

    The use of a simple and reproducible model is inevitable for an objective statement of the effects of external factors on wound healing. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate wound healing activities of sequential different extracts of Aegle marmelos leaves (AM) and Mucuna pruriens seeds (MP) by in vivo experimental models. Wistar albino rats were subjected to excision, incision and dead space wounds measuring approximately 250 mm2, 3 cm and implanting sterilized polyvinyl chloride tube on the back of each rat near either side of the vertebral column respectively. The experimental animals were randomized into eight groups (n = 6), control, standard and treatment groups. Hydrogel of different extracts were applied topically once daily. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelization period, tensile strength, hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue, and histological changes during wound healing. The statistical study revealed that in excision, incision, and dead space wound models all formulations have significant (P < 0.01) wound healing potential. However, methanolic extract formulation was found to be superior to all other treatments as evidenced by rapid wound contraction, lesser number of days required for complete epithelization, increased tensile strength and significant increase in hydroxyproline content. As compared to the reference standard treated group the wound healing process of the experimental groups was decelerated. All extracts obtained from AM and MP facilitated the wound healing process in all experimental models.

  18. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Acer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1. From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2, 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Group 3, and the remaining 10 rats were administered intraperitoneal streptozocin to induce diabetes mellitus (Group 4. Total oxidant status (TOS, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and oxidative stress index (OSI measurements of the crystalline lenses were analyzed. Results: The mean OSI was the lowest in group 1 and highest in group 4. Nevertheless, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in terms of OSI (p >0.05. The mean TOS values were similar between the groups (p >0.05, whereas the mean TAC of group 1 was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p <0.001. Conclusions: Our results indicate that menopause may not promote cataract formation.

  19. Detection of hepatocarcinoma in rats by integration of the fluorescence spectrum: Experimental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcassa, J. C.; Ferreira, J.; Zucoloto, S.; Castro E Silva, O., Jr.; Marcassa, L. G.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    The incorporation of spectroscopic techniques into diagnostic procedures may greatly improve the chances for precise diagnostics. One promising technique is fluorescence spectroscopy, which has recently been used to detect many different types of diseases. In this work, we use laser-induced tissue fluorescence to detect hepatocarcinoma in rats using excitation light at wavelengths of 443 and 532 nm. Hepatocarcinoma was induced chemically in Wistar rats. The collected fluorescence spectrum ranges from the excitation wavelength up to 850 nm. A mathematical procedure carried out on the spectrum determines a figure of merit value, which allows the detection of hepatocarcinoma. The figure of merit involves a procedure which evaluates the ratio between the backscattered excitation wavelength and the broad emission fluorescence band. We demonstrate that a normalization allowed by integration of the fluorescence spectra is a simple operation that may allow the detection of hepatocarcinoma.

  20. Experimental model of smoking and simulation of reflux with acid and pepsin in rats Modelo experimental de tabagismo e simulação de refluxo com ácido e pepsina em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hélio Zen Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop experimental models to evaluate the effects of hydrochloric acid associated with the pepsin instilled in the mucosa of the upper esophagus and the esophagogastric junction of young male rats Wistar, simulating injury caused by gastroesophageal reflux on the mucosa of aero-digestive tract in humans as well as the action of the risk exposure of mucosa to cigarette smoke. METHODS: Fifty young male Wistar rats divided in 5 groups with 10 animals each one, respectively simulating pharyngo-laryngeal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux, pharyngo-laryngeal reflux and smoking, smoking only, gastroesophageal reflux and control group. RESULTS: The histopathologic studies no recorded neoplasias, only mild changes and no significant alterations. The hemo-oximetry (carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobim and CO2 concentration confirm that the animals were submitted to high intensity of exposure to carcinogens in tobacco and its derivatives. CONCLUSION: The experimental models were highly efficient, practical, easy to use and economical and can be employed in other similar studies to determine the harmful effects by smoking and reflux.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver modelos experimentais para avaliar os efeitos do ácido clorídrico associado a pepsina, instilados na mucosa da parte superior do esôfago e da junção esofagogástrica de jovens ratos Wistar, simulando lesão causada por refluxo gastroesofágico na mucosa do trato aero-digestivo em humanos, bem como a ação da exposição ao risco de mucosa, como a fumaça de cigarro. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta jovens ratos Wistar divididos em cinco grupos com 10 animais cada um, respectivamente, simulando o refluxo faringo-laríngeo e refluxo gastroesofágico, refluxo faringo-laríngeo e tabagismo, tabagismo só, refluxo gastroesofágico e grupo controle. RESULTADOS: os estudos histopatológicos não registraram neoplasias, apenas leves alterações e não significativas. O hemo-oximetria (carboxiemoglobina e

  1. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture alters acetylcholine receptor expression in the neuromuscular junction of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-peng Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10, Zusanli (ST36, Pishu (BL20, and Shenshu (BL23 once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

  2. A comparative study on the hepatoprotective action of bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma aqueous extract on experimental liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Feng, Yibin; Cheung, Fan; Chow, Oi-Yee; Wang, Xuanbin; Su, Weiwei; Tong, Yao

    2012-11-29

    Bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma have been used in Chinese medicine with a long tradition in treating heat-diseases. Both bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma are used to treat liver diseases in clinical practice of Chinese Medicine. Since bears are currently endangered, it raises the question whether the use of bear bile is ethical. To look for substitute for bear bile, the aim of this study is to compare the anti-fibrotic effects of Coptidis Rhizoma and its major component berberine with the actions of bear bile and its major compound tauroursodeoxycholic acid on experimental liver fibrosis in rats. Quality assessment was conducted with high performance liquid chromatography. The experimental liver fibrosis in rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride, alcohol, and bile duct ligation respectively. The biochemical criteria in the blood and tissue samples were measured to evaluate the anti-fibrotic properties and underlying mechanisms of the drugs. Coptidis Rhizoma Aqueous Extract (CRAE), berberine, and bear bile exerted anti-fibrotic properties on various liver fibrosis models in rats. CRAE and berberine significantly reduced the peroxidative stress in liver through increasing the superoxide dismutase enzyme activity. CRAE and berberine were able to excrete bilirubin products from the liver and protect hepatocytes from cholestatic damage. The effect of CRAE and berberine are comparable to that of bear bile. Instead of using bear bile, CRAE and berberine can be potential substitutes in treating liver fibrosis.

  3. Activity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal System in Prenatally Stressed Male Rats on the Experimental Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivina, S G; Rakitskaya, V V; Akulova, V K; Ordyan, N E

    2016-03-01

    Using the experimental model of post-traumatic stress disorder (stress-restress paradigm), we studied the dynamics of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system (HPAS) in adult male rats, whose mothers were daily subjected to restraint stress on days 15-19 of pregnancy. Prenatally stressed males that were subjected to combined stress and subsequent restress exhibited not only increased sensitivity of HPAS to negative feedback signals (manifested under restress conditions), but also enhanced stress system reactivity. These changes persisted to the 30th day after restress. Under basal conditions, the number of cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of these animals expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin was shown to decrease progressively on days 1-30. By contrast, combined stress and restress in control animals were followed by an increase in the count of CRH-immunopositive cells in the magnocellular and parvocellular parts of the paraventricular nucleus and number of vasopressin-immunopositive cells in the magnocellular part of the nucleus (to the 10th day after restress). Our results indicate a peculiar level of functional activity of HPAS in prenatally stressed males in the stress-restress paradigm: decreased activity under basal conditions and enhanced reactivity during stress.

  4. A novel model of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; An, Yunfang; Li, Zeqing; Zhao, Changqing

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a life-threatening inflammatory disease that affects immunocompromised patients, but animal models of the disease are scarce. This study aimed to develop an IFRS model in neutropenic rats. The model was established in three consecutive steps: unilateral nasal obstruction with Merocel sponges, followed by administration of cyclophosphamide (CPA), and, finally, nasal inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus. Fifty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, with group I as the controls, group II undergoing unilateral nasal obstruction alone, group III undergoing nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation, group IV undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA, and group V undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA and fungal inoculation. Hematology, histology, and mycology investigations were performed. The changes in the rat absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) were statistically different across the groups. The administration of CPA decreased the ANCs, whereas nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation increased the ANCs, and nasal obstruction did not change them. Histological examination of the rats in group V revealed the hyphal invasion of sinus mucosa and bone, thrombosis, and tissue infarction. No pathology indicative of IFRS was observed in the remaining groups. Positive rates of fungal culture in tissue homogenates from the maxillary sinus (62.5%) and lung (25%) were found in group V, whereas groups I, II, III, and IV showed no fungal culture in the homogenates. A rat IFRS model was successfully developed through nasal obstruction, CPA-induced neutropenia, and fungal inoculation. The disease model closely mimics the pathophysiology of anthropic IFRS.

  5. In Vivo MR Imaging of Magnetically Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rat Model of Renal Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Il [Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo Cheol; Chung, Se Young; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hoe Suk [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Sun [Dongguk University International Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Min Hoan [Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kyu Ri; Sung, Chang Kyu [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was designed to evaluate in vivo MR imaging for the depiction of intraarterially injected superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an experimental rat model of renal ischemia. Left renal ischemia was induced in 12 male Sprague- Dawley rats by use of the catheter lodging method. In vivo MR signal intensity variations depicted on T2*-weighted sequences were evaluated in both the left and right kidneys prior to injection (n = 2), two hours (n = 4), 15 hours (n = 2), 30 hours (n = 2) and 72 hours (n = 2) after injection of SPIO-labeled MSCs in both kidneys. Signal intensity variations were correlated with the number of Prussian blue stain-positive cells as visualized in histological specimens. In an in vivo study, it was determined that there was a significant difference in signal intensity variation for both the left and right cortex (40.8 {+-} 4.12 and 26.4 {+-} 7.92, respectively) and for both the left and right medulla (23.2 {+-} 3.32 and 15.2 {+-} 3.31, respectively) until two hours after injection (p < 0.05). In addition, signal intensity variation in the left renal cortex was well correlated with the number of Prussian blue stain-positive cells per high power field (r = 0.98, p < 0.05). Intraarterial injected SPIO-labeled MSCs in an experimental rat model of renal ischemia can be detected with the use of in vivo MR imaging immediately after injection.

  6. Experimental model of ultrasound thermotherapy in rats inoculated with Walker-236 tumor Modelo experimental de termoterapia ultrassônica em ratos inoculados com tumor de Walker-236

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Carlos Otaviano David Morano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop a model to evaluate the effects of focal pulsed ultrasound (US waves as a source of heat for treatment of murine subcutaneous implanted Walker tumor. METHODS: An experimental, controlled, comparative study was conducted. Twenty male Wistar rats (160-300 g randomized in 2 equal groups (G-1: Control and G-2: Hyperthermia were inoculated with Walker-256 carcinosarcoma tumor. After 5 days G-2 rats were submitted to 45ºC hyperthermia. Heat was delivered directly to the tumor by an ultrasound (US equipment (3 MHz frequency, 1,5W/cm³. Tumor temperature reached 45º C in 3 minutes and was maintained at this level for 5 minutes. Tumor volume was measured on days 5, 8, 11, 14 e 17 post inoculation in both groups. Unpaired t-test was used for comparison. POBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo para avaliar os efeitos do ultra-som focal pulsado como fonte de calor para o tratamento de tumores de Walker subcutâneos implantados em ratos. MÉTODOS: Um estudo experimental, controlado, comparativo foi realizado. Vinte ratos Wistar machos (160-300 g divididos em dois grupos (G-1: Controle e G-2: hipertermia foram inoculados com tumor de Walker carcinossarcoma-256. Após cinco dias os ratos do grupo G-2 ratos foram submetidos a hipertermia (45ºC. O calor foi aplicado diretamente no tumor por um equipamento de ultrassonografia (3 MHz, 1,5 W/cm³. A temperatura no tumor atingiu 45ºC em 3 minutos e foi mantida nesse nível por 5 minutos. O volume do tumor foi medido nos dias 5, 8, 11, 14 e 17 após a inoculação, em ambos os grupos. Teste t não pareado foi utilizado para comparação. P <0,05 foi considerado significante. RESULTADOS: O volume do tumor foi significativamente maior no 5º dia e diminuiu nos dias 11, 14 e 17 nos ratos tratados. Animais submetidos à hipertermia sobreviveram mais tempo que os animais do grupo controle. No 29º dia após a inoculação do tumor, 40% dos ratos do grupo controle e 77,78% dos ratos tratados com

  7. Dental and oropharyngeal lesions in rats with chronic acid reflux esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Rintaro; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Minesaki, Akimichi; Kuratomi, Yuichiro

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated pathological changes in the tooth and pharynx of GERD rats to elucidate the association between gastric acid reflux and oral and pharyngeal diseases. An experimental rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis was surgically created. The oral cavities were observed histologically every 2 weeks until 20 weeks after surgery. At 10 weeks after surgery, molar crown heights in GERD rats were shorter than that in control rats, and inflammatory cell infiltration by gastric acid reflux was found in the periodontal mucosa of GERD rats. Furthermore, dental erosion progressed in GERD rats at 20 weeks after surgery, and enamel erosion and dentin exposure were observed. During the same period, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the mucosa of the posterior part of the tongue. These findings suggest that gastric acid reflux may be one of the exacerbating factors of dental erosion, periodontitis and glossitis. We investigated oral changes in an experimental rat model of GERD and observed development of dental erosion, periodontitis and glossitis. Our findings suggested chronic gastric acid reflux may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and irradiation on experimental skin flaps in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemiroff, P.M.; Merwin, G.E.; Brant, T.; Cassisi, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and irradiation (RT) on experimental skin flaps in rats under varying conditions. Animals were assigned at random to 1 of 15 groups that represented all possible ordering effects of HBO, RT, and flap, as well as controls that included flap-only, RT-only, and HBO-only groups. Cranially based skin flaps measuring 3 x 9 cm were elevated on the dorsum. The surviving length was evaluated with fluorescein dye 7 days after the operation. Depending on the treatment condition, HBO was given either 48 hours or 24 hours before flap elevation, or within 4 hours or 48 hours after flap elevation. Rats receiving RT ( 60 Co) were given a single dose of 1000 rads to the dorsum. Results showed that all groups receiving HBO within 4 hours after flap elevation had significantly greater flap survival length, with as much as a 22% greater length of surviving flap. HBO given 48 hours before flap elevation also significantly improved flap survival over controls. RT appeared to have no immediate significant effect on flap survival. However, rats receiving RT, regardless of other factors, gained significantly less weight than did controls. Findings clearly indicate that, to be effective, HBO needs to be given as soon after surgery as possible

  9. Antiinflammatory effects of Cordia myxa fruit on experimentally induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadi, F M; Srikumar, T S; Anim, J T; Khan, I

    2001-05-01

    Products of certain species of Cordia are reported to have antiinflammatory properties. In the present study we examined the effects of Cordia myxa fruit on experimentally induced colitis in rats. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid. Colitic, normal, and corresponding control animals were included. Body weight was recorded daily. All the animals were sacrificed 4 days after the fruit treatment. Colitis was monitored histologically and by activity of myeloperoxidase. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, as well as total antioxidant status and concentrations of zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and iron were assayed in plasma, liver, and colon using standard methods. Histology of the colon of colitic rats showed acute colitis that was confirmed by a significant increase in the myeloperoxidase activity. Colitis was associated with significant decreases in the tissue activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and lower concentrations of trace elements. Histologic examination and myeloperoxidase activity showed that the fruit treatment reversed the above findings in the inflamed colon, and in liver and plasma of colitic rats. The present results suggest that the observed antiinflammatory effect of the Cordia myxa may be attributed partly to its antioxidant property and to restoration of the levels of trace elements in the inflamed colon, liver, and plasma.

  10. [The affect of Erigeron Breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz on axoplasmic transport of optic nerve in rats with experimentally elevated intraocular pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Jiang, Y; Liu, Z; Luo, X; Wu, Z

    2000-07-01

    To investigate whether Erigeron Breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz (EBHM) can improve the optic nerve axoplasmic transport in rats with experimentally elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Thirty healthy SD rats were used for the study, acute elevated IOP model in the right eye was built, then they were divided into three groups randomly: Group A (0 day group) included six rats for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) counting via left superior colliculus retrograde horse radish perokidase labeling; Group B, twelve rats divided into EBHM treatment group and control group (6 rats in each subgroup) for RGC counting via left superior colliculus retrograde labeling after twenty days, and Group C included twelve rats submitted the same treatment and procedure as group B after 40 days. After 0 day of acute elevated IOP, no labeled RGCs were observed. After twenty days of acute elevated IOP, in the control and EBHM subgroups the density of labeled RGCs were (423 +/- 220)/mm(2) and (749 +/- 294)/mm(2) respectively, the difference between two subgroups showed statistical significance (P < 0.01). After 40 days of acute elevated IOP, the density of RGCs in the control and EBHM subgroups in group C were (610 +/- 315)/mm(2) and (1,048 +/- 393)/mm(2) respectively, the difference between the two subgroups being statistically significant (P < 0.01). After 20 days and 40 days of acute elevation of IOP, the density of RGCs is obviously higher in EBHM group than that in the control group. It is revealed that EBHM can improve the optic nerve axoplasmic transportation blocked by acute elevation of IOP in rats.

  11. Photodynamic effect produced by HeNe radiation in Harderian glands of Wistar rats: an experimental model for PDT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Edmyr R.; Nicola, Ester M. D.; Metze, Konradin; Nicola, Jorge H.

    2000-06-01

    In rats, the Harderian Gland secret Protoporphirin IX which is retained at acinar lumina. Since this photosensitizer is important for PDT of malignant tumors, we propose to study this gland as a model to help understanding PDT with endogenous photosensitizers. Twenty Wistar SPF adult rats were submitted to surgical exposure of both Harderian glands, revealing red fluorescence upon UV, characterizing the protoporphirin IX presence. After that, one gland of each pair (one kept as control) was irradiated with an 8 mW HeNe (6328 angstrom) for 45 minutes, delivering about 2.7 joules/mm2. After 24 hours a group of 10 animals were scarified and the glands removed for histological analysis. The remaining animals were subjected to the same procedure but the glands were removed immediately after laser treatment. Histological and fluorescence analysis immediately after laser irradiation showed cell fragmentation with loss of acinar architecture with diffusion of protoporphirin in the cytoplasm of damaged cells, as well as interstitial edema. After 24 hours these alterations were more pronounced with accentuated loss of intraluminal protoporphirin and beginning of leukocytic demarcation of necrotic areas. The innate Harderian glands of rats, exposed to HeNe laser, showed a similar behavior as tumor tissue under PDT.

  12. Differentiated cells derived from fetal neural stem cells improve motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Hao Song; Aifang Shen; Chao Chen; Yanming Liu; Yabing Dong; Fabin Han

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Parkinson’s disease(PD), which is one of the most common neuro‐degenerative disorders, is characterized by the loss of dopamine(DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that fetal neural stem cells(NSCs) have therapeutic effects in neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat model of PD. Methods: NSCs were isolated from 14‐week‐old embryos and induced to differentiate into neurons, DA neurons, and glial cells, and these cells were characterized by their expression of the following markers: βⅢ‐tubulin and microtubule‐associated protein 2(neurons), tyrosine hydroxylase(DA neurons), and glial fibrillary acidic protein(glial cells). After a 6‐hydroxydopamine(6‐OHDA)‐lesioned rat model of PD was generated, the differentiated cells were transplanted into the striata of the 6‐OHDA‐lesioned PD rats. Results: The motor behaviors of the PD rats were assessed by the number of apomorphine‐induced rotation turns. The results showed that the NSCs differentiated in vitro into neurons and DA neurons with high efficiencies. After transplantation into the striata of the PD rats, the differentiated cells significantly improved the motor deficits of the transplanted PD rats compared to those of the control nontransplanted PD rats by decreasing the apomorphine‐induced turn cycles as early as 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that the differentiated DA neurons survived more than 16 weeks. Conclusions: Our results showed that cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat PD model, which suggests that differentiated cells may be an effective treatment for patients with PD.

  13. Microbiome of the pre-epithelial biofilm of the colon of albino rats with experimental thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Sydorchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The microbiome of the pre-epithelial biofilm of the large intestine in direct contact with the body also interacts with the immune and other systems that emphasizes the urgency of its study in various diseases. The purpose of the study was to determine the taxonomic composition, population level, analytical microecological indicators and the degree of microecological disorders of the pre-epithelial biofilm of the large intestine in albino rats with thyrotoxicosis. Materials and methods. Experiments were carried out on 25 mature male albino rats weighing 220–240 g, of which 15 animals were included to the control group (intact animals, and 10 rats — to the main group. The experimental thyrotoxicosis was simulated by intragastric administration of L-thyroxine for 14 days. Under sterile conditions, a laparotomy was performed, a segment (up to 3 cm of the large intestine with its contents was taken. The washed portion of the intestine was homogenized with a sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. A series of ten-fold dilutions with 10–2 to 10–7 concentrations of the initial mixture were prepared. From each tube, 0.01 ml were seeded on solid optimal nutrient media with subsequent isolation and identification of microbes according to morphological, tinctorial, cultural and biochemical properties. Results. In some animals, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, as well as bacteroides and escherichia, are eliminated. A significant deficiency of not only bifidobacteria by 48.50 % and lactobacillus by 94.59 %, but also of bacteroides by 44.85 % was established. Determination of the quantitative dominance of each taxon showed that the dominant role of bifidobacteria in the microbiocenosis is reduced by 82.76 %, lactobacillus — by 2.20 times, and the role of bacteroides in the microbiocenosis of the epithelial biofilm of the large intestine of albino rats with the experimental thyrotoxicosis — by 43.04 %, E.coli — by 7.18 %, but the role of

  14. Cannabis exacerbates depressive symptoms in rat model induced by reserpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sawie, Hussein G; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The depressive-like rats showed a severe decrease in motor activity as assessed by open field test (OFT). This was accompanied by a decrease in monoamine levels and a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and hippocampus. Na + ,K + -ATPase activity increased in the cortex and decreased in the hippocampus of rat model. In addition, a state of oxidative stress was evident in the two brain regions. This was indicated from the significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. No signs of improvement were observed in the behavioral and neurochemical analyses in the depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis extract. Furthermore, Cannabis extract exacerbated the lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus. According to the present findings, it could be concluded that Cannabis sativa aggravates the motor deficits and neurochemical changes induced in the cortex and hippocampus of rat model of depression. Therefore, the obtained results could explain the reported increase in the depressive symptoms and memory impairment among Cannabis users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gut Microbial Diversity in Rat Model Induced by Rhubarb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Wu, Chunfu; Yang, Jingyu; Li, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Rhubarb is often used to establish chronic diarrhea and spleen (Pi)-deficiency syndrome animal models in China. In this study, we utilized the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) method to detect changes in bacterial diversity in feces and the bowel mucosa associated with this model. Total microbial genomic DNA from the small bowel (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), large bowel (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum), cecum, and feces of normal and rhubarb-exposed rats were used as templates for the ERIC-PCR analysis. We found that the fecal microbial composition did not correspond to the bowel bacteria mix. More bacterial diversity was observed in the ileum of rhubarb-exposed rats (Panalysis with the SPSS software, the Canonical Discriminant Function Formulae for model rats was established. PMID:25048267

  16. Fructose-fed streptozotocin-injected rat: an alternative model for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachel D; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to develop an alternative non-genetic rat model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (190.56 ± 23.60 g) were randomly divided into six groups, namely: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic Control (DBC), Fructose-10 (FR10), Fructose-20 (FR20), Fructose-30 (FR30) and Fructose-40 (FR40) and were fed a normal rat pellet diet ad libitum for 2 weeks. During this period, the two control groups received normal drinking water whilst the fructose groups received 10, 20, 30 and 40% fructose in drinking water ad libitum, respectively. After two weeks of dietary manipulation, all groups except the NC group received a single injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg b.w.) dissolved in citrate buffer (pH 4.4). The NC group received only a vehicle buffer injection (i.p.). One week after the STZ injection, animals with non-fasting blood glucose levels > 300 mg/dl were considered as diabetic. Three weeks after the STZ injection, the animals in FR20, FR30 and FR40 groups were eliminated from the study due to the severity of diabetes and the FR10 group was selected for the remainder of the 11 weeks experimental period. The significantly (p < 0.05) higher fluid intake, blood glucose, serum lipids, liver glycogen, liver function enzymes and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and significantly (p < 0.05) lower body weight, oral glucose tolerance, number of pancreatic β-cells and pancreatic β-cell functions (HOMA-β) of FR10 group demonstrate that the 10% fructose-fed followed by 40 mg/kg of BWSTZ injected rat can be a new and alternative model for T2D.

  17. Polycystic ovarian syndrome: temporal characterization of the induction and reversion process in an experimental model

    OpenAIRE

    Salvetti, Natalia R.; Canal, Ana M.; Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Ortega, Hugo H.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous experimental models have been developed for the study of the polycystic ovarian syndrome in the rat. In the present study, the syndrome was induced by exposure to constant light. The process was evaluated during its induction and also during its reversion. The estral cycle was analyzed through the vaginal cytology; reproductive parameters were evaluated by mating, as well as the ovarian morphology. All the animals developed the syndrome after 13 weeks of permanent light. The histolog...

  18. Time course of collagen peak in bile duct-ligated rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tarcin, Orhan; Basaranoglu, Metin; Tahan, Veysel; Tahan, Gülgün; Sücüllü, Ilker; Yilmaz, Nevin; Sood, Gagan; Snyder, Ned; Hilman, Gilbert; Celikel, Cigdem; Tözün, Nurdan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background One of the most useful experimental fibrogenesis models is the "bile duct-ligated rats". Our aim was to investigate the quantitative hepatic collagen content by two different methods during the different stages of hepatic fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats on a weekly basis. We questioned whether the 1-wk or 4-wk bile duct-ligated model is suitable in animal fibrogenesis trials. Methods Of the 53 male Wistar rats, 8 (Group 0) were used as a healthy control group. Bile duct...

  19. Motor Cortex Stimulation Regenerative Effects in Peripheral Nerve Injury: An Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Nicolas; Kobaiter-Maarrawi, Sandra; Georges, Samuel; Abadjian, Gerard; Maarrawi, Joseph

    2018-06-01

    Immediate microsurgical nerve suture remains the gold standard after peripheral nerve injuries. However, functional recovery is delayed, and it is satisfactory in only 2/3 of cases. Peripheral electrical nerve stimulation proximal to the lesion enhances nerve regeneration and muscle reinnervation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of the motor cortex electrical stimulation on peripheral nerve regeneration after injury. Eighty rats underwent right sciatic nerve section, followed by immediate microsurgical epineural sutures. Rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 (control, n = 20): no electrical stimulation; group 2 (n = 20): immediate stimulation of the sciatic nerve just proximal to the lesion; Group 3 (n = 20): motor cortex stimulation (MCS) for 15 minutes after nerve section and suture (MCSa); group 4 (n = 20): MCS performed over the course of two weeks after nerve suture (MCSc). Assessment included electrophysiology and motor functional score at day 0 (baseline value before nerve section), and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Rats were euthanized for histological study at week 12. Our results showed that MCS enhances functional recovery, nerve regeneration, and muscle reinnervation starting week 4 compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The MCS induces higher reinnervation rates even compared with peripheral stimulation, with better results in the MCSa group (P < 0.05), especially in terms of functional recovery. MCS seems to have a beneficial effect after peripheral nerve injury and repair in terms of nerve regeneration and muscle reinnervation, especially when acute mode is used. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tympanic membrane changes in experimental acute otitis media and myringotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzbutiene, G.; Hermansson, A.; Caye-Thomasen, P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present experimental study explored pathomorphological changes and calcium depositions in the tympanic membrane during experimental acute otitis media caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in myringotomized and nonmyringotomized ears. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A rat model of exp...

  1. Preventive effects of dexmedetomidine on the liver in a rat model of acid-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Velat; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Şen, Hadice Selimoğlu; Ece, Aydın; Uluca, Unal; Söker, Sevda; Doğan, Erdal; Kaplan, İbrahim; Deveci, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether dexmedetomidine improves acute liver injury in a rat model. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats weighing 300-350 g were allocated randomly to four groups. In group 1, normal saline (NS) was injected into the lungs and rats were allowed to breathe spontaneously. In group 2, rats received standard ventilation (SV) in addition to NS. In group 3, hydrochloric acid was injected into the lungs and rats received SV. In group 4, rats received SV and 100 µg/kg intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine before intratracheal HCl instillation. Blood samples and liver tissue specimens were examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical methods. Acute lung injury (ALI) was found to be associated with increased malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant activity (TOA), oxidative stress index (OSI), and decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Significantly decreased MDA, TOA, and OSI levels and significantly increased TAC levels were found with dexmedetomidine injection in group 4 (P < 0.05). The highest histologic injury scores were detected in group 3. Enhanced hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and reduced CD68 expression were found in dexmedetomidine group compared with the group 3. In conclusion, the presented data provide the first evidence that dexmedetomidine has a protective effect on experimental liver injury induced by ALI.

  2. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  3. Simvastatin mitigates functional and structural impairment of lung and right ventricle in a rat model of cigarette smoke-induced COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Jiang, Xue; Zhang, Lihai; Wang, Lihong; Li, Zhu; Sun, Wuzhuang

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to investigate an effect of simvastatin on cigarette smoke-induced COPD. Rats were exposed to air (control) and cigarette smoke (smoking) in presence and absence of simvastatin. Heart and lung tissues were harvested for histopathologic and morphometric analysis. Body weight of rat, mean liner intercept (MLI), mean alveolar number (MAN), lung function test, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) and 5-HTT level in serum and BALF were examined in experimental rats, respectively. Application of simvastatin mitigated peribronchiolar inflammation and pulmonary bullae formed in the smoke-exposed lungs with weight gain as compared to the smoking rats (P reversal of lung function decline (all P reverses lung function decline and attenuates structural impairments of lung and right ventricle possibly through reducing 5-HTT content in the model of COPD.

  4. Experimental study of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini on Hyperlipidemia and lipid in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of Pinus densiflora on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, we divided the rats into groups(Normal group, Control group and Sample group and perfomed the experimental research. Hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats were induced by high fat diets for 8weeks. The sample group was administerd the extract of Pinus densiflora for 14 days and control group was administerd equal dose of oral. And then we measured the amount of serum triglyceride, Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Free Fatty Acid, phospholipid, Insuline, Laptin, Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell, Cardiac Risk Factor(CRF. The results were as followers : 1. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Total cholesterol, Trigylceride, LDL-cholesterol, and Phospholipid levels in serum and CRF significantly. 2. Sample Group showed increasing effects on HDL-cholesterol level in serum significantly. 3. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Insuline in serum significantly. 4. Sample Group showed increasing effects on Laptin in serum significantly. 5. Sample Group showed decreasing effects on Body weight, epididymis fat weight & rate, epididymis fat cell significantly. According to the above results, Pinus densiflora showed significant decreasing effects on hyperlipidemia and lipid in rats, it is considered that it is appropriate to apply for hyperlipidemia, obesity.

  5. Alterations in the Interplay between Neurons, Astrocytes and Microglia in the Rat Dentate Gyrus in Experimental Models of Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Lana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is negatively affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases leading to impaired learning and memory abilities. A diverse series of progressive modifications in the intercellular communication among neurons, astrocytes and microglia occur in the hippocampus during aging or inflammation. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological modifications that contribute to hippocampal dysfunction may reveal new targets for therapeutic intervention. The current study focussed on the interplay between neurons and astroglia in the Granule Layer (GL and the Polymorphic Layer (PL of the Dentate Gyrus (DG of adult, aged and LPS-treated rats. In GL and PL of aged and LPS-treated rats, astrocytes were less numerous than in adult rats. In GL of LPS-treated rats, astrocytes acquired morphological features of reactive astrocytes, such as longer branches than was observed in adult rats. Total and activated microglia increased in the aged and LPS-treated rats, as compared to adult rats. In the GL of aged and LPS-treated rats many neurons were apoptotic. Neurons decreased significantly in GL and PL of aged but not in rats treated with LPS. In PL of aged and LPS-treated rats many damaged neurons were embraced by microglia cells and were infiltrated by branches of astrocyte, which appeared to be bisecting the cell body, forming triads. Reactive microglia had a scavenging activity of dying neurons, as shown by the presence of neuronal debris within their cytoplasm. The levels of the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1 increased in hippocampal homogenates of aged rats and rats treated with LPS, and CX3CL1 immunoreactivity colocalized with activated microglia cells. Here we demonstrated that in the DG of aged and LPS-treated rats, astrocytes and microglia cooperate and participate in phagocytosis/phagoptosis of apoptotic granular neurons. The differential expression/activation of astroglia and the alteration of their intercommunication may be responsible for

  6. Effect of Perilla frutescens Fixed Oil on Experimental Esophagitis in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Arya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of Perilla frutescens fixed oil on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. A group of rats (n=6, treated with control vehicle (0.9% NaCl in double distilled water, 3 mL/kg, i.p. and Perilla frutescens fixed oil (100% (1, 2, and 3 mL/kg, i.p., or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, i.p., were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 6 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with fixed oil significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The oil also helped to restore the altered levels of oxidative stress parameters to normal. The present study also makes evident the in vitro antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of alpha linolenic acid (ALA (18 : 3, n−3 on isolated rat ileum preparation. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic, antisecretory (anticholinergic, and antioxidant activity of the oil was attributed for its efficacy in reflux esophagitis.

  7. Expression of chemokine receptor-4 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on experimental rat abdominal aortic aneurysms and the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with stromal-derived factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Yun Long

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the expression and role of chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs from experimental rats with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA for migration of BMSCs. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into an experimental group and control group (n = 18 each. AAA was induced with 0.75 M solution infiltrate for 30 minutes, after which the abdomen was rinsed and closed. Saline was used in place of CaCl2 in the control group. CD34 and CD29 were detected by flow cytometry, the gene and protein expression of CXCR4 were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. The migration of BMSCs with stromal-derived factor-1 was detected by Transwell chamber. CD34 expression was negative and CD29 expression was positive. The gene and protein expression of CXCR4 were significantly higher in experimental group than them in control group (p < 0.05, the migration ability of BMSCs from the experimental group was significantly higher than that from the control group (p < 0.05. Stromal-derived factor -1/CXCR4 can enhance the migration of BMSCs in vitro in a rat AAA model.

  8. Evaluation of bone loss due to primary occlusal trauma in two experimental models of occlusal overload

    OpenAIRE

    LOPES, Ana Cristina Távora de Albuquerque; TÉO, Mirela Anne Quartaroli; CORRÊA, Mônica Grazieli; ISHIKIRIAMA, Bella Luna Colombini; CAMPOS, Mirella Lindoso Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Primary occlusal trauma (OT) is an injury of the periodontium with normal height as a result of occlusal forces which exceed their adaptive capacity. Objective To evaluate, histometrically, the alveolar bone loss in the furcation region of rats experimentally submitted to 2 models of occlusal overload. Material and method 45 animals randomly divided into 3 groups: Occlusal Interference (OI, n = 15) - fixing an orthodontic wire segment on the occlusal surface of the fi...

  9. Neuroprotective effect of lurasidone via antagonist activities on histamine in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Baoming; Yu, Liang; Li, Suping; Xu, Fei; Yang, Lili; Ma, Shuai; Guo, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Cranial nerve involvement frequently involves neuron damage and often leads to psychiatric disorder caused by multiple inducements. Lurasidone is a novel antipsychotic agent approved for the treatment of cranial nerve involvement and a number of mental health conditions in several countries. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of lurasidone by antagonist activities on histamine was investigated in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement. The antagonist activities of lurasidone on serotonin 5‑HT7, serotonin 5‑HT2A, serotonin 5‑HT1A and serotonin 5‑HT6 were analyzed, and the preclinical therapeutic effects of lurasidone were examined in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement. The safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and preliminary antitumor activity of lurasidone were also assessed in the cranial nerve involvement model. The therapeutic dose of lurasidone was 0.32 mg once daily, administered continuously in 14‑day cycles. The results of the present study found that the preclinical prescriptions induced positive behavioral responses following treatment with lurasidone. The MTD was identified as a once daily administration of 0.32 mg lurasidone. Long‑term treatment with lurasidone for cranial nerve involvement was shown to improve the therapeutic effects and reduce anxiety in the experimental rats. In addition, treatment with lurasidone did not affect body weight. The expression of the language competence protein, Forkhead‑BOX P2, was increased, and the levels of neuroprotective SxIP motif and microtubule end‑binding protein were increased in the hippocampal cells of rats with cranial nerve involvement treated with lurasidone. Lurasidone therapy reinforced memory capability and decreased anxiety. Taken together, lurasidone treatment appeared to protect against language disturbances associated with negative and cognitive impairment in the rat model of cranial nerve involvement, providing a basis for its use in the clinical treatment of

  10. A Chemically Modified Curcumin (CMC 2.24) Inhibits Nuclear Factor κB Activation and Inflammatory Bone Loss in Murine Models of LPS-Induced Experimental Periodontitis and Diabetes-Associated Natural Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elburki, Muna S; Rossa, Carlos; Guimarães-Stabili, Morgana R; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Curylofo-Zotti, Fabiana A; Johnson, Francis; Golub, Lorne M

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a novel chemically modified curcumin (CMC 2.24) on NF-κB and MAPK signaling and inflammatory cytokine production in two experimental models of periodontal disease in rats. Experimental model I: Periodontitis was induced by repeated injections of LPS into the gingiva (3×/week, 3 weeks); control rats received vehicle injections. CMC 2.24, or the vehicle, was administered by daily oral gavage for 4 weeks. Experimental model II: Diabetes was induced in adult male rats by streptozotocin injection; periodontal breakdown then results as a complication of uncontrolled hyperglycemia. Non-diabetic rats served as controls. CMC 2.24, or the vehicle, was administered by oral gavage daily for 3 weeks to the diabetics. Hemimaxillae and gingival tissues were harvested, and bone loss was assessed radiographically. Gingival tissues were pooled according to the experimental conditions and processed for the analysis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and bone-resorptive cytokines. Activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways was assessed by western blot. Both LPS and diabetes induced an inflammatory process in the gingival tissues associated with excessive alveolar bone resorption and increased activation of p65 (NF-κB) and p38 MAPK. In both models, the administration of CMC 2.24 produced a marked reduction of inflammatory cytokines and MMPs in the gingival tissues, decreased bone loss, and decreased activation of p65 (NF-κB) and p38 MAPK. Inhibition of these cell signaling pathways by this novel tri-ketonic curcuminoid (natural curcumin is di-ketonic) may play a role in its therapeutic efficacy in locally and systemically associated periodontitis.

  11. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Okamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA rat derived from Long-Evans (LE strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. The effect of resveratrol on oxidative stress in the liver and serum of a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ghowsi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of oxidative status in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS patients are limited with inconsistent results. The effects of resveratrol as a natural antioxidant on oxidative status in PCOS aren’t clear. Objective: This study evaluated effects of resveratrol on oxidative stress in the liver and serum of the PCOS rats. Materials and Methods: Fifteen female Wistar rats (3 wk old were divided into 3 groups (n=5/each e: Control group, PCO-Control group, and PCO-Resveratrol group. For induction of polycystic ovary phenotype, testosterone enanthate 10 mg/kg was injected for 35 days subcutaneously. Then, resveratrol 10 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally for 28 days to rats of the PCO-Resveratrol group. Ovarian sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. The serum glucose and insulin and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in serum and liver were measured. Results: Control animals showed normal ovarian morphology and PCO-Control animals exhibited cystic follicles. There were no significant differences in liver TAC between groups. The serum MDA (p=0.034, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p=0.014 levels in PCO-Control rats were higher than the controls. The liver MDA in PCO-Control rats was more than that of controls (p=0.001. The HOMA-IR (p=0.008 and serum MDA (p=0.006 levels in PCO-Control rats were more than those of PCO-Resveratrol rats (p=0.008. In PCO-Resveratrol group, serum TAC was higher than that of PCO-Control group (p=0.022 and liver MDA was more than controls (p=0.01. Conclusion: Results indicated that the induction of PCOS in rats increased lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance and resveratrol improved these complications.

  13. Silk fibroin nanoparticles constitute a vector for controlled release of resveratrol in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano-Pérez AA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Abel Lozano-Pérez,1 Alba Rodriguez-Nogales,2 Víctor Ortiz-Cullera,1 Francesca Algieri,2 José Garrido-Mesa,2 Pedro Zorrilla,2 M Elena Rodriguez-Cabezas,2 Natividad Garrido-Mesa,2 M Pilar Utrilla,2 Laura De Matteis,3 Jesús Martínez de la Fuente,3 José Luis Cenis,1 Julio Gálvez2 1Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario, Murcia, Spain; 2Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Red – Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas, Department of Pharmacology, ibs Granada, Center for Biomedical Research, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 3Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the intestinal anti-inflammatory properties of silk fibroin nanoparticles, around 100 nm in size, when loaded with the stilbene compound resveratrol, in an experimental model of rat colitis. Methods: Nanoparticles were loaded with resveratrol by adsorption. The biological effects of the resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles were tested both in vitro, in a cell culture of RAW 264.7 cells (mouse macrophages, and in vivo, in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis, when administered intracolonically.Results: The resveratrol liberation in 1× phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4 was characterized by fast liberation, reaching the solubility limit in 3 hours, which was maintained over a period of 80 hours. The in vitro assays revealed immunomodulatory properties exerted by these resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles since they promoted macrophage activity in basal conditions and inhibited this activity when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The in vivo experiments showed that after evaluation of the macroscopic symptoms, inflammatory markers, and intestinal barrier function, the fibroin nanoparticles loaded with resveratrol had a better effect than the single treatments, being similar to that produced by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Conclusion: Silk

  14. Cerebral impact of prenatal irradiation by 131I: an experimental model of clinical neuroradioembryological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talko, V V; Loganovsky, K M; Drozd, I P; Tukalenko, Ye V; Loganovska, T K; Nechayev, S Yu; Masiuk, S V; Prokhorova, Ye M

    2017-12-01

    Human brain in prenatal period is a most vulnerable to ionizing radiation body structure. Unlike atomic bombings or radiological interventions in healthcare leading at most to external irradiation the intensive internal exposure may occur upon nuclear reactor accidents followed by substantial release and fallout of radioactive 131I. The latter can lead to specific neuroradioembryological effects. To create an experimental model of prenatal cerebral radiation effects of 131I in human and to determine the experimental and clinical neuroradioembryological effects.Study object. The neuroradioembryological effects in Vistar rats exposed to 131I in prenatal period. Nervous system status and mental status in 104 persons exposed to ionizing radiation in utero due to the ChNPP accident and the same in 78 not exposed subjects. Experimental i.e. behavioral techniques, including the spontaneous locomotive, exploratory activity and learning ability assessment, clinical i.e. neuropsychiatric, neuro and psychometric, neuropsychological, neurophys iological methods, both with dosimetric and statistical methods were applied. Intrauterine irradiation of Wistar rats by 131I was simulated on a model of one time oral 27.5 kBq radionu clide administration in the mid gestation period (0.72±0.14 Gy fetal thyroid dose), which provides extrapolation of neuroradioembryological effects in rats to that in humans exposed to intrauterine radiation as a result of the Chornobyl catastrophe. Abnormalities in behavioral reactions and decreased output of conditioned reflex reactions identified in the 10 month old rats suggest a deterioration of cerebral cognition in exposed animals. Specific cog nitive deficit featuring a disharmonic intellectual development through the relatively decreased verbal intelligence versus relative increase of nonverbal one is remained in prenatally exposed persons. This can indicate to dysfunc tion of cortical limbic system with especial involvement of a dominant

  15. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Omer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Oztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-α levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study.

  16. Persistent estrus rat models of polycystic ovary disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Krishna B

    2005-10-01

    To critically review published articles on polycystic ovary (PCO) disease in rat models, with a focus on delineating its pathophysiology. Review of the English-language literature published from 1966 to March 2005 was performed through PubMed search. Keywords or phrases used were persistent estrus, chronic anovulation, polycystic ovary, polycystic ovary disease, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Articles were also located via bibliographies of published literature. University Health Sciences Center. Articles on persistent estrus and PCO in rats were selected and reviewed regarding the methods for induction of PCO disease. Changes in the reproductive cycle, ovarian morphology, hormonal parameters, and factors associated with the development of PCO disease in rat models were analyzed. Principal methods for inducing PCO in the rat include exposure to constant light, anterior hypothalamic and amygdaloidal lesions, and the use of androgens, estrogens, antiprogestin, and mifepristone. The validated rat PCO models provide useful information on morphologic and hormonal disturbances in the pathogenesis of chronic anovulation in this condition. These studies have aimed to replicate the morphologic and hormonal characteristics observed in the human PCO syndrome. The implications of these studies to human condition are discussed.

  17. Iron metabolism in experimental rickets. Pt. 2. Pharmacological investigations on ferrokinetics in rat rickets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronicka, E.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations of ferrokinetics were performed using 59 Fe isotope in experimental rickets. It was found that rickets does not cause in rats detectable changes in plasma iron turnover and in the half-time of iron clearance from the plasma. Only a transient impairment of iron utilization by the erythrocytes of rats with rickets was observed. In the blood cell counts no differences were revealed. Besides that a lower weight of the liver and a higher weight of the spleen were observed in rats with rickets as compared with controls. These organs showed a different degree of 59 Fe deposition after a single intravenous dose between both groups. No differences were found in the liver iron stores expressed as the level of non-heme iron. On the basis of the obtained results and data from the literature the author suggests the possibility of changes in the absorption of iron by the reticulo-endothelial system in rickets. In severe osseous changes caused by rickets a transient inhibition of erythropoiesis is possible. (author)

  18. Effect of electroacupuncture on the bio-chemical indices of bone and bone collagen metabo-lism and TNF-α in osteoporosis model rats without ovaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍圣涌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanisms of electroacu-puncture(EA) on postmenopausal osteoporosis(PMO).Methods Sixty female SD rats aged 6 months were selected,resected double ovaries and fed for 90 days in order to make the model of experimental osteoporosis,and then,they were randomly divided into a model control group

  19. Influence of rofecoxib on experimental colonic carcinogenesis in rats Influencia del rofecoxib sobre la carcinogénesis cólica experimental en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Noguera Aguilar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the effect of a selective cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor, rofecoxib, in the prevalence of experimental colon tumors in rats. Experimental design: experimental study with 35 male Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into four groups: a control group without experimental manipulation (n = 5; b pharmacological carcinogenesis with 1-2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrocloride (n = 10; c pharmacological carcinogenesis and addition of acetylsalicylic acid (AAS (n = 10; and d carcinogenesis and addition of rofecoxib (n = 10. Carcinogenesis was induced with 1-2 dimethylhydrazine at a weekly dose of 25 mg/kg for 18 weeks. Colon tumors were isolated at 20 weeks. Antiinflammatory agents were given at a dose of AAS 30 mg/kg and rofecoxib at 3 mg/kg. Results: the percentage of colonic tumors was significantly reduced in the rofecoxib group. This result was found for all tumors and for the malignant lesions, adenocarcinomas. Conclusions: rofecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, reduced the percentage of drug-induced neoplastic glandular tissue in rats.Objetivo: investigar el efecto de un inhibidor selectivo de la ciclooxigenasa-2, rofecoxib, en la incidencia de tumores cólicos a nivel experimental. Diseño experimental: estudio experimental con 35 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho, asignadas aleatoriamente a uno de los cuatro grupos: a control (n=5, sin manipulación experimental; b carcinogénesis farmacológica (n=10; c carcinogénesis farmacológica y ácido acetilsalicílico (n=10, con administración de este fármaco al tiempo de la carcinogénesis farmacológica; y d carcinogénesis farmacológica y rofecoxib (n=10 con administración de este fármaco junto a la carcinogénesis farmacológica. La inducción carcinogénica se realizó con 1-2 dimetilhidrazina dihidrocloruro a dosis semanal de 25 mg/kg de peso durante 18 semanas. Se analizaron los tumores cólicos inducidos en la semana 20. Los antiinflamatorios se administraron por vía oral a razón de

  20. Establishment of a rat model of portal vein ligation combined with in situ splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Libin; Li, Chonghui; Ge, Xinlan; Wang, Hongdong; Xu, Kesen; Zhang, Aiqun; Dong, Jiahong

    2014-01-01

    Portal vein ligation (PVL) combined with in situ splitting (ISS) has been shown to induce remarkable liver regeneration in patients. The purpose of this study was to establish a model of PVL+ISS in rats for exploring the possible mechanisms of liver regeneration using these techniques. Rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: selective PVL, selective PVL+ISS and sham operation. The hepatic regeneration rate (HRR), Ki-67, liver biochemical determinations and histopathology were assessed at 24, 48, and 72 h and 7 days after the operation. The microcirculation of the median lobes before and after ISS was examined by laser speckle contrast imaging. Meanwhile, cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, HGF and HSP70 in regenerating liver lobes at 24 h was investigated by RT-PCR and ELISA. The HRR of PVL+ISS was much higher than that of the PVL at 72 h and 7 days after surgery (pprotein levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and HGF in regenerating liver lobes were higher in the PVL+ISS than the PVL alone. The higher HRR in the PVL+ISS compared with the PVL confirmed that we had successfully established a PVL+ISS model in rats. The possible mechanisms included the reduced microcirculation blood perfusion of the left median lobe and up-regulation of cytokines in the regenerating lobes after ISS.

  1. High-frequency electroacupuncture versus carprofen in an incisional pain model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of electroacupuncture (EA and carprofen (CP on postoperative incisional pain using the plantar incision (PI model in rats. A 1-cm longitudinal incision was made through skin, fascia and muscles of a hind paw of male Wistar rats and the development of mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity was determined over 4 days using the von Frey and Hargreaves methods, respectively. Based on the experimental treatments received on the third postoperative day, the animals were divided into the following groups: PI+CP (CP, 2 mg/kg, po; PI+EAST36 (100-Hz EA applied bilaterally at the Zusanli point (ST36; PI+EANP (EA applied to a non-acupoint region; PI+IMMO (immobilization only; PI (vehicle. In the von Frey test, the PI+EAST36 group had higher withdrawal force thresholds in response to mechanical stimuli than the PI, PI+IMMO and PI+EANP groups at several times studied. Furthermore, the PI+EAST36 group showed paw withdrawal thresholds in response to mechanical stimuli that were similar to those of the PI+CP group. In the Hargreaves test, all groups had latencies higher than those observed with PI. The PI+EAST36 group was similar to the PI+IMMO, PI+EANP and PI+CP groups. We conclude that 100-Hz EA at the ST36 point, but not at non-acupoints, can reduce mechanical nociception in the rat model of incisional pain, and its effectiveness is comparable to that of carprofen.

  2. High-frequency electroacupuncture versus carprofen in an incisional pain model in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, F.M.; Castro, L.L.; Ferreira, R.T.; Pires, P.A.; Vanderlinde, F.A.; Medeiros, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) and carprofen (CP) on postoperative incisional pain using the plantar incision (PI) model in rats. A 1-cm longitudinal incision was made through skin, fascia and muscles of a hind paw of male Wistar rats and the development of mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity was determined over 4 days using the von Frey and Hargreaves methods, respectively. Based on the experimental treatments received on the third postoperative day, the animals were divided into the following groups: PI+CP (CP, 2 mg/kg, po); PI+EAST36 (100-Hz EA applied bilaterally at the Zusanli point (ST36)); PI+EANP (EA applied to a non-acupoint region); PI+IMMO (immobilization only); PI (vehicle). In the von Frey test, the PI+EAST36 group had higher withdrawal force thresholds in response to mechanical stimuli than the PI, PI+IMMO and PI+EANP groups at several times studied. Furthermore, the PI+EAST36 group showed paw withdrawal thresholds in response to mechanical stimuli that were similar to those of the PI+CP group. In the Hargreaves test, all groups had latencies higher than those observed with PI. The PI+EAST36 group was similar to the PI+IMMO, PI+EANP and PI+CP groups. We conclude that 100-Hz EA at the ST36 point, but not at non-acupoints, can reduce mechanical nociception in the rat model of incisional pain, and its effectiveness is comparable to that of carprofen

  3. High-frequency electroacupuncture versus carprofen in an incisional pain model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, F M; Castro, L L; Ferreira, R T; Pires, P A; Vanderlinde, F A; Medeiros, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) and carprofen (CP) on postoperative incisional pain using the plantar incision (PI) model in rats. A 1-cm longitudinal incision was made through skin, fascia and muscles of a hind paw of male Wistar rats and the development of mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity was determined over 4 days using the von Frey and Hargreaves methods, respectively. Based on the experimental treatments received on the third postoperative day, the animals were divided into the following groups: PI+CP (CP, 2 mg/kg, po); PI+EAST36 (100-Hz EA applied bilaterally at the Zusanli point (ST36)); PI+EANP (EA applied to a non-acupoint region); PI+IMMO (immobilization only); PI (vehicle). In the von Frey test, the PI+EAST36 group had higher withdrawal force thresholds in response to mechanical stimuli than the PI, PI+IMMO and PI+EANP groups at several times studied. Furthermore, the PI+EAST36 group showed paw withdrawal thresholds in response to mechanical stimuli that were similar to those of the PI+CP group. In the Hargreaves test, all groups had latencies higher than those observed with PI. The PI+EAST36 group was similar to the PI+IMMO, PI+EANP and PI+CP groups. We conclude that 100-Hz EA at the ST36 point, but not at non-acupoints, can reduce mechanical nociception in the rat model of incisional pain, and its effectiveness is comparable to that of carprofen.

  4. High-frequency electroacupuncture versus carprofen in an incisional pain model in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, F.M.; Castro, L.L.; Ferreira, R.T.; Pires, P.A.; Vanderlinde, F.A.; Medeiros, M.A. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) and carprofen (CP) on postoperative incisional pain using the plantar incision (PI) model in rats. A 1-cm longitudinal incision was made through skin, fascia and muscles of a hind paw of male Wistar rats and the development of mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity was determined over 4 days using the von Frey and Hargreaves methods, respectively. Based on the experimental treatments received on the third postoperative day, the animals were divided into the following groups: PI+CP (CP, 2 mg/kg, po); PI+EAST36 (100-Hz EA applied bilaterally at the Zusanli point (ST36)); PI+EANP (EA applied to a non-acupoint region); PI+IMMO (immobilization only); PI (vehicle). In the von Frey test, the PI+EAST36 group had higher withdrawal force thresholds in response to mechanical stimuli than the PI, PI+IMMO and PI+EANP groups at several times studied. Furthermore, the PI+EAST36 group showed paw withdrawal thresholds in response to mechanical stimuli that were similar to those of the PI+CP group. In the Hargreaves test, all groups had latencies higher than those observed with PI. The PI+EAST36 group was similar to the PI+IMMO, PI+EANP and PI+CP groups. We conclude that 100-Hz EA at the ST36 point, but not at non-acupoints, can reduce mechanical nociception in the rat model of incisional pain, and its effectiveness is comparable to that of carprofen.

  5. [The activity of glutathione antioxidant system at melaksen and valdoxan action under experimental hyperthyroidism in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of glutathione antioxidant system activity and diene conjugates content in rats liver and blood serum at the influence of melaksen and valdoxan under experimental hyperthyroidism (EG) has been revealed. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione transferase (GT), growing at pathological conditions, change to the side of control value at these substunces introduction. Reduced glutathione content (GSH) at melaxen and valdoxan action increased compared with values under the pathology, that, obviously, could be associated with a reduction of its spending on the detoxication of free radical oxidation (FRO) toxic products. Diene conjugates level in rats liver and blood serum, increasing at experimental hyperthyroidism conditions, under introduction of melatonin level correcting drugs, also approached to the control meaning. Results of the study indicate on positive effect of melaxen and valdoxan on free radical homeostasis, that appears to be accompanied by decrease of load on the glutathione antioxidant system in comparison with the pathology.

  6. An Experimental Study on the Effects of Co-60 Irradiation on the Rat Tongue Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kee; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    It is known that radiation therapy is a kind of treatment choices of the maxillofacial tumors. This study is designed to investigate the effects of irradiation on rat's tongue tissues as functional tissues which relate to taste, mastication, and pronunciation. 88 rats (Sprague Dawley branch, male) were divided into control group of 4 and experimental group of 84. Experimental group was singly exposed to Co-60 irradiation with 8, 13, 18 Gy in the head and neck region. Animals were sacrificed on 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days after the irradiation. The specimens were observed by histopathological examination employing H-E stain and Van-Gieson stain. The results were follows; 1. The tongue tissue were severely swollen on the 1 hour after irradiation, but gradually decreased in course of time. 2. The basal cells of epithelium of tongue proliferated at initial stage of irradiation, but gradually decreased. The Keratin layer were gradually increased. 4. The tissue changes after irradiation were gradually increased by the degree of irradiation.

  7. Hormone-induced rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Behboudi-Gandevani, Samira; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh

    2017-12-15

    Despite polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) being one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting reproductive-aged women, the etiopathogenesis and mechanisms of this syndrome remain unclear. Considering the ethical limitations in human studies, animal models that reflect many features of PCOS are crucial resources to investigate this syndrome. We aimed to introduce the most suitable rat model of PCOS that closely mimics the endocrine, ovarian and metabolic disturbances of human PCOS phenotype, while maintaining normal reproductive system morphology in adulthood, in order to further more detailed investigations about PCOS. We searched Pubmed, Science direct, and Web of science between 1990 and 2016, for relevant English manuscripts, using keywords including the "Polycystic Ovary Syndrome AND Rat Model" to generate a subset of citations relevant to our research. Included were those articles that compared at least both ovarian histology or estrous cycle and reproductive hormonal profiles in hormone-induced rat model of PCOS and controls. Differences in the findings between hormone-induced PCOS rats appear to be a result of the degree of transplacental transfer of the steroid administered into the fetus, dose and type of hormone, route of administration and timing and duration of exposure. We conclude that prenatal hormone-induced rat model with a lower dose and shorter time of exposure during the critical period of fetal development that exhibits endocrine, ovarian and metabolic disturbances similar to PCOS in women, while maintaining normal reproductive system morphology in adulthood is more suitable than postnatal hormone-induced rat model to facilitate studies regarding PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsan Miao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model in rats was observed. The model group, nimodipine group, cerebral collateral group, and large, medium and small dose group of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids were administered with corresponding drugs but sham operation group and model group were administered the same volume of 0.5%CMC, 1 times a day, continuous administration of 7 d. After 1 h at 7 d to medicine, left incision in the middle of the neck of rats after anesthesia, we can firstly expose and isolate the left common carotid artery (CCA, and then expose external carotid artery (ECA and internal carotid artery (ICA. The common carotid artery and the external carotid artery are ligated. Then internal carotid artery with arterial clamp is temporarily clipped. Besides, cut the incision of 0.2 mm from 5 cm of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. A thread Line bolt is inserted with more than 18–20 mm from bifurcation of CCA into the internal carotid artery until there is resistance. Then the entrance of the middle cerebral artery is blocked and internal carotid artery is ligated (the blank group only exposed the left blood vessel without Plugging wire. Finally it is gently pulled out the plug line after 2 h. Results: Compared with the model mice, Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids can significantly relieve the injury of brain in hippocampus and cortex nerve cells; experimental rat focal cerebral ischemia was to improve again perfusion model of nerve function defect score mortality; significantly reduce brain homogenate NOS activity and no content, MDA, IL-1, TNF-a, ICAM-1 content; increase in brain homogenate SOD and ATPase activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01; and reduce the serum S-100β protein content. Each dose group of the Rabdosia rubescens total flavonoids has a better Improvement effect on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model in rats.

  9. Characterizing a Rat Brca2 Knockout Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Brca2 was tested in various tumor inducing experimental settings [49,52] * activated form Hs = Homo sapiens ; Rn = Rattus norvegicus; MMTV...sequencing gDNA from a wild-type 2 SD rat over a region of intron 21 that contains the splicing branch site 2 (underlined). ( el The same sequence from the...from the El pups at 1 week of age for macromolecule isolation. We also visually checked all Fk pups for gross abnormalities in physi- cal

  10. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human; Modelizacion de la retencion sistemica del berilio en la rata. Extrapolacion al Hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Prieto, M; Vidania Munoz, R de

    1994-07-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs.

  11. Modeling the systemic retention of beryllium in rat. Extrapolation to human; Modelizacion de la retencion sistemica del berilio en la rata. Extrapolacion al Hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Prieto, M.; Vidania Munoz, R. de

    1994-07-01

    In this work, we analyzed different approaches, assayed in order to numerically describe the systemic behaviour of Beryllium. The experimental results used in this work, were previously obtained by Furchner et al. (1973), using Sprague-Dawley rats, and others animal species. Furchner's work includes the obtained model for whole body retention in rats, but not for each target organ. In this work we present the results obtained by modeling the kinetic behaviour of Beryllium in several target organs. The results of this kind of models were used in order to establish correlations among the estimated kinetic constants. The parameters of the model were extrapolated to humans and, finally, compared with others previously published. (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Protective effect of theophylline on renal functions in experimental pneumoperitoneum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sefa Alperen; Ceylan, Cavit; Serel, Tekin Ahmet; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Soyupek, Arap Sedat; Guzel, Ahmet; Özorak, Alper; Uz, Efkan; Savas, Hasan Basri; Baspinar, Sirin

    2015-07-01

    Our objective in this experimental study is to research the effect of the intra-abdominal pressure which rises following pneumoperitoneum and whether Theophylline has a possible protective activity on this situation. In our study, 24 Wistar Albino rats were used. Rats were divided into two groups. The first group was set for only pneumoperitoneum model. The second group was given 15 mg/kg of Theophylline intraperitoneally before setting pneumoperitoneum model. Then urea, creatinine, cystatin-C, tissue and serum total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant capacity and oxidative stress index in two groups were measured and compared with each other. Apoptosis and histopathological conditions in the renal tissues were examined. The differences between the groups were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. Results were considered significant at p OSI values (p > 0.05). The mean value of urea were similar in pneumoperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum + theophylline groups (p = 0.12). The mean cystatin-C value was 2.2 ± 0.3 µg/mL in pneumoperitoneum, 1.74 ± 0.33 µg/mL in pneumoperitoneum + theophylline (p = 0.002). According to our study, lower cystatin-C levels in the group, where Theophylline was given, are suggestive of lower renal injury in this group. However, this opinion is interrogated as there is no difference in terms of tissue and serum TAS, TOS, OSI and urea values between the groups.

  13. Hepatic perfusion changes in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis: Evaluation by perfusion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutcu, Semra; Serter, Selim; Kaya, Yavuz; Kara, Eray; Nese, Nalan; Pekindil, Goekhan; Coskun, Teoman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It is known that acute pancreatitis may cause secondary changes in several organs. Liver is one of these involved organs. In different experimental studies hepatic damages were shown histopathologically in acute pancreatitis but there are a few studies about perfusion disorders that accompany these histopathologic changes. Perfusion CT (pCT) provides the ability to detect regional and global alterations in organ blood flow. The purpose of the study was to describe hepatic perfusion changes in experimental acute pancreatitis model with pCT. Materials and methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats of both genders with average weights of 250 g were used. Rats were randomized into two groups. Twenty rats were in control group and 20 in acute pancreatitis group. pCT was performed. Perfusion maps were formed by processing the obtained images with perfusion CT software. Blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) values were obtained from these maps. All pancreatic and liver tissues were taken off with laparotomy and histopathologic investigation was performed. Student's t test was used for statistical analyses. Results: In pCT we found statistically significant increase in blood volume in both lobes of liver and in blood flow in right lobe of the liver (p < 0.01). Although blood flow in left lobe of the liver increased, it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The quantitative analysis of liver parenchyma with pCT showed that acute pancreatitis causes a significant perfusion changes in the hepatic tissue. Systemic mediators seem to be effective as well as local inflammatory changes in perfusion changes.

  14. Hepatic perfusion changes in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis: Evaluation by perfusion CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutcu, Semra [Department of Surgery, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Serter, Selim, E-mail: serterselim@gmail.co [Department of Radiology, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Kaya, Yavuz; Kara, Eray [Department of Surgery, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Nese, Nalan [Department of Pathology, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Pekindil, Goekhan [Department of Radiology, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Coskun, Teoman [Department of Surgery, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: It is known that acute pancreatitis may cause secondary changes in several organs. Liver is one of these involved organs. In different experimental studies hepatic damages were shown histopathologically in acute pancreatitis but there are a few studies about perfusion disorders that accompany these histopathologic changes. Perfusion CT (pCT) provides the ability to detect regional and global alterations in organ blood flow. The purpose of the study was to describe hepatic perfusion changes in experimental acute pancreatitis model with pCT. Materials and methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats of both genders with average weights of 250 g were used. Rats were randomized into two groups. Twenty rats were in control group and 20 in acute pancreatitis group. pCT was performed. Perfusion maps were formed by processing the obtained images with perfusion CT software. Blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) values were obtained from these maps. All pancreatic and liver tissues were taken off with laparotomy and histopathologic investigation was performed. Student's t test was used for statistical analyses. Results: In pCT we found statistically significant increase in blood volume in both lobes of liver and in blood flow in right lobe of the liver (p < 0.01). Although blood flow in left lobe of the liver increased, it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The quantitative analysis of liver parenchyma with pCT showed that acute pancreatitis causes a significant perfusion changes in the hepatic tissue. Systemic mediators seem to be effective as well as local inflammatory changes in perfusion changes.

  15. The effect of ozone and naringin on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Arda; Peker, Kemal; Gursul, Cebrail; Sayar, Ilyas; Firat, Deniz; Yilmaz, Ismayil; Demiryilmaz, Ismail

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaulate the effect of ozone and naringin on the intestine after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion(II/R) injury. Thirty five rats divided into 5 groups of 7 animals: control, II/R, ozone, naringin and naringin + ozone. Only laparotomy and exploration of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were done in control group. In the experimental groups, SAM was occluded for 1 h and reperfused for 1 h. 15 min after ischemia, ozone (25 μg/ml, 0.5 mg/kg), naringin (80 mg/kg) and naringin + ozone(80 mg/kg + 25 μg/ml, 0.5 mg/kg) were infused intraperitoneally to each groups. Ileum tissues were harvested to determine intestinal mucosal injury and oxidative stress markers. For SMA occlusion, different than literature, silk suture binding was used. Oxidative stress markers were significantly low in experimental groups compared with II/R group (p < 0.05). Histopathologically, the injury score was significantly low at experimental groups compared with II/R group (p < 0.05). The lowest injury score was encountered at naringine + ozone group. Ozone alone or combined with naringin has a protective effect for mesenteric ischemia. Instead of using instruments such as clamps in the II/R rat model, silk binding may be used safely. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rivaroxaban attenuates thrombosis by targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway in a rat model of deep venous thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhao; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yang; Yang, Zhenwei; Luo, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is commonly used for the prevention and treatment of patients with deep venous thrombus. Evidence has shown that rivaroxaban is a potential oral anticoagulant drug for the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, the rivaroxaban-mediated molecular mechanism involved in the progression of deep venous thrombosis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of rivaroxaban and the underlying signaling pathways in the prevention and treatment of rats with deep venous thrombosis. A rat model with deep vein thrombus formation was established and received treatment with rivaroxaban or PBS as control. The thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. The progression of thrombosis and stroke was evaluated after treatment with rivaroxaban or PBS. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in venous endothelial cells and in the rat model of deep venous thrombus was assessed. The therapeutic effects of rivaroxaban were evaluated as determined by changes in deep venous thrombosis in the rat model. Our results showed that rivaroxaban markedly inhibited TAFI and PAI-1 expression levels, neutrophils, tissue factor, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), myeloperoxidase and macrophages in venous endothelial cells and in the rat model of deep venous thrombus. Expression levels of ADP, PAIs, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and thromboxane were downregulated in vein endothelial cells and in serum from the experimental rats. Importantly, the incidences of inferior vena cava filter thrombus were protected by rivaroxaban during heparin-induced thrombolysis deep venous thrombosis in the rat model. We observed that activity of the NF-κB signaling pathway was inhibited by rivaroxaban in vein endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, immunohistology indicated that rivaroxaban attenuated deep venous thrombosis and the

  17. The TetO rat as a new translational model for type 2 diabetic retinopathy by inducible insulin receptor knockdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhart, Nadine; Crespo-Garcia, Sergio; Haase, Nadine; Golic, Michaela; Skosyrski, Sergej; Rübsam, Anne; Herrspiegel, Christina; Kociok, Norbert; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Dechend, Ralf; Strauss, Olaf; Joussen, Antonia M

    2017-01-01

    Although the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the progression of diabetic retinopathy, its influence therein has not been systematically evaluated. Here we test the suitability of a new translational model of diabetic retinopathy, the TetO rat, for addressing the role of angiotensin-II receptor 1 (AT1) blockade in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes was induced by tetracycline-inducible small hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of the insulin receptor in rats, generating TetO rats. Systemic treatment consisted of an AT1 blocker (ARB) at the onset of diabetes, following which, 4-5 weeks later the retina was analysed in vivo and ex vivo. Retinal function was assessed by Ganzfeld electroretinography (ERG). Retinal vessels in TetO rats showed differences in vessel calibre, together with gliosis. The total number and the proportion of activated mononuclear phagocytes was increased. TetO rats presented with loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and ERG indicated photoreceptor malfunction. Both the inner and outer blood-retina barriers were affected. The ARB treated group showed reduced gliosis and an overall amelioration of retinal function, alongside RGC recovery, whilst no statistically significant differences in vascular and inflammatory features were detected. The TetO rat represents a promising translational model for the early neurovascular changes associated with type 2 diabetic retinopathy. ARB treatment had an effect on the neuronal component of the retina but not on the vasculature.

  18. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor alleviates sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction by decreasing the expression of γ- and α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in an experimental rat model of neuromyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Min, Su; Xie, Fei; Yang, Jun; Li, Liang; Chen, Jingyuan

    2018-02-05

    Sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction results from up-regulation of the expression of γ- and α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Although glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been implicated in repairing and supporting neurons, little is known about the effects of GDNF on demyelination of nerves in sepsis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that GDNF could alleviate sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction by decreasing the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR in an experimental rat model of neuromyopathy. Rats were randomly divided into a sham group and a sepsis group. Levels of inflammatory factors, muscle function, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were tested in rats after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). At 24 h after CLP, GDNF was injected around the sciatic nerve of sepsis rats, cytokines were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of nAChRs. GDNF and its downstream effector (Erk1/2 and GFR-α), neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) and γ- and α7-nAChR were measured using Western blot analysis. The expression of GDNF reached a minimum at 24 h after CLP. Compared with the sham group, the release of cytokines and the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR were significantly increased in the sepsis group. The administration of GDNF significantly alleviated sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction, as well as reducing the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR. In addition, the expression of Erk1/2, GFR-α, NRG-1 were significantly increased after GDNF treatment. GDNF administration may improve patient outcomes by reducing the demyelination of nerves and the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Electropuncture influences on learning, memory, and neuropeptide expression in a rat model of vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Shao; Yanqian Fu; Lihua Qiu; Bing Yan; Xinsheng Lai; Chunzhi Tang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies in recent years have indicated that several neuropeptide-like substances, such as arginine vasopressin (AVP), somatostatin (SS), and β-endorphine (β-EP), are involved in the process of cerebral ischemic damage to cranial nerves.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electropuncture on back-shu points, as well as the influence on learning and memory, AVP, SS, and β-EP levels in plasma and brain were measured in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.SETTING: College of Acupuncture and Massage of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: This experiment was performed at the Animal Experiment Center of Guangzhou University of TCM from December 2005 to December 2006. A total of 48 healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats of SPF-grade, 180-220 g, were provided by The Animal Experiment Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The following instruments were used: SDQ-30 Dipolar Radio-frequency Electrocoagulator (Shanghai Operation Instrument Factory), Morris Water Maze (The Animal Experiment Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine), Type G6805-1 Treating Equipment (Huasheng Equipment Factory, Qingdao, China).METHODS: ① Eight rats were randomly selected for the control group; the remaining 40 rats underwent 4-vascular occlusion to establish a cerebral ischemia model. Due to the death of 13 rats and 2 hemiplegies during model establishment, there was a total of 25 model rats available for testing. The model rats were divided randomly into 3 groups according to their body weight: electropuncture group (n = 9), medication group (n = 8), and VD group (n = 8). ② Electropuncture group: 25 mm needles (28 gauge) were used to electropuncture (150 Hz, continuous waves, 1.0-2.0 mA, duration of 20 minutes) the following acupoints: Baihui (GV20), Geshu (BL17), Pishu (BL20), and Shenshu (BL23). The acupoints were located according to Experimental acupuncturology and were

  20. Effects of some dopamine antagonists on spatial memory performance in rats--experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Gabriela; Popa, Gratiela; Ochiuz, Lacramioara; Nechifor, M; Tartau, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter with an important role in forming long-lasting memories for some time, especially in episodic memory. Literature data show that dopamine receptor stimulation may be detrimental to spatial working memory functions in lab animals. (R)-(+)-7-Chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride derivative--SCH-23390 is a synthetic compound that acts as a selective, high-affinity antagonist of D1 receptors. Experimental studies suggest that SCH 23390 may prevent the spatial working memory disturbances induced by the active substances of marijuana. Melperone is an atypic antipsychotic drug presenting also dopaminergic D2 and 5-HT2A receptor antagonistic activity. This neuroleptic agent is used in the treatment of some types of schizophrenia. Experimental research on the effects of two dopamine receptor antagonists on spatial memory performance in rats. The experiment was carried out in white Wistar rats (200-250g), divided into 3 groups of 7 animals each, treated intraperitoneally with the same volume of solution for 14 days, as follows: Group I (Control): saline solution 0.1 ml/10g kbw; Group II (coded SCH): SCH-23390 0.3 mg/kbw; Group III (coded MLP): melperone 2 mg/kbw. The dopaminergic agent spatial memory performance was assessed by recording spontaneous alternation behavior in a single session in Y-maze. Each animal was placed at the end of one arm and allowed to move freely through the maze during an 8 min session. Alternation was defined as a consecutive entry in three different arms. The alternation percentage was computed with the following formula: number of alternations divided by total number of arm visits minus 2. Data were presented as +/- standard deviation and significance was tested by SPSS Statistics for Windows version 13.0 and ANOVA method. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant compared to those in the control group. Experimental researches were carried out in

  1. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Sadrefozalayi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare is a herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Materials and Methods: Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control,was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.. In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil. The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw with the same route.  The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw. After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. Results: The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (p

  2. Generation of muscular dystrophy model rats with a CRISPR/Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Fujii, Wataru; Tsuboi, Masaya; Tanihata, Jun; Teramoto, Naomi; Takeuchi, Shiho; Naito, Kunihiko; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-07-09

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle disorder caused by mutations in the Dmd gene encoding Dystrophin. DMD model animals, such as mdx mice and canine X-linked muscular dystrophy dogs, have been widely utilized in the development of a treatment for DMD. Here, we demonstrate the generation of Dmd-mutated rats using a clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system, an RNA-based genome engineering technique that is also adaptive to rats. We simultaneously targeted two exons in the rat Dmd gene, which resulted in the absence of Dystrophin expression in the F0 generation. Dmd-mutated rats exhibited a decline in muscle strength, and the emergence of degenerative/regenerative phenotypes in the skeletal muscle, heart, and diaphragm. These mutations were heritable by the next generation, and F1 male rats exhibited similar phenotypes in their skeletal muscles. These model rats should prove to be useful for developing therapeutic methods to treat DMD.

  3. Long-term BPA infusions. Evaluation in the rat brain tumor and rat spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Joel, D.D.; Morris, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the BPA-based dose escalation clinical trial, the observations of tumor recurrence in areas of extremely high calculated tumor doses suggest that the BPA distribution is non-uniform. Longer (6-hour) i.v. infusions of BPA are evaluated in the rat brain tumor and spinal cord models to address the questions of whether long-term infusions are more effective against the tumor and whether long-term infusions are detrimental in the central nervous system. In the rat spinal cord, the 50% effective doses (ED 50 ) for myeloparesis were not significantly different after a single i.p. injection of BPA-fructose or a 6 hour i.v. infusion. In the rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor model, BNCT following 2-hr or 6-hr infusions of BPA-F produced similar levels of long term survival. (author)

  4. Ideal Experimental Rat Models for Liver Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2011-01-01

    There are many limitations for conducting liver disease research in human beings due to the high cost and potential ethical issues. For this reason, conducting a study that is difficult to perform in humans using appropriate animal models, can be beneficial in ascertaining the pathological physiology, and in developing new treatment modalities. However, it is difficult to determine the appropriate animal model which is suitable for research purposes, since every patient has different and dive...

  5. Biodistibution of 2,6 diisopropyliminodiacetic acid 99mTc (Disida-99mTc) in normal rats and with experimental hepatic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colturato, M.T.; Muramoto, E.; Hamada, E.S.; Barbosa, M.R.F. de; Herrerias, R.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1988-07-01

    The biodistribution and elimination of 99m Tc-DISIDA were examined by performing scintigrams on rats at different times. Normal animals (rats) and those with experimental hepatobiliary alterations were used. Results showed a delayed clearance of 99m Tc-DISIDA into the small intestine of the experimental animals. The elimination of the labelled compound by the kidney was 14% dose/g 120 minutes after the injection of which 70% was found in its original form. The data indicate that in spite the compound is intact in bile it undergoes a degradative process, not yet known. (author) [pt

  6. The Implementation of Clay Modeling and Rat Dissection into the Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum of a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K.; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty…

  7. Striatal grafts in a rat model of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzman, R; Meyer, M; Lövblad, K O

    1999-01-01

    Survival and integration into the host brain of grafted tissue are crucial factors in neurotransplantation approaches. The present study explored the feasibility of using a clinical MR scanner to study striatal graft development in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Rat fetal lateral ganglionic...... time-points graft location could not be further verified. Measures for graft size and ventricle size obtained from MR images highly correlated with measures obtained from histologically processed sections (R = 0.8, P fetal rat lateral ganglionic...

  8. Antidiabetic and Renoprotective Effects of Cladophora glomerata Kützing Extract in Experimental Type 2 Diabetic Rats: A Potential Nutraceutical Product for Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Srimaroeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cladophora glomerata extract (CGE has been shown to exhibit antigastric ulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypotensive, and antioxidant activities. The present study investigated antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of CGE in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM rats. The rats were induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin and supplemented daily with 1 g/kg BW of CGE for 12 weeks. The renal transport function was assessed by the uptake of para-aminohippurate mediated organic anion transporters 1 (Oat1 and 3 (Oat3, using renal cortical slices. These two transporters were known to be upregulated by insulin and PKCζ while they were downregulated by PKCα activation. Compared to T2DM, CGE supplemented rats had significantly improved hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and renal morphology. The baseline uptake of para-aminohippurate was not different among experimental groups and was correlated with Oat1 and 3 mRNA expressions. Nevertheless, while insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions in renal slices were blunted in T2DM rats, they were improved by CGE supplementation. The mechanism of CGE-restored insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions was clearly shown to be associated with upregulated PKCζ and downregulated PKCα expressions and activations. These findings indicate that CGE has antidiabetic effect and suggest it may prevent diabetic nephropathy through PKCs in a T2DM rat model.

  9. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of Cladophora glomerata Kützing extract in experimental type 2 diabetic rats: a potential nutraceutical product for diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimaroeng, Chutima; Ontawong, Atcharaporn; Saowakon, Naruwan; Vivithanaporn, Pornpun; Pongchaidecha, Anchalee; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn; Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2015-01-01

    Cladophora glomerata extract (CGE) has been shown to exhibit antigastric ulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypotensive, and antioxidant activities. The present study investigated antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of CGE in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. The rats were induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin and supplemented daily with 1 g/kg BW of CGE for 12 weeks. The renal transport function was assessed by the uptake of para-aminohippurate mediated organic anion transporters 1 (Oat1) and 3 (Oat3), using renal cortical slices. These two transporters were known to be upregulated by insulin and PKCζ while they were downregulated by PKCα activation. Compared to T2DM, CGE supplemented rats had significantly improved hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and renal morphology. The baseline uptake of para-aminohippurate was not different among experimental groups and was correlated with Oat1 and 3 mRNA expressions. Nevertheless, while insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions in renal slices were blunted in T2DM rats, they were improved by CGE supplementation. The mechanism of CGE-restored insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions was clearly shown to be associated with upregulated PKCζ and downregulated PKCα expressions and activations. These findings indicate that CGE has antidiabetic effect and suggest it may prevent diabetic nephropathy through PKCs in a T2DM rat model.

  10. Review of Surgical Techniques of Experimental Renal Transplantation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri; Haylor, John

    2017-08-01

    Microvascular surgical techniques of renal transplant in rats have evolved over the past 5 decades to achieve successful rat renal transplant; these modifications have included surgical techniques to address the anatomic variations in the renal blood vessels and those to reduce ischemic and operation durations. Here, we review the surgical techniques of renal transplant in rats and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of individual techniques of vascular and ureteric anastomoses. For this review, we performed a systematic literature search using relevant medical subject heading terms and included appropriate publications in the review. Since the first description of a rat model of renal transplant by Bernard Fisher and his colleagues in 1965, which used end-to-side anastomosis between the renal vein and renal artery to the recipient inferior vena cava and aorta, several vascular and ureteric anastomosis techniques have been modified. Vascular anastomosis techniques now include end-to-end anastomosis, use of donor aortic and inferior vena cava conduits, sleeve and cuff anastomoses, and application of fibrin glue. Likewise, restoration of the urinary tract can now be achieved by direct anastomosis of the donor ureter to the recipient bladder, end-to-end anastomosis between the donor and recipient ureters, and donor bladder cuff to the recipient bladder. There are advantages and disadvantages attributable to individual techniques. The range of vascular and ureteric anastomosis techniques that has emerged reflects the need for mastering more than one technique to suit the vascular anatomy of individual animals and to reduce operating time for achieving successful outcomes after renal transplant.

  11. Memantine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist improves hyperammonemia-induced encephalopathy and acute hepatic encephalopathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, B. A.; Maas, M. A.; Daalhuisen, J.; Quack, G.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor overactivity in two different experimental rat models of encephalopathy: subacute encephalopathy caused by severe hyperammonemia in portacaval-shunted rats (AI-PCS rats) and acute hepatic

  12. Insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy reverses morphologic changes and reduces hyperprolactinemia in experimental rat prolactinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracamonte Maria I

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of gene therapy for the treatment of pituitary tumors emerges as a promising complement to surgery and may have distinct advantages over radiotherapy for this type of tumors. Up to now, suicide gene therapy has been the main experimental approach explored to treat experimental pituitary tumors. In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I gene therapy for the treatment of estrogen-induced prolactinomas in rats. Results Female Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously implanted with silastic capsules filled with 17-β estradiol (E2 in order to induce pituitary prolactinomas. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals in order to measure serum prolactin (PRL. As expected, serum PRL increased progressively and 23 days after implanting the E2 capsules (Experimental day 0, circulating PRL had undergone a 3–4 fold increase. On Experimental day 0 part of the E2-implanted animals received a bilateral intrapituitary injection of either an adenoviral vector expressing the gene for rat IGF-I (RAd-IGFI, or a vector (RAd-GFP expressing the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP. Seven days post vector injection all animals were sacrificed and their pituitaries morphometrically analyzed to evaluate changes in the lactotroph population. RAd-IGFI but not RAd-GFP, induced a significant fall in serum PRL. Furthermore, RAd-IGFI but not RAd-GFP significantly reversed the increase in lactotroph size (CS and volume density (VD induced by E2 treatment. Conclusion We conclude that IGF-I gene therapy constitutes a potentially useful intervention for the treatment of prolactinomas and that bioactive peptide gene delivery may open novel therapeutic avenues for the treatment of pituitary tumors.

  13. Gallic Acid Attenuates Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesion by Inhibiting Inflammatory Reaction in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangbing; Wu, Yunhua; Gao, Qi; Shen, Cong; Chen, Zilu; Wang, Kang; Yu, Junhui

    2018-01-01

    Background Intra-abdominal adhesion is one of the most common complications after abdominal surgery. The efficacy of current treatments for intra-abdominal adhesion is unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the effect of gallic acid on the prevention and treatment of intra-abdominal adhesions after abdominal surgery using an intra-abdominal adhesion rat model. Material/Methods The experimental rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group, the control group, the chitosan group, and 3 gallic acid groups of different concentrations. All rats except those in the sham operation group received cecal abrasion to induce adhesion. From the first postoperative day, the rats in the gallic acid groups were administered different concentrations of gallic acid in a 2-ml gavage daily. All rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7, and the degree of intra-abdominal adhesion was evaluated by the naked eye. The amount of collagen deposited between the injured peritoneal tissues was assessed by Sirius red staining. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were measured by ELISA. Western blot was used to detect the level of NF-κB phosphorylation in the injured peritoneal or adhesion tissues of the rats. Results Compared with the control group, the scores of intra-abdominal adhesions in the rats treated with larger doses of gallic acid were significantly decreased, and the degree of inflammation and fibrosis was also significantly decreased. Gallic acid significantly reduced IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 serum levels. NF-κB phosphorylation in the higher gallic acid groups was significantly reduced. Conclusions Gallic acid inhibits the formation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions in rats by inhibiting the inflammatory reaction and fibrogenesis. Gallic acid is a promising drug for preventing intra-abdominal adhesions. PMID:29429982

  14. Reproduction of a new inferior vena cava thrombosis model and study of the evolutionary process of thrombolysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian FU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the reproduction of a new model of thrombosis of inferior vena cava (IVC, and explore the natural process of thrombolysis and its mechanism in rats. Methods Forty-eight SD rats were randomly classified into experimental group and control group. In the experimental group, the lumen of the vena cava was blocked by about 80%-90% with a ligature of IVC below the left renal vein, and then the animals were redivided into three subgroups (n=12, each. In group A, the IVC endothelium was damaged and its tributaries were ligated. In group B, the IVC endothelium was damaged and its tributaries were not ligated. In group C, no damage was done to the endothelium of the IVC but all its tributaries were ligated. A sham-operated group served as control. The length and weight of the vinous thrombus and the percentage of the IVC luminal area were compared after operation to determine the optimum animal model of venous thrombosis. According to the best mode to establish the model, the thrombus specimens were collected and detected by HE and Masson staining, and the ED-1 expressions were examined by immunohistochemical staining after thrombus formation in 30 rats. The natural evolution of intravenous thrombolysis was analyzed dynamically