Talk on using open-source software in experimental psychology. Presented on 3 March 2015, at the Attention, Brain and Cognitive Development group (http://www.psy.ox.ac.uk/research/attention-brain-and-cognitive-development-group) at the University of Oxford's Department of Experimental Psychology.
Aerts, Diederik; D'Hooghe, Bart; Haven, Emmanuel
We prove a theorem which shows that a collection of experimental data of probabilistic weights related to decisions with respect to situations and their disjunction cannot be modeled within a classical probabilistic weight structure in case the experimental data contain the effect referred to as the ‘disjunction effect’ in psychology. We identify different experimental situations in psychology, more specifically in concept theory and in decision theory, and in economics (namely situations where Savage’s Sure-Thing Principle is violated) where the disjunction effect appears and we point out the common nature of the effect. We analyze how our theorem constitutes a no-go theorem for classical probabilistic weight structures for common experimental data when the disjunction effect is affecting the values of these data. We put forward a simple geometric criterion that reveals the non classicality of the considered probabilistic weights and we illustrate our geometrical criterion by means of experimentally measured membership weights of items with respect to pairs of concepts and their disjunctions. The violation of the classical probabilistic weight structure is very analogous to the violation of the well-known Bell inequalities studied in quantum mechanics. The no-go theorem we prove in the present article with respect to the collection of experimental data we consider has a status analogous to the well known no-go theorems for hidden variable theories in quantum mechanics with respect to experimental data obtained in quantum laboratories. Our analysis puts forward a strong argument in favor of the validity of using the quantum formalism for modeling the considered psychological experimental data as considered in this paper.
Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing
Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental...... studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the ﬁeld of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology, and one should carefully weigh their advantages against their drawbacks....
Arias, Walter L.
This work sets out historical information about the development of Latin American psychology over the base of education. It reviews the contribution from education to Latin American psychology, and especially, the creation of experimental psychology laboratories in schools and educational and psychopedagogical institutions, where experimental…
The historical emergence of a field devoted to the experimental investigation of effects identified as "social" required a radical break with traditional conceptions of the social. Psychological experimentation was limited to the investigation of effects that were proximal, local, short-term, and decomposable. A viable accommodation to these constraints occurred in the closely related programs of Moede's experimental crowd psychology and Floyd Allport's experimental social psychology. Later, Kurt Lewin attempted to provide a different conceptual foundation for the field by drawing on certain precepts of Gestalt psychology and the philosophy of scientific experimentation developed by Ernst Cassirer. These ideas were poorly understood and were soon replaced by a methodological regime in which a new generation of statistical procedures and experimental design shaped implicit conceptions of the social in social psychological experiments through such procedures as randomization and the additive combination of variables. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Moore, Lisa R.; Finn, Paul E.
Evaluated the first eleven years of experimental research (1973-1983) publications, with a focus on forensic psychology, that were cited in Psychological Abstracts. Results indicate: a paucity of experimental research; a significant difference between empirical and nonempirical publications; and a transition from descriptive to correlational and…
Wessel, Ineke; Moulds, Michelle L.
This paper considers the concept of collective memory from an experimental clinical psychology perspective. Exploration of the term collective reveals a broad distinction between literatures that view collective memories as a property of groups (collectivistic memory) and those that regard these
Nakaike, Ryuichi; Miwa, Kazuhisa
In the present study, we show a simulated experiment environment, VPL(Virtual Psychology Laboratory), for visualizing user's exploratory experimental behavior, and present two main modules of the environment: (1) a cognitive simulator and (2) a system for automatically describing experimenter's behavior based on EBS (Exploratory Behavior Schema) proposed by the author. Users use this environment as an experimental psychologist who investigates human collaborative discovery. They experience many trials of conducting experiments using the simulated environment, and analyze by themselves their experimental processes based on the description of their behavior by EBS. It is expected that learners can notice their errors of experimental planning and refine various types of knowledge related to the experimental skills by repeating the experimental activities in this environment.
Full Text Available This century has seen explosive growth in our knowledge about the human brain and mind due to recent advances in neuroscience, experimental psychology, and neural network modeling, and convergence between those fields. The scientific findings that have emerged confirm that humans have evolved for partnership and cooperation at least as much as they have evolved for domination and competition. Moreover, the findings suggest that partnership interactions promote optimal brain functioning.
Since the demise of introspective techniques in the early twentieth century, experimental psychology has largely assumed an administrative arrangement between experimenters and subjects wherein subjects respond to experimenters' instructions and experimenters meticulously constrain that relationship through experimental controls. During the postwar era this standard arrangement came to be questioned, initiating reflections that resonated with Cold War anxieties about the nature of the subjects and the experimenters alike. Albeit relatively short lived, these interrogations of laboratory relationships gave rise to unconventional testimonies and critiques of experimental method and epistemology. Researchers voiced serious concerns about the honesty and normality of subjects, the politics of the laboratory, and their own experimental conduct. Their reflective commentaries record the intimacy of subject and experimenter relations and the plentiful cultural materials that constituted the experimental situation, revealing the permeable boundaries between laboratory and everyday life.
Wessel, Ineke; Moulds, Michelle L
This paper considers the concept of collective memory from an experimental clinical psychology perspective. Exploration of the term collective reveals a broad distinction between literatures that view collective memories as a property of groups (collectivistic memory) and those that regard these memories as a property of individuals who are, to a greater or lesser extent, an integral part of their social environment (social memory). First, we argue that the understanding of collectivistic memory phenomena may benefit from drawing parallels with current psychological models such as the self-memory system theory of individualistic autobiographical memory. Second, we suggest that the social memory literature may inform the study of trauma-related disorders. We argue that a factual focus induced by collaborative remembering may be beneficial to natural recovery in the immediate aftermath of trauma, and propose that shared remembering techniques may provide a useful addition to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.
Green, Christopher D
The journal "Mind" is now a wholly philosophical journal. At the time of its founding, in 1876, however, its mission was rather different in character. Its aim was to discover whether scientific psychology was a truly viable enterprise and, if so, what its boundaries with philosophy, with other scientific disciplines, and with the earlier generation of discredited attempts at "scientific" studies of the mind (e.g. phrenology, mesmerism) might be. Although at first "Mind" published mostly philosophical pieces and literature reviews, by the mid-1880s it was publishing primary experimental research, mostly by American psychologists who as yet had few outlets of their own. For a time it was the leading journal of experimental psychology in the English-speaking world. As the international competition among scientific and scholarly journals intensified in the 1890s, however, "Mind" started to lose its share of experimental contributions, and with the editorial takeover of the journal of George Stout in 1892, the journal soon became one dedicated purely to philosophy.
Hansen, M S; Horjales-Araujo, E; Dahl, J B
are predictive of the level of pain following experimental pain models. METHODS: A systematic search on the databases, PubMed, Embase, Cochcrane library, and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed during September 2014. All trials investigating the association between psychological variables and experimental pain...... and experimental pain. CONCLUSION: Psychological factors may have predictive value when investigating experimental pain. However, due to substantial heterogeneity and methodological shortcomings of the published literature, firm conclusions are not possible.......BACKGROUND: The association between pain and psychological characteristics has been widely debated. Thus, it remains unclear whether an individual's psychological profile influences a particular pain experience, or if previous pain experience contributes to a certain psychological profile...
Begeny, John C.; Levy, Rebecca A.; Hida, Rahma; Norwalk, Kate
Past studies have examined the contents of journal articles in school psychology, and more recently there has been increased interest in examining the frequency and characteristics of experimental studies appearing in school psychology journals. However, no prior studies have examined the international representation of experimental and…
Delamater, Andrew R; Westbrook, R Frederick
The present review examines key psychological concepts in the study of experimental extinction and implications these have for an understanding of the underlying neurobiology of extinction learning. We suggest that many of the signature characteristics of extinction learning (spontaneous recovery, renewal, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition) can be accommodated by the standard associative learning theory assumption that extinction results in partial erasure of the original learning together with new inhibitory learning. Moreover, we consider recent behavioral and neural evidence that supports the partial erasure view of extinction, but also note shortcomings in our understanding of extinction circuits as these relate to the negative prediction error concept. Recent work suggests that common prediction error and stimulus-specific prediction error terms both may be required to explain neural plasticity both in acquisition and extinction learning. In addition, we suggest that many issues in the content of extinction learning have not been fully addressed in current research, but that neurobiological approaches should be especially helpful in addressing such issues. These include questions about the nature of extinction learning (excitatory CS-No US, inhibitory CS-US learning, occasion setting processes), especially as this relates to studies of the micro-circuitry of extinction, as well as its representational content (sensory, motivational, response). An additional understudied problem in extinction research is the role played by attention processes and their underlying neural networks, although some research and theory converge on the idea that extinction is accompanied by attention decrements (i.e., habituation-like processes). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
El Haji, A.
Property rights determine who owns what. Trade is very difficult if it is unclear who owns what or if property rights are not enforced. For this reason, many scholars argue that property rights and their enforcement are essential to economic prosperity. A distinction can be made between a legal and psychological approach to property rights. A legal approach to property rights considers how the rules of property rights are codified in law while a psychological approach focuses on how humans te...
Yulia Vladimirovna Vardanyan
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. On the basis of analysis of ideas about psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form the necessity of overcoming the fragmentation and lack of system is substantiated. The authors state that one and the same sports situation can constructively or destructively affect the psychological safety of direct or indirect participants of sports events. In this context, it is important to create the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports. Great attention is paid to systematization of the content of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. The created models of words and expressions that convey ideas about this phenomenon are of particular value. In the structure of the concept the dominant meanings, expressed in the nucleus, and additional meanings, related to the periphery of the concept are distinguished.Purpose: to explore the ideas of psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form; to determine ways of overcoming the conceptual psycholinguistic problems in the process of experimental research of psychological safety in sports; to create the model of words and expressions which are used to verbalize the concept “psychological safety in sports”.Methodology: theoretical analysis of psychological and linguistic literature, creation of the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research, modeling of the conceptual ideas of psychological safety in sports.Results: psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports, the model of content and structure of the corresponding concept.Practical implications: Pedagogical Psychology, Sports Psychology, Philology, Psycholinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-11
A gestalt approach to theatrical design seems to provide some ready and stable explanations for a number of issues in the scenic arts. Gestalt serves as the theoretical base for a number of experiments in psychology whose findings appear to delineate the principles of art to be used in scene design. The fundamental notion of gestalt theory…
Timberg, Bernard M.
Describes a seminar which organized a series of student films by characterizing their surface themes and patterns of symbolic expression beneath their surface layers, using Jungian psychology. Implications of student films as overt and covert vehicles of self-expression are discussed. (JMF)
de Freitas Araujo, Saulo
After its foundation, the Laboratory for Experimental Psychology at Leipzig University became an international center for psychological research, attracting students from all over the world. The Russian physiologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Bekhterev (1857-1927) was one of Wilhelm Wundt's students in 1885, and after returning to Russia he continued enthusiastically his experimental research on mental phenomena. However, he gradually distanced himself from Wundt's psychological project and developed a new concept of psychology: the so-called Objective Psychology or Psychoreflexology. The goal of this paper is to analyze Bekhterev's position in relation to Wundt's experimental psychology, by showing how the former came to reject the latter's conception of psychology. The results indicate that Bekhterev's development of a philosophical program, including his growing interest in establishing a new Weltanschauung is the main reason behind his divergence with Wundt, which is reflected in his conception of scientific psychology. Despite this, Wundt remained alive in Bekhterev's mind as an ideal counterpoint. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Klempe, Sven Hroar
In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music.
Portolano, Marlana; Evans, Rand B
Social psychologists might be surprised to learn that their discipline has been cut off from a vast and ancient family tree. The study of attitude change in the context of experimental social psychology began around 1918. It developed into a defined discipline in the 1930s and 1940s, particularly through the work of Carl Hovland and his associates. Unlike earlier specialties in experimental psychology, social psychology emerged well after the 19th-century split between psychology and philosophy in college curricula. Before this period of growth in empirical teaching and practice, the study of persuasion in classical rhetoric was a bedrock of higher education for more than 2000 years. Because of social psychology's late development in empirical science, there is a historical disconnect between experimental social psychology and its ancient philosophical counterpart, classical rhetoric. This article demonstrates similarities and differences between Hovland's findings and the theoretical groundings of classical rhetoric. We suggest areas where modern social psychology might benefit from a look at the older, more holistic theories of the art of rhetoric.
In 1879 Wundt's laboratory of psychology was opened in Leipzig, and it has been the landmark ever since for the beginning of modern experimental psychology. Its founder, Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt, was the first to successfully demarcate the areas of scientific psychology as being distinct from either physiology or philosophy, thus guaranteeing the survival of psychology, which was regarded as an autonomous discipline set upon a secure institutional framework. This paper attempts to clarify the basic facts and concepts related to the roots of scientific psychology in Germany, i.e., the context in which the "Founding Father" worked, as well as of those predecessors who proposed the topics and apparatus of his laboratory. Attention will be paid in particular to the psychophysical methods of Weber and Fechner, especially in regard to colour perception. In this context, an outline is presented of the history of reaction time experiments in astronomy, physiology, and psychology, and of the role played by the scientific instruments. It is shown how the methodology of physics and physiology contributed to the emancipation of scientific psychology and to the formation of its orientation.
Panyukova Yu. G.
The subject matter of this article is the analysis of the psychological studies presented in the Journal of Environmental Psychology. The purpose of the article is to define the main areas of theoretical and experimental research in contemporary foreign psychology related to subject-spatial environment
Schloegel, Judy Johns; Schmidgen, Henning
This essay aims to shed new light on the relations between physiology and psychology in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by focusing on the use of unicellular organisms as research objects during that period. Within the frameworks of evolutionism and monism advocated by Ernst Haeckel, protozoa were perceived as objects situated at the borders between organism and cell and individual and society. Scholars such as Max Verworn, Alfred Binet, and Herbert Spencer Jennings were provoked by these organisms to undertake experimental investigations situated between general physiology and psychology that differed from the physiological psychology advocated by Wilhelm Wundt. Some of these investigations sought to locate psychological properties in the molecular structure of protoplasm; others stressed the existence of organic and psychological individuality in protozoa. In the following decades, leading philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Henri Bergson, as well as psychological researchers like Sigmund Freud, integrated the results of these investigations into their reflections on such problems as the nature of the will, the structure of the ego, and the holistic nature of the reactions of organisms to their environment.
Paradigm-oriented research strategies in experimental psychology have strengths and limitations. On the one hand, experimental paradigms play a crucial epistemic and heuristic role in basic psychological research. On the other hand, empirical research is often limited to the observed effects in a certain paradigm, and theoretical models are frequently tied to the particular features of the given paradigm. A paradigm-driven research strategy therefore jeopardizes the pursuit of research questions and theoretical models that go beyond a specific paradigm. As one example of a more integrative approach, recent research on illusory and spurious correlations has attempted to overcome the limitations of paradigm-specific models in the context of biased contingency perception and social stereotyping. Last but not least, the use of statistical models for the analysis of elementary cognitive functions is a means toward a more integrative terminology and theoretical perspective across different experimental paradigms and research domains. © The Author(s) 2011.
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and social, psychological and environmental-structural determinants of tobacco experimentation among adolescents in Shanghai, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a two-stage cluster sample design by using the Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS to investigate smoking behavior among 19,117 students from 41 junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China. The association between potential factors and tobacco experimentation were assessed using complex samples procedure logistic regression. Results: Of the 19,117 respondents, 10.5% (15.3% boys and 6.2% girls reported the tobacco experimentation. The main social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors associated with tobacco experimentation were having close friends who smoke (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 6.49–10.39; one or both parents smoking (AOR 1.57; CI: 1.39–1.77; a poor school tobacco control environment (AOR 1.53; CI: 1.37–1.83; a high acceptance level of tobacco use (AOR 1.44; CI: 1.28–1.82; and a high level of media tobacco exposure (AOR 1.23; CI: 1.10–1.37. Peer smoking might contribute to smoking experimentation among girls (AOR 8.93; CI: 5.84–13.66 more so than among boys (AOR 7.79; CI: 5.97–9.94 and media tobacco exposure had no association with tobacco experimentation among female students. Conclusions: Social, psychological, and environmental factors are closely associated with tobacco experimentation among adolescents. Prevention programs aimed at reducing teen tobacco experimentation should be conducted at home and school with support by parents, peers and teachers. Our findings should prove useful for future development of intervention strategies among adolescents in Shanghai, China.
Wakabayashi, Kosuke; Sato, Tatsuya
In Japan, Seiichi Terada (1884-1922) was the first psychologist who applied psychological knowledge to the field of law, working in collaboration with the law professor Eiich Makino (1878-1970). Terada's work was mainly in the tradition of clinical psychology, although in his 1915 paper titled "How useful are testimonies?" he described a set of seven experiments concerned with the empirical relationship between eyewitness testimony and memory. This is probably the first experimental study of law and psychology carried out in Japan. This article introduces Terada's history as a psychologist, and his collaboration with Makino, followed by explanation of their experiments. Finally, we discuss perspectives on testimony research in consideration of Terada's approach.
James, Ella L; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Clark, Ian A; Visser, Renée M; Hagenaars, Muriel A; Holmes, Emily A
A better understanding of psychological trauma is fundamental to clinical psychology. Following traumatic event(s), a clinically significant number of people develop symptoms, including those of Acute Stress Disorder and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The trauma film paradigm offers an experimental psychopathology model to study both exposure and reactions to psychological trauma, including the hallmark symptom of intrusive memories. We reviewed 74 articles that have used this paradigm since the earliest review (Holmes & Bourne, 2008) until July 2014. Highlighting the different stages of trauma processing, i.e. pre-, peri- and post-trauma, the studies are divided according to manipulations before, during and after film viewing, for experimental as well as correlational designs. While the majority of studies focussed on the frequency of intrusive memories, other reactions to trauma were also modelled. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of trauma, consider ethical issues, and suggest future directions. By understanding the basic mechanisms underlying trauma symptom development, we can begin to translate findings from the laboratory to the clinic, test innovative science-driven interventions, and in the future reduce the debilitating effects of psychopathology following stressful and/or traumatic events. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
MacMartin, C; Winston, A S
Between 1930 and 1960, experimentation became the premier form of knowledge generation in social psychology. In journals, texts, and handbooks, experiment was now conceived as the active manipulation of an independent variable, and the sole method for the discovery of "causes." Understanding this change requires further investigation of the fine-grained discursive strategies used to promote experimentation during the 1930s and 1940s. In this paper we use discourse analysis to contrast the cautious rhetoric used by Gardner Murphy and Lois Murphy and the more enthusiastic, unhedged arguments for experimentation employed by Kurt Lewin. We argue that analysis of changes in discourse justifying experimentation can illuminate the processes by which methodological consensus was constructed. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Pind, Jörgen L
Alfred Lehmann (1858-1921) was the pioneer of experimental psychology in Denmark. He established a laboratory of psychophysics in Copenhagen in 1886 after spending a winter in Wundt's laboratory. Philosophical psychology had been taught for the better part of the nineteenth century at the University of Copenhagen and had enjoyed a positivistic turn with the philosophers Harald Høffding (1843-1931) and Kristian Kroman (1846-1925). Shortly after establishing his laboratory, Lehmann criticized Høffding's theory of "unmediated recognition," which led to a sharp dispute between them on the nature of recognition. It has been claimed that this was a direct cause of Lehmann's slow advance at the University of Copenhagen. Archival sources show that Høffding, though having a very different conception of psychology from Lehmann, was on most occasions supportive of Lehmann and thus played an important role in establishing experimental psychology at the University of Copenhagen. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Repovs, G; Baddeley, A
There are a number of ways one can hope to describe and explain cognitive abilities, each of them contributing a unique and valuable perspective. Cognitive psychology tries to develop and test functional accounts of cognitive systems that explain the capacities and properties of cognitive abilities as revealed by empirical data gathered by a range of behavioral experimental paradigms. Much of the research in the cognitive psychology of working memory has been strongly influenced by the multi-component model of working memory [Baddeley AD, Hitch GJ (1974) Working memory. In: Recent advances in learning and motivation, Vol. 8 (Bower GA, ed), pp 47-90. New York: Academic Press; Baddeley AD (1986) Working memory. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press; Baddeley A. Working memory: Thought and action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, in press]. By expanding the notion of a passive short-term memory to an active system that provides the basis for complex cognitive abilities, the model has opened up numerous questions and new lines of research. In this paper we present the current revision of the multi-component model that encompasses a central executive, two unimodal storage systems: a phonological loop and a visuospatial sketchpad, and a further component, a multimodal store capable of integrating information into unitary episodic representations, termed episodic buffer. We review recent empirical data within experimental cognitive psychology that has shaped the development of the multicomponent model and the understanding of the capacities and properties of working memory. Research based largely on dual-task experimental designs and on neuropsychological evidence has yielded valuable information about the fractionation of working memory into independent stores and processes, the nature of representations in individual stores, the mechanisms of their maintenance and manipulation, the way the components of working memory relate to each other, and the role they play in other
I trace the attempts to determine the Earth-Sun distance, which is based on measurements of the solar parallax, from the naked-eye observations of Aristarchus of Samos in antiquity to observations of the transits of Venus in the 18th century, noting the nature of the observational errors involved in them. I then turn to measurements of stellar positions with meridian or transit telescopes in the 17th to 19th centuries using the eye and ear method of observation. I show how an analysis of the observational discrepancies in this method led to the discovery of an observer's "personal equation," and ultimately to the birth of experimental psychology.
Meleshko, T K; Kritskaya, V P
To perform an experimental psychological study of gender differences in patients with attack-like schizophrenia in the aspect of pathopsychological syndrome. The study included 80 subjects: 40 men and 40 women, aged 18-30 years. The disease duration was gender differences are manifested in emotional and personal characteristics and self-concepts related with them, as well in the characteristics of communication. It can be assumed that these gender differences are due to a more pronounced presence of an affective component in the structure of endogenous disorders in women which slightly softens the manifestation of negative disorders during the endogenous process.
Miller, Ralph R
This editorial explains the reasoning behind The Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes name change. This Journal started publication in 1975 as a result of a major reorganization of the American Psychological Association's basic science journals. To signal that expansion of interest, the name of the journal has been changed to Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition. This change is not meant to discourage submission of the types of manuscripts that have most frequently appeared in the journal in recent years but to encourage submission of papers across a broader range of topics.
Ainsworth, Ben; Marshall, Jemma E.; Meron, Daniel; Baldwin, David S.; Chadwick, Paul; Munafò, Marcus R.; Garner, Matthew
Inhalation of 7.5% carbon dioxide increases anxiety and autonomic arousal and provides a novel experimental model of anxiety with which to evaluate pharmacological and psychological treatments for anxiety. To date several psychotropic drugs including benzodiazepines, SSRIs and SNRIs have been evaluated using the 7.5% CO2 model; however, it has yet to be used to evaluate psychological interventions. We compared the effects of two core psychological components of mindfulness-meditation (open monitoring and focused attention) against general relaxation, on subjective, autonomic and neuropsychological outcomes in the 7.5% CO2 experimental model. 32 healthy screened adults were randomized to complete 10 min of guided open monitoring, focused attention or relaxation, immediately before inhaling 7.5% CO2 for 20 min. During CO2-challenge participants completed an eye-tracking measure of attention control and selective attention. Measures of subjective anxiety, blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and immediately following intervention and CO2-challenge. OM and FA practice reduced subjective feelings of anxiety during 20-min inhalation of 7.5% CO2 compared to relaxation control. OM practice produced a strong anxiolytic effect, whereas the effect of FA was more modest. Anxiolytic OM and FA effects occurred in the absence of group differences in autonomic arousal and eye-movement measures of attention. Our findings are consistent with neuropsychological models of mindfulness-meditation that propose OM and FA activate prefrontal mechanisms that support emotion regulation during periods of anxiety and physiological hyper-arousal. Our findings complement those from pharmacological treatment studies, further supporting the use of CO2 challenge to evaluate future therapeutic interventions for anxiety. PMID:25765144
Bliss, Stacy L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Hautau, Briana; Carroll, Erin E.
Using an experimenter-developed system, articles from four school psychology journals for the years 2000-2005 (n = 929) were classified. Results showed that 40% of the articles were narrative, 29% correlational, 16% descriptive, 8% causal-experimental, 4% causal-comparative, and 2% were meta-analytic. Further analysis of the causal-experimental…
Koul, Atesh; Becchio, Cristina; Cavallo, Andrea
Recent years have seen an increased interest in machine learning-based predictive methods for analyzing quantitative behavioral data in experimental psychology. While these methods can achieve relatively greater sensitivity compared to conventional univariate techniques, they still lack an established and accessible implementation. The aim of current work was to build an open-source R toolbox - "PredPsych" - that could make these methods readily available to all psychologists. PredPsych is a user-friendly, R toolbox based on machine-learning predictive algorithms. In this paper, we present the framework of PredPsych via the analysis of a recently published multiple-subject motion capture dataset. In addition, we discuss examples of possible research questions that can be addressed with the machine-learning algorithms implemented in PredPsych and cannot be easily addressed with univariate statistical analysis. We anticipate that PredPsych will be of use to researchers with limited programming experience not only in the field of psychology, but also in that of clinical neuroscience, enabling computational assessment of putative bio-behavioral markers for both prognosis and diagnosis.
Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Phillpotts, R J; Wallace, J
An analysis of the incidence of colds in volunteers, exposed experimentally to various rhinovirus and influenza virus challenges, confirmed an earlier report that assessments of virus shedding show a higher degree of infection by rhinovirus in Introverts than they do in Extroverts. The influenza trials however did not show such an effect. In addition, people with higher scores on a widely used self-report inventory of mild psychoneurotic symptoms tended to show more evidence of increased nasal secretion after infection by either type of virus. The specific scale showing the latter effect most clearly was that of Obsessional Symptoms. Taking account of these psychological factors greatly increased the sensitivity of a study of the beneficial effects of interferon.
Field, Andy P; Wilcox, Rand R
This paper reviews and offers tutorials on robust statistical methods relevant to clinical and experimental psychopathology researchers. We review the assumptions of one of the most commonly applied models in this journal (the general linear model, GLM) and the effects of violating them. We then present evidence that psychological data are more likely than not to violate these assumptions. Next, we overview some methods for correcting for violations of model assumptions. The final part of the paper presents 8 tutorials of robust statistical methods using R that cover a range of variants of the GLM (t-tests, ANOVA, multiple regression, multilevel models, latent growth models). We conclude with recommendations that set the expectations for what methods researchers submitting to the journal should apply and what they should report. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miçoogullari, Bülent Okan
Psychological skills training and Psychological well-being (PWB) are two essential concepts not only for general mental health but also for athletic performance in sport settings. However, the effects of problems in Sport Training Scale (PSTS) on sport performance and general psychological well-being have not been systematically examined through…
Lee, Jennifer E.; Watson, David; Frey-Law, Laura A.
Background Recent studies suggest an underlying three- or four-factor structure explains the conceptual overlap and distinctiveness of several negative emotionality and pain-related constructs. However, the validity of these latent factors for predicting pain has not been examined. Methods A cohort of 189 (99F; 90M) healthy volunteers completed eight self-report negative emotionality and pain-related measures (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Pain Catastrophizing Scale; Fear of Pain Questionnaire; Somatosensory Amplification Scale; Anxiety Sensitivity Index; Whiteley Index). Using principal axis factoring, three primary latent factors were extracted: General Distress; Catastrophic Thinking; and Pain-Related Fear. Using these factors, individuals clustered into three subgroups of high, moderate, and low negative emotionality responses. Experimental pain was induced via intramuscular acidic infusion into the anterior tibialis muscle, producing local (infusion site) and/or referred (anterior ankle) pain and hyperalgesia. Results Pain outcomes differed between clusters (multivariate analysis of variance and multinomial regression), with individuals in the highest negative emotionality cluster reporting the greatest local pain (p = 0.05), mechanical hyperalgesia (pressure pain thresholds; p = 0.009) and greater odds (2.21 OR) of experiencing referred pain compared to the lowest negative emotionality cluster. Conclusion Our results provide support for three latent psychological factors explaining the majority of the variance between several pain-related psychological measures, and that individuals in the high negative emotionality subgroup are at increased risk for (1) acute local muscle pain; (2) local hyperalgesia; and (3) referred pain using a standardized nociceptive input. PMID:23165778
Reber, Jeffrey S.; Downs, Samuel D.; Peterson Nelson, Julie A.
This study employed a quasi-experimental design to test the effects of three pedagogies on learning outcomes in a simulated psychology of gender lecture. Results showed that meaning and relational pedagogies, as well as a combination of meaning, relational, and explanatory pedagogies, significantly improved participant learning beyond self-study…
Cho, Kit W; Tse, Chi-Shing; Neely, James H
From citation rates for over 85,000 articles published between 1950 and 2004 in 56 psychology journals, we identified a total of 500 behavioral cognitive psychology articles that ranked in the top 0.6% in each half-decade, in terms of their mean citations per year using the Web of Science. Thirty nine percent [corrected] of these articles were produced by 78 authors who authored three or more of them, and more than half were published by only five journals.The mean number of cites per year and the total number of citations necessary for an article to achieve various percentile rankings are reported for each journal. The mean number of citations necessary for an article published within each half-decade to rank at any given percentile has steadily increased from 1950 to 2004. Of the articles that we surveyed, 11% had zero total citations, and 35% received fewer than four total citations. Citations for post-1994 articles ranking in the 50th-75th and 90th-95th percentiles have generally continued to grow across each of their 3-year postpublication bins. For pre-1995 articles ranking in the 50th-75th and 90th-95th percentiles, citations peaked in the 4- to 6- or 7- to 9-year postpublication bins and decreased linearly thereafter, until asymptoting. In contrast, for the top-500 articles, (a) for pre-1980 articles, citations grew and peaked 10-18-year postpublication bins, and after a slight decrease began to linearly increase again; (b) for post-1979 articles, citations have continually increased across years in a nearly linear fashion. We also report changes in topics covered by the top-cited articles over the decades.
This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…
James, Ella L; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Clark, Ian A; Visser, Renée M; Hagenaars, Muriel A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306194503; Holmes, Emily A
A better understanding of psychological trauma is fundamental to clinical psychology. Following traumatic event(s), a clinically significant number of people develop symptoms, including those of Acute Stress Disorder and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The trauma film paradigm offers an
Ball, Hannah; Goodboy, Alan K.
Psychological reactance theory (PRT) is largely understudied in the classroom context. In this experiment, we manipulated instructors' use of clarity and forceful language as antecedents of psychological reactance and examined student communication outcomes (i.e., instructional dissent and challenge behavior) as ways in which students restore…
Bernardet, Ulysses; Bermúdez I Badia, Sergi; Duff, Armin; Inderbitzin, Martin; Le Groux, Sylvain; Manzolli, Jônatas; Mathews, Zenon; Mura, Anna; Väljamäe, Aleksander; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.
The eXperience Induction Machine (XIM) is one of the most advanced mixed-reality spaces available today. XIM is an immersive space that consists of physical sensors and effectors and which is conceptualized as a general-purpose infrastructure for research in the field of psychology and human-artifact interaction. In this chapter, we set out the epistemological rational behind XIM by putting the installation in the context of psychological research. The design and implementation of XIM are based on principles and technologies of neuromorphic control. We give a detailed description of the hardware infrastructure and software architecture, including the logic of the overall behavioral control. To illustrate the approach toward psychological experimentation, we discuss a number of practical applications of XIM. These include the so-called, persistent virtual community, the application in the research of the relationship between human experience and multi-modal stimulation, and an investigation of a mixed-reality social interaction paradigm.
van Steenbergen, Henk; Bocanegra, Bruno R
In a recent letter, Plant (2015) reminded us that proper calibration of our laboratory experiments is important for the progress of psychological science. Therefore, carefully controlled laboratory studies are argued to be preferred over Web-based experimentation, in which timing is usually more imprecise. Here we argue that there are many situations in which the timing of Web-based experimentation is acceptable and that online experimentation provides a very useful and promising complementary toolbox to available lab-based approaches. We discuss examples in which stimulus calibration or calibration against response criteria is necessary and situations in which this is not critical. We also discuss how online labor markets, such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk, allow researchers to acquire data in more diverse populations and to test theories along more psychological dimensions. Recent methodological advances that have produced more accurate browser-based stimulus presentation are also discussed. In our view, online experimentation is one of the most promising avenues to advance replicable psychological science in the near future.
Furedy, John J
The differential/experimental distinction that Cronbach specified is important because any adequate account of psychological phenomena requires the recognition of the validity of both approaches, and a meaningful melding of the two. This paper suggests that Pavlov's work in psychology, based on earlier traditions of inquiry that can be traced back to the pre-Socratics, provides a potential way of achieving this melding, although such features as systematic rather than anecdotal methods of observation need to be added. Pavlov's methodological behaviorist approach is contrasted with metaphysical behaviorism (as exemplified explicitly in Watson and Skinner, and implicitly in the computer-metaphorical, information-processing explanations employed by current "cognitive" psychology). A common feature of the metaphysical approach is that individual-differences variables like sex are essentially ignored, or relegated to ideological categories such as the treatment of sex as merely a "social construction." Examples of research both before and after the "cognitive revolution" are presented where experimental and differential methods are melded, and individual differences are treated as phenomena worthy of investigation rather than as nuisance factors that merely add to experimental error.
Hughes, Alicia M; Gordon, Rola; Chalder, Trudie; Hirsch, Colette R; Moss-Morris, Rona
There is an abundance of research into cognitive processing biases in clinical psychology including the potential for applying cognitive bias modification techniques to assess the causal role of biases in maintaining anxiety and depression. Within the health psychology field, there is burgeoning interest in applying these experimental methods to assess potential cognitive biases in relation to physical health conditions and health-related behaviours. Experimental research in these areas could inform theoretical development by enabling measurement of implicit cognitive processes that may underlie unhelpful illness beliefs and help drive health-related behaviours. However, to date, there has been no systematic approach to adapting existing experimental paradigms for use within physical health research. Many studies fail to report how materials were developed for the population of interest or have used untested materials developed ad hoc. The lack of protocol for developing stimuli specificity has contributed to large heterogeneity in methodologies and findings. In this article, we emphasize the need for standardized methods for stimuli development and replication in experimental work, particularly as it extends beyond its original anxiety and depression scope to other physical conditions. We briefly describe the paradigms commonly used to assess cognitive biases in attention and interpretation and then describe the steps involved in comprehensive/robust stimuli development for attention and interpretation paradigms using illustrative examples from two conditions: chronic fatigue syndrome and breast cancer. This article highlights the value of preforming rigorous stimuli development and provides tools to aid researchers engage in this process. We believe this work is worthwhile to establish a body of high-quality and replicable experimental research within the health psychology literature. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cognitive
Manuel M. Ramos-Álvarez
Full Text Available Experimental research in Psychology is characterized by ensuring a method that guarantees objectivity, reliability, validity and replication of results. In this theoretical study we propose a set of criteria for the preparation and review of quasiexperimental and experimental research manuscripts, which follows such methodological objective dictates. These criteria are based on a review of structural aspects in experimental research, in the modern theory of psychological theorization, and in the validity theory of scientific research. All these aspects are complemented with those proposed in revisions about empirically-based, statistically-based peer-review systems, and recently refined according to the expert judgment approach. We distinguish between essential, obligatory, complementary, and methodological criteria. These norms are organized according to a measuring tool -the ExperimenCheck2 system-, including report characteristics, antecedents, theoretical development, design, analysis and interpretation of results, format and bibliographical sources, also summarized in the form of a conceptual map. We also introduce the general guidelines of a reviewing process that fulfils scientific criteria, using the proposed evaluative guideline as the main organizing principle.
Wright, Bradley James; O'Halloran, Paul Daniel; Stukas, Arthur Anthony
Purpose: We assessed how 6 psychological performance enhancement techniques (PETs) differentially improved self-efficacy (SE) and skill performance. We also assessed whether vicarious experiences and verbal persuasion as posited sources of SE (Bandura, 1982) were supported and, further, if the effects of the 6 PETs remained after controlling for…
Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Dana, Jason
We develop a general measure of estimation accuracy for fundamental research designs, called v. The v measure compares the estimation accuracy of the ubiquitous ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator, which includes sample means as a special case, with a benchmark estimator that randomizes the direction of treatment effects. For sample and effect sizes common to experimental psychology, v suggests that OLS produces estimates that are insufficiently accurate for the type of hypotheses being tested. We demonstrate how v can be used to determine sample sizes to obtain minimum acceptable estimation accuracy. Software for calculating v is included as online supplemental material (R Core Team, 2012).
M. A. Salyuk
Full Text Available Some principles on which it is expedient to lean in the process of the development of materials of distant educational courses are considered: support on multiplicity of form of representation of information in consciousness; an account of conformity to law of maintenance of information in semantic memory of man; integration of educational information in the personal experience; orientation on the future real professional activity at the design of base of executive knowledge. Application of principles is illustrated by the examples of tasks in the distance educational course «Experimental psychology».
Babaeva, Yuliya D.
Full Text Available The contribution of Oleg K. Tikhomirov (1933-2001, his disciples and representatives of Tikhomirov’s school in psychology of thinking is analyzed. Tikhomirov was the initiator of the Personal Meanings Theory of thinking, one of the leading schools of cognitive studies in Russia. Tikhomirov is known outside Russia as well: more than once, he presented his work at international congresses and conferences; his writings have been translated into several European languages. The paper includes brief biographical information about Tikhomirov. The main components of the Personal Meanings Theory are presented, such as the regulative function of (intellectual emotions during problem solving, the actual genesis of goal-setting, the formation of personal meanings during the processes involved in thinking, and the personality-related determinants of decision making. Tikhomirov’s pioneering ideas in the studies of creativity, including jointparticipation in creative activities, are discussed in the paper. In the last section of the paper, Tikhomirov’s studies of the impact of information and communication technology on the psychological transformations undergone by adepts of high technologies and technology’s effect on their intellectual and communicative activities are discussed; these studies accelerated a new field of research in Russia, namely cyberpsychology or Internet psychology.
The importance of instrument firms in the development of psychology, and science in general, should not be underestimated since it would not have been possible for various leading psychologists at the turn of the twentieth century to conduct certain experiments without the assistance of instrument makers, as is often the case today. To illustrate the historical perspective introduced here, the example of Alfred Binet is taken, as he is an interesting case of a psychologist working in close collaboration with various French instrument designers of the time. The objective of this article is twofold: (1) to show the considerable activity carried out by early psychologists to finalize new laboratory instruments in order to develop their research projects; (2) to reassess the work of a major figure in French psychology through his activity as a designer of precision instruments. The development of these new instruments would certainly have been difficult without the presence in Paris of numerous precision instrument manufacturers such as Charles Verdin, Otto Lund, Henri Collin, and Lucien Korsten, on whom Binet successively called in order to develop his projects in the field of experimental psychology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Begen, Fiona M; Turner-Cobb, Julie M
Acute changes in social belonging are important triggers for alterations in health and well-being, yet research has emphasised the negative effects of 'exclusion' at the expense of evaluating the potentially positive effects of 'inclusion'. This study examined the impact of acute belonging on physiological and psychological outcomes. A healthy population (N = 138) were randomly allocated to 'included' or 'excluded' conditions. Condition-dependent differences in pre/during-task heart rate and pre/post-task self-reports of negative/positive mood, and social self-esteem, were assessed. Included participants showed decreased heart rate and negative mood, and increased social self-esteem. No inclusion-related change in positive mood was shown. An increase in heart rate was observed in excluded participants though no changes in negative/positive mood or social self-esteem were shown. Shifts in social self-esteem acted as a mechanism through which inclusion/exclusion impacted upon negative and positive mood alterations. Results remained significant in presence of covariates (sex, global self-esteem, rumination and social anxiety). Findings suggest that acting to enhance belonging through 'inclusion' resulted in adaptive physiological and psychological outcomes. Neutral and potentially protective responses were observed in the immediate aftermath of 'exclusion'. Self-esteem served as one route through which these effects were transmitted.
Martin, Garry L.; Vause, Tricia; Schwartzman, Lisa
During the past three decades, behavioral practitioners have been applying techniques to improve the performance of athletes. To what extent are interventions, designed to improve the directly and reliably measured performance of athletes in competitions, based on experimental demonstrations of efficacy? That is the question addressed by this…
Rusz, D.; Bijleveld, E.H.; Kompier, M.A.J.
Recently, experimental psychologists have been thinking a lot about how to do research in such a way that their findings can be replicated. As a result, it is becoming more and more common (a) to preregister one's own hypotheses and analysis plan online and (b) to conduct direct replications of
The study of acoustics, harmonics and of music has been providing scientific models since Greek Antiquity. Since the early modern ages, two separate cultures began to emerge out of the study of music: a technical acoustics and an aesthetically and philosophically inspired musical criticism. In the writings of Johann Friedrich Herbart (1811) a scientific approach to musical aesthetics and to music perception is taking shape that reinstalls the listening process as a highly complex and logical phenomenon. By opening music for a scientific psychological investigation, Herbart pioneered the physiologically and acoustically grounded seminal work by Hermann von Helmholtz On the sensations of tone (1863) which the author considered a prerequisite for musical aesthetics and music theory. Helmholtz in turn inspired the philosopher and psychologist Carl Stumpf to further investigate musical perception (beginning in 1883). To Stumpf, it provided a paradigm for experimental psychology as mental functions and phenomena could be studied in detail. These functions and phenomena are the actual objects of scientific study in Stumpf's inductive and descriptive psychology. Combining insights from statistics, ethnology, anthropology, psychoacoustics and the cultural history of mankind, Stumpf and his team developed a new blend of science which absorbs styles of reasoning, analytical procedures and academic convictions from natural history, the natural sciences and the humanities but at the same time identifies shortcomings of these approaches that fail to grasp the complexities of psychic functions. Despite their reliance on the quasi-objective phonograph and despite their commitment to objectivity, precision and measurement, mental phenomena relating to tonal perception and to music provided too complex a challenge to be easily articulated and shared by the scientific community after 1900. The essay illustrates these tensions against the background of a history of objectivity.
Full Text Available The pursuit of poetry and the new science of the mind were inseparable strands of the seminal work of the late nineteenth-century poet, psychological and psychical researcher Frederic W. H. Myers. An early passion for classical prosody translated in later life into a complex, nuanced poetry devoted to the performative externalization of intense psychological experiences of various kinds. Myers was a founding member of the Society for Psychical Research and co-authored the two-volume study of ghost sightings, 'Phantasms of the Living' (1886. He also conducted extensive research into trance mediumship, telepathy and automatic writing, immersed himself in contemporary continental work on hypnosis, dissociation, and secondary personality and was the first to describe the early work of Pierre Janet and Sigmund Freud in English. This work, in turn, inspired Myers’s seminal theory of the subliminal self that profoundly influenced the psychology of William James. Myers described himself as a ‘minor poet’ and an ‘amateur savant’, the latter referring to his psychical research. But despite their minor status in the Victorian canon, Myers’s poetry provides a unique record of his concept of poetic language as an ‘intensification’ of private experience, in contrast to the objectivity and empirical drive of scientific language. Myers was deeply influenced by the poetics of Wordsworth and Tennyson. What he admired in particular was their capacity to reinvigorate the classical contours of the poetic line with modern rhythms, metaphors, and motifs capable of rendering the invisible or ‘subliminal’ aspects of everyday life visible, the most important of these being the laying bare of the mind in the act of dreaming, mourning, reverie, and reflection. Myers’s elegiac lyric to Tennyson, for example, written on the occasion of the poet’s death, is a self-conscious stylistic homage to 'Crossing the Bar'. The motif of the immortal journey of
Full Text Available This paper presents, first, a formal exploration of the relationships between information (statistically defined, statistical hypothesis testing, the use of hypothesis testing in reverse as an investigative tool, channel capacity in a communication system, uncertainty, the concept of entropy in thermodynamics, and Bayes’ theorem. This exercise brings out the close mathematical interrelationships between different applications of these ideas in diverse areas of psychology. Subsequent illustrative examples are grouped under (a the human operator as an ideal communications channel, (b the human operator as a purely physical system, and (c Bayes’ theorem as an algorithm for combining information from different sources. Some tentative conclusions are drawn about the usefulness of information theory within these different categories. (a The idea of the human operator as an ideal communications channel has long been abandoned, though it provides some lessons that still need to be absorbed today. (b Treating the human operator as a purely physical system provides a platform for the quantitative exploration of many aspects of human performance by analogy with the analysis of other physical systems. (c The use of Bayes’ theorem to calculate the effects of prior probabilities and stimulus frequencies on human performance is probably misconceived, but it is difficult to obtain results precise enough to resolve this question.
Wright, Bradley James; O'Halloran, Paul Daniel; Stukas, Arthur Anthony
We assessed how 6 psychological performance enhancement techniques (PETs) differentially improved self-efficacy (SE) and skill performance. We also assessed whether vicarious experiences and verbal persuasion as posited sources of SE (Bandura, 1982 ) were supported and, further, if the effects of the 6 PETs remained after controlling for achievement motivation traits and self-esteem. A within-subject design assessed each individual across 2 trials for 3 disparate PETs. A between-groups design assessed differences between PETs paired against each other for 3 similar novel tasks. Participants (N = 96) performed 2 trials of 10 attempts at each of the tasks (kick, throw, golf putt) in a counterbalanced sequence using their nondominant limb. Participants completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and General Self-Efficacy Scale and were randomly allocated to either the modeling or imagery, goal-setting or instructional self-statement, or knowledge-of-results or motivational feedback conditions aligned with each task. An instructional self-statement improved performance better than imagery, modeling, goal setting, and motivational and knowledge-of-results augmented feedback. Motivational auditory feedback most improved SE. Increased SE change scores were related to increased performance difference scores on all tasks after controlling for age, sex, achievement motivation, and self-esteem. Some sources of SE may be more influential than others on both SE and performance improvements. We provide partial support for the sources of SE proposed by Bandura's social-cognitive theory with verbal persuasion but not vicarious experiences improving SE.
Rose, Anne C
In nineteenth-century science, the emotions played a crucial role in explaining the social behavior of animals and human beings. Beginning in the 1890s, however, the first American psychologists, resolutely parsimonious in method, dismissed affective experience as intellectually imprecise. Yet in practice, feelings continued to influence at least one research setting: animal experiments. Laboratory reports, although focused on learning, became a repository of informal observations about the animals' temperaments and moods. When American psychologists began to reexamine the emotions between the world wars, they drew on this empirical legacy in animal studies. They also devised a conceptual approach to emotion consistent with their expectation of experimental precision. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lacot, Emilie; Blondelle, Geoffrey; Hainselin, Mathieu
Although critical thinking and source checking are basic prerequisites to become a psychologist, or a scientist, it is usually difficult to have students interested in experimental methods courses. Most first year students are tempted not to attend these courses. Such behaviors are reinforced by arguments that "everybody is different" and "people are not numbers." Consequently, students have difficulties to develop source and evidence checking skills, and may be more prone to believe in any supposed expert. This paper presents two ways to involve students during lectures and seminars. The first method consists in presenting, during the initial lecture of the year, a fake scientific concept which students will believe as true. This phenomenon is called the "Bill Shankly syndrome" and it only exists if someone believes that the information is given by a serious lecturer, presenting oneself as a world-class researcher. The second method consists in training students to become reviewers using evidence checking of a mainstream media article which promises scientifically proven ways to be happy. The use of these methods may stimulate students' interest in research methods and its practical applications from week one.
Full Text Available Although critical thinking and source checking are basic prerequisites to become a psychologist, or a scientist, it is usually difficult to have students interested in experimental methods courses. Most first year students are tempted not to attend these courses. Such behaviors are reinforced by arguments that everybody is different and people are not numbers. Consequently, students have difficulties to develop source and evidence checking skills, and may be more prone to believe in any supposed expert. This paper presents two ways to involve students during lectures and seminars. The first method consists in presenting, during the initial lecture of the year, a fake scientific concept which students will believe as true. This phenomenon is called the Bill Shankly syndrome and it only exists if someone believes that the information is given by a serious lecturer, presenting oneself as a world-class researcher. The second method consists in training students to become reviewers using evidence checking of a mainstream media article which promises scientifically proven ways to be happy. The use of these methods may stimulate students’ interest in research methods and its practical applications from week one.
Full Text Available Background. As a number of local documents requires continuous improvement of psychodiagnostic work, one of the main activities of the Internal Affairs Agencies psychiatric service is an active clinical examination, the timely detection of law enforcement officers employees with neuropsychological instability, tendency to aggression and other forms of deviant behavior. Methods. The aim of the study was the selection of additional experimental psychological techniques to conduct psychological examinations of law enforcement officers. As on objective of a study evaluation of reliability, validity and discriminative level of psychological tests has been chosen. The object of study was a group of the randomly selected representatives of almost all the major police professions, consisting of 348 respondents of the male gender in the age from 21 to 48 years old. Given the fact that the screening psychological evaluation of law enforcement officers during periodic psychiatric examinations is usually carried out under time constraints and the urgency to form an opinion immediately after the end of testing, nonprojective psychological techniques have been chosen for testing. These techniques, according to the scientific literature, proved their effectiveness and, in addition, are characterized by a small volume of questions and simplicity (largely - the dichotomous scales. Moreover, it does not require a lot of time to handle them: a methodology «Aggressive behavior» (E. P Ilyin, P. O. Kovalev, 2001, the test «Аnxiety-Rigidity- Extravertebral» (D. Moudsli, 2002, the test «IPC-Fragebogen» (H. Levenson, 1986, the test is «MS PTSD» (NM Keane, 2001. Results. Tests reliability was investigated by determining the consistency of their results by calculating the L. Cronbach’s coefficient α and Guttman method of splitting in half; discriminative level was determined by calculating the ratio; construct validity was investigated by the exploratory
Jónasdóttir, Rannveig J; Jónsdóttir, Helga; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Sigurdsson, Gisli H
To compare psychological recovery of patients receiving structured nurse-led follow-up and patients receiving usual care after intensive care discharge. Quasi-experimental study. Single centre, university hospital, mixed intensive care patient population. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression measured three and four times over 12 months after intensive care discharge. Disturbing memories of the intensive care stay and psychological reactions (that one's life was in danger, threat to physical integrity, intense fear, helplessness, horror) three months after intensive care. A mixed effect model tested differences between the groups over time and regression model predicted post-traumatic stress at three months. The experimental group had significantly more symptoms of post-traumatic stress and anxiety than the control group over the 12 months. Patients from both groups had severe symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Patients with post-traumatic stress at three months had disturbing memories and psychological reactions. The structured nurse-led follow-up did not improve patients' measured outcomes of psychological recovery after intensive care. Patients with severe symptoms of post-traumatic stress are of concern. Emphasis needs to be placed on disturbing memories of the intensive care stay and psychological reactions when constructing intensive care nurse-led follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this project I investigate the use and possible misuse of p values in papers published in five (high-ranked) journals in experimental psychology. I use a data set of over 135'000 p values from more than five thousand papers. I inspect (1) the way in which the p values are reported and (2) their distribution. The main findings are following: first, it appears that some authors choose the mode of reporting their results in an arbitrary way. Moreover, they often end up doing it in such a way that makes their findings seem more statistically significant than they really are (which is well known to improve the chances for publication). Specifically, they frequently report p values "just above" significance thresholds directly, whereas other values are reported by means of inequalities (e.g. "p<.1"), they round the p values down more eagerly than up and appear to choose between the significance thresholds and between one- and two-sided tests only after seeing the data. Further, about 9.2% of reported p values are inconsistent with their underlying statistics (e.g. F or t) and it appears that there are "too many" "just significant" values. One interpretation of this is that researchers tend to choose the model or include/discard observations to bring the p value to the right side of the threshold.
Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…
Lam, Danny C K; Salkovskis, Paul M
It is often suggested that biological accounts of the cause of mental health problems are beneficial in health education initiatives. However, an alternative view is that the idea of a diseased brain may result in stigma and therapeutic pessimism in sufferers, professionals and the public with implications for the perception of unpredictability and risk. Anxious and depressed patients (n=49) were randomly allocated to three experimental conditions. Prior to watching a video of a person suffering from panic disorder, participants were told either that research indicated that panic was caused by biological factors, by psychological factors or the cause was unclear (control condition). Those in the biological condition were significantly more pessimistic about the patient's prospects for recovery and rated risks as higher compared to those in the psychological condition. The results call into question the widely accepted practice of promoting biological/disease explanations of mental health problems.
Thurman, Tonya R; Kidman, Rachel; Taylor, Tory M
Children and families affected by HIV are at considerable risk for psychological distress. Community-based home visiting is a common mechanism for providing basic counseling and other services to HIV-affected families. While programs emphasize home visitor training and compensation as means to promote high-quality service delivery, whether these efforts result in measurable gains in beneficiaries' well-being remains largely unanswered. This study employs a longitudinal quasi-experimental design to explore whether these kinds of investments yield concomitant gains in psychological outcomes among beneficiaries. Baseline and follow-up data were collected over a two-year period from children aged 10-17 at the time of program enrollment and their caregivers, with 80% retention. In this sample of 1487 children and 918 caregivers, the psychological health outcomes of those enrolled in programs with home visitors who receive intensive training, organizational support, and regular compensation (termed "paraprofessional") were compared to those enrolled in programs offering limited home visiting services from lay volunteers. Applying multilevel logistic regression, no measurable improvements were found among paraprofessional enrollees, and three outcomes were significantly worse at follow-up regardless of program model. Children's behavior problems became more prevalent even after adjusting for other factors, increasing from 29% to 35% in girls and from 28% to 43% in boys. Nearly one-quarter of girl and boys reported high levels of depression at follow-up, and this was a significant rise over time for boys. Rates of poor family functioning also significantly worsened over time, rising from 30% to 59%. About one-third of caregivers reported high levels of negative feelings at follow-up, with no improvements observed in the paraprofessional group. Results highlight that children's and caregivers' psychological outcomes may be relatively impervious to change even in
Full Text Available Rates of psychological distress are high following diagnosis and treatment of brain tumor. There can be multiple barriers to accessing psychological support, including physical and cognitive impairments and geographical limitations. Tele-based support could provide an effective and more flexible option for delivering psychological interventions. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility and utility of a telephone-based psychotherapy intervention for people with brain tumor. A single-case multiple-baseline design was employed with a 4-7 week baseline phase, 10-week treatment phase and 5-week maintenance phase including a booster session. Four participants with a benign or malignant brain tumor (3 males & 1 female; aged 34 to 49 years, received 10 sessions of tele-based therapy and a booster session at four weeks post-treatment. Levels of depression, anxiety, and illness cognitions were monitored on a weekly basis throughout each phase whilst measures of quality of life, stress and self-concept were administered at the start and end of each phase. Weekly measures were analysed using a combination of both visual analysis and Tau-U statistics. Of the four participants, two of them demonstrated significant gains in mental health (depression and/or anxiety and a significant decrease in their levels of helplessness (p<.05. The other two participants did not show gains in mental health or change in illness cognitions. All participants reported improvement in quality of life post-treatment. The results of the study provide preliminary support concerning the feasibility and utility of tele-based therapy for some people with brain tumor. Further research examining factors influencing the outcomes of tele-based psychological support is needed.
Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Riley, Joseph L; Williams, Ameenah K K; Fillingim, Roger B
Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response and factors contributing to group differences. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944 to 2011, and used the PubMed bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes; identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli, and measures; and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; AA demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences has translational merit for culturally competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.
interest in diving, etc. I. Inadequate Ego Structure (Lack of self confidence, introverted , passive, etc.) No response 8 8 13 8 6...and recent memory were unchanged from pre- experimental data. No motor abnormalities were observed. In short, there were no differ- ences of any...which of the following activities or hobbles have you been so Inter- ested that you have devoted considerable time and energy to them? a. Music
Background Neck-shoulder pain conditions, e.g., chronic trapezius myalgia, have been associated with sensory disturbances such as increased sensitivity to experimentally induced pain. This study investigated pain sensitivity in terms of bilateral pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles and pain responses after a unilateral hypertonic saline infusion into the right legs tibialis anterior muscle and related those parameters to intensity and area size of the clinical pain and to psychological factors (sleeping problems, depression, anxiety, catastrophizing and fear-avoidance). Methods Nineteen women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain but without simultaneous anatomically widespread clinical pain (NSP) and 30 age-matched pain-free female control subjects (CON) participated in the study. Results NSP had lower pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and over the tibialis anterior muscles and experienced hypertonic saline-evoked pain in the tibialis anterior muscle to be significantly more intense and locally more widespread than CON. More intense symptoms of anxiety and depression together with a higher disability level were associated with increased pain responses to experimental pain induction and a larger area size of the clinical neck-shoulder pain at its worst. Conclusion These results indicate that central mechanisms e.g., central sensitization and altered descending control, are involved in chronic neck-shoulder pain since sensory hypersensitivity was found in areas distant to the site of clinical pain. Psychological status was found to interact with the perception, intensity, duration and distribution of induced pain (hypertonic saline) together with the spreading of clinical pain. The duration and intensity of pain correlated negatively with pressure pain thresholds. PMID:21992460
Persson Ann L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck-shoulder pain conditions, e.g., chronic trapezius myalgia, have been associated with sensory disturbances such as increased sensitivity to experimentally induced pain. This study investigated pain sensitivity in terms of bilateral pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles and pain responses after a unilateral hypertonic saline infusion into the right legs tibialis anterior muscle and related those parameters to intensity and area size of the clinical pain and to psychological factors (sleeping problems, depression, anxiety, catastrophizing and fear-avoidance. Methods Nineteen women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain but without simultaneous anatomically widespread clinical pain (NSP and 30 age-matched pain-free female control subjects (CON participated in the study. Results NSP had lower pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and over the tibialis anterior muscles and experienced hypertonic saline-evoked pain in the tibialis anterior muscle to be significantly more intense and locally more widespread than CON. More intense symptoms of anxiety and depression together with a higher disability level were associated with increased pain responses to experimental pain induction and a larger area size of the clinical neck-shoulder pain at its worst. Conclusion These results indicate that central mechanisms e.g., central sensitization and altered descending control, are involved in chronic neck-shoulder pain since sensory hypersensitivity was found in areas distant to the site of clinical pain. Psychological status was found to interact with the perception, intensity, duration and distribution of induced pain (hypertonic saline together with the spreading of clinical pain. The duration and intensity of pain correlated negatively with pressure pain thresholds.
Mueller, Shane T.; Geerken, Alexander R.; Dixon, Kyle L.; Kroliczak, Gregory; Olsen, Reid H.J.; Miller, Jeremy K.
Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures. Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity), attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall), working memory (Digit Span Forward), and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation) in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22). Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22). Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89) and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31) tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86) and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79), intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63) but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15). Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function. Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net) is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance. PMID:26713233
Brian J. Piper
Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures.Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity, attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall, working memory (Digit Span Forward, and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22. Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22.Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89 and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31 tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86 and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79, intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63 but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15. Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function.Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance.
José Santacreu Mas
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain how and why individual differences emerge despite accounting for biological andsocio-cultural differences, why people behave differently in the same context, and how behavior becomes stable and consistent. We review the experimental work on variability and stereotypy. In animal research, in contrast to expectations, there is interindividual variability in behavior under extreme environmental control. In addition, intraindividual consistency (stereotypy is detected in animals whose behavior is not fully adjusted to the contingencies. The differences in what is learned (the kind of contingency relations among laboratory animals can be explained by: a the differences between effective contingencies and programmed contingencies, and b the relationship between exploration and rate of reinforcement. In experimental studies in humans, learning differences in identical environments depend, further to the above, onwhat was previously learned by the individual (experience and education and the thoroughness and internal consistency of task instructions. From these concepts, we propose a psychological theory of personality that explains: (a how we learn different relationships from the same experience; (b how behavioral individual differences emerge (variability; and (cwhy each individual’s behavior becomes stable and consistent.
Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.
Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…
Liao, Mei-Nan; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chen, Miin-Fu; Wang, Chao-Hui; Jane, Sui-Whi
Few studies have comprehensively examined the effectiveness of information and psychosocial support on all dimensions of cancer patients' supportive care needs. To investigate the effects of education and psychological support on anxiety, symptom distress, social support, and unmet supportive care needs of Taiwanese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer over 3 months after surgery. Two-group, non-randomised quasi-experimental design. The general surgical outpatient department of the largest teaching medical centre in northern Taiwan. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (N=80) were divided into experimental (n=40) and control (n=40) groups. The experimental group received education and psychological support in the form of individual face-to-face and telephone follow-up sessions; the control group received routine care. Data were collected during the patients' first postoperative visit (baseline), 1 month after surgery, and 3 months after surgery. After adjusting for covariates, the levels of symptom distress and unmet needs for participants in the experimental group were lower at 1 and 3 months after surgery than for those in the control group, with the results at 3 months achieving significance. However, the sexuality needs for both groups were not significantly different at 1 and 3 months. Furthermore, levels of state anxiety were significantly lower for the experimental group at 1 and 3 months than for the control group. The education and psychological support components of our intervention programme effectively improved the unmet supportive care needs of patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer 3 months after surgery. Following prolonged treatment, women with breast cancer still have physical, psychological, and information care needs. Thus, clinical healthcare personnel should continually and actively provide culturally sensitive, individualised, and accessible information and psychological support to these patients. Crown Copyright © 2013
I begin with the origins of Loughborough University's Discourse and Rhetoric Group (DARG), and in particular discursive psychology (DP). Rather than attempting to summarize DP, versions of which are plentiful, the article attempts to clarify various relationships and tensions between DP and other kinds of social psychology, particularly experimental. Common sense psychology is defined as DP's topic rather than rival; the aim is to study how people deploy everyday psychological notions and manage psychological business within talk and text, and what they accomplish by such deployments, rather than trying, as experimental psychology is often characterized as doing, to replace it all with something purportedly better. Claims for DP being particularly interpretative rather than scientific are rejected, by appeal to an 'interpretative gap' between phenomena, data, analysis, and conclusions that all research must manage, that gap being often much larger in quantitative and experimental work. The importance of pursuing causal explanations of psychological phenomena is questioned, and the importance asserted, of discovering, through rigorous empirical and conceptual analysis, the normative bases of human conduct and accountability. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.
MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR
MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.
Psychology's obsession with control, with manipulating the experimental situation and the behavior of participants, has often been criticized. Mainstream, experimental psychology, it is said, abuses its power in the laboratory to artificially create docile participants who fit its experimental
Krause, Robert Wilhelm; Scholz, Sabine; van Rijn, Hedderik; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan
Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available.
Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri
In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.
... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...
Canter, David V.
The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime
Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…
In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...
The question "Is psychology applied enough?" can be regarded in two ways. In the first place, it could refer to the distinction "pure versus applied science", and the reproach that modern scientific experimental psychology has little to offer to the practitioner. It is argued that this distinction
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.
Staats, Arthur W.
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175
Staats, A W
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.
Yue, Guoan; Perrez, Meinrad; Han, Xiulan
The following contribution gives a short introduction to Chinese psychology, history, psychological research and teaching institutions and student selection for universities. After a brief overview of the theoretical traditions and contemporary trends in general and experimental psychology it focuses in more detail on the recent developments in clinical and medical psychology. Research domains, academic training in clinical psychology and its applications in modern China are discussed with sp...
Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith
To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.
Krotee, March L.
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine
The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.
Halpern, Diane F
Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.
extent even now, also of Stalin), just as most current Soviet psychological experimentation in psychology proper is primarily a duplication of what Soviet psychophysiology could do as well, if not better. Moreover, there is the longstanding drastic ban on intelligence testing, psychoanalysis, Gestalt psychology, and other to-be-shunned "bourgeois-psychological" thought-and-practice systems, so that, in all, psychology proper is a much constricted and, per se, more ancilliary than basic discipline of Soviet empirical research-a state of affairs plainly reflected in the fact that the number of its research institutes and publications (as well as the number of psychologists proper) is but a small fraction of the number in psychophysiology. Yet, in evaluating our efforts in the area vis-à-vis those of the Soviets, we must, obviously, take full account of both disciplines, Soviet psychophysiology being in all respects a psychology in American terms (60). Indeed, it is Soviet psychophysiology, and not Soviet psychology proper, that is the homolog not only of American behavioristics but also, to a large extent, of all American experimental psychology.
Lucian Gideon Conway
Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.
Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse
Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Adrian, Stine Willum
During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...
Green, Christopher D.
American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…
Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.
Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.
breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.
Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler
Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.
Skinner, T. C.
of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...
of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...
The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…
After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious
Silverstein, Steven M; Uhlhaas, Peter J
Gestalt views of psychopathology are almost completely ignored in mainstream psychology and psychiatry. However, a review of available evidence indicates a remarkable consistency between these views and current data from experimental psychopathology and cognitive neuroscience. This consistency is especially pronounced in the area of schizophrenia. In addition, there is a convergence of cognitive and neurobiological evidence regarding the validity of early Gestalt views of both normal brain-behavior relationships and disordered ones, as in schizophrenia. This article reviews some contributions of Gestalt psychology regarding schizophrenia and examines these views in light of more recent findings from cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and experimental psychopathology. We conclude that Gestalt theory is a viable theoretical framework from which to understand schizophrenia. Specifically, it appears that a breakdown of Gestalt organizational processes may characterize both the cognitive and the brain processes in schizophrenia.
Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.
Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…
Sherrick, Carl E., Ed.; And Others
Reviewed in seven author contributed chapters are findings of experimental psychology relevant to the education of handicapped children in the areas of sensory processes, visual perception, memory, cognition and language development, sustained attention and impulse control, and personality and social development. Noted in an introductory chapter…
The participants in the experimental group were recruited from communities facing living space and personal privacy challenges, while the participants in the comparison group came from privileged communities with relatively adequate living space. The children's psychological functioning dimensions measured were ...
Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi
We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.
Full Text Available Experimental psychology has been taught in Colombia since 1948, with the first training center for psychologísts. However, the first experimental research was carríed out in 1970. Today experimentation is the method of choice for the larger majority of Colombian psychologists. Laboratories exist practically in all the FacuIties and Departments of Psychology. The main ateas of research are experimental analysís of behavior, experimental social psychology, and early leaming. Some systematic research project are in progress with the support of the Colombían goverment.
POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )
Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...
Zucchero, Renee' A.
Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…
King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F
The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...
This paper reflects on the conditions under which Discourse and social psychology, Common knowledge, and the author's Arguing and thinking were written. These books, which were independently conceived, were not specifically written as contributions to 'discursive psychology', for discursive psychology did not exist at that time. Their authors were rejecting conventional approaches to doing psychological research. The paper discusses what it takes for a new academic movement, such as discursive psychology, to be successfully established in the current climate of 'academic capitalism'. Two requirements are particularly mentioned: the necessity for a label and the necessity for adherents to be recruited. Of the three books, only Discourse and social psychology was outwardly recruiting its readers to a new way of doing social psychology. Arguing and thinking, with its celebration of ancient rhetoric, was much more ambiguous in its aims. It was turning away from present usefulness towards the past. By claiming to be 'an antiquarian psychologist' the author was rejecting disciplinary thinking. The paper also considers the intellectual costs of establishing a new specialism or sub-discipline. The 'first generation' may have freedom, but success can bring about a narrowing of perspectives and the development of orthodoxies for subsequent academic generations. This applies as much to the development of experimental social psychology as to discursive psychology. These processes are particular enhanced in the present socio-economic situation of contemporary universities, which make it more difficult for young academics to become, in the words of William James, 'undisciplinables'. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.
Aleksander E. Voyskunskiy
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of using a new experimental technology of "virtual reality" (VR in psychological research. Methods of virtual reality actively become embedded in tooling of up-to-date experimental psychology. Next in turn there is a task of embedding of VR technologies in various areas of applied psychology like sport psychology. Application of modern computer methods dis¬covers new perspectives for sport psychology.
Zinchenko, Yuri; Menshikova, Galina; Chernorizov, Aleksander; Voyskunskiy, Aleksander
The article is devoted to the problem of using a new experimental technology of "virtual reality" (VR) in psychological research. Methods of virtual reality actively become embedded in tooling of up-to-date experimental psychology. Next in turn there is a task of embedding of VR technologies in various areas of applied psychology like sport psychology. Application of modern computer methods dis¬covers new perspectives for sport psychology.
The main focus of this thesis was to determine psychologically-informed methods of enhancing endurance performance, particularly in endurance sport events. There were three main research aims. First, this thesis aimed to synthesise research conducted to date on the psychological determinants of endurance performance. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify psychological interventions that affect endurance performance in experimental research. Learning psychological skills, ve...
This paper considers one theme in the contemporary legacy of Potter and Wetherell's (1987) Discourse and Social Psychology. It overviews the context that led to that book and considers a series of critical responses from both experimental and critical/qualitative social psychologists. It refutes criticisms and corrects confusions. Focusing on contemporary discursive psychology, it highlights (a) its rigorous use of records of actual behaviour; (b) its systematic focus on normative practices. In methodological terms, it (a) highlights limitations in the use of open-ended interviews; (b) considers the way naturalistic materials provide access to participants' own orientations and displays; (c) builds a distinctive logic of sampling and generalization. In theoretical terms, it (a) highlights the way discourse work can identify foundational psychological matters; (b) offers a novel approach to emotion and embodiment; (c) starts to build a matrix of dimensions which are central to the constructing and recognizing of different kinds of social actions. It now offers a fully formed alternative social psychology which coordinates theory and method and a growing body of empirical work. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.
Cheung, Fanny M.
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…
Sharon A. Munyaka
Full Text Available Orientation: The relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment in a manufacturing organisation could have a significant impact on employee intention to quit.Research purpose: To determine the relationship between five positive organisational behaviour variables (authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment and their ultimate influence on an individual’s intention to quit. Thus, it is preceded by the determination of the structural invariance of the measurement instruments when applied to a South African sample.Justification for the study: The study sought to fill the gap in the literature in relation to understanding the effect of the relationship between psychological capital, authentic leadership, psychological climate and team commitment on the behaviour of employees in a manufacturing organisation and how this influences their decision to quit. Such a study has not previously been conducted in the South African manufacturing sector.Research design, approach and method: Utilising a non-experimental correlational approach, a self-administered composite questionnaire consisting of five psychological scales was distributed to 204 employees in the junior to senior management level at a global tyre manufacturing organisation in South Africa. Multivariate data analysis included the structural equation modelling.Main findings: There is a significantly strong positive relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment. Authentic leadership has a significant influence on psychological capital and psychological climate. This results in a positive impact on organisational commitment, leading to employees’ intention to quit.Practical/managerial implications: Manufacturing organisations need to develop and implement collaborative leadership intervention strategies aimed at improving
This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...
Carr, Christopher M
This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine
Mirjana Nastran Ule
The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...
The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.
This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.
Fagulha, T; Dana, R H
This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.
... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...
In 1996 Graham Richards published Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective. Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the ‘place’ of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which Psychology finds itself. In the Higher Education context itself, Psychology continues to be in demand. But what is offered in first degrees is largely dictat...
PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND. DEVELOPMENT. Oladipo, S.E. PhD. Dept. of Counselling Psychology, Tai Solarin University of Education,. Ijagun, Ogun State. Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) ...
Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)
Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)
Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.
Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…
Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.
Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…
Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio
The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…
Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these “extensionists,” asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennett’s theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues. PMID:23525879
Cheung, Fanny M
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Proctor, Robert W.; Weeks, Daniel J.
Harzem recently expressed the opinions that, beginning in the 1960s, the progress of scientific psychology has been deferred and that psychological research has failed to address important social issues. He proposed that progress be resumed by taking up, anew, the experimental analysis of behavior. The present reply provides evidence inconsistent with Harzem's assertions regarding the state of contemporary, scientific psychology and questions the wisdom of disregarding the significant body of...
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of psychological capital intervention on the depressed patients. Method: 62 patients with depression were randomly divided into control group and experimental group. Control group was taken with drug treatment, experimental group was taken with drug treatment and psychological capital intervention. Two groups of patients had been evaluated by psychological capital questionnaire (PPQ and depression self rating scale (SDS , before and after treatment. Results: After treatment, the two groups of patients’ scores of PPQ and SDS both dropped significantly. The treatment results of the experimental group was better than the control group. Conclusion: In conventional drug treatment with psychological intervention of capital at the same time, can efetively improve the patients’ level of psychological capital, significantly alleviate symptoms of depression.
Vossler, Andreas; Steffen , Edith; Joseph, Stephen
The aim of this chapter is to explore the relation between the professional specialty of counseling psychology and positive psychology. Following a brief historical overview of counseling psychology, we explore its theoretical convergence with positive psychology and examine how the ideas from positive psychology have been received by counseling psychologists. We argue that although counseling psychology has its roots in ideas that are consistent with positive psychology, the profession has d...
Nitsch, V; Popp, M
In his famous thought experiments on synthetic vehicles, Valentino Braitenberg stipulated that simple stimulus-response reactions in an organism could evoke the appearance of complex behavior, which, to the unsuspecting human observer, may even appear to be driven by emotions such as fear, aggression, and even love (Braitenberg, Vehikel. Experimente mit künstlichen Wesen, Lit Verlag, 2004). In fact, humans appear to have a strong propensity to anthropomorphize, driven by our inherent desire for predictability that will quickly lead us to discern patterns, cause-and-effect relationships, and yes, emotions, in animated entities, be they natural or artificial. But might there be reasons, that we should intentionally "implement" emotions into artificial entities, such as robots? How would we proceed in creating robot emotions? And what, if any, are the ethical implications of creating "emotional" robots? The following article aims to shed some light on these questions with a multi-disciplinary review of recent empirical investigations into the various facets of emotions in robot psychology.
Mirjana Nastran Ule
Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.
DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the th...
It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....
Yihun, A; Anand, P; Abebe, F
.... Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...
Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko
The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Stephen J. Guastello
Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.
Patton, Michael J.
The responses of a laboratory subject (S) to a counselor-accomplice and to the psychological treatment situation are examined by manipulating experimentally interpersonal attraction and communication discrepancy. Four treatment conditions were set up: (1) topic similarity and positive attraction for counselor, (2) topic discrepancy and positive…
Aarts, Alexander A.; Anderson, Joanna E.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Attridge, Peter R.; Attwood, Angela; Axt, Jordan; Babel, Molly; Bahník, Štěpán; Baranski, Erica; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Bartmess, Elizabeth; Beer, Jennifer; Bell, Raoul; Bentley, Heather; Beyan, Leah; Binion, Grace; Borsboom, Denny; Bosch, Annick; Bosco, Frank A.; Bowman, Sara D.; Brandt, Mark J.; Braswell, Erin; Brohmer, Hilmar; Brown, Benjamin T.; Brown, Kristina; Brüning, Jovita; Calhoun-Sauls, Ann; Callahan, Shannon P.; Chagnon, Elizabeth; Chandler, Jesse; Chartier, Christopher R.; Cheung, Felix; Christopherson, Cody D.; Cillessen, Linda; Clay, Russ; Cleary, Hayley; Cloud, Mark D.; Conn, Michael; Cohoon, Johanna; Columbus, Simon; Cordes, Andreas; Costantini, Giulio; Alvarez, Leslie D Cramblet; Cremata, Ed; Crusius, Jan; DeCoster, Jamie; DeGaetano, Michelle A.; Penna, Nicolás Delia; Den Bezemer, Bobby; Deserno, Marie K.; Devitt, Olivia; Dewitte, Laura; Dobolyi, David G.; Dodson, Geneva T.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Donohue, Ryan; Dore, Rebecca A.; Dorrough, Angela; Dreber, Anna; Dugas, Michelle; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Easey, Kayleigh; Eboigbe, Sylvia; Eggleston, Casey; Embley, Jo; Epskamp, Sacha; Errington, Timothy M.; Estel, Vivien; Farach, Frank J.; Feather, Jenelle; Fedor, Anna; Fernández-Castilla, Belén; Fiedler, Susann; Field, James G.; Fitneva, Stanka A.; Flagan, Taru; Forest, Amanda L.; Forsell, Eskil; Foster, Joshua D.; Frank, Michael C.; Frazier, Rebecca S.; Fuchs, Heather; Gable, Philip; Galak, Jeff; Galliani, Elisa Maria; Gampa, Anup; Garcia, Sara; Gazarian, Douglas; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Glöckner, Andreas; Goellner, Lars; Goh, Jin X.; Goldberg, Rebecca; Goodbourn, Patrick T.; Gordon-McKeon, Shauna; Gorges, Bryan; Gorges, Jessie; Goss, Justin; Graham, Jesse; Grange, James A.; Gray, Jeremy; Hartgerink, Chris; Hartshorne, Joshua; Hasselman, Fred; Hayes, Timothy; Heikensten, Emma; Henninger, Felix; Hodsoll, John; Holubar, Taylor; Hoogendoorn, Gea; Humphries, Denise J.; Hung, Cathy O Y; Immelman, Nathali; Irsik, Vanessa C.; Jahn, Georg; Jäkel, Frank; Jekel, Marc; Johannesson, Magnus; Johnson, Larissa G.; Johnson, David J.; Johnson, Kate M.; Johnston, William J.; Jonas, Kai; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer A.; Kappes, Heather Barry; Kelso, Kim; Kidwell, Mallory C.; Kim, Seung Kyung; Kirkhart, Matthew; Kleinberg, Bennett; Knežević, Goran; Kolorz, Franziska Maria; Kossakowski, Jolanda J.; Krause, Robert Wilhelm; Krijnen, Job; Kuhlmann, Tim; Kunkels, Yoram K.; Kyc, Megan M.; Lai, Calvin K.; Laique, Aamir; Lakens, Daniël; Lane, Kristin A.; Lassetter, Bethany; Lazarević, Ljiljana B.; Le Bel, Etienne P.; Lee, Key Jung; Lee, Minha; Lemm, Kristi; Levitan, Carmel A.; Lewis, Melissa; Lin, Lin; Lin, Stephanie; Lippold, Matthias; Loureiro, Darren; Luteijn, Ilse; MacKinnon, Sean; Mainard, Heather N.; Marigold, Denise C.; Martin, Daniel P.; Martinez, Tylar; Masicampo, E. J.; Matacotta, Josh; Mathur, Maya; May, Michael; Mechin, Nicole; Mehta, Pranjal; Meixner, Johannes; Melinger, Alissa; Miller, Jeremy K.; Miller, Mallorie; Moore, Katherine; Möschl, Marcus; Motyl, Matt; Müller, Stephanie M.; Munafo, Marcus; Neijenhuijs, Koen I.; Nervi, Taylor; Nicolas, Gandalf; Nilsonne, Gustav; Nosek, Brian A.; Nuijten, Michèle B.; Olsson, Catherine; Osborne, Colleen; Ostkamp, Lutz; Pavel, Misha; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Perna, Olivia; Pernet, Cyril; Perugini, Marco; Pipitone, R. Nathan; Pitts, Michael C.; Plessow, Franziska; Prenoveau, Jason M.; Rahal, Rima Maria; Ratliff, Kate A.; Reinhard, David; Renkewitz, Frank; Ricker, Ashley A.; Rigney, Anastasia; Rivers, Andrew M.; Roebke, Mark; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Ryan, Robert S.; Sahin, Onur; Saide, Anondah; Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Santos, David; Saxe, Rebecca; Schlegelmilch, René; Schmidt, Kathleen; Scholz, Sabine; Seibel, Larissa; Selterman, Dylan Faulkner; Shaki, Samuel; Simpson, William B.; Sinclair, H. Colleen; Skorinko, Jeanine L M; Slowik, Agnieszka; Snyder, Joel S.; Soderberg, Courtney; Sonnleitner, Carina; Spencer, Nick; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Steegen, Sara; Stieger, Stefan; Strohminger, Nina; Sullivan, Gavin B.; Talhelm, Thomas; Tapia, Megan; Te Dorsthorst, Anniek; Thomae, Manuela; Thomas, Sarah L.; Tio, Pia; Traets, Frits; Tsang, Steve; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Turchan, Paul; Valášek, Milan; Van't Veer, Anna E.; Van Aert, Robbie; Van Assen, Marcel; Van Bork, Riet; Van De Ven, Mathijs; Van Den Bergh, Don; Van Der Hulst, Marije; Van Dooren, Roel; Van Doorn, Johnny; Van Renswoude, Daan R.; Van Rijn, Hedderik; Vanpaemel, Wolf; Echeverría, Alejandro Vásquez; Vazquez, Melissa; Velez, Natalia; Vermue, Marieke; Verschoor, Mark; Vianello, Michelangelo; Voracek, Martin; Vuu, Gina; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Weerdmeester, Joanneke; Welsh, Ashlee; Westgate, Erin C.; Wissink, Joeri; Wood, Michael; Woods, Andy; Wright, Emily; Wu, Sining; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Zuni, Kellylynn
Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available.
Many concepts in developmental psychology are inferred or confirmed from very particular experimental or naturalistic observations but investigators often generalize their validity to a broad domain of situations. This permissiveness is affecting progress. This paper provides examples of this error and criticizes the tendency to award essences to…
Freeman, Tyler E.
The disciplines of art and experimental psychology share a number of interesting areas of overlap which are unknown and/or unconsidered by many. This purpose of this article is to elucidate topics that are of interest to both artists and psychologists in an attempt to encourage interdisciplinary collaborations. It is only on rare occasions that…
Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer
Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…
Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.
Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…
This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.
Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…
Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf
Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...
Full Text Available The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.
Helton Marculino de Souza
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.
de Montmollin, Maurice
The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)
The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…
Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.
Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,
One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…
Tackett, Jennifer L; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Patrick, Christopher J; Johnson, Sheri L; Krueger, Robert F; Miller, Joshua D; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Shrout, Patrick E
Psychology is in the early stages of examining a crisis of replicability stemming from several high-profile failures to replicate studies in experimental psychology. This important conversation has largely been focused on social psychology, with some active participation from cognitive psychology. Nevertheless, several other major domains of psychological science-including clinical science-have remained insulated from this discussion. The goals of this article are to (a) examine why clinical psychology and allied fields, such as counseling and school psychology, have not been central participants in the replicability conversation; (b) review concerns and recommendations that are less (or more) applicable to or appropriate for research in clinical psychology and allied fields; and (c) generate take-home messages for scholars and consumers of the literature in clinical psychology and allied fields, as well as reviewers, editors, and colleagues from other areas of psychological science.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...
Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly
How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…
Ridner, Sheila H
The term 'distress' is frequently used in nursing literature to describe patient discomfort related to signs and symptoms of acute or chronic illness, pre- or post-treatment anxiety or compromised status of fetuses or the respiratory system. 'Psychological distress' may more accurately describe the patient condition to which nurses respond than does the term 'distress'. Psychological distress is seldom defined as a distinct concept and is often embedded in the context of strain, stress and distress. This creates confusion for nurses attempting to manage the care of people experiencing psychological distress. This paper is a concept analysis of psychological distress based on Walker and Avant's (1995) criteria that identifies the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of psychological distress based upon the findings of the literature review. In addition, empirical references are identified and constructed cases presented. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid, PsychINFO, and Cancer Lit databases over the last 50 years. The purposes of this concept analysis were: (1) to establish the concept of psychological distress as a clear and distinct concept, separate from strain, stress and distress, and (2) to provide nurses with a base of knowledge from which to plan effective clinical interventions. Content analysis of the literature revealed that, although used frequently in health care literature, the origin of the concept of psychological distress has not been clearly articulated and is ill-defined. Psychological distress is a serious problem faced by many of the people whom nurses encounter on a daily basis. An understanding of the concept of psychological distress will help nurses ameliorate this problem in patients. Nursing research related to the exploration of psychological distress is also needed.
Full Text Available Abstract: The commentary presents an epistemological reflection about Dialogical Self theory. First, the theoretical issues of DS about the relationship between individuality, alterity and society are discussed, elaborating on the articles of this special issue. Then, it is presented the argument of psychologist's ontological fallacy, that is the attitude to moving from the study of processes to the study of psychological entities. Finally a development toward new research directions is proposed, focusing on the study of higher psychological functions and processes, taking into account complex symbolic products of human activity and developing psychological imagination.
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport
Charles, Eric P
What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).
S. Mahmoud Mirzamani
Full Text Available Following a personal, community or national crisis or disaster there is a need to provide some form of early intervention and crisis support. The essential components of successful early interventions include planning, education, training and support for those affected. The goal of all early interventions should be to maximize the likelihood of a positive mental health outcome using the person’s own adaptive coping mechanisms and support structures. Psychological debriefing (PD has been described as an intervention conducted by trained professionals shortly after a catastrophe, allowing victims to talk about their experience and receive information on “normal” types of reactions to such an event. Psychological debriefing has been developed and has been at the centre of significant levels of controversy during the past 15 years. Talking through traumatic or stressful events may help the psychological recovery of those who have suffered psychological insults.
This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.
Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø
This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...
Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia
We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...
This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.
This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.
The purpose of this paper was to describe psychological reactance theory in detail and discuss and refine the theory. The paper consists of following two parts. 9. Effects of reactance 10. Attitudinal freedoms
Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA
Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.
Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter
Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.
Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua
Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...
Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.
This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual
The progress of transpersonal psychology is related to the other science. The most higher potention in understanding transpersonal psychology is in consciousness level. In Islam, it has been called as qolbu and fitrah, in Christian it has been called as spirit, and in Hindu it has been called as atman. There is no differences in the terminology of transpersonal and spiritual. The connection condition that makes us related one to another can be explained also in quantum phsysics. This paper wa...
An historical analysis about the evolution of health psychology in Colombia is made, taking as starting point someinvestigations carried out in the field of the behavioral medicine in the decade of the 70’s, and concluding with thedescription of 25 investigation groups that right now exist in many universities of the country, which carry out researchactivities in psychology and health. It is underlined that the development of this investigation field and practice inpsychology have been bound ...
How effective is the Forestry Commission Scotland's woodland improvement programme--'Woods In and Around Towns' (WIAT)--at improving psychological well-being in deprived urban communities? A quasi-experimental study.
Silveirinha de Oliveira, Eva; Aspinall, Peter; Briggs, Andrew; Cummins, Steven; Leyland, Alastair H; Mitchell, Richard; Roe, Jenny; Ward Thompson, Catharine
There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that green spaces may positively influence psychological well-being. This project is designed to take advantage of a natural experiment where planned physical and social interventions to enhance access to natural environments in deprived communities provide an opportunity to prospectively assess impacts on perceived stress and mental well-being. A controlled, prospective study comprising a repeat cross-sectional survey of residents living within 1.5 km of intervention and comparison sites. Three waves of data will be collected: prephysical environment intervention (2013); postphysical environment intervention (2014) and postwoodland promotion social intervention (2015). The primary outcome will be a measure of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) preintervention and postintervention. Secondary, self-report outcomes include: mental well-being (Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), changes in physical activity (IPAQ-short form), health (EuroQoL EQ-5D), perception and use of the woodlands, connectedness to nature (Inclusion of Nature in Self Scale), social cohesion and social capital. An environmental audit will complement the study by evaluating the physical changes in the environment over time and recording any other contextual changes over time. A process evaluation will assess the implementation of the programme. A health economics analysis will assess the cost consequences of each stage of the intervention in relation to the primary and secondary outcomes of the study. Ethical approval has been given by the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh College of Art Research, Ethics and Knowledge Exchange Committee (ref. 19/06/2012). Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, national and international conferences and, at the final stage of the project, through a workshop for those interested in implementing environmental interventions.
Vladimir V. Kozlov
Full Text Available The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative, make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of psychic reality.
The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...
Hulme, Julie A.; Skinner, Rebecca; Worsnop, Francesca; Collins, Elizabeth; Banyard, Philip; Kitching, Helen J.; Watt, Roger; Goodson, Simon
The concept of psychological literacy has grown in importance within psychology education at all levels, in the UK and globally, in recent years. Increasingly, psychology educators and policy makers are seeking to emphasise the relevance and usefulness of psychology within everyday life, within the workplace, and as an element of global…
MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah
Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…
Butcher, James N.
Psychological assessment, a subspecialty of psychology has served as one of the earliest proving grounds of automated technology. This Special Series highlights some of the advances in computerized psychological assessment methods and discusses some of the lingering issues and contemporary problems with automated psychological assessment…
This paper places Husserl's mature work, The Crisis of the European Sciences, in the context of his engagement with--and critique of--experimental psychology at the time. I begin by showing (a) that Husserl accorded psychology a crucial role in his philosophy, i.e., that of providing a scientific analysis of subjectivity, and (b) that he viewed contemporary psychology--due to its naturalism--as having failed to pursue this goal in the appropriate manner. I then provide an analysis of Husserl's views about naturalism and scientific philosophy. Some central themes of the Crisis are traced back to Husserl's earlier work and to his relationship with his teacher, Franz Brentano, with whom he disagreed about the status of "inner perception" as the proper scientific method for a phenomenological analysis. The paper then shows that Husserl was well aware of at least one publication about the crisis of psychology (Bühler's 1927 book), and it teases out some aspects of the complicated relationship between Husserl and members of the Würzburg School of thought psychology: The latter had drawn on Husserl's writings, but Husserl felt that they had misunderstood his central thesis. I conclude by placing Husserl's work in the wider context of scientific, cultural, and political crisis-discourses at the time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dulany, Donelson E
What the title of this article means to me after decades on a university faculty is very broad. It would include topics of my research and writing, of my graduate and undergraduate teaching, and of what I read in the area, including papers that have been submitted to me as editor of the American Journal of Psychology. What I can write here focuses on my research and writing and related metatheoretical views, including what I have considered the deeper and more significant questions formulated in philosophy of mind and submitted to empirical investigation in psychology. Of most active concern today, and over the years, are those asking about the roles of consciousness, symbolic representation, and volition in mental activity and action. Is symbolic representation carried out consciously or unconsciously, or both? This paper recognizes the 19(th) century attempt to establish a science of consciousness, a behavioristic movement that rejected consciousness as being the soul of theology, a cognitive metatheory giving some place to consciousness but emphasizing non-conscious symbolic representation. This summarizes our experimental examinations of my theories of the source of intentional action, of causal reasoning, and of explicit and implicit learning. It also summarizes the overarching mentalistic metatheory I have described.
McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele
No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify practical psychological interventions that improve endurance performance and to identify additional psychological factors that affect endurance performance. Additional objectives were to evaluate the research practices of the included studies, to suggest theoretical and applied implications, and to guide future research. Electronic databases, forward-citation searches and manual searches of reference lists were used to locate relevant studies. Peer-reviewed studies were included when they chose an experimental or quasi-experimental research design; a psychological manipulation; endurance performance as the dependent variable; and athletes or physically active, healthy adults as participants. Consistent support was found for using imagery, self-talk and goal setting to improve endurance performance, but it is unclear whether learning multiple psychological skills is more beneficial than learning one psychological skill. The results also demonstrated that mental fatigue undermines endurance performance, and verbal encouragement and head-to-head competition can have a beneficial effect. Interventions that influenced perception of effort consistently affected endurance performance. Psychological skills training could benefit an endurance athlete. Researchers are encouraged to compare different practical psychological interventions, to examine the effects of these interventions for athletes in competition and to include a placebo control condition or an alternative control treatment. Researchers are also encouraged to explore additional psychological factors that could have a negative effect on endurance performance. Future research
Cerić, I; Mehić-Basara, N
Ebu Ali Husein Ibn Ali Ibn Sina (or Avicenna) was primarily a philosopher with amusing knowledge, who dealt in all aspects of art of medicine, astronomer, poet, musician and psychologist. This giant with an encyclopedic knowledge has dealt in almost all scientific branches or praxis with the great success. Numerous statements of his have been cornerstone of many sciences for centuries; and some of them are (in the era of computers and Internet) still current. The best known treatise on medicine of his is El-Kanun, consisting of five volumes, wherein all medical achievements (including psychology, psychiatry and neurology) of that period were described clearly. In his psychology, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) analyses the essence of human soul, mind, psychical streams, intellectum, dreams and prophecy, man's desires etc. in details. It is unnecessary to point out how much these items are actual in the contemporary psychology. Ibn al-Nefis has described systematically the symptoms and recovery of "head sick" (including headaches, cerebral sick like cranitis, letargy, coma, demency, melancholy, insomnia, nightmares, epilepsy, appoplexy, paralysis, spasm and many others) in his Mujez al-Kanun, that is synopsis of Ibn Sina Kanun. We need much time to see magnificance of this philosopher, that is best known as the great one among the physicians. His writings could be found in whole Bosnia, but there were many few that would study him and his works. It is out task to enable the future generations not only to know those works exist, but, also, to realize the essence of this marvelous genius; because there are very few people that can be compared to him.
Full Text Available Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1 st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01 and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01 in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.
This article explores how French psychologists understood the state of their field during the first quarter of the twentieth century, and whether they thought it was in crisis. The article begins with the Russian-born psychologist Nicolas Kostyleff and his announcement in 1911 that experimental psychology was facing a crisis. After briefly situating Kostyleff, the article examines his analysis of the troubles facing experimental psychology and his proposed solution, as well as the rather muted response his diagnosis received from the French psychological community. The optimism about the field evident in many of the accounts surveying French psychology during the early twentieth century notwithstanding, a few others did join Kostyleff in declaring that all was not well with experimental psychology. Together their pronouncements suggest that under the surface, important unresolved issues faced the French psychological community. Two are singled out: What was the proper methodology for psychology as a positive science? And what kinds of practices could claim to be objective, and in what sense? The article concludes by examining what these anxieties reveal about the type of science that French psychologists hoped to pursue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi
The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…
Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of psychological education adaptability on the mental quality and mental health of recruits of field army units. Methods A total number of 1244 recruits who joined the army in 2012 were tested with Mental Quality Questionnaire of Armyman (MQQA, Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90, Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, Selfrating Depression Scale (SDS, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and self-compiled questionnaire for adaptability psychological education. 568 recruits received adaptability psychological education for 10 times (sessions in the experimental group, and 676 in the control group did not receive the education. Results After intervention, each dimension score of experimental and control groups on MQQA significantly increased (P0.05. Psychological education showed a significant effect on improving mental quality (P0.05. After education, the anxiety, depression, state-trait anxiety scores of the two groups reduced significantly (P<0.001; compared with the control group, the anxious emotion was effectively relieved by psychological education in experimental group (P<0.001. The recruits in the experimental group showed significant difference in 30 subjective evaluation items between before- and after-education periods (P<0.001. Conclusions The adaptability psychological education has a significant effect on promoting the mental quality, mental health, emotional state and positive cognition of the recruits in field army units. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.06.15
Eagly, Alice H; Riger, Stephanie
Starting in the 1960s, many of the critiques of psychological science offered by feminist psychologists focused on its methods and epistemology. This article evaluates the current state of psychological science in relation to this feminist critique. The analysis relies on sources that include the PsycINFO database, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010), and popular psychology methods textbooks. After situating the feminist critique within the late-20th-century shift of science from positivism to postpositivism, the inquiry examines feminists' claims of androcentric bias in (a) the underrepresentation of women as researchers and research participants and (b) researchers' practices in comparing women and men and describing their research findings. In most of these matters, psychology manifests considerable change in directions advocated by feminists. However, change is less apparent in relation to some feminists' criticisms of psychology's reliance on laboratory experimentation and quantitative methods. In fact, the analyses documented the rarity in high-citation journals of qualitative research that does not include quantification. Finally, the analysis frames feminist methodological critiques by a consideration of feminist epistemologies that challenge psychology's dominant postpositivism. Scrutiny of methods textbooks and journal content suggests that within psychological science, especially as practiced in the United States, these alternative epistemologies have not yet gained substantial influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio
The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.
Hayes, L J
The present paper compares behavior-analytic and cognitive treatments of the concept of psychological history with regard to its role in current action. Both treatments take the position that the past bears some responsibility for the present, and are thereby obligated to find a means of actualizing the past in the present. Both do so by arguing that the past is brought to bear in the present via the organism. Although the arguments of the two positions differ on this issue, neither provides a complete account. An unconventional treatment of psychological history is proposed, the logic of which is exemplified in anthropological, biological, and psychological perspectives. The unconventional treatment in psychological perspective holds that (a) the organism's interaction with its environment, not the organism itself, changes with experience; and (b) the past interactions of an organism exist as, and only as, the present interactions of that organism. This solution to the problem of psychological history provides obligations and opportunities for analysis that are not available when the more conventional positions of cognitivism and behavior analysis are adopted.
Brown, David B.; Bravo, Adrian J.; Roos, Corey R.
There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one’s thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students (N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness. PMID:26504498
Brown, David B; Bravo, Adrian J; Roos, Corey R; Pearson, Matthew R
There has been an increasing focus on determining the psychological mechanisms underlying the broad effects of mindfulness on psychological health. Mindfulness has been posited to be related to the construct of reperceiving or decentering, defined as a shift in perspective associated with decreased attachment to one's thoughts and emotions. Decentering is proposed to be a meta-mechanism that mobilizes four psychological mechanisms (cognitive flexibility, values clarification, self-regulation, and exposure), which in turn are associated with positive health outcomes. Despite preliminary support for this model, extant studies testing this model have not examined distinct facets of mindfulness. The present study used a multidimensional measure of mindfulness to examine whether this model could account for the associations between ive facets of mindfulness and psychological symptoms (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, alcohol-related problems) in a sample of college students ( N = 944). Our findings partially support this model. We found significant double-mediated associations in the expected directions for all outcomes (stress, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms) except alcohol-related problems, and for each of the facets of mindfulness except observing. However, decentering and the specific mechanisms did not fully mediate the associations among mindfulness facets and psychological health outcomes. Experimental and ecological momentary assessment designs are needed to understand the psychological processes that account for the beneficial effects of mindfulness.
The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...
Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.
Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A
Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
What is health- and clinical psychology? How do they fit into the healthcare system as disciplines and branches of professional practice? This overviews presents the theoretical sources of the profession, its components and interdisciplinary relations. Outlined are the criteria of being a profession, within the framework of the developmental history of clinical psychology in Hungary and abroad. Also discussed are specific aspects of practical care, both within and beyond healthcare as primary prevention (mental hygiene). In addition, we deal with the current problems of clinical psychology, international and specifically Hungarian, as well as its potential for development. Our main message is that the answer to present day challenges is activity based upon on integrated care model. This uses the framework of primary care and is capable of bringing about the reconciliation and integration of biological and psycho-social interventions. A crucial aspect of this is the role of team-work and, above all, that of the clinical psychologist.
Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.
In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657
Laws, Keith R
Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.
Fiese, Barbara H
To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan
institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the South Asian young adults....... The paper analyses the discourses of intergenerational care as they intersect with everyday life practices and psychological realities of persons. The results indicate changes in the care pattern and deals with the dilemmas of solidarity, which are in contrast to dominant discourses of generations...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...
Plomin, Robert; Walker, Sheila O
Molecular genetics, one of the most energetic and exciting areas of science, is slowly but surely coming to educational psychology. We review recent molecular genetic research on learning disabilities as a sign of things to come in educational psychology. We also consider some misconceptions about genetics that have slowed the acceptance of genetics in educational psychology. Diverse samples of children with learning disabilities have been studied, primarily in the UK and the USA. Linkage analysis can detect genes that have large effects on learning disabilities. Association analysis can detect genes of much smaller effect size, which is important because common disorders such as learning disabilities are likely to be influenced by many genes as well as by many environmental factors. For reading disability, replicated linkages have been identified on chromosomes 6, 15 and 18. A gene responsible for a rare type of language impairment has recently been identified. For common language impairment, linkages on chromosomes 16 and 19 have recently been reported. More than 200 genetic disorders, most extremely rare, include mental retardation among their symptoms, and chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of mental retardation. Although finding specific genes associated with learning disabilities is unlikely to have much of a direct application for teachers in the classroom, such findings will have far-reaching implications for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of learning disabilities and for research in educational psychology. Educational psychology has been slower to accept evidence for the importance of genetics than other areas of psychology in part because of misconceptions about what it means to say that genetics is important for common complex disorders such as learning disabilities.
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
Full Text Available "nHuman beings have always experienced disasters. A disaster may be brief,but its psychological effects may last for many years. These psychological effects are increasingly well documented."nDisasters affect not only those immediately involved, but also those whoknow the victims. This is perhaps particularly so when the victims arechildren. Commonly when adults hear news of disasters they ask first: What about the children? Of course, typically it is worse for the parents."nIn this article the definition and classification of disaster and the effects ofdisaster on survivors and their relatives will be discussed.
Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.
Full Text Available This essay invites to rethink the place of psychology as a science looking to clarify its reaches and itslimits thorough the light of complexity of human being. Starting from biological, psychological andsocial interactive constitution of people, some questions are drawn related to the Western scientificparadigm and its determination of the possibilities of complex thought. From there, some suggestivealternatives are the presented and the five reflexion nuclei are the formulated from which the discipline´sdevelopment can be foreseen, all of them concerning unity and diversity coexisting in human complexity.
Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan
Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.
AUGUSTO PÉREZ GÓMEZ
Full Text Available This paper begins with two questions: Is Psychology a profession? Is Psychology a science? The answerto the first one is that it should not be a profession; to the second, that we are still far from becoming ascience. On the basis of 19 statements, a series of queries and doubts on the scientific status of contemporaryPsychology are suggested. It is proposed that Psychology must necessarily consider neurosciencesand ethology as sources of knowledge; that philosophical reflection allowing conceptual definitionsmust be a priority; that the abusive glorification of experimental method has to come to an end becausethe tool cannot solve the conceptual difficulties; that the traditional emphasis on the factual dimension ofresearch and the minute attention to the theoretical and conceptual dimensions are detrimental to Psychology;and that it is urgent to create new research methods allowing access to the most refined forms ofhuman behavior, such as art.
Victoria Cerezo, M; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; De La Torre-Luque, Alejandro
This study assessed the effects of a psychological group intervention based on positive psychology in women with breast cancer. 175 women were randomly assigned either to an experimental group, receiving the 14-session intervention (n = 87), or to a wait list group (n = 88) that did not receive any type of intervention. For treatment, a group intervention was applied, based on improving psychological strengths and enhancing positive psychology-based styles of coping. Strength-related outcomes, self-esteem, well-being, and happiness were assessed before and after the intervention. The experimental group showed higher scores on all of the study variables after the intervention. Participants reported improved self-esteem, emotional intelligence-related abilities, resilience, and optimism, as well as positive affectivity, well-being, and happiness. The results show a beneficial effect of this psychological intervention based on positive psychology on female breast cancer patients' psychological health.
Dufwenberg, Martin; Gächter, Simon; Henning-Schmidt, Heike
Psychological game theory can provide a rational choice explanation of framing effects; frames influence beliefs, and beliefs influence motivations. We explain this point theoretically, and explore its empirical relevance experimentally. In a 2×2-factorial framing design of one-shot public good experiments we show that frames affect subject’s first- and second-order beliefs, and contributions. From a psychological game-theoretic framework we derive two mutually compatible hypotheses about gui...
Violato, Claudio; Travis, Leroy
Adolescence is a multiplicity of events, experiences, behavior, people, and cultural meanings. This book attempts to provide detailed and in-depth analysis of the central issues related to adolescent psychology, while taking this multiplicity into account. A comprehensive representation of the topic is provided through integration of historical,…
Oscar R. Oro
Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach.
Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu
Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/11/0059-0066. Author Affiliations.
Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.
This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8
Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Papies, E.K.
Scientific interest in mindfulness has grown exponentially in the past decade but, until now, it has typically been approached from a clinical perspective. This volume is the first to take a social-psychological approach to mindfulness research. It provides theoretical and methodological guidance
Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.
The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs;…
Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø
tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...
Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.
William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…
Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…
It is not intended for psychologists alone but for anyone with an interest in the current state of psychology in Africa and what has been accomplished to date in this ... Home environment and social media as correlates of academic underachievement of high ability secondary schools students in Oyo metropolis · EMAIL FULL ...
Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna
Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients...
To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based on a meso...... programming (NLP)...
Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.
Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…
During the past lew years a number of publications regarding the negative effects of hysterectomy have been published in the professional literature as well as in the lay press. This dissertation is a report of a study on the psychological functioning of women after hysterectomy, performed because
McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.
The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036
Nasar, Jack L.
When Plenum stopped publishing its edited series—Human Behavior and Environment and Advances in Environment, Behavior and Design—the field of environmental psychology suffered a loss. Scholars could go to one of the edited Plenum books to find state-of-the-art reviews on existing and emerging areas of research. [...
Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip; De Soete, Britt; Libbrecht, Nele; Schollaert, Eveline; Baligant, Dimphna
As competition for funding and students intensifies, it becomes increasingly important for psychology programs to have an image that is attractive and makes them stand out from other programs. The current study uses the instrumental-symbolic framework from the marketing domain to determine the image of different master's programs in psychology and examines how these image dimensions relate to student attraction and competitor differentiation. The samples consist of both potential students (N = 114) and current students (N = 68) of three psychology programs at a Belgian university: industrial and organizational psychology, clinical psychology, and experimental psychology. The results demonstrate that both instrumental attributes (e.g., interpersonal activities) and symbolic trait inferences (e.g., sincerity) are key components of the image of psychology programs and predict attractiveness as well as differentiation. In addition, symbolic image dimensions seem more important for current students of psychology programs than for potential students.
Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta
The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…
Sergey V. Leonov; Veraksa, Aleksander N.; Yuri P. Zinchenko
The article is devoted to the history of development of military psychology from psychological and philosophical positions. The transition stage in development of military psychology from classical to postclassical type of rationality is focused. Analysis of combat activity as self-regulation system is presented. The latest technologies in solving key problems of military science are discussed.
Sergey V. Leonov
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of development of military psychology from psychological and philosophical positions. The transition stage in development of military psychology from classical to postclassical type of rationality is focused. Analysis of combat activity as self-regulation system is presented. The latest technologies in solving key problems of military science are discussed.
Petrie, Trent A.; And Others
Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…
Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.
This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…
This paper examines the claims of the Gestalt psychologists that there was a crisis in experimental psychology ca. 1900, which arose because the prevailing sensory atomism excluded meaning from among psychological phenomena. The Gestaltists claim that a primary motivation of their movement was to show, against the speculative psychologists and philosophers and Verstehen historians, that natural scientific psychology can handle meaning. Purportedly, they revealed this motivation in their initial German-language presentations but in English emphasized their scientific accomplishments for an American audience. The paper finds that: there was a recognized crisis in the new experimental psychology ca. 1900 pertaining especially to sensory atomism; that the Gestaltists responded to the crisis with new experimental findings and theoretical concepts (Gestalten) that challenged atomism; in both languages, they raised problems of meaning and discussed the contest with speculative psychology and philosophy only after presenting their scientific case; that they introduced phenomenological observations on meaning and perceptual organization into their psychology but did not develop a theory of meaning or solve philosophical problems; that they argued "philosophically," that is, using abstract, conceptual arguments; and that this aspect of their cognitive style was not received well by some prominent members of their American audience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola
.... The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support...
Morris, Edward K.; And Others
Examines relationships between the fields of behavior analysis and developmental psychology, surveying the influence of behavior-analytic research within developmental psychology and investigating the integration of the two approaches with respect to metatheory and methodology. (Author/MP)
Amalia PANDELICA; Ionut PANDELICA
.... The paperis grounded on the premise that the psychology of the crisis is an important componentof the present international context and psychological factors play an important part inthe alteration of consumer’s behavior...
Manners, Ian James
The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....
Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter
Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...
Psychological terms, such as 'mind', 'memory', 'emotion' and indeed 'psychology' itself, have a history. This history, I argue, supports the view that basic psychological categories refer to historical and social entities, and not to 'natural kinds'. The case is argued through a wide ranging review of the historiography of western psychology, first, in connection with the field's extreme modern diversity; second, in relation to the possible antecedents of the field in the early modern period; and lastly, through a brief introduction to usage of the words 'soul', 'mind', 'memory' and 'emotion'. The discussion situates the history of psychology within a large historical context, questions assumptions about the continuity of meaning, and draws out implications for the philosophical and social constitution of 'psychology' and 'the psychological' from the existing literature. The historical evidence, this paper concludes, does not support the conventional presumption that modern psychological terms describe 'natural kinds'.
Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Julio César Ponce Gutiérrez
Full Text Available Psychological Capital has to do with individual psychological resources available to people in an organization which are useful for dealing with adversity. In this work, a practice with an intervention program to develop psychological capital is evaluated. The effect of practice in a sample of students in a Venezuelan public university (N = 15 were studied. Research and theory support the relationship of Psychological Capital components of hope, self-efficacy, optimism and resilience, with positive results in organizations both individually and organizational scope. Hence exploring the feature of malleability in CapPsi and therefore its developed capability it is interesting. There have been proven intervention models to develop CapPsi showing positive results. Practice to develop CapPsi (PCP shown in this paper is based on these initial models. Through an experimental design with pre- and post-test the effects of PCP on CapPsi levels is evaluated. Preliminary results support the hypothesis that through a concentrated training with a short practice, you can develop and improve levels of CapPsi.
Nastasi, Bonnie K.
Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…
Bergan, John R.; And Others
This report describes the Tucson Early Education Psychological Services (TEEPS) program during its third year of operation. TEEPS is based on the position that the quality of psychological services in the public schools can be increased by establishing educational systems in which the functions of psychology in education are embodied in system…
Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn
While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…
Cameron, R. J.
This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…
Dalal, Ajit K.
Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…
Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with
This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…
Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer
A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…
Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.
The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…
Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen
Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…
Igoa, J M
This article presents a review of research published by Spanish Faculty from the area of basic psychology in the decade 1989-1998. It provides information about research on basic psychological processes commonly studied under the labels of experimental and cognitive psychology, plus a number of topics from other research areas, including some applied psychology issues. The review analyzes the work of 241 faculty members from 27 different Spanish universities, as reflected in 1,882 published papers, book chapters, and books. The analyses carried out in this report include a description of the main research trends found in each area, with some representative references of the published materials, and statistics showing the distribution of this research work in various relevant publications (both Spanish and foreign), with figures that reveal the impact of this work both at a national and international scale.
Froreich, Franzisca V; Vartanian, Lenny R; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Grisham, Jessica R; Touyz, Stephen W
Unfulfilled basic psychological needs have been associated with disordered eating behaviours, but the mechanisms underlying that associations are not well understood. This study examined a two-stage path model linking basic psychological need satisfaction to disordered eating behaviours via issues of control. Female university students (N = 323; Mage = 19.61), community participants (N = 371; Mage = 29.75), and women who self-reported having been diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED; N = 41; Mage = 23.88) completed measures of psychological need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy and competence), issues of control (i.e., feelings of ineffectiveness and fear of losing self-control [FLC]), and ED pathology. Path analysis revealed that unsatisfied needs of autonomy and competence were indirectly related to disordered eating behaviours through feelings of ineffectiveness and FLC. The results indicate that issues of control might be one of the mechanisms through which lack of psychological need satisfaction is associated with disordered eating. Although the model was constructed using cross-sectional data, these findings suggest potential targets for prevention and treatment efforts aimed at reducing disordered eating in young females. Our results indicate that young women with chronically unfulfilled basic psychological needs might be vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviours. The observed patterns suggest that persistent experience of need frustration may engender an internal sense of ineffectiveness and lack of control, which then compels individuals to engage in disordered eating behaviours in an attempt to regain autonomy and competence. Interventions for eating disorders may be most effective when emphasizing the promotion of people's needs for autonomy and competence. Limitations The model was constructed using cross-sectional data. Future experimental and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the temporal sequence from basic
Jackson, J; Cochran, S D
Research on relationships between loneliness and psychological symptoms has generally shown significant positive associations across a wide spectrum of psychopathologies. However, such results may be artificial, to some extent, given the high intercorrelations of typical psychopathology measures. In the current study, we examined associations between psychological symptoms, assessed by the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973) and loneliness, as measured by the UCLA-R Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980), in college students. Using partial correlations to control for the confounding influence of generalized distress, relationships between loneliness and individual dimensions of distress were examined. Results indicate a significant association between loneliness and interpersonal sensitivity (low self-esteem) and depression. Other dimensions of distress were not significantly related to loneliness. In addition, no sex differences in patterns of association were observed. Results support the notion that self-blame and self-devaluation are strong correlates of loneliness.
Full Text Available Literacy is a complex cultural and social phenomenon with multiple effects on both, the individual and social levels. This article presents multidimensional model of literacy with linguistic, cognitive, socio-cultural, developmental and educational dimensions. A use of literacy is a literacy event and it means the use and/or presence of all dimensions of literacy. The use of new technologies and the emergence of digital literacy brought about a new meaning of literacy. There are two main processes to stress: (a the writing (text is more and more dominated by images and (b the book is going to be replaced by the screen. These facts raise at least two questions: what is the future of literacy and what are psychological, social and cultural effects of these changes? The aim of this article is to present a psychological view of literacy skills with a very modest aspiration to offer a better understanding of library users and non users.
Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations...... of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...
Biel, P. R.
This PhD. Thesis deals with the effects that psychological phenomena may have on the incentives of agents participating in economic interaction. In particular, I focus on how individuals' preference for certain distributions of welfare among others may affect their effort and other strategic decisions in a variety of contexts. The thesis consists of five chapters. The first one introduces the study. The next two chapters are theoretical and study the effects that aversion to inequity may have...
Shutova, Ekaterina; Lichtenstein, Patricia
Natural language processing techniques are increasingly applied to identify social trends and predict behavior based on large text collections. Existing methods typically rely on surface lexical and syntactic information. Yet, research in psychology shows that patterns of human conceptualisation, such as metaphorical framing, are reliable predictors of human expectations and decisions. In this paper, we present a method to learn patterns of metaphorical framing from large text collections, us...
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to identify differences in perception of work (mental workload among nurses providing acute and chronic nursing care. Design: Study design is cross-sectional and descriptive. Methods: The sample of respondents consisted of 97 nurses working in departments Neurology, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit of the hospital St. James in Bardejov, University Hospital of L. Pasteur in Košice and University Hospital J. A. Reiman in Prešov. To measure psychological strain, Meister's questionnaire for neuropsychological strain was used. Results: Increased psychological strain was observed in nurses providing acute care versus nurses providing chronic care, particularly in job satisfaction, long-term tolerance, time constraints, high responsibility, nervousness, fatigue and satiety. In comparison with the population norm, nurses in acute care achieved significantly higher indicators of factor I (strain and gross score as nurses in neurological care. A statistically significant relationship between psychological stress and age of nurses working in anesthesiology and intensive care departments was confirmed. Nurses with long term practical experience are exposed to intense mental stress (especially in the areas of strain and monotony. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest the reality that variable qualities of work related strain among nurses can lead to physical and emotional exhaustion.
By 2025, when most of today's psychology undergraduates will be in their mid-30s, more than 5 billion people on our planet will be using ultra-broadband, sensor-rich smartphones far beyond the abilities of today's iPhones, Androids, and Blackberries. Although smartphones were not designed for psychological research, they can collect vast amounts of ecologically valid data, easily and quickly, from large global samples. If participants download the right "psych apps," smartphones can record where they are, what they are doing, and what they can see and hear and can run interactive surveys, tests, and experiments through touch screens and wireless connections to nearby screens, headsets, biosensors, and other peripherals. This article reviews previous behavioral research using mobile electronic devices, outlines what smartphones can do now and will be able to do in the near future, explains how a smartphone study could work practically given current technology (e.g., in studying ovulatory cycle effects on women's sexuality), discusses some limitations and challenges of smartphone research, and compares smartphones to other research methods. Smartphone research will require new skills in app development and data analysis and will raise tough new ethical issues, but smartphones could transform psychology even more profoundly than PCs and brain imaging did. © The Author(s) 2012.
King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F
The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenetic effects that occur between humans and their environment in a way that attempts to explain how evolved psychological mechanisms become expressed in the phenotypes of adults. An evolutionary developmental perspective includes an appreciation of comparative research and we, among others, argue that contrasting the cognition of humans with that of nonhuman primates can provide a framework with which to understand how human cognitive abilities and intelligence evolved. Furthermore, we argue that several aspects of childhood (e.g., play and immature cognition) serve both as deferred adaptations as well as imparting immediate benefits. Intense selection pressure was surely exerted on childhood over human evolutionary history and, as a result, neglecting to consider the early developmental period of children when studying their later adulthood produces an incomplete picture of the evolved adaptations expressed through human behavior and cognition.
Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were
Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...
Whissell, Cynthia; Abramson, Charles I.; Barber, Kelsey R.
This research examines the employment of cognitive or mentalist words in the titles of articles from three comparative psychology journals (Journal of Comparative Psychology, International Journal of Comparative Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes; 8,572 titles, >100,000 words). The Dictionary of Affect in Language, coupled with a word search of titles, was employed to demonstrate cognitive creep. The use of cognitive terminology increased over time (1940–2010) and the increase was especially notable in comparison to the use of behavioral words, highlighting a progressively cognitivist approach to comparative research. Problems associated with the use of cognitive terminology in this domain include a lack of operationalization and a lack of portability. There were stylistic differences among journals including an increased use of words rated as pleasant and concrete across years for Journal of Comparative Psychology, and a greater use of emotionally unpleasant and concrete words in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes. PMID:25379230
Full Text Available This research examines the employment of cognitive or mentalist words in the titles of articles from three comparative psychology journals (Journal of Comparative Psychology, International Journal of Comparative Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes; 8,572 titles, >100,000 words. The Dictionary of Affect in Language, coupled with a word search of titles, was employed to demonstrate cognitive creep. The use of cognitive terminology increased over time (1940–2010 and the increase was especially notable in comparison to the use of behavioral words, highlighting a progressively cognitivist approach to comparative research. Problems associated with the use of cognitive terminology in this domain include a lack of operationalization and a lack of portability. There were stylistic differences among journals including an increased use of words rated as pleasant and concrete across years for Journal of Comparative Psychology, and a greater use of emotionally unpleasant and concrete words in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes.
El Haji, A.
Property rights determine who owns what. Trade is very difficult if it is unclear who owns what or if property rights are not enforced. For this reason, many scholars argue that property rights and their enforcement are essential to economic prosperity. A distinction can be made between a legal and
Speech perception is beyond the auditory domain and a multimodal process, specifically, an auditory-visual one--we process lip and face movements during speech. In this paper, the findings in cross-language studies of auditory-visual speech perception in the past two decades are interpreted to the applied domain of second language (L2)…
Weaver, Kenneth A
The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychological distress and its relationship with academic engagement (absorption, dedication and vigor, sex and degree among students from four public universities. Method: A non-experimental,comparative correlational, quantitative investigation without intervention. Study population: 1840 nursing and physical therapy students. The data collection tool used was a questionnaire. Results: A 32.2% prevalence of psychological distress was found in the subjects; a correlation between vigor and psychological distress was found for all of the subjects and also for women. High absorption and dedication scores and low psychological distress scores predicted higher vigor scores. Conclusion: The risk of psychological distress is high, especially for women. Women seem to have a higher level of psychological distress than men. Vigor, energy and mental resilience positively influence psychological distress and can be a vehicle for better results during the learning and studying process.
In this article, we will attempt to address one of the most outstanding and influential thinkers of the past century: Michel Foucault, Philosopher, Psychologist, and above all (university) Professor. Michel Foucault is certainly versatile: Historian (of madness, clinical practice, imprisonment and sexuality), Archaeologist (of knowledge), Analyst (of discourse and power relations), Psychologist (genealogy of subjectivity) and Philosopher (of power and the subject). With this article, we eventually expect to offer some clues to be able to use the work of Michel Foucault for the problematization of Psychology.
Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative research is a research method studying subjective meaning of participant’s world about an object researched. Steps of qualitative research in psychology are: researchers select research topic, researchers formulate research questions, researchers design the study, researchers collect data, researchers analyses data, researchers generate findings, researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research designs are grounded research, phenomenology research, case study research, and ethnography research. In some situations, researchers often meet questions that reach beyond the prescription of the APA ethical guidelines concerning human participants. Researchers of qualitative research in psychology can generalize their research findings to other people, times, or treatments to the degree to which they are similar to other people, times, or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies for expanding qualitative research as a research approach so the methodology can be accepted as one significant method in understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.
Hülya Aşçı, F
The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in psychological effects of exercise on university students. University students (73 female and 65 male) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups by equating sex in each group. The experimental group participated in step dance sessions of 50 min per day, 3 days per week for 10 weeks with 60-80% of their heart rate reserves. Throughout the 10-week period, the lecture control group was told not to participate in any organized or structured exercise and participated in a lecture that was about the physiological and psychological benefits of exercise. Self-concept, belief in external control, and trait anxiety of the groups were measured before and after the exercise program. A significant improvement in the psychological variables after the exercise program and more improvement for female exercise participants were expected. Analysis revealed no significant initial differences in self-concept, belief in external control, and trait anxiety between the two groups or between males and females, other than family and moral/ethical self. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that exercise led to less belief in external control and significant improvement in physical self and identity dimensions of self-concept for the experimental group compared to the control group. However, there was no significant difference in trait anxiety between the two groups after exercise (p>.05). Analysis also revealed that changes in belief in external control, trait anxiety, and self-concept did not differ with regard to sex. Males and females showed no difference in their improvement on trait anxiety, belief in external control, and most dimensions of self-concept during the 10 weeks. Only changes in personal and physical self throughout 10-week period were different for males and females. Exerciser males improved their personal self and physical self scores more than female exercisers and male and female
What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...... meaning, and posits psychology as one of the critical methods of organizing normative values in society; at the same time it carefully notes the discipline’s history of being sidetracked by overemphasis on theoretical constructs and physical causes—what the author terms “the psychologizing of morality...
This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative variation on a monomorphic design allows us to incorporate heritable individual differences in evolved adaptations. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, which is one consequence of the integration of evolutionary psychology and intelligence research, can potentially explain why less intelligent individuals enjoy TV more, why liberals are more intelligent than conservatives, and why night owls are more intelligent than morning larks, among many other findings. The general approach proposed here will allow us to integrate evolutionary psychology with any other aspect of differential psychology. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.
Neal, Tess M S
This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This article serves to broadly address formalist approaches to rendering natural settings psychological in cinema, or, in other words, mobilizing landscapes to function beyond their usual function as narrative backdrop. By “formalist” it should be understood that such an approach to visual representation is both inherently aggressive and experimental, where one implies the other, especially when compared to more realist modes of expression. Instead of human characters portrayed within an authenticating wilderness, as in the typical classical Hollywood Western, the precise topography of the landscape becomes reflective of a particular human consciousness.
Pirlott, Angela G; MacKinnon, David P
Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i.e., the relationship between the mediating and dependent variables is correlational. Although researchers likely know that correlational studies pose a risk of confounding, this problem seems forgotten when thinking about experimental designs randomly assigning participants to levels of the independent variable and measuring the mediator (i.e., "measurement-of-mediation" designs). Experimentally manipulating the mediator provides an approach to solving these problems, yet these methods contain their own set of challenges (e.g., Bullock, Green, & Ha, 2010). We describe types of experimental manipulations targeting the mediator (manipulations demonstrating a causal effect of the mediator on the dependent variable and manipulations targeting the strength of the causal effect of the mediator) and types of experimental designs (double randomization, concurrent double randomization, and parallel), provide published examples of the designs, and discuss the strengths and challenges of each design. Therefore, the goals of this paper include providing a practical guide to manipulation-of-mediator designs in light of their challenges and encouraging researchers to use more rigorous approaches to mediation because manipulation-of-mediator designs strengthen the ability to infer causality of the mediating variable on the dependent variable.
To propose recommendations for women's counseling in abortion request and the psychological experience of orthogenic teams. Bibliographic search in the Medline database, PubMed, Cochrane Database Library, EM Premium bases, ENT Unistra and Cairn from 1990 to 2016. During the pre-abortion consultations, it is recommended to respect the choice of the woman on to see or not the ultrasound images (gradeC) and determine with her the time it needs to perform abortion (professional agreement). Women's satisfaction seems greater when they have the possibility to choose the abortion method (grade B). It is therefore important that both methods are available to all gestational ages (professional agreement). There is no relationship between an increase in psychiatric disorders and induced abortion (NP2). Meetings for professionals are useful and should, to the extent possible, be established (professional agreement). Improving psychological support for women involve listening them and respect their choice. This also involves thinking as a team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.
Vrij, Aldert; Meissner, Christian A; Fisher, Ronald P; Kassin, Saul M; Morgan, Charles A; Kleinman, Steven M
Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate. Third, harsh interrogation methods make lie detection difficult. Analyzing speech content and eliciting verifiable details are the most reliable cues to assessing credibility; however, to elicit such cues subjects must be encouraged to provide extensive narratives, something that does not occur in harsh interrogations. Evidence is accumulating for the effectiveness of rapport-based information-gathering approaches as an alternative to harsh interrogations. Such approaches promote cooperation, enhance recall of relevant and reliable information, and facilitate assessments of credibility. Given the available evidence that torture is ineffective, why might some laypersons, policymakers, and interrogation personnel support the use of torture? We conclude our review by offering a psychological perspective on this important question.
Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.
Tonello, Graciela; Jakovcevic, Adriana
One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive ...
The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...
Full Text Available The first Journal of Transpersonal Psychology was published in 1969. Since this signal event, transpersonal psychology has emerged as a field of theory and application. A way has been made in Western psychology for the appreciation and study of interior subjective awareness, the domain of spiritual experience. One of the most recent contributions, the Wilber-Combs Lattice, offers a typology to account for both developmental processes throughout the human life span, as well as different qualities of spiritual experience.
Collins, Jennifer; Meng, Chelsea; Eng, Anna
The causes of severe obesity are multifactorial and include metabolic, dietary, physical, and psychological aspects. Additionally, the impact of severe obesity affects more than one's physical health. This article attempts to explore the psychological impact of severe obesity specifically in the areas of mood, eating disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and quality of life. Additionally, obesity treatment options of lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery that include psychological assessment and/or cognitive behavioral intervention are discussed.
The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching Psychology to Computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where Psychology is relevant to Computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students’ education. The second aim is to consider findings from research investigating the characteristics of Computing and Psychology students. It is proposed that this information could be considered in the de...
Fransen, Katrien; Vande Broek, Gert
The application of sport psychology is often overlooked in favor of the more familiar training of physical abilities and technical volleyball skills. Sport psychology interventions are too often perceived as the last call for help if all else has failed to generate success. However, sport psychology is much more than picking up the pieces after a defeat and instead should be regarded as a very useful tool in all stages of the training and coaching process. The present chapter will outline the...
Title: Psychological preparation in sport shooting Objectives: The objective of this thesis is usage of psychological preparation by sport shooting representation team in Czech Republic. How they are informed about psychological preparation. What it means to them. Which types of regulation they use and how they behave before and after a competition. Methods: A Questionnaire was used as a method for data obtaining. The questionnaire was compiled for the purposes of this Thesis. The researched ...
Greenberg, Gary; Partridge, Ty; Mosack, Victoria; Lambdin, Charles
In this paper we argue that psychology should be understood as a developmental science, and we place the discipline squarely in the realm of the natural sciences. The case is made that scientific progress in psychology has been (and still is) impeded by prolonged misadventures down conceptual dead ends such as biological reductionism, the nature/nurture debate, evolutionary psychology, and the persistent insistence on emphasizing dependent variables that defy observation and measurement, such...
This research explores the impact of student use of energy psychology techniques in the classroom setting. The descriptive design quasi-experimental study also examines how energy psychology techniques used in the classroom are related to age and gender by use of the survey method. Questionnaire packets were administered to seventy-five college…
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Friederike Range for outstanding contributions to the understanding of the complex social minds of nonhuman animals. Through ingenious experimental approaches,…
One group of introductory psychology students received a moderate infusion of generic critical thinking material. The other group did not. Otherwise both groups had the same course content, and took the same pretests and posttests of their critical thinking ability and their knowledge of psychology. The experimental group improved its critical…
Silverman, Michael J.
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of positive peer reinforcement on self-reported psychological measures and songleading performance in beginning guitar students. No differences were found between the control group (n = 21) and the experimental group (n = 20) concerning psychological measures of self-esteem, stress, and…
Kucera, Dalibor; Havigerová, Jana M.
The paper deals with the issue of computational psycholinguistic analysis (CPA) and its experimental application in basic psychological and pedagogical assessment. CPA is a new method which may potentially provide interesting, psychologically relevant information about the author of a particular text, regardless of the text's factual (semantic)…
Adair, John G.; Vohra, Neharika
Examines the knowledge explosion's affect on researchers' writing, referencing, and citing. Counts of references within empirical journal articles in sociology, physics, biology, and experimental and social psychology reveal effects of the knowledge explosion in all disciplines, particularly within psychology. Results illustrate how substantial…
Full Text Available Sport with its emphasised efficiency component clearly reflects cognitive contents and the way they are linked to experience and behaviour. Beliefs, subjective judgements, attitudes, etc. define the attitude to sport, training, competition and results. Their contents can be defined by a psychological examination. We assess their meaning, appropriateness or inappropriateness. They can also be changed by using diverse cognitive-behavioural or reeducative procedures. Psychological work is carried out through systematic psychological preparation, crisis interventions and special psychological preparation within the framework of a training process. Cognitive forms of work represent a significant part of ideomotor, verbal, intellectual and situational training.
Wall, W. D.
This paper is as much an attempt to catch some of the flavor of the man Peel as it is an exegesis of his work. It traces his special interests and contributions, especially his experimental extensions of Piaget in the realm of adolescent psychology. (Author/SJL)
The study was an experimental field that investigated short-term memory and digit span among the psychology students in federal and state universities in Lagos State, Nigeria. Memory is the process involved in retaining, retrieving and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas and skills after original ...
Ryan, Tracey Ellen; Blau, Shawn; Grozeva, Dima
This article describes an experimental undergraduate psychology course that ran for two semesters during the 2009 academic year at a private, urban university in the United States. Students learned the techniques and strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) with a focus on the practical elements…
The study examined the effectiveness of psycho-education training in the enhancement of the psychological well-being of spouse of incarcerated males in Ibadan, Nigeria. Using the pre-test and post-test quasi experimental research design, a total of 16 spouses of male inmates in Ibadan participated in the study. The ages ...
Donald E. Aylor
The physical mechanisms governing sound attenuation by foliage, stems, and ground are reviewed. Reflection of sound energy is found to be the primary mechanism. In addition, new experimental results are discussed that help to quantify the psychological effect of a plant barrier on perceived noise level. Listeners judged the loudness of noise transmitted through hemlock...
Morys-Carter, Wakefield L.; Paltoglou, Aspasia E.; Davies, Emma L.
Statistics and Research Methods modules are often unpopular with psychology students; however, at Oxford Brookes University the seminar component of the second-year research methods module tends to get very positive feedback. Over half of the seminars work towards the submission of a research-based experimental lab report. This article introduces…
Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 18 on psychological preparation of competitive judokas. These studies were grouped according to the type of study performed - observational, experimental, and case studies. In addition, five psychological categories were identified: (a imagery, (b motivation, (c stress, anxiety, and mood states, (d eating attitudes and weight control, and (e coach/athlete interactions. The main findings of this review are that (a there is a lack of data regarding the use of imagery to improve judo performance; (b goal involvement states of competitive judokas fluctuate and undergo abrupt changes during actual combat, according to the ecological constraints of the situation; (c cortisol levels and somatic and cognitive anxiety tend to increase prior to and during a judo combat; (d weight reduction programs that judokas undergo prior to a judo combat can lead to unpleasant moods, and cultural differences can lead to conflicting results; (e psychological preparation plans should be tailored to each individual judoka, as there can be significant individual differences among the judokas. Based on the findings of our review, a number of research limitations and methodological concerns are discussed
Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.
An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…
Awad, Sarah H.
Introducing psychology to first year students comes with its own challenges of presenting it in a clear introductory manner, yet also triggering students to think critically about the theories they are presented with. If we were to think of social psychology as a discipline that mutually influences...
Full Text Available The article reflects the results of influence the conditions of work upon psychological and psychophysiologic status of stomatological staff. The results revealed that labor activity of stomatological staff influences on their functional condition and capacity for work. Changes of psychological, psychophysiologic indices and motoric characteristics proved it.
This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…
Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…
Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.; VandenBos, Gary R.
With the rapid expansion of scientific information at the end of the 19th century, disciplines sought ways to keep their members abreast of the relevant research. Those pressures were felt in the science of psychology in the United States, where psychologists developed a bibliographic aid, The Psychological Index, in 1895 only a little more than a…
Todorović Milorad V.
Full Text Available Academic psychology has interpreted the development of neuro-biological sciences, especially neurobiological psychology, as the death of the soul and the disappearance of its hermeneutic dimension. One could ask maliciously why the need to look so deeply for the meaning sought by the Soul and "speech-being", at a time when the secrets of neurons are successfully decoded, as well as their chemical and electrical activity. It would be a huge mistake to think, by following the achievements of the so-called empirical research in psychology and works that can be published only in Serbian journal Psihologija, that the same cognitive schemes can equally well explaine the behavior of individual cells and individual behavior. Fortunately, the subject’s soul, which is believed to have been banished from the "real", "true" science, and biological theories, returns even under the banner of cognitivism. Academic psychology would still have to ask what has always been its primary objective: what constitutes the soul; what types of ideas, what kind of logical diversity constitutes the soul. Psychology does not have to know the answer, but it must be noted that only dynamic psychology seeks one. So, for the sake of psychology as praxis, dynamic psychology should be a syllabus in the education of future psychologists, who would not imitate otorhinolaryngologists or ophthalmologists.
According to Jean Piaget (1970), psychology is applicable to all human activities and situations, education and psychotherapy, work and leisure in nearly all sectors of employment particularly in the military (emphasis mine). There are however some individuals who believe that psychology might only be applicable to the ...
Hazel, Kelly L; Onaga, Esther
This paper describes the origin of the Experimental Social Innovation and Dissemination model and its contribution to and intersection with community psychology. It also discusses the challenges presented to ESID by community psychology's growing emphasis on cultural diversity and participatory approaches to research and intervention. It concludes with an overview of the papers presented in the special issue.
Kouris, A; Platsidaki, E; Kouskoukis, C; Christodoulou, C
Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory scaling dermatosis. The marked visible appearance of the lesions have a negative impact on body image that leads to decreased self-esteem, hence seriously compromising the patient's quality of life. The clinical picture critically affects the social well-being of the patient since the disease is commonly misunderstood and feared by the social environment as being contagious. The patient feels stigmatized and this further intensifies their lack of self-confidence and self-esteem. Feelings of shame and guilt increase the tendency toward suicidal ideation. The poor quality of life of psoriatic patients has been associated with excessive alcohol consumption, increased smoking and greater use of tranquilizers, sedatives and antidepressants. As far as mental impairment is concerned, a correlation has been found between psychological stress and the clinical severity of symptoms: the more mentally affected the patient, the more severe the dermatologic lesions. Similarly, stressful life events constitute a major risk for the occurrence and recurrence, exacerbating the severity and duration of the symptoms. Depression and anxiety can worsen the disease or cause resistance to treatment or patient's indifference, which in turn can lead to expensive and prolonged treatment. Not least, the disease itself contributes to anxiety, depression and psychological stress, thus creating a "vicious circle" that is difficult to manage. Given that women seem to invest more in their personal appearance than men, it is hardly surprising that female psoriatic patients report higher levels of depression. Similarly, the risk of mental disorders is also higher in younger patients for whom body image plays an equally significant role. The severity of the disease, side effects of therapy and mental disorders are among the causes that have been attributed to sexual dysfunction reported by some psoriatic patients. At the social level, stigma, social rejection
Abstract The history of psychology within introductory psychology textbooks is the focus of a discourse analysis (DA), to explore how it constructs the scientific status of the discipline that it is chronicling. Given the importance of Psychology’s scientific status to retain its cultural authority, and the lack of a clear demarcation between science and other forms of knowledge producing activities, there is a need to understand better how psychological knowledge came to be seen as scie...
Avey, James B.; Richmond, F. Lynn; Nixon, Don R.
Using an experimental research design, 191 working adults were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions in order to test a theoretical model linking leader and follower positive psychological capital (PsyCap). Multiple methods were used to gather information from the participants. We found when leader PsyCap was manipulated experimentally,…
Santiago-Delefosse, Marie; Del Rio Carral, Maria
This article traces the historical evolution of ongoing theoretical debates in psychology in France from the 1940s until today. Its aim is to show how the conjunction of certain conditions was determinant for a rapid expansion of American-derived mainstream health psychology during the 1980s. The authors describe the French context in the post-World War II period that made possible the introduction of psychology courses at the university, which included the tensions between two epistemological orientations: experimental psychology and clinical psychology, the latter partly inspired by Politzer's concrete psychology. We also outline the process that led to the implementation of 'clinical psychology in health settings' in the 1950s, under the influence of Daniel Lagache. Furthermore, the strong critiques that were made to the new psychology profession in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s are examined against oppositions among psychologists, psychiatrists, philosophers and psychoanalysts. Moreover, we discuss how under turbulent conditions, a pragmatic-oriented psychology arriving from the United States was smoothly and rapidly introduced in France during the 1980s, promoting a socio-cognitive framework and offering new career perspectives. But the French dissension to this new sub-discipline will also be considered. Finally, our conclusion reflects upon future implications of ongoing rivalries between different approaches to psychology. It underlines a growing interest in critical perspectives developed in Anglo-Saxon cultures which are being applied, by French academics and practitioners who work in psychology in health settings.
Gorczyca, Rafał; Filip, Rafał; Walczak, Ewa
Pain is defined "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". Pain is a sensation of the body, and is always an unpleasant emotional experience. The role of psychology is auxiliary and supplemental to medicine. This is an aid addressed to the patient, physician and patient's caregivers: professional caregivers, family members and significant others. At each stage of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, psychology offers help, both from the cognitive and practical aspects. The objective of the article is to present important psychological aspects of studies concerning pain, and the psychological methods and techniques of pain treatment. Pain is the leading reason for patients seeking medical care and is one of the most disabling, burdensome, and costly conditions. Pain accompanies many diseases, each one of which generates unique/separate diagnostic, therapeutic and research problems. DEPRESSION AND RELATED PSYCHICAL DISORDERS: There is a significant relationship between depression and pain symptoms, as well as between pain and suicidal thoughts. Patients with a long history of pain disorders also have increased depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as suicidal thoughts. Patients with more severe depression and anxiety symptoms also have an increase in pain problems. The intensity of pain correlates with the intensity of psychopathological symptoms - both with mood lowering and with anxiety symptoms and worry. Active pain coping strategies strive to function in spite of pain, or to distract oneself from pain, are associated with adaptive functioning. Passive strategies involve withdrawal or relinquishing control to an external force or agent and are related to greater pain and depression. Pain catastrophizing is a negatively distorted perception of pain as awful, horrible and unbearable. Catastrophizing is strongly associated with depression and pain. Studies in which
The author presents a model based on verbal and non-verbal instruments in order to elaborate a psychological diagnosis in troubles of sexual behavior. The instruments usually employed are the following: the map aimed at verifying harmony or conflict with significant people; family drawing, another means to check harmony or conflict in the nuclear family; genogram, in order to reconstruct family myths; body drawing aimed at discovering the body parts that give pleasure, uneasiness, annoyance-tickle and the problems connected with genitals; questionnaire on the couple aimed at finding out areas of mutual dissatisfaction; the drawing of the shared space in the couple, represented by the WE area, in order to identify the relational/emotional deficiencies. Using this model we can simplify the anamnesis, focus on the problematic areas, quickly check the unconscious contents and define a diagnosis with the subsequent hypothesis of intervention.
Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna
A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…
The relationship between psychology and education has waxed and waned over the past century. In addition, a core issue for psychologists is how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in applied settings such as schools. While acknowledging the work that has been done, it is apparent that the effective dissemination of psychology to…
Mohammad Reza Dehghanzadeh; Golrasteh Kholasehzadeh; Masoumeh Birjandi; Ensieh Antikchi; Mohamad Reza Sobhan; Hossein Neamatzadeh
Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid ...
Ranyard, Rob; Antonides, Gerrit
This chapter provides an overview of possible avenues for research in relation to various key economic-psychological problems. Theoretical research mainly comprises (mathematical) modelling of economic psychological processes. The starting point for theoretical research often is literature search
Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M
Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.
Harris, Karen R.
In my response to Alexander's (2018) paper marking the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association and the field of educational psychology, I have taken the perspective of a member of our discipline from some time in the future who is contributing to a larger work looking back at the history and development of our field (thus, a…
American Psychologist, 2013
In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…
Goodwin-Smith, Ian; Pearson, Elissa; Ranzijn, Rob; Campbell, Alan; Lushington, Kurt
This work identifies the human service sector as an important and growing destination for psychology graduates. It further identifies a number of key themes which flow from that observation and which are important to configuring psychology education in a way which takes account of emerging trends. The major theme identified in the research is the…
The aim of this paper is two-fold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching psychology to computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where psychology is relevant to computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students' education. The second aim is to consider findings…
Blomstedt, Bob; And Others
Several concepts detailed in Gestalt psychology/therapy appear to have a close relationship with many concepts being applied in bilingual education. The primary contribution of Gestalt psychology to learning theory in the U.S. is an emphasis on perception and reintegration of relationships within an organized whole. To the teacher this means that…
Puder, J J; Munsch, S
... and sex of the children and the degree of overweight, data on different psychological or biological factors are often controversial. In addition, the causal relationship between obesity and psychological factors, such as impulsivity, depression, anxiety, familial influences (3) and poor social functioning, (3,4) is not clearly defined. T...
Fleck, Bethany K. B.; Hussey, Heather D.
The authors describe an original and unique series of classroom group-work activities organized as a competitive game called "Project Psychology," which was implemented in an Introduction to Psychology course. The project goals included increasing student participation, interest, content comprehension, and motivation. Fostering…
Cohen, Greta L., Ed.
This monograph documents the speeches presented at the 1988 Symposium on Sports Psychology and the Coach. Presentations ranged from empirical research studies to anecdotal methodologies for coping with problems of anxiety. The following presentations are included: (1) "The Coach as Psychologist: When and How" (Robert Rotella); (2) "Psychology for…
Começanha, Rita; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Maia, Ângela
The adverse effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health are well-established, except in the cases of psychological abuse and men's victimization. This research study examines the prevalence and the independent contribution of psychological IPV on mental health for both genders. The initial sample comprises 661 college students from a Portuguese public university, who completed an e-survey. Statistical analysis focused on a subsample (n=364), 23% of which were men, after removing cases of physical and/or sexual abuse. A total of 75% of men and 72% of women reported lifetime psychological victimization and no differences were found for sociodemographic factors, including gender. However, women reported significantly more instigations of psychological abusive acts (OR =5.41, 95% CI=1.88-15.55). Multivariate linear regression models revealed that post-traumatic stress symptoms-PTSS (β=.51; p<.001), depression (β=.34; p<.001) and anxiety (β=.22; p<.001)-were predicted by psychological IPV. The strongest relationship was established between psychological IPV and PTSS, and the final model accounts for 28.6% of the variance (F(6357)=23.86, p<.001). This article provides an empirical basis to recognize the unique and serious impact of psychological IPV on mental health, and recommends screening psychological IPV as part of the clinical routine, developing a gender-inclusive approach, and implementing evidence-based protocols tailored to the needs of these victims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aulthouse, Michelle; Kolbert, Jered B.; Bundick, Matthew J.; Crothers, Laura M.
The article details how school counselors can use principles of positive psychology to promote students' career development by facilitating students' pursuit of purpose and meaning. Specifically, the publication identifies how school counselors can actively employ with their students five constructs of positive psychology--namely strengths,…
Hunsberger, Peter Hume
Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author…
Goodheart, Carol D.
This article offers a blueprint for modernizing the delivery of high-quality behavioral health care and for improving access to care by a public sorely in need of psychological services. The blueprint brings together disparate elements of psychology practice into a more unified structure, an updated house, based upon advances in the essential…
Full Text Available Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.
Sood, Parul; Priyadarshini, Sushri; Aich, Palok
Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.
Full Text Available Psychology is powerful science, with great knowledge deposited for understanding the individual (his development and pathological outcomes, behavior and predicting behavior in different situations, groups, historical flows and historical characters, cultural and civilisation changes, artistic and other creations. Psychology, as it becomes to the science of soul, has covered all areas of human spirit. Discreprancy between potential and power of psychology and her use (in the work of psychologists author connects for positioning and realisation of psychology in university teachings. Whit the help of psychology we can, not just successes in life but we can also understand life itself. But, how many psychologists can contribute to that? Why is that so?.
Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L
BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...
This paper reviews the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) from a historical and psychological perspective. The physician must recognize that the premenstruum-the four days before the onset of the menses-is a `high risk' phase for women. They may demonstrate somatic and psychological complaints such as irritability, aggression, tension, anxiety, depression, lethargy, insomnia, poor coordination and concentration. Psychological disturbances can range from self-deprecation and the feeling that `everything is too much' to pronounced feelings of oppression and depression. Psychiatric patients may become even more disturbed at this time. Recent reviews on PMS have studied its etiology and its possible connection to hormone imbalance, but to date there is no complete explanation for the syndrome's psychological symptoms. The most promising treatments for the psychological symptoms of PMS are pyridoxine (although there are conflicting reports about it), antidepressants, benzodiazepines if anxiety and tension dominate, and ongoing psychotherapy for severe cases.
Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan
Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...
The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena.
Tracy, Jessica L; Robins, Richard W; Sherman, Jeffrey W
The present research surveyed a group of editors and editorial board members of personality and social psychology journals to examine the practice of psychological science in their field. Findings demonstrate that (a) although personality and social researchers tend to use many of the same approaches, methods, and procedures, they nonetheless show average differences in each of these domains, as well as in their overarching theoretical aims and perspectives; (b) these average differences largely conform to social and personality researchers' stereotypes about each subgroup; (c) despite their methodological and philosophical differences, the 2 subgroups study many of the same research topics; and (d) the structure of social-personality research practices can be characterized as having 2 independent factors, which closely correspond to L. J. Cronbach's (1957) correlational and experimental "streams of research."
Johnson, Andrew T.; Mandernach, B. Jean
The Traveling Psychology Fair is designed to bridge the gap between secondary and college psychology education, encourage enthusiasm for the study of psychology, enhance teaching resources for high school psychology instructors, and promote a deeper understanding of psychological principles for psychology majors. Consisting of 24 outreach…
Morgese, Giorgia; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Albani, Alessandra
This article examines the areas of research conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology of the University of Rome from 1907 to 1947, directed first by Sante De Sanctis (1862-1935), and then, from 1931 on, by Mario Ponzo (1882-1960). The method used to distinguish the topics and areas of research that characterized the Roman School during this period is the textual analysis of the titles of the journal in which studies completed at the laboratory were published, namely, Contributi del Laboratorio di Psicologia sperimentale [Psychological Contributions of the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology]. This empirical analysis, which complements and supports the historiographical interpretation, demonstrates the disciplines that emerged under a system managed by the directors over 2 periods of time in the pursuit of scientific psychology in Rome and in Italy. This analysis highlights the process of adjustment from a traditional, general approach to a more theoretical-technical application. This article is a new contribution to the Italian debate on the periodization of the "crisis" in Italian psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.
Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…
Measures to be taken by management at equilibrating employees' psychological contract breach, reducing labour turnover and increasing commitment are suggested. Keywords: Mergers, acquisition, Commitment, psychological contract breach, and psychological contract violation, human resource management.
Knol, M.H.; in 't Veld, R.; Vorst, H.C.M.; van Driel, J.H.; Mellenbergh, G.J.
This experimental study concerned the effects of repeated students’ evaluations of teaching coupled with collaborative consultation on professors’ instructional skills. Twenty-five psychology professors from a Dutch university were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental
In successive editions of the Handbook of Social Psychology (Lindzey, 1954), the focus of the history of the field shifted from the substantive ideas of nineteenth-century thinkers to the successful emergence of a psychological experimental social psychology in the twentieth. Countering this whiggish account, the dominant themes in the present issue involve attempts to portray two parallel paradigm shifts: from a "social" to an "asocial" social psychology, and from a broad-ranging theoretical-philosophical subject to a narrow experimental (psychological) science-changes initiated by Floyd Allport. But such a formulation may be called into question as another version of retrospective history-with inverted, anti-Whig valuations. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.
Baker, David B
The teaching of the history of psychology in professional psychology training programs presents to students and teachers any number of opportunities and challenges. The increasing number of professional psychologists teaching the history of psychology coupled with advances in historical scholarship point to an ongoing evolution in the teaching of the history of psychology. In this introduction to the articles that follow, issues of content and context in teaching the history of psychology in professional psychology are discussed and affirmations offered.
Bartolucci, Chiara; Fox Lee, Shayna
The History of Psychology Archive at the University of Rome, Sapienza was founded in 2008 in the Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology. The archive aspires to become an indispensable tool to (a) understand the currents, schools, and research traditions that have marked the path of Italian psychology, (b) focus on issues of general and applied psychology developed in each university, (c) identify experimental and clinical-differential methodologies specific to each lab, (d) reconstruct the genesis and consolidation of psychology institutions and, ultimately, (e) write a "story," set according to the most recent historiographical criteria. The archive is designed according to scholarship on the history of Italian psychology from the past two decades. The online archive is divided into five sections for ease of access. The Sapienza archive is a work in progress and it has plans for expansion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Domestic cows (Bos taurus are consumed worldwide as beef and veal, kept as dairy product producers, employed as draft animals in labor, and are used for a long list of other products, including leather and manure. But despite global reliance on cows for thousands of years, most people’s perception of them is as plodding herd animals with little individual personality and very simple social relationships or preferences. Yet, a review of the scientific literature on cow behavior points to more complex cognitive, emotional and social characteristics. Moreover, when cow behavior is addressed, it is almost entirely done within the framework of and applied to their use as food commodities. Therefore, there is relatively little attention to the study of cow intelligence, personality and sociality at a basic comparative level. In this review, we examine the current state of scientific knowledge about cows within an objective comparative framework, describing their cognitive, emotional, and social characteristics. Our aim is to provide a more veridical and objective current summary of cow psychology on its own terms and in ways which will facilitate better-informed comparisons with other animals. Moreover, an understanding of the capabilities and characteristics of domestic cows will, it is hoped, advance our understanding of who they are as individuals.
Our procedures for creating excellent departments of psychology are based largely on selection-hiring and promoting the best people. I argue that these procedures have been successful, but I suggest the implementation of policies that I believe will further improve departments in the behavioral and brain sciences. I recommend that we institute more faculty development programs attached to incentives to guarantee continuing education and scholarly activities after the Ph.D. degree. I also argue that we would do a much better job if we more strongly stream our faculty into research, education, or service and not expect all faculty members to carry equal responsibility for each of these. Finally, I argue that more hiring should occur at advanced levels, where scholars have a proven track record of independent scholarship. Although these practices will be a challenge to implement, institutions do ossify over time and thus searching for ways to improve our departments should be a key element of faculty governance. © The Author(s) 2016.
Seligman, M E; Csikszentmihalyi, M
A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
Shamil R. Khisambeyev
Full Text Available Psychological effects of climate change constitute one of the subjects of study of ecological psychology. Ecological psychology is formed and developed at the junction of ecology, different directions of psychology, psychotherapy, pedagogy, philosophy and other disciplines. The article is devoted to review those areas of psychological research, which consider the human psyche in the logic of interac¬tion with the environment. As a result, we hope to answer the fundamental ques¬tion of whether ecological psychology may be regarded as an independent area of psychological research, which has its object and methods that distinguish it from other areas of psychological theory and practice.
..., this article offers material on some important issues - in the context of forensic psychology - such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology...
An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Psychology, along with a wide range of other academic disciplines, has influenced research in both consumer behaviour and marketing. However, the influence of one area of psychology – namely, behaviourism – on research on consumers and marketing has been less prominent. Behaviourism has influenced consumer and marketing research through the application of classical and operant conditioning, matching and foraging theories, amongst other frameworks, during the past 50 years. This article provid...
Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Gardiner, Amy K.; Bjorklund, David F.
This article presents evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP) as an emerging field of evolutionary psychology (EP). In describing the core tenets of both approaches and the differences between them, we emphasize the important roles that evolution and development have in understanding human behaviour. We suggest that developmental psychologists should pay more attention to evolutionary issues and, conversely, evolutionary psychologists should take development seriously. Key words: evol...
Blutner, R.; Benz, A.; Blutner, R.
The main concern of this article is to discuss some recent findings concerning the psychological reality of optimality-theoretic pragmatics and its central part - bidirectional optimization. A present challenge is to close the gap between experimental pragmatics and neo-Gricean theories of
Deguitre, Marie; Pascal-Verdelhan, Chantal; Saez, Catherine; Calmels, Marie-Jeanne; Nesensohn, Jessica; Legras, Stéphanie; Paradis, Martine
Body mediation is today used as a tool for establishing a relationship with a young person experiencing psychological suffering. It is particularly useful in adolescence, a period marked by the destabilisation of emotional and relational fields.
Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.
Innis’ and Brinkmann’s papers (this issue) tackle two key aspects in cultural psychology: the mediating role played by the different systems of meanings throughout history in making sense of the world, and the normative role of those systems, including psychology itself. This paper offers...... a reflection on these two issues. It begins by highlighting the contribution of psychology and history, as emerging disciplines in the 19th Century, to the creation of a normative framework for the subject of modernity according to the needs of modern nation states. It also alludes to both disciplines’ common...... accounts. Drawing on this assumption, it is discussed how past events are constructed, thus bringing mediation and meaning-making to the fore. Special attention is paid to narratives as symbolic meaning-making tools. We will conclude by discussing usage of the past and the role that cultural psychology can...
Roediger, Henry L
Fame in psychology, as in all arenas, is a local phenomenon. Psychologists (and probably academics in all fields) often first become well known for studying a subfield of an area (say, the study of attention in cognitive psychology, or even certain tasks used to study attention). Later, the researcher may become famous within cognitive psychology. In a few cases, researchers break out of a discipline to become famous across psychology and (more rarely still) even outside the confines of academe. The progression is slow and uneven. Fame is also temporally constricted. The most famous psychologists today will be forgotten in less than a century, just as the greats from the era of World War I are rarely read or remembered today. Freud and a few others represent exceptions to the rule, but generally fame is fleeting and each generation seems to dispense with the lessons learned by previous ones to claim their place in the sun. © The Author(s) 2016.
We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...... with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time...
The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way of build......The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way...... to account for developmental processes must emerge from a triadic system, rather than following the procedures of a binary logic, in order to have any correspondence between concept building and phenomenological world in psychology. Then, I sketch an epistemological approach called method of complementary...... negation that could help cultural psychology to build more developmental abstract models of very concrete human phenomena....
Zimbardo, Philip G
Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties.
with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time......We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...
Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio
Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.
MacDonald, Paul S
Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ploeger, A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.
Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a metatheoretical framework for psychology. We argue that evolutionary psychology should be expanded if it is to offer new insights regarding the major issues in psychology. Evolutionary developmental biology can provide valuable new insights into issues
This paper looks at the program for social psychology presented by Floyd Allport in his Social Psychology of 1924. It contextualizes Allport's program in terms of intellectual currents of the time and the views of his teachers at Harvard University, specifically the philosopher Ralph Barton Perry and the psychologists Edwin B. Holt and Hugo Münsterberg. Finally, the paper analyzes responses to Allport's program at the time and later, retrospective responses. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt
). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....
Sport with its emphasised efficiency component clearly reflects cognitive contents and the way they are linked to experience and behaviour. Beliefs, subjective judgements, attitudes, etc. define the attitude to sport, training, competition and results. Their contents can be defined by a psychological examination. We assess their meaning, appropriateness or inappropriateness. They can also be changed by using diverse cognitive-behavioural or reeducative procedures. Psychological work is carrie...
Heaney, Caroline; Walker, Natalie; Green, Alison; Rostron, Claire
Whilst the benefits of sport psychology intervention during injury rehabilitation are well documented it appears that it remains underutilised by physiotherapists (Alexanders, Anderson and Henderson, 2015, Physiotherapy, 101, 95-102). A lack of education in this field for physiotherapists has been suggested as a causative factor. Preliminary studies undertaken on North American populations have shown support for sport psychology education interventions but no studies have examined physiothera...
Nazemian, Sahar; Balash, Farhad; Balash, Reza
Thisstudy is to cast a light on psychological factors, which force faculty memberstoward conducting unethical research. Since psychological factors are the keyfactors to control human behavior, in this paper, they are highlighted as themain purpose of the study. Methodologically, a qualitative approach was appliedto reveal the factors. Thematic analysis assisted the researchers discoveringthe main factors. Ten faculty members were interviewed as to understand theways that factors could deploy...
Positive Psychology has demonstrated its usefulness in studying and contributing to individual well being. The next big challenge for this new field is to help improving the social and cultural conditions in which people live. Three specific goals are discussed: A more complete understanding of human nature; forging a more sustainable and more fair social contract; and a rediscovery of the joys of existence. If Positive Psychology will be able to support these goals, it will become an importa...
The basic paradigm of asset pricing is in vibrant flux. The purely rational approach is being subsumed by a broader approach based upon the psychology of investors. In this approach, security expected returns are determined by both risk and misvaluation. This survey sketches a framework for understanding decision biases, evaluates the a priori arguments and the capital market evidence bearing on the importance of investor psychology for security prices, and reviews recent models.
Burns, J.; Zitz, C.
Clinical psychology has an early ignominious past with regard to sexuality and gender. Burns and Zitz provide a history of the perspectives taken on sexuality, gender and their variants through the lens of clinical psychology, moving from an individualist, positivistic perspective to more current positions such as intersectionality and post-modern understandings of distress. Alongside this changing perspective the development of the profession and its therapeutic practices will be charted. Bu...
Bolhuis, Johan J.; Brown, Gillian R.; Richardson, Robert C.; Laland, Kevin N.
Evolutionary Psychology (EP) views the human mind as organized into many modules, each underpinned by psychological adaptations designed to solve problems faced by our Pleistocene ancestors. We argue that the key tenets of the established EP paradigm require modification in the light of recent findings from a number of disciplines, including human genetics, evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and paleoecology. For instance, many human genes have been subject to recent selective sweeps; humans play an active, constructive role in co-directing their own development and evolution; and experimental evidence often favours a general process, rather than a modular account, of cognition. A redefined EP could use the theoretical insights of modern evolutionary biology as a rich source of hypotheses concerning the human mind, and could exploit novel methods from a variety of adjacent research fields. PMID:21811401
Bolhuis, Johan J; Brown, Gillian R; Richardson, Robert C; Laland, Kevin N
Evolutionary Psychology (EP) views the human mind as organized into many modules, each underpinned by psychological adaptations designed to solve problems faced by our Pleistocene ancestors. We argue that the key tenets of the established EP paradigm require modification in the light of recent findings from a number of disciplines, including human genetics, evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and paleoecology. For instance, many human genes have been subject to recent selective sweeps; humans play an active, constructive role in co-directing their own development and evolution; and experimental evidence often favours a general process, rather than a modular account, of cognition. A redefined EP could use the theoretical insights of modern evolutionary biology as a rich source of hypotheses concerning the human mind, and could exploit novel methods from a variety of adjacent research fields.
Aich, Tapas Kumar
Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!
Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.
Mele, Maria Laura; Federici, Stefano
Eye-tracking technology is a growing field used to detect eye movements and analyze human processing of visual information for interactive and diagnostic applications. Different domains in scientific research such as neuroscience, experimental psychology, computer science and human factors can benefit from eye-tracking methods and techniques to unobtrusively investigate the quantitative evidence underlying visual processes. In order to meet the experimental requirements concerning the variety of application fields, different gaze- and eye-tracking solutions using high-speed cameras are being developed (e.g., eye-tracking glasses, head-mounted or desk-mounted systems), which are also compatible with other analysis devices such as magnetic resonance imaging. This work presents an overview of the main application fields of eye-tracking methodology in psychological research. In particular, two innovative solutions will be shown: (1) the SMI RED-M eye-tracker, a high performance portable remote eye-tracker suitable for different settings, that requires maximum mobility and flexibility; (2) a wearable mobile gaze-tracking device--the SMI eye-tracking glasses--which is suitable for real-world and virtual environment research. For each kind of technology, the functions and different possibilities of application in experimental psychology will be described by focusing on some examples of experimental tasks (i.e., visual search, reading, natural tasks, scene viewing and other information processing) and theoretical approaches (e.g., embodied cognition).
Seppo E. Iso-Ahola
Full Text Available Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1 scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative; (2 non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3 statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4 psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance, not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.
Iso-Ahola, Seppo E
Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1) scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative); (2) non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical) and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3) statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4) psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only "temporary winners" and no "final truths" in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size) are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. "deliberate practice" vs. "talent" in expert performance), not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.
R. Elisabeth Cornwell
Full Text Available Sociobiology and its descendant evolutionary psychology (EP have struggled to gain ground within the social sciences over the past 30 years. While some have heralded the Triumph of Sociobiology (Alcock, 2001, others have critiqued it as a poor approach to understanding human behavior and would prefer that a Darwinian perspective remain outside the domain of human social sciences. We attempt to assess just how successful (or not it has been by examining how it has been covered in introductory psychology textbooks over the past 30 years. Our findings indicate that a Darwinian perspective has gained influence and acceptance within the field of psychology over the past three decades. However, we also find that EP as a sub-discipline is often perceived as narrowly defined and limited to research on mating strategies. We address how these perceptions may affect the future of EP, and possible steps needed to increase both the acceptance and importance of evolutionary theory to psychology.
Packer, Martin J.
This article explores the connections between Vygotsky's psychology and Marxism, arguing that his was a "Marxist psychology" in its "historical foundation": a specific conception of history. This conception of history is evident in Vygotsky's analysis and diagnosis of the crisis in psychology. The creation of a Marxist, general psychology was the…
APA Books, 2012
"Graduate Study in Psychology" is the best source of information related to graduate programs in psychology and provides information related to approximately 600 graduate programs in psychology in the U.S. and Canada. "Graduate Study in Psychology" contains information about: (1) number of applications received by a program;…
Traces a century of growth in international school psychology. Cites various conditions and events which fostered development of international school psychology and four international, regional, and national conferences that strongly impacted on school psychology. Describes creation of International School Psychology Committee in 1972 and efforts…
A feminist perspective is necessary for the continued vitality of social psychology. Major themes of the feminist perspective are reviewed, and some important women from early U.S. psychology are identified as founders of social psychology. In the future, the feminist perspective will function in social psychology as a systems theory. (SLD)
Mihura, Joni L; Roy, Manali; Graceffo, Robert A
We surveyed American Psychological Association-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs' (n = 83) training in psychological assessment-specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method-self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships' assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and (c) the American Psychological Association's requirements for preinternship assessment competencies.
Stojnov Dušan B.
Full Text Available The paper considers diverse approaches to human subjectivity conceptualization. On the one hand, a summary is made of an established psychological view of personality as an intrinsic psychological entity responsible for stylistic differences in the behavior of isolated individuals, founded on the traditional Cartesian view. On the other hand more recent views are presented, which take human subjectivity as personhood i.e. responsible action of moral subjects, placed within amongst-people space, and implying allied activity of persons in a social community. In addition, consideration is given to new methodological demands for psychologists who want to research the domain of human personhood as well as to deviations of a "new paradigm" of psychological investigations from scientific tradition in viewing methods that has prevailed in psychology until recently. Clarification of demands for studying personhood is a new trend in psychology, so it should be stressed that such orientation, despite its long-lasting past, virtually has a very short history.
Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Cicciola, Elisabetta
Sante De Sanctis, a psychiatrist and psychologist, is one of the most representative figures of Italian "scientific" psychology. He is considered one of the founders of the discipline as well as one of its main protagonists in the years between the two World Wars. Both with his extensive scientific productions (which include more than three hundred works) and with his uninterrupted institutional activity, he has left his significant mark on the history of Italian psychology. He was the first professor of Experimental Psychology and was internationally known: some of his works have been published in French, Swiss, American, German, Scandinavian, and English journals, and some of his volumes have been translated into English and German. Together with the other psychologists of the second generation (Binet, Külpe, Münsterberg, Stern, Claparède, Ebbinghaus), he was the Italian psychologist who decided to enrich the classical paradigm of Wundt's physiological psychology, by developing during the twentieth century the program of methodological and epistemological enlargement of the discipline. In his fundamental treatise Psicologia Sperimentale, written in 1929-30, a clear modern conception of psychology emerged: it jointly included both the generalist aspect (with some studies on psychophysical proportionality, thought mimicry, dreams, attention, emotions, etc.) and the applicative one, which included psychopathology, labor psychology, educational psychology, and criminal psychology, all seen in a general experimental framework. The present paper aims precisely to highlight the originality of De Sanctis' experimentalism that applied the differential clinical approach to the discipline of psychology, causing it for the first time in Italy to be seen in a unitary way as both general and applied psychology.
Caffrey, Bernard; And Others
Four papers presented by psychology faculty members from Clemson University discuss how each person met the need for undergraduates to obtain job preparation in psychology. Topics cover industrial psychology, clinical psychology, teaching of psychology, and an interdisciplinary curriculum. (ND)
Full Text Available This paper traces some salient aspects of my research career, focusing largely on work in West Africa. From this lessons are drawn about the shortcomings of social psychology, especially in its laboratory version. It tends to tacitly ignore the effects of cultural influences, assuming that its findings are universally valid. Studies are mainly conducted with adults, generally college students, who are unrepresentative even of the general population of the United States where the bulk of social psychological studies are concentrated. This is justified in terms an alleged ‘psychic unity’. Social psychology pays little attention to the processes whereby children become socialized into particular cultures, which then governs their social behaviour. Methods are usually formal, and observational ones are eschewed, so that research takes place in artificial setting. This brings me to the almost complete absence of links with cognate disciplines, notably anthropology, which could greatly enrich social psychology. Suggestions are made for more wide-ranging approaches which would overcome the aridity of a great deal of current experimental social psychological research.
Tilde Giani Gallino
Full Text Available The article covers two aspects related to Psychology and Art. The first aspect concerns the similarities found between photography and various Schools of experimental psychology. For instance, the scientists of Psychology of ethological theory, and Non-verbal communication (NVC, observe with particular methodologies the non-verbal messages that animals and humans transmit to their peers through expressions, posture, gestures. The same is done by photographers (those who use the “camera” with a good knowledge of the medium and a “photographic eye” when they look around, careful to catch an expression, any unusual attitude, or a gesture of friendship. Another School of psychology, the Gestalpsychologie (Gestalt: form, figure, configuration, attributes a decisive value to the perception of space, the foreground and the background, the perspective and vanishing points, the contrast between black and white. All aspects that effectively interest psychologists just as much as photographers. Finally, the second aspect relates to the art of Antony Gaudì and makes some hypothesis about the personality and behavior of the great architect, with regard to the construction of two houses, "Casa Batllo" and "Casa Mila": particularly because of the configuration or Gestalt of the "chimneys" that dominate the two buildings. In this study, cooperate each other psychological analysis and the art of photography. The last enables us to study also the details of the work of Gaudì, as can be seen in the pictures of this essay.
G V Ozhiganova
The necessity of research on higher spiritual and self-regulative capacities in the context of ancient oriental system of knowledge is expressed. The historical and psychological methods of studying ancient knowledge are described. The methods of the history of psychology, proposed by the author, are used: such as the method of revealing scientific knowledge reserves, aimed at restoring and practical mastering the psychological heritage of ancient times, as well as the experimental method, in...
Blanco, A; de la Corte, L
In this study, a detailed exploration is carried out of the production of research and theory in social psychology in the Spanish context. The main research areas are: Work and organizational psychology, social health psychology, community and social services psychology, environmental research, judicial and political psychology, psychosocial theory and meta-theory, social psychology of language, research on emotion, group processes and social identity. The growing importance of social psychology within the framework of Spanish psychology is emphasized, and the relation with specific social problems from the national context, and the paradoxically scarce originality of the theoretical perspectives and the leading research, strongly influenced by Anglo Saxon social psychology, is commented upon.
This study used the ostracism detection theory to investigate how ostracism impacts individuals in two ways: (1) immediate poststressor needs, mood, ruminative thoughts, and desire to affiliate, and (2) short-term affective and cortisol reactivity. A total of 58 college students were randomly assigned to the inclusion or ostracism conditions of Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game. Immediately following the experimental manipulation, ostracized participants reported more thwarted psychological need states, more negative mood, and fewer positive ruminative thoughts, relative to their included counterparts. Ostracized participants reported a greater interest in affiliating with others in online or in-person settings. In the short-term, ostracized males reported more hostility than included males, although the scores were within expected norms for most males. There was no relation between Cyberball condition and gender across time for depression, anxiety, or positive affect. Approximately 20 min after the onset of the stressor, women in the luteal phase and women taking oral contraceptives in the ostracized group displayed higher cortisol than their counterparts in the included group. Relative to baseline, however, cortisol did not reliably increase after the onset of the stressor. Ostracized females taking oral contraceptives showed the greatest decline in cortisol, compared to included oral contraceptive users. Overall, results suggest that most of the negative effects of ostracism are immediate and limited to psychological, not neuroendocrine, responses. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. PMID:26763705
Murdoch, Douglas D
Douglas D Murdoch Department of Psychology, Mount Royal University, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Psychological literacy is the ethical application of psychological skills and knowledge. This could benefit individuals in their personal, occupational, and civic lives and subsequently benefit society as a whole. We know that psychology has a wide-ranging impact on society. The potential benefits of a psychologically literate citizenry in improved parenting, better business practices, enlightene...
During the past decades the importance of psychology has become more prominent when addressing environmental issues. At the turn of the millennium a new field of psychological research was introduced to scientific community. The so-called conservation psychology strives to merge and spur basic and applied psychological research from the field of (pro)environmental behaviour and sustainable development. Together with environmental and population psychology, it forms Division 34 of American Psy...
Shamil R. Khisambeyev; Viktor I. Panov
Psychological eff ects of climate change constitute one of the subjects of study of ecological psychology. Ecological psychology is formed and developed at the junction of ecology, diff erent directions of psychology, psychotherapy, pedagogy, philosophy and other disciplines. The article is devoted to review those areas of psychological research, which consider the human psyche in the logic of interaction with the environment. As a result, we hope to answer the fundamental question of whether...
Viktor Guruzhapov - Doctor of Psychology, Head of Department at Moscow City University of Psychology and Pedagogy. Address: Sretenka str, 29, Moscow, 107045. Email: is an analysis of general psychological education for future teachers in the context of the need to implement the second generation Federal State Learning Standard of General Education. The author believes that delivering the theory of general psychology plays little role in building psychological competence o...
Afonso, Rosa Maria; Bueno, Belen; Loureiro, Manuel Joachim; Pereira, Henrique
This paper analyzes the impact of a reminiscence program on the psychological well-being and ego integrity of elderly people with depressive symptomatology. Ninety people aged 65 and over participated in a quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest evaluations. They were assigned to one of three groups: (a) experimental group…
de Bruin, Anique B. H.; van Gog, Tamara
Although there is abundant experimental metamemory research on the relation between students' monitoring, regulation of learning, and learning outcomes, relatively little of this work has influenced educational research and practice. Metamemory research, traditionally based on experimental paradigms from cognitive psychology, can potentially…
Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J.
We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity. PMID:27802287
Full Text Available We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity.
Waterman, Alan S
Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Brancaccio, Maria Teresa
This paper traces Enrico Morselli's intellectual trajectory from the 1870s to the early 1900s. His interest in phenomena of physical mediumship is considered against the backdrop of the theoretical developments in Italian psychiatry and psychology. A leading positivist psychiatrist and a prolific academic, Morselli was actively involved in the making of Italian experimental psychology. Initially sceptical of psychical research and opposed to its association with the 'new psychology', Morselli subsequently conducted a study of the physical phenomena produced by the medium Eusapia Palladino. He concluded that her phenomena were genuine and represented them as the effects of an unknown bio-psychic force present in all human beings. By contextualizing Morselli's study of physical mediumship within contemporary theoretical and disciplinary discourse, this study elaborates shifts in the interpretations of 'supernormal' phenomena put forward by leading Italian psychiatrists and physiologists. It demonstrates that Morselli's interest in psychical research stems from his efforts to comprehend the determinants of complex psychological phenomena at a time when the dynamic theory of matter in physics, and the emergence of neo-vitalist theories influenced the theoretical debates in psychiatry, psychology and physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gray, Denis O; Jakes, Susan S; Emshoff, James; Blakely, Craig
Dissemination, the second stage of Experimental Social Innovation and Dissemination (ESID) is a critical, if not defining, element of this social change model. This paper attempts to assess the extent to which community psychology has adopted and implemented ESID's dissemination focus in its training and publications. We identify four levels of commitment to dissemination: dissemination advocate, dissemination activist, dissemination researcher, and experimental dissemination researcher. Content analyses of textbooks, journal publications, and conference papers and a brief survey of doctoral training in the field were conducted. Findings suggest that the dissemination aspects of ESID have been modestly and partially implemented within the field. That is, although there is some evidence of a commitment to dissemination practice (advocate, activist), there is much less evidence of a commitment to dissemination research. The implications of these findings for the effectiveness of the ESID model and for training and practice in community psychology are discussed.
According to Hugo Münsterberg, the direct application of experimental psychology to the practical problems of education, law, industry, and art belonged by definition to the domain of psychotechnics. Whether in the form of pedagogical prescription, interrogation technique, hiring practice, or aesthetic principle, the psychotechnical method implied bringing the psychological laboratory to bear on everyday life. There were, however, significant pitfalls to leaving behind the putative purity of the early psychological laboratory in pursuit of technological utility. In the Vocation Bureau, for example, psychological instruments were often deemed too intimidating for a public unfamiliar with the inner workings of experimental science. Similarly, when psychotechnical means were employed by big business in screening job candidates, ethical red flags were raised about this new alliance between science and capital. This tension was particularly evident in Münsterberg's collaboration with the Paramount Pictures Corporation in 1916. In translating psychological tests into short experimental films, Münsterberg not only envisioned a new mass medium for the dissemination of psychotechnics, but a means by which to initiate the masses into the culture of experimental psychology.
Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana
Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.
Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G
AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support in the assoc......AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji
This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special...
Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael; Zubieta, Eva
Francisco J. de Echalecu (1897-1957) was a Spanish psychiatrist who held important positions, such as Psychology Professor at the Academia General de Policía and Neuropsychiatrist at the Dirección General de Seguridad. This work provides a brief biography of Echalecu and analyzes the transcriptions of his classes on Criminal Psychology of 1942, his Criminal Psychology from 1947 as well as his involvement in the case of the torture of Communist leader Heriberto Quiñones. We describe his project of a totalitarian Psychology and his proposal of social intervention, including eugenic methodologies as well as forced reclusion for those labeled as asocial. The adaptation in Spain of the totalitarian psychological project to the new international reality after the Second World War is also described. In Spain a "final solution" for criminals and political dissidents has been prepared, which was inspired by the Nazi criminal policies and promoted by Dr. Echalecu from Spain's higher police body, the DGS. This project was frustrated by the German defeat in the world war and the only thing left from the original project was the arbitrary application of the Ley de Vagos y Maleantes [an antivagrancy law] to those individuals labeled as "asocial".
Greenwood, J D
In this paper an attempt is made to specify the original conception of the social dimensions of cognition, emotion and behavior-and of a distinctively social psychology-that was held by early American social psychologists, but abandoned by later generations of social psychologists committed to Floyd Allport's individualistic experimental program. Two influential forms of "individualism" in the work of Floyd Allport are distinguished and detailed. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. © 2016 The Author(s).
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard
Abstract: For half a century, the psychology of creativity has been using a basic typology proposed by Rhodes (1961) that distinguishes between person, process, product and press in definitions and research. These four P’s, although useful as a conceptual organizer, nevertheless present a fragmen......Abstract: For half a century, the psychology of creativity has been using a basic typology proposed by Rhodes (1961) that distinguishes between person, process, product and press in definitions and research. These four P’s, although useful as a conceptual organizer, nevertheless present...... a fragmented and rather static perspective of creativity. Cultural psychology transforms this conception by considering creative persons as Actors, creative processes as forms of Action, creative products as Artefacts and press factors as part of social (Audiences) and material (Affordances) environments...
Watson, Jack C; Way, William C; Hilliard, Robert C
The field of sport psychology is dynamic and growing. To continue building credibility with the public and allied professionals, effective and ethical practice is crucial. Advances in technology have allowed sport psychology professionals to consult with athletes from a distance, but practitioners must be mindful of their competency to use technology, confidentiality concerns, and the suitability of technology for their clients. Movement toward defining competency and clarifying issues of title usage are additional areas in which the field is gaining momentum. Recent attention has also been drawn to the topics of professional development and cultural competency. With the unique settings in which applied sport psychology practice takes place, attention to multiple relationships is another key ethical issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study briefly reviewed and summarized published studies related to the Sasang typology in order to investigate the common psychological characteristics in each type and suggest conceptual and methodological implications for future research. A total of 44 articles written in Korean between 1990 and 2014, and that used objective measures of personality, were selected from two Korean database for this study. The number of publications, type of scale used, and distribution of each Sasang type were reviewed and summarized. From these works, it was found that there was significant common ground between the classification of Sasang types, which is rooted in Eastern concepts, and the psychological features and types revealed by objective personality measures used in Western psychology. On the basis of these findings, the degree of overlap between Eastern and Western personality typologies was highlighted, and further considerations for developing a more valid and objective classification method, and the limitations of the existing searching method and scope were discussed.
This study briefly reviewed and summarized published studies related to the Sasang typology in order to investigate the common psychological characteristics in each type and suggest conceptual and methodological implications for future research. A total of 44 articles written in Korean between 1990 and 2014, and that used objective measures of personality, were selected from two Korean database for this study. The number of publications, type of scale used, and distribution of each Sasang type were reviewed and summarized. From these works, it was found that there was significant common ground between the classification of Sasang types, which is rooted in Eastern concepts, and the psychological features and types revealed by objective personality measures used in Western psychology. On the basis of these findings, the degree of overlap between Eastern and Western personality typologies was highlighted, and further considerations for developing a more valid and objective classification method, and the limitations of the existing searching method and scope were discussed.
Full Text Available One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive power of different models related to behaviour, residential consumption as well as to the acceptability of energy policies. Results suggest that energy saving is mainly linked to altruistic motivations, followed by egoistic reasons and in a minor way to environmental concerns. People would act according to these dimensions when contextual conditions are perceived as appropriate.
Sunstein, Cass R
Findings in behavioral science, including psychology, have influenced policies and reforms in many nations. Choice architecture can affect outcomes even if material incentives are not involved. In some contexts, default rules, simplification, and social norms have had even larger effects than significant economic incentives. Psychological research is helping to inform initiatives in savings, finance, highway safety, consumer protection, energy, climate change, obesity, education, poverty, development, crime, corruption, health, and the environment. No nation has yet created a council of psychological advisers, but the role of behavioral research in policy domains is likely to grow in the coming years, especially in light of the mounting interest in promoting ease and simplification ("navigability"); in increasing effectiveness, economic growth, and competitiveness; and in providing low-cost, choice-preserving approaches.
Post, Jerrold M; Ali, Farhana; Henderson, Schuyler W; Shanfield, Steven; Victoroff, Jeff; Weine, Stevan
This paper reviews current understandings of the psychology of suicide terrorism for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals to help them better understand this terrifying phenomenon. After discussing key concepts and definitions, the paper reviews both group and individual models for explaining the development of suicide terrorists, with an emphasis on "collective identity." Stressing the importance of social psychology, it emphasizes the "normality" and absence of individual psychopathology of the suicide bombers. It will discuss the broad range of terrorisms, but will particularly emphasize terrorism associated with militant Islam. The article emphasizes that comprehending suicide terrorism requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes anthropological, economic, historical, and political factors as well as psychological ones. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for research, policy, and prevention, reviewing the manner in which social psychiatric knowledge and understandings applied to this phenomenon in an interdisciplinary framework can assist in developing approaches to counter this deadly strategy.
Sobchik L. N.
Full Text Available Methods of psychological diagnostics closer to the psychology main research areas, which involve measuring the accuracy and statistical reliability. A set of methods that includes questionnaires should be complemented with projective tests in which the stimulus material is verbal in nature. The article presents the results of surveys of different groups of persons in conflict with the law, as well as screening tests contingent of youth groups and adolescents. High performance, spontaneously manifested aggressiveness, traits, emotional immaturity, low self-control and primitive-the requirement of the hierarchy of values at statistically significant level are identified in the data psychodiagnostic study, thus allowing to allocate the risk of wrongful conduct and to develop preventive measures of psycho-pedagogical and social nature. Psychological testing is an effective tool in the study of criminal predisposici and gives the key to a science-based approach in the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing crime.
Snoek, F. J.; Skinner, T. C.
psychological interventions in diabetes are effective in improving clinical outcomes. Methods: This review was limited to the literature reporting on the treatment of five common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management: depression, eating disorders, anxiety/stress, self...... indicate that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is effective in the treatment of depression in Type 2 diabetes patients, both in reducing depressive symptoms and HbA1c. Favourable effects have been observed in pilot studies applying CBT in the field of stress management, eating disorders and self......-destructive behaviour, but future research should substantiate these preliminary findings. Behaviour family therapy proved beneficial in terms of resolving family conflicts, but did not impact glycaemic control. Conclusions: Evidence to support the effect of psychological treatment in problematic diabetes is still...
de Ridder, Denise; Geenen, Rinie; Kuijer, Roeline; van Middendorp, Henriët
This Review discusses physiological, emotional, behavioural, and cognitive aspects of psychological adjustment to chronic illness. Reviewing the reports of the past decade, we identify four innovative and promising themes that are relevant for understanding and explaining psychological adjustment. In particular, the emphasis on the reasons why people fail to achieve a healthy adjustment has shifted to the identification of factors that help patients make that adjustment. To promote psychological adjustment, patients should remain as active as is reasonably possible, acknowledge and express their emotions in a way that allows them to take control of their lives, engage in self-management, and try to focus on potential positive outcomes of their illness. Patients who can use these strategies have the best chance of successfully adjusting to the challenges posed by a chronic illness.
Fenster, C. Abraham; And Others
An overview of the objectives and courses of a doctoral program in forensic psychology is provided. Forensic psychology is the application of psychological methods, principles, and skills to the relevant needs of the legal system. (DE)
M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); U. Stephan (Ute)
textabstractThis article provides a narrative review of psychology of entrepreneurship research published in leading psychology journals, based on which we develop an organising framework for future psychological contributions to this field. Furthermore, we introduce the manuscripts collected in
Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola
Recently there has been enormous progress in couple infertility treatment and diagnostics. Some couples cannot conceive despite the fact that there seems to be no objective somatic or immunologic reasons. In such situations gynaecologists are helpless and couples may be overwhelmed by a sense of defeat and hopelessness. Thus, consulting a psychologist or therapist on how to cope better with the problem may be a good solution. The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support. The study demonstrates numerous infertility causes and concludes that there is no universal method of dealing with them. Very frequently psychological and somatic problems overlap. Psychological causes are often the primary factors, but sometimes they are secondary derivatives of the therapeutic process. A wide scope of factors must be considered to attempt psychological analysis of patients treated for infertility including the influence of the family and relations within, reaction to the diagnosis and suggested treatment, the influence of religion on the treatment, the evaluation of the relations in the family of procreation, sexual life assessment, the sense of a woman's self-esteem and self-acceptance. Basing on empirical analysis it was concluded that all women treated for infertility want to create a full family. They have problems in coping with emotional liability during treatment and a sense of fear and failure. Understanding the psychological mechanisms observed in patients treated for infertility might help to diagnose the causes of their problems with facing the new, extremely difficult situation.
Full Text Available Positive Psychology has demonstrated its usefulness in studying and contributing to individual well being. The next big challenge for this new field is to help improving the social and cultural conditions in which people live. Three specific goals are discussed: A more complete understanding of human nature; forging a more sustainable and more fair social contract; and a rediscovery of the joys of existence. If Positive Psychology will be able to support these goals, it will become an important contributor to the evolution of human consciousness and the evolution of culture.
This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four...... sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology...
Alina Oana Zamoşteanu
Full Text Available The computer-assisted analysis is not currently a novelty, but a necessity in all areas of psychology. A number of studies that examine the limits of the computer assisted and analyzed interpretations, also its advantages. A series of studies aim to assess how the computer assisting programs are able to establish a diagnosis referring to the presence of certain mental disorders. We will present the results of one computer application in clinical psychology regarding the assessment of Theory of Mind capacity by animation.
Goetz, Aaron T
This paper reviews theory and research on the evolutionary psychology of violence. First, I examine evidence suggesting that humans have experienced an evolutionary history of violence. Next, I discuss violence as a context-sensitive strategy that might have provided benefits to our ancestors under certain circumstances. I then focus on the two most common forms of violence that plague humans -violence over status contests and intimate partner violence- outlining psychological mechanisms involved in each. Finally, I suggest that greater progress will be made by shifting the study from contexts to mechanisms.
Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.
The results of a survey of 111 clinical psychologists in the Republic of Ireland along with some comparable data from US and UK surveys were used to address a series of questions about the link between family therapy and clinical psychology. Family therapy was not a clearly identifiable sub-specialty within clinical psychology in Ireland. Family therapy theoretical models were used by more than a quarter of the Irish sample to conceptualize their work but by less than a tenth of US and UK res...
Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Jabi, Samah W
Social media, defined as interactive Web applications, have been on the rise globally, particularly among adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of the literature related to the most used social network worldwide (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, and Instagram) in the field of psychology. Specifically, this study will assess the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, author productivity, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. Publications related to social media in the field of psychology published between 2004 and 2014 were obtained from the Web of Science. The records extracted were analysed for bibliometric characteristics such as the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. VOSviewer v.1.6.5 was used to construct scientific maps. Overall, 959 publications were retrieved during the period between 2004 and 2015. The number of research publications in social media in the field of psychology showed a steady upward growth. Publications from the USA accounted for 57.14% of the total publications and the highest h -index (48).The most common document type was research articles (873; 91.03%). Over 99.06% of the publications were published in English. Computers in Human Behavior was the most prolific journal. The University of Wisconsin - Madison ranked first in terms of the total publications (n = 39). A visualisation analysis showed that personality psychology, experimental psychology, psychological risk factors, and developmental psychology were continual concerns of the research. This is the first study reporting the global trends in the research related to social media in the psychology field. Based on the raw data from the Web of Science, publication
Full Text Available Philosophical self-reflexion is a healthy practice of any science including psychology. Nevertheless, psychology has long ago outgrew the age of the search for its own identity. It is however a science sui generis, determined by a radical split into Lockean and Kantian (objective and phenomenological paradigm, each completely legitimate but also completely different in defining the objectives as well as the methods of research. That internal splitting is presented in all psychological disciplines. In social psychology, social constructivism emerged decades ago as a typical disciplinary "paradigm" (although subordinated to both previously mentioned paradigms. The present contribution is aimed to show that social constructivism could be effectively merged with the theoretical frame of cognitivism, dominant theoretical orientation in contemporaneous psychology. On the other hand, social constructivism failed to understand the proper relationship between human nature and human cultural context. Human beings are evolutionary evolved as beings genetically programmed for the construction of the culture and social milieu. Human beings are not products of the culture in the proper sense of meaning. The truth is quite opposite: the culture is a product of human biological equipment. But this is an equipment that predisposes human individual to be a social, cultural being uniquely capable of learning, uniquely capable of receiving the influence of his own products – social environment and culture.
, well-being in general and South African youth in particular has been relatively neglected. For example, prior to this research the impact of PST on the core health component of psychological well-being had not been evaluated, nor had the
Robiner, William N; Dixon, Kim E; Miner, Jacob L; Hong, Barry A
For physicians board certification is an accepted tradition that research suggests improves services and outcomes. In contrast, relatively few psychologists pursue board certification suggesting ambivalence or limited contingencies reinforcing it. The authors report on medical school and hospital-based psychologists' attitudes toward board certification and current certification status. About one-fifth (21.7%) of the sample were certified by the American Board of Professional Psychology, a greater proportion than psychologists generally: Highest rates were seen in neuropsychology (7.5%), clinical psychology (6.4%), clinical child and adolescent psychology (3.2%) and clinical health psychology (2.8%). Few (hospitals required board certification. Half recognized benefits to the profession for psychologists pursuing board certification, yet 70% opposed requiring it for their hospital-based practice. Forces seeking to promote healthcare quality ultimately may increase expectations for board certification. If consumers, employers, hospitals and managed care organizations demand board certification for health professionals, greater numbers of psychologists would likely seek it.
Fuchs, Alfred H
The American journal of Psychology celebrates 125 years of publication this year. From its inception, the Journal has attempted to record and communicate the results of research conducted in laboratories of psychology. It has also provided its readers with laboratory plans and designs for apparatus for research and demonstrations and described experimental procedures to facilitate the conduct of research. Its attention to reviews of books over a wide range of psychological topics and its inclusion of articles that provide historical perspectives on the development of psychology and its concerns broaden the context in which laboratory research is carried out. This brief overview of the Journal's history offers a perspective on the role of the Journal in, and its contributions to, the development of scientific psychology.
Seligman, Martin E.P.; Peterson, Christopher; Diener, Ed; Zack, Matthew M.; Chapman, Daniel; Thompson, William
Positive psychology is the study of what is “right” about people—their positive attributes, psychological assets, and strengths. Its aim is to understand and foster the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to thrive. Cross-sectional, experimental, and longitudinal research demonstrates that positive emotions are associated with numerous benefits related to health, work, family, and economic status. Growing biomedical research supports the view that positive emotions are not merely the opposite of negative emotions but may be independent dimensions of mental affect. The asset-based paradigms of positive psychology offer new approaches for bolstering psychological resilience and promoting mental health. Ultimately, greater synergy between positive psychology and public health might help promote mental health in innovative ways. PMID:21680918
Chen, Chih-Hung; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Fung, Chin-Ping; Doong, Ji-Liang; Chuang, Tien-Yow
Whether virtual rehabilitation is beneficial has not been determined. To investigate the psychological benefits of virtual reality in rehabilitation. An experimental group underwent therapy with a virtual-reality-based exercise bike, and a control group underwent the therapy without virtual-reality equipment. Hospital laboratory. 30 patients suffering from spinal-cord injury. A designed rehabilitation therapy. Endurance, Borg's rating-of-perceived-exertion scale, the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. The differences between the experimental and control groups were significant for AD-ACL calmness and tension. A virtual-reality-based rehabilitation program can ease patients' tension and induce calm.
Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur
Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and
The question of whether a psychodynamic view is compatible with experimental research is still a challenging issue-especially for child and adolescent psychopathology-despite the influence of psychoanalytic theory in this field until the 1980s. In this article, is explored the relationship between psychodynamic theory and experimental research using examples of evidence-based studies in the fields of (i) psychotherapeutic intervention assessment, (ii) placebo response in children and adolescents, (iii) unconscious lasting traumatic effects in children and adolescents, (iv) psychodynamic-oriented psychological testing. There are now a sufficient number of evidence-based studies to support the use of psychodynamic therapy in mental disorders, particularly in personality disorder and anxious/depressive disorder. In addition, placebo responses in children and adolescents with internalizing disorders are significantly higher in major depression compared to obsessive-compulsive disorder or other anxiety disorders, which highlights differential psychopathologies regarding the experience of loss. Also, using an experimental task, psychoanalysts are able to identify, without explicit knowledge and above the level of chance, healthy adults whose siblings had experienced cancer during childhood. This experiment suggests that implicit information regarding a participant's history is conveyed in interpersonal exchanges that can be intuitively perceived by judges experienced in listening to free associations from a psychodynamic perspective. Finally, psychodynamic-oriented psychological testing may predict the transition to schizophrenia in adolescents with a history of manic/mixed episodes. It can be concluded that there are no discrepancies between psychodynamic views and experimental data, whether one tests psychotherapeutic approaches, discusses data from other fields such as psychopharmacology, or designs experiments based on psychodynamic theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier
Using the sonification technique, physicist and composer Domenico Vicinanza paid homage to CERN at its 60th anniversary ceremony. After months of hard work, he turned the CERN Convention and LHC data into music. Click here to download the full score of the "LHChamber music". Every birthday deserves gifts and CERN’s 60th anniversary was no exception. Two gifts were very special, thanks to the hard work of Domenico Vicinanza, a physicist and composer. He created two experimental pieces by applying the sonification technique to the CERN Convention and to data recorded by the four LHC detectors during Run 1. “This technique allows us to ‘hear’ data using an algorithm that translates numbers or letters into notes. It keeps the same information enclosed in a graph or a document, but has a more aesthetic exposition,” explains Domenico Vicinanza. “The result is meant to be a metaphor for scientific cooperation, in which d...
Ambalika Dogra; Sunil Dutt
The paper has analyzed the effect of online learning and traditional mode of learning on students’ engagement in learning. A sample of 50 students studying psychology in their B.A course was selected randomly from one college in Chandigarh. An online learning course in selected topics of psychology was developed. The experimental group of the study was exposed through online learning mode for 15 days. Likewise, control group was taught the same content by traditional learning for 15 days as w...
Harr, Nora; Eichler, Andreas; Renkl, Alexander
In teacher education at universities, general pedagogical and psychological principles are often treated separately from subject matter knowledge and therefore run the risk of not being applied in the teaching subject. In an experimental study (N = 60 mathematics student teachers) we investigated the effects of providing aspects of general pedagogical/psychological knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge in an integrated or separated way. In both conditions (‘integrated’ vs. ‘separate’), ...
Harr, Nora; Eichler, Andreas; Renkl, Alexander
In teacher education, general pedagogical and psychological knowledge is often taught separately from the teaching subject itself, potentially leading to inert knowledge. In an experimental study with 69 mathematics student teachers, we tested the benefits of fostering the integration of pedagogical content knowledge and general pedagogical and psychological knowledge with respect to knowledge application. Integration was fostered either by integrating the contents or by prompting the learner...
Christopher J. Wilson; Alessandro Soranzo
Recent proliferation of available virtual reality (VR) tools has seen increased use in psychological research. This is due to a number of advantages afforded over traditional experimental apparatus such as tighter control of the environment and the possibility of creating more ecologically valid stimulus presentation and response protocols. At the same time, higher levels of immersion and visual fidelity afforded by VR do not necessarily evoke presence or elicit a “realistic” psychological r...
Dehghanzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Kholasehzadeh, Golrasteh; Birjandi, Masoumeh; Antikchi, Ensieh; Sobhan, Mohamad Reza; Neamatzadeh, Hossein
Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran in 2013. In this study average of entrepreneurship psychological characteristics of nurses which are higher than standard mark. The majority of the nurses have average entrepreneurship (20.4%). It means that they have some strong entrepreneurship. The result show that average of the need for achievement is 34.5%, the locus of control 33.8%, risk taking propensity 33.2%, ambiguity tolerance 34.2%, and innovation 41.6%. The results indicate that the 4 dimensions of the need for achievement, risk taking, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation were significant. However, the locus of control is not significant at a 0.05 significance level. In terms, entrepreneurially nurses are comparatively more innovative, have risk taking attitudes, need for achievement, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation. Results largely support significant positive relationships between psychological traits and entrepreneurial orientations.
Haig, Brian D.
In this article, the author presents his comments on "Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a Search for Truth and the Discovery of Solutions" by John T. Cacioppo, Gun R. Semin and Gary G. Berntson. In the original article, the authors recommended the combined use of the philosophies of scientific realism and…
Nordkap, Loa; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hansen, Åse Marie
OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from...
Dishman, Rod K.
Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…
Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, Ed.
This book paints a portrait of adolescent psychology in 4 major regions: Africa/the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Featuring 24 revised and updated chapters from the "International Encyclopedia of Adolescence" (2007), readers are introduced to the way the majority of the world's adolescents actually live. Most contributors…
Mohammad Reza Dehghanzadeh
Full Text Available Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran in 2013. In this study average of entrepreneurship psychological characteristics of nurses which are higher than standard mark. The majority of the nurses have average entrepreneurship (20.4%. It means that they have some strong entrepreneurship. The result show that average of the need for achievement is 34.5%, the locus of control 33.8%, risk taking propensity 33.2%, ambiguity tolerance 34.2%, and innovation 41.6%. The results indicate that the 4 dimensions of the need for achievement, risk taking, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation were significant. However, the locus of control is not significant at a 0.05 significance level. In terms, entrepreneurially nurses are comparatively more innovative, have risk taking attitudes, need for achievement, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation. Results largely support significant positive relationships between psychological traits and entrepreneurial orientations.
Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja
and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...
In this chapter, I will review current approaches to online sociability and present and exemplify a psychological theory, the Social Reality theory, of online sociability. By analyzing sociability in a virtual world based university course, I will present and analyze examples on how to understand...
The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Findings from psychological research in Africa and related regions needs a forum for better dissemination and utilisation in the context of development. Special emphasis is placed on the consideration of African, African-American, Asian, Caribbean, and Hispanic-Latino realities and problems. Contributions should attempt a ...
Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.
Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…
van Stekelenburg, J.; Klandermans, P.G.
Social psychological research has taught us a lot about why people protest. This article provides a theoretical and empirical overview. Discussed are grievances, efficacy, identification, emotions and social embeddedness, followed by the most recent approaches, which combine these concepts into dual
Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Bijleveld, E.H.; Aarts, H.A.G.
A thriving field of inquiry, the psychological science of money has recently witnessed an upsurge in research attention. In the present volume, we bring together and integrate a number of theoretical perspectives on the question of ‘how does money affect people’s mind, brain, and behavior?’
Forman, Susan G.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Codding, Robin S.; Gonzales, Jorge E.; Reddy, Linda A.; Rosenfield, Sylvia A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Stoiber, Karen C.
The APA Division 16 Working Group on Translating Science to Practice contends that implementation science is essential to the process of translating evidence-based interventions (EBIs) into the unique context of the schools, and that increasing attention to implementation will lead to the improvement of school psychological services and school…
Moriarty, Anthony R.; Story, Donald W.
Attempts to describe the psychological processes that predispose an individual to adopt a Satanic belief system. Describes processes in terms of child-parent relationships and the developmental tasks of adolescence. Proposes a model called the web of psychic tension to represent the process of Satanic cult adoption. Describes techniques for…
Pettigrew, Thomas F.
According to this acceptance speech delivered by the recipient of the 1987 Kurt Lewin Award, social psychological contributions should be placed within an interdisciplinary framework and an institutional structure in order to make it more relevant for public policy. Recommendations for doing this are offered. (BJV)
Wismeijer, A.A.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.
Introduction It has been generally thought that the practice of bondage-discipline, dominance-submission, sadism-masochism (BDSM) is in some form associated with psychopathology. However, several more recent studies suggest a relative good psychological health of BDSM practitioners. Aim The aim of