WorldWideScience

Sample records for experimental protocol development

  1. Development of Experimental Protocol for Visual Cognitive Function Evaluation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereverzeva D.S.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to present experimental protocol for investigation of visual cognitive function in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Description of experimental design is introduced by theoretical review of visual attention, perception and visual-motor control development in children with idiopathic autism and those with Fragile X mental retardation syndrome. Research method presented in the article is based on recent studies of visual cognitive function development under normal and pathological condition. The protocol includes three experimental paradigms: “antisaccade test”, “big/ figures”, and “photos test” performed by making use of eye tracking recording. This work was supported by grant RFBR 14-06-31284

  2. iLAP: a workflow-driven software for experimental protocol development, data acquisition and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNally James

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the genome biology community has expended considerable effort to confront the challenges of managing heterogeneous data in a structured and organized way and developed laboratory information management systems (LIMS for both raw and processed data. On the other hand, electronic notebooks were developed to record and manage scientific data, and facilitate data-sharing. Software which enables both, management of large datasets and digital recording of laboratory procedures would serve a real need in laboratories using medium and high-throughput techniques. Results We have developed iLAP (Laboratory data management, Analysis, and Protocol development, a workflow-driven information management system specifically designed to create and manage experimental protocols, and to analyze and share laboratory data. The system combines experimental protocol development, wizard-based data acquisition, and high-throughput data analysis into a single, integrated system. We demonstrate the power and the flexibility of the platform using a microscopy case study based on a combinatorial multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization (m-FISH protocol and 3D-image reconstruction. iLAP is freely available under the open source license AGPL from http://genome.tugraz.at/iLAP/. Conclusion iLAP is a flexible and versatile information management system, which has the potential to close the gap between electronic notebooks and LIMS and can therefore be of great value for a broad scientific community.

  3. Development of an experimental apparatus and protocol for determining antimicrobial activities of gaseous plant essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2015-12-23

    There is a growing interest in the use of naturally-occurring antimicrobial agents such as plant essential oils (EOs) to inhibit the growth of hazardous and spoilage microorganisms in foods. Gaseous EOs (EO gases) have many potential applications in the food industry, including use as antimicrobial agents in food packaging materials and sanitizing agents for foods and food-contact surfaces, and in food processing environments. Despite the potentially beneficial applications of EO gases, there is no standard method to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. Thus, the present study was aimed at developing an experimental apparatus and protocol to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of EO gases against microorganisms. A sealed experimental apparatus was constructed for simultaneous evaluation of antimicrobial activities of EO gases at different concentrations without creating concentration gradients. A differential medium was then evaluated in which a color change allowed for the determination of growth of glucose-fermenting microorganisms. Lastly, an experimental protocol for the assessment of MIC and MLC values of EO gases was developed, and these values were determined for 31 EO gases against Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model bacterium. Results showed that cinnamon bark EO gas had the lowest MIC (0.0391 μl/ml), followed by thyme-thymol EO gas (0.0781 μl/ml), oregano EO gas (0.3125 μl/ml), peppermint EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml), and thyme-linalool EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml). The order of the MLC values of the EO gases against the E. coli O157:H7 was thyme-thymol (0.0781 μl/ml)oregano (0.3125 μl/ml)antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Limitations in electrophysiological model development and validation caused by differences between simulations and experimental protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Jesús; Rodríguez-Matas, José F; Monasterio, Violeta; Pueyo, Esther

    2017-10-01

    Models of ion channel dynamics are usually built by fitting isolated cell experimental values of individual parameters while neglecting the interaction between them. Another shortcoming regards the estimation of ionic current conductances, which is often based on quantification of Action Potential (AP)-derived markers. Although this procedure reduces the uncertainty in the calculation of conductances, many studies evaluate electrophysiological AP-derived markers from single cell simulations, whereas experimental measurements are obtained from tissue preparations. In this work, we explore the limitations of these approaches to estimate ion channel dynamics and maximum current conductances and how they could be overcome by using multiscale simulations of experimental protocols. Four human ventricular cell models, namely ten Tusscher and Panfilov (2006), Grandi et al. (2010), O'Hara et al. (2011), and Carro et al. (2011), were used. Two problems involving scales from ion channels to tissue were investigated: 1) characterization of L-type calcium voltage-dependent inactivation ICa,L; 2) identification of major ionic conductance contributors to steady-state AP markers, including APD90, APD75, APD50, APD25, Triangulation and maximal and minimal values of V and dV/dt during the AP (Vmax, Vmin, dV/dtmax, dV/dtmin). Our results show that: 1) ICa,L inactivation characteristics differed significantly when calculated from model equations and from simulations reproducing the experimental protocols. 2) Large differences were found in the ionic currents contributors to APD25, Triangulation, Vmax, dV/dtmax and dV/dtmin between single cells and 1D-tissue. When proposing any new model formulation, or evaluating an existing model, consistency between simulated and experimental data should be verified considering all involved effects and scales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Promises and Challenges of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Schizophrenia: Development of an Initial Experimental Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon A. Gaudiano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and other psychotic-spectrum disorders, are a major cause of disability worldwide. Although efficacious pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have been developed for treating patients with schizophrenia, relapse rates are high and long-term recovery remains elusive for many individuals. Furthermore, little is still known about the underlying mechanisms of these illnesses. Thus, there is an urgent need to better understand the contextual factors that contribute to psychosis so that they can be better targeted in future interventions. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA is a dynamic procedure that permits the measurement of variables in natural settings in real-time through the use of brief assessments delivered via mobile electronic devices (i.e., smartphones. One advantage of EMA is that it is less subject to retrospective memory biases and highly sensitive to fluctuating environmental factors. In the current article, we describe the research-to-date using EMA to better understand fluctuating symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and potential applications to treatment. In addition, we describe a novel EMA protocol that we have been employing to study the outcomes of patients with schizophrenia following a hospital discharge. We also report the lessons we have learned thus far using EMA methods in this challenging clinical population.

  6. Development and validation of experimental protocols for use of cardinal models for prediction of microorganisms growth in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinon, A.; Zwietering, M.H.; Perrier, L.; Membré, J.M.; Leporq, B.; Mettler, E.; Thuault, D.; Coroller, L.; Stahl, V.; Vialette, M.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental protocol to validate secondary-model application to foods was suggested. Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella were observed in various food categories, such as meat, dairy, egg, or seafood products. The secondary model

  7. Using semantics for representing experimental protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Olga; García, Alexander; López, Federico; Corcho, Oscar

    2017-11-13

    An experimental protocol is a sequence of tasks and operations executed to perform experimental research in biological and biomedical areas, e.g. biology, genetics, immunology, neurosciences, virology. Protocols often include references to equipment, reagents, descriptions of critical steps, troubleshooting and tips, as well as any other information that researchers deem important for facilitating the reusability of the protocol. Although experimental protocols are central to reproducibility, the descriptions are often cursory. There is the need for a unified framework with respect to the syntactic structure and the semantics for representing experimental protocols. In this paper we present "SMART Protocols ontology", an ontology for representing experimental protocols. Our ontology represents the protocol as a workflow with domain specific knowledge embedded within a document. We also present the S ample I nstrument R eagent O bjective (SIRO) model, which represents the minimal common information shared across experimental protocols. SIRO was conceived in the same realm as the Patient Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) model that supports search, retrieval and classification purposes in evidence based medicine. We evaluate our approach against a set of competency questions modeled as SPARQL queries and processed against a set of published and unpublished protocols modeled with the SP Ontology and the SIRO model. Our approach makes it possible to answer queries such as Which protocols use tumor tissue as a sample. Improving reporting structures for experimental protocols requires collective efforts from authors, peer reviewers, editors and funding bodies. The SP Ontology is a contribution towards this goal. We build upon previous experiences and bringing together the view of researchers managing protocols in their laboratory work. Website: https://smartprotocols.github.io/ .

  8. Study protocol: developing a decision system for inclusive housing: applying a systematic, mixed-method quasi-experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Zeeman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying the housing preferences of people with complex disabilities is a much needed, but under-developed area of practice and scholarship. Despite the recognition that housing is a social determinant of health and quality of life, there is an absence of empirical methodologies that can practically and systematically involve consumers in this complex service delivery and housing design market. A rigorous process for making effective and consistent development decisions is needed to ensure resources are used effectively and the needs of consumers with complex disability are properly met. Methods/Design This 3-year project aims to identify how the public and private housing market in Australia can better respond to the needs of people with complex disabilities whilst simultaneously achieving key corporate objectives. First, using the Customer Relationship Management framework, qualitative (Nominal Group Technique and quantitative (Discrete Choice Experiment methods will be used to quantify the housing preferences of consumers and their carers. A systematic mixed-method, quasi-experimental design will then be used to quantify the development priorities of other key stakeholders (e.g., architects, developers, Government housing services etc. in relation to inclusive housing for people with complex disabilities. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 1 (experimental group will participate in a series of focus groups employing Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP methodology. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 2 (control group will participate in focus groups employing existing decision making processes to inclusive housing development (e.g., Risk, Opportunity, Cost, Benefit considerations. Using comparative stakeholder analysis, this research design will enable the AHP methodology (a proposed tool to guide inclusive housing development decisions to be tested. Discussion It is anticipated that the findings of this study

  9. Study protocol: developing a decision system for inclusive housing: applying a systematic, mixed-method quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Heidi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer A; Wright, Courtney J; Townsend, Clare; Smith, Dianne; Lakhani, Ali; Kennerley, Samantha

    2016-03-15

    Identifying the housing preferences of people with complex disabilities is a much needed, but under-developed area of practice and scholarship. Despite the recognition that housing is a social determinant of health and quality of life, there is an absence of empirical methodologies that can practically and systematically involve consumers in this complex service delivery and housing design market. A rigorous process for making effective and consistent development decisions is needed to ensure resources are used effectively and the needs of consumers with complex disability are properly met. This 3-year project aims to identify how the public and private housing market in Australia can better respond to the needs of people with complex disabilities whilst simultaneously achieving key corporate objectives. First, using the Customer Relationship Management framework, qualitative (Nominal Group Technique) and quantitative (Discrete Choice Experiment) methods will be used to quantify the housing preferences of consumers and their carers. A systematic mixed-method, quasi-experimental design will then be used to quantify the development priorities of other key stakeholders (e.g., architects, developers, Government housing services etc.) in relation to inclusive housing for people with complex disabilities. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 1 (experimental group) will participate in a series of focus groups employing Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) methodology. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 2 (control group) will participate in focus groups employing existing decision making processes to inclusive housing development (e.g., Risk, Opportunity, Cost, Benefit considerations). Using comparative stakeholder analysis, this research design will enable the AHP methodology (a proposed tool to guide inclusive housing development decisions) to be tested. It is anticipated that the findings of this study will enable stakeholders to incorporate consumer housing

  10. Treatment protocol development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.; Gavin, P.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes research performed at the WSU College of Veterinary Medicine in which a large animal model was developed and used to study the effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on normal and neoplastic canine brain tissue. The studies were performed using borocaptate sodium (BSH) and epithermal neutrons and had two major foci: biodistribution of BSH in animals with spontaneously occurring brain tumors; and effects of BNCT in normal and neoplastic brain tissue.

  11. Development of small scale experimental protocol and a multi-physics model to predict the complex hygro-mechanical behavior of wood under varying climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Rastislav

    The reliability of wood structures is strongly affected by duration of loading and environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to develop a simple method for measuring the mechano-sorptive character of the hygro-mechanical behavior of wood and to develop a model capable of predicting long term beam behavior under changing climates. The model predictions were compared with experimental results. Red spruce was the species selected for investigation. The mechano-sorptive properties were measured in tension and compression on thin specimens where moisture content variation within the material was minimal when exposed to a varying environment. The measured mechano-sorptive deformation in compression was significantly greater than that measured in tension (4 times higher at cumulative MC 60% than in tension). However, the developed compression protocol was less accurate, with a tendency to overestimate the magnitude of subsequent experimental creep behavior. A multi-physics model of hygro-mechanical uniaxial beam behavior was developed that rigorously couples spatially varying time-dependent moisture content with the uniaxial stress-strain relations. To verify the model and accuracy of the measured uniaxial mechano-sorptive characteristic of red spruce, the behavior of beams loaded by four point bending was measured in cyclically varying climate over 2.5 months. Although the model did not properly account for the immediate effect of moisture content change on mid-span deflection, as was observed in real beams, the overall trend of the predicted deflection was in good agreement with experimental results. An additional part of the thesis dealt with development of an analytical model to predict the hygro-mechanical behavior of multi-directional polymer matrix composite laminates which incorporate the mechano-sorptive effects of a phenol resorcinol formal-dehyde resin. E-glass/phenol resorcinol formaldehyde resin composite material parameters were used in the model

  12. Using the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children: study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Tonje Holte; Haugen, Tommy; Berntsen, Sveinung; Guttormsen, Vigdis; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haraldstad, Kristin; Meland, Eivind; Abildsnes, Eirik

    2016-10-18

    In light of the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, there is a need of developing effective prevention programs to address the rising prevalence and the concomitant health consequences. The main aim of the present study is to systematically develop and implement a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children, aged 6-10 years old, enhancing parental self-efficacy, family engagement and parent-child interaction. A subsidiary aim of the intervention study is to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity among those participating in the intervention study. The Intervention Mapping protocol was used to develop a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children. In order to gather information on local opportunities and barriers, interviews with key stakeholders and a 1-year pilot study was conducted. The main study has used a quasi-experimental controlled design. Locally based Healthy Life Centers and Public Health Clinics are responsible for recruiting families and conducting the intervention. The effect of the study will be measured both at completion of the 6 months intervention study and 6 and 18 months after the intervention period. An ecological approach was used as a basis for developing the intervention. The behavioral models and educational strategies include individual family counselling meetings, workshops focusing on regulation of family life, nutrition courses, and physical activity groups providing tailored information and practical learning sessions. Parents will be educated on how to use these strategies at home, to further support their children in improving their behaviors. A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for development of this family-based intervention study targeting overweight and obese children, 6-10 years old. This program, if feasible and effective, may be adjusted to local contexts and

  13. Using the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children: study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonje Holte Stea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, there is a need of developing effective prevention programs to address the rising prevalence and the concomitant health consequences. The main aim of the present study is to systematically develop and implement a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children, aged 6–10 years old, enhancing parental self-efficacy, family engagement and parent-child interaction. A subsidiary aim of the intervention study is to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity among those participating in the intervention study. Methods/design The Intervention Mapping protocol was used to develop a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children. In order to gather information on local opportunities and barriers, interviews with key stakeholders and a 1-year pilot study was conducted. The main study has used a quasi-experimental controlled design. Locally based Healthy Life Centers and Public Health Clinics are responsible for recruiting families and conducting the intervention. The effect of the study will be measured both at completion of the 6 months intervention study and 6 and 18 months after the intervention period. An ecological approach was used as a basis for developing the intervention. The behavioral models and educational strategies include individual family counselling meetings, workshops focusing on regulation of family life, nutrition courses, and physical activity groups providing tailored information and practical learning sessions. Parents will be educated on how to use these strategies at home, to further support their children in improving their behaviors. Discussion A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for development of this family-based intervention study targeting overweight and obese children, 6–10 years old. This program, if

  14. Developing security protocols in χ-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Milicia, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    It is of paramount importance that a security protocol effectively enforces the desired security requirements. The apparent simplicity of informal protocol descriptions hides the inherent complexity of their interactions which, often, invalidate informal correctness arguments and justify the effort......-Spaces aids several steps in the development of a security protocolprotocol executions can be simulated in hostile environments, a security protocol can be implemented, and security properties of implementations can be formally verified....

  15. Development and Application of a Protocol for Definition of Process Conditions for Directional Solidification: Integrating Fundamental Theory, Experimentation and Modeling Tools (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Defect map for directional solidification with superimposed predicted preferred solidification conditions for a range of bar thicknesses and mold ...J.J. Schirra (The Mineral, Metals & Materials Society, 2000) 189-200. 7. A.J. Elliott, “ Directional Solidification of Large Cross-Section Ni -Base...AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2012-0252 DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A PROTOCOL FOR DEFINITION OF PROCESS CONDITIONS FOR DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION

  16. Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fish tissues: First observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment has raised scientific interest during the last decade. Several organisms can ingest microplastics with potentially adverse effects on the digestive tract, respiratory system and locomotory appendages. However, a clear evidence of tissue accumulation and transfer of such microparticles in wild organisms is still lacking, partially hampered by technical difficulties in isolation and characterization protocols from biological samples. In this work, we compared the efficacy of some existing approaches and we optimized a new protocol allowing an extraction yield of microplastics from fish tissues ranging between 78% and 98%, depending on the polymer size. FT-IR analyses confirmed that the extraction procedure did not affect the particles characteristics. The method was further validated on the fish mullet, Mugil cephalus, exposed under laboratory conditions to polystyrene and polyethylene; the particles were isolated and quantified in stomach and liver, and their presence in the hepatic tissue was confirmed also by histological analyses. A preliminary characterization revealed the presence and distribution of microplastics in various fish species collected along the Adriatic Sea. FT-IR analyses indicated polyethylene as the predominant polymer (65%) in the stomach of fish. The overall results confirmed the newly developed method as a reliable approach to detect and quantify microplastics in the marine biota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In silico simulations of experimental protocols for cardiac modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Jesus; Rodriguez, Jose Felix; Pueyo, Esther

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model of the AP involves the sum of different transmembrane ionic currents and the balance of intracellular ionic concentrations. To each ionic current corresponds an equation involving several effects. There are a number of model parameters that must be identified using specific experimental protocols in which the effects are considered as independent. However, when the model complexity grows, the interaction between effects becomes increasingly important. Therefore, model parameters identified considering the different effects as independent might be misleading. In this work, a novel methodology consisting in performing in silico simulations of the experimental protocol and then comparing experimental and simulated outcomes is proposed for parameter model identification and validation. The potential of the methodology is demonstrated by validating voltage-dependent L-type calcium current (ICaL) inactivation in recently proposed human ventricular AP models with different formulations. Our results show large differences between ICaL inactivation as calculated from the model equation and ICaL inactivation from the in silico simulations due to the interaction between effects and/or to the experimental protocol. Our results suggest that, when proposing any new model formulation, consistency between such formulation and the corresponding experimental data that is aimed at being reproduced needs to be first verified considering all involved factors.

  18. How To Develop Survey Protocols: A Handbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This handbook provides a standard and guidance for developing and reviewing survey protocols used in the National Wildlife Refuge System. In the handbook, survey...

  19. BREATHING PROTECTION EQUIPMENT CONSUMPTION: CONTRIBUTION FROM AN EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Corrêa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an experimental protocol for calculatingthe breathable air consumption on Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA used by firefighters during operations in smoke environment, especially in firefighting operations. The actual protocol is based on particularities forvaried Fire Departments. Even though the Fire Departments are similar in their activities and collaborative spirit, each institution has different equipment, works under a specific ambient temperature, and has peculiar training programs, representing a unique organism. Creating a simple protocol makes it possible to be easily repeated, establishing, that way,the air consumption during SCBAuse by any Fire Department. One case study in a significant sample of on Battalion of Recife – PE, Brazil, will be presented, creating a reference of air consumption for firefighters during low, middle and high effort during firefighting.

  20. Preliminary study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 1. [Development and testing of experimental protocols and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    The major objective of this preliminary study is to develop and thoroughly test the experimental protocols and apparatus, which are planned for a major study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. The behavior of baboons will be observed before, during, and after exposure to 60 Hz electric fields at a maximum intensity of 60 kV/m. Both individual performance (operant conditioning) and social behavior will be examined. The preliminary study will differ from the planned major study as follows: subjects will be used as their own controls; a smaller number of subjects will be run; field intensity will not be varied; the electric field should be non-uniform; the preliminary study exposure facility will be basically an outdoor facility; to avoid deterioration of plastic materials, the high intensity fields will not be turned on during or just after rainfall; and in the preliminary study the biological work will be restricted to the clinical determination of the health of subjects before and after exposure. The present report is the first of three quarterly technical progress reports. It covers approximately the first two and one-half months of activity and, therefore, consists primarily of plans. The report addresses four major areas: the high intensity field exposure facility; the field measurement instrumentation; the operation conditioning equipment; and experimental methods including experimental design and data analysis.

  1. Development of bull trout sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. F. Thurow; J. T. Peterson; J. W. Guzevich

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in Washington in 2000 through Interagency Agreement #134100H002 between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). The purpose of this agreement is to develop a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) sampling protocol by integrating...

  2. Advanced Crystallographic Data Collection Protocols for Experimental Phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Aaron D; Panepucci, Ezequiel; Vonrhein, Clemens; Wang, Meitian; Bricogne, Gérard; Oliéric, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Experimental phasing by single- or multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD or MAD) has become the most popular method of de novo macromolecular structure determination. Continuous advances at third-generation synchrotron sources have enabled the deployment of rapid data collection protocols that are capable of recording SAD or MAD data sets. However, procedural simplifications driven by the pursuit of high throughput have led to a loss of sophistication in data collection strategies, adversely affecting measurement accuracy from the viewpoint of anomalous phasing. In this chapter, we detail optimized strategies for collecting high-quality data for experimental phasing, with particular emphasis on minimizing errors from radiation damage as well as from the instrument. This chapter also emphasizes data processing for "on-the-fly" decision-making during data collection, a critical process when data quality depends directly on information gathered while at the synchrotron.

  3. Development of quantitative computed tomography lung protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, John D; Sieren, Jered; Hoffman, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this review article is to review the process of developing optimal computed tomography (CT) protocols for quantitative lung CT (QCT). In this review, we discuss the following important topics: QCT-derived metrics of lung disease; QCT scanning protocols; quality control; and QCT image processing software. We will briefly discuss several QCT-derived metrics of lung disease that have been developed for the assessment of emphysema, small airway disease, and large airway disease. The CT scanning protocol is one of the most important elements in a successful QCT. We will provide a detailed description of the current move toward optimizing the QCT protocol for the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and asthma. Quality control of CT images is also a very important part of the QCT process. We will discuss why it is necessary to use CT scanner test objects (phantoms) to provide frequent periodic checks on the CT scanner calibration to ensure precise and accurate CT numbers. We will discuss the use of QCT image processing software to segment the lung and extract the desired QCT metrics of lung disease. We will discuss the practical issues of using this software. The data obtained from the image processing software are then combined with those from other clinical examinations, health status questionnaires, pulmonary physiology, and genomics to increase our understanding of obstructive lung disease and improve our ability to design new therapies for these diseases.

  4. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  5. REFOLDdb: a new and sustainable gateway to experimental protocols for protein refolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Hisashi; Sugawara, Hideaki; Buckle, Ashley M; Sangawa, Takeshi; Miyazono, Ken-Ichi; Ohtsuka, Jun; Nagata, Koji; Shojima, Tomoki; Nosaki, Shohei; Xu, Yuqun; Wang, Delong; Hu, Xiao; Tanokura, Masaru; Yura, Kei

    2017-04-24

    More than 7000 papers related to "protein refolding" have been published to date, with approximately 300 reports each year during the last decade. Whilst some of these papers provide experimental protocols for protein refolding, a survey in the structural life science communities showed a necessity for a comprehensive database for refolding techniques. We therefore have developed a new resource - "REFOLDdb" that collects refolding techniques into a single, searchable repository to help researchers develop refolding protocols for proteins of interest. We based our resource on the existing REFOLD database, which has not been updated since 2009. We redesigned the data format to be more concise, allowing consistent representations among data entries compared with the original REFOLD database. The remodeled data architecture enhances the search efficiency and improves the sustainability of the database. After an exhaustive literature search we added experimental refolding protocols from reports published 2009 to early 2017. In addition to this new data, we fully converted and integrated existing REFOLD data into our new resource. REFOLDdb contains 1877 entries as of March 17th, 2017, and is freely available at http://p4d-info.nig.ac.jp/refolddb/ . REFOLDdb is a unique database for the life sciences research community, providing annotated information for designing new refolding protocols and customizing existing methodologies. We envisage that this resource will find wide utility across broad disciplines that rely on the production of pure, active, recombinant proteins. Furthermore, the database also provides a useful overview of the recent trends and statistics in refolding technology development.

  6. A design protocol to develop radiology dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mahtab

    2014-10-01

    The main objective of this descriptive and development research was to introduce a design protocol to develop radiology dashboards. The first step was to determine key performance indicators for radiology department. The second step was to determine required infrastructure for implementation of radiology dashboards. Infrastructure was extracted from both data and technology perspectives. The third step was to determine main features of the radiology dashboards. The fourth step was to determine the key criteria for evaluating the dashboards. In all these steps, non-probability sampling methods including convenience and purposive were employed and sample size determined based on a persuasion model. Results showed that there are 92 KPIs, 10 main features for designing dashboards and 53 key criteria for dashboards evaluation. As well as, a Prototype of radiology management dashboards in four aspects including services, clients, personnel and cost-income were implemented and evaluated. Applying such dashboards could help managers to enhance performance, productivity and quality of services in radiology department.

  7. An Experimental Protocol for Maternal Pulmonary Exposure in Developmental Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Lund, Søren P.; Kristiansen, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    To establish a protocol for studying effects of pulmonary exposure in developmental toxicity studies, the effects of intratracheal sham instillation under short-term isoflurane anaesthesia were evaluated with a protocol including multiple instillations during gestation. Twelve time-mated mice (C5...

  8. Caltech computer scientists develop FAST protocol to speed up Internet

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Caltech computer scientists have developed a new data transfer protocol for the Internet fast enough to download a full-length DVD movie in less than five seconds. The protocol is called FAST, standing for Fast Active queue management Scalable Transmission Control Protocol" (1 page).

  9. Photoelectrochemical water splitting standards, experimental methods, and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhebo; Miller, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book outlines many of the techniques involved in materials development and characterization for photoelectrochemical (PEC) - for example, proper metrics for describing material performance, how to assemble testing cells and prepare materials for assessment of their properties, and how to perform the experimental measurements needed to achieve reliable results towards better scientific understanding. For each technique, proper procedure, benefits, limitations, and data interpretation are discussed. Consolidating this information in a short, accessible, and easy to read reference guide will allow researchers to more rapidly immerse themselves into PEC research and also better compare their results against those of other researchers to better advance materials development. This book serves as a "how-to" guide for researchers engaged in or interested in engaging in the field of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. PEC water splitting is a rapidly growing field of research in which the goal is to deve...

  10. Of taps and toilets: quasi-experimental protocol for evaluating community-demand-driven projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Poulos, Christine; Yang, Jui-Chen; Patil, Sumeet R; Wendland, Kelly J

    2009-09-01

    Sustainable and equitable access to safe water and adequate sanitation are widely acknowledged as vital, yet neglected, development goals. Water supply and sanitation (WSS) policies are justified because of the usual efficiency criteria, but also major equity concerns. Yet, to date there are few scientific impact evaluations showing that WSS policies are effective in delivering social welfare outcomes. This lack of an evaluation culture is partly because WSS policies are characterized by diverse mechanisms, broad goals and the increasing importance of decentralized delivery, and partly because programme administrators are unaware of appropriate methods. We describe a protocol for a quasi-experimental evaluation of a community-demand-driven programme for water and sanitation in rural India, which addresses several evaluation challenges. After briefly reviewing policy and implementation issues in the sector, we describe key features of our protocol, including control group identification, pre-post measurement, programme theory, sample sufficiency and robust indicators. At its core, our protocol proposes to combine propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimation. We conclude by briefly summarizing how quasi-experimental impact evaluations can address key issues in WSS policy design and when such evaluations are needed.

  11. Ball-on-DiscTribometers Protocol Development: Loss of Lubrication Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Loss of lubrication ( LoL ) protocol development consists of...an LoL event are desirable to improve operational capabilities under severe lubrication conditions. This paper discusses a variety of methods to...evaluate survivability and the development of an LoL -experiment protocol with a ball-on-disc tribometer. Study and experimentation of new oil-off

  12. Latency correction of event-related potentials between different experimental protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrate, I.; Chavarriaga, R.; Montesano, L.; Minguez, J.; Millán, JdR

    2014-06-01

    Objective. A fundamental issue in EEG event-related potentials (ERPs) studies is the amount of data required to have an accurate ERP model. This also impacts the time required to train a classifier for a brain-computer interface (BCI). This issue is mainly due to the poor signal-to-noise ratio and the large fluctuations of the EEG caused by several sources of variability. One of these sources is directly related to the experimental protocol or application designed, and may affect the amplitude or latency of ERPs. This usually prevents BCI classifiers from generalizing among different experimental protocols. In this paper, we analyze the effect of the amplitude and the latency variations among different experimental protocols based on the same type of ERP. Approach. We present a method to analyze and compensate for the latency variations in BCI applications. The algorithm has been tested on two widely used ERPs (P300 and observation error potentials), in three experimental protocols in each case. We report the ERP analysis and single-trial classification. Main results. The results obtained show that the designed experimental protocols significantly affect the latency of the recorded potentials but not the amplitudes. Significance. These results show how the use of latency-corrected data can be used to generalize the BCIs, reducing the calibration time when facing a new experimental protocol.

  13. Development of an efficient plant regeneration protocol for sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient and reproducible plant regeneration protocol for the South African sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivar Blesbok was developed in this study. The effect of different hormone combinations and type of explant on shoot regeneration was evaluated in order to optimize the regeneration protocol. Explants in ...

  14. Skill development in experimental courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Bagán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental courses offer a good opportunity to work with competences, promoting the incorporation of strategies oriented towards motivating students to actively involve in the learning process, promoting reflexive learning and developing generic skills. This study presents different ways of developing and evaluating some important general skills, settle on four specific objectives: 1. To increase student motivation using samples of potential interest to students and explaining real-live application of their samples analyses; 2. To assist students’ self-regulation and learning autonomy by using the portfolio; 3. To promote group work through experiments in pairs and small-group discussions; 4. To develop communication skills through small-group discussions and oral presentations. Results show that the type of sample used and real-life application has important influence on motivation. The portfolio is a good tool to promote reflection and to evaluate both specific and generic skills in experimental courses, the dynamics of a laboratory course permit students to develop their group-work and communicative skills, and peer evaluations both improve students’ communication skills and promote metacognitive reflection. Finally, the project demonstrates that it is possible to train students in general skills using the specific course content and that the incorporation of participatory methodologies encourages students to become actively involved in the teaching-learning process.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Halkes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is often performed through simulation. These simulations necessarily abstract away from reality in many ways. However, the impact of these abstractions on the results of the simulations has received only limited attention. Moreover, many studies on the accuracy of simulation have studied either the physical layer and per link effects or routing protocol effects. To the best of our knowledge, no other work has focused on the study of the simulation abstractions with respect to MAC protocol performance. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental study of two often used abstractions in the simulation of WSN MAC protocols. We show that a simple SNR-based reception model can provide quite accurate results for metrics commonly used to evaluate MAC protocols. Furthermore, we provide an analysis of what the main sources of deviation are and thereby how the simulations can be improved to provide even better results.

  16. Experimental evaluation of TCP protocols for high-speed networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yee-Ting; Leith, Douglas J.; Shorten, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present experimental results evaluating the performance of the scalable-TCP, HS-TCP, BIC-TCP, FAST-TCP, and H-TCP proposals in a series of benchmark tests. In summary, we find that both Scalable-TCP and FAST-TCP consistently exhibit substantial unfairness, even when competing flows share identical network path characteristics. Scalable-TCP, HS-TCP, FAST-TCP, and BIC-TCP all exhibit much greater RTT unfairness than does standard TCP, to the extent that long RTT flows ma...

  17. Experimental protocol to assess the tourism vehicles accessibility based on heart rate and access time measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcala Fazio, E.; Alvarez Fernandez, N.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the Project is to define an experimental protocol for the accessibility assessment of the transport vehicles, by analysing the evolution of the effort and time variables consumed by a target group –Persons of Reduced Mobility (PMRs). This protocol consisted in tests of accessibility on a sample of 6 passenger cars (class M1) by 8 elderly people carrying a heart rate monitor, and whose access manoeuvres were recorded by video cameras. Based on the Hilloskorpi et al. [1] model and by developing a method of truncation of the heart rate (HR) tests records - eliminating the component of the work biologically needed by the organism to keep its basal metabolic rate from the work each person performed – it was possible to evaluate how much energy each individual invested in each access manoeuver. Immediately after each test, and after the whole round of vehicles, each participant was surveyed for a subjective assessment of the difficulty of accessing to the cars. According to each of the above results, the HR objective measurements and the subjective opinion about the ease of access experienced by each individual, the vehicles were ranked by order of accessibility to the front and rear seats. The result of both rankings showed the orders of the similar vehicles, the potential of the method and a fair closeness between its results and the subjective, but real and unequivocal, judgments of the participants. (Author)

  18. The Palaeoclimate and Terrestrial Exoplanet Radiative Transfer Model Intercomparison Project (PALAEOTRIP: experimental design and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Goldblatt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate radiative transfer calculation is fundamental to all climate modelling. For deep palaeoclimate, and increasingly terrestrial exoplanet climate science, this brings both the joy and the challenge of exotic atmospheric compositions. The challenge here is that most standard radiation codes for climate modelling have been developed for modern atmospheric conditions and may perform poorly away from these. The palaeoclimate or exoclimate modeller must either rely on these or use bespoke radiation codes, and in both cases rely on either blind faith or ad hoc testing of the code. In this paper, we describe the protocols for the Palaeoclimate and Terrestrial Exoplanet Radiative Transfer Model Intercomparison Project (PALAEOTRIP to systematically address this. This will compare as many radiation codes used for palaeoclimate or exoplanets as possible, with the aim of identifying the ranges of far-from-modern atmospheric compositions in which the codes perform well. This paper describes the experimental protocol and invites community participation in the project through 2017–2018.

  19. Development of Uniform Protocol for Alopecia Areata Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, James A

    2015-11-01

    Developing a successful treatment for alopecia areata (AA), clearly has not been at the forefront of the agenda for new drug/device development among the pharmaceutical and medical device industry. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF), a patient advocacy group, initiated a plan to facilitate and drive clinical research toward finding safe and efficacious treatments for AA. As such, Alopecia Areata Uniform Protocols for clinical trials to test new treatments for AA were developed. The design of the uniform protocol is to accomplish the development of a plug-and-play template as well as to provide a framework wherein data from studies utilizing the uniform protocol can be compared through consistency of inclusions/exclusions, safety, and outcome assessment measures. A core uniform protocol for use by pharmaceutical companies in testing proof of concept for investigational products to treat AA. The core protocol includes standardized title, informed consent, inclusion/exclusion criteria, disease outcome assessments, and safety assessments. The statistical methodology to assess successful outcomes will also be standardized. The protocol as well as the informed consent form has been approved in concept by Liberty IRB and is ready to present to pharmaceutical companies.

  20. An Investigation into Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CDM) as a transition mechanism to Kenya's green economy and the contribution of CDM projects towards sustainable development in Kenya. Accordingly, a positive checklist approach to sustainable development indicators was applied as ...

  1. An Experimental Protocol to Model Recovery of Anaerobic Work Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sarthy M. Sreedhara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Models of fatigue are based on physiological parameters such as Critical Power (CP and Anaerobic Work Capacity (AWC. CP is a theoretical threshold value that a human can generate for an indefinite amount of time and AWC represents a finite expendable amount of anaerobic energy at intensities above CP. There is an increasing interest in developing mathematical models of energy expenditure and recovery for athletic training and human performance. The objective of this research is to propose and validate a model for recovery of AWC during a post exertion recovery interval of cycling. A cycling ergometer study is proposed which involves a VO2max ramp test to determine gas exchange threshold, a 3-min all-out intensity test to determine CP and AWC, and exertion-recovery interval tests to understand recovery of AWC. The results will be used to build a human in the loop control system to optimize cycling performance.

  2. SADC Gender and Development Protocol: An Evaluation of Equality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greatest challenge of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) continues to be the need to build a life for its people free from poverty, ... of the SADC Gender and Development Protocol, gender activists came together between 2005 and 2008 to form cross-border and national alliances to undertake a ...

  3. Development of an alcohol withdrawal protocol: CNS collaborative exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan; Haycock, Camille; Boyle, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this process improvement project was to develop an Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) management protocol for acute care. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in our society presents challenges for health professionals, and few nurses have received formal education on the identification and treatment of AWS, which has frequently resulted in ineffective, nonstandardized care. However, nurses practicing in medical-surgical, emergency, trauma, and critical care settings must be astute in the assessment and management of AWS. DESIGN/BACKGROUND/RATIONALE: Following an analysis of existing management protocols, a behavioral health clinical nurse specialist was asked to lead a work team composed of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses to develop a new evidence-based alcohol withdrawal protocol for acute care. By implementing a standardized assessment tool and treatment protocol, clinical nurse specialists empowered nursing staff with strategies to prevent the serious medical complications associated with AWS. FINDINGS/OUTCOMES: The development and integration of a safe and effective treatment protocol to manage AWS was facilitated by collaborative, evidence-based decision making. Clinical experience and specialty expertise were integrated by clinical nurse specialists skilled in group dynamics, problem-solving, and the implementation of change. Improving care of patients in AWS is an exemplar for clinical nurse specialist roles as change agent and patient advocate.

  4. Computational Methodologies for Developing Structure–Morphology–Performance Relationships in Organic Solar Cells: A Protocol Review

    KAUST Repository

    Do, Khanh

    2016-09-08

    We outline a step-by-step protocol that incorporates a number of theoretical and computational methodologies to evaluate the structural and electronic properties of pi-conjugated semiconducting materials in the condensed phase. Our focus is on methodologies appropriate for the characterization, at the molecular level, of the morphology in blend systems consisting of an electron donor and electron acceptor, of importance for understanding the performance properties of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. The protocol is formulated as an introductory manual for investigators who aim to study the bulk-heterojunction morphology in molecular details, thereby facilitating the development of structure morphology property relationships when used in tandem with experimental results.

  5. A Within-subjects Experimental Protocol to Assess the Effects of Social Input on Infant EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Ashley M; Kao, Katie; Chita-Tegmark, Meia; Liederman, Jacqueline; Grieve, Philip G; Tarullo, Amanda R

    2017-05-03

    Despite the importance of social interactions for infant brain development, little research has assessed functional neural activation while infants socially interact. Electroencephalography (EEG) power is an advantageous technique to assess infant functional neural activation. However, many studies record infant EEG only during one baseline condition. This protocol describes a paradigm that is designed to comprehensively assess infant EEG activity in both social and nonsocial contexts as well as tease apart how different types of social inputs differentially relate to infant EEG. The within-subjects paradigm includes four controlled conditions. In the nonsocial condition, infants view objects on computer screens. The joint attention condition involves an experimenter directing the infant's attention to pictures. The joint attention condition includes three types of social input: language, face-to-face interaction, and the presence of joint attention. Differences in infant EEG between the nonsocial and joint attention conditions could be due to any of these three types of input. Therefore, two additional conditions (one with language input while the experimenter is hidden behind a screen and one with face-to-face interaction) were included to assess the driving contextual factors in patterns of infant neural activation. Representative results demonstrate that infant EEG power varied by condition, both overall and differentially by brain region, supporting the functional nature of infant EEG power. This technique is advantageous in that it includes conditions that are clearly social or nonsocial and allows for examination of how specific types of social input relate to EEG power. This paradigm can be used to assess how individual differences in age, affect, socioeconomic status, and parent-infant interaction quality relate to the development of the social brain. Based on the demonstrated functional nature of infant EEG power, future studies should consider the role

  6. Cheating and Anti-Cheating in Gossip-Based Protocol: An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanchun; Tang, Yun; Zhang, Nan

    During recent years, there has been a rapid growth in deployment of gossip-based protocol in many multicast applications. In a typical gossip-based protocol, each node acts as dual roles of receiver and sender, independently exchanging data with its neighbors to facilitate scalability and resilience. However, most of previous work in this literature seldom considered cheating issue of end users, which is also very important in face of the fact that the mutual cooperation inherently determines overall system performance. In this paper, we investigate the dishonest behaviors in decentralized gossip-based protocol through extensive experimental study. Our original contributions come in two-fold: In the first part of cheating study, we analytically discuss two typical cheating strategies, that is, intentionally increasing subscription requests and untruthfully calculating forwarding probability, and further evaluate their negative impacts. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to defending cheating behaviors in gossip-based protocol. In the second part of anti-cheating study, we propose a receiver-driven measurement mechanism, which evaluates individual forwarding traffic from the perspective of receivers and thus identifies cheating nodes with high incoming/outgoing ratio. Furthermore, we extend our mechanism by introducing reliable factor to further improve its accuracy. The experiments under various conditions show that it performs quite well in case of serious cheating and achieves considerable performance in other cases.

  7. Hydrogen engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In the continuing development of a hydrogen fueled IC engine optimized for application to a generator set or hybrid vehicle, experiments were performed at Sandia National Laboratories on two engine configurations. The intent is to maximize thermal efficiency while complying with strict emissions standards. The initial investigation was conducted utilizing a spark ignited 0.491 liter single cylinder Onan engine and has progressed to a spark ignited 0.850 liter modified for single cylinder operation Perkins engine. Both combustion chamber geometries were {open_quotes}pancake{close_quotes} shaped and achieved a compression ratio of 14:1. The engines were operated under premixed conditions. The results demonstrate that both engines can comply with the California Air Resources Board`s proposed Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicle standards for NO{sub x} during operation at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The Onan engine achieved an indicated thermal efficiency of 43% at 1800 RPM, as determined by integration of the pressure-volume relationships. Initial experiments with the larger displacement Perkins engine have realized a gain, relative to the Onan engine, in indicated thermal efficiency of 2% at 1800 RPM, and 15% at 1200 RPM.

  8. A protocol to analyse cellular dynamics during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Reuille, Pierre Barbier; Bohn-Courseau, Isabelle; Godin, Christophe; Traas, Jan

    2005-12-01

    In vivo microscopy generates images that contain complex information on the dynamic behaviour of three-dimensional (3D) objects. As a result, adapted mathematical and computational tools are required to help in their interpretation. Ideally, a complete software chain to study the dynamics of a complex 3D object should include: (i) the acquisition, (ii) the preprocessing and (iii) segmentation of the images, followed by (iv) a reconstruction in time and space and (v) the final quantitative analysis. Here, we have developed such a protocol to study cell dynamics at the shoot apical meristem in Arabidopsis. The protocol uses serial optical sections made with the confocal microscope. It includes specially designed algorithms to automate the identification of cell lineage and to analyse the quantitative behaviour of the meristem surface.

  9. Developing cryopreservation protocols to secure fungal gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M J; Jeffries, P; Bridge, P D; Smith, D

    2001-01-01

    Protocols that involve a freezing process are frequently used for the preservation of fungi, but there have been few studies to assess the physiological and genetic stability of isolates after preservation. In this study, the effects of cryopreservation and lyophilisation on the viability, physiology and genetic stability of isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae, Fusarium oxysporum and Serpula lacrymans were examined. It was found that preservation regime influenced the characters of some of the test isolates. Secondary metabolite profiles and extracellular enzyme production can be affected by preservation. Polymorphism's were detected after PCR fingerprinting in replicates of 2 isolates of Metarhizium that had been preserved by cryopreservation and lyophilisation. The results indicated a need to improve existing preservation protocols. Research is being undertaken to develop novel cryopreservation regimes for recalcitrant micro-organisms. Biochemical and molecular techniques will be used to assess the effectiveness of preservation.

  10. Development of pediatric CT protocols for specific scanners: why bother?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, Dianna D. [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Imaging Physics, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-10-15

    When determining a strategy for pediatric CT scanning, clinical staff can either elect to adjust routine adult-protocol parameter settings on a case-by-case basis or rely on pre-set pediatric protocol parameters. The advantages of the latter approach are the topic of this manuscript. This paper outlines specific options to consider, including the need for regular protocol review. (orig.)

  11. The Healthy Primary School of the Future: study protocol of a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Willeboordse

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy lifestyles in early childhood are a major global health challenge. These lifestyles often persist from generation to generation and contribute to a vicious cycle of health-related and social problems. This design article presents a study evaluating the effects of two novel healthy school interventions. The main outcome measure will be changes in children’s body mass index (BMI. In addition, lifestyle behaviours, academic achievement, child well-being, socio-economic differences, and societal costs will be examined. Methods In close collaboration with various stakeholders, a quasi-experimental study was developed, for which children of four intervention schools (n = 1200 in the southern part of the Netherlands are compared with children of four control schools (n = 1200 in the same region. The interventions started in November 2015. In two of the four intervention schools, a whole-school approach named ‘The Healthy Primary School of the Future’, is implemented with the aim of improving physical activity and dietary behaviour. For this intervention, pupils are offered an extended curriculum, including a healthy lunch, more physical exercises, and social and educational activities, next to the regular school curriculum. In the two other intervention schools, a physical-activity school approach called ‘The Physical Activity School’, is implemented, which is essentially similar to the other intervention, except that no lunch is provided. The interventions proceed during a period of 4 years. Apart from the effectiveness of both interventions, the process, the cost-effectiveness, and the expected legal implications are studied. Data collection is conducted within the school system. The baseline measurements started in September 2015 and yearly follow-up measurements are taking place until 2019. Discussion A whole-school approach is a new concept in the Netherlands. Due to its innovative, multifaceted

  12. The Development and Evaluation of a Video-Tape Protocol for the Examination of Multicapped Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Edward T.; Curtis, W. Scott

    Due to the belief that written communication about a deaf blind child among professional examiners and treatment agencies can be more accurate and precise, the experimenters developed and evaluated a video tape protocol for the examination of the communication skills of 20 multiply handicapped deaf blind children, who ranged from 3 to 8 years in…

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF METRICS FOR PROTOCOLS AND OTHER TECHNICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Francescato Veiga

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a proposal for metrics for protocols and other technical products to be applied in assessing the Postgraduate Programs of Medicine III - Capes. Methods: The 2013 area documents of all the 48 Capes areas were read. From the analysis of the criteria used by the areas at the 2013's Triennal Assessment, a proposal for metrics for protocols and other technical products was developed to be applied in assessing the Postgraduate Programs of Medicine III. This proposal was based on the criteria of Biological Sciences I and Interdisciplinary areas. Results: Only seven areas have described a scoring system for technical products. The products considered and the scoring varied widely. Due to the wide range of different technical products which could be considered relevant, and that would not be punctuated if they were not previously specified, it was developed, for the Medicine III, a proposal for metrics in which five specific criteria to be analyzed: Demand, Relevance/Impact, Scope, Complexity and Adherence to the Program. Based on these criteria, each product can receive 10 to 100 points. Conclusion: This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection "Technical production, patents and other relevant production". The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches mean ≥150 points/permanent professor/quadrennium; Good, mean between 100 and 149 points; Regular, mean between 60 and 99 points; Weak mean between 30 and 59 points; Insufficient, up to 29 points/permanent professor/quadrennium.

  14. Toward a Cooperative Experimental System Development Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis...

  15. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-01-01

    unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance......A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  16. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance......A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  17. An Experimental Platform for Autonomous Bus Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Montes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with highly developed instrumentation, sensing and actuation technologies, it is possible to foresee an important advance in the field of autonomous and/or semi-autonomous transportation systems. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS have been subjected to very active research for many years, and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT is one area of major interest. Among the most promising transport infrastructures, the articulated bus is an interesting, low cost, high occupancy capacity and friendly option. In this paper, an experimental platform for research on the automatic control of an articulated bus is presented. The aim of the platform is to allow full experimentation in real conditions for testing technological developments and control algorithms. The experimental platform consists of a mobile component (a commercial articulated bus fully instrumented and a ground test area composed of asphalt roads inside the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC premises. This paper focuses also on the development of a human machine interface to ease progress in control system evaluation. Some experimental results are presented in order to show the potential of the proposed platform.

  18. Improving Protocol Design Feasibility to Drive Drug Development Economics and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Getz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Protocol design complexity has increased substantially during the past decade and this in turn has adversely impacted drug development economics and performance. This article reviews the results of two major Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development studies quantifying the direct cost of conducting less essential and unnecessary protocol procedures and of implementing amendments to protocol designs. Indirect costs including personnel time, work load and cycle time delays associated with complex protocol designs are also discussed. The author concludes with an overview of steps that research sponsors are taking to improve protocol design feasibility.

  19. Development of Standardized Material Testing Protocols for Prosthetic Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, John C; Reinhall, Per G; Hafner, Brian J; Sanders, Joan E

    2017-04-01

    A set of protocols was created to characterize prosthetic liners across six clinically relevant material properties. Properties included compressive elasticity, shear elasticity, tensile elasticity, volumetric elasticity, coefficient of friction (CoF), and thermal conductivity. Eighteen prosthetic liners representing the diverse range of commercial products were evaluated to create test procedures that maximized repeatability, minimized error, and provided clinically meaningful results. Shear and tensile elasticity test designs were augmented with finite element analysis (FEA) to optimize specimen geometries. Results showed that because of the wide range of available liner products, the compressive elasticity and tensile elasticity tests required two test maxima; samples were tested until they met either a strain-based or a stress-based maximum, whichever was reached first. The shear and tensile elasticity tests required that no cyclic conditioning be conducted because of limited endurance of the mounting adhesive with some liner materials. The coefficient of friction test was based on dynamic coefficient of friction, as it proved to be a more reliable measurement than static coefficient of friction. The volumetric elasticity test required that air be released beneath samples in the test chamber before testing. The thermal conductivity test best reflected the clinical environment when thermal grease was omitted and when liner samples were placed under pressure consistent with load bearing conditions. The developed procedures provide a standardized approach for evaluating liner products in the prosthetics industry. Test results can be used to improve clinical selection of liners for individual patients and guide development of new liner products.

  20. ARPEL's approach : Kyoto Protocol: Clean Development Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocanegra, J. [PEMEX, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    ARPEL's (Regional Association of Oil and Natural Gas Companies in Latin America and the Carribean) interest in clean development mechanisms is described. Several uncertainties related to the Kyoto Protocol and the CDM were addressed, such as the science behind the climate change phenomena, the impact on oil demand, the cost of emission reduction to the oil industry and the 'additionality' criteria. Relative benefits of participating in CDM projects by member companies of ARPEL were examined, with due regard to the fact that Latin American countries are not now required to reduce emissions. Some actions that individual companies in ARPEL could take to consider investing in CDM projects were also reviewed. With reference to PEMEX (Petroleos Mexicanos), the speaker explained the PEMEX view of the climate change issue, how it is integrated into the company's sustainable development strategy, and how CDM could become an important means to accessing the financial and technology support needed to implement CDM projects. An industrial prototype project that PEMEX could implement to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions was also described as an indication of PEMEX's capacity to contribute towards mitigating global climate change.

  1. A Review of Communications Protocol for Intelligent Remote Terminal Unit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ruddin Ab. Ghani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed all the possible interfacing communication protocols for remote terminal unit (RTU. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA system is a central station that can communicate with other network using the protocol. Fundamentally, the architectures of all networks are based on the seven layers of open system interconnection (OSI and International Standard Organization (ISO. The objective of designing the protocols is to check the status of all the input and output field devices and send the report according to that status. The corresponding protocol and communication parameters between the connecting devices will be included in designing a complex SCADA system. The available protocols to develop the communication of RTU are Modbus/ASCII, distributed network protocol (DNP3, controller area network (CAN, International Electro-technical Commission (IEC 60870, transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP.

  2. Development of the hypersonic flight experimental vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hiroki; Kobayasi, Minoru; Yamazaki, Isao; Shirouzu, Masao; Yamamoto, Masataka

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Hypersonic Flight Experimental Vehicle, Hyflex, the first Japanese hypersonic lifting vehicle as the precursor engineering demonstrator of the H-II Orbiting Plane (HOPE). The flight experiment was successfully conducted on February 12 1996 by the brand-new NASDA small launcher, the J-I Launch Vehicle. The project purpose, progress, experiment flight plan / result and the vehicle system feature are summarized. Onboard measurement such as pressure, temperature and other sensor is described with typical flight results. Some detailed development progress of Aerodynamics, Aerothermodynamics, Thermal Protection and Flight Control are also discussed.

  3. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Vijayakumar, R.; Agui, Juan H.

    2014-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High- Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. Over the years, the service life of these filters has been re-evaluated based on limited post-flight tests of returned filters and risk factors. On earth, a well designed and installed HEPA filter will last for several years, e.g. in industrial and research clean room applications. Test methods for evaluating these filters are being developed on the basis of established test protocols used by the industry and the military. This paper will discuss the test methods adopted and test results on prototypes of the ISS filters. The results will assist in establishing whether the service life can be extended for these filters. Results from unused filters that have been in storage will also be presented to ascertain the shelf life and performance deterioration, if any and determine if the shelf life may be extended.

  4. Multicenter Evaluation of Geometric Accuracy of MRI Protocols Used in Experimental Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenios Milidonis

    Full Text Available It has recently been suggested that multicenter preclinical stroke studies should be carried out to improve translation from bench to bedside, but the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanners routinely used in experimental stroke has not yet been evaluated. We aimed to assess and compare geometric accuracy of preclinical scanners and examine the longitudinal stability of one scanner using a simple quality assurance (QA protocol. Six 7 Tesla animal scanners across six different preclinical imaging centers throughout Europe were used to scan a small structural phantom and estimate linear scaling errors in all orthogonal directions and volumetric errors. Between-scanner imaging consisted of a standard sequence and each center's preferred sequence for the assessment of infarct size in rat models of stroke. The standard sequence was also used to evaluate the drift in accuracy of the worst performing scanner over a period of six months following basic gradient calibration. Scaling and volumetric errors using the standard sequence were less variable than corresponding errors using different stroke sequences. The errors for one scanner, estimated using the standard sequence, were very high (above 4% scaling errors for each orthogonal direction, 18.73% volumetric error. Calibration of the gradient coils in this system reduced scaling errors to within ±1.0%; these remained stable during the subsequent 6-month assessment. In conclusion, despite decades of use in experimental studies, preclinical MRI still suffers from poor and variable geometric accuracy, influenced by the use of miscalibrated systems and various types of sequences for the same purpose. For effective pooling of data in multicenter studies, centers should adopt standardized procedures for system QA and in vivo imaging.

  5. How to design in situ studies: an evaluation of experimental protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hye Sung

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Designing in situ models for caries research is a demanding procedure, as both clinical and laboratory parameters need to be incorporated in a single study. This study aimed to construct an informative guideline for planning in situ models relevant to preexisting caries studies. Materials and Methods An electronic literature search of the PubMed database was performed. A total 191 of full articles written in English were included and data were extracted from materials and methods. Multiple variables were analyzed in relation to the publication types, participant characteristics, specimen and appliance factors, and other conditions. Frequencies and percentages were displayed to summarize the data and the Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess a statistical significance (p < 0.05. Results There were many parameters commonly included in the majority of in situ models such as inclusion criteria, sample sizes, sample allocation methods, tooth types, intraoral appliance types, sterilization methods, study periods, outcome measures, experimental interventions, etc. Interrelationships existed between the main research topics and some parameters (outcome measures and sample allocation methods among the evaluated articles. Conclusions It will be possible to establish standardized in situ protocols according to the research topics. Furthermore, data collaboration from comparable studies would be enhanced by homogeneous study designs.

  6. MANEMO Routing in Practice: Protocol Selection, Expected Performance, and Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaki, Hajime; van Meter, Rodney; Wakikawa, Ryuji; Wongsaardsakul, Thirapon; Kanchanasut, Kanchana; Dias de Amorim, Marcelo; Murai, Jun

    Motivated by the deployment of post-disaster MANEMO (MANET for NEMO) composed of mobile routers and stations, we evaluate two candidate routing protocols through network simulation, theoretical performance analysis, and field experiments. The first protocol is the widely adopted Optimized Link State Routing protocol (OLSR) and the second is the combination of the Tree Discovery Protocol (TDP) with Network In Node Advertisement (NINA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that these two protocols are compared in both theoretical and practical terms. We focus on the control overhead generated when mobile routers perform a handover. Our results confirm the correctness and operational robustness of both protocols. More interestingly, although in the general case OLSR leads to better results, TDP/NINA outperforms OLSR both in the case of sparse networks and in highly mobile networks, which correspond to the operation point of a large set of post-disaster scenarios.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF METRICS FOR PROTOCOLS AND OTHER TECHNICAL PRODUCTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for protocols and other technical products to be applied in assessing the Postgraduate Programs of Medicine III - Capes. The 2013 area documents of all the 48 Capes areas were read. From the analysis of the criteria used by the areas at the 2013's Triennal Assessment, a proposal for metrics for protocols and other technical products was developed to be applied in assessing the Postgraduate Programs of Medicine III. This proposal was based on the criteria of Biological Sciences I and Interdisciplinary areas. Only seven areas have described a scoring system for technical products. The products considered and the scoring varied widely. Due to the wide range of different technical products which could be considered relevant, and that would not be punctuated if they were not previously specified, it was developed, for the Medicine III, a proposal for metrics in which five specific criteria to be analyzed: Demand, Relevance/Impact, Scope, Complexity and Adherence to the Program. Based on these criteria, each product can receive 10 to 100 points. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection "Technical production, patents and other relevant production". The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches mean ≥150 points/permanent professor/quadrennium; Good, mean between 100 and 149 points; Regular, mean between 60 and 99 points; Weak mean between 30 and 59 points; Insufficient, up to 29 points/permanent professor/quadrennium. Desenvolver proposta de métricas para protocolos e outras produções técnicas a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III da Capes. Foram lidos os documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes. A partir da análise dos critérios utilizados por elas na avaliação trienal 2013, foi desenvolvida uma proposta de métricas para protocolos e outras produções técnicas. Esta proposta foi baseada

  8. Shoulder muscle endurance: the development of a standardized and reliable protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Jean-Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder muscle fatigue has been proposed as a possible link to explain the association between repetitive arm use and the development of rotator cuff disorders. To our knowledge, no standardized clinical endurance protocol has been developed to evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue on shoulder function. Such a test could improve clinical examination of individuals with shoulder disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish a reliable protocol for objective assessment of shoulder muscle endurance. Methods An endurance protocol was developed on a stationary dynamometer (Biodex System 3. The endurance protocol was performed in isotonic mode with the resistance set at 50% of each subject's peak torque as measured for shoulder external (ER and internal rotation (IR. Each subject performed 60 continuous repetitions of IR/ER rotation. The endurance protocol was performed by 36 healthy individuals on two separate occasions at least two days apart. Maximal isometric shoulder strength tests were performed before and after the fatigue protocol to evaluate the effects of the endurance protocol and its reliability. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate the reduction in shoulder strength due to the protocol, while intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and minimal detectable change (MDC were used to evaluate its reliability. Results Maximal isometric strength was significantly decreased after the endurance protocol (P 0.84. Conclusions Changes in muscular performance observed during and after the muscular endurance protocol suggests that the protocol did result in muscular fatigue. Furthermore, this study established that the resultant effects of fatigue of the proposed isotonic protocol were reproducible over time. The protocol was performed without difficulty by all volunteers and took less than 10 minutes to perform, suggesting that it might be feasible for clinical practice. This protocol could be used to induce

  9. Experimental Protocol to Determine the Chloride Threshold Value for Corrosion in Samples Taken from Reinforced Concrete Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Ueli M; Boschmann, Carolina; Wagner, Matthias; Elsener, Bernhard

    2017-08-31

    The aging of reinforced concrete infrastructure in developed countries imposes an urgent need for methods to reliably assess the condition of these structures. Corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel is the most frequent cause for degradation. While it is well known that the ability of a structure to withstand corrosion depends strongly on factors such as the materials used or the age, it is common practice to rely on threshold values stipulated in standards or textbooks. These threshold values for corrosion initiation (Ccrit) are independent of the actual properties of a certain structure, which clearly limits the accuracy of condition assessments and service life predictions. The practice of using tabulated values can be traced to the lack of reliable methods to determine Ccrit on-site and in the laboratory. Here, an experimental protocol to determine Ccrit for individual engineering structures or structural members is presented. A number of reinforced concrete samples are taken from structures and laboratory corrosion testing is performed. The main advantage of this method is that it ensures real conditions concerning parameters that are well known to greatly influence Ccrit, such as the steel-concrete interface, which cannot be representatively mimicked in laboratory-produced samples. At the same time, the accelerated corrosion test in the laboratory permits the reliable determination of Ccrit prior to corrosion initiation on the tested structure; this is a major advantage over all common condition assessment methods that only permit estimating the conditions for corrosion after initiation, i.e., when the structure is already damaged. The protocol yields the statistical distribution of Ccrit for the tested structure. This serves as a basis for probabilistic prediction models for the remaining time to corrosion, which is needed for maintenance planning. This method can potentially be used in material testing of civil infrastructures, similar to established

  10. Experimental Protocol for Detecting Cyanobacteria in Liquid and Solid Samples with an Antibody Microarray Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Yolanda; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Parro, Victor

    2017-02-07

    Global warming and eutrophication make some aquatic ecosystems behave as true bioreactors that trigger rapid and massive cyanobacterial growth; this has relevant health and economic consequences. Many cyanobacterial strains are toxin producers, and only a few cells are necessary to induce irreparable damage to the environment. Therefore, water-body authorities and administrations require rapid and efficient early-warning systems providing reliable data to support their preventive or curative decisions. This manuscript reports an experimental protocol for the in-field detection of toxin-producing cyanobacterial strains by using an antibody microarray chip with 17 antibodies (Abs) with taxonomic resolution (CYANOCHIP). Here, a multiplex fluorescent sandwich microarray immunoassay (FSMI) for the simultaneous monitoring of 17 cyanobacterial strains frequently found blooming in freshwater ecosystems, some of them toxin producers, is described. A microarray with multiple identical replicates (up to 24) of the CYANOCHIP was printed onto a single microscope slide to simultaneously test a similar number of samples. Liquid samples can be tested either by direct incubation with the antibodies (Abs) or after cell concentration by filtration through a 1- to 3-μm filter. Solid samples, such as sediments and ground rocks, are first homogenized and dispersed by a hand-held ultrasonicator in an incubation buffer. They are then filtered (5 - 20 μm) to remove the coarse material, and the filtrate is incubated with Abs. Immunoreactions are revealed by a final incubation with a mixture of the 17 fluorescence-labeled Abs and are read by a portable fluorescence detector. The whole process takes around 3 h, most of it corresponding to two 1-h periods of incubation. The output is an image, where bright spots correspond to the positive detection of cyanobacterial markers.

  11. Development and Pilot Study of a Welfare Assessment Protocol for Dairy Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barry, John Patrick; Kennedy, E.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    As agricultural systems continue to develop and become more refined, so too must protocols used to assess the welfare of animals experiencing them. The aim of this research was to develop a welfare assessment protocol for pre-weaned dairy calves (<12 weeks old),and investigate, and improve, its

  12. Experimental protocols for behavioral imaging: seeing animal models of drug abuse in a new light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Alexandra R; Talan, Amanda; Schiffer, Wynne K

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral neuroimaging is a rapidly evolving discipline that represents a marriage between the fields of behavioral neuroscience and preclinical molecular imaging. This union highlights the changing role of imaging in translational research. Techniques developed for humans are now widely applied in the study of animal models of brain disorders such as drug addiction. Small animal or preclinical imaging allows us to interrogate core features of addiction from both behavioral and biological endpoints. Snapshots of brain activity allow us to better understand changes in brain function and behavior associated with initial drug exposure, the emergence of drug escalation, and repeated bouts of drug withdrawal and relapse. Here we review the development and validation of new behavioral imaging paradigms and several clinically relevant radiotracers used to capture dynamic molecular events in behaving animals. We will discuss ways in which behavioral imaging protocols can be optimized to increase throughput and quantitative methods. Finally, we discuss our experience with the practical aspects of behavioral neuroimaging, so investigators can utilize effective animal models to better understand the addicted brain and behavior.

  13. Development of an efficient plant regeneration protocol for sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UKZN

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... reproducible plant transformation protocol (Liu and. Cantliffe, 1984). The ability to regenerate a whole plant from isolated plant cells or tissues which have been genetically transformed underpins most plant transformation systems. Therefore, tissue culture and plant regeneration are integral parts of most ...

  14. Development, Validity and Reliability of the Londrina Activities of Daily Living Protocol for Subjects With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Thaís; Donária, Leila; Furlanetto, Karina C; Morakami, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Antenor; Grosskreutz, Talita; Hernandes, Nidia A; Gosselink, Rik; Pitta, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    To avoid symptoms, patients with COPD may reduce the amount of activities of daily living (ADL). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a standardized protocol to evaluate ADL performance in subjects with COPD (Londrina ADL protocol) and to assess the validity and reliability of the protocol in this population. The Londrina ADL protocol was created based on activities included in previous studies aimed at investigating outcomes from ADL. Activities were included in the protocol because they could represent other activities of similar patterns and because they could be actually performed, not simulated. Twenty subjects with COPD (12 men, 70 ± 7 y old, FEV1 = 54 ± 15% predicted) wore 2 motion sensors while performing the protocol 4 times, 2 of them wearing a portable gas analyzer. Subjects were also submitted to assessments of lung function, functional exercise capacity, functional status, impact on health status, and physical activity in daily life. The Londrina ADL protocol comprised of 5 activities representing ADL, involving upper limbs, lower limbs, and trunk movements. Londrina ADL protocol duration presented high values of intraclass correlation coefficient, even using a mask for gas analysis (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.90, P < .001). Intensity of movement during the protocol performance was highly correlated to intensity of movement in daily life (r = 0.71). The protocol duration was correlated with functional status and impact on health status variables from questionnaires (0.36 ≤ r ≤ 0.59). There was also correlation between functional exercise capacity and the protocol duration (r = -0.64). The Londrina ADL protocol was a valid and reliable protocol to evaluate ADL performance in subjects with COPD. It is a protocol that can be used in clinical practice and in future studies to investigate ADL outcomes, including those studies that require gas analysis and the wearing of a mask. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Protocols development for security and privacy of radio frequency identification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagha, Fatin

    There are benefits to adopting radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, although there are methods of attack that can compromise the system. This research determined how that may happen and what possible solutions can keep that from happening. Protocols were developed to implement better security. In addition, new topologies were developed to handle the problems of the key management. Previously proposed protocols focused on providing mutual authentication and privacy between readers and tags. However, those protocols are still vulnerable to be attacked. These protocols were analyzed and the disadvantages shown for each one. Previous works assumed that the channels between readers and the servers were secure. In the proposed protocols, a compromised reader is considered along with how to prevent tags from being read by that reader. The new protocols provide mutual authentication between readers and tags and, at the same time, remove the compromised reader from the system. Three protocols are proposed. In the first protocol, a mutual authentication is achieved and a compromised reader is not allowed in the network. In the second protocol, the number of times a reader contacts the server is reduced. The third protocol provides authentication and privacy between tags and readers using a trusted third party. The developed topology is implemented using python language and simulates work to check the efficiency regarding the processing time. The three protocols are implemented by writing codes in C language and then compiling them in MSP430. IAR Embedded workbench is used, which is an integrated development environment with the C/C++ compiler to generate a faster code and to debug the microcontroller. In summary, the goal of this research is to find solutions for the problems on previously proposed protocols, handle a compromised reader, and solve key management problems.

  16. A numerical-experimental protocol to characterize corneal tissue with an application to predict astigmatic keratotomy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Gracia, M Á; Ortillés, Á; Cristóbal, J Á; Rodríguez Matas, J F; Calvo, B

    2017-10-01

    Tonometers are intended to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the quality of corneal tissue. In contrast to the physiological state of stress of the cornea, tonometers induce non-physiological bending stress. Recently, the use of a single experiment to calibrate a set of corneal mechanical properties was suggested to be an ill-posed problem. Thus, we propose a numerical-experimental protocol that uses inflation and indentation experiments simultaneously, restricting the optimization space to circumvent the ambiguity of the fitting. For the first time, both corneal behaviors, i.e., biaxial tension (physiological) and bending (non-physiological), are taken into account. The experimental protocol was performed using an animal model (New Zealand rabbit's cornea). The patient-specific geometry and IOP were registered using a MODI topographer (CSO, Italy) and an applanation tonometer, respectively. The mechanical response was evaluated using inflation and indentation experiments. Subsequently, the optimal set of material properties is identified via an inverse finite element method. To validate the methodology, an in vivo incisional refractive surgery (astigmatic keratotomy, AK) is performed on four animals. The optical outcomes showed a good agreement between the real and simulated surgeries, indicating that the protocol can provide a reliable set of mechanical properties that enables further applications and simulations. After a reliable ex vivo database of inflation experiments is built, our protocol could be extended to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Marmote SDR: Experimental Platform for Low-Power Wireless Protocol Stack Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Lédeczi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, wireless sensor network research primarily relied on highly-integrated commercial off-the-shelf radio chips. The rigid silicon implementation of the radio stack restricted access to the lower layers; thus, research focused mainly on the medium access control (MAC layer and above. SRAM field-programmable gate array (FPGA-based software-defined radios (SDR, on the other hand, provide a flexible architecture to experiment with any and all layers of the radio stack, but usually require desktop computers and draw high currents that prohibit mobile or longer-term outdoor deployments. To address these issues, we have developed a modular flash FPGA-based wireless research platform, called Marmote SDR, that has computational resources comparable to those of SRAM FPGA-based radio platforms, but at a reduced power consumption, with duty cycling support. We discuss the design decisions underlying Marmote SDR and evaluate its power consumption. Furthermore, we present and evaluate an asynchronous and multiple access communication protocol specifically designed for data-gathering wireless sensor networks.

  18. Development of a neuro early mobilisation protocol for use in a neuroscience intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissie, Megan A; Zomorodi, Meg; Soares-Sardinha, Sharmila; Jordan, J Dedrick

    2017-10-01

    Through evaluation of the literature and working with a team of multidisciplinary healthcare providers, our objective was to refine an interprofessional Neuro Early Mobilisation Protocol for complex patients in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit. Using the literature as a guide, key stakeholders, from multiple professions, designed and refined a Neuro Early Mobilisation Protocol. This project took place at a large academic medical center in the southeast United States classified as both a Level I Trauma Center and Comprehensive Stroke Center. Goals for protocol development were to: (1) simplify the protocol to allow for ease of use, (2) make the protocol more generalizable to the patient population cared for in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit, (3) receive feedback from those using the original protocol on ways to improve the protocol and (4) ensure patients were properly screened for inclusion and exclusion in the protocol. Using expert feedback and the evidence, an evidence-based Neuro Early Mobilisation Protocol was created for use with all patients in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit. Future work will consist of protocol implementation and evaluation in order to increase patient mobilisation in the Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of new test instruments and protocols for the diagnostic of fuel cell stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, Sébastien; Candusso, Denis; Harel, Fabien; Hissel, Daniel; François, Xavier

    In the area of fuel cell research, most of the experimental techniques and equipments are still devoted to the analysis of single cells or very short stacks. However, the diagnosis of fuel cell stacks providing significant power levels is a critical aspect to be considered for the integration of fuel cell systems into real applications such as vehicles or stationary gensets. In this article, a new instrument developed in-lab is proposed in order to satisfy the requirements of electrochemical impedance studies to be led on large FC generators made of numerous individual cells. Moreover, new voltammetry protocols dedicated to PEMFC stack analysis are described. They enable for instance the study of membrane permeability and loss of platinum activity inside complete PEMFC assemblies.

  20. Development of Information Assurance Protocol for Low Bandwidth Nanosatellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    14. SUBJECT TERMS commercial off-the-shelf technology , nanosatellites, CubeSat, encrypted communications 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 161 16. PRICE...integrate with several physical layer technologies . While this protocol does provide some additional functionality at a lower cost, it is limited to...limitations in the UHF and VHF bands of nanosatellite communication schemes produce a restrictive environment for the transfer of data from the spacecraft to

  1. An experimental and bioinformatics protocol for RNA-Seq analyses of photoperiodic diapause in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelchau, Monica F; Huang, Xin; Goff, Allison; Reynolds, Julie; Armbruster, Peter

    2014-11-30

    Photoperiodic diapause is an important adaptation that allows individuals to escape harsh seasonal environments via a series of physiological changes, most notably developmental arrest and reduced metabolism. Global gene expression profiling via RNA-Seq can provide important insights into the transcriptional mechanisms of photoperiodic diapause. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an outstanding organism for studying the transcriptional bases of diapause due to its ease of rearing, easily induced diapause, and the genomic resources available. This manuscript presents a general experimental workflow for identifying diapause-induced transcriptional differences in A. albopictus. Rearing techniques, conditions necessary to induce diapause and non-diapause development, methods to estimate percent diapause in a population, and RNA extraction and integrity assessment for mosquitoes are documented. A workflow to process RNA-Seq data from Illumina sequencers culminates in a list of differentially expressed genes. The representative results demonstrate that this protocol can be used to effectively identify genes differentially regulated at the transcriptional level in A. albopictus due to photoperiodic differences. With modest adjustments, this workflow can be readily adapted to study the transcriptional bases of diapause or other important life history traits in other mosquitoes.

  2. Efficacy of low-dose myrrh protocols in the treatment of experimental schistosomiasis mansoni: hepatic improvement without parasitologic cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Abdul-Ghani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rashad Abdul-Ghani1, Naguiba Loutfy2, Manal Sheta3, Azza Hassan21Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Yemen; 2Tropical Health Department, High Institute of Public Health, 3Department of Pathology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: There is a new trend of “back to nature” in searching for antischistosomal drugs, particularly after the concerns raised about the possible emergence of schistosome isolates resistant/tolerant to praziquantel as well as for their relative safety and fewer side effects. Many plant derivatives have been investigated for efficacy against the Egyptian strain of Schistosoma mansoni, but much attention has been paid to myrrh extract, which is a purified sap obtained from Commiphora molmol. This extract has been produced and marketed in Egypt as a pharmaceutical preparation, but with a great discrepancy in its antischistosomal activity in both experimental and clinical studies. Most previous experimental studies used myrrh in the dosing protocol of 500 mg/kg/day for five days. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of three low-dose myrrh protocols against experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. All these protocols showed no significant efficacy in reducing parasite burdens and tissue egg loads or in changing oogram patterns. Nevertheless, there was an amelioration of hepatic lesions, with reductions in mean counts of hepatic granulomas as well as marked healing of these granulomas.Keywords: Schistosoma mansoni, schistosomiasis mansoni, myrrh, Commiphora molmol, antischistosomal chemotherapy

  3. Experimental osteonecrosis: development of a model in rodents administered alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Nicolau; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Andrade, Cleverton Roberto de; Esteves, Jônatas Caldeira; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2016-08-22

    The main objective of this study was to cause bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws to develop in a rodent model. Adult male Holtzman rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups to receive alendronate (AL; 1 mg/kg/week; n = 6) or saline solution (CTL; n = 6). After 60 days of drug therapy, all animals were subjected to first lower molar extraction, and 28 days later, animals were euthanized. All rats treated with alendronate developed osteonecrosis, presenting as ulcers and necrotic bone, associated with a significant infection process, especially at the inter-alveolar septum area and crestal regions. The degree of vascularization, the levels of C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, as well as the bone volume were significantly reduced in these animals. Furthermore, on radiographic analysis, animals treated with alendronate presented evident sclerosis of the lamina dura of the lower first molar alveolar socket associated with decreased radiographic density in this area. These findings indicate that the protocol developed in the present study opens new perspectives and could be a good starting model for future property design.

  4. Experimental osteonecrosis: development of a model in rodents administered alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau CONTE NETO

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this study was to cause bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws to develop in a rodent model. Adult male Holtzman rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups to receive alendronate (AL; 1 mg/kg/week; n = 6 or saline solution (CTL; n = 6. After 60 days of drug therapy, all animals were subjected to first lower molar extraction, and 28 days later, animals were euthanized. All rats treated with alendronate developed osteonecrosis, presenting as ulcers and necrotic bone, associated with a significant infection process, especially at the inter-alveolar septum area and crestal regions. The degree of vascularization, the levels of C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, as well as the bone volume were significantly reduced in these animals. Furthermore, on radiographic analysis, animals treated with alendronate presented evident sclerosis of the lamina dura of the lower first molar alveolar socket associated with decreased radiographic density in this area. These findings indicate that the protocol developed in the present study opens new perspectives and could be a good starting model for future property design.

  5. Development of a CELSS Experimental Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; Tang, Y.; Zhu, J.; Wang, X.; Yin, Y.; Feng, H.; Ai, W.; Liu, X.; Qin, L.

    A CELSS Experimental Facility was developed two years ago. It contains a volume of about 40.0 m3 and a cultivating area of about 8.4 m2; its interior atmospheric parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, oxygen concentration, carbon dioxide concentration, total pressure, lighting intensity, photoperiod, water content in the growing-matrix, CO2-added accumulative amount, O2-released accumulative amount and ethylene concentration are all controlled and logged automatically and effectively; its growing system consists of two rows of racks along its left-and-right sides separately, each side holds two upper-and-lower layers, and the vertical distance of each growing bed can be adjusted automatically and independently; lighting sources consist of both red (95%) and blue (5%) light-emitting diodes (LED), and the average lighting intensity of each lamp bank at 20-cm distance position under it, reaches to 255.0 μmol m-2 s-1. After that, demonstrating tests were carried out and were finally followed by growing lettuce in the facility. The results showed that all subsystems operated well and all parameters were controlled automatically and efficiently. The lettuce plants in the system could grow much well. Successful development of this system laid a necessary foundation for future larger-scale studies on CELSS integration technique.

  6. Development of protocols to inventory or monitor wildlife, fish, or rare plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Vesely; Brenda C. McComb; Christina D. Vojta; Lowell H. Suring; Jurai Halaj; Richard S. Holthausen; Benjamin Zuckerberg; Patricia M. Manley

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this technical guide (hereafter referred to as the Species Protocol Technical Guide) is to provide guidelines for developing inventory and monitoring (I&M) protocols for wildlife, fish, and rare plants (WFRP) using the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service technical guide format.

  7. Field validation of protocols developed to evaluate in-line mastitis detection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, C.; Dela Rue, B.T.; Eastwood, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a field validation of previously developed protocols for evaluating the performance of in-line mastitis-detection systems. The protocols outlined 2 requirements of these systems: (1) to detect cows with clinical mastitis (CM) promptly and accurately to enable timely and

  8. Development of a protocol that allows safe consumption of the hypoallergenic apple cultivar Santana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der M.P.; Schenk, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    The apple (Malus ×domestica) cultivar Santana was shown to have a low allergenicity in a previously reported clinical trial. A protocol was developed to validate these results outside a clinical setting and to market the Santana as a hypoallergenic apple for large-scale consumption. This protocol

  9. Development of a protocol for the ecological assessment of a special species

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Burton

    2004-01-01

    Developing consistent inventory and assessment protocols is important to people working on aspen issues in California and Nevada. Efforts have focused on identifying key indicators of ecological condition within aspen stands. The protocols have incorporated a range of factors that create or affect those indicators. Resulting ecological assessments conducted through the...

  10. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  11. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Kistler

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp, and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new

  12. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  13. Development of comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike; Avezaat, Ellis; Häkkinen, Arja; Klaver, Rob; Maas, Tjieu; Peter, Wilfred F; Roorda, Leo D; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost

    2014-01-01

    Exercise therapy is generally recommended for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Comorbidity, which is highly prevalent in OA, may interfere with exercise therapy. To date, there is no evidence-based protocol for the treatment of patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Special protocols adapted to the comorbidity may facilitate the application of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA and one or more comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to develop comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Several steps were undertaken to develop comorbidity-adapted protocols: selection of highly prevalent comorbidities in OA, a literature search to identify restrictions and contraindications for exercise therapy for the various comorbid diseases, consultation of experts on each comorbid disease, and field testing of the protocol in eleven patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Based on literature and expert opinion, comorbidity-adapted protocols were developed for highly prevalent comorbidities in OA. Field testing showed that the protocols provided guidance in clinical decision making in both the diagnostic and the treatment phase. Because of overlap, the number of exercise protocols could be reduced to three: one for physiological adaptations (coronary disease, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes type 2, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, obesity), one for behavioral adaptations (chronic a-specific pain, nonspecific low back pain, depression), and one for environmental adaptations (visual or hearing impairments). Evaluation of patient outcome after treatment showed significant (Pexercise protocols for patients with knee OA were developed, providing guidance in clinical reasoning with regard to diagnostics and treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment in line with our protocols, a randomized clinical trial should be performed.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkes, G.P.; Langendoen, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation ofMAC protocols forWireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is often performed through simulation. These simulations necessarily abstract away from reality inmany ways. However, the impact of these abstractions on the results of the simulations has received only limited attention. Moreover,

  15. Experimental implementation of a real-time token-based network protocol on a microcontroller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Krikke, Robert; Baron, Bert; Jansen, P.G.; Scholten, Johan

    The real-time token-based RTnet network protocol has been implemented on a standard Ethernet network to investigate the possibility to use cheap components with strict resource limitations while preserving Quality of Service guarantees. It will be shown that the proposed implementation is feasible

  16. Experimental implementation of a real-time token-based network protocol on a microcontroller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Krikke, Robert; Baron, Bert; Jansen, P.G.; Scholten, Johan

    2004-01-01

    The real-time token-based RTnet network protocol has been implemented on a standard Ethernet network to investigate the possibility to use cheap components with strict resource limitations while preserving Quality of Service guarantees. It will be shown that the proposed implementation is feasible

  17. Use of metaphylactic protocols based on the risk to develop bovine respiratory diseases in feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layane Queiroz Magalhães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bovine respiratory diseases (BRD affect production rates negatively because it compromise health and well-being of the affected animal. The hypothesis of this study was that the use of metaphylactic protocols based on the risk to develop BRD would reduce morbidity and pulmonary lesions. For this purpose, the aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of two metaphylactic protocols on the morbidity of feedlot cattle with a known sanitary history, occurrence of pulmonary lesions at slaughter, and the possible participation of Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV in the development of BRD. An experimental study was designed in which 3,094 adult, male, cattle, were grouped according to the risk to develop BRD: a group without metaphylaxis (n=2,104, low-risk animals; b metaphylaxis group with oxytetracycline (n=789, moderate-risk animals; c metaphylaxis group with tildipirosin (n=201, high-risk animals. All cattle were immunized against pathogens associated with BRD (BoHV-1, BVDV, BRSV, PI3. The morbidity for BRD was 8.2% (253/3,094; cattle within the moderate-risk group for BRD had the lowest frequency (6.1%, followed by high-risk animals with tildipirosin metaphylaxis (6.5% and low-risk without metaphylaxis (9.1% (P=0.019. At the abattoir, 1.2% of lungs with lesions were found. There was a difference (P=0.036 in the frequency of pulmonary lesions between healthy animals (1.1% and those diagnosed with BRD (2.8%. Two agents associated with BRD were identified by PCR assays in the lungs (n=37 of cattle: M. haemolytica (16.2% and H. somni (5.4%. In addition, concomitant infections involving these pathogens were identified in the lungs of two steers. These results demonstrate that the use of metaphylactic protocols, based on the risk to develop BRD, reduces morbidity and pulmonary lesions in affected cattle. Furthermore, pulmonary lesions were more

  18. Draft Plan to Develop Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Test Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Petersen, Joseph M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    This document presents a Draft Plan proposed to develop a common test protocol that can be used to evaluate the performance requirements of Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring. Development on the test protocol will be focused on providing a consistent method that can be used to quantify and compare the performance characteristics of NILM products. Elements of the protocols include specifications for appliances to be used, metrics, instrumentation, and a procedure to simulate appliance behavior during tests. In addition, three priority use cases for NILM will be identified and their performance requirements will specified.

  19. Developing a guideline for clinical trial protocol content: Delphi consensus survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetzlaff Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence has highlighted deficiencies in clinical trial protocols, having implications for many groups. Existing guidelines for randomized clinical trial (RCT protocol content vary substantially and most do not describe systematic methodology for their development. As one of three prespecified steps for the systematic development of a guideline for trial protocol content, the objective of this study was to conduct a three-round Delphi consensus survey to develop and refine minimum content for RCT protocols. Methods Panellists were identified using a multistep iterative approach, met prespecified minimum criteria and represented key stakeholders who develop or use clinical trial protocols. They were asked to rate concepts for importance in a minimum set of items for RCT protocols. The main outcome measures were degree of importance (scale of 1 to 10; higher scores indicating higher importance and level of consensus for items. Results were presented as medians, interquartile ranges, counts and percentages. Results Ninety-six expert panellists participated in the Delphi consensus survey including trial investigators, methodologists, research ethics board members, funders, industry, regulators and journal editors. Response rates were between 88 and 93% per round. Overall, panellists rated 63 of 88 concepts of high importance (of which 50 had a 25th percentile rating of 8 or greater, 13 of moderate importance (median 6 or 7 and 12 of low importance (median less than or equal to 5 for minimum trial protocol content. General and item-specific comments and subgroup results provided valuable insight for further discussions. Conclusions This Delphi process achieved consensus from a large panel of experts from diverse stakeholder groups on essential content for RCT protocols. It also highlights areas of divergence. These results, complemented by other empirical research and consensus meetings, are helping guide the development of

  20. Differentiating samples and experimental protocols by direct comparison of tandem mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Plas-Duivesteijn, Suzanne J.; Wulff, Tune; Klychnikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    , serendipitous uses. We used the existing compareMS2 algorithm without modification on a diverse set of experiments. First we conducted a small phylogenetic study, using (mammalian) bone samples to study old material, and human pathogens aiming to distinguish clinically important strains. Although...... not as straightforward as primate sera analysis, the method shows significant promise for all these applications. We also used the algorithm to compare 24 different protocols for extraction of proteins from muscle tissue. The results provided useful information in comparing protocols. Finally, we applied compareMS2...... protein digests in different types of experiments. There is no reason to assume that our instance of this method is optimal in any of these situations, as it makes limited or no use of accurate mass and chromatographic retention time. We propose that with further improvement and refinement, this type...

  1. Why standard brain-computer interface (BCI) training protocols should be changed: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunet, Camille; Jahanpour, Emilie; Lotte, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Objective. While promising, electroencephaloraphy based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are barely used due to their lack of reliability: 15% to 30% of users are unable to control a BCI. Standard training protocols may be partly responsible as they do not satisfy recommendations from psychology. Our main objective was to determine in practice to what extent standard training protocols impact users’ motor imagery based BCI (MI-BCI) control performance. Approach. We performed two experiments. The first consisted in evaluating the efficiency of a standard BCI training protocol for the acquisition of non-BCI related skills in a BCI-free context, which enabled us to rule out the possible impact of BCIs on the training outcome. Thus, participants (N = 54) were asked to perform simple motor tasks. The second experiment was aimed at measuring the correlations between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. The ten best and ten worst performers of the first study were recruited for an MI-BCI experiment during which they had to learn to perform two MI tasks. We also assessed users’ spatial ability and pre-training μ rhythm amplitude, as both have been related to MI-BCI performance in the literature. Main results. Around 17% of the participants were unable to learn to perform the motor tasks, which is close to the BCI illiteracy rate. This suggests that standard training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching. No correlation was found between motor tasks and MI-BCI performance. However, spatial ability played an important role in MI-BCI performance. In addition, once the spatial ability covariable had been controlled for, using an ANCOVA, it appeared that participants who faced difficulty during the first experiment improved during the second while the others did not. Significance. These studies suggest that (1) standard MI-BCI training protocols are suboptimal for skill teaching, (2) spatial ability is confirmed as impacting on MI-BCI performance, and (3) when faced

  2. Development of comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike; Avezaat, Ellis; Häkkinen, Arja; Klaver, Rob; Maas, Tjieu; Peter, Wilfred F; Roorda, Leo D; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise therapy is generally recommended for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Comorbidity, which is highly prevalent in OA, may interfere with exercise therapy. To date, there is no evidence-based protocol for the treatment of patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Special protocols adapted to the comorbidity may facilitate the application of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA and one or more comorbidities. Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Method Several steps were undertaken to develop comorbidity-adapted protocols: selection of highly prevalent comorbidities in OA, a literature search to identify restrictions and contraindications for exercise therapy for the various comorbid diseases, consultation of experts on each comorbid disease, and field testing of the protocol in eleven patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Results Based on literature and expert opinion, comorbidity-adapted protocols were developed for highly prevalent comorbidities in OA. Field testing showed that the protocols provided guidance in clinical decision making in both the diagnostic and the treatment phase. Because of overlap, the number of exercise protocols could be reduced to three: one for physiological adaptations (coronary disease, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes type 2, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, obesity), one for behavioral adaptations (chronic a-specific pain, nonspecific low back pain, depression), and one for environmental adaptations (visual or hearing impairments). Evaluation of patient outcome after treatment showed significant (Ptreatment. To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment in line with our protocols, a randomized clinical trial should be performed. PMID:24868151

  3. Protocol Development and Preliminary Toxicity Study of CBRN Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    developmental problems in offspring. One study found titanium dioxide ( TiO2 ) nanoparticles were present in the placenta, fetal liver and fetal brain. This...lungs, but can also cross into the blood stream and disseminate deeper inside the body to threaten the brain, liver, kidney , and other tissues/organs...is quite different than for micro-sized TiO2 particles, which are considered inert and relatively non-toxic to experimental animals and humans

  4. Use of metaphylactic protocols based on the risk to develop bovine respiratory diseases in feedlot cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Layane Queiroz; Baptista, Anderson Lopes; Fonseca, Pedro de Almeida; Menezes, Guilherme Lobato; Nogueira,Geison Morel; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Alfieri,Amauri Alcindo; Saut, João Paulo Elsen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) affect production rates negatively because it compromise health and well-being of the affected animal. The hypothesis of this study was that the use of metaphylactic protocols based on the risk to develop BRD would reduce morbidity and pulmonary lesions. For this purpose, the aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of two metaphylactic protocols on the morbidity of feedlot cattle with a known sanitary history, occurrence of pulmonary lesions ...

  5. [The intervention mapping protocol: A structured process to develop, implement and evaluate health promotion programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassier, J-B; Lamort-Bouché, M; Sarnin, P; Durif-Bruckert, C; Péron, J; Letrilliart, L; Durand, M-J

    2016-02-01

    Health promotion programs are expected to improve population health and reduce social inequalities in health. However, their theoretical foundations are frequently ill-defined, and their implementation faces many obstacles. The aim of this article is to describe the intervention mapping protocol in health promotion programs planning, used recently in several countries. The challenges of planning health promotion programs are presented, and the six steps of the intervention mapping protocol are described with an example. Based on a literature review, the use of this protocol, its requirements and potential limitations are discussed. The intervention mapping protocol has four essential characteristics: an ecological perspective (person-environment), a participative approach, the use of theoretical models in human and social sciences and the use of scientific evidence. It comprises six steps: conduct a health needs assessment, define change objectives, select theory-based change techniques and practical applications, organize techniques and applications into an intervention program (logic model), plan for program adoption, implementation, and sustainability, and generate an evaluation plan. This protocol was used in different countries and domains such as obesity, tobacco, physical activity, cancer and occupational health. Although its utilization requires resources and a critical stance, this protocol was used to develop interventions which efficacy was demonstrated. The intervention mapping protocol is an integrated process that fits the scientific and practical challenges of health promotion. It could be tested in France as it was used in other countries, in particular to reduce social inequalities in health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Experimental demonstration of interference avoidance protocol (transmission scheduling) in O-CDMA networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghari, Poorya; Kamath, P; Arbab, Vahid R; Haghi, Mahta; Willner, Alan E; Bannister, Joe A; Touch, Joe D

    2007-12-10

    We experimentally demonstrate a transmission scheduling algorithm to avoid congestion collapse in O-CDMA networks. Our result shows that transmission scheduling increases the performance of the system by orders of magnitude.

  7. Development of protocol for determination of natural stone bioreceptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Mesojedec, Mojca; Zalar Serjun, Vesna; Mladenovič, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Biodeterioration of stone surfaces in modern structures and cultural heritage is a problem that does not only affect the aesthetic appearance of stone elements but also changes their functionality due to material degradation and has indirectly a significant influence on the economy. The term bioreceptivity describes a material's susceptibility for the population of living organisms (Guiliette, 1995). Methods for bioreceptivity determination are usually based on a quantification of a grown microbiological mass on an exposed stone surface which was artificially inoculated with a pioneer organism (Guillitte and Dreesen, 1995; Miller et al, 2012). In our study a protocol for bioreceptivity determination was implemented based on an image analysis of autofluorescing pioneer organisms on sample surfaces exposed in growth chamber under specific laboratory conditions. The method is primarily meant for assessing the direct influence of intrinsic features of a rock on the rock's sensitivity for organism growth. Bioreceptivity has been determined on fifteen frequently used commercial types of natural stone for construction purposes in Slovenia. Mineral composition was determined with the help of microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Inoculated were three autotrophic organisms: Chlorella vulgaris, Chroococcus minutus and Pseudococcomyxa sp. Due to the fastest growth and insensitivity, the most appropriate microorganism for the laboratory experiment of bioreceptivity proved to be Chlorella vulgaris. It was established that different natural stones have a different bioreceptivity which depends on their mineral composition, roughness and physical features, e.g. type of porosity. In case of dry surface samples, the soaking of the surface and the capillary-type pores have the greatest influence. On the other hand, results of biorecepivity analysis examinations of water saturated samples show the prevalence of other mechanisms where the influence of mineral composition of a rock and

  8. Bottom Trawl Survey Protocol Development (HB0706, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruise objectives include: 1) Investigate performance characteristics of new research bottom trawl; 2) Develop standard operating procedures for the NEFSC Bottom...

  9. Experimental animal modelling for TB vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere-Joan Cardona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research for a novel vaccine to prevent tuberculosis is an urgent medical need. The current vaccine, BCG, has demonstrated a non-homogenous efficacy in humans, but still is the gold standard to be improved upon. In general, the main indicator for testing the potency of new candidates in animal models is the reduction of the bacillary load in the lungs at the acute phase of the infection. Usually, this reduction is similar to that induced by BCG, although in some cases a weak but significant improvement can be detected, but none of candidates are able to prevent establishment of infection. The main characteristics of several laboratory animals are reviewed, reflecting that none are able to simulate the whole characteristics of human tuberculosis. As, so far, no surrogate of protection has been found, it is important to test new candidates in several models in order to generate convincing evidence of efficacy that might be better than that of BCG in humans. It is also important to investigate the use of “in silico” and “ex vivo” models to better understand experimental data and also to try to replace, or at least reduce and refine experimental models in animals.

  10. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  11. Final report for the protocol extensions for ATM Security Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarman, T.D.; Pierson, L.G.; Brenkosh, J.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    This is the summary report for the Protocol Extensions for Asynchronous Transfer Mode project, funded under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. During this one-year effort, techniques were examined for integrating security enhancements within standard ATM protocols, and mechanisms were developed to validate these techniques and to provide a basic set of ATM security assurances. Based on our experience during this project, recommendations were presented to the ATM Forum (a world-wide consortium of ATM product developers, service providers, and users) to assist with the development of security-related enhancements to their ATM specifications. As a result of this project, Sandia has taken a leading role in the formation of the ATM Forum`s Security Working Group, and has gained valuable alliances and leading-edge experience with emerging ATM security technologies and protocols.

  12. Experimental dosimetric evaluation in pelvis phantom, subjected to prostate radiation therapy protocol at 15 MV Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Andrea Silva Dias de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Dias, Humberto Galvao [Centro de Radioterapia Hospital Luxemburgo, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Among the existing malignant neoplasia, the prostate cancer is most common among male population. Due to its high incidence and morbidity, there is a need for investment in advanced technology for better treatment associated with research and social mobilization to prevent the disease. As an efficient method of treatment for such tumor, radiation teletherapy brings favorable results for the patient, particularly when the cancer is diagnosed early. There are, however, the needs to assess the absorbed doses that reach the prostate in the radiation protocols in order to certify the treatment efficacy. The present research goal is to obtain the profile of absorbed dose distributed in a synthetic prostate on male pelvis phantom following a standard radiation therapy protocol. The methodology makes use of a NRI made phantom and a 15MV Linac accelerator. This phantom has anthropomorphic and anthropometric features containing the major internal organs, including bone, prostate, intestine, and bladder. The exposition was made in a 15 MV linear accelerator taken the isocenter in four fields as a 'BOX' of opposing beams. The dosimetry was prepared using GafChromic EBT type 2 radiochromic film and calibration in a solid water phantom. The radiochromic films were digitized on the Microtek Scan Maker 6900XL model scanner operating in the transmission mode and optical density readings based on RGB mode in the computer program Imagedig. The absorbance readings were performed in the spectrophotometer SP-220 mark BIOSPECTRO obtaining calibration curves generated by the collected data. The results reproduce the dose distribution generated in two orthogonal radiochromic films positioned onto the synthetic prostate. Discussions regarding the characteristics of the phantom and methods of irradiation in relation to the achieved dose profile will be addressed. (author)

  13. Design, rationale and feasibility of a multidimensional experimental protocol to study early life stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dillwyn Bartholomeusz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a rapidly accumulating body of evidence regarding the influential role of early life stress (ELS upon medical and psychiatric conditions. While self-report instruments, with their intrinsic limitations of recall, remain the primary means of detecting ELS in humans, biological measures are generally limited to a single biological system. This paper describes the design, rationale and feasibility of a study to simultaneously measure neuroendocrine, immune and autonomic nervous system (ANS responses to psychological and physiological stressors in relation to ELS. Five healthy university students were recruited by advertisement. Exclusion criteria included chronic medical conditions, psychotic disorders, needle phobia, inability to tolerate pain, and those using anti-inflammatory medications. They were clinically interviewed and physiological recordings made over a two-hour period pre, during and post two acute stressors: the cold pressor test and recalling a distressing memory. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Parental Bonding Index were utilised to measure ELS. Other psychological measures of mood and personality were also administered. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, skin conductance, skin blood flow and temporal plasma samples were successfully obtained before, during and after acute stress. Participants reported the extensive psychological and multisystem physiological data collection and stress provocations were tolerable. Most (4/5 participants indicated a willingness to return to repeat the protocol, indicating acceptability. Our protocol is viable and safe in young physically healthy adults and allows us to assess simultaneously neuroendocrine, immune and autonomic nervous system responses to stressors in persons assessed for ELS.

  14. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dan Craigen; Drew Vandeth; D'Arcy Walsh

    2013-01-01

      We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns...

  15. Thoraco-abdominal high-pitch dual-source CT angiography: Experimental evaluation of injection protocols with an anatomical human vascular phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puippe, Gilbert D., E-mail: gilbert.puippe@usz.ch [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Winklehner, Anna [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Hasenclever, Peter; Plass, André [Division of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Frauenfelder, Thomas; Baumueller, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To experimentally evaluate three different contrast injection protocols at thoraco-abdominal high-pitch dual-source computed tomography angiography (CTA), with regard to level and homogeneity of vascular enhancement at different cardiac outputs. Materials and methods: A uniphasic, a biphasic as well as an individually tailored contrast protocol were tested using a human vascular phantom. Each protocol was scanned at 5 different cardiac outputs (3–5 L/min, steps of 0.5 L/min) using an extracorporeal cardiac pump. Vascular enhancement of the thoraco-abdominal aorta was measured every 5 cm. Overall mean enhancement of each protocol and mean enhancement for each cardiac output within each protocol were calculated. Enhancement homogeneity along the z-axis was evaluated for each cardiac output and protocol. Results: Overall mean enhancement was significantly higher in the uniphasic than in the other two protocols (all p < .05), whereas the difference between the biphasic and tailored protocol was not significant (p = .76). Mean enhancement among each of the 5 cardiac outputs within each protocol was significantly different (all p < .05). Only within the tailored protocol mean enhancement differed not significantly at cardiac outputs of 3.5 L/min vs. 5 L/min (484 ± 25 HU vs. 476 ± 19 HU, p = .14) and 4 vs. 5 L/min (443 ± 49 HU vs. 476 ± 19 HU, p = .05). Both, uniphasic and tailored protocol yielded homogenous enhancement at all cardiac outputs, whereas the biphasic protocol failed to achieve homogenous enhancement. Conclusion: This phantom study suggests that diagnostic and homogenous enhancement at thoraco-abdominal high-pitch dual-source CTA is feasible with either a uniphasic or an individually tailored contrast protocol.

  16. Development of USPS Laboratory and pilot-scale testing protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Nancy Ross Sutherland; David Bormett; Donald Donermeyer

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the US Postal Service (USPS) Environmentally Benign Stamp Program is to develop stamp adhesives that can be removed by unit operations found in recycling mills. The maintenance of final product quality specifications for a recycling mill while loading the feedstock with a significant quantity of adhesive is the criterion for success of this program...

  17. Development of Purification Protocol Specific for Bacteriocin 105B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-09

    S.M Lemon, M. Najafi, et al., editors; “The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health and...Bacillus anthracis. As the current application of broad-spectrum antimicrobials promotes the development of multi- drug resistant microorganisms...SPECTRUM TARGETED ANTIMICROBIALS ASSAYS PURIFICATION BACILLUS ANTHRACIS DRUG- RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS

  18. Development of a community based management protocol for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is evident that water quality management would only be effective by changing the practices that contribute to diffuse pollution. This paper is based on a project that employed a systematic approach to involve and mobilise rural communities in water quality control programmes. The aim of the project is to develop ...

  19. Protocols for care and handling of deer and elk at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; John G. Cook; Mary M. Rowland; James H. Noyes

    1993-01-01

    Several hundred Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni V. Bailey) and Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) inhabit a fenced, 25,000-acre enclosure at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Research there requires handling...

  20. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Cabrera

    Full Text Available A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol. The feeding protocol was used to deliver molecules such as hormone analogs or plasmids. Mites fed with Tebufenozide, an ecdysone analog, had higher transcript levels of shade than untreated or solvent treated mites. In order to extend this feeding protocol, cultured insect cells were incorporated to a final ratio of 1 part cells and 2 parts hemolymph. Although supplementation with Bombyx mori Bm5 cells increased the amount of hemolymph consumed per mite, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of mites that fed and survived. On the other hand, Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells reduced significantly the percentage of mites that fed and survived as well as the amount of hemolymph consumed. The feeding protocol provides a dynamic platform with which to challenge the Varroa mite to establish efficacy of control agents for this devastating honey bee pest.

  1. Development of a geometrically accurate imaging protocol at 3 Tesla MRI for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; MacFadden, D.; Damyanovich, A. Z.; Rieker, M.; Stainsby, J.; Bernstein, M.; Jaffray, D. A.; Mikulis, D.; Ménard, C.

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a geometrically accurate imaging protocol at 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment planning. In order to achieve this purpose, a methodology is developed to investigate the geometric accuracy and stability of 3 T MRI for SRS in phantom and patient evaluations. Forty patients were enrolled on a prospective clinical trial. After frame placement prior to SRS, each patient underwent 3 T MRI after 1.5 T MRI and CT. MR imaging protocols included a T1-weighted gradient echo sequence and a T2-weighted spin echo sequence. Phantom imaging was performed on 3 T prior to patient imaging using the same set-up and imaging protocols. Geometric accuracy in patients and phantoms yielded comparable results for external fiducial reference deviations and internal landmarks between 3 T and 1.5 T MRI (mean stereotactic reference deviations between phantoms and patients correlated well (T1: R = 0.79; T2: R = 0.84). Statistical process control analysis on phantom QA data demonstrated the stability of our SRS imaging protocols, where the geometric accuracy of the 3 T SRS imaging protocol is operating within the appropriate tolerance. Our data provide evidence supporting the spatial validity of 3 T MRI for targeting SRS under imaging conditions investigated. We have developed a systematic approach to achieve confidence on the geometric integrity of a given imaging system/technique for clinical integration in SRS application.

  2. EVA Human Health and Performance Benchmarking Study Overview and Development of a Microgravity Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason; Jarvis, Sarah; Bekdash, Omar; Cupples, Scott; Abercromby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop a protocol to reliably characterize human health and performance metrics for individuals working inside various EVA suits under realistic spaceflight conditions. Expected results and methodologies developed during this study will provide the baseline benchmarking data and protocols with which future EVA suits and suit configurations (e.g., varied pressure, mass, center of gravity [CG]) and different test subject populations (e.g., deconditioned crewmembers) may be reliably assessed and compared. Results may also be used, in conjunction with subsequent testing, to inform fitness-for-duty standards, as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  3. Development of a national protocol to screen Dutch cancer survivors on late cancer treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, M W M; Van den Bos, C; Heinen, R C; Bakker, P J M; Geenen, M M; Kremer, L C; Van Leeuwen, F; Caron, H N

    2007-04-01

    The development of a national protocol to formalize the screening of Dutch cancer survivors on potential late cancer treatment effects and the medical terminology used in describing the patient follow up procedures. A combined evidence-based and qualitative approach, the Glaser's State of the Art Strategy, was used to reach consensus on how to screen Dutch cancer survivors on late cancer treatment effects. A core working group set up a first proposal of a screening protocol and a handbook of medical term definitions by incorporating available research evidence (1980-2003), clinical expertise and definitions from Dutch medical dictionaries and textbooks. External experts reviewed this proposal in a cycle of two postal and two discussion rounds. The follow-up procedures and medical term definitions described in the draft screening protocol were to be accepted if consensus among external experts was > or =50%. A protocol for screening cancer survivors on late cancer treatment effects was developed describing the follow-up procedures for cancer survivors according to previous therapeutic exposures. Four hundred and twenty one medical terms were used in describing these follow-up procedures. One hundred and fifteen of these terms were classified as multi-interpretable and 101 of these terms were defined. No definitions could be found for the remaining 14 medical terms. We succeeded in reaching consensus throughout The Netherlands on a protocol to screen cancer survivors on late cancer treatment effects. This protocol is now in use by all Dutch outpatient clinics and warrants that the screening of cancer survivors is consistent across The Netherlands. The screening protocol specifies in detail how screening of cancer survivors should take place and can therefore be used by clinicians who were not involved in the consensus study.

  4. Intervention mapping protocol for developing a theory-based diabetes self-management education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs.

  5. The Rockefeller University Navigation Program: a structured multidisciplinary protocol development and educational program to advance translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassil, Donna; Kost, Rhonda G; Dowd, Kathleen A; Hurley, Arlene M; Rainer, Tyler-Lauren; Coller, Barry S

    2014-02-01

    The development of translational clinical research protocols is complex. To assist investigators, we developed a structured supportive guidance process (Navigation) to expedite protocol development to the standards of good clinical practice (GCP), focusing on research ethics and integrity. Navigation consists of experienced research coordinators leading investigators through a concerted multistep protocol development process from concept initiation to submission of the final protocol. To assess the effectiveness of Navigation, we collect data on the experience of investigators, the intensity of support required for protocol development, IRB review outcomes, and protocol start and completion dates. One hundred forty-four protocols underwent Navigation and achieved IRB approval since the program began in 2007, including 37 led by trainee investigators, 26 led by MDs, 9 by MD/PhDs, 57 by PhDs, and 12 by investigators with other credentials (e.g., RN, MPH). In every year, more than 50% of Navigated protocols were approved by the IRB within 30 days. For trainees who had more than one protocol navigated, the intensity of Navigation support required decreased over time. Navigation can increase access to translational studies for basic scientists, facilitate GCP training for investigators, and accelerate development and approval of protocols of high ethical and scientific quality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Communicating the Neuroscience of Psychopathy and Its Influence on Moral Behavior: Protocol of Two Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Robert; Askelund, Adrian D; Boccanera, Matilde; Immonen, Johanna; Plohl, Nejc; Popham, Cassandra; Sorger, Clarissa; Stuhlreyer, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Neuroscience has identified brain structures and functions that correlate with psychopathic tendencies. Since psychopathic traits can be traced back to physical neural attributes, it has been argued that psychopaths are not truly responsible for their actions and therefore should not be blamed for their psychopathic behaviors. This experimental research aims to evaluate what effect communicating this theory of psychopathy has on the moral behavior of lay people. If psychopathy is blamed on the brain, people may feel less morally responsible for their own psychopathic tendencies and therefore may be more likely to display those tendencies. An online study will provide participants with false feedback about their psychopathic traits supposedly based on their digital footprint (i.e., Facebook likes), thus classifying them as having either above-average or below-average psychopathic traits and describing psychopathy in cognitive or neurobiological terms. This particular study will assess the extent to which lay people are influenced by feedback regarding their psychopathic traits, and how this might affect their moral behavior in online tasks. Public recognition of these potential negative consequences of neuroscience communication will also be assessed. A field study using the lost letter technique will be conducted to examine lay people's endorsement of neurobiological, as compared to cognitive, explanations of criminal behavior. This field and online experimental research could inform the future communication of neuroscience to the public in a way that is sensitive to the potential negative consequences of communicating such science. In particular, this research may have implications for the future means by which neurobiological predictors of offending can be safely communicated to offenders.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF LARGE RIVER BIOASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS (LR-BPS) FOR BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN EPA REGION 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-wadeable rivers have been largely overlooked by bioassessment programs because of sampling difficulties and a lack of appropriate methods and biological indicators. We are in the process of developing a Large River Bioassessment Protocol (LR-BP) for sampling macroinvertebrat...

  8. Development and layout of a protocol for the field performance of concrete deck and crack sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The main objective of this project was to develop and layout a protocol for the long-term monitoring and assessment of the performance of concrete deck and crack sealants in the field. To accomplish this goal, a total of six bridge decks were chosen ...

  9. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...

  10. Generating PDS Possibility and Practicality Thinking Using a Case and Protocol Tool to Enhance PDS Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Hoppey, David

    2013-01-01

    An important feature of professional development school (PDS) work is encouraging collaborative reflective dialogue that guides a partnership toward actualizing the possibilities for and mission of a PDS. This article provides a case "illustration" of a fictitious, exemplary PDS and a "protocol" that in combination can be used…

  11. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    OpenAIRE

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non–expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non–expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the p...

  12. Development of a new welfare assessment protocol for practical application in long-term dog shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, S; Pedernera, C; Candeloro, L; Ferri, N; Velarde, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2016-01-02

    In many European shelters, dogs may spend many years confined. A poor environment and inappropriate management may lead to a low quality of life. The absence of harmonised European regulatory frameworks defining the minimum requirements for shelter facilities makes the definition of welfare standards for kennelled dogs challenging. Here, a new protocol was developed and tested to help identify the main welfare issues for shelter dogs. Twenty-six indicators were identified including management, resource and animal based measures. Accuracy and interobserver reliability were checked between four assessors. The protocol was applied in 29 shelters (n=1308 dogs) in six European countries. Overall prevalence of poor health conditions was below 10%. Test-retest reliability and validity of the protocol were investigated with encouraging results. A logistic regression was carried out to assess the potential of the protocol as a tool to identify welfare hazards in shelter environments. Inappropriate space allowance, for example, was found to be a risk factor potentially affecting the animal's cleanliness, skin condition and body condition. The protocol was designed to be concise and easy to implement. Systematic data collection could help identify welfare problems that are likely to arise in certain shelter designs and thus determine improvement in animal care standards. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Designing a treatment protocol with voriconazole to eliminate Aspergillus fumigatus from experimentally inoculated pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernaert, Lies A; Pasmans, Frank; Baert, Kris; Van Waeyenberghe, Lieven; Chiers, Koen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2009-11-18

    To investigate the efficacy of voriconazole for the treatment of aspergillosis, three groups of six racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) were inoculated in the apical part of the right lung with 2x10(7) conidia of an avian derived Aspergillus fumigatus strain. The minimal inhibitory concentration of voriconazole for this strain was 0.25 microg/ml. In two groups, voriconazole treatment was started upon appearance of the first clinical signs and continued for fourteen days. The third group was sham treated. The voriconazole-treated pigeons received voriconazole orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) q12h (group 1) or 20 mg/kg BW q24h (group 2). Sixteen days post-inoculation all surviving pigeons were euthanized. Weight loss, clinical scores, daily mortality, lesions at necropsy and isolation of A. fumigatus were compared between all groups. In both voriconazole-treated groups, a significant reduction in clinical signs and lesions was observed. Administering voriconazole at 10 mg/kg BW q12h eliminated A. fumigatus and administering voriconazole at 20 mg/kg BW q24h reduced A. fumigatus isolation rates. Mild histological liver abnormalities were found in group 1 (10 mg/kg BW q12h), while mild histological as well as macroscopic liver abnormalities were found in group 2 (20 mg/kg BW q24h). In conclusion, voriconazole at 10 mg/kg BW q12h in pigeons reduces clinical signs and eliminates A. fumigatus in racing pigeons experimentally infected with A. fumigatus.

  14. "Teamwork in hospitals": a quasi-experimental study protocol applying a human factors approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangrud, Randi; Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Aase, Karina; Aaberg, Oddveig Reiersdal; Vifladt, Anne; Berg, Geir Vegard; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2017-01-01

    Effective teamwork and sufficient communication are critical components essential to patient safety in today's specialized and complex healthcare services. Team training is important for an improved efficiency in inter-professional teamwork within hospitals, however the scientific rigor of studies must be strengthen and more research is required to compare studies across samples, settings and countries. The aims of the study are to translate and validate teamwork questionnaires and investigate healthcare personnel's perception of teamwork in hospitals (Part 1). Further to explore the impact of an inter-professional teamwork intervention in a surgical ward on structure, process and outcome (Part 2). To address the aims, a descriptive, and explorative design (Part 1), and a quasi-experimental interventional design will be applied (Part 2). The study will be carried out in five different hospitals (A-E) in three hospital trusts in Norway. Frontline healthcare personnel in Hospitals A and B, from both acute and non-acute departments, will be invited to respond to three Norwegian translated teamwork questionnaires (Part 1). An inter-professional teamwork intervention in line with the TeamSTEPPS recommend Model of Change will be implemented in a surgical ward at Hospital C. All physicians, registered nurses and assistant nurses in the intervention ward and two control wards (Hospitals D and E) will be invited to to survey their perception of teamwork, team decision making, safety culture and attitude towards teamwork before intervention and after six and 12 months. Adult patients admitted to the intervention surgical unit will be invited to survey their perception of quality of care during their hospital stay before intervention and after six and 12 month. Moreover, anonymous patient registry data from local registers and data from patients' medical records will be collected (Part 2). This study will help to understand the impact of an inter-professional teamwork

  15. Alcohol prevention at sporting events: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Methods A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC. Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i BAC levels among ≥ 4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii outside the arenas (≥200 attempts and (iii inside the arenas (≥ 200 attempts, and (iv frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (≥ 200 attempts. Discussion There

  16. Alcohol prevention at sporting events: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbeej, Natalie; Elgán, Tobias H; Jalling, Camilla; Gripenberg, Johanna

    2016-06-06

    Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP) inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i) BAC levels among ≥ 4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii) outside the arenas (≥200 attempts) and (iii) inside the arenas (≥ 200 attempts), and (iv) frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (≥ 200 attempts). There is an urgent need nationally and internationally to

  17. Development and implementation of intranasal naloxone opioid overdose response protocol at a homeless health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Horstman, Molly J; Williams, Brent C

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of Opioid Overdose Response Protocol using intranasal (IN) naloxone in a homeless shelter. Opioid Overdose Response Protocol and training curriculum were developed using the Massachusetts Department of Public Health Opioid Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) flow chart, the American Heart Association (AHA) simplified adult basic life support algorithm, and resources through Harms Reduction Coalition. Intranasal naloxone offers a safe and effective method for opioid reversal. To combat the rising incidence of opioid overdose, IN naloxone should be made available at homeless shelters and other facilities with high frequency of opioid overdose, including the training of appropriate staff. This project has demonstrated the effective training and implementation of an Opioid Overdose Response Protocol, based on feedback received from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) trained nonhealthcare staff. Nurse practitioners (NPs), with our focus on patient care, prevention, and education, are well suited to the deployment of this life-saving protocol. NPs are in critical positions to integrate opioid overdose prevention education and provide naloxone rescue kits in clinical practices. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. Near "real" time magnetic resonance images as a monitoring system for interstitial laser therapy: experimental protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Dan J.; Farahani, Keyvan; Soudant, Jacques; Zwarun, Andrew A.; Lufkin, Robert B.

    1992-06-01

    The failure rate of cancer treatment remains unacceptably high, still being a leading cause of mortality in adults and children despite major advances over the past 50 years in the fields of surgery, radiation therapy and, more recently, chemo and immunotherapy. Surgical access to some deep tumors of the head and neck and other areas often require extensive dissections with residual functional and cosmetic deformities. Repeated treatment is not possible after maximum dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still limited by its systemic toxicity. An attractive solution to these problems would be the development of a new adjunctive method combining the best features of interstitial laser therapy for selective tumor destruction via minimally invasive techniques for access and 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a monitoring system for laser-tissue interactions. Interstitial laser therapy (ILT) via fiberoptics allow laser energy to be delivered directly into deeper tissues. However, this concept will become clinically useful only when noninvasive, accurate, and reproducible monitoring methods are developed to measure energy delivery to tissues. MRI has numerous advantages in evaluating the irreversible effects of laser treatment in tissues, since laser energy includes changes not only in the thermal motions of hydrogen protons within the tissue, but also in the distribution and mobility of water and lipids. These techniques should greatly improve the use of ILT in combination with MRI to allow treatment of deeper, more difficult to reach tumors of head and neck and other anatomical areas with a single needle stick.

  19. Development of comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rooij M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mariëtte de Rooij,1 Marike van der Leeden,1,2 Ellis Avezaat,3 Arja Häkkinen,4 Rob Klaver,1 Tjieu Maas,5 Wilfred F Peter,1 Leo D Roorda,1 Willem F Lems,1,6 Joost Dekker1,71Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Center, Reade, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2VU University Medical Center Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Physical Therapy, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 4Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä and Jyväskylä Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland; 5HAN University, Institute of Health, GGM, Institute for Sports and Exercise Studies, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 6VU University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 7VU University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, EMGO Institute, Amsterdam, the NetherlandsBackground: Exercise therapy is generally recommended for patients with osteoarthritis (OA of the knee. Comorbidity, which is highly prevalent in OA, may interfere with exercise therapy. To date, there is no evidence-based protocol for the treatment of patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Special protocols adapted to the comorbidity may facilitate the application of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA and one or more comorbidities.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee OA and comorbidity.Method: Several steps were undertaken to develop comorbidity-adapted protocols: selection of highly prevalent comorbidities in OA, a literature search to identify restrictions and contraindications for exercise therapy for the various comorbid diseases, consultation of experts on each comorbid disease, and field testing of the protocol in eleven patients with knee OA and comorbidity.Results: Based on literature and expert opinion, comorbidity-adapted protocols were developed for highly prevalent

  20. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, David; Yudkin, John S; de Courten, Maximilian

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for th...

  1. Developing an acupuncture protocol for treating phantom limb pain: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevelyan, Esmé G; Turner, Warren A; Robinson, Nicola

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about how a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) approach could be used to treat phantom limb pain (PLP). There is currently no standard acupuncture protocol in the literature to treat this syndrome. To achieve consensus among a group of acupuncture practitioners on the pathology and recommended treatment of PLP and devise an acupuncture protocol for the treatment of this condition. A classical Delphi approach was used using two parallel online Delphi studies. One study focused on participants with past experience of treating PLP (TPLP, n=7) and the other on practitioners with no past experience (NTPLP, n=16). Two hypothetical case studies were provided and participants were asked for responses on how they would treat these patients. Three rounds were included. Participants were also invited to rate and comment on the finalised protocol. Round 1 data were analysed using content analysis. In subsequent rounds an a priori criterion for defining consensus was set at ≤1.75 IQR. A group median of 5-6 was considered to mean 'agree'. 19 participants completed all Delphi rounds (12 NTPLP, 7 TPLP). 108 NTPLP and 76 TPLP statements were generated and circulated in round 2; 53% of the NTPLP statements and 62% of the TPLP statements met consensus in round 2 and 45% of the NTPLP statements and 44% of the TPLP statements met consensus in round 3. Participants all agreed with the final protocol developed. The protocol developed does not claim to be best practice but provides a preliminary consensus from practitioners practising acupuncture for the treatment of PLP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Development of an efficient protocol for genomic DNA extraction from mango (Mangifera indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD AHSANUL KABIR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Majumder DAN, Hassan L, Rahim MA, Kabir MA. 2011. Development of an efficient protocol for genomic DNA extraction from mango (Mangifera indica. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 105-111. A simple and efficient method for genomic DNA extraction from woody fruit crops containing high polysaccharide levels has been described here. In the present study, three kinds of plant DNA extraction protocols were studied and the target was to establish the water-saturated ether (WSE with 1.25 M NaCl method as the most efficient protocol for removing the highly concentrated polysaccharides from genomic DNA of woody fruit crops. This method involves the modified CTAB or SDS procedure employing a purification step to remove polysaccharides using the WSE method. Precipitation with an equal volume of isopropanol caused a DNA pellet to form. After being washed with 70% ethyl alcohol, the pellet became easily dissolved in TE buffer. Using these three methods, DNA was extracted from samples of 60 mango genotypes, including young, mature, old, frosted old and withered old leaves. Compared with the three studied DNA extraction protocols of mango, it was found that the WSE method with NaCl had the highest value of average percentage (85.44% in DNA content of the mango genotypes. The average yield of DNA ranged from 5.05 µg/µL to11.28 µg/µL. DNA was suitable for PCR and RAPD analyses and long-term storage for further use.

  3. Development of a dynamic quality assurance testing protocol for multisite clinical trial DCE-CT accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, B; Keller, H; Jaffray, D; Coolens, C

    2013-08-01

    Credentialing can have an impact on whether or not a clinical trial produces useful quality data that is comparable between various institutions and scanners. With the recent increase of dynamic contrast enhanced-computed tomography (DCE-CT) usage as a companion biomarker in clinical trials, effective quality assurance, and control methods are required to ensure there is minimal deviation in the results between different scanners and protocols at various institutions. This paper attempts to address this problem by utilizing a dynamic flow imaging phantom to develop and evaluate a DCE-CT quality assurance (QA) protocol. A previously designed flow phantom, capable of producing predictable and reproducible time concentration curves from contrast injection was fully validated and then utilized to design a DCE-CT QA protocol. The QA protocol involved a set of quantitative metrics including injected and total mass error, as well as goodness of fit comparison to the known truth concentration curves. An additional region of interest (ROI) sensitivity analysis was also developed to provide additional details on intrascanner variability and determine appropriate ROI sizes for quantitative analysis. Both the QA protocol and ROI sensitivity analysis were utilized to test variations in DCE-CT results using different imaging parameters (tube voltage and current) as well as alternate reconstruction methods and imaging techniques. The developed QA protocol and ROI sensitivity analysis was then applied at three institutions that were part of clinical trial involving DCE-CT and results were compared. The inherent specificity of robustness of the phantom was determined through calculation of the total intraday variability and determined to be less than 2.2±1.1% (total calculated output contrast mass error) with a goodness of fit (R2) of greater than 0.99±0.0035 (n=10). The DCE-CT QA protocol was capable of detecting significant deviations from the expected phantom result when

  4. Interventions developed with the Intervention Mapping protocol in the field of cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamort-Bouché, Marion; Sarnin, Philippe; Kok, Gerjo; Rouat, Sabrina; Péron, Julien; Letrilliart, Laurent; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-12-16

    The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol provides a structured framework to develop, implement, and evaluate complex interventions. The main objective of this review was to identify and describe the content of the interventions developed in the field of cancer with the IM protocol. Secondary objectives were to assess their fidelity to the IM protocol and to review their theoretical frameworks. Medline, Web of Science, PsycINFO, PASCAL, FRANCIS, and BDSP databases were searched. All titles and abstracts were reviewed. A standardized extraction form was developed. All included studies were reviewed by 2 reviewers blinded to each other. Sixteen studies were identified, and these reported 15 interventions. The objectives were to increase cancer screening participation (n = 7), early consultation (n = 1), and aftercare/quality of life among cancer survivors (n = 7). Six reported a complete participatory planning group, and 7 described a complete logic model of the problem. Ten studies described a complete logic model of change. The main theoretical frameworks used were the theory of planned behaviour (n = 8), the transtheoretical model (n = 6), the health belief model (n = 6), and the social cognitive theory (n = 6). The environment was rarely integrated in the interventions (n = 4). Five interventions were reported as effective. Culturally relevant interventions were developed with the IM protocol that were effective to increase cancer screening and reduce social disparities, particularly when they were developed through a participative approach and integrated the environment. Stakeholders' involvement and the role of the environment were heterogeneously integrated in the interventions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Comparison between two experimental protocols to promote osteoporosis in the maxilla and proximal tibia of female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófilo Juliana Mazzonetto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two experimental protocols (ovariectomy associated or not with a low calcium diet used to promote osteoporosis in the rat maxilla and proximal tibia were compared 5 and 11 weeks after surgery. Female Wistar rats were ovariectomized or sham-operated. Half of the ovariectomized rats were fed a low Ca++ diet (ovx* and the remaining ovariectomized (ovx and sham animals received a standard chow. At sacrifice, the proximal metaphysis was excised from the tibia and the molars were extracted from the hemi-maxilla. Dry (60°C overnight and ash (700°C/14 h weights were measured and the ashes were used for Ca++ measurement by means of a colorimetric method. After 5 weeks, ovx caused no alteration while ovx* decreased proximal metaphysis (17% and maxilla (35% bone mass. After 11 weeks, ovx caused a 14% bone mass reduction in the proximal metaphysis but not in the maxilla, while ovx* caused a comparable bone mass reduction (30% in both bone segments. Calcium concentration was not altered in any experimental condition. The results show that estrogen deficiency is insufficient to cause maxillary osteoporosis in rats over an 11-week period and a long-term ovariectomy is needed to exert deleterious effect on proximal metaphysis bone mass. When a low Ca++ diet is associated with estrogen deficiency, however, a relatively precocious harmful effect is observed, twice as pronounced in the maxilla than in the proximal metaphysis. On a long-term basis, ovariectomy associated with a low Ca++ diet seems to be equally injurious to both proximal metaphysis and maxilla.

  6. An experimental protocol for the establishment of dogs with long-term cellular immune reactions to Leishmania antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Aquino Teixeira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are considered to be the main reservoirs of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. In this work, we evaluated a protocol to induce Leishmania infantum/Leishmania chagasi-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in dogs, which consisted of two injections of Leishmania promastigote lysate followed by a subcutaneous inoculation of viable promastigotes. The primary objective was to establish a canine experimental model to provide positive controls for testing immune responses to Leishmania in laboratory conditions. After inoculation of viable promastigotes, specific proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to either Leishmania lysate or recombinant proteins, the in vitro production of interferon-γ by antigen-stimulated PBMCs and a significant increase in circulating levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies were observed. The immunized dogs also displayed positive delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to Leishmania crude antigens and to purified recombinant proteins. An important finding that supports the suitability of the dogs as positive controls is that they remained healthy for the entire observation period, i.e., more than seven years after infection. Following the Leishmania antigen lysate injections, the infection of dogs by the subcutaneous route appears to induce a sustained cellular immune response, leading to an asymptomatic infection. This provides a useful model for both the selection of immunogenic Leishmania antigens and for immunobiological studies on their possible immunoprotective activities.

  7. A Pilot Study on the effects of Music Therapy on Frontotemporal Dementia - developing a research protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Wigram, Tony; Ottesen, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Background: Some forms of dementia particularly affect the frontal parts of the brain which, in some cases, causes the onset of severe behavioural and psychological symptoms. No specific treatment for the primary diseases that cause these frontotemporal dementia conditions has yet been developed....... As an example of a non-pharmacologic treatment procedure music therapy was investigated. With the focus to develop a research protocol for a future larger population study a pilot study was carried out. In two case studies a combination of data collection methods were examined with the overall goal to document...... of Life (ADRQL), the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), and the Neuro-Psychiatric Inventory (NPI), and related to case descriptions and video analyses. Results: Recommendations for a mixed method research protocol focused on measuring the effect of music therapy with persons with frontotemporal...

  8. Seismic Parameters of Mining-Induced Aftershock Sequences for Re-entry Protocol Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Javier A.; Estay, Rodrigo A.

    2017-11-01

    A common characteristic of deep mines in hard rock is induced seismicity. This results from stress changes and rock failure around mining excavations. Following large seismic events, there is an increase in the levels of seismicity, which gradually decay with time. Restricting access to areas of a mine for enough time to allow this decay of seismic events is the main approach in re-entry strategies. The statistical properties of aftershock sequences can be studied with three scaling relations: (1) Gutenberg-Richter frequency magnitude, (2) the modified Omori's law (MOL) for the temporal decay, and (3) Båth's law for the magnitude of the largest aftershock. In this paper, these three scaling relations, in addition to the stochastic Reasenberg-Jones model are applied to study the characteristic parameters of 11 large magnitude mining-induced aftershock sequences in four mines in Ontario, Canada. To provide guidelines for re-entry protocol development, the dependence of the scaling relation parameters on the magnitude of the main event are studied. Some relations between the parameters and the magnitude of the main event are found. Using these relationships and the scaling relations, a space-time-magnitude re-entry protocol is developed. These findings provide a first approximation to concise and well-justified guidelines for re-entry protocol development applicable to the range of mining conditions found in Ontario, Canada.

  9. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon

    1997-07-01

    New human factors issues, such as evaluation of information navigation, the consideration of operator characteristics, and operator performance assessment, related to the HMI design based on VDUs are being risen. Thus, in order to solve these human factors issues, this project aims to establish the experimental technologies including the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement, data collection and analysis, and to develop ITF (Integrated Test Facility) suitable for the experiment of HMI design evaluation. For the establish of the experimental data analysis and evaluation methodologies, we developed as the following: (1) a paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analysis. (2) the methods for the assessment of operator`s mental workload (3) DAEXESS (data analysis and experiment evaluation supporting system). Also, we have established a experiment execution technologies through the preliminary experiments, such as the suitability evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of computerized operation procedure and an experiment of advanced alarm system (ADIOS). Finally, we developed the ITF including human machine simulator, telemetry system, an eye tracking system, an audio/video data measurement system, and three dimensional micro behaviour analysis system. (author). 81 refs., 68 tabs., 73 figs.

  10. Quantitative Comparison of 21 Protocols for Labeling Hippocampal Subfields and Parahippocampal Cortical Subregions in In Vivo MRI: Towards Developing a Harmonized Segmentation Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yushkevich, Paul A.; Amaral, Robert S.C.; Augustinack, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    of guiding subsequent work on developing a harmonized substructure segmentation protocol. Method: MRI scans of a single healthy adult human subject were acquired both at 3 T and 7 T. Representatives from 21 research groups applied their respective manual segmentation protocols to the MRI modalities......Objective: An increasing number of human in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have focused on examining the structure and function of the subfields of the hippocampal formation (the dentate gyrus, CA fields 1 − 3, and the subiculum) and subregions of the parahippocampal gyrus...... of structures and use different rules, landmarks, and cues to define their anatomical extents. This paper characterizes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the variability in the existing manual segmentation protocols for labeling hippocampal and parahippocampal substructures in MRI, with the goal...

  11. Development of a fault test experimental facility model using Matlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Moraes, Davi Almeida, E-mail: martinez@ipen.br, E-mail: dmoraes@dk8.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Fault Test Experimental Facility was developed to simulate a PWR nuclear power plant and is instrumented with temperature, level and pressure sensors. The Fault Test Experimental Facility can be operated to generate normal and fault data, and these failures can be added initially small, and their magnitude being increasing gradually. This work presents the Fault Test Experimental Facility model developed using the Matlab GUIDE (Graphical User Interface Development Environment) toolbox that consists of a set of functions designed to create interfaces in an easy and fast way. The system model is based on the mass and energy inventory balance equations. Physical as well as operational aspects are taken into consideration. The interface layout looks like a process flowchart and the user can set the input variables. Besides the normal operation conditions, there is the possibility to choose a faulty variable from a list. The program also allows the user to set the noise level for the input variables. Using the model, data were generated for different operational conditions, both under normal and fault conditions with different noise levels added to the input variables. Data generated by the model will be compared with Fault Test Experimental Facility data. The Fault Test Experimental Facility theoretical model results will be used for the development of a Monitoring and Fault Detection System. (author)

  12. AHRQ series on complex intervention systematic reviews-paper 3: adapting frameworks to develop protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mary; Epstein, Richard A; Totten, Annette; Whitlock, Evelyn P; Ansari, Mohammed T; Damschroder, Laura J; Balk, Ethan; Bass, Eric B; Berkman, Nancy D; Hempel, Susanne; Iyer, Suchitra; Schoelles, Karen; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-10-01

    Once a proposed topic has been identified for a systematic review and has undergone a question formulation stage, a protocol must be developed that specifies the scope and research questions in detail and outlines the methodology for conducting the systematic review. Framework modifications are often needed to accommodate increased complexity. We describe and give examples of adaptations and alternatives to traditional analytic frameworks. This article identifies and describes elements of frameworks and how they can be adapted to inform the protocol and conduct of systematic reviews of complex interventions. Modifications may be needed to adapt the population, intervention, comparators, and outcomes normally used in protocol development to successfully describe complex interventions; in some instances, alternative frameworks may be better suited. Possible approaches to analytic frameworks for complex interventions that illustrate causal and associative linkages are outlined, including time elements, which systematic reviews of complex interventions may need to address. The need for and specifics of the accommodations vary with details of a specific systematic review. This in turn helps determine whether traditional frameworks are sufficient, can be refined, or if alternate frameworks must be adopted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation and development the routing protocol of a fully functional simulation environment for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azhar Tareq; Warip, Mohd Nazri Mohd; Yaakob, Naimah; Abduljabbar, Waleed Khalid; Atta, Abdu Mohammed Ali

    2017-11-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) is an area of wireless technologies that is attracting a great deal of interest. There are still several areas of VANETS, such as security and routing protocols, medium access control, that lack large amounts of research. There is also a lack of freely available simulators that can quickly and accurately simulate VANETs. The main goal of this paper is to develop a freely available VANETS simulator and to evaluate popular mobile ad-hoc network routing protocols in several VANETS scenarios. The VANETS simulator consisted of a network simulator, traffic (mobility simulator) and used a client-server application to keep the two simulators in sync. The VANETS simulator also models buildings to create a more realistic wireless network environment. Ad-Hoc Distance Vector routing (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) were initially simulated in a city, country, and highway environment to provide an overall evaluation.

  14. Strategy for Developing Expert-System-Based Internet Protocols (TCP/IP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1997-01-01

    The Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch of NASA's Lewis Research is addressing the issue of seamless interoperability of satellite networks with terrestrial networks. One of the major issues is improving reliable transmission protocols such as TCP over long latency and error-prone links. Many tuning parameters are available to enhance the performance of TCP including segment size, timers and window sizes. There are also numerous congestion avoidance algorithms such as slow start, selective retransmission and selective acknowledgment that are utilized to improve performance. This paper provides a strategy to characterize the performance of TCP relative to various parameter settings in a variety of network environments (i.e. LAN, WAN, wireless, satellite, and IP over ATM). This information can then be utilized to develop expert-system-based Internet protocols.

  15. Development of a new protocol for 2-day generation of mature dendritic cells from human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obermaier Bianca

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new 2-day protocol for the generation of dendritic cells (DCs from human monocytes in vitro. First, we demonstrated that 24 hours of culture with GM-CSF and IL-4 are sufficient to generate immature DCs capable of antigen uptake. We then compared two different strategies for DC maturation: proinflammatory mediators were either added together with GM-CSF and IL-4 from the beginning of cell culture or added after 24 hours of differentiation with GM-CSF and IL-4. After 48 hours of total culture period, expression of activation markers was more pronounced in cells generated by the 2-step differentiation and activation method. Our new protocol for 2-day DC differentiation reduces labor, cost and time and also reliably renders high numbers of mature and viable DCs.

  16. The PropeR way to support medical doctors in daily practice. Developing the protocol based DSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, E. M.; Talmon, J. L.; de Clercq, P. A.; Schouten, H. C.; Jansen, M. P. F.; Hasman, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of the development of a Protocol based Decision Support System (PDSS) that will be linked to an Electronic Patient Record system (EPR system). The protocol system will be pro-active: the physician will be automatically prompted from the EPR of a particular

  17. Development of a communication protocol for telephone disclosure of genetic test results for cancer predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick-Miller, Linda J; Egleston, Brian L; Fetzer, Dominique; Forman, Andrea; Bealin, Lisa; Rybak, Christina; Peterson, Candace; Corbman, Melanie; Albarracin, Julio; Stevens, Evelyn; Daly, Mary B; Bradbury, Angela R

    2014-10-29

    Dissemination of genetic testing for disease susceptibility, one application of "personalized medicine", holds the potential to empower patients and providers through informed risk reduction and prevention recommendations. Genetic testing has become a standard practice in cancer prevention for high-risk populations. Heightened consumer awareness of "cancer genes" and genes for other diseases (eg, cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease), as well as the burgeoning availability of increasingly complex genomic tests (ie, multi-gene, whole-exome and -genome sequencing), has escalated interest in and demand for genetic risk assessment and the specialists who provide it. Increasing demand is expected to surpass access to genetic specialists. Thus, there is urgent need to develop effective and efficient models of delivery of genetic information that comparably balance the risks and benefits to the current standard of in-person communication. The aim of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate a theoretically grounded and rigorously developed protocol for telephone communication of BRCA1/2 (breast cancer) test results that might be generalizable to genetic testing for other hereditary cancer and noncancer syndromes. Stakeholder data, health communication literature, and our theoretical model grounded in Self-Regulation Theory of Health Behavior were used to develop a telephone communication protocol for the communication of BRCA1/2 genetic test results. Framework analysis of selected audiotapes of disclosure sessions and stakeholders' feedback were utilized to evaluate the efficacy and inform refinements to this protocol. Stakeholder feedback (n=86) and audiotapes (38%, 33/86) of telephone disclosures revealed perceived disadvantages and challenges including environmental factors (eg, non-private environment), patient-related factors (eg, low health literacy), testing-related factors (eg, additional testing needed), and communication factors (eg, no visual cues

  18. A Mechanically Proved and an Incremental Development of the Session Initiation Protocol INVITE Transaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Filali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is an application layer signaling protocol used to create, manage, and terminate sessions in an IP based network. SIP is considered as a transactional protocol. There are two main SIP transactions, the INVITE transaction and the non-INVITE transaction. The SIP INVITE transaction specification is described in an informal way in Request for Comments (RFC 3261 and modified in RFC 6026. In this paper we focus on the INVITE transaction of SIP, over reliable and unreliable transport mediums, which is used to initiate a session. In order to ensure the correctness of SIP, the INVITE transaction is modeled and verified using event-B method and its Rodin platform. The Event-B refinement concept allows an incremental development by defining the studied system at different levels of abstraction, and Rodin discharges almost all proof obligations at each level. This interaction between modeling and proving reduces the complexity and helps in assuring that the INVITE transaction SIP specification is correct, unambiguous, and easy to understand.

  19. Developing a dynamic virtual stimulation protocol to induce linear egomotion during orthostatic posture control test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Guimarães Da-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In this work, the effect of a dynamic visual stimulation (DS protocol was used to induce egomotion, the center of pressure (COP displacement response. Methods DS was developed concerning the scenario structure (chessboard-pattern floor and furniture and luminance. To move the scenario in a discrete forward (or backward direction, the furniture is expanded (or reduced and the black and white background is reversed during floor translation while the luminance is increased (or reduced by steps of 2 cd/m2. This protocol was evaluated using COP signals from 29 healthy volunteers: standing on a force platform observing the virtual scene (1.72 × 1.16 m projected 1 m ahead (visual incidence angle: θl = 81.4° and θv = 60.2°, which moves with constant velocity (2 m/s during 250 ms. A set of 100 DS was applied in random order, interspersed by a 10 s of static scene. Results The Tukey post-hoc test (p < 0.001 indicated egomotion in the same direction of DS. COP displacement increased over stimulation (8.4 ± 1.7 to 22.6 ±5.3 mm, as well as time to recover stability (4.1 ± 0.4 to 7.2 ± 0.6 s. The peak of egomotion during DSF occurred 200 ms after DSB (Wilcoxon, p = 0.002. Conclusion The dynamic configuration of this protocol establishes virtual flow effects of linear egomotion dependent on the direction of the dynamic visual stimulation. This finding indicates the potential application of the proposed virtual dynamic stimulation protocol to investigate the cortical visual evoked response in postural control studies.

  20. Investigating the clinical feasibility of an adapted early mobility readiness protocol for critical ill patients: A non-randomised experimental pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradie, Elmarie; Fourie, Catharina E; Hanekom, Susan D

    2017-10-01

    Uncertainty exists whether a therapeutic early mobility position will affect the outcome of a critically ill patient. To evaluate the feasibility of an existing protocol to identify patients who would tolerate this position. A non-randomised experimental pilot trail was performed. Twice weekly, all patients nursed in surgical and respiratory units were screened with the protocol. Haemodynamic parameters, mean arterial pressure and central venous oxygen saturation of included patients were tested in the baseline position followed by the testing position at 0, 3 and 10minutes. We screened 138 patients. Eleven patients passed the protocol, male/female (9/2) with a median (range) age of 47 (20-67) years. Placement from the 10minutes baseline position to the 0min testing position resulted in a mean difference of the mean arterial pressure of 2.03 (95% Confidence interval -1.12 to 5.18), and the mean difference of central venous oxygen saturation was 0.79 (95% Confidence interval -3.15 to 4.74). One adverse event was noted. The protocol provides healthcare professionals with an interim tool to identify patients who would tolerate a therapeutic upright position. While the results question the clinical feasibility of protocol. The effect of incorporating a therapeutic early mobility position into standard nursing care, on patient outcome can now be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of experimental systems for material sciences under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Jun; Obi, Shinzo; Kamimiyata, Yotsuo; Ajimine, Akio

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Space Experiment Program of the Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, three experimental systems (G452, G453, G454) have been developed for materials science studies under microgravity by the NEC Corporation. These systems are to be flown as Get Away Special payloads for studying the feasibility of producing new materials. Together with the experimental modules carrying the hardware specific to the experiment, the three systems all comprise standard subsystems consisting of a power supply, sequence controller, temperature controller, data recorder, and video recorder.

  2. Development of new protocols and analysis procedures for the assessment of LBP by surface EMG techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddsson, L I; Giphart, J E; Buijs, R J; Roy, S H; Taylor, H P; De Luca, C J

    1997-10-01

    Spectral parameters of the surface electromyographic (EMG) signal from lumbar back muscles assessed during a fatiguing isometric contraction can be used to classify different categories of low back pain (LBP) subjects and control subjects without LBP. In the test protocol currently used at the NeuroMuscular Research Center at Boston University, subjects contract their back muscles at 80% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. This fatigue-based protocol has been successfully applied to persons with subacute or chronic LBP; those in acute pain, however, have not been included because of their inability to perform a maximal exertion. In this paper we will examine the force sensitivity of the currently used EMG parameters and also give an overview of some of our efforts to develop new test procedures. Our goal is to develop force-insensitive surface EMG parameters that can be used for classification purposes in populations of subjects who develop low trunk extension forces. In addition, the development of a model to predict MVC from anthropometrical measurements will be presented.

  3. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsman, Ellen B M; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ter Beek, Josien; Duijzer, Geerke; Jansen, Sophia C; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Feskens, Edith J M; Haveman-Nies, Annemien

    2014-10-27

    Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. The maintenance programme was developed using the Intervention Mapping protocol. Programme development was informed by a literature study supplemented by various focus group discussions and feedback from implementers of the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The maintenance programme was designed to sustain a healthy diet and physical activity pattern by targeting knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the SLIMMER participants. Practical applications were clustered into nine programme components, including sports clinics at local sports clubs, a concluding meeting with the physiotherapist and dietician, and a return session with the physiotherapist, dietician and physical activity group. Manuals were developed for the implementers and included a detailed time table and step-by-step instructions on how to implement the maintenance programme. The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a useful framework to systematically plan a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The study showed that planning a maintenance programme can build on existing implementation structures of the extensive programme. Future research is needed to determine to what extent the maintenance programme contributes to sustained effects in participants of lifestyle interventions.

  4. The Fire Modeling Intercomparison Project (FireMIP), phase 1: experimental and analytical protocols with detailed model descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Sam S.; Melton, Joe R.; Lasslop, Gitta; Bachelet, Dominique; Forrest, Matthew; Hantson, Stijn; Kaplan, Jed O.; Li, Fang; Mangeon, Stéphane; Ward, Daniel S.; Yue, Chao; Arora, Vivek K.; Hickler, Thomas; Kloster, Silvia; Knorr, Wolfgang; Nieradzik, Lars; Spessa, Allan; Folberth, Gerd A.; Sheehan, Tim; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Kelley, Douglas I.; Prentice, I. Colin; Sitch, Stephen; Harrison, Sandy; Arneth, Almut

    2017-03-01

    The important role of fire in regulating vegetation community composition and contributions to emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols make it a critical component of dynamic global vegetation models and Earth system models. Over 2 decades of development, a wide variety of model structures and mechanisms have been designed and incorporated into global fire models, which have been linked to different vegetation models. However, there has not yet been a systematic examination of how these different strategies contribute to model performance. Here we describe the structure of the first phase of the Fire Model Intercomparison Project (FireMIP), which for the first time seeks to systematically compare a number of models. By combining a standardized set of input data and model experiments with a rigorous comparison of model outputs to each other and to observations, we will improve the understanding of what drives vegetation fire, how it can best be simulated, and what new or improved observational data could allow better constraints on model behavior. In this paper, we introduce the fire models used in the first phase of FireMIP, the simulation protocols applied, and the benchmarking system used to evaluate the models. We have also created supplementary tables that describe, in thorough mathematical detail, the structure of each model.

  5. Using an intervention mapping approach to develop a discharge protocol for intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mol, Margo; Nijkamp, Marjan; Markham, Christine; Ista, Erwin

    2017-12-19

    Admission into an intensive care unit (ICU) may result in long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional consequences for patients and their relatives. The care of the critically ill patient does not end upon ICU discharge; therefore, integrated and ongoing care during and after transition to the follow-up ward is pivotal. This study described the development of an intervention that responds to this need. Intervention Mapping (IM), a six-step theory- and evidence-based approach, was used to guide intervention development. The first step, a problem analysis, comprised a literature review, six semi-structured telephone interviews with former ICU-patients and their relatives, and seven qualitative roundtable meetings for all eligible nurses (i.e., 135 specialized and 105 general ward nurses). Performance and change objectives were formulated in step two. In step three, theory-based methods and practical applications were selected and directed at the desired behaviors and the identified barriers. Step four designed a revised discharge protocol taking into account existing interventions. Adoption, implementation and evaluation of the new discharge protocol (IM steps five and six) are in progress and were not included in this study. Four former ICU patients and two relatives underlined the importance of the need for effective discharge information and supportive written material. They also reported a lack of knowledge regarding the consequences of ICU admission. 42 ICU and 19 general ward nurses identified benefits and barriers regarding discharge procedures using three vignettes framed by literature. Some discrepancies were found. For example, ICU nurses were skeptical about the impact of writing a lay summary despite extensive evidence of the known benefits for the patients. ICU nurses anticipated having insufficient skills, not knowing the patient well enough, and fearing legal consequences of their writings. The intervention was designed to target the knowledge

  6. Development of low-dose protocols for thin-section CT assessment of cystic fibrosis in pediatric patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-12-01

    To develop low-dose thin-section computed tomographic (CT) protocols for assessment of cystic fibrosis (CF) in pediatric patients and determine the clinical usefulness thereof compared with chest radiography.

  7. Testing the effectivity of the mixed virtual reality training Into D'mentia for informal caregivers of people with dementia: protocol for a longitudinal, quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jütten, Linda Helena; Mark, Ruth Elaine; Maria Janssen, Ben Wilhelmus Jacobus; Rietsema, Jan; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Sitskoorn, Margriet Maria

    2017-08-21

    Informal caregivers for people with dementia (hereafter: caregivers) often feel (over)burdened by the care for a loved one with dementia, and this can have various deleterious effects on both caregivers and patients. Support for caregivers is urgently needed, and for this reason, a dementia simulator (Into D'mentia) was developed in which caregivers experience what it is like to have dementia. The simulator attempts to heighten caregivers' empathy and understanding for the patient and, in turn, diminish their own caregiver burden. The current study evaluates whether the simulator is effective on a number of outcomes. A longitudinal, quasi-experimental study is ongoing in the Netherlands. We aim to recruit 142 caregivers in total divided over two groups: 71 caregivers in the intervention group and 71 caregivers in the control group. All participants will complete interviews and questionnaires at four time points: at baseline, 1 week, 2.5 months and 15 months after the training. The primary outcomes include empathy, caregiver burden, caregiver's sense of competence, social reliance, anxiety, depression and caregivers' subjective and objective health. This study is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol has been approved by the local ethics committees. This study is registered with The Netherlands National Trial Register (NNTR5856). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Clean Development Mechanism” projects in the developing countries within the Kyoto protocol: problem analysis of a case study in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaglioppa P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An internship period spent in the north of Morocco kingdom (Tetouan gave a contribute to the organization activity in promoting sustainable development in the rural areas under the Kyoto Protocol. The multitasking project will increase biodiversity planting trees for wood, forage and fruits productions. The paper show a first step study to evaluate the possibility to reach an agreement with the propriety and the manager of these areas in a multifunctional reforestation project. The eligible site suitable for reforestation in accordance with the CDM international scheme is a large plateau (more than 5000 hectares 600 meters high on the sea level far from the Cannabis crops area. The evaluation of the project costs and of the social benefits for the population consider (using different species the indigenous communities necessity. The evaluation of carbon sequestration show the small scale of the reforestation project on behalf of the Kyoto Protocol, but give also an idea about the people rights and necessities. The normal afforestation and reforestation projects, under the Kyoto Protocol, try to maximize the CO2 sequestration in a short time, than business laws usually require. A small scale project could be self-managing, less expensive (international certification costs and more interesting for local communities.

  9. Developing a Peer Support Protocol for Improving Veterans' Engagement to Computer-Delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, John M; Kemp, Lakiesha L; Hubbard, Amanda; Cucciare, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    Computer-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT) is an effective alternative to provider-delivered treatment for depression and anxiety, but high attrition poses a significant challenge to its use. Peer support is a feasible approach to improving cCBT engagement, but less is known about its acceptability among Veterans. To obtain feedback from Veterans (n = 24) with depression and/or anxiety on their preferences for (a) activities of Veterans Administration Peer Support Specialists (VA PSS) in helping Veterans use Moving Forward, a cCBT-based protocol developed by VA, and (b) methods for delivering support to Veterans using this programme. Four focus groups (5-7 Veterans per group) provided feedback to be used in the development of a peer-supported engagement intervention to help Veterans with depression and anxiety use Moving Forward. Content areas included roles that a VA PSS might play in supporting the use of and engagement in Moving Forward, as well as methods of delivering that support. Veteran preferences for PSS activity focused on practical aspects of using Moving Forward, including orientation to the programme, technical support, and monitoring progress. Feedback also suggested that Veterans preferred more personal roles for the PSS, including emotional support, as well as application of Moving Forward to 'real life' problems. The findings extend the literature on online, patient-facing mental health protocols by identifying emotional support and 'real life' skills application as Veteran-preferred components of a peer-support protocol designed to enhance use of and engagement in cCBT for depression and anxiety.

  10. Smart grid development and households in experimental projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Meiken

    grid being envisioned in experimental projects, and how are they responding to these visions? This thesis increases the understanding of the visions of smart grids and household consumers and of how they actually are responding to smart grid technologies and concepts. Particular attention has been...... to the electricity grids and call for the development of smart grids. The Danish Smart Grid Strategy states that ‘flexible electricity consumption’ is the main purpose of smart grids in Denmark, envisioning that future consumers will have flexible consumption of electricity. Thus, they are expected to respond...... to the supply side and consume energy when it is available. The goal of this thesis is to investigate how household consumers are integrated in smart grid development activities. More specifically, it focuses on household consumers, as they are represented in experimental projects in the smart grid area...

  11. Development and experimental validation of a protein design software

    OpenAIRE

    Stiebritz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Computational protein design - understood as the prediction of an amino acid sequence that will adopt a given 3-dimensional structure associated with a desired function - offers the promising perspective of tailoring proteins according to special needs. From a more fundamental point of view, it improves our understanding of protein architecture, folding and dynamics. Here, the development and experimental validation of a protein design software - MUMBO - is described. The current implementati...

  12. Development of 3000 m Subsea Blowout Preventer Experimental Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Zhiqian; Ma, Yunpeng; Zhao, Yubin

    2017-12-01

    A subsea blowout preventer experimental prototype is developed to meet the requirement of training operators, and the prototype consists of hydraulic control system, electronic control system and small-sized blowout preventer stack. Both the hydraulic control system and the electronic system are dual-mode redundant systems. Each system works independently and is switchable when there are any malfunctions. And it significantly improves the operation reliability of the equipment.

  13. Development of surgical protocol for implantation of tracheal prostheses in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Schultz, Philippe; Vrana, Nihal Engin; Lavalle, Philippe; Vautier, Dominique; Debry, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This article documents experiments performed in ewes to design an artificial larynx. The artificial larynx is composed of a hollow, porous tube that elongates the trachea and is capped with a valve that acts as a laryngeal sphincter. Through an industrial collaboration, our team developed a porous biomaterial that can be colonized by cervical tissues. This biomaterial has been used in animals to replace part of the trachea, but it is meant to eventually substitute for laryngeal cartilage. The tracheal prosthesis is a hollow cylindrical tube composed of titanium microbeads. We performed a study in large animals to establish an optimal surgical protocol for tracheal replacement in humans. The study included 11 sheep (n = 11) and compared 5 methods of implantation. We successfully established an optimal three-step surgical protocol to make the porous-titanium tracheal prosthesis functional: (1) large lumen endoprosthetics, (2) colonization by the peripheral tissues, and (3) endoprosthetic epithelialization. This study is the first step in developing an artificial larynx because it successfully identifies a biomaterial capable of extending the trachea to allow it to open at the junction of the upper aerodigestive tracts.

  14. Nasa's International Space Station: A Testbed for Planetary Protection Protocol Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. S.; Rucker, M.; Love, S.; Johnson, J.; Chambliss, J.; Pierson, D.; Ott, M.; Mary, N.; Glass, B.; Lupisella, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Wherever humans go, they inevitably carry along the critters that live in and on them. Conventional wisdom has long held that it is unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 some microscopic aquatic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the ISS. Unlike the Mars rovers that were cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? What about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? How will these contaminants migrate from their source in conditions encountered in space or on other planetary surfaces? This project aims to answer some of these questions by bringing together key stakeholder communities to develop a human forward contamination test, analysis, and integration plan. A system engineering approach to identify the experiments, analysis, and modeling needed to develop the contamination control protocols required will be used as a roadmap to integrate the many different parts of this problem - from launch to landing, living, and working on another planetary surface.

  15. Development of a versatile user-friendly IBA experimental chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad

    2016-03-15

    Reliable performance of the Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques is based on the accurate geometry of the experimental setup, employment of the reliable nuclear data and implementation of dedicated analysis software for each of the IBA techniques. It has already been shown that geometrical imperfections lead to significant uncertainties in quantifications of IBA measurements. To minimize these uncertainties, a user-friendly experimental chamber with a heuristic sample positioning system for IBA analysis was recently developed in the Van de Graaff laboratory in Tehran. This system enhances IBA capabilities and in particular Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) techniques. The newly developed sample manipulator provides the possibility of both controlling the tilt angle of the sample and analyzing samples with different thicknesses. Moreover, a reasonable number of samples can be loaded in the sample wheel. A comparison of the measured cross section data of the {sup 16}O(d,p{sub 1}){sup 17}O reaction with the data reported in the literature confirms the performance and capability of the newly developed experimental chamber.

  16. Development of a sperm cryopreservation protocol for redside dace, Clinostomus elongatus: implications for genome resource banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Ian A.E.; Mokdad, A.; Trippel, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Populations of Redside Dace Clinostomus elongatus have declined in many areas across the species’North American range. Therefore, the development of sperm cryopreservation technology would provide an invaluable means of preserving genetic diversity in populations that are in imminent danger...... of extirpation.We developed cryopreservation protocols by testing the effects of diluent (buffered sperm motility-inhibiting saline solution [BSMIS]; BSMIS + glycine; sucrose; and Hanks’ balanced salt solution [HBSS]), cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]; propylene glycol [PG]; N,N-dimethylacetamide [DMA...... findings demonstrate that cryopreservation of Redside Dace sperm in a sucrose + DMSO extender at a freezing rate of 10◦C/min is adequate for preserving genetic diversity via sperm banks...

  17. The effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes: a protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jayleen K L; Rosales, Cecilia B; Center, Katherine E; Nuñez, Annabelle V; Gibson, Steven J; Ehiri, John E

    2015-03-13

    The effects of exposure to marijuana in utero on fetal development are not clear. Given that the recent legislation on cannabis in the US is likely to result in increased use, there is a need to assess the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on pregnancy outcomes (including maternal and child outcomes). Major databases will be searched from inception to the latest issue, with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. Two investigators will independently review all titles and abstracts to identify potential articles. Discrepancies will be resolved by repeated review, discussion and consensus. Study quality assessment will be undertaken, using standard protocols. To qualify for inclusion, studies must report at least one maternal or neonatal outcome post partum. Cross-sectional, case-control, cohort and randomised controlled trials published in English will be included. In order to rule out the effects of other drugs that may affect fetal development and pregnancy outcomes, studies will only be included if they report outcomes of prenatal exposure to cannabis while excluding other illicit substances. Data from eligible studies will be extracted, and data analysis will include a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence, and meta-analysis if data permit. Meta-analysis will be conducted if three or more studies report comparable statistics on the same outcome. The review which will result from this protocol has not already been conducted. Preparation of the review will follow the procedures stated in this protocol, and will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ethical approval of data will not be required since the review will use data that are already available in the

  18. Prioritizing micronutrients for the purpose of reviewing their requirements: a protocol developed by EURRECA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavelaars, A E J M; Doets, E L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R A M; Hermoso, M; Fairweather-Tait, S J; Koletzko, B; Gurinović, M; Moreno, L A; Cetin, I; Matthys, C; van 't Veer, P; Ashwell, M; de Groot, C P G M

    2010-06-01

    The EURRECA (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) Network of Excellence (http://www.eurreca.org) is working towards the development of aligned recommendations. A protocol was required to assign resources to those micronutrients for which recommendations are most in need of alignment. Three important 'a priori' criteria were the basis for ranking micronutrients: (A) the amount of new scientific evidence, particularly from randomized controlled trials; (B) the public health relevance of micronutrients; (C) variations in current micronutrient recommendations. A total of 28 micronutrients were included in the protocol, which was initially undertaken centrally by one person for each of the different population groups defined in EURRECA: infants, children and adolescents, adults, elderly, pregnant and lactating women, and low income and immigrant populations. The results were then reviewed and refined by EURRECA's population group experts. The rankings of the different population groups were combined to give an overall average ranking of micronutrients. The 10 highest ranked micronutrients were vitamin D, iron, folate, vitamin B12, zinc, calcium, vitamin C, selenium, iodine and copper. Micronutrient recommendations should be regularly updated to reflect new scientific nutrition and public health evidence. The strategy of priority setting described in this paper will be a helpful procedure for policy makers and scientific advisory bodies.

  19. Development of a protocol for the identification of tospoviruses and thrips species in individual thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepiban, Channarong; Charoenvilaisiri, Saengsoon; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Gajanandana, Oraprapai

    2015-09-15

    A protocol for identifying tospovirus and thrips species in an individual thrips sample was successfully developed. First, an individual thrips was soaked in an RNA stabilization solution to preserve protein and nucleic acids and ground in a carbonate buffer containing 0.2% sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. Initially, the thrips extracts were screened for tospovirus infection by dot blot analysis using antibodies to nucleocapsid (N) proteins of tospoviruses. Thrips extracts with positive results by dot blot analysis were further subjected to RNA extraction. Next, tospovirus species were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using species-specific primers for the N genes of four tospoviruses known to occur in Thailand, including Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV) and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV). The residual genomic DNA in the thrips RNA extract was used as a template to identify thrips species by PCR with species-specific primers to the internal transcribed spacer 2 regions of the rRNA of Ceratothripoides claratris, Frankliniella intonsa, Scirtothrips dorsalis and Thrips palmi. This protocol was initially validated against laboratory-reared thrips and then used to determine the occurrence of viruliferous thrips species collected from tomato, pepper, watermelon and cucumber fields in Thailand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of DOE complex wide authorized release protocols for radioactive scrap metals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. Y.

    1998-11-23

    Within the next few decades, several hundred thousand tons of metal are expected to be removed from nuclear facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex as a result of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. These materials, together with large quantities of tools, equipment, and other items that are commonly recovered from site cleanup or D&D activities, constitute non-real properties that warrant consideration for reuse or recycle, as permitted and practiced under the current DOE policy. The provisions for supporting this policy are contained in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material published by DOE in 1997 and distributed to DOE field offices for interim use and implementation. The authorized release of such property is intended to permit its beneficial use across the entire DOE complex. The objective of this study is to develop readily usable computer-based release protocols to facilitate implementation of the Handbook in evaluating the scrap metals for reuse and recycle. The protocols provide DOE with an effective oversight tool for managing release activities.

  1. Experimentally feasible quantum-key-distribution scheme using qubit-like qudits and its comparison with existing qubit- and qudit-based protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, H. F.; Wang, Qinan; Wong, Cardythy

    2017-02-01

    Recently, Chau [Phys. Rev. A 92, 062324 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.062324] introduced an experimentally feasible qudit-based quantum-key-distribution (QKD) scheme. In that scheme, one bit of information is phase encoded in the prepared state in a 2n-dimensional Hilbert space in the form (|i > ±|j >) /√{2 } with n ≥2 . For each qudit prepared and measured in the same two-dimensional Hilbert subspace, one bit of raw secret key is obtained in the absence of transmission error. Here we show that by modifying the basis announcement procedure, the same experimental setup can generate n bits of raw key for each qudit prepared and measured in the same basis in the noiseless situation. The reason is that in addition to the phase information, each qudit also carries information on the Hilbert subspace used. The additional (n -1 ) bits of raw key comes from a clever utilization of this extra piece of information. We prove the unconditional security of this modified protocol and compare its performance with other existing provably secure qubit- and qudit-based protocols on market in the one-way classical communication setting. Interestingly, we find that for the case of n =2 , the secret key rate of this modified protocol using nondegenerate random quantum code to perform one-way entanglement distillation is equal to that of the six-state scheme.

  2. Scientific Knowledge and Technology, Animal Experimentation, and Pharmaceutical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinter, Lewis B; DeGeorge, Joseph J

    2016-12-01

    Human discovery of pharmacologically active substances is arguably the oldest of the biomedical sciences with origins >3500 years ago. Since ancient times, four major transformations have dramatically impacted pharmaceutical development, each driven by advances in scientific knowledge, technology, and/or regulation: (1) anesthesia, analgesia, and antisepsis; (2) medicinal chemistry; (3) regulatory toxicology; and (4) targeted drug discovery. Animal experimentation in pharmaceutical development is a modern phenomenon dating from the 20th century and enabling several of the four transformations. While each transformation resulted in more effective and/or safer pharmaceuticals, overall attrition, cycle time, cost, numbers of animals used, and low probability of success for new products remain concerns, and pharmaceutical development remains a very high risk business proposition. In this manuscript we review pharmaceutical development since ancient times, describe its coevolution with animal experimentation, and attempt to predict the characteristics of future transformations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Experimental plant communities develop phylogenetically overdispersed abundance distributions during assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Eric; Jenkins, Tania; Fergus, Alexander J F; Roscher, Christiane; Fischer, Markus; Petermann, Jana; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmid, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    The importance of competition between similar species in driving community assembly is much debated. Recently, phylogenetic patterns in species composition have been investigated to help resolve this question: phylogenetic clustering is taken to imply environmental filtering, and phylogenetic overdispersion to indicate limiting similarity between species. We used experimental plant communities with random species compositions and initially even abundance distributions to examine the development of phylogenetic pattern in species abundance distributions. Where composition was held constant by weeding, abundance distributions became overdispersed through time, but only in communities that contained distantly related clades, some with several species (i.e., a mix of closely and distantly related species). Phylogenetic pattern in composition therefore constrained the development of overdispersed abundance distributions, and this might indicate limiting similarity between close relatives and facilitation/complementarity between distant relatives. Comparing the phylogenetic patterns in these communities with those expected from the monoculture abundances of the constituent species revealed that interspecific competition caused the phylogenetic patterns. Opening experimental communities to colonization by all species in the species pool led to convergence in phylogenetic diversity. At convergence, communities were composed of several distantly related but species-rich clades and had overdispersed abundance distributions. This suggests that limiting similarity processes determine which species dominate a community but not which species occur in a community. Crucially, as our study was carried out in experimental communities, we could rule out local evolutionary or dispersal explanations for the patterns and identify ecological processes as the driving force, underlining the advantages of studying these processes in experimental communities. Our results show that

  4. The Montreal Protocol's multilateral fund and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luken, Ralph; Grof, Tamas [United Nations Industrial Development Organization, P.O. Box 400, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol is widely seen as a global environmental accord that has produced tangible results in terms of reductions in ozone-depleting substances. In addition, there have been other benefits, largely unrecognized and undocumented, that can best be characterized in a sustainable development framework based on a review of 50 out of 931 projects implemented over a 13 year period by one of the four implementing agencies of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. All investment projects have reduced ozone depleting potential and global warming potential. Some projects have reduced atmospheric emissions and contamination of groundwater. Other projects have increased the competitiveness of enterprises in domestic and international markets and have sustained and in a few cases created employment opportunities. Others, fewer in number, have potentially contributed to environmental problems, have initially created difficulties in maintaining productivity and quality standards and have decreased the number of employment opportunities because of the need to rationalize manufacturing processes. The potential contributions from Multilateral Fund investment projects to sustainable development could probably have been amplified with project design guidance for the technical staffs of all three implementing agencies executing investment projects. In thinking about other multilateral environmental agreements, one can see the need for similar guidance for Global Environment Facility funded projects supporting the focal areas of climate change, international waters, ozone depletion and persistent organic pollutants. Some of them have the potential to generate multiple beneficial impacts in addition to their stated environmental objective if designed and implemented within a sustainable development framework. (author)

  5. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS. The key benefits of the approach are the following: i the breadth of the overall (cybersecurity space is described; ii depth statements about specific (cybersecurity challenges are articulated and mapped to the breadth of the problem; iii specific (cybersecurity initiatives that have been resourced through funding or personnel are tracked and linked to specific challenges; and iv progress is assessed through key performance indicators. Although we present examples from cybersecurity, the method may be transferred to other domains. We have found the approach to be rigorous yet adaptive to change; it challenges an organization to be explicit about the nature of its research and experimental development in a manner that fosters alignment with evolving business priorities, knowledge transfer, and partner engagement.

  6. Trinity Multiscale Transport Code Development for Experimental Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highcock, E.; Barnes, M.; Colyer, G.; Citrin, J.; Dickinson, D.; Mandel, N.; van Wyk, F.; Roach, C.; Schekochihin, A.; Dorland, W.

    2014-10-01

    The Trinity multiscale transport code has been extensively upgraded to further its use in experimental comparison. The upgrades to Trinity have extended its capability to work with experimental data, allowed it to evolve the magnetic equilibrium self-consistently (at fixed current) and significantly enhanced the range and performance of its turbulent transport modeling options. To enhance its capability to reproduce experiment, Trinity is now able to take output from the CRONOS integrated modelling suite, which is able to provide high quality reconstructions of experimental equilibria of, for example, JET. Trinity has also been integrated with the CHEASE Grad-Shafranov code. This allows the magnetic equilibrium to be re-computed self consistently as the pressure gradient evolves. Trinity has been given new options for modeling turbulent transport. These include the well-known TGLF framework, and the newly developed GPU-based nonlinear code GRYFX. These will allow rapid initial scans with Trinity before more detailed gyrokinetic modeling. Trinity's performance will benefit from an extensive programme to upgrade one of its primary gyrokinetic turbulence modeling options, GS2. We present a summary of these improvements and preliminary results. This work was supported by STFC and the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy. Computing time was provided by IFERC grants MULTEI and GKDELB, The Hartree Centre, and EPSRC Grants EP/H002081/1 and EP/L000237/1.

  7. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  8. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.

  9. Longitudinal designs to study neighbourhood effects on the development of obesity: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarte, Laurence; Lebel, Alexandre; Waygood, E O D; Tchernof, André; Biertho, Laurent

    2018-01-24

    The prevalence of obesity has increased significantly in the last three decades and became an important public health concern. Evidence of weight status variability at the neighbourhood level has led researchers to look more precisely at the characteristics of local geographic areas that might influence energy balance related behaviours, giving rise to the field of the 'neighbourhood effect' in public health research. Among an abundant literature about neighbourhood effects and obesity, we propose a protocol for a scoping review that will aim at determining how temporal measurements of residential neighbourhood exposure, individual covariates and weight outcome are integrated in longitudinal designs. A list of relevant citations will be obtained through a comprehensive systematic database search in Pubmed, Web of Science and Embase. The search strategy will be designed using a broad definition of neighbourhood to take into account the heterogeneity of this concept in research. Two investigators will screen titles, abstracts and entire publications using predetermined eligibility criteria yielding a list of selected publications. Data from the publications included in the scoping review will be charted according to bibliographic information, study population, exposure, outcomes and results. To our knowledge, our protocol will yield the first scoping review regarding longitudinal designs of neighbourhood effect on obesity. Describing how longitudinal designs include temporal measurements of exposure, covariates and outcome is a necessary step in the quest to determine if or which contextual characteristics are likely to be involved in the development of obesity. Such information would bring new knowledge to complement current aetiological investigations and would contribute to enhancing resource allocation strategies for stakeholders in developing relevant interventions to prevent obesity and its negative impacts. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  10. Development of high-reliable real-time communication network protocol for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Sang; Kim, Young Sik [Korea National University of Education, Chongwon (Korea); No, Hee Chon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this research, we first define protocol subsets for SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) communication network based on the requirement of SMART MMIS transmission delay and traffic requirements and OSI(Open System Interconnection) 7 layers' network protocol functions. Also, current industrial purpose LAN protocols are analyzed and the applicability of commercialized protocols are checked. For the suitability test, we have applied approximated SMART data traffic and maximum allowable transmission delay requirement. With the simulation results, we conclude that IEEE 802.5 and FDDI which is an ANSI standard, is the most suitable for SMART. We further analyzed the FDDI and token ring protocols for SMART and nuclear plant network environment including IEEE 802.4, IEEE 802.5, and ARCnet. The most suitable protocol for SMART is FDDI and FDDI MAC and RMT protocol specifications have been verified with LOTOS and the verification results show that FDDI MAC and RMT satisfy the reachability and liveness, but does not show deadlock and livelock. Therefore, we conclude that FDDI MAC and RMT is highly reliable protocol for SMART MMIS network. After that, we consider the stacking fault of IEEE 802.5 token ring protocol and propose a fault tolerant MAM(Modified Active Monitor) protocol. The simulation results show that the MAM protocol improves lower priority traffic service rate when stacking fault occurs. Therefore, proposed MAM protocol can be applied to SMART communication network for high reliability and hard real-time communication purpose in data acquisition and inter channel network. (author). 37 refs., 79 figs., 39 tabs.

  11. Study protocol: incentives for increased access to comprehensive family planning for urban youth using a benefits card in Uganda. A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwasiima, Afra; Nuwamanya, Elly; Navvuga, Patricia; Babigumira, Janet U; Asiimwe, Francis T; Lubinga, Solomon J; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2017-10-27

    The use of contraception is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions and has the potential to prevent about 30% of maternal and 10% of child deaths in developing countries. Voucher-based initiatives for family planning are an effective and viable means of increasing contraceptive use. In this paper, we present a protocol for a pilot study of a novel incentive, a family planning benefits card (FPBC) program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda while leveraging private sector funding. The study employs both impact and health economic evaluation methods to assess the effect of the FPBC program. We propose a quasi-experimental study design with two separate pre- and post-samples to measure program effectiveness. The main outcome of the impact evaluation is the percentage change in the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception. We will also conduct model-based incremental cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses. The main outcomes of the economic evaluation are the cost per enrolled youth and cost per pregnancy averted, and cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. We will also pilot a corporate social responsibility model of sponsorship for the FPBC program in partnership with local corporations. Budget impact analysis will examine the potential affordability of scaling up the FPBC program and the fiscal implications of this scale up to the corporate social responsibility (CSR) budgets of partner corporations, the government, and the individual taxpayer. In this study, we propose an impact and economic evaluation to establish the proof concept of using a FPBC program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda. The results of this study will present stakeholders in Uganda and internationally with a potentially viable option for corporate-sponsored access to family planning in urban poor communities. MUREC1/7 No. 10

  12. Development and validation of the Liverpool infant bronchiolitis severity score: a research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Miert, Clare; Abbott, Janice; Verheoff, Francine; Lane, Steven; Carter, Bernie; McNamara, Paul

    2014-10-01

    To develop and validate a bronchiolitis severity scoring instrument for use by nurses and other healthcare professions. Bronchiolitis is a viral lower respiratory tract infection of infancy. In industrialized countries, admission rates have increased over the last decade with up to 3% of all infants born being admitted to hospital. A small number of these hospitalized infants will require admission to critical care for either invasive or non-invasive ventilation. During the seasonal epidemic, the number of unplanned admissions to critical care with bronchiolitis substantially increases. We will use a mixed methods study design. We will use scale development and psychometric methods to develop a scoring instrument and to test the instrument for content, construct and criterion validity and reliability in several different clinical locations. This study protocol has been reviewed and approved by the NHS National Research Ethics Service, January 2011. There is an urgent need to develop a valid and reliable severity scoring instrument sensitive to clinical changes in the infant, to facilitate clinical decision-making and help standardize patient care. Furthermore, a valid and reliable scoring instrument could also be used as a proxy patient-reported outcome measure to evaluate the efficacy of clinical interventions in randomized controlled trials. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Developing a monitoring protocol for visitor-created informal trails in Yosemite National Park, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yu-Fai; Newburger, Todd; Jones, Marci; Kuhn, Bill; Woiderski, Brittany

    2011-01-01

    Informal trails created or perpetuated by visitors is a management challenge in many protected natural areas such as Yosemite National Park. This is a significant issue as informal trail networks penetrate and proliferate into protected landscapes and habitats, threatening ecological integrity, aesthetics, and visitor experiences. In order to develop effective strategies for addressing this problem under an adaptive management framework, indicators must be developed and monitoring protocol must be established to gather timely and relevant data about the condition, extent, and distribution of these undesired trail segments. This article illustrates a process of developing and evaluating informal trail indicators for meadows in Yosemite Valley. Indicator measures developed in past research were reviewed to identify their appropriateness for the current application. Information gaps in existing indicator measures were addressed by creating two new indices to quantify the degree of informal trailing based on its land fragmentation effects. The selected indicator measures were applied to monitoring data collected between 2006 and 2008. The selected measures and indices were evaluated for their ability to characterize informal trail impacts at site and landscape scales. Results demonstrate the utility of indicator measures in capturing different characteristics of the informal trail problem, though several metrics are strongly related to each other. The two fragmentation indices were able to depict fragmentation without being too sensitive to changes in one constituent parameter. This study points to the need for a multiparameter approach to informal trail monitoring and integration with other monitoring data. Implications for monitoring programs and research are discussed.

  14. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  15. Learning from complementary ways of developing experimental competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natércia Maria LIMA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Engineering education has solid needs of experimental competences development. Nowadays theses competences can be developed not only in traditional laboratories (hands on but also through the use of computer simulations and remote labs. The use of diversified methods in education and the exploration of new resources and techniques in classroom may allow teachers to motivate more students, and capture their attention due to their different learning styles.The main objective of this thesis project is to better understand the effects on the students’ learning outcomes in different contexts, when subject to similar design approaches using an enquiry-based teaching and learning methodology based on simultaneous use of experimental resources (hands on, simulation and remote labs together with calculus, in class and assessment. To accomplish this goal, several insights must be taken into consideration, including the teachers’ mediation in each case and the didactical implementations adaptations, but also external factors, such as socio-cultural and/or political factors.

  16. Dynamic protocol stack composition: protocol independent addressing

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Sam; Mahieu, Tom; Matthijs, Frank; Verbaeten, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a generic addressing framework (GAF) which enables the development of protocol stack independent applications. This framework has been developed in the context of dynamic protocol stack composition. Having a way to compose and build protocol stacks is not sufficient. The protocol layers a stack is composed of have an impact on the addressing used inside the stack. Since addresses are used by applications, the impact of modifying the stack dynamically is not automaticall...

  17. Using concurrent think-aloud and protocol analysis to explore student nurses' social learning information communication technology knowledge and skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhunter, Fern

    2015-06-01

    Observations obtained through concurrent think-aloud and protocol analysis offer new understanding about the influence of social learning on student nurses' acquisition of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) knowledge and skills. The software used provides a permanent record of the underpinning study method, events and analyses. The emerging themes reflect the dimensions of social engagement, and the characteristics of positive and negative reactions to ICT. The evidence shows that given the right conditions, stronger learners will support and guide their peers. To explore the use of concurrent think-aloud and protocol analysis as a method to examine how student nurses approach ICT. To identify the benefits and challenges of using observational technology to capture learning behaviours. To show the influence of small group arrangement and student interactions on their ICT knowledge and skills development. Previous studies examining social interaction between students show how they work together and respond to interactive problem solving. Social interaction has been shown to enhance skills in both ICT and collaborative decision making. Structured observational analysis using concurrent think-aloud and protocol analysis. Students displayed varying degrees of pastoral support and emotional need, leadership, reflection, suggestion and experimentation skills. Encouraging student nurses to work in small mixed ability groups can be conducive for social and ICT skill and knowledge development. Observational software gives a permanent record of the proceedings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Photobiomodulation of human dermal fibroblasts in vitro: decisive role of cell culture conditions and treatment protocols on experimental outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, C; Uzunbajakava, N E; Raafs, B; Botchkareva, N V; Tobin, D J

    2017-06-05

    Photobiomodulation-based (LLLT) therapies show tantalizing promise for treatment of skin diseases. Confidence in this approach is blighted however by lamentable inconsistency in published experimental designs, and so complicates interpretation. Here we interrogate the appropriateness of a range of previously-reported treatment parameters, including light wavelength, irradiance and radiant exposure, as well as cell culture conditions (e.g., serum concentration, cell confluency, medium refreshment, direct/indirect treatment, oxygen concentration, etc.), in primary cultures of normal human dermal fibroblasts exposed to visible and near infra-red (NIR) light. Apart from irradiance, all study parameters impacted significantly on fibroblast metabolic activity. Moreover, when cells were grown at atmospheric O2 levels (i.e. 20%) short wavelength light inhibited cell metabolism, while negligible effects were seen with long visible and NIR wavelength. By contrast, NIR stimulated cells when exposed to dermal tissue oxygen levels (approx. 2%). The impact of culture conditions was further seen when inhibitory effects of short wavelength light were reduced with increasing serum concentration and cell confluency. We conclude that a significant source of problematic interpretations in photobiomodulation reports derives from poor optimization of study design. Further development of this field using in vitro/ex vivo models should embrace significant standardization of study design, ideally within a design-of-experiment setting.

  19. A protocol for developing a clinical practice guideline for intra-articular injection for treating knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xing

    2018-01-01

    Ethics and dissemination: The protocol will provide us a roadmap to systematically develop evidence-based CPG for intra-articular injection for knee OA. The work will be disseminated electronically and in print. The guideline would be the first CPG that is developed primarily by orthopedic specialists in China and strictly based on systematic methodology.

  20. Development of a manualized protocol of massage therapy for clinical trials in osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ather

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial design of manual therapies may be especially challenging as techniques are often individualized and practitioner-dependent. This paper describes our methods in creating a standardized Swedish massage protocol tailored to subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee while respectful of the individualized nature of massage therapy, as well as implementation of this protocol in two randomized clinical trials. Methods The manualization process involved a collaborative process between methodologic and clinical experts, with the explicit goals of creating a reproducible semi-structured protocol for massage therapy, while allowing some latitude for therapists’ clinical judgment and maintaining consistency with a prior pilot study. Results The manualized protocol addressed identical specified body regions with distinct 30- and 60-min protocols, using standard Swedish strokes. Each protocol specifies the time allocated to each body region. The manualized 30- and 60-min protocols were implemented in a dual-site 24-week randomized dose-finding trial in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, and is currently being implemented in a three-site 52-week efficacy trial of manualized Swedish massage therapy. In the dose-finding study, therapists adhered to the protocols and significant treatment effects were demonstrated. Conclusions The massage protocol was manualized, using standard techniques, and made flexible for individual practitioner and subject needs. The protocol has been applied in two randomized clinical trials. This manualized Swedish massage protocol has real-world utility and can be readily utilized both in the research and clinical settings. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970008 (18 August 2009

  1. In vitro and in vivo experimental models for drug screening and development for Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro José Romanha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, a neglected illness, affects nearly 12-14 million people in endemic areas of Latin America. Although the occurrence of acute cases sharply has declined due to Southern Cone Initiative efforts to control vector transmission, there still remain serious challenges, including the maintenance of sustainable public policies for Chagas disease control and the urgent need for better drugs to treat chagasic patients. Since the introduction of benznidazole and nifurtimox approximately 40 years ago, many natural and synthetic compounds have been assayed against Trypanosoma cruzi, yet only a few compounds have advanced to clinical trials. This reflects, at least in part, the lack of consensus regarding appropriate in vitro and in vivo screening protocols as well as the lack of biomarkers for treating parasitaemia. The development of more effective drugs requires (i the identification and validation of parasite targets, (ii compounds to be screened against the targets or the whole parasite and (iii a panel of minimum standardised procedures to advance leading compounds to clinical trials. This third aim was the topic of the workshop entitled Experimental Models in Drug Screening and Development for Chagas Disease, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on the 25th and 26th of November 2008 by the Fiocruz Program for Research and Technological Development on Chagas Disease and Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative. During the meeting, the minimum steps, requirements and decision gates for the determination of the efficacy of novel drugs for T. cruzi control were evaluated by interdisciplinary experts and an in vitro and in vivo flowchart was designed to serve as a general and standardised protocol for screening potential drugs for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  2. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  3. Development of EPA Protocol Information Enquiry Service System Based on Embedded ARM Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Daogang; Zhang, Hao; Weng, Jiannian; Li, Hui; Xia, Fei

    Industrial Ethernet is a new technology for industrial network communications developed in recent years. In the field of industrial automation in China, EPA is the first standard accepted and published by ISO, and has been included in the fourth edition IEC61158 Fieldbus of NO.14 type. According to EPA standard, Field devices such as industrial field controller, actuator and other instruments are all able to realize communication based on the Ethernet standard. The Atmel AT91RM9200 embedded development board and open source embedded Linux are used to develop an information inquiry service system of EPA protocol based on embedded ARM Linux in this paper. The system is capable of designing an EPA Server program for EPA data acquisition procedures, the EPA information inquiry service is available for programs in local or remote host through Socket interface. The EPA client can access data and information of other EPA equipments on the EPA network when it establishes connection with the monitoring port of the server.

  4. A transdisciplinary approach to protocol development for tobacco control research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa A; Rogers, Michelle L; Boergers, Julie; Kahler, Christopher W; Ramsey, Susan; Saadeh, Frances M; Abrams, David B; Buka, Stephen L; Niaura, Raymond; Colby, Suzanne M

    2012-12-01

    The increasing complexity of scientific problems related to lifestyle risk factors has prompted substantial investments in transdisciplinary or team science initiatives at the biological, psychosocial, and population levels of analysis. To date, the actual process of conducting team science from the perspectives of investigators engaged in it has not been well documented. We describe the experience of developing and implementing data collection protocols using the principles of transdisciplinary science. The New England Family Study Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center was a 10-year collaboration involving more than 85 investigators and consultants from more than 20 disciplines as well as more than 50 research staff. We used a two-phase process in which all the study personnel participated in the developing and testing of 160 instruments. These instruments were used in 4,378 assessments with 3,501 participants. With substantial effort, it is possible to build a team of scientists from diverse backgrounds that can develop a set of instruments using a shared conceptual approach, despite limited or no experience working together previously.

  5. Protocols and participatory democracy in a 'North-South' product development partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    Global product development partnerships (PDPs) for new health technologies have become an increasingly important part of the science and development landscape over the past two decades. Polarised positions are adopted by those scrutinising the power and governance of these public-private formations; on the one hand, they are seen as successful social technology innovations, on the other as regressive and imperialistic regimes of neo-colonialism. Answering recent calls for research to examine the actors, governance, context and dynamics of PDPs, this article presents a sociological case study of one particular partnership, the Microbicides Development Programme (MDP). Interviews were conducted with a cross-section of programme staff in the UK and Zambia, and discourses analysed through a Foucauldian lens of governmentality. This article suggests that two tools of government were central to MDP's cohesiveness: institutional discourses of participatory democracy and capacity building and scientific protocols. Through these material-semiotic tools, the scientific community, junior operational researchers and the funder were successfully enrolled into the programme and governed by a central body based in the UK. This article draws on Nikolas Rose's work to discuss these socio-scientific discourses as technologies of government, and provides a non-dualistic account of power and governance in a North-South PDP. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Development of a Decision Support System to Predict Physicians' Rehabilitation Protocols for Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawamdeh, Ziad M.; Alshraideh, Mohammad A.; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M.; Salah, Imad K.; Holm, Margo B.; Otom, Ali H.

    2012-01-01

    To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee…

  7. Rationally optimized cryopreservation of multiple mouse embryonic stem cell lines: II--Mathematical prediction and experimental validation of optimal cryopreservation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashuba, Corinna M; Benson, James D; Critser, John K

    2014-04-01

    In Part I, we documented differences in cryopreservation success measured by membrane integrity in four mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) lines from different genetic backgrounds (BALB/c, CBA, FVB, and 129R1), and we demonstrated a potential biophysical basis for these differences through a comparative study characterizing the membrane permeability characteristics and osmotic tolerance limits of each cell line. Here we use these values to predict optimal cryoprotectants, cooling rates, warming rates, and plunge temperatures. We subsequently verified these predictions experimentally for their effects on post-thaw recovery. From this study, we determined that a cryopreservation protocol utilizing 1M propylene glycol, a cooling rate of 1°C/minute, and plunging into liquid nitrogen at -41°C, combined with subsequent warming in a 22°C water bath with agitation, significantly improved post-thaw recovery for three of the four mESC lines, and did not diminish post-thaw recovery for our single exception. It is proposed that this protocol can be successfully applied to most mESC lines beyond those included within this study once the effect of propylene glycol on mESC gene expression, growth characteristics, and germ-line transmission has been determined. Mouse ESC lines with poor survival using current standard cryopreservation protocols or our proposed protocol can be optimized on a case-by-case basis using the method we have outlined over two papers. For our single exception, the CBA cell line, a cooling rate of 5°C/minute in the presence of 1.0M dimethyl sulfoxide or 1.0M propylene glycol, combined with plunge temperature of -80°C was optimal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Courten Maximilian

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for the gathering of other data through site visits, discussions, and document reviews. Methods The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access draws on the principles of Rapid Assessment Protocols which have been developed and implemented in several different areas. This protocol was adapted through a thorough literature review on diabetes, chronic condition management and medicine supply in developing countries. A visit to three countries in sub-Saharan Africa and meetings with different experts in the field of diabetes helped refine the questionnaires. Following the development of the questionnaires these were tested with various people familiar with diabetes and/or healthcare in developing countries. The Protocol was piloted in Mozambique then refined and had two further iterations in Zambia and Mali. Translations of questionnaires were made into local languages when necessary, with back translation to ensure precision. Results In each country the protocol was implemented in 3 areas – the capital city, a large urban centre and a predominantly rural area and their respective surroundings. Interviews were carried out by local teams trained on how to use the tool. Data was then collected and entered into a database for analysis. Conclusion The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access was developed to provide a situational analysis of Type 1 diabetes, in order to make recommendations to the national Ministries of Health and Diabetes Associations. It provided valuable information on patients' access to insulin, syringes, monitoring and care. It was thus able to sketch a picture of the health care system with regards to its ability to

  9. Experimental induction of paromomycin resistance in antimony-resistant strains of L. donovani: outcome dependent on in vitro selection protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hendrickx

    Full Text Available Paromomycin (PMM has recently been introduced for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India. Although no clinical resistance has yet been reported, proactive vigilance should be warranted. The present in vitro study compared the outcome and stability of experimental PMM-resistance induction on promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Cloned antimony-resistant L. donovani field isolates from India and Nepal were exposed to stepwise increasing concentrations of PMM (up to 500 µM, either as promastigotes or intracellular amastigotes. One resulting resistant strain was cloned and checked for stability of resistance by drug-free in vitro passage as promastigotes for 20 weeks or a single in vivo passage in the golden hamster. Resistance selection in promastigotes took about 25 weeks to reach the maximal 97 µM inclusion level that did not affect normal growth. Comparison of the IC(50 values between the parent and the selected strains revealed a 9 to 11-fold resistance for the Indian and 3 to 5-fold for the Nepalese strains whereby the resistant phenotype was also maintained at the level of the amastigote. Applying PMM pressure to intracellular amastigotes produced resistance after just two selection cycles (IC(50 = 199 µM compared to the parent strain (IC(50 = 45 µM. In the amastigote-induced strains/clones, lower PMM susceptibilities were seen only in amastigotes and not at all in promastigotes. This resistance phenotype remained stable after serial in vitro passage as promastigote for 20 weeks and after a single in vivo passage in the hamster. This study clearly demonstrates that a different PMM-resistance phenotype is obtained whether drug selection is applied to promastigotes or intracellular amastigotes. These findings may have important relevance to resistance mechanism investigations and the likelihood of resistance development and detection in the field.

  10. Quantum Hall effects recent theoretical and experimental developments

    CERN Document Server

    Ezawa, Zyun Francis

    2013-01-01

    Enthusiasm for research on the quantum Hall effect (QHE) is unbounded. The QHE is one of the most fascinating and beautiful phenomena in all branches of physics. Tremendous theoretical and experimental developments are still being made in this sphere. Composite bosons, composite fermions and anyons were among distinguishing ideas in the original edition. In the 2nd edition, fantastic phenomena associated with the interlayer phase coherence in the bilayer system were extensively described. The microscopic theory of the QHE was formulated based on the noncommutative geometry. Furthermore, the unconventional QHE in graphene was reviewed, where the electron dynamics can be treated as relativistic Dirac fermions and even the supersymmetric quantum mechanics plays a key role. In this 3rd edition, all chapters are carefully reexamined and updated. A highlight is the new chapter on topological insulators. Indeed, the concept of topological insulator stems from the QHE. Other new topics are recent prominent experime...

  11. Developing a protocol for creating microfluidic devices with a 3D printer, PDMS, and glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, Robyn; Novak, Eric; Shirk, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    Microfluidics research requires the design and fabrication of devices that have the ability to manipulate small volumes of fluid, typically ranging from microliters to picoliters. These devices are used for a wide range of applications including the assembly of materials and testing of biological samples. Many methods have been previously developed to create microfluidic devices, including traditional nanolithography techniques. However, these traditional techniques are cost-prohibitive for many small-scale laboratories. This research explores a relatively low-cost technique using a 3D printed master, which is used as a template for the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices. The masters are designed using computer aided design (CAD) software and can be printed and modified relatively quickly. We have developed a protocol for creating simple microfluidic devices using a 3D printer and PDMS adhered to glass. This relatively simple and lower-cost technique can now be scaled to more complicated device designs and applications. Funding provided by the Undergraduate Research Grant Program at Shippensburg University and the Student/Faculty Research Engagement Grants from the College of Arts and Sciences at Shippensburg University.

  12. Development of a fast and economical genotyping protocol for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyethodi, Rafeeque R; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil; Deb, Rajib; Alex, Rani; Sharma, Sheetal; Sengar, Gyanendra S; Prakash, B

    2016-01-01

    Fast and economical means of assaying SNP's are important in diagnostic assays, especially when a large number of animals have to be screened for a genetic disease. This study was aimed at the development of a fast and economical screening assay for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) which is an important genetic disease of cattle industry. Four primers were designed where the outer primers amplify a 354 bp amplicon of CD18 gene carrying the polymorphism responsible for BLAD. The specifically designed inner primers in conjunction with the modified reaction mixture and cyclic conditions ensured amplification of either of wild or mutated alleles. Together with outer primers, the inner primers generated typical banding pattern in agarose gel which discriminated the normal animal against the carrier. We successfully used this protocol in 200 bulls for genotyping the BLAD allele which confirmed by sequencing, showing a cent percentage concordance. With the developed assay the need for restriction digestion or use of costly equipment viz. real time PCR was eliminated. This genotyping assay ensured fast and economical genotyping and could be adopted in every laboratory with a minimum equipment requirement of thermocycler and gel documentation system.

  13. [The development of experimental pharmacology 1790-1850].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, M H

    2000-01-01

    1. The use of drugs goes back to the origins of mankind. In historical times oral drug-lore became codified empiric drug theory (materia medica) and ultimately, in the 19th century, experimental pharmacology. The initiator of experimental pharmacology as an independent medical discipline is Rudolf Buchheim (1820-1879). This study traces the pathways leading to Buchheim and identifies his predecessors between 1790 and 1850. The history of empirical pharmacology and its major theories in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and early modern times is summarized. For the 18th century an overview is given on early attempts at experimental testing of drug effects and on the new therapeutic systems and medical sects. 2. Many authors have dealt with the grievances of pharmacology and therapy between 1790 and 1850, among them chief representatives of contemporary medicine like the French Fourcroy, Bichat, Pinel, Alibert, Magendie, and the Germans Schönlein, Mitscherlich, Wunderlich, Henle, and Oesterlen. Their criticisms are a means for a better understanding of the situation. They cover the following aspects. Pharmacology is distorted by speculations on the causes of drug action and confusion with regard to terminology and indications. Drug actions are being tested with inadequate methods. An increase in the number of drugs is mistaken for an increase in knowledge. The statement is made that pharmacology is the least developed of all medical subjects. The critics point out that only a more developed chemistry, physiology, and etiology will allow a scientific pharmacology. The drug theories of the medical sects are likewise rejected. Polypharmacy, composite drugs, and absurd formulas are regarded with contempt. Aggressive drug therapy is repudiated, but this easily results in avoidance of drugs and in therapeutic nihilism. 3. In 1799 Johann Christian Reil elaborated his principles for a future pharmacology. Reil establishes the rules for clinical experiments on which a scientific

  14. SU-F-R-06: Traumatic Brachial Plexus Injury Imaging, Developing a Coherent Clinical Protocol From Literature Review Through Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D; France, E; Lambert, J; Hinkle, J [The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Medical Physics teams can now play a critical role to help plan and provide studied approaches for traumatic brachial plexus MR imaging (tbpMRI). This is especially important for coordination with uncommon applications, since it is challenging to select the right modality, parameters, and train technologists on the essential components. For this work, we started with a review of the medical literature, performed crossover/volunteer studies to bring tbpMRI to practice with greater image QC and protocol management. Methods: To the best of our knowledge, we reviewed the known searchable domain for tbpMRI. We found 69 total articles since 2000. Articles were evaluated with our published protocol for literature management (LIMES3). Two physicists and two radiologists condensed the information from all articles into a knowledgebase. Results: The initial literature demonstrated great heterogeneity, which was a sign that this area needed greater consistency. Despite inconsistency and imprecision, we extracted the most relevant targets using our long-term experience with protocol development in MSK. We ran volunteers on six different magnets of various field strengths with multiple receiver coils, and rebuilt a coherent protocol for tbpMRI. Our radiologists rated LIMES3 work as superior. We have received referrals from the ER and have conducted four patient evaluations. Conclusion: Traumatic brachial plexus MRI has great possible benefits for patients. This work supports the complexity of tbpMRI scanning. As this is rarely performed, it requires a more diligent protocol workflow, coordination of caregivers, and education within multiple clinical departments. Choosing the correct imaging exam can be critical, as patients can have significant neuropathy and/or paralysis. The LIMES3 protocol is well liked at our institution, and forms the cornerstone of understanding for our work. Our literature management led to a better clinical protocol creation despite the diffuse

  15. Developing Tele-Operated Laboratories for Manufacturing Engineering Education. Platform for E-Learning and Telemetric Experimentation (PeTEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Erman Tekkaya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the PeTEX-project is to establish an e-Learning platform for the development, implementation, and delivery of educational training programs in the field of manufacturing engineering. The PeTEX team designs both: a technical platform for eLearning based on “Moodle” including distributed tele-operated experimentation facilities, and didactic and socio-technical requirements for a successful online learning community. User interfaces are deployed for remote access to instruments, data analysis and multiplexed data access via network protocols. Hence, the platform provides complex tools in order to perform various activities to support the educational process, from telemetric experimentation to virtual project groups for an entire community to the purpose of domain specific learning. This paper describes important steps of interdisciplinary participatory design and development of a remote lab-prototype in the field of manufacturing engineering.

  16. Electrochemotherapy as First Line Cancer Treatment: Experiences from Veterinary Medicine in Developing Novel Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spugnini, E P; Azzarito, T; Fais, S; Fanciulli, M; Baldi, A

    2016-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment is one of the major obstacles to the efficacy of chemotherapy in cancer patients. The abnormal blood flow within the tumor results in uneven drug distribution. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a tumor treatment that adopts the systemic or local delivery of anticancer drugs with the application of permeabilizing electric pulses having appropriate amplitude and waveforms. This allows the use of lipophobic drugs that frequently have a narrow therapeutic index maintaining at the same time a reduced patient morbidity and preserving appropriate anticancer efficacy. Its use in humans is addressed to the treatment of cutaneous neoplasms or the palliation of skin tumor metastases, and a standard operating procedure has been devised. On the other hand, in veterinary oncology this approach is gaining popularity, thus becoming a first line treatment for different cancer histotypes, in a variety of clinical conditions due to its high efficacy and low toxicity. This review summarizes the state of the art in veterinary oncology as a preclinical model and reports the new protocols in terms of drugs and therapy combination that have been developed.

  17. MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: Overview and development of a protocol for neuropsychological assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Sánchez-Joya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The last decades have brought great advances in the understanding of child neurodevelopment and knowledge of cognitive processes that occur in the brain from an early age. As a result and thanks to the large number of standardized and scientifically guaranteed neuropsychological tests that are available today, we can assess and diagnose with high specificity, deficits or delays in the acquisition of cognitive functions. Besides, it allows knowing the strengths or normality points of children with various pathologies. Objective: To present the concepts and a neuropsychological assessment protocol for mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation. Development: First, the authors present a general model of neuropsychological assessment in childhood. Second, he concept, classification and aetiology of mental retardation is revised and it is proposed a neuropsychological profile. Finally, the paradigms of pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation are shown. Conclusion: Based on standardized and validated test for child neuropsychological assessment, children cognitive disorders can be accurately identified to plan each child's cognitive stimulation, and thus optimize the results of the therapy.

  18. Development of a program theory for shared decision-making: a realist review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Gary; Waldron, Tamara; Carr, Tracey; McMullen, Linda; Bandura, Lori-Ann; Neufeld, Shelley-May; Duncan, Vicky

    2017-06-17

    The practicality of applying evidence to healthcare systems with the aim of implementing change is an ongoing challenge for practitioners, policy makers, and academics. Shared decision- making (SDM), a method of medical decision-making that allows a balanced relationship between patients, physicians, and other key players in the medical decision process, is purported to improve patient and system outcomes. Despite the oft-mentioned benefits, there are gaps in the current literature between theory and implementation that would benefit from a realist approach given the value of this methodology to analyze complex interventions. In this protocol, we outline a study that will explore: "In which situations, how, why, and for whom does SDM between patients and health care providers contribute to improved decision making?" A seven step iterative process will be described including preliminary theory development, establishment of a search strategy, selection and appraisal of literature, data extraction, analysis and synthesis of extracted results from literature, and formation of a revised program theory with the input of patients, physicians, nurse navigators, and policy makers from a stakeholder session. The goal of the realist review will be to identify and refine a program theory for SDM through the identification of mechanisms which shape the characteristics of when, how, and why SDM will, and will not, work. PROSPERO CRD42017062609.

  19. Development of a new PCR protocol to detect and subtype Blastocystis spp. from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Mónica; Gómez-Muñoz, María Teresa; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Fayer, Ronald

    2011-07-01

    Blastocystis spp. is commonly found in the feces of humans worldwide. Infection has been reported as asymptomatic, acute symptomatic, and chronic symptomatic. This wide range of responses to infection could be related to the genetic diversity of morphologically indistinguishable specimens obtained from infected hosts. The former name Blastocystis hominis is now reported as Blastocystis spp. because of its genetic diversity. Blastocystis is recognized as a complex of subtypes that have not been fully characterized as independent species. The finding of Blastocystis spp. in feces from several animal species suggests a zoonotic potential. Based on conserved regions of published nucleotide SSU rDNA sequences from all Blastocystis subtypes found in GenBank, a PCR and sequencing protocol was developed. The ~500 bp SSU rDNA gene fragment amplified by this PCR is highly sensitive compared with published primers and contains highly variable regions that allow phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis. These primers were used to detect and subtype Blastocystis spp. specimens from naturally infected humans, primates, cattle, pigs, and chickens. Based on these findings, application of this method can elucidate the complexity of this heterogeneous genus and its role in human and animal disease, as well as its zoonotic potential.

  20. The offer network protocol: Mathematical foundations and a roadmap for the development of a global brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylighen, Francis

    2017-01-01

    The world is confronted with a variety of interdependent problems, including scarcity, unsustainability, inequality, pollution and poor governance. Tackling such complex challenges requires coordinated action. The present paper proposes the development of a self-organizing system for coordination, called an "offer network", that would use the distributed intelligence of the Internet to match the offers and needs of all human, technological and natural agents on the planet. This would maximize synergy and thus minimize waste and scarcity of resources. Implementing such coordination requires a protocol that formally defines agents, offers, needs, and the network of condition-action rules or reactions that interconnect them. Matching algorithms can then determine self-sustaining subnetworks in which each consumed resource (need) is also produced (offer). After sketching the elements of a mathematical foundation for offer networks, the paper proposes a roadmap for their practical implementation. This includes step-by-step integration with technologies such as the Semantic Web, ontologies, the Internet of Things, reputation and recommendation systems, reinforcement learning, governance through legal constraints and nudging, and ecosystem modeling. The resulting intelligent platform should be able to tackle nearly all practical and theoretical problems in a bottom-up, distributed manner, thus functioning like a Global Brain for humanity.

  1. Developing a Clinical-Grade Cryopreservation Protocol for Human Testicular Tissue and Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, Jason; Ramos, Thomas; Howerton, Kyle; Greilach, Scott; Zaragoza, Karina; Olmstead, Marnie; Izadyar, Fariborz

    2013-01-01

    Recent work in preservation of female fertility as well as new information on the nature of spermatogonial stem cells has prompted an investigation into the possibility of an effective clinical-grade procedure for the cryopreservation of testicular cells and/or tissue. Clinical-grade reagents, validated equipment, and protocols consistent with cGTP/cGMP standards were used in developing a procedure suitable for the safe and effective cryopreservation of human testicular cells and tissues. These procedures were designed to be compliant with the relevant FDA regulations. The procedure proved to effectively cryopreserve both testicular cells and tissue. The cryopreservation of testicular tissue was comparable in most aspects we measured to the cryopreservation of isolated cells, except that the viability of the cells from cryopreserved testicular tissue was found to be significantly higher. On the other hand, cryopreservation of cells is preferred for cell analysis, quality control, and sterility testing. This study demonstrates that testicular tissue and cells from sexual reassignment patients can be successfully cryopreserved with a clinical-grade procedure and important cell populations are not only preserved but also enriched by the process. Further studies will determine whether these findings from hormone-treated patients can be generalized to other patients. PMID:23509810

  2. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, E Golden; Selvi, S Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes.

  3. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Golden Julie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes.

  4. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, E. Golden; Selvi, S. Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes. PMID:26881269

  5. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Suharsono, S.; Jacobsen, E.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in

  6. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  7. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mononen, J; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    were evaluated for their validity, reliability and feasibility. At present, we have identified 15 fox and 9 mink animal-based (or outcome-based) welfare measures, and 11 and 13 input-based (resource-based or management-based) measures. For both foxes and mink, each of the four WQ principles is judged......The WelFur project aims at the development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for farmed foxes (the blue fox [Vulpes lagopus], the silver fox [Vulpes vulpes]) and mink (Neovison vison). The WelFur protocols are based on Welfare Quality® (WQ) principles and criteria. Here, we describe the Wel...

  8. Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ji; Jo, Uiri

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anatomical and functional commonality between singing and speech, various types of musical elements have been employed in music therapy research for speech rehabilitation. This study was to develop an accent-based music speech protocol to address voice problems of stroke patients with mixed dysarthria. Subjects were 6 stroke patients with mixed dysarthria and they received individual music therapy sessions. Each session was conducted for 30 minutes and 12 sessions including pre- and post-test were administered for each patient. For examining the protocol efficacy, the measures of maximum phonation time (MPT), fundamental frequency (F0), average intensity (dB), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonics ratio (NHR), and diadochokinesis (DDK) were compared between pre and post-test and analyzed with a paired sample t-test. The results showed that the measures of MPT, F0, dB, and sequential motion rates (SMR) were significantly increased after administering the protocol. Also, there were statistically significant differences in the measures of shimmer, and alternating motion rates (AMR) of the syllable /K$\\inve$/ between pre- and post-test. The results indicated that the accent-based music speech protocol may improve speech motor coordination including respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody of patients with dysarthria. This suggests the possibility of utilizing the music speech protocol to maximize immediate treatment effects in the course of a long-term treatment for patients with dysarthria.

  9. Proposal for the development of a standardized protocol for assessing the economic costs of HIV prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Steven D; Pearson, Cynthia R; Eachus, Susan R; Berg, Karina M; Grimes, Richard M

    2008-03-01

    Maximizing our economic investment in HIV prevention requires balancing the costs of candidate interventions against their effects and selecting the most cost-effective interventions for implementation. However, many HIV prevention intervention trials do not collect cost information, and those that do use a variety of cost data collection methods and analysis techniques. Standardized cost data collection procedures, instrumentation, and analysis techniques are needed to facilitate the task of assessing intervention costs and to ensure comparability across intervention trials. This article describes the basic elements of a standardized cost data collection and analysis protocol and outlines a computer-based approach to implementing this protocol. Ultimately, the development of such a protocol would require contributions and "buy-in" from a diverse range of stakeholders, including HIV prevention researchers, cost-effectiveness analysts, community collaborators, public health decision makers, and funding agencies.

  10. Development of a non-premixed radiant burner. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.; Myken, A.N.; Rasmussen, N.B.

    1997-12-31

    The objective was to develop and test a non-premixed radiant burner. A burner concept, pro-type 1, was developed with special attention to minimise emissions and foam peak-temperatures. During the test of the prototype it became evident that the construction was not feasible, because the ceramic gas distribution tubes eventually were blocked by soot. Experiments to investigate if the gas would crack conducted prior to the construction of the burner did not indicate that any problems would occur. It can therefore be concluded that the experiments did not simulate burner conditions adequately. Alternative prototypes in which the gas is not heated prior to injection into the combustion chamber have been established. The concept operated satisfactorily without preheating of the combustion air, although NO{sub x}-emissions were high. The measured process efficiencies were superior to previous results for different kinds of surface burners. When the combustion air was preheated to 400 deg. C, the foam sections broke down. The experimental results can be summarised in the following conclusions: The developed prototypes can not be operated with combustion air preheated to 400 deg. C or higher; A relative improvement of the process efficiency by 22% has been observed when the combustion air is preheated to 400 deg. C; The NO{sub x}-emissions increase significantly and much more than the process efficiency when the combustion air is preheated; The process efficiency obtained with prototype 5 is better than previously investigated surface burners, especially at high loads. Possible means to improve durability, efficiency and emission level for both burner concepts are suggested. These include cooling of the gas in prototype 1, coating of the downstream side of the foam section to improve the radiant efficiency and multistep combustion. (EHS)

  11. Implementation of integration strategies between primary care units and a regional general hospital in Brazil to update and connect health care professionals: a quasi-experimental study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Mario Maia; Mafra, Ana Carolina Cintra Nunes; Abdo, Alexandre Hannud; Colugnati, Fernando Antonio Basile; Dalla, Marcello Dala Bernardina; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Abrahamsohn, Ises; Rodrigues, Aline Pacífico; Delgado, Ana Violeta Ferreira de Almeida; Dos Prazeres, Glauber Alves; Teixeira, José Carlos; Possa, Silvio

    2016-08-12

    Better communication among field health care teams and points of care, together with investments focused on improving teamwork, individual management, and clinical skills, are strategies for achieving better outcomes in patient-oriented care. This research aims to implement and evaluate interventions focused on improving communication and knowledge among health teams based on points of care in a regional public health outreach network, assessing the following hypotheses: 1) A better-working communication process between hospitals and primary health care providers can improve the sharing of information on patients as well as patients' outcomes. 2) A skill-upgrading education tool offered to health providers at their work sites can improve patients' care and outcomes. A quasi-experimental study protocol with a mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) was developed to evaluate communication tools for health care professionals based in primary care units and in a general hospital in the southern region of São Paulo City, Brazil. The usefulness and implementation processes of the integration strategies will be evaluated, considering: 1) An Internet-based communication platform that facilitates continuity and integrality of care to patients, and 2) A tailored updating distance-learning course on ambulatory care sensitive conditions for clinical skills improvements. The observational study will evaluate a non-randomized cohort of adult patients, with historical controls. Hospitalized patients diagnosed with an ambulatory care sensitive condition will be selected and followed for 1 year after hospital discharge. Data will be collected using validated questionnaires and from patients' medical records. Health care professionals will be evaluated related to their use of education and communication tools and their demographic and psychological profiles. The primary outcome measured will be the patients' 30-day hospital readmission rates. A sample size of 560

  12. Experimentally aided development of a turbine heat transfer prediction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, A.E.; White, A.J. [Rolls Royce plc, Derby (United Kingdom); Lai, C.C.; Guo, S.M.; Oldfield, M.L.G. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering Science; Lock, G.D. [University of Bath (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-08-01

    In the design of cooled turbomachinery blading a central role is played by the computer methods used to optimise the aerodynamic and thermal performance of the turbine aerofoils. Estimates of the heat load on the turbine blading should be as accurate as possible, in order that adequate life may be obtained with the minimum cooling air requirement. Computer methods are required which are able to model transonic flows, which are a mixture of high temperature combustion gases and relatively cool air injected through holes in the aerofoil surface. These holes may be of complex geometry, devised after empirical studies of the optimum shape and the most cost effective manufacturing technology. The method used here is a further development of the heat transfer design code (HTDC), originally written by Rolls-Royce plc under subcontract to Rolls-Royce Inc for the United States Air Force. The physical principles of the modelling employed in the code are explained without extensive mathematical details. The paper describes the calibration of the code in conjunction with a series of experimental measurements on a scale model of a high-pressure nozzle guide vane at non-dimensionally correct engine conditions. The results are encouraging, although indicating that some further work is required in modelling highly accelerated pressure surface flow. (author)

  13. Development of Experimental Tissue Models for Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin; Bo, Chiara; Williams, Alun; Jardine, Andy; Brown, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the relationship between the intensity of a blast wave and the clinical consequences for victims of an explosion. In order to quantitatively study how these factors correlate with one another, blast injury tissue models are being developed. Sections of larynx, trachea and pulmonary tissue were excised from a recently sacrificed pig and maintained on ice prior to testing. The samples were subjected to strain rates of between 0.001 s-1 and 1000 s-1 in the laboratory by using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and quasi-static testing apparatus. During high strain rate testing, samples were housed in a polycarbonate chamber which permitted experimentation on tissue held in fluid. Data were analysed using 1, 2 and 3 wave analysis software in Matlab to yield information about the material properties of both undamaged and damaged tissues. In addition, macroscopic changes in tissue organization were also visualized using histopathological techniques. This work is being extended to cellular and animal models to derive more detailed information about the underlying molecular changes relating to blast-induced damage and repair. The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies.

  14. Development and first experimental tests of Faraday cup array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokůpek, J; Kaufman, J; Margarone, D; Krůs, M; Velyhan, A; Krása, J; Burris-Mog, T; Busold, S; Deppert, O; Cowan, T E; Korn, G

    2014-01-01

    A new type of Faraday cup, capable of detecting high energy charged particles produced in a high intensity laser-matter interaction environment, has recently been developed and demonstrated as a real-time detector based on the time-of-flight technique. An array of these Faraday cups was designed and constructed to cover different observation angles with respect to the target normal direction. Thus, it allows reconstruction of the spatial distribution of ion current density in the subcritical plasma region and the ability to visualise its time evolution through time-of-flight measurements, which cannot be achieved with standard laser optical interferometry. This is a unique method for two-dimensional visualisation of ion currents from laser-generated plasmas. A technical description of the new type of Faraday cup is introduced along with an ad hoc data analysis procedure. Experimental results obtained during campaigns at the Petawatt High-Energy Laser for Heavy Ion Experiments (GSI, Darmstadt) and at the Prague Asterix Laser System (AS CR) are presented. Advantages and limitations of the used diagnostic system are discussed.

  15. Space construction: an experimental testbed to develop enabling technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Heidi C.; How, Jonathan P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses a new testbed developed at the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) to address some of the key issues associated with semi-autonomous construction in a hazardous environment like space. The new testbed consists of a large two-link manipulator carrying two smaller two-link arms. This macro/mini combination was developed to be representative of actual space manipulators, such as the SSRMS/SPDM planned for the Space Station. This new testbed will allow us to investigate several key issues associated with space construction, including teleoperation versus supervised autonomy, dexterous control of a robot with flexibility, and construction with multiple robots. A supervised autonomy approach has several advantages over the traditional teleoperation mode, including operation with time delay, smart control of a redundant manipulator, and improved contact control. To mimic the dynamics found in space manipulators, the main arm was designed to include joint flexibility. The arm operates in 2-D, with the end-point floating on air-bearing. This setup allows cooperation with existing free-flying robots in the ARL. This paper reports the first experiments with the arm which explore the advantages of moving from teleoperation or human-in-the-loop control to the human supervisory or task-level control. A simple task, such as capturing a satellite-like object floating on the table, is attempted first with the human directly driving the end-point and second with the human directing the robot at a task-level. Initial experimental results of these two control approaches are presented and compared.

  16. Development and evaluation of new mask protocols for gene expression profiling in humans and chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Kimberly D

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-species gene expression analyses using oligonucleotide microarrays designed to evaluate a single species can provide spurious results due to mismatches between the interrogated transcriptome and arrayed probes. Based on the most recent human and chimpanzee genome assemblies, we developed updated and accessible probe masking methods that allow human Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays to be used for robust genome-wide expression analyses in both species. In this process, only data from oligonucleotide probes predicted to have robust hybridization sensitivity and specificity for both transcriptomes are retained for analysis. Results To characterize the utility of this resource, we applied our mask protocols to existing expression data from brains, livers, hearts, testes, and kidneys derived from both species and determined the effects probe numbers have on expression scores of specific transcripts. In all five tissues, probe sets with decreasing numbers of probes showed non-linear trends towards increased variation in expression scores. The relationships between expression variation and probe number in brain data closely matched those observed in simulated expression data sets subjected to random probe masking. However, there is evidence that additional factors affect the observed relationships between gene expression scores and probe number in tissues such as liver and kidney. In parallel, we observed that decreasing the number of probes within probe sets lead to linear increases in both gained and lost inferences of differential cross-species expression in all five tissues, which will affect the interpretation of expression data subject to masking. Conclusion We introduce a readily implemented and updated resource for human and chimpanzee transcriptome analysis through a commonly used microarray platform. Based on empirical observations derived from the analysis of five distinct data sets, we provide novel guidelines

  17. Supported Pt-based nanoparticulate catalysts for the electro-oxidation of methanol: An experimental protocol for quantifying its activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez-Fernandez, Patricia; Lund, Peter Brilner; Kallesøe, Christian

    2014-01-01

    groups making comparison troublesome, and hence can lead to erroneous interpretation of the experimental data. Our experiments prove that it is incorrect to compare results obtained from different electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry or chronoamperometry, which is a common error detected...... in the literature. We recommend analyzing the catalytic activity in the methanol oxidation reaction by chronoamperometry. This is because it is the only way to account poisoning effects on the catalytic surface, which will determine the performance of the catalyst as anode in a direct methanol fuel cell....

  18. Evolution and development of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvinsky, David S; Yoon, Richard S; Schmitt, Paul J; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Swan, Kenneth G; Liporace, Frank A

    2012-04-01

    The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol is a successful course offered by the American College of Surgeons. Once based on didactic lectures and seminars taught by experts in the field, trauma training has evolved to become a set of standardized assessment and treatment protocols based on evidence rather than expert opinion. As the ATLS expands, indices to predict outcome, morbidity, and mortality have evolved to guide management and treatment based on retrospective data. This historical, perspective article attempts to tell the story of ATLS from its inception to its evolution as an international standard for the initial assessment and management of trauma patients. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Development of an outpatient protocol for lumbar discectomy: our institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Shih-Shan; Chen, H Isaac; Koch, Matthew J; Kurash, Laura; McGill-Armento, Kathryn R; Palella, Jennifer M; Stein, Sherman C; Malhotra, Neil R

    2014-11-01

    Traditionally, lumbar discectomy has involved overnight hospital admission. Recent literature supports the shift to same-day lumbar discectomy because of improved outcomes and better patient satisfaction scores. A successful protocol for outpatient lumbar discectomies was proposed and implemented at a single institution. The aim of this study is to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of this institutional model. Retrospective clinical data were collected for patients who underwent a lumbar discectomy during the period 2008-2012. Admission and readmission rates, emergency department (ED) visit rates, surgical complications, and differences between neurosurgeons specializing in spinal procedures and neurosurgeons not specializing in spinal procedures were analyzed before and after implementation of the outpatient surgery protocol. Of 1011 cases identified, 643 cases of lumbar discectomy were performed before the implementation of the protocol, and 368 cases were performed after implementation. The admission rate before the start date of the outpatient protocol was 96.4% versus 50.3% after implementation. After protocol implementation, the most common reasons for admission were uncontrolled pain (18.9%), late operative start times (14.1%), comorbidities (13%), and intraoperative operating room complications (11.9%). Intraoperative complications consisted almost exclusively of dural tears. The 30-day readmission rate after protocol initiation was 4.6% (n = 17 of 368) versus 2.3% (n = 15 of 643) before initiation (P = 0.046), and ED visit rate not requiring an admission was 2.2% (n = 8 of 368) versus 1.1% (n = 7 of 643) before initiation (P = 0.170). Our data demonstrate that a collaborative protocol for outpatient discectomy can be implemented in a safe and effective manner despite a statistical increase in hospital readmissions. The percentage rates of readmissions and ED visits accounted for a very small percentage of the overall number of cases after

  20. Microbial dormancy improves development and experimental validation of ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gangsheng; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie A; Schadt, Christopher W; Steinweg, J Megan; Gu, Lianhong; Post, Wilfred M

    2015-01-01

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change followed by response of plant and microbial communities, and/or associated changes in nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life-history traits and functions may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks owing to changes in the physiology and community composition of microbes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. Here we developed the microbial enzyme-mediated decomposition (MEND) model by incorporating microbial dormancy and the ability to track multiple isotopes of carbon. We tested two versions of MEND, that is, MEND with dormancy (MEND) and MEND without dormancy (MEND_wod), against long-term (270 days) carbon decomposition data from laboratory incubations of four soils with isotopically labeled substrates. MEND_wod adequately fitted multiple observations (total C-CO2 and (14)C-CO2 respiration, and dissolved organic carbon), but at the cost of significantly underestimating the total microbial biomass. MEND improved estimates of microbial biomass by 20-71% over MEND_wod. We also quantified uncertainties in parameters and model simulations using the Critical Objective Function Index method, which is based on a global stochastic optimization algorithm, as well as model complexity and observational data availability. Together our model extrapolations of the incubation study show that long-term soil incubations with experimental data for multiple carbon pools are conducive to estimate both decomposition and microbial parameters. These efforts should provide essential support to future field- and global-scale simulations, and enable more confident predictions of feedbacks between environmental change and carbon cycling.

  1. Application of a yeast-based assay protocol developed to monitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batch experiments were carried out with activated sludge from laboratory reactors and a full-scale treatment plant spiked with 17β-oestradiol (E2). An oestrogen-sensitive yeast-based assay protocol, described in detail in a related publication, was used to measure reduction of E2-induced total oestrogenic activity from the ...

  2. Development of comorbidity-adapted exercise protocols for patients with knee osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, M.; van der Leeden, M.; Avezaat, E.; Hakkinen, A.; Klaver, R.; Maas, T.; Peter, W.F.; Roorda, L.D.; Lems, W.F.; Dekker, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exercise therapy is generally recommended for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Comorbidity, which is highly prevalent in OA, may interfere with exercise therapy. To date, there is no evidence-based protocol for the treatment of patients with knee OA and comorbidity. Special

  3. Application of a yeast-based assay protocol developed to monitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... Batch experiments were carried out with activated sludge from laboratory reactors and a full-scale treatment plant spiked with 17β-oestradiol (E2). An oestrogen-sensitive yeast-based assay protocol, described in detail in a related publication, was used to measure reduction of E2-induced total oestrogenic ...

  4. It's about time: The development and validation of a rapid optimized single antigen bead (ROB) assay protocol for LABScreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwski, Robert S; Greenshields, Anna L; Murphey, Cathi; Bray, Robert A; Gebel, Howard M

    The LABScreen single antigen bead assay (SAB) is a method widely used for the identification and monitoring of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in patients pre-and post-transplant. While accurate testing of patient samples is key for optimal patient care, time can also be important, especially during deceased donor workups or post-transplant assessments. Here we describe the development and validation of the Rapid Optimized SAB (ROB) protocol, a modified version of the One Lambda LABScreen SAB (OLSAB) procedure, which reduces assay time from 85 to 25min (>70% reduction) without impacting assay quality or sensitivity. Optimization steps included shortened centrifugation cycles and reduced serum and secondary antibody incubation times in combination with increased secondary antibody concentration. Linear regression analysis of baseline median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values showed excellent correlation between the ROB and OLSAB protocols (r(2)>0.98) for both class I and class II antibodies in 58 sera tested in two HLA laboratories. Importantly, the ROB protocol demonstrated a trend towards improved inter-laboratory MFI concordance when compared to the OLSAB procedure (r(2)=0.9816 vs 0.9451), especially for HLA antibody specificities in the 500-2000 MFI range (r(2)=0.7824 vs 0.6313). Implementation of the ROB protocol will expedite HLA antibody testing and may improve reproducibility of the SAB assay. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing the Fourth Evaluation Dimension: A Protocol for Evaluation of Video From the Patient's Perspective During Major Incident Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkort, J J Mark; Leenen, Luke P H

    2017-10-01

    Presently used evaluation techniques rely on 3 traditional dimensions: reports from observers, registration system data, and observational cameras. Some of these techniques are observer-dependent and are not reproducible for a second review. This proof-of-concept study aimed to test the feasibility of extending evaluation to a fourth dimension, the patient's perspective. Footage was obtained during a large, full-scale hospital trauma drill. Two mock victims were equipped with point-of-view cameras filming from the patient's head. Based on the Major Incident Hospital's first experience during the drill, a protocol was developed for a prospective, standardized method to evaluate a hospital's major incident response from the patient's perspective. The protocol was then tested in a second drill for its feasibility. New insights were gained after review of the footage. The traditional observer missed some of the evaluation points, which were seen on the point-of-view cameras. The information gained from the patient's perspective proved to be implementable into the designed protocol. Use of point-of-view camera recordings from a mock patient's perspective is a valuable addition to traditional evaluation of trauma drills and trauma care. Protocols should be designed to optimize and objectify judgement of such footage. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:594-599).

  6. Development of an analytical protocol for a fast, sensitive and specific protein recognition in paintings by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, M; Vagnini, Manuela; Pitzurra, L; Rocchi, P; Brunetti, B G; Sgamellotti, A; Cartechini, L

    2011-03-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of proteins offers a particularly promising approach for investigations in cultural heritage on account of its appreciated properties of being highly specific, sensitive, relatively fast, and cost-affordable with respect to other conventional techniques. In spite of that, it has never been fully exploited for routine analyses of painting materials in consideration of several analytical issues that inhibited its diffusion in conservation science: limited sample dimensions, decrease of binder solubility and reduced availability of antibody bonding sites occurring with protein degradation. In this study, an ELISA analytical protocol suited for the identification of aged denatured proteins in ancient painting micro-samples has been developed. We focused on the detection of bovine β-casein and chicken ovalbumin as markers of bovine milk (or casein) and chicken albumen, respectively. A systematic experimentation of the ELISA protocol has been carried out on mock-ups of mural and easel painting prepared with 13 different pigments to assess limits and strengths of the method when applied for the identification of proteins in presence of a predominant inorganic matrix. The analytical procedure has been optimized with respect to protein extraction, antibodies' concentrations, incubation time and temperature; it allows the detection of the investigated proteins with sensitivity down to nanograms. The optimized protocol was then tested on artificially aged painting models. Analytical results were very encouraging and demonstrated that ELISA allows for protein analysis also in degraded painting samples. To address the feasibility of the developed ELISA methodology, we positively investigated real painting samples and results have been cross-validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  7. The Alpine convention and protocols - the starting points for sustainable development in the Slovenian Alps and its neighbouring regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kolar-Planinšič

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the international agreement Alpine Convention. The states which have signed the agreement have undertaken to the common politics for the preservation and sustainable use of sources. The areas covered by the convention: population and culture, physical planning, prevention of air polution, soil conservation, water management, nature conservation and landscape planning, mountain farming, mountain forestry, tourism and recreation, transport, energy and waste management are presented as well as their aims. The primary stress is given to the protocols: "Physical Planning and Sustainable Development" and "Nature Conservation and Landscape Planning",with the emphasis to the sustainable development. They represent cover and their aims are implemented in all the others protocols.

  8. Developing the protocol for the evaluation of the health foundation's 'engaging with quality initiative' – an emergent approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scoggins Amanda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2004 a UK charity, The Health Foundation, established the 'Engaging with Quality Initiative' to explore and evaluate the benefits of engaging clinicians in quality improvement in healthcare. Eight projects run by professional bodies or specialist societies were commissioned in various areas of acute care. A developmental approach to the initiative was adopted, accompanied by a two level evaluation: eight project self-evaluations and a related external evaluation. This paper describes how the protocol for the external evaluation was developed. The challenges faced included large variation between and within the projects (in approach, scope and context, and in understanding of quality improvement, the need to support the project teams in their self-evaluations while retaining a necessary objectivity, and the difficulty of evaluating the moving target created by the developmental approach adopted in the initiative. An initial period to develop the evaluation protocol proved invaluable in helping us to explore these issues.

  9. Recent experimental developments concerning the mechanisms underlying dust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna Neuman, C. L.; Sanderson, R. S.; O'Brien, P.

    2012-12-01

    Field based studies have been invaluable in elucidating the great variability and complexity in natural surfaces that emit dust. Spanning hours to days, and meters to kilometers, measurements of the regional and global characteristics of dust emission and transport are contributing to a clearer understanding of these phenomena. This work has been complimented by the development of increasingly more sophisticated atmospheric dispersion models. Only very recently, however, has much attention been paid to the physics of dust emission from the bed surface that necessarily require precise, high frequency measurements over fractions of millimeters under carefully manipulated conditions. This paper provides an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of dust emission, as derived from experiments carried out in the Trent boundary layer wind tunnel by a variety of workers. Energy transfer to the bed surface through the impacts of saltating particles has long been recognized as crucial for the ejection of silt and clay sized particles from surfaces where interparticle bonding is significant. Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) and laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), we are now able to measure the energy transfer to the surface and the consequent deformation/rupture for both loose and consolidated beds of silt. The coefficient of restitution is found to decrease with particle impact speed, although some compaction may also occur with plowing and displacement of loose bed material (Gordon and McKenna Neuman, 2009). Further consideration is given to wind pumping as an alternate mechanism for dust entrainment from surfaces that are armored; that is, where insufficient sand supply is available to the support the development of a saltation cloud. LDA and pressure tap measurements confirm that turbulent structures measured in the atmospheric boundary layer are able to penetrate into the pores of gravel sized material, and specifically, the smelter waste

  10. An experimental research on blended learning in the development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental research conducted for this study is based on a blended learning (BL) approach to the teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in China. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a blended learning approach aimed at improving students' listening and speaking skills.

  11. Experimental plant communities develop phylogenetically overdispersed abundance distributions during assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Eric; Jenkins, Tania; Alexander J. F. Fergus; Roscher, Christiane; Fischer, Markus; Petermann, Jana; Wolfgang W Weisser; Schmid, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The importance of competition between similar species in driving community assembly is much debated. Recently, phylogenetic patterns in species composition have been investigated to help resolve this question: phylogenetic clustering is taken to imply environmental filtering, and phylogenetic overdispersion to indicate limiting similarity between species. We used experimental plant communities with random species compositions and initially even abundance distributions to examine the developme...

  12. Developing a SAR TT-OSL protocol for volcanically-heated aeolian quartz from Datong (China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank

    2012-01-01

    The thermally-transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) responses of chemically-purified fine-grained quartz from a lava-baked aeolian sediment from Datong (China) are presented. Our main focus is to examine the suitability of the test dose TT-OSL and OSL response to monitor sensitiv......The thermally-transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) responses of chemically-purified fine-grained quartz from a lava-baked aeolian sediment from Datong (China) are presented. Our main focus is to examine the suitability of the test dose TT-OSL and OSL response to monitor...... with the test dose TT-OSL signal. The revised SAR TT-OSL protocol was tested by dose recovery tests on two very young (quartz OSL De20% of the given dose) in this revised SAR TT-OSL protocol....

  13. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Beirn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli, although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen.

  14. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirn, Lisa A; Wang, Ruying; Clarke, Bruce B; Crouch, Jo Anne

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli), although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen.

  15. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W

    2016-05-01

    Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled "Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program" is attached as supplementary material. This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. Pain Intervention for people with Dementia in nursing homes (PID): study protocol for a quasi-experimental nurse intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppitz, Andrea; Bosshard, Georg; Blanc, Geneviève; Hediger, Hannele; Payne, Sheila; Volken, Thomas

    2017-04-21

    It is estimated that 19 to 83% of people with dementia suffer from pain that is inadequately treated in the last months of life. A large number of healthcare workers who care for these people in nursing homes lack appropriate expertise and may therefore not always recognise, assess and treat pain in those with dementia who have complex problems on time, properly and efficiently. The aim of this intervention trial is to identify care needs of people with dementia suffering from pain living in a nursing home. A quasi-experimental nurse-led intervention trial based on a convenience sample of four nursing homes in the Swiss Canton of Zurich examines the effects on dementia patients (n = 411), the healthcare institution and the qualification level of the healthcare workers compared to historical controls, using an event analysis and a multilevel analysis. Healthcare workers will be individually trained how to assess, intervene and evaluate acute and chronic pain. There are three data-monitoring cycles (T0, T1, T2) and two intervention cycles (I1, I2) with a total study duration of 425 days. There is also a process evaluation based on Dobbins analyses that analyse in particular the potentials for change in clinical practice of change agents. The aim of the intervention trial is to improve pain management strategies in older people with dementia in nursing homes. Clinically significant findings will be expected that will help reduce suffering in the sense of "total pain" for people with dementia. The joint intra- and interdisciplinary collaboration between practice and supply-oriented (nursing) research will have both a lasting effect on the efficiency measurement and provide scientifically sound results. Nursing homes can integrate the findings from the intervention trial into their internal quality control process. The potential for improvements can be directly influenced by the nursing home itself. Registration trial number: DRKS00009726 on DRKS, registered 10

  17. Studying frequency processing of the brain to enhance long-term memory and develop a human brain protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Wernher; Du, Shengzhi; Balt, Karlien

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobe in conjunction with the hippocampus is responsible for memory processing. The gamma wave is involved with this process. To develop a human brain protocol, a better understanding of the relationship between gamma and long-term memory is vital. A more comprehensive understanding of the human brain and specific analogue waves it uses will support the development of a human brain protocol. Fifty-eight participants aged between 6 and 60 years participated in long-term memory experiments. It is envisaged that the brain could be stimulated through binaural beats (sound frequency) at 40 Hz (gamma) to enhance long-term memory capacity. EEG recordings have been transformed to sound and then to an information standard, namely ASCII. Statistical analysis showed a proportional relationship between long-term memory and gamma activity. Results from EEG recordings indicate a pattern. The pattern was obtained through the de-codification of an EEG recording to sound and then to ASCII. Stimulation of gamma should enhance long term memory capacity. More research is required to unlock the human brains' protocol key. This key will enable the processing of information directly to and from human memory via gamma, the hippocampus and the temporal lobe.

  18. Hypnosis and Guided Imagery Treatment for Gastrointestinal Disorders: Experience With Scripted Protocols Developed at the University of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsson, Olafur S; van Tilburg, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Completely scripted treatment courses for verbatim interventions are uncommon in the field of clinical hypnosis. This approach was adopted for by a North Carolina research team for treating gastrointestinal disorders 20 years ago and has been used in hypnosis treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and ulcerative colitis, as well as in guided imagery treatment for functional abdominal pain. Treatment with these scripted protocols is delivered in a fixed series of sessions over a 2- or 3-month period. They have been found efficacious for improving bowel symptoms in several clinical trials, even in patients who have been entirely unresponsive to medical treatment. Response rates in clinical trials have ranged from 53% to 94%, and the therapeutic benefits have been shown to be well maintained at 6-, 10-, or 12-month follow-ups in different studies. This article describes the development and research on these protocols and summarizes the advantages and limitations of this fully scripted treatment approach.

  19. Validation of protocol of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis in rats and the pitfalls during the procedure Validação do modelo de enterocolite necrotizante experimental em ratos e as armadilhas durante sua execução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Lilian Lanhellas Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the difficulties of implementing the protocol of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in order to obtain a larger number of newborns affected with the disease and a lower mortality. METHODS: Term Sprague-Dawley newborns rats (22 days were divided into four groups of 12 fetuses each (n = 48: EC - breastfed newborns; IH - breastfed newborns and subjected to a stress protocol by ischemia and hypothermia; ESB - formula-fed newborns (Esbilac®, PetAg, Hampshire, IL, USA and NEC - formula-fed newborns and subjected to stress protocol. The parameters set for the study protocol were: milk concentration (0.19 g ml or 0.34 g/ml, diet instilled volume (according to body weight - 200 kcal/day/Kg - or progressive, according to acceptance, weight (gain, loss or maintenance and duration of the experiment (72 hours or 96 hours. Data of body weight (BW, intestinal weight (IW and the IW/BW ratio were obtained. Samples of terminal ileum were collected and analyzed by the degree of injury to the intestinal wall. Statistically significance was set to pOBJETIVO: Relatar as dificuldades da execução do protocolo de enterocolite necrosante (ECN experimental a fim de obter um maior número de neonatos comprometidos com a doença e menor mortalidade. MÉTODOS: Neonatos de ratas Sprague-Dawley nascidos a termo (22 dias foram divididos em 4 grupos de 12 fetos cada (n=48: EC - neonatos amamentados pela mãe; IH - neonatos amamentados pela mãe e submetidos a estresse por isquemia e hipotermia, ESB - neonatos alimentados por leite artificial (Esbilac®, PetAg, Hampshire, IL, USA e NEC - neonatos alimentados com fórmula e submetidos a protocolo de estresse. Os parâmetros estabelecidos para o protocolo de estudo foram: concentração do leite (0,19 g/ml ou 0,34 g/ml, volume de dieta instilada (de acordo com ganho de peso - 200 kcal/dia/kg - ou progressivo, de acordo com aceitação, peso (ganho, perda ou manutenção e duração do experimento

  20. An exploration of how guideline developer capacity and guideline implementability influence implementation and adoption: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux-Charles Louise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practice guidelines can improve health care delivery and outcomes but several issues challenge guideline adoption, including their intrinsic attributes, and whether and how they are implemented. It appears that guideline format may influence accessibility and ease of use, which may overcome attitudinal barriers of guideline adoption, and appear to be important to all stakeholders. Guideline content may facilitate various forms of decision making about guideline adoption relevant to different stakeholders. Knowledge and attitudes about, and incentives and capacity for implementation on the part of guideline sponsors may influence whether and how they develop guidelines containing these features, and undertake implementation. Examination of these issues may yield opportunities to improve guideline adoption. Methods The attributes hypothesized to facilitate adoption will be expanded by thematic analysis, and quantitative and qualitative summary of the content of international guidelines for two primary care (diabetes, hypertension and institutional care (chronic ulcer, chronic heart failure topics. Factors that influence whether and how guidelines are implemented will be explored by qualitative analysis of interviews with individuals affiliated with guideline sponsoring agencies. Discussion Previous research examined guideline implementation by measuring rates of compliance with recommendations or associated outcomes, but this produced little insight on how the products themselves, or their implementation, could be improved. This research will establish a theoretical basis upon which to conduct experimental studies to compare the cost-effectiveness of interventions that enhance guideline development and implementation capacity. Such studies could first examine short-term outcomes predictive of guideline utilization, such as recall, attitude toward, confidence in, and adoption intention. If successful, then long-term objective

  1. An exploration of how guideline developer capacity and guideline implementability influence implementation and adoption: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Brouwers, Melissa C; Palda, Valerie A; Lemieux-Charles, Louise; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2009-07-02

    Practice guidelines can improve health care delivery and outcomes but several issues challenge guideline adoption, including their intrinsic attributes, and whether and how they are implemented. It appears that guideline format may influence accessibility and ease of use, which may overcome attitudinal barriers of guideline adoption, and appear to be important to all stakeholders. Guideline content may facilitate various forms of decision making about guideline adoption relevant to different stakeholders. Knowledge and attitudes about, and incentives and capacity for implementation on the part of guideline sponsors may influence whether and how they develop guidelines containing these features, and undertake implementation. Examination of these issues may yield opportunities to improve guideline adoption. The attributes hypothesized to facilitate adoption will be expanded by thematic analysis, and quantitative and qualitative summary of the content of international guidelines for two primary care (diabetes, hypertension) and institutional care (chronic ulcer, chronic heart failure) topics. Factors that influence whether and how guidelines are implemented will be explored by qualitative analysis of interviews with individuals affiliated with guideline sponsoring agencies. Previous research examined guideline implementation by measuring rates of compliance with recommendations or associated outcomes, but this produced little insight on how the products themselves, or their implementation, could be improved. This research will establish a theoretical basis upon which to conduct experimental studies to compare the cost-effectiveness of interventions that enhance guideline development and implementation capacity. Such studies could first examine short-term outcomes predictive of guideline utilization, such as recall, attitude toward, confidence in, and adoption intention. If successful, then long-term objective outcomes reflecting the adoption of processes and

  2. Development of a Protocol to Test Proprioceptive Utilization as a Predictor for Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Caldwell, E. E.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oddsson, L. I. E.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight show significant inter-subject variations in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment because of their innate sensory weighting. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which each individual astronaut will be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. We hypothesize participant's ability to utilize individual sensory information (vision, proprioception and vestibular) influences adaptation in sensorimotor performance after space flight. The goal of this study is to develop a reliable protocol to test proprioceptive utilization in a functional postural control task. Subjects "stand" in a supine position while strapped to a backpack frame holding a friction-free device using air-bearings that allow the subject to move freely in the frontal plane, similar to when in upright standing. The frame is attached to a pneumatic cylinder, which can provide different levels of a gravity-like force that the subject must balance against to remain "upright". The supine posture with eyes closed ensures reduced vestibular and visual contribution to postural control suggesting somatosensory and/or non-otolith vestibular inputs will provide relevant information for maintaining balance control in this task. This setup is called the gravity bed. Fourteen healthy subjects carried out three trials each with eyes open alternated with eyes closed, "standing" on their dominant leg in the gravity bed environment while loaded with 60 percent of their body weight. Subjects were instructed to: "use your sense of sway about the ankle and pressure changes under the foot to maintain balance." Maximum length of a trial was 45 seconds. A force plate underneath the foot recorded forces and moments during the trial and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached on the backpack's frame near the center of mass of the subject recorded upper body postural

  3. Summary on experimental facilities and future developments at SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    With 13 experimental facilities under construction to become available during the first year of SINQ operation, a nearly complete suite of options for users will be made available to carry out research with neutrons at PSI. Three more facilities are under design and will come on line somewhat later. To complete the suite, three more specialized instruments are being evaluated. SINQ being a novel neutron source concept, significant scope for improvement is also seen on the source side. It is a major goal of PSI to exploit these opportunities and to make - among others - use of neutron instruments to carry out the necessary research. (author) 9 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs.

  4. Maximizing potential impact of experimental research into cognitive processes in health psychology: A systematic approach to material development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alicia M; Gordon, Rola; Chalder, Trudie; Hirsch, Colette R; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2016-11-01

    There is an abundance of research into cognitive processing biases in clinical psychology including the potential for applying cognitive bias modification techniques to assess the causal role of biases in maintaining anxiety and depression. Within the health psychology field, there is burgeoning interest in applying these experimental methods to assess potential cognitive biases in relation to physical health conditions and health-related behaviours. Experimental research in these areas could inform theoretical development by enabling measurement of implicit cognitive processes that may underlie unhelpful illness beliefs and help drive health-related behaviours. However, to date, there has been no systematic approach to adapting existing experimental paradigms for use within physical health research. Many studies fail to report how materials were developed for the population of interest or have used untested materials developed ad hoc. The lack of protocol for developing stimuli specificity has contributed to large heterogeneity in methodologies and findings. In this article, we emphasize the need for standardized methods for stimuli development and replication in experimental work, particularly as it extends beyond its original anxiety and depression scope to other physical conditions. We briefly describe the paradigms commonly used to assess cognitive biases in attention and interpretation and then describe the steps involved in comprehensive/robust stimuli development for attention and interpretation paradigms using illustrative examples from two conditions: chronic fatigue syndrome and breast cancer. This article highlights the value of preforming rigorous stimuli development and provides tools to aid researchers engage in this process. We believe this work is worthwhile to establish a body of high-quality and replicable experimental research within the health psychology literature. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cognitive

  5. Systematic development and validation of sanitization protocols for a chromatographic system designed for biotherapeutics purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, R F; Priest, M C; Roche, K L; Vella, G

    1993-01-01

    Production of protein therapeutics through the application of genetic engineering and biotechnology techniques requires comprehensive attention to good manufacturing practice and good laboratory practice (GMP/GLP) guidelines for product recovery and purification. Validated clean-in-place procedures are part of the master method and require analysis of microbial bioburden to assess the efficacy of cleaning protocols. This article describes the extensive microbial challenge of a chromatography system, the use of membrane filtration methods for high sensitivity microbial contamination measurement, and the effectiveness of sodium hydroxide and ethanol solutions in achieving multilog reduction of microbial contamination.

  6. Development of an acquisition protocol and a segmentation algortihm for wounds of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Kristians; Castañeda, Benjamín; Miranda, César; Lavarello, Roberto; Llanos, Alejandro

    2010-03-01

    We developed a protocol for the acquisition of digital images and an algorithm for a color-based automatic segmentation of cutaneous lesions of Leishmaniasis. The protocol for image acquisition provides control over the working environment to manipulate brightness, lighting and undesirable shadows on the injury using indirect lighting. Also, this protocol was used to accurately calculate the area of the lesion expressed in mm2 even in curved surfaces by combining the information from two consecutive images. Different color spaces were analyzed and compared using ROC curves in order to determine the color layer with the highest contrast between the background and the wound. The proposed algorithm is composed of three stages: (1) Location of the wound determined by threshold and mathematical morphology techniques to the H layer of the HSV color space, (2) Determination of the boundaries of the wound by analyzing the color characteristics in the YIQ space based on masks (for the wound and the background) estimated from the first stage, and (3) Refinement of the calculations obtained on the previous stages by using the discrete dynamic contours algorithm. The segmented regions obtained with the algorithm were compared with manual segmentations made by a medical specialist. Broadly speaking, our results support that color provides useful information during segmentation and measurement of wounds of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Results from ten images showed 99% specificity, 89% sensitivity, and 98% accuracy.

  7. Development and preliminary research on the measure properties of a perceptual and motor demands assessment protocol for virtual reality systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Fabregas Cairolli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The virtual reality has been frequently required in rehabilitation settings. However, it still lacks specificity, making it necessary to establish specific criteria to classify the most relevant aspects of electronic games to allow interventions based on virtual reality. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a “Perceptual and motor demands assessment protocol for virtual reality systems” and to investigate its content validity and intra and inter observer agreement. The protocol was created through a literature review including classical studies as well as a review of recent articles about motor behavior, physical training, cognitive neuroscience and virtual reality. The previous versions were presented in study group meetings and congresses, and modified accordingly to suggestions of experts. Three examiners used the final version to analyze twice the total of 20 videos of individuals in a virtual environment and answered a questionnaire about its content validity. Most of the obtained values were classified as “good” (concordance from 80% to 89% or “excellent” (concordance from 90% to 100% by the three examiners and the protocol’s content validity was adequate. The protocol is valid, applicable and practical for analyzing different requirements of electronic games in a virtual environment.

  8. Developing a mobility protocol for early mobilization of patients in a surgical/trauma ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodi, Meg; Topley, Darla; McAnaw, Maire

    2012-01-01

    As technology and medications have improved and increased, survival rates are also increasing in intensive care units (ICUs), so it is now important to focus on improving the patient outcomes and recovery. To do this, ICU patients need to be assessed and started on an early mobility program, if stable. While the early mobilization of the ICU patients is not without risk, the current literature has demonstrated that patients can be safely and feasibly mobilized, even while requiring mechanical ventilation. These patients are at a high risk for muscle deconditioning due to limited mobility from numerous monitoring equipment and multiple medical conditions. Frequently, a critically ill patient only receives movement from nurses; such as, being turned side to side, pulled up in bed, or transferred from bed to a stretcher for a test. The implementation of an early mobility protocol that can be used by critical care nurses is important for positive patient outcomes minimizing the functional decline due to an ICU stay. This paper describes a pilot study to evaluate an early mobilization protocol to test the safety and feasibility for mechanically ventilated patients in a surgical trauma ICU in conjunction with the current unit standards.

  9. Developing a Mobility Protocol for Early Mobilization of Patients in a Surgical/Trauma ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Zomorodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As technology and medications have improved and increased, survival rates are also increasing in intensive care units (ICUs, so it is now important to focus on improving the patient outcomes and recovery. To do this, ICU patients need to be assessed and started on an early mobility program, if stable. While the early mobilization of the ICU patients is not without risk, the current literature has demonstrated that patients can be safely and feasibly mobilized, even while requiring mechanical ventilation. These patients are at a high risk for muscle deconditioning due to limited mobility from numerous monitoring equipment and multiple medical conditions. Frequently, a critically ill patient only receives movement from nurses; such as, being turned side to side, pulled up in bed, or transferred from bed to a stretcher for a test. The implementation of an early mobility protocol that can be used by critical care nurses is important for positive patient outcomes minimizing the functional decline due to an ICU stay. This paper describes a pilot study to evaluate an early mobilization protocol to test the safety and feasibility for mechanically ventilated patients in a surgical trauma ICU in conjunction with the current unit standards.

  10. Development of a vitrification-based cryopreservation protocol for the storage of saltcedar (Tamarix boveana Bunge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Castillo, M; Casas, J L

    2012-01-01

    We cryopreserved in vitro shoot tips of saltcedar (Tamarix boveana Bunge) using the vitrification technique. The success of the cryopreservation protocol was strongly affected by preculture, loading duration, dehydration duration in plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2), and medium composition during post-warming regrowth. The highest explant regrowth (50 percent) occurred when the following conditions were employed: preculture in 0.4 M glycerol; treatment with a loading solution (LS) consisting of 2 M glycerol + 0.4 M sucrose in culture medium for 40 min at room temperature; and dehydration in PVS2 at 0 degree C for 45 min before rapid immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN). Rewarming was performed in a water-bath at 40 degree C for 2 min. Explants were then immersed in unloading solution for 10 min before plating on recovery medium supplemented with 0.01 mg per liter thidiazuron (TDZ). TDZ was progressively eliminated from the medium over a period of 6 weeks. Plantlets were transferred to a double-layer medium to enhance rooting. This protocol was successfully applied to three individuals of T. boveana harvested from the wild.

  11. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  12. Mobile technology intervention to improve care coordination between HIV and substance use treatment providers: development, training, and evaluation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claborn, Kasey; Becker, Sara; Ramsey, Susan; Rich, Josiah; Friedmann, Peter D

    2017-03-14

    People living with HIV (PLWH) with a substance use disorder (SUD) tend to receive inadequate medical care in part because of a siloed healthcare system in which HIV and substance use services are delivered separately. Ideal treatment requires an interdisciplinary, team-based coordinated care approach, but many structural and systemic barriers impede the integration of HIV and SUD services. The current protocol describes the development and preliminary evaluation of a care coordination intervention (CCI), consisting of a tablet-based mobile platform for HIV and SUD treatment providers, an interagency communication protocol, and a training protocol. We hypothesize that HIV and SUD treatment providers will find the CCI to be acceptable, and that after receipt of the CCI, providers will: exhibit higher retention in dual care among patients, report increased frequency and quality of communication, and report increased rates of relational coordination. A three phase approach is used to refine and evaluate the CCI. Phase 1 consists of in-depth qualitative interviews with 8 key stakeholders as well as clinical audits of participating HIV and SUD treatment agencies. Phase 2 contains functionality testing of the mobile platform with frontline HIV and SUD treatment providers, followed by refinement of the CCI. Phase 3 consists of a pre-, post-test trial with 30 SUD and 30 HIV treatment providers. Data will be collected at the provider, organization, and patient levels. Providers will complete assessments at baseline, immediately post-training, and at 1-, 3-, and 6-months post-training. Organizational data will be collected at baseline, 1-, 3-, and 6-months post training, while patient data will be collected at baseline and 6-months post training. This study will develop and evaluate a CCI consisting of a tablet-based mobile platform for treatment providers, an interagency communication protocol, and a training protocol as a means of improving the integration of care for PLWH

  13. Experimental terrestrial soil-core microcosm test protocol. A method for measuring the potential ecological effects, fate, and transport of chemicals in terrestrial ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Voris, P.; Tolle, D.A.; Arthur, M.F.

    1985-06-01

    In order to protect the environment properly and have a realistic appraisal of how a chemical will act in the environment, tests of ecological effects and chemical fate must be performed on complex assemblages of biotic and abiotic components (i.e., microcosms) as well as single species. This protocol is one which could be added to a series of tests recently developed as guidelines for Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (P.L. 94-469; U.S.C., Section 2601-2629). The terrestrial soil-core microcosm is designed to supply site-specific and possibly regional information on the probable chemical fate and ecological effects resulting from release of a chemical substance to a terrestrial ecosystem. The EPA will use the data resulting from this test system to compare the potential hazards of a chemical with others that have been previously evaluated.

  14. [Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development. Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguilera, Inma; Iñíguez, Carmen; García Dos Santos, Saúl; Aguirre Alfaro, Amelia; Lacasaña, Marina; Estarlich, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Marieta; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sala, María; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Martínez, María Dolores; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2007-01-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological marker of hydrocarbon exposure (1-hydroxypyrene); and data gathered by questionnaires and geographic information systems. These data allow individual air pollutant exposure indexes to be developed, which can then be used to analyze the possible effects of exposure on fetal development and child health. This protocol and the type of study allow an approximation to individual air pollutant exposure to be obtained. Finally, the large number of participants (N = 4,000), as well as their geographic and social diversity, increases the study's potential.

  15. A protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services based on the experiences of the CLIM-RUN case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodess, Clare; Ruti, Paolo; Rousset, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    During the closing stages of the CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project on Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean region Responding to User Needs, the real-world experiences encountered by the case-study teams are being assessed and synthesised to identify examples of good practice and, in particular, to produce the CLIM-RUN protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services. The specific case studies have focused on renewable energy (Morocco, Spain, Croatia, Cyprus), tourism (Savoie, Tunisia, Croatia, Cyprus) and wild fires (Greece) as well as one cross-cutting case study (Veneto region). They have been implemented following a common programme of local workshops, questionnaires and interviews, with Climate Expert Team and Stakeholder Expert Team members collaborating to identify and translate user needs and subsequently develop climate products and information. Feedback from stakeholders has been essential in assessing and refining these products. The protocol covers the following issues: the overall process and methodological key stages; identification and selection of stakeholders; communication with stakeholders; identification of user needs; translation of needs; producing products; assessing and refining products; methodologies for evaluating the economic value of climate services; and beyond CLIM-RUN - the lessons learnt. Particular emphasis is given to stakeholder analysis in the context of the participatory, bottom-up approach promoted by CLIM-RUN and to the iterative approach taken in the development of climate products. Recommendations are also made for an envisioned three-tier business model for the development of climate services involving climate, intermediary and stakeholder tiers.

  16. Developing Experimental Models for NASA Missions with ASSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Vassev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available NASA's new age of space exploration augurs great promise for deep space exploration missions whereby spacecraft should be independent, autonomous, and smart. Nowadays NASA increasingly relies on the concepts of autonomic computing, exploiting these to increase the survivability of remote missions, particularly when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic computing has been recognized as a promising approach for the development of self-managing spacecraft systems that employ onboard intelligence and rely less on control links. The Autonomic System Specification Language (ASSL is a framework for formally specifying and generating autonomic systems. As part of long-term research targeted at the development of models for space exploration missions that rely on principles of autonomic computing, we have employed ASSL to develop formal models and generate functional prototypes for NASA missions. This helps to validate features and perform experiments through simulation. Here, we discuss our work on developing such missions with ASSL.

  17. Engineering Tests of Experimental Ammonia Process Printer-Developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-07-06

    have characteristics suitable for printing on Ozalid Dryphoto, sepia paper. The actual exposure and development of the anaonia process prints were...Evaluation of Tests and Investigations 26 14. Compliance with Military Characteristics 28 15. Sumwry of Modifications Accomplished and/or 28...engineering tests conducted on an e:xperiuental 42-inch ammonia process printer-developer genorallyr con- forming to military characteristics established by

  18. Understanding controls on biotic assemblages and ecological status in Zambian rivers for the development of sustainable monitoring protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael; Gibbins, Chris; Lowe, Steven; Dallas, Helen; Taylor, Jonathan; Lang, Pauline; Saili, Kothelani; Sichingabula, Henry; Murphy, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The water resources of Zambia are likely to experience increasing multiple pressures in the future as a result of very high predicted population growth, industrial development, land use change, and potentially, altered regional rainfall patterns. It is well known that rivers in tropical regions typically have a rich biodiversity, controlled in part by inter-annual variability in climate and discharge, and in part by local catchment conditions. However, till recently little country-wide work had had been carried out on the biota of Zambian rivers, and little was therefore known about the ecological status, or degree of catchment alteration of many of the rivers. To underpin sustainable water management, protocols have been developed to assess the ecological status of Zambian rivers. This paper describes the development of the protocols and their application to provide the first extensive assessment of the ecological status of rivers in the country. The protocols were designed to be simple, and hence rapid, easy and relatively inexpensive to apply. Status scores were derived for individual sites using sensitivity weightings from 3 major groups (macrophytes, diatoms and macroinvertebrates). The general approach was based on schemes used successfully elsewhere, with species and family sensitivity weightings modified so as be appropriate to Zambia. Modifications were based on a survey of 140 Zambian rivers, incorporating data on species distributions, physical habitat conditions and water quality. Analysis of historical data suggests that established Freshwater Ecoregions reflect hydro-climatic variability across Zambia. Survey data indicate that most of the spatial variation in biological assemblages across the country reflects these same hydro-climatic gradients, in addition to hydrochemical differences linked to geology. Site status scores suggest that rivers are generally in good health, although exceptions occur in some large urban areas and a small number of

  19. Development of the protocol of the interface of data exchange with the GBTX chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkin, O. V.; Normanov, D. D.; Ivanov, P. Ya

    2017-01-01

    The structure of the interface of data exchange with the GBTX chip for the CBM experiment is considered. The interface generates a data package, consisting of the digital codes of signal amplitude, signal superposition in peak detector, signal arrival time and channel number, wherein the event has occurred, all these codes being generated by the readout blocks of IC. The created data package is coded according to the 8b/10b format for transferring to the GBTX chip. The packages register of controlling data (warnings on error and desynchronization) are generated for a correct exchange (correspondence) under the GBTX protocol. The adjustment of the quantity of channels, generating data packages and being connected to the GBTX chip, is possible. The interface has been designed according to the 180 nm CMOS technology of UMC.

  20. Developing a Taxonomy of Dark Triad Triggers at Work - A Grounded Theory Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nübold, Annika; Bader, Josef; Bozin, Nera; Depala, Romil; Eidast, Helena; Johannessen, Elisabeth A; Prinz, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In past years, research and corporate scandals have evidenced the destructive effects of the dark triad at work, consisting of narcissism (extreme self-centeredness), psychopathy (lack of empathy and remorse) and Machiavellianism (a sense of duplicity and manipulativeness). The dark triad dimensions have typically been conceptualized as stable personality traits, ignoring the accumulating evidence that momentary personality expressions - personality states - may change due to the characteristics of the situation. The present research protocol describes a qualitative study that aims to identify triggers of dark triad states at work by following a grounded theory approach using semi-structured interviews. By building a comprehensive categorization of dark triad triggers at work scholars may study these triggers in a parsimonious and structured way and organizations may derive more effective interventions to buffer or prevent the detrimental effects of dark personality at work.

  1. Developing a Taxonomy of Dark Triad Triggers at Work – A Grounded Theory Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nübold, Annika; Bader, Josef; Bozin, Nera; Depala, Romil; Eidast, Helena; Johannessen, Elisabeth A.; Prinz, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In past years, research and corporate scandals have evidenced the destructive effects of the dark triad at work, consisting of narcissism (extreme self-centeredness), psychopathy (lack of empathy and remorse) and Machiavellianism (a sense of duplicity and manipulativeness). The dark triad dimensions have typically been conceptualized as stable personality traits, ignoring the accumulating evidence that momentary personality expressions – personality states – may change due to the characteristics of the situation. The present research protocol describes a qualitative study that aims to identify triggers of dark triad states at work by following a grounded theory approach using semi-structured interviews. By building a comprehensive categorization of dark triad triggers at work scholars may study these triggers in a parsimonious and structured way and organizations may derive more effective interventions to buffer or prevent the detrimental effects of dark personality at work. PMID:28326048

  2. Experimental Study and Development of a Water Basin Used as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy sources play an important role in the development of humanity, with the industrial and technological evolution of our century. Energy demand is increasing every year, for this reason we must seek an alternate source of energy more specifically new and renewable energy including solar energy. Note that solar ...

  3. Development of a new experimental setup for studying collisions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coincidence setup for energetic e -solid/gas interaction. 2. Design, fabrication and development of ... photodiode detector to look through a 5 mm hole situated on the end cap of the detector. In the present configuration, one of the five .... The distance between front and back plates is 21 mm. These relatively wide slit widths.

  4. Development of a new experimental setup for studying collisions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Development of a new electron-recoil ion/photon coincidence setup for investigating some of the electron induced collision processes, such as electron bremsstrahlung, electron backscattering, innershell excitation and multiple ionization of target atoms/molecules in bombardment of electrons having energies from 2.0 keV ...

  5. Development of the Pushered Single Shell Experimental Platform on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonson, Jay; Dewald, Eduard; Graziani, Frank; MacLaren, Stephan; Pino, Jesse; Ralph, Joseph; Sacks, Ryan; Smalyuk, Vladimir; Tipton, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The goal of the Pushered Single Shell (PSS) experimental campaign is to study mix of partially ionized ablator material into the hotspot. To do this we use a uniformly Si doped plastic capsule, the inner few microns of which can be doped with a few percent Ge. To diagnose mix, we use separated reactants; deuterating the inner Ge-doped layer, CD/Ge, while putting Tritium into the Hydrogen capsule fill gas. Mix is then inferred by measuring the neutron yields from DD, DT, and TT reactions. In order to accentuate the cooling of the hot-spot due to Bremsstrahlung radiation when Ge is present, we required high hot-spot ion temperatures: 3 keV. This, in turn, requires a fast, symmetric implosion. Using the Two-Shock campaign as a starting point, we increased the capsule radius by 25% to 844 μm and the peak laser power by over 10% to 475 TW. We also used a low, 0.3 mg/cc, He fill in the hohlraum to maintain control over implosion symmetry. This paper will describe the sequence of keyhole, 1DConA, 2DConA, and Symcap experiments we performed over the last year to tune the PSS implosions. We were successful in achieving our design goals; the PSS is the fastest CH capsule implosion in the laboratory, with peak velocity 400 μm, a round hot-spot, with hotspot P2 = 0 within errors, and a hot-spot ion temperature 3.5 keV. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Experimental process development and aerospace alloy formability studies for hydroforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarad Farimani, Saeed

    In tube hydroforming process, a pressurized liquid is used to expand a thin walled tube inside a closed die in order to fill the die cavity. Tube hydroforming has many advantages that make it interesting for different industries such as automotive and aerospace, but due to the effects of different factors, such as formability of the material, load path (end feeding force and internal pressure during the process), tool geometry and friction, it is a quite complex manufacturing process. Therefore, finite element simulation along with optimization methods can significantly reduce the cost of trial and error approach used in conventional manufacturing methods. In this work, to investigate the effects of different process parameters such as friction condition, tube thickness and end feeding on the final product, tube hydroforming experiments were performed using a round to square-shape die. Experiments were performed on stainless steel 321 tubes with 50.8 mm (2 in) diameter and two different thicknesses; 0.9 mm and 1.2 mm. Experimental load paths were obtained via the data acquisition system of the hydroforming press, which is fully instrumented. An automated deformation measurement system, Argus, was used to measure the strains on the hydroformed tubes. Data collected from the initial experiments were used to simulate and then optimize the process. The process was simulated and optimized using Ls-Dyna and Ls-Opt software, respectively. Strains and thickness variations measured from experiments were compared to FE simulation results at critical sections. The comparison of the results from FE simulations and experiments were in good agreement, indicating that the approach can be used for predicting the final shape and thickness variations of the hydroformed parts for aerospace applications.

  7. Developing Experimental Models for NASA Missions with ASSL

    OpenAIRE

    Emil Vassev; Mike Hinchey

    2010-01-01

    NASA's new age of space exploration augurs great promise for deep space exploration missions whereby spacecraft should be independent, autonomous, and smart. Nowadays NASA increasingly relies on the concepts of autonomic computing, exploiting these to increase the survivability of remote missions, particularly when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic computing has been recognized as a promising approach for the development of self-managing spacecraft systems that employ onboard intellige...

  8. Experimental Perinatology : Development of Extrauterine Fetal Incubation System

    OpenAIRE

    桑原, 慶紀; Yoshinori, KUWABARA; 東京大学; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo

    1992-01-01

    It goes without saying that the ideal situation for the immature fetus is growth within the normal environment of the maternal organism. Thus, in order to perform incubation that more closely resembles that of the fetus in utero, both in the extracorporeal and intracorporeal environment, an extrauterine fetal incubator, consisting of an artificial womb containing artificial amniotic fluid and a complete artificial placental system with a membrane oxygenator, was developed. Although similar ex...

  9. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  10. Huntington Disease: Linking Pathogenesis to the Development of Experimental Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Tiago A; Sampaio, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative condition caused by a CAG trinucleotide expansion in the huntingtin gene. At present, the HD field is experiencing exciting times with the assessment for the first time in human subjects of interventions aimed at core disease mechanisms. Out of a portfolio of interventions that claim a potential disease-modifying effect in HD, the target huntingtin has more robust validation. In this review, we discuss the spectrum of huntingtin-lowering therapies that are currently being considered. We provide a critical appraisal of the validation of huntingtin as a drug target, describing the advantages, challenges, and limitations of the proposed therapeutic interventions. The development of these new therapies relies strongly on the knowledge of HD pathogenesis and the ability to translate this knowledge into validated pharmacodynamic biomarkers. Altogether, the goal is to support a rational drug development that is ethical and cost-effective. Among the pharmacodynamic biomarkers under development, the quantification of mutant huntingtin in the cerebral spinal fluid and PET imaging targeting huntingtin or phosphodiesterase 10A deserve special attention. Huntingtin-lowering therapeutics are eagerly awaited as the first interventions that may be able to change the course of HD in a meaningful way.

  11. In situ protein expression in tumour spheres: development of an immunostaining protocol for confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saubaméa Bruno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multicellular tumour sphere models have been shown to closely mimic phenotype characteristics of in vivo solid tumours, or to allow in vitro propagation of cancer stem cells (CSCs. CSCs are usually characterized by the expression of specific membrane markers using flow cytometry (FC after enzymatic dissociation. Consequently, the spatial location of positive cells within spheres is not documented. Confocal microscopy is the best technique for the imaging of thick biological specimens after multi-labelling but suffers from poor antibody penetration. Thus, we describe here a new protocol for in situ confocal imaging of protein expression in intact spheroids. Methods Protein expression in whole spheroids (150 μm in diameter from two human colon cancer cell lines, HT29 and CT320X6, has been investigated with confocal immunostaining, then compared with profiles obtained through paraffin immunohistochemistry (pIHC and FC. Target antigens, relevant for colon cancer and with different expression patterns, have been studied. Results We first demonstrate that our procedure overcomes the well-known problem of antibody penetration in compact structures by performing immunostaining of EpCAM, a membrane protein expressed by all cells within our spheroids. EpCAM expression is detected in all cells, even the deepest ones. Likewise, antibody access is confirmed with CK20 and CD44 immunostaining. Confocal imaging shows that 100% of cells express β-catenin, mainly present in the plasma membrane with also cytoplasmic and nuclear staining, in agreement with FC and pIHC data. pIHC and confocal imaging show similar CA 19-9 cytoplasmic and membranar expression profile in a cell subpopulation. CA 19-9+ cell count confirms confocal imaging as a highly sensitive method (75%, 62% and 51%, for FC, confocal imaging and pIHC, respectively. Finally, confocal imaging reveals that the weak expression of CD133, a putative colon CSC marker, is restricted to

  12. Development of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress during Experimental Oxalate Nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motin, Yu G; Lepilov, A V; Bgatova, N P; Zharikov, A Yu; Motina, N V; Lapii, G A; Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural study of the kidney was performed in rats with oxalate nephrolithiasis. Specific features of endoplasmic reticulum stress were evaluated during nephrolithiasis and treatment with α-tocopherol. We observed the signs of endoplasmic reticulum stress with activation of proapoptotic pathways and injury to the cell lining in nephron tubules and collecting ducts. Ultrastructural changes were found in the organelles, nuclei, and cell membranes of epitheliocytes. A relationship was revealed between endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative damage, which developed at the early state of lithogenesis.

  13. Protocol for project IMPACT (improving millions hearts for provider and community transformation): a quasi-experimental evaluation of an integrated electronic health record and community health worker intervention study to improve hypertension management among South Asian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Priscilla M; Zanowiak, Jennifer; Goldfeld, Keith; Wyka, Katarzyna; Masoud, Ahmad; Beane, Susan; Kumar, Rashi; Laughlin, Phoebe; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Thorpe, Lorna; Islam, Nadia

    2017-12-06

    The Million Hearts® initiative aims to prevent heart disease and stroke in the United States by mobilizing public and private sectors around a core set of objectives, with particular attention on improving blood pressure control. South Asians in particular have disproportionately high rates of hypertension and face numerous cultural, linguistic, and social barriers to accessing healthcare. Interventions utilizing Health information technology (HIT) and community health worker (CHW)-led patient coaching have each been demonstrated to be effective at advancing Million Hearts® goals, yet few studies have investigated the potential impact of integrating these strategies into a clinical-community linkage initiative. Building upon this initiative, we present the protocol and preliminary results of a research study, Project IMPACT, designed to fill this gap in knowledge. Project IMPACT is a stepped wedge quasi-experimental study designed to test the feasibility, adoption, and impact of integrating CHW-led health coaching with electronic health record (EHR)-based interventions to improve hypertension control among South Asian patients in New York City primary care practices. EHR intervention components include the training and implementation of hypertension-specific registry reports, alerts, and order sets. Fidelity to the EHR intervention is assessed by collecting the type, frequency, and utilization of intervention components for each practice. CHW intervention components consist of health coaching sessions on hypertension and related risk factors for uncontrolled hypertensive patients. The outcome, hypertension control (Project IMPACT builds upon the evidence base of the effectiveness of CHW and Million Hearts® initiatives and proposes a unique integration of provider-based EHR and community-based CHW interventions. The project informs the effectiveness of these interventions in team-based care approaches, thereby, helping to develop relevant sustainability

  14. Experimental study on developing rat kidney after Naja haje envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Hessy, H; Abdel Rahman, S; Iskander, F; Nassar, A; el Maghraby, M

    1987-01-01

    In the present experiment 164 pregnant white Wistar rats were used to study the effect of Naja haje (Egyptian cobra) venom on the developing kidney. The rats were divided into 3 groups; a control group, a group receiving one LD50 of N. haje venom and the third injected with 1/8 of LD50. The injection was performed at different stages of gestation. After birth, the neonates of group I and III and embryos of group II were examined histologically, histochemically and electron-microscopically. Both lethal and sublethal doses of N. haje venom produced haemorrhages and vascular congestion of the developing kidney. The lethal dose had degenerative effects on the podocytes and endothelium. Tubular damage appeared mainly as mitochondrial degeneration and bud-like extension, protrusions of cytoplasm and vacuolization. The succinic dehydrogenase enzyme showed decreased activity. The sublethal dose had an effect on the glomerular basement membrane in the form of splitting, increased mesangial cells and matrix, mitochondrial degeneration and fusion of podocyte processes. Tubulization of the parietal epithelium, vacuolization of the proximal tubules, mitochondrial degeneration and apical budding were evident.

  15. Development of a Noncontact Kickboxing Circuit Training Protocol That Simulates Elite Male Kickboxing Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Houcine, Nizar; Marzouki, Hamza; Davis, Philip; Zaouali, Monia; Franchini, Emerson; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the specific kickboxing circuit training protocol (SKCTP) could reproduce kickboxing combat's hormonal, physiological, and physical responses. Twenty athletes of regional and national level volunteered to participate in the study (mean ± SD, age: 21.3 ± 2.7 years; height: 170 ± 0.5 cm; body mass: 73.9 ± 13.9 kg). After familiarization, SKCTP was conducted 1 week before a kickboxing competition. Cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone (GH), blood lactate [La], and glucose concentrations, as well as the Wingate upper-body test and countermovement jump (CMJ) performances were measured before and after SKCTP and combat. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured throughout rounds (R) R1, R2, and R3. Testosterone, GH, glucose, [La], HR, RPE, and CMJ did not differ among the 2 conditions (p > 0.05). However, Cortisol was higher for competition (p = 0.038), whereas both peak (p = 0.003) and mean power (p < 0.001) were higher in SKCTP. The study suggests that SKCTP replicates the hormonal, physiological, and physical aspects of competition. It is therefore suggested as a good form of specific kickboxing training, as well as a specific assessment tool to be used by kickboxing coaches to quantify kickboxers' fitness levels, when physiological parameters responses to the test are measured.

  16. Pig welfare assessment: development of a protocol and its use by veterinary undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Angela J; Powney, Sonya L; Nevel, Amanda; Wathes, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to teaching welfare assessment is described and has been used with two cohorts of first-year veterinary undergraduates (totaling 515 students). The welfare assessment protocol was devised and trialed using pigs as an exemplar, but its principles are applicable to other species. A robust learning scheme was created, comprising didactic teaching, interactive seminars, practical hands-on training, and computer-based learning. Practical training included a formative virtual assessment of clinical signs of health and welfare using Questionmark Perception, which improved the students' performance significantly. Validation studies are being carried out to establish if acceptable levels of inter-observer variability can be achieved by students conducting on-farm assessments of pig welfare during their extramural studies program. The resulting assessments of welfare will be analyzed in a cross-sectional epidemiological study to identify risk factors for good and poor welfare, and the results will be fed back to participating farmers. This new approach enables veterinary students to learn key transferable skills in the early stages of their education and provides a strong grounding in a holistic approach to animal welfare.

  17. Development and validation of an arthropod maceration protocol for zoonotic pathogen detection in mosquitoes and fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Genelle F; Scheirer, Jessica L; Melanson, Vanessa R

    2015-06-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases remain a pressing international public health concern. While progress has been made in the rapid detection of arthropod-borne pathogens via quantitative real-time (qPCR), or even hand-held detection devices, a simple and robust maceration and nucleic acid extraction method is necessary to implement biosurveillance capabilities. In this study, a comparison of maceration techniques using five types of beads followed by nucleic acid extraction and detection were tested using two morphologically disparate arthropods, the Aedes aegypti mosquito and Xenopsylla spp. flea, to detect the zoonotic diseases dengue virus serotype-1 and Yersinia pestis. Post-maceration nucleic acid extraction was carried out using the 1-2-3 Platinum-Path-Sample-Purification (PPSP) kit followed by qPCR detection using the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System (JBAIDS). We found that the 5mm stainless steel beads added to the beads provided in the PPSP kit were successful in macerating the exoskeleton for both Ae. aegypti and Xenopsylla spp. Replicates in the maceration/extraction/detection protocol were increased in a stepwise fashion until a final 128 replicates were obtained. For dengue virus detection there was a 99% positivity rate and for Y. pestis detection there was a 95% positive detection rate. In the examination of both pathogens, there were no significant differences between qPCR instruments, days ran, time of day ran, or operators. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. In vitro propagation of sacaca (Croton cajucara: insights about difficulties for developing micropropagation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Loureiro da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sacaca is a medicinal plant from the Amazonian biome and it has been regarded as a substitute for rosewood (Aniba roseaodora to produce linalool. This paper aimed to evaluate in vitro vegetative propagation of sacaca, including the establishment of propagules from the field, decontamination protocols, and determination of multiplication rates, besides describing limiting aspects for the culture during in vitro experiments. We used 1.0 cm microcuttings with an axillary bud, collected from adult plants in the field. Disinfestation treatments were tested in the establishment, and there is an evaluation of the collecting month influence on the contamination rates. After disinfestation, microcuttings were placed in test tubes containing MS medium, added with BAP (0, 1, 2 and 3 mg L-1 and GA3 (0 and 0.5 mg L-1. In vitro establishment of sacaca with 41.9% of sprouted microcuttings was obtained. The contamination rate reached 58.1% (65.4% caused by fungi and 34.6% by bacteria, with greater occurrence when propagules were collected between October and January, the rainiest months in the Amazon region. The increased BAP and GA3 concentrations in the culture medium provided significant improvements in the material multiplication rates. In spite of the results obtained, the species shows peculiarities and limitations to in vitro cultivation that were identified and described in this paper.

  19. Towards quantitative metabolomics of mammalian cells: development of a metabolite extraction protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietmair, Stefanie; Timmins, Nicholas E; Gray, Peter P; Nielsen, Lars K; Krömer, Jens O

    2010-09-15

    Metabolomics aims to quantify all metabolites within an organism, thereby providing valuable insight into the metabolism of cells. To study intracellular metabolites, they are first extracted from the cells. The ideal extraction procedure should immediately quench metabolism and quantitatively extract all metabolites, a significant challenge given the rapid turnover and physicochemical diversity of intracellular metabolites. We have evaluated several quenching and extraction solutions for their suitability for mammalian cells grown in suspension. Quenching with 60% methanol (buffered or unbuffered) resulted in leakage of intracellular metabolites from the cells. In contrast, quenching with cold isotonic saline (0.9% [w/v] NaCl, 0.5 degrees C) did not damage cells and effectively halted conversion of ATP to ADP and AMP, indicative of metabolic arrest. Of the 12 different extraction methods tested, cold extraction in 50% aqueous acetonitrile was superior to other methods. The recovery of a mixture of standards was excellent, and the concentration of extracted intracellular metabolites was higher than for the other methods tested. The final protocol is easy to implement and can be used to study the intracellular metabolomes of mammalian cells. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Conventional housing conditions attenuate the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Arndt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS has remained unclear, but a causative contribution of factors outside the central nervous system (CNS is conceivable. It was recently suggested that gut bacteria trigger the activation of CNS-reactive T cells and the development of demyelinative disease. METHODS: C57BL/6 (B6 mice were kept either under specific pathogen free or conventional housing conditions, immunized with the myelin basic protein (MBP-proteolipid protein (PLP fusion protein MP4 and the development of EAE was clinically monitored. The germinal center size of the Peyer's patches was determined by immunohistochemistry in addition to the level of total IgG secretion which was assessed by ELISPOT. ELISPOT assays were also used to measure MP4-specific T cell and B cell responses in the Peyer's patches and the spleen. Ear swelling assays were performed to determine the extent of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions in specific pathogen free and conventionally housed mice. RESULTS: In B6 mice that were actively immunized with MP4 and kept under conventional housing conditions clinical disease was significantly attenuated compared to specific pathogen free mice. Conventionally housed mice displayed increased levels of IgG secretion in the Peyer's patches, while the germinal center formation in the gut and the MP4-specific TH17 response in the spleen were diminished after immunization. Accordingly, these mice displayed an attenuated delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction in ear swelling assays. CONCLUSIONS: The data corroborate the notion that housing conditions play a substantial role in the induction of murine EAE and suggest that the presence of gut bacteria might be associated with a decreased immune response to antigens of lower affinity. This concept could be of importance for MS and calls for caution when considering the therapeutic approach to treat patients with antibiotics.

  1. Effects of child development accounts on early social-emotional development: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Sherraden, Michael; Kim, Youngmi; Clancy, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    This study, based on Oklahoma's statewide Child Development Accounts (CDAs) program, presents findings from the first experimental test of the hypothesis that creating lifelong savings accounts for children at birth promotes their long-term well-being. To examine the effects of CDAs, an innovative social policy to encourage lifelong saving and asset building for long-term development, on parent-reported social-emotional development in early childhood. A statewide randomized experiment of CDAs was conducted in 2008, drawing a probability sample of 7328 children from all infants born in two 3-month periods in Oklahoma (April 1 through June 30 and August 1 through October 31, 2007). After agreeing to participate in the experiment, caregivers of 2704 infants completed a baseline survey and were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 1358) and control groups (n = 1346). Approximately 84% of participants completed a follow-up survey in the spring of 2011. The intervention offered CDAs, built on the existing Oklahoma 529 college-savings plan, to treatment participants. It also provided additional financial incentives and information. The primary outcome-child social-emotional development-is measured by scores from a 17-item version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional. Caregivers completed it in the 3-year follow-up survey. Lower scores indicate better functioning. The CDAs have positive effects on social-emotional development for children at approximately age 4 years. The nonweighted treatment-control difference is -1.56 (90% CI, -2.87 to -0.22; P = .06), but the weighted difference is nonsignificant. The effects appear to be greater for disadvantaged subsamples, such as low-income households (weighted mean difference, -2.21; 90% CI, -4.01 to -0.42; P = .04). As a complement to other early education and health interventions, CDAs may improve social-emotional development in early childhood. Their effects may be explained as a mediating

  2. Improving implementation of evidence-based practice in mental health service delivery: protocol for a cluster randomised quasi-experimental investigation of staff-focused values interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Virginia; Oades, Lindsay G; Deane, Frank P; Crowe, Trevor P; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Andresen, Retta

    2013-07-02

    There is growing acceptance that optimal service provision for individuals with severe and recurrent mental illness requires a complementary focus on medical recovery (i.e., symptom management and general functioning) and personal recovery (i.e., having a 'life worth living'). Despite significant research attention and policy-level support, the translation of this vision of healthcare into changed workplace practice continues to elude. Over the past decade, evidence-based training interventions that seek to enhance the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of staff working in the mental health field have been implemented as a primary redress strategy. However, a large body of multi-disciplinary research indicates disappointing rates of training transfer. There is an absence of empirical research that investigates the importance of worker-motivation in the uptake of desired workplace change initiatives. 'Autonomy' is acknowledged as important to human effectiveness and as a correlate of workplace variables like productivity, and wellbeing. To our knowledge, there have been no studies that investigate purposeful and structured use of values-based interventions to facilitate increased autonomy as a means of promoting enhanced implementation of workplace change. This study involves 200 mental health workers across 22 worksites within five community-managed organisations in three Australian states. It involves cluster-randomisation of participants within organisation, by work site, to the experimental (values) condition, or the control (implementation). Both conditions receive two days of training focusing on an evidence-based framework of mental health service delivery. The experimental group receives a third day of values-focused intervention and 12 months of values-focused coaching. Well-validated self-report measures are used to explore variables related to values concordance, autonomy, and self-reported implementation success. Audits of work files and staff work samples

  3. Treatment of cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women from developing countries: a protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapanga, Witness; Chipato, Tsungai; Feresu, Shingairai A

    2018-01-25

    Cervical cancer has become the most common cancer affecting women in Africa. Significantly, 85% of these annual deaths occur in the developing world, with the majority being middle-aged women. Research has shown that in sub-Saharan Africa, cervical cancer trends are on the rise in the past two decades because of HIV and this has resulted in an increase in cervical cancer cases among young women. However, little or no information exists that has shown that any of the available treatment methods are more effective than others when it comes to treating cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women. The aim of this protocol is to offer a plan on how to systematically review cervical cancer treatment methods available for HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement was used to develop the protocol for the systematic review which will be reported in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. A number of databases, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library, will be searched for relevant studies, and citation and reference list tracking will be used to search for additional studies. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control, randomised controlled trials and cross-sectional studies that were carried out in and for the developing world will be eligible for inclusion. Peer-reviewed studies and grey literature examining cervical cancer treatment modalities in HIV-seropositive women will be included. Descriptive statistics and tables will be used to summarise results, and meta-analysis will be used where appropriate. The review findings will provide the current picture of the existing treatment methods being used to treat cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. The findings might be used for the establishment of evidence-based guidelines for treatment of cervical cancer in seropositive women as well as prompt policy-makers and

  4. Experimental Results and Technical Results and Development at CTFII

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans Heinrich

    2000-01-01

    The second phase of the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF II) has demonstrated the feasibility of two key ingredients of the Compact Linear Collider scheme (CLIC) [1], namely the acceleration with a 30 GHz normal conducting linac and the 30 GHz RF power production by a tightly-bunched, high-charge drive beam running parallel to the main beam. This beam is produced and accelerated with a 3 GHz linac using an RF-photo-injector and two travelling-wave sections, all specially developed for handling very high charges. A magnetic chicane compresses the micro-bunches to their nominal length. A mm-wave spectrometer, coupled to the beam pipe, allows non-destructive measurements of bunch length. So far a total acceleration of 60 MeV has been obtained using a string of five accelerating structures with a total active length of 1.4 m. The corresponding drive-beam deceleration is 6 MeV. The flexibility and extensive beam instrumentation allows a variety of other experiments, such as measurements of emittance grow...

  5. Development of Experimental Facilities for Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, G. S.; Jung, W. M.; Ku, J. H. [and others

    2004-07-01

    The advanced spent fuel management process(ACP), proposed to reduce the overall volume of the PWR spent fuel and improve safety and economy of the long-term storage of spent fuel, is under research and development. This technology convert spent fuels into pure metal-base uranium with removing the highly heat generating materials(Cs, Sr) efficiently and reducing of the decay heat, volume, and radioactivity from spent fuel by 1/4. In the next phase(2004{approx}2006), the demonstration of this technology will be carried out for verification of the ACP in a laboratory scale. For this demonstration, the hot cell facilities of {alpha}-{gamma} type and auxiliary facilities are required essentially for safe handling of high radioactive materials. As the hot cell facilities for demonstration of the ACP, a existing hot cell of {beta}-{gamma} type will be refurbished to minimize construction expenditures of hot cell facility. In this study, the design requirements are established, and the process detail work flow was analysed for the optimum arrangement to ensure effective process operation in hot cell. And also, the basic and detail design of hot cell facility and process, and safety analysis was performed to secure conservative safety of hot cell facility and process.

  6. Developing Model Benchtop Systems for Microbial Experimental Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jonathan; Arismendi, Dillon; Alvarez, Jennifer; Ouandji, Cynthia; Blaich, Justin; Gentry, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how microbes impact an ecosystem has improved through advances of molecular and genetic tools, but creating complex systems that emulate natural biology goes beyond current technology. In fact, many chemical, biological, and metabolic pathways of even model organisms are still poorly characterized. Even then, standard laboratory techniques for testing microbial impact on environmental change can have many drawbacks; they are time-consuming, labor intensive, and are at risk of contamination. By having an automated process, many of these problems can be reduced or even eliminated. We are developing a benchtop system that can run for long periods of time without the need for human intervention, involve multiple environmental stressors at once, perform real-time adjustments of stressor exposure based on current state of the population, and minimize contamination risks. Our prototype device allows operators to generate an analogue of real world micro-scale ecosystems that can be used to model the effects of disruptive environmental change on microbial ecosystems. It comprises of electronics, mechatronics, and fluidics based systems to control, measure, and evaluate the before and after state of microbial cultures from exposure to environmental stressors. Currently, it uses four parallel growth chambers to perform tests on liquid cultures. To measure the population state, optical sensors (LED/photodiode) are used. Its primary selection pressure is UV-C radiation, a well-studied stressor known for its cell- and DNA-damaging effects and as a mutagen. Future work will involve improving the current growth chambers, as well as implementing additional sensors and environmental stressors into the system. Full integration of multiple culture testing will allow inter-culture comparisons. Besides the temperature and OD sensors, other types of sensors can be integrated such as conductivity, biomass, pH, and dissolved gasses such as CO and O. Additional environmental

  7. Mindfulness for irritable bowel syndrome: protocol development for a controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland Eric L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a functional bowel disorder with symptoms of abdominal pain and disturbed defecation experienced by 10% of U.S. adults, results in significant disability, impaired quality of life, and health-care burden. Conventional medical care focusing on pharmacological approaches, diet, and lifestyle management has been partially effective in controlling symptoms. Behavioral treatments, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis, are promising. This paper describes an on-going feasibility study to assess the efficacy of mindfulness training, a behavioral treatment involving directing and sustaining attention to present-moment experience, for the treatment of IBS. Methods/Design The study design involves randomization of adult women with IBS according to Rome II criteria, to either an eight-week mindfulness training group (based on a Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction [MBSR] format or a previously validated IBS social-support group as an attention-control condition. The primary hypothesis is that, compared to Support Group participants, those in the Mindfulness Program will demonstrate significant improvement in IBS symptoms as measured by the IBS Symptom Severity Scale 1. Discussion 214 individuals have been screened for eligibility, of whom 148 were eligible for the study. Of those, 87 were enrolled, with 21 withdrawing after having given consent. 66 have completed or are in the process of completing the interventions. It is feasible to undertake a rigorous randomized clinical trial of mindfulness training for people with IBS, using a standardized MBSR protocol adapted for those experiencing IBS, compared to a control social-support group previously utilized in IBS studies. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT00680693

  8. Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Soil Reconstruction and Development of Dredge Screening Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koropchak, Sara C; Daniels, W Lee; Wick, Abbey; Whittecar, G Richard; Haus, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Upland placement of dredge sediments has the potential to provide beneficial reuse of suitable sediments for agricultural uses or urban soil reconstruction. However, the use of many dredge materials is limited by contaminants, and most established screening protocols focus on limiting major contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and generally ignore fundamental agronomic parameters. Since 2001, we have placed over 450,000 m of Potomac River fresh water dredge materials and 250,000 m of saline materials from various locations into monitored confined upland facilities in Charles City, VA, and documented their conversion to agricultural uses. Groundwater and soil quality monitoring has indicated no adverse effects from material placement and outstanding agricultural productivity for the freshwater materials. Once placed, saline materials rapidly leach and ripen with quick declines in pH, electrical conductivity, and sodicity, but potentials for local groundwater impacts must be considered. Our experience to date indicates that the most important primary screening parameter is acid-base accounting (potential acidity or lime demand), which should become a mandatory analytical requirement. Our second level of acceptance screening is based on a combination of federal and state residual waste and soil screening standards and basic agronomic principles. High silt+clay and total organic C may also limit rapid use of many dredge materials due to extended dewatering times and physical limitations. This dredge material screening system separates potential upland placement candidates into three soil quality management categories (unsuitable, suitable, and clean fill) with differing monitoring requirements. Similar use of these sediments in urban soil reconstruction is also recommended. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Mindfulness for irritable bowel syndrome: protocol development for a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, Susan A; Whitehead, William E; Coble, Rebecca S; Faurot, Keturah R; Palsson, Olafur S; Garland, Eric L; Frey, William; Mann, John Douglas

    2009-07-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a functional bowel disorder with symptoms of abdominal pain and disturbed defecation experienced by 10% of U.S. adults, results in significant disability, impaired quality of life, and health-care burden. Conventional medical care focusing on pharmacological approaches, diet, and lifestyle management has been partially effective in controlling symptoms. Behavioral treatments, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis, are promising. This paper describes an on-going feasibility study to assess the efficacy of mindfulness training, a behavioral treatment involving directing and sustaining attention to present-moment experience, for the treatment of IBS. The study design involves randomization of adult women with IBS according to Rome II criteria, to either an eight-week mindfulness training group (based on a Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction [MBSR] format) or a previously validated IBS social-support group as an attention-control condition. The primary hypothesis is that, compared to Support Group participants, those in the Mindfulness Program will demonstrate significant improvement in IBS symptoms as measured by the IBS Symptom Severity Scale [1]. 214 individuals have been screened for eligibility, of whom 148 were eligible for the study. Of those, 87 were enrolled, with 21 withdrawing after having given consent. 66 have completed or are in the process of completing the interventions. It is feasible to undertake a rigorous randomized clinical trial of mindfulness training for people with IBS, using a standardized MBSR protocol adapted for those experiencing IBS, compared to a control social-support group previously utilized in IBS studies. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT00680693.

  10. Ecological thresholds in the savanna landscape: developing a protocol for monitoring the change in composition and utilisation of large trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Dave J; Shannon, Graeme; Page, Bruce R; Grant, Rina; Slotow, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Acquiring greater understanding of the factors causing changes in vegetation structure -- particularly with the potential to cause regime shifts -- is important in adaptively managed conservation areas. Large trees (> or =5 m in height) play an important ecosystem function, and are associated with a stable ecological state in the African savanna. There is concern that large tree densities are declining in a number of protected areas, including the Kruger National Park, South Africa. In this paper the results of a field study designed to monitor change in a savanna system are presented and discussed. Developing the first phase of a monitoring protocol to measure the change in tree species composition, density and size distribution, whilst also identifying factors driving change. A central issue is the discrete spatial distribution of large trees in the landscape, making point sampling approaches relatively ineffective. Accordingly, fourteen 10 m wide transects were aligned perpendicular to large rivers (3.0-6.6 km in length) and eight transects were located at fixed-point photographic locations (1.0-1.6 km in length). Using accumulation curves, we established that the majority of tree species were sampled within 3 km. Furthermore, the key ecological drivers (e.g. fire, herbivory, drought and disease) which influence large tree use and impact were also recorded within 3 km. The technique presented provides an effective method for monitoring changes in large tree abundance, size distribution and use by the main ecological drivers across the savanna landscape. However, the monitoring of rare tree species would require individual marking approaches due to their low densities and specific habitat requirements. Repeat sampling intervals would vary depending on the factor of concern and proposed management mitigation. Once a monitoring protocol has been identified and evaluated, the next stage is to integrate that protocol into a decision-making system, which highlights

  11. Ecological thresholds in the savanna landscape: developing a protocol for monitoring the change in composition and utilisation of large trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave J Druce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquiring greater understanding of the factors causing changes in vegetation structure -- particularly with the potential to cause regime shifts -- is important in adaptively managed conservation areas. Large trees (> or =5 m in height play an important ecosystem function, and are associated with a stable ecological state in the African savanna. There is concern that large tree densities are declining in a number of protected areas, including the Kruger National Park, South Africa. In this paper the results of a field study designed to monitor change in a savanna system are presented and discussed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Developing the first phase of a monitoring protocol to measure the change in tree species composition, density and size distribution, whilst also identifying factors driving change. A central issue is the discrete spatial distribution of large trees in the landscape, making point sampling approaches relatively ineffective. Accordingly, fourteen 10 m wide transects were aligned perpendicular to large rivers (3.0-6.6 km in length and eight transects were located at fixed-point photographic locations (1.0-1.6 km in length. Using accumulation curves, we established that the majority of tree species were sampled within 3 km. Furthermore, the key ecological drivers (e.g. fire, herbivory, drought and disease which influence large tree use and impact were also recorded within 3 km. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The technique presented provides an effective method for monitoring changes in large tree abundance, size distribution and use by the main ecological drivers across the savanna landscape. However, the monitoring of rare tree species would require individual marking approaches due to their low densities and specific habitat requirements. Repeat sampling intervals would vary depending on the factor of concern and proposed management mitigation. Once a monitoring protocol has been identified and evaluated, the next

  12. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  13. In vitro detection of contact allergens: development of an optimized protocol using human peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Hendrik; Spieker, Jochem; Gerlach, Silke; Engels, Ursula; Pape, Wolfgang; Kolbe, Ludger; Schmucker, Robert; Wenck, Horst; Diembeck, Walter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Reisinger, Kerstin; Schepky, Andreas G

    2011-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed T-cell mediated allergic response associated with relevant social and economic impacts. Animal experiments (e.g. the local lymph node assay) are still supplying most of the data used to assess the sensitization potential of new chemicals. However, the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetic Directive will introduce a testing ban for cosmetic ingredients after 2013. In vitro alternative methods are thus being actively developed. Although promising results have been obtained with cell lines, their reduced functionality and inherent genomic instability led us to reinvestigate the use of peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (PBMDCs) for the establishment of a reliable in vitro sensitization test. To solve the issues associated with the use of primary cells, the culture and exposure conditions (cytokine concentrations, incubation time, readout, pooled vs. single donors and cytotoxicity) were re-assessed and optimized. Here we propose a stable and reproducible protocol based on PBMDCs. This should allow a wider acceptance of PBMDCs as a reliable test system for the detection of human skin sensitizers and the inclusion of this protocol in an integrated testing strategy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioelectrical impedance self-measurement protocol development and daily variation between healthy volunteers and breast cancer survivors with lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, Sheila H; Bonner, Candace M; Doersam, Jennifer K; Rhoten, Bethany A; Schultze, Benjamin; Dietrich, Mary S

    2014-03-01

    A significant percentage of breast cancer survivors are at risk for lymphedema for which lifelong self-care is required. Previous studies suggest that less than 50% of breast cancer survivors with lymphedema (BCS-LE) perform prescribed self-care tasks and that even wearing a compression sleeve, the most commonly reported self-care activity, is done irregularly. Reasons for poor self-care adherence include perceived lack of results from self-care (no available arm volume data) and perceived inability to manage the condition. A two-part pilot study was conducted to: 1) develop and determine the feasibility of a self-measurement protocol using a single frequency bioelectrical impedance device; and 2) examine daily variation in extracellular volume in healthy and lymphedematous limbs. Healthy and BCS-LE volunteers were recruited to refine and test a self-measurement protocol. Volunteers were trained in the use of the device and measured for 5 consecutive days in a laboratory setting. They were then given the device to use at home for an additional 5 consecutive days of self-measurement. All volunteers completed each scheduled home measurement. Daily variability in both groups was noted. Home self-measurement using bioelectrical impedance is feasible, acceptable, and captures change. This has implications for both self-care support and for the possibility of incorporating self-measurement using bioelectrical impedance in future clinical trials examining effectiveness of lymphedema treatment.

  15. Hip and pelvic fracture patients with fear of falling: development and description of the "Step by Step" treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, Karin; Kohler, Michaela; Albrecht, Diana; Becker, Clemens; Hautzinger, Martin; Lindemann, Ulrich; Pfeiffer, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    Based on a theoretical framework and sound evidence, this article describes a rehabilitation programme for patients with fear of falling after hip and pelvic fracture. Based on exercise science principles, current knowledge from fall prevention, emotion regulation, and the Health Action Process Approach we developed a theoretical framework, from which the components of the intervention were derived. Description of the intervention: The intervention consists of 6 components: (1) relaxation, (2) meaningful activities and mobility-based goals, (3) falls related cognitions and emotions, coping with high risk tasks and situations, (4) individual exercise programme, (5) planning and implementing exercises and activities, and (6) fall risks and hazards. The intervention comprises of 8 individual sessions during 3 to 5 weeks of inpatient rehabilitation and 4 telephone calls and 1 home visit over a 2-month post-discharge period. Each session or telephone call takes about 30-60 minutes. It is provided to geriatric hip and pelvic fracture patients with concerns about falling and no cognitive impairment. To ensure completeness of reporting, the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDierR) is used. Fifty-seven patients were assigned to the intervention group. All 46 completers met all pre-defined criteria for an intervention per protocol. The programme is feasible to administer. We have completed a randomised controlled trial, which will be submitted in due time (for trial protocol: www.isrctn.org ; ISRCTN79191813).

  16. Development of an Evidence-Informed Blog to Promote Healthy Eating Among Mothers: Use of the Intervention Mapping Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Audrée-Anne; Lemieux, Simone; Lapointe, Annie; Provencher, Véronique; Robitaille, Julie; Desroches, Sophie

    2017-05-19

    Low adherence to dietary guidelines and a concurrent rise of obesity-related chronic diseases emphasize the need for effective interventions to promote healthy eating. There is growing recognition that behavior change interventions should draw on theories of behavior change. Online interventions grounded in theory lead to increased effectiveness for health behavior change; however, few theory-driven social media-based health promotion interventions have been described in the literature. The objective of this study was to describe the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop an evidence-informed blog to promote healthy eating among French-Canadian mothers of preschool and school-aged children. The following six steps of the IM protocol were performed. In Step 1, a preliminary needs assessment included a literature search on theoretical domains predicting Vegetables and Fruits intakes and Milk and Alternatives intakes in adults (ie, knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, intention/goals) and a qualitative study including focus groups to identify female Internet users' perceptions of their use of healthy eating blogs. In Step 2, two behavioral outcomes were selected (ie, increase daily intakes of Vegetables and Fruits and Milk and Alternatives of mothers to reach Canadian dietary recommendations) and subsequently divided into six performance objectives inspired by national and international dietary recommendations such as planning for healthy meals. A matrix of change objectives was then created by crossing performance objectives with theoretical domains predicting Vegetables and Fruits intakes and Milk and Alternatives intakes in adults. Step 3 consisted of selecting theory-based intervention methods (eg, modeling and goal setting) and translating them into practical applications for the context of a dietary intervention delivered through a blog. A 6-month intervention was developed in Step 4 in which we aimed to

  17. Development of an Evidence-Informed Blog to Promote Healthy Eating Among Mothers: Use of the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Low adherence to dietary guidelines and a concurrent rise of obesity-related chronic diseases emphasize the need for effective interventions to promote healthy eating. There is growing recognition that behavior change interventions should draw on theories of behavior change. Online interventions grounded in theory lead to increased effectiveness for health behavior change; however, few theory-driven social media-based health promotion interventions have been described in the literature. Objective The objective of this study was to describe the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop an evidence-informed blog to promote healthy eating among French-Canadian mothers of preschool and school-aged children. Methods The following six steps of the IM protocol were performed. In Step 1, a preliminary needs assessment included a literature search on theoretical domains predicting Vegetables and Fruits intakes and Milk and Alternatives intakes in adults (ie, knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, intention/goals) and a qualitative study including focus groups to identify female Internet users’ perceptions of their use of healthy eating blogs. In Step 2, two behavioral outcomes were selected (ie, increase daily intakes of Vegetables and Fruits and Milk and Alternatives of mothers to reach Canadian dietary recommendations) and subsequently divided into six performance objectives inspired by national and international dietary recommendations such as planning for healthy meals. A matrix of change objectives was then created by crossing performance objectives with theoretical domains predicting Vegetables and Fruits intakes and Milk and Alternatives intakes in adults. Step 3 consisted of selecting theory-based intervention methods (eg, modeling and goal setting) and translating them into practical applications for the context of a dietary intervention delivered through a blog. A 6-month intervention was developed in

  18. Protocol and quality assurance for carotid imaging in 100,000 participants of UK Biobank: development and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Sean; Lewandowski, Adam J; Garratt, Steve; Meijer, Rudy; Lynum, Steven; Bedi, Ram; Paterson, James; Yaqub, Mohammad; Noble, J Alison; Neubauer, Stefan; Petersen, Steffen E; Allen, Naomi; Sudlow, Cathie; Collins, Rory; Matthews, Paul M; Leeson, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Background Ultrasound imaging is able to quantify carotid arterial wall structure for the assessment of cerebral and cardiovascular disease risks. We describe a protocol and quality assurance process to enable carotid imaging at large scale that has been developed for the UK Biobank Imaging Enhancement Study of 100,000 individuals. Design An imaging protocol was developed to allow measurement of carotid intima-media thickness from the far wall of both common carotid arteries. Six quality assurance criteria were defined and a web-based interface (Intelligent Ultrasound) was developed to facilitate rapid assessment of images against each criterion. Results and conclusions Excellent inter and intra-observer agreements were obtained for image quality evaluations on a test dataset from 100 individuals. The image quality criteria then were applied in the UK Biobank Imaging Enhancement Study. Data from 2560 participants were evaluated. Feedback of results to the imaging team led to improvement in quality assurance, with quality assurance failures falling from 16.2% in the first two-month period examined to 6.4% in the last. Eighty per cent had all carotid intima-media thickness images graded as of acceptable quality, with at least one image acceptable for 98% of participants. Carotid intima-media thickness measures showed expected associations with increasing age and gender. Carotid imaging can be performed consistently, with semi-automated quality assurance of all scans, in a limited timeframe within a large scale multimodality imaging assessment. Routine feedback of quality control metrics to operators can improve the quality of the data collection.

  19. B3-1: Developing a Protocol for Patient Engagement in Research: The HMORN Member Engagement Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Sarah; Tuzzio, Leah; McCarty, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Integrated health care delivery systems are well positioned to engage patients in research due to their diverse patient populations. Managed care organizations cover 22.5% of the national population, making the establishment of a protocol for patient engagement in research in these settings particularly important. In 2012, researchers from the Institute for Health Research (IHR) identified resources and processes for patient engagement in the Kaiser Colorado region, and synthesized the findings in a Member Engagement Toolkit. After presenting this work at the 2013 HMORN conference the HMORN Member Engagement Workgroup [MEWG] was formed to compile current practices and identify priorities for further exploration. The MEWG aims to create a protocol and standards for member engagement in research and create instruments for measuring the success of engagement efforts in managed care settings. Methods To do this we will conduct an environmental scan of engagement resources and processes currently available in the eight member organizations participating in the MEWG. We will use the IHR’s Member Engagement Toolkit as a model to develop a patient engagement toolkit for HMORN organizations that will be generalizable to managed care settings nationally. Using the data from the environmental scan we will identify engagement methods, resources, policies, principles, and logistics for use by research teams embedded in managed care organizations. The scan will catalog best practices and gaps in engagement efforts that can inform the development of standards to guide engagement practices in managed care settings. We will conduct a targeted literature search and interviews with key informants to identify instruments for measuring success, and inform the development of instruments. Results The MEWG will incorporate the findings from the environmental scan, a literature review and interviews with key informants into a toolkit, and present the results of the

  20. Effectiveness of interventions for the development of leadership skills among nurses: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Michael; Traynor, Victoria; Joyce-McCoach, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    What interventions are the most effective for the development of leadership skills for nurses?The review objective is to systematically review the evidence to identify the effectiveness of interventions for the development of leadership skills among nurses. Centre for Evidence-based Initiatives in Health Care - University of Wollongong: an Affiliate Center of the Joanna Briggs Institute.

  1. Development of an Optimized Protocol for NMR Metabolomics Studies of Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines and First Insight from Testing of the Protocol Using DNA G-Quadruplex Ligands as Novel Anti-Cancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of cell lines by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy metabolomics represents a powerful tool to understand how the local metabolism and biochemical pathways are influenced by external or internal stimuli. In particular, the use of adherent mammalian cells is emerging in the metabolomics field in order to understand the molecular mechanism of disease progression or, for example, the cellular response to drug treatments. Hereto metabolomics investigations for this kind of cells have generally been limited to mass spectrometry studies. This study proposes an optimized protocol for the analysis of the endo-metabolome of human colon cancer cells (HCT116 by NMR. The protocol includes experimental conditions such as washing, quenching and extraction. In order to test the proposed protocol, it was applied to an exploratory study of cancer cells with and without treatment by anti-cancer drugs, such as DNA G-quadruplex binders and Adriamycin (a traditional anti-cancer drug. The exploratory NMR metabolomics analysis resulted in NMR assignment of all endo-metabolites that could be detected and provided preliminary insights about the biological behavior of the drugs tested.

  2. Development of an Optimized Protocol for NMR Metabolomics Studies of Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines and First Insight from Testing of the Protocol Using DNA G-Quadruplex Ligands as Novel Anti-Cancer Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, Ilaria; Savorani, Francesco; Iaccarino, Nunzia; Zizza, Pasquale; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Novellino, Ettore; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Randazzo, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    The study of cell lines by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy metabolomics represents a powerful tool to understand how the local metabolism and biochemical pathways are influenced by external or internal stimuli. In particular, the use of adherent mammalian cells is emerging in the metabolomics field in order to understand the molecular mechanism of disease progression or, for example, the cellular response to drug treatments. Hereto metabolomics investigations for this kind of cells have generally been limited to mass spectrometry studies. This study proposes an optimized protocol for the analysis of the endo-metabolome of human colon cancer cells (HCT116) by NMR. The protocol includes experimental conditions such as washing, quenching and extraction. In order to test the proposed protocol, it was applied to an exploratory study of cancer cells with and without treatment by anti-cancer drugs, such as DNA G-quadruplex binders and Adriamycin (a traditional anti-cancer drug). The exploratory NMR metabolomics analysis resulted in NMR assignment of all endo-metabolites that could be detected and provided preliminary insights about the biological behavior of the drugs tested.

  3. Experimental validation of the electrokinetic theory and development of seismoelectric interferometry by cross-correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, E.C.; Grobbe, N.; Schakel, M.D.; De Ridder, S.A.L.; Slob, E.C.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally validate a relatively recent electrokinetic formulation of the streaming potential (SP) coefficient as developed by Pride (1994). The start of our investigation focuses on the streaming potential coefficient, which gives rise to the coupling of mechanical and electromagnetic

  4. Simultaneous Experimentation as a Learning Strategy: Business Model Development Under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries, Petra; Debackere, Koenraad; van Looy, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Ventures operating under uncertainty face challenges defining a sustainable value proposition. Six longitudinal case studies reveal two approaches to business model development: focused commitment and simultaneous experimentation. While focused commitment positively affects initial growth, this

  5. Development and Assessment of Planetary Gear Unit for Experimental Prototype of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbahs, A.; Urbaha, M.; Carjova, K.

    2017-10-01

    The theoretical calculation for development of planetary gear unit of wind turbine (WT) and its experimental tests are presented in the paper. Development of experimental prototypes from composite materials is essential to determine capability of element and its impact on feature. Two experimental scale prototypes of planetary gear unit for WT were developed for such purposes. Hall transducer, servomechanisms and optical tachometers were used to obtain results, comparison analysis of theoretical and actual data was performed as well as quality assessment of experimental prototypes of planetary gear unit. After kinematic and load analysis as well as control of rotation frequency, it is possible to declare that the unit is able to operate at designated quality. Theoretical calculations and test results obtained are used for industrial WT prototype development.

  6. Quasi-experimental trial of diabetes Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support (SMARTSteps in a Medicaid managed care plan: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratanawongsa Neda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps. Methods/Design This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252, primary outcomes will be

  7. Development of anaesthetic protocols for lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.: Effect of anaesthetic concentrations, sea water temperature and body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene W Skår

    Full Text Available In recent years, use of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L. as cleaner-fish to remove sea-lice have been chosen by many salmon farmers in Europe and Canada as an alternative to medical treatment, which has led to large scale production of lumpfish. At present, there is limited knowledge of how lumpfish respond upon anaesthesia, which anaesthetics and concentrations that are efficient and conditions for euthanasia. We have therefore tested and developed protocols for bath immersion for three commonly used anaesthetics metacaine (Finquel, buffered tricaine methanesulfonate, MS-222 and Tricaine Pharmaq, benzocaine (Benzoak vet and isoeugenol (Aqui-S, determined concentration for normal and fast anaesthesia and evaluated safety margin for each condition. Also, a behavioral matrix has been developed. We have examined the effect of fish size (10-20 g, 200-400 g and 600-1300 g and sea water temperature (6°C and 12°C. We found that 200 mg L-1 metacaine is an efficient dose for deep narcosis independently for fish size and temperature due to good safety margins with regards to both exposure times and doses. However, for many tasks lighter anaesthesia is sufficient, and then 100 mg L-1 metacaine can be used. Benzocaine is less efficient than metacaine, but can be used as anaesthetic of fish 600 g, benzocaine is not suitable. Isoeugenol cannot be recommended for full anesthesia of lumpfish. The conditions for lethal doses varied with chosen anaesthetic, fish size and temperature. For small fish (10-20 g, exposure to 1600 mgL-1 of metacaine in 10 minutes it lethal. Guided protocols for non-lethal anaesthesia will contribute to ensure safe treatment of lumpfish according to an ethical standard for good fish welfare.

  8. Novel Nano-Size Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels Development through Computational and Experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shizhong [Southern Univ. and A& M College, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2016-05-30

    This report summarizes our recent works of theoretical modeling, simulation and experimental validation of the simulation results on the ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy research. The simulation of the stability and thermal dynamics simulation on potential thermal stable candidates were performed and related ODS samples were synthesized and characterized. The simulation methods and experimental texture validation techniques development, achievements already reached, course work development, students and postdoc training, and future improvement are briefly introduced.

  9. User-centered design and the development of patient decision aids: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Holly O; Dansokho, Selma Chipenda; Colquhoun, Heather; Coulter, Angela; Dugas, Michèle; Fagerlin, Angela; Giguere, Anik Mc; Glouberman, Sholom; Haslett, Lynne; Hoffman, Aubri; Ivers, Noah; Légaré, France; Légaré, Jean; Levin, Carrie; Lopez, Karli; Montori, Victor M; Provencher, Thierry; Renaud, Jean-Sébastien; Sparling, Kerri; Stacey, Dawn; Vaisson, Gratianne; Volk, Robert J; Witteman, William

    2015-01-26

    Providing patient-centered care requires that patients partner in their personal health-care decisions to the full extent desired. Patient decision aids facilitate processes of shared decision-making between patients and their clinicians by presenting relevant scientific information in balanced, understandable ways, helping clarify patients' goals, and guiding decision-making processes. Although international standards stipulate that patients and clinicians should be involved in decision aid development, little is known about how such involvement currently occurs, let alone best practices. This systematic review consisting of three interlinked subreviews seeks to describe current practices of user involvement in the development of patient decision aids, compare these to practices of user-centered design, and identify promising strategies. A research team that includes patient and clinician representatives, decision aid developers, and systematic review method experts will guide this review according to the Cochrane Handbook and PRISMA reporting guidelines. A medical librarian will hand search key references and use a peer-reviewed search strategy to search MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the ACM library, IEEE Xplore, and Google Scholar. We will identify articles across all languages and years describing the development or evaluation of a patient decision aid, or the application of user-centered design or human-centered design to tools intended for patient use. Two independent reviewers will assess article eligibility and extract data into a matrix using a structured pilot-tested form based on a conceptual framework of user-centered design. We will synthesize evidence to describe how research teams have included users in their development process and compare these practices to user-centered design methods. If data permit, we will develop a measure of the user-centeredness of development processes and identify practices that are likely

  10. Study protocol: imaging brain development in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (iCATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah L; Patton, George C; Dudgeon, Paul; Olsson, Craig; Byrne, Michelle L; Mundy, Lisa K; Seal, Marc L; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-04-30

    Puberty is a critical developmental phase in physical, reproductive and socio-emotional maturation that is associated with the period of peak onset for psychopathology. Puberty also drives significant changes in brain development and function. Research to date has focused on gonadarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and yet increasing evidence suggests that the earlier pubertal stage of adrenarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, may play a critical role in both brain development and increased risk for disorder. We have established a unique cohort of children who differ in their exposure to adrenarcheal hormones. This presents a unique opportunity to examine the influence of adrenarcheal timing on brain structural and functional development, and subsequent health outcomes. The primary objective of the study is to explore the hypothesis that patterns of structural and functional brain development will mediate the relationship between adrenarcheal timing and indices of affect, self-regulation, and mental health symptoms collected across time (and therefore years of development). Children were recruited based upon earlier or later timing of adrenarche, from a larger cohort, with 128 children (68 female; M age 9.51 years) and one of their parents taking part. Children completed brain MRI structural and functional sequences, provided saliva samples for adrenarcheal hormones and immune biomarkers, hair for long-term cortisol levels, and completed questionnaires, anthropometric measures and an IQ test. Parents completed questionnaires reporting on child behaviour, development, health, traumatic events, and parental report of family environment and parenting style. This study, by examining the neurobiological and behavioural consequences of relatively early and late exposure to adrenarche, has the potential to significantly impact our understanding of pubertal risk processes.

  11. How can pharmacists develop patient-pharmacist communication skills? A realist review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Aisling; Strawbridge, Judith; Kelleher, Caroline; Mertens, Fien; Pype, Peter; Deveugele, Myriam; Pawlikowska, Teresa

    2017-01-23

    Good patient-pharmacist communication improves health outcomes. There is, however, room for improving pharmacists' communication skills. These develop through complex interactions during undergraduate pharmacy education, practice-based learning and continuing professional development. Research is needed to determine how best to approach teaching patient-pharmacist communication. The aim of the research is to understand how educational interventions develop patient-pharmacist interpersonal communication skills produce their effects. A realist review approach will be used to synthesise the literature to make sense of the complexities of educational interventions. Our review will iteratively progress through the various stages of clarifying scope, locating existing theories, searching for evidence, appraisal of papers, data extraction and synthesis. A scoping review revealed a number of substantive theories, which will be used to build an initial programme theory. This will be explored through available published evidence, which we will find by searching databases such as Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, ERIC, Scopus and Web of Science. Judgements will be made on the relevance and rigour of the retrieved literature and will be taken into consideration during analysis and synthesis. Synthesis, testing and refinement of the theories will describe and explain the links between contexts, mechanisms and outcomes of educational interventions for communication development in pharmacy. The realist review will provide an analysis of what works when, for whom, how and why, for educational interventions for interpersonal patient-pharmacist communication development. We will also explore barriers to successful communications training and acknowledge any limitations. Ultimately, we plan to provide pharmacy educators with evidence for how best to incorporate educational interventions for communications skills development into pharmacy curricula and for life-long learning opportunities

  12. Development of protocols for chronic toxicity testing of Pacific marine species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, C.J.; Seim, W.K.; Hoffman, R.L.; Weber, L.

    1990-03-01

    The development of a year-round capability for conducting short-term toxicity tests for estimating chronic-effect levels of toxic materials with a native Pacific coast fish and a native Pacific coast mysid shrimp was the goal of the project. In order to achieve acceptable sensitivity as a surrogate for chronic toxicity tests, targeting the reproductive portion of the mysid life cycle and all or part of the embryonic, larval, or early post-larval portion of the fish life cycle was deemed necessary. This targeting is consistent with conclusions based upon earlier work in developing similar tests with Atlantic coast, Gulf coast, and freshwater fish and invertebrates.

  13. Development and test of an evaluation protocol for heavy gas dispersion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijm, N.J.; Carissimo, B.; Mercer, A.; Bartholome, C.; Giesbrecht, H.

    1997-01-01

    In order to improve the quality (i.e. fitness-for-purpose) of models used to describe the atmospheric dispersion of heavy gas, an evaluation methodology has been developed and tested through a small evaluation exercise. This activity was carried out by the Heavy Gas Dispersion Expert Group, which

  14. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsman, E.B.M.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Beek, ter J.; Duijzer, G.; Jansen, S.C.; Hiddink, G.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a

  15. Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: a testing protocol for a new epigenetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2013-09-01

    We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring--the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model. © 2013 The Authors. Bioessays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Development of a Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Goldstein, Clark R.; Wright, Lauren R.; Barlow, David H.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the development and initial trial of a treatment for adolescents that targets negative emotionality and associated psychological difficulties--particularly anxiety and depressive disorders--as a more singular entity by utilizing an approach rooted in both emotion science and theory. The rationale for such an approach is based…

  17. Optimization of treatment protocols to prevent de novo development of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    The ever-increasing rate of drug resistant bacteria has been one of the most challenging problem worldwide. This thesis studied the following subjects with mostly the clinically leading pathogen, P. aeruginosa, as the model strain: de novo development of antibiotic resistance in patient during the

  18. Implementation and Outcomes of a Responsibility-Based Continuing Professional Development Protocol in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Michael A.; Templin, Thomas J.; Wright, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Research in education and physical education has emphasized the need for continuing professional development (CPD) programs that are aligned with best practices. More specifically, scholars interested in teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) have emphasized the need to examine teachers' CPD. The purpose of this study was to provide a…

  19. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol to Support NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support extensive human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts have been tasked with developing the ground test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototype habitats will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational products, tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate the different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3.

  20. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students’ Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students’ responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students’ experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design. PMID:26086658

  1. Protocol for the development of a core domain set for hidradenitis suppurativa trial outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Ingram, John R; Garg, Amit

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) should have well-defined primary and secondary outcomes to answer questions generated by the main hypotheses. However, for the chronic, inflammatory skin disease hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), the reported outcome measures are numerous and diverse...... for dealing with these problems is to develop a core outcome set (COS). A COS is a list of outcomes that are meant as mandatory and should be measured and reported in all clinical trials. The aim of this study is to develop a COS for the management of HS. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: An international steering group...... Delphi rounds are then planned together with 2 face-to-face consensus meetings (1 in Europe and 1 in the USA) to ensure global representation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study will be performed according to the Helsinki declaration. All results from the study, including inconclusive or negative...

  2. Performance of Momguard, a new non-invasive prenatal testing protocol developed in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Mi-Young; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Won, Hye-Sung; Hwang, Ah Reum; Jeong, Bada; Kim, Jihun; Oh, Mijin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of Momguard, non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for detecting trisomy (T) 21, T18, T13, and sex-chromosome abnormalities recently developed in Korea. Methods This preliminary study formed part of a large prospective cohort study conducted at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Only pregnant women who underwent both NIPT and confirmatory karyotyping were included in this study. NIPT results were compared with those of karyotype analyses. Results Among 93 eli...

  3. Development of an infant feeding core outcome set for childhood obesity interventions: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Byrne, Molly; Kelly, Colette; Toomey, Elaine; Hennessy, Marita; Devane, Declan; Heary, Caroline; Harrington, Janas; McGrath, Niamh; Queally, Michelle; Kearney, Patricia M

    2017-10-10

    Childhood obesity is a significant public health challenge that affects approximately one in five children worldwide. Infant feeding practices are implicated in the aetiology of childhood obesity. Infant feeding interventions for childhood obesity are increasingly popular but outcome reporting is inconsistent across trials. Lack of standardisation limits examination of intervention effects and mechanisms of change. The aim of the current project is to develop a core set of infant feeding outcomes for children ≤ 1 year old, to be evaluated in childhood obesity intervention trials. This project will use similar methodology to previous core outcome development research. An infant feeding core outcome set (COS) will be developed in four stages: (1) a systematic review of the literature, (2) discussion and clarification of outcomes in a meeting involving multiple stakeholder perspectives, (3) prioritisation of outcomes using the Delphi technique with an expert panel of stakeholders, and (4) achieving consensus on the COS using the nominal group technique (NGT) consensus meeting. An online Delphi survey will be conducted following the NGT meeting to prioritise outcomes identified in the systematic review. An NGT meeting will be conducted with groups of health professionals, non-clinician researchers, and parents of infants ≤ 1 year old, to achieve final consensus on the infant feeding COS. This study aims to develop a core outcome set of infant feeding outcomes for randomised infant feeding studies to prevent childhood obesity. This research will improve examination and syntheses of the outcomes of such studies to prevent and reduce childhood obesity.

  4. Technology transfer opportunities : new development : new protocol verifies sterility of newly hatched fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey's Biological Resources Disicipline scientists have developed a procedure that could save commercial producers of triploid grass carp between $2000 and $3000 per pond. Since 1983, triploid grass carp have been commercially available for managing aquatic weeds that can cause water quality problems, replace native plants, or impede recreational and commercial use of fisheries and waterways. The carp eat the nuisance vegetation, but because the fish do not reproduce, they do not disturb habitat.

  5. Development of a neurofeedback protocol targeting the frontal pole using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Akihide; Takizawa, Ryu; Yahata, Noriaki; Homae, Fumitaka; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Sakakibara, Eisuke; Kawasaki, Shingo; Nishimura, Yukika; Koike, Shinsuke; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-11-01

    Neurofeedback has been studied with the aim of controlling cerebral activity. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used for measuring hemoglobin concentration changes in cortical surface areas with high temporal resolution. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful for neurofeedback, which requires real-time feedback of repeated brain activation measurements. However, no study has specifically targeted neurofeedback, using near-infrared spectroscopy, in the frontal pole cortex. We developed an original near-infrared spectroscopy neurofeedback system targeting the frontal pole cortex. Over a single day of testing, each healthy participant (n = 24) received either correct or incorrect (Sham) feedback from near-infrared spectroscopy signals, based on a crossover design. Under correct feedback conditions, significant activation was observed in the frontal pole cortex (P = 0.000073). Additionally, self-evaluation of control and metacognitive beliefs were associated with near-infrared spectroscopy signals (P = 0.006). The neurofeedback system developed in this study might be useful for developing control of frontal pole cortex activation. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... real-world cases, a large probability of being caught is sufficient to prevent the adversary from trying to cheat. We show how to compile a passively secure protocol for honest majority into a protocol that is secure against covert attacks, again for honest majority. The transformed protocol catches...... cheating with probability 1/4 . Though we present no implementation of this compiler, we believe it will be very efficient and practical to implement using, say, VIFF. The cost of the modified protocol is essentially twice that of the original plus an overhead that only depends on the number of inputs. We...

  7. Protocol-developing meta-ethnography reporting guidelines (eMERGe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, E F; Ring, N; Noyes, J; Maxwell, M; Jepson, R; Duncan, E; Turley, R; Jones, D; Uny, I

    2015-11-25

    Designing and implementing high-quality health care services and interventions requires robustly synthesised evidence. Syntheses of qualitative research studies can provide evidence of patients' experiences of health conditions; intervention feasibility, appropriateness and acceptability to patients; and advance understanding of health care issues. The unique, interpretive, theory-based meta-ethnography synthesis approach is suited to conveying patients' views and developing theory to inform service design and delivery. However, meta-ethnography reporting is often poor quality, which discourages trust in, and use of, meta-ethnography findings. Users of evidence syntheses require reports that clearly articulate analytical processes and findings. Tailored research reporting guidelines can raise reporting standards but none exists for meta-ethnography. This study aims to create an evidence-based meta-ethnography reporting guideline articulating the methodological standards and depth of reporting required to improve reporting quality. The mixed-methods design of this National Institute of Health Research-funded study (http://www.stir.ac.uk/emerge/) follows good practice in research reporting guideline development comprising: (1) a methodological systematic review (PROSPERO registration: CRD42015024709) to identify recommendations and guidance in conducting/reporting meta-ethnography; (2) a review and audit of published meta-ethnographies to identify good practice principles and develop standards in conduct/reporting; (3) an online workshop and Delphi studies to agree guideline content with 45 international qualitative synthesis experts and 45 other stakeholders including patients; (4) development and wide dissemination of the guideline and its accompanying detailed explanatory document, a report template for National Institute of Health Research commissioned meta-ethnographies, and training materials on guideline use. Meta-ethnography, devised in the field of education

  8. Developing the Autism Model of Implementation for Autism spectrum disorder community providers: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drahota Amy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, 1 out of 88 children are diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and the estimated cost for treatment services is $126 billion annually. Typically, ASD community providers (ASD-CPs provide services to children with any severity of ASD symptoms using a combination of various treatment paradigms, some with an evidence-base and some without. When evidence-based practices (EBPs are successfully implemented by ASD-CPs, they can result in positive outcomes. Despite this promise, EBPs are often implemented unsuccessfully and other treatments used by ASD-CPs lack supportive evidence, especially for school-age children with ASD. While it is not well understood why ASD-CPs are not implementing EBPs, organizational and individual characteristics likely play a role. As a response to this need and to improve the lives of children with ASD and their families, this study aims to develop and test the feasibility and acceptability of the Autism Model of Implementation (AMI to support the implementation of EBPs by ASD-CPs. Methods/design An academic-community collaboration developed to partner with ASD-CPs will facilitate the development of the AMI, a process specifically for use by ASD community-based agencies. Using a mixed methods approach, the project will assess agency and individual factors likely to facilitate or hinder implementing EBPs in this context; develop the AMI to address identified barriers and facilitators; and pilot test the AMI to examine its feasibility and acceptability using a specific EBP to treat anxiety disorders in school-age children with ASD. Discussion The AMI will represent a data-informed approach to facilitate implementation of EBPs by ASD-CPs by providing an implementation model specifically developed for this context. This study is designed to address the real-world implications of EBP implementation in ASD community-based agencies. In doing so, the AMI will help to provide children with

  9. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues.

  10. Developing a Referral Protocol for Community-Based Occupational Therapy Services in Taiwan: A Logistic Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hui-Fen; Chang, Ling-Hui; Tsai, Athena Yi-Jung; Huang, Wen-Ni; Wang, Jye

    2016-01-01

    Because resources for long-term care services are limited, timely and appropriate referral for rehabilitation services is critical for optimizing clients' functions and successfully integrating them into the community. We investigated which client characteristics are most relevant in predicting Taiwan's community-based occupational therapy (OT) service referral based on experts' beliefs. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using the Multidimensional Assessment Instrument (MDAI). Community-dwelling participants (n = 221) ≥ 18 years old who reported disabilities in the previous National Survey of Long-term Care Needs in Taiwan were enrolled. The standard for referral was the judgment and agreement of two experienced occupational therapists who reviewed the results of the MDAI. Logistic regressions and Generalized Additive Models were used for analysis. Two predictive models were proposed, one using basic activities of daily living (BADLs) and one using instrumental ADLs (IADLs). Dementia, psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, joint range-of-motion limitations, fear of falling, behavioral or emotional problems, expressive deficits (in the BADL-based model), and limitations in IADLs or BADLs were significantly correlated with the need for referral. Both models showed high area under the curve (AUC) values on receiver operating curve testing (AUC = 0.977 and 0.972, respectively). The probability of being referred for community OT services was calculated using the referral algorithm. The referral protocol facilitated communication between healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions for OT referrals. The methods and findings should be useful for developing referral protocols for other long-term care services.

  11. Developing strategies to be added to the protocol for antenatal care: An exercise and birth preparation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia Miquelutti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the implementation process of a birth preparation program, the activities in the protocol for physical and birth preparation exercises, and the educational activities that have been evaluated regarding effectiveness and women's satisfaction. The birth preparation program described was developed with the following objectives: to prevent lumbopelvic pain, urinary incontinence and anxiety; to encourage the practice of physical activity during pregnancy and of positions and exercises for non-pharmacological pain relief during labor; and to discuss information that would help women to have autonomy during labor. METHODS: The program comprised the following activities: supervised physical exercise, relaxation exercises, and educational activities (explanations of lumbopelvic pain prevention, pelvic floor function, labor and delivery, and which non-pharmacological pain relief to use during labor provided regularly after prenatal consultations. These activities were held monthly, starting when the women joined the program at 18–24 weeks of pregnancy and continuing until 30 weeks of pregnancy, fortnightly thereafter from 31 to 36 weeks of pregnancy, and then weekly from the 37th week until delivery. Information and printed materials regarding the physical exercises to be performed at home were provided. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01155804. RESULTS: The program was an innovative type of intervention that systematized birth preparation activities that were organized to encompass aspects related both to pregnancy and to labor and that included physical, educational and home-based activities. CONCLUSIONS: The detailed description of the protocol used may serve as a basis for further studies and also for the implementation of birth preparation programs within the healthcare system in different settings.

  12. Developing a Referral Protocol for Community-Based Occupational Therapy Services in Taiwan: A Logistic Regression Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Fen Mao

    Full Text Available Because resources for long-term care services are limited, timely and appropriate referral for rehabilitation services is critical for optimizing clients' functions and successfully integrating them into the community. We investigated which client characteristics are most relevant in predicting Taiwan's community-based occupational therapy (OT service referral based on experts' beliefs. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using the Multidimensional Assessment Instrument (MDAI. Community-dwelling participants (n = 221 ≥ 18 years old who reported disabilities in the previous National Survey of Long-term Care Needs in Taiwan were enrolled. The standard for referral was the judgment and agreement of two experienced occupational therapists who reviewed the results of the MDAI. Logistic regressions and Generalized Additive Models were used for analysis. Two predictive models were proposed, one using basic activities of daily living (BADLs and one using instrumental ADLs (IADLs. Dementia, psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, joint range-of-motion limitations, fear of falling, behavioral or emotional problems, expressive deficits (in the BADL-based model, and limitations in IADLs or BADLs were significantly correlated with the need for referral. Both models showed high area under the curve (AUC values on receiver operating curve testing (AUC = 0.977 and 0.972, respectively. The probability of being referred for community OT services was calculated using the referral algorithm. The referral protocol facilitated communication between healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions for OT referrals. The methods and findings should be useful for developing referral protocols for other long-term care services.

  13. A protocol for developing early warning score models from vital signs data in hospitals using ensembles of decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Michael; Tam, Benjamin; Thabane, Lehana; Fox-Robichaud, Alison

    2015-09-09

    Multiple early warning scores (EWS) have been developed and implemented to reduce cardiac arrests on hospital wards. Case-control observational studies that generate an area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC) are the usual validation method, but investigators have also generated EWS with algorithms with no prior clinical knowledge. We present a protocol for the validation and comparison of our local Hamilton Early Warning Score (HEWS) with that generated using decision tree (DT) methods. A database of electronically recorded vital signs from 4 medical and 4 surgical wards will be used to generate DT EWS (DT-HEWS). A third EWS will be generated using ensemble-based methods. Missing data will be multiple imputed. For a relative risk reduction of 50% in our composite outcome (cardiac or respiratory arrest, unanticipated intensive care unit (ICU) admission or hospital death) with a power of 80%, we calculated a sample size of 17,151 patient days based on our cardiac arrest rates in 2012. The performance of the National EWS, DT-HEWS and the ensemble EWS will be compared using AUROC. Ethics approval was received from the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board (#13-724-C). The vital signs and associated outcomes are stored in a database on our secure hospital server. Preliminary dissemination of this protocol was presented in abstract form at an international critical care meeting. Final results of this analysis will be used to improve on the existing HEWS and will be shared through publication and presentation at critical care meetings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Using the Intervention Mapping Protocol to develop an online video intervention for parents to prevent childhood obesity: Movie Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lepeleere, Sara; Verloigne, Maïté; Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-08-08

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity caused by an unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) is a prominent public health concern. Parenting practices may contribute to healthy behaviour change in children, but well-researched examples are limited. The aim of this study is to describe the systematic development of an intervention for parents to prevent childhood overweight/obesity through the improvement of parenting practices. The six steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP), a theory- and evidence-based tool to develop health-related interventions, were used as a framework to develop the 'Movie Models' programme. In Step 1, a needs assessment was performed to better understand the health problem of overweight/obesity in children and its association with diet, PA and SB. In Step 2, the programme goal (increasing the adoption of effective parenting practices) was sub-divided into performance objectives. Change objectives, which specify explicit actions required to accomplish the performance objectives, were also identified. Step 3 included the selection of theoretical methods (e.g. 'modelling' and 'images'), which were then translated into the practical strategy of online parenting videos. Step 4 comprised the development of a final intervention framework, and Step 5 included the planning of programme adoption and implementation. The final phase, Step 6, included the development of an effect- and process-evaluation plan. The IMP was used to structure the development of 'Movie Models', an intervention targeting specific parenting practices related to children's healthy diet, PA, SB, and parental self-efficacy. A clear framework for process analyses is offered, which aims to increase the potential effectiveness of an intervention and can be useful for those developing health promotion programmes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years in Malaysia: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Gan, Wan Ying; Tan, Kit-Aun

    2016-09-29

    The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age. This is a prospective cohort study of mothers and infants recruited from government health clinics in Seremban district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Infants are followed-up at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. Pre-natal factors that include mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, blood glucose and blood pressure during pregnancy, infant's gestational age, birth weight and head circumference at birth are obtained from patient card. Post-natal factors assessed at each follow-up are feeding practices, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements and cognitive development of infants. Iron status is assessed at 6 months, while infant temperament and home environment are assessed at 12 months. Maternal intelligence is assessed at 18 months. Early life nutritional programming is of current interest as many longitudinal studies are actively being conducted in developed countries to investigate this concept. The concept however is relatively new in developing countries such as Malaysia. This study will provide useful information on early nutrition and infant development in the first two years of life which can be further followed up to identify factors that track into childhood and contribute to growth and cognitive deviations.

  16. Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation -- Determination of the Status of Oil and Gas Operations: Task 1. Development of Survey Procedures and Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Procedures and protocols were developed for the determination of the status of oil, gas, and other mineral operations on the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate. The strategy for surveying Osage County, Oklahoma, was developed and then tested in the field. Two Osage Tribal Council members and two Native American college students (who are members of the Osage Tribe) were trained in the field as a test of the procedures and protocols developed in Task 1. Active and inactive surface mining operations, industrial sites, and hydrocarbon-producing fields were located on maps of the county, which was divided into four more or less equal areas for future investigation. Field testing of the procedures, protocols, and training was successful. No significant damage was found at petroleum production operations in a relatively new production operation and in a mature waterflood operation.

  17. Computer vision and driver distraction: developing a behaviour-flagging protocol for naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith L; Rudin-Brown, Christina M

    2014-11-01

    Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) allow researchers to discreetly observe everyday, real-world driving to better understand the risk factors that contribute to hazardous situations. In particular, NDS designs provide high ecological validity in the study of driver distraction. With increasing dataset sizes, current best practice of manually reviewing videos to classify the occurrence of driving behaviours, including those that are indicative of distraction, is becoming increasingly impractical. Current statistical solutions underutilise available data and create further epistemic problems. Similarly, technical solutions such as eye-tracking often require dedicated hardware that is not readily accessible or feasible to use. A computer vision solution based on open-source software was developed and tested to improve the accuracy and speed of processing NDS video data for the purpose of quantifying the occurrence of driver distraction. Using classifier cascades, manually-reviewed video data from a previously published NDS was reanalysed and used as a benchmark of current best practice for performance comparison. Two software coding systems were developed - one based on hierarchical clustering (HC), and one based on gender differences (MF). Compared to manual video coding, HC achieved 86 percent concordance, 55 percent reduction in processing time, and classified an additional 69 percent of target behaviour not previously identified through manual review. MF achieved 67 percent concordance, a 75 percent reduction in processing time, and classified an additional 35 percent of target behaviour not identified through manual review. The findings highlight the improvements in processing speed and correctly classifying target behaviours achievable through the use of custom developed computer vision solutions. Suggestions for improved system performance and wider implementation are discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The science behind the development and implementation of the WelFur-Mink protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Henriksen, Britt; Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg

    2017-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals depends on development in production systems, economic drivers and regulation but also human factors – such as farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare, management strategies, communication, knowledge and training. In this study I have examined the perception of animal...... welfare among farm workers employed at five different Danish farms (pig, dairy cattle and mink). The methodology employed ethnographic field studies during daily work at the farms and qualitative interviews with 23 farm workers, of which some are of Danish nationality and others from other countries....

  19. Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: study protocol for developing, disseminating, and implementing a core outcome set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Asma; Perry, Helen; Duffy, James; Reed, Keith; Baschat, Ahmet; Deprest, Jan; Hecher, Kurt; Lewi, Liesbeth; Lopriore, Enrico; Oepkes, Dick

    2017-07-14

    Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Several treatment interventions have been described for TTTS, including fetoscopic laser surgery, amnioreduction, septostomy, expectant management, and pregnancy termination. Over the last decade, fetoscopic laser surgery has become the primary treatment. The literature to date reports on many different outcomes, making it difficult to compare results or combine data from individual studies, limiting the value of research to guide clinical practice. With the advent and ongoing development of new therapeutic techniques, this is more important than ever. The development and use of a core outcome set has been proposed to address these issues, prioritising outcomes important to the key stakeholders, including patients. We aim to produce, disseminate, and implement a core outcome set for TTTS. An international steering group has been established to oversee the development of this core outcome set. This group includes healthcare professionals, researchers and patients. A systematic review is planned to identify previously reported outcomes following treatment for TTTS. Following completion, the identified outcomes will be evaluated by stakeholders using an international, multi-perspective online modified Delphi method to build consensus on core outcomes. This method encourages the participants towards consensus 'core' outcomes. All key stakeholders will be invited to participate. The steering group will then hold a consensus meeting to discuss results and form a core outcome set to be introduced and measured. Once core outcomes have been agreed, the next step will be to determine how they should be measured, disseminated, and implemented within an international context. The development, dissemination, and implementation of a core outcome set in TTTS will enable its use in future clinical trials, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines. This is

  20. Towards a model-based development approach for wireless sensor-actuator network protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar S., A. Ajith; Simonsen, Kent Inge

    2014-01-01

    Model-Driven Software Engineering (MDSE) is a promising approach for the development of applications, and has been well adopted in the embedded applications domain in recent years. Wireless Sensor Actuator Networks consisting of resource constrained hardware and platformspecific operating system...... induced due to manual translations. With the use of formal semantics in the modeling approach, we can further ensure the correctness of the source model by means of verification. Also, with the use of network simulators and formal modeling tools, we obtain a verified and validated model to be used...

  1. Formative research to develop theory-based messages for a Western Australian child drowning prevention television campaign: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-05-20

    Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Intervention development for the indicated prevention of depression in later life: The “DIL” protocol in Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Dias, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Because depression is a major source of the global burden of illness-related disability, developing effective strategies for reducing its incidence is an important public health priority, especially in low-income countries, where resources for treating depression are scarce. We describe in this report an intervention development project, funded by the US National Institute of Mental Health, to address “indicated” prevention of depression in older adults attending rural and urban primary care clinics in Goa, India. Specifically, participants in the “DIL” (“Depression in Later Life” trial were older adults living with mild, subsyndromal symptoms of depression and anxiety and thus at substantial risk for transitioning to fully syndromal major depression and anxiety disorders. Building upon the MANAS treatment trial (“Promoting Mental Health” led by Patel et al. in the same locale, we present here lessons learned in the development and implementation of a protocol utilizing lay health counsellors (LHCs who deliver a multi-component depression prevention intervention organized conceptually around Problem Solving Therapy for Primary Care (PST, with additional components addressing brief behavioural treatment of sleep disturbances such as insomnia, meeting basic social casework needs, and education in self-management of prevalent comorbid chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. To our knowledge, DIL is the first randomized clinical trial addressing the prevention of depressive disorders ever conducted in a low- or middle-income country.

  3. Association of teen mothers' and grandmothers' parenting capacities with child development: A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Damali; Gross, Deborah; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2017-12-01

    Children born to teen mothers may experience less responsive and supportive parenting and are at heightened risk for a range of social, developmental, and health issues. There is literature to support the positive impact of grandmothers on teen parents and their children. However, what if the teen's mother is also limited in her parenting capacities? How do parenting capacities across these two generations of mothers affect the developing child? In this ongoing study we are examining two important aspects of parenting capacities, attachment quality and executive functioning, in teen mothers (TM) and their biological, co- residing mothers or grandmothers (GM or GGM). Both are essential components of effective parenting, but little is known about their impact on young children's development when raised by two generations of parents. In a cross- sectional, descriptive design, a convenience sample of 50 TM/GM dyads with children 1 to 3 years old is being recruited from two urban teen-tot clinics. Participants complete a paper-and-pencil measure of attachment quality and a computerized measure of multiple aspects of executive function (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). A standardized maternal report measure is used to assess child developmental status. The biggest challenges of the study thus far include recruitment and transience of the study population. Progress to date and experiences from recruitment and data collection are discussed, as well as successful strategies to address challenges. © 2017 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Developing an holistic assessment protocol on a hospice inpatient ward: staff engagement and my role as a practice development facilitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lansdell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2014 I received the Richard Tompkins Nurse Development Scholarship, granted through the Foundation of Nursing Studies and including attendance at a five-day International Practice Development Collaborative practice development school, followed by a year’s mentorship. The scholarship aims to foster the delivery of person-centred care, which I hoped to achieve by enhancing holistic nursing assessment on a hospice inpatient ward. Aims: This article is a critical reflection on my learning through the scholarship, specifically related to staff engagement and my role as a practice development facilitator. Conclusions: While the project has not yet reached its conclusion, the learning has been invaluable. I have deepened my understanding of the need for collaboration, inclusion and participation to foster engagement and cultural change. More fundamentally, understanding how different aspects of my role enable change has proved both challenging and constructive, resulting in greater self-awareness and confidence. I remain committed to refining holistic nursing assessment to allow a greater degree of person-centred care in the hospice. Implications for practice: Practice development combines a variety of approaches to realise a shared vision; collaboration, inclusion and participation are central to fostering engagement Balancing different elements of a role (for instance, leader-manager-facilitator has the potential to be confusing and contradictory; awareness of how these elements interrelate promotes effectiveness when introducing change Individuals in a practice development role must ensure they have good sources of support

  5. Development of a Web-Accessible Population Pharmacokinetic Service-Hemophilia (WAPPS-Hemo): Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Alfonso; Keepanasseril, Arun; Foster, Gary; Navarro-Ruan, Tamara; McEneny-King, Alanna; Edginton, Andrea N; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-12-15

    Individual pharmacokinetic assessment is a critical component of tailored prophylaxis for hemophilia patients. Population pharmacokinetics allows using individual sparse data, thus simplifying individual pharmacokinetic studies. Implementing population pharmacokinetics capacity for the hemophilia community is beyond individual reach and requires a system effort. The Web-Accessible Population Pharmacokinetic Service-Hemophilia (WAPPS-Hemo) project aims to assemble a database of patient pharmacokinetic data for all existing factor concentrates, develop and validate population pharmacokinetics models, and integrate these models within a Web-based calculator for individualized pharmacokinetic estimation in patients at participating treatment centers. Individual pharmacokinetic studies on factor VIII and IX concentrates will be sourced from pharmaceutical companies and independent investigators. All factor concentrate manufacturers, hemophilia treatment centers (HTCs), and independent investigators (identified via a systematic review of the literature) having on file pharmacokinetic data and willing to contribute full or sparse pharmacokinetic data will be eligible for participation. Multicompartmental modeling will be performed using a mixed-model approach for derivation and Bayesian forecasting for estimation of individual sparse data. NONMEM (ICON Development Solutions) will be used as modeling software. The WAPPS-Hemo research network has been launched and is currently joined by 30 HTCs from across the world. We have gathered dense individual pharmacokinetic data on 878 subjects, including several replicates, on 21 different molecules from 17 different sources. We have collected sparse individual pharmacokinetic data on 289 subjects from the participating centers through the testing phase of the WAPPS-Hemo Web interface. We have developed prototypal population pharmacokinetics models for 11 molecules. The WAPPS-Hemo website (available at www.wapps-hemo.org, version

  6. Use of collateral sensitivity networks to design drug cycling protocols that avoid resistance development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imamovic, Lejla; Sommer, Morten

    2013-01-01

    and select against drug resistance development. We identified hundreds of such drug sets and demonstrated that the antibiotics gentamicin and cefuroxime can be deployed cyclically such that the treatment regimen selected against resistance to either drug. We then validated our findings with related bacterial......New drug deployment strategies are imperative to address the problem of drug resistance, which is limiting the management of infectious diseases and cancers. We evolved resistance in Escherichia coli toward 23 drugs used clinically for treating bacterial infections and mapped the resulting...... collateral sensitivity and resistance profiles, revealing a complex collateral sensitivity network. On the basis of these data, we propose a new treatment framework-collateral sensitivity cycling-in which drugs with compatible collateral sensitivity profiles are used sequentially to treat infection...

  7. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  8. Community Development and Divergent Forces in Philippine State Universities and Colleges: Developing a Protocol in Evaluating Extension Projects Towards Community Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter S. Ontoy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Divergent paradigms operate in State Universities and Colleges SUCs, which influence the performance of extension projects towards attainment of full empowerment as the ultimate goal implied by the universally-accepted definition of community development. In particular, a livelihood and environment project of Cebu Normal University (CNU implemented in Caputatan Norte, Medillin, Cebu, Philippines was assessed based on five (5 primary parameters and two (2 secondary parameters. A novel protocol using Delphi Method shows was developed and used for this particular study, which could be adapted in evaluating the performance of community extension projects. In this particular case, the performance of CNU livelihood and environment project falls between ―demonstration‖ and ―community organizing‖. The evaluation shows that there is still a need to reinforce activities to the ultimate goal. However, it is also implied that the secondary parameters are more robust indicators in assessing the outcomes of the project implementation towards full community empowerment.

  9. Kyoto protocol. Obtaining emission rights from projects in developing countries[Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI)]; Kyoto Protokoll. Erwerb von Emissionsrechten durch Projekte in Entwicklungslaendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlmann, M.

    2004-07-01

    According to the Kyoto Protocol, emission rights can be obtained by investments in climate-friendly projects in developing countries (''Clean Development Mechanism'', CDM). The author discusses the manifold legal problems involved when emission reduction goals under international law are implemented by private industrial organisations. Among the problems are the integration of CDM in existing and future energy management systems, the position of private legal bodies in the context of international law, the structure of CDM in international law, and the legal nature of the emission rights obtained by CDM. On the basis of the results obtained and in consideration of the experience so far of the ''Prototype Carbon Fund'' of the World Bank, the author suggests solutions for contracts and for effective management of project-specific risks. (orig.)

  10. Developing a Mass Casualty Surge Capacity Protocol for Emergency Medical Services to Use for Patient Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shartar, Samuel E; Moore, Brooks L; Wood, Lori M

    2017-12-01

    Metropolitan areas must be prepared to manage large numbers of casualties related to a major incident. Most US cities do not have adequate trauma center capacity to manage large-scale mass casualty incidents (MCIs). Creating surge capacity requires the distribution of casualties to hospitals that are not designated as trauma centers. Our objectives were to extrapolate MCI response research into operational objectives for MCI distribution plan development; formulate a patient distribution model based on research, hospital capacities, and resource availability; and design and disseminate a casualty distribution tool for use by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel to distribute patients to the appropriate level of care. Working with hospitals within the region, we refined emergency department surge capacity for MCIs and developed a prepopulated tool for EMS providers to use to distribute higher-acuity casualties to trauma centers and lower-acuity casualties to nontrauma hospitals. A mechanism to remove a hospital from the list of available resources, if it is overwhelmed with patients who self-transport to the location, also was put into place. The number of critically injured survivors from an MCI has proven to be consistent, averaging 7% to 10%. Moving critically injured patients to level 1 trauma centers can result in a 25% reduction in mortality, when compared with care at nontrauma hospitals. US cities face major gaps in the surge capacity needed to manage an MCI. Sixty percent of "walking wounded" casualties self-transport to the closest hospital(s) to the incident. Directing critically ill patients to designated trauma centers has the potential to reduce mortality associated with the event. When applied to MCI responses, damage-control principles reduce resource utilization and optimize surge capacity. A universal system for mass casualty triage was identified and incorporated into the region's EMS. Flagship regional coordinating hospitals were designated

  11. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquidi, Jacob; Brar, Ramaninder K.; Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo

    2015-07-01

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today's global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males' longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose.

  12. Performance of Momguard, a new non-invasive prenatal testing protocol developed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Young; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Won, Hye-Sung; Hwang, Ah Reum; Jeong, Bada; Kim, Jihun; Oh, Mijin

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of Momguard, non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for detecting trisomy (T) 21, T18, T13, and sex-chromosome abnormalities recently developed in Korea. This preliminary study formed part of a large prospective cohort study conducted at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Only pregnant women who underwent both NIPT and confirmatory karyotyping were included in this study. NIPT results were compared with those of karyotype analyses. Among 93 eligible cases, NIPT results could not be obtained in one case due to a low fetal cell-free DNA fraction. Based on NIPT, eight cases of fetal aneuploidies, including T21 (n=5), T18 (n=2), and T13 (n=1), were identified. For T21 and T18, the sensitivity and specificity of NIPT were both 100%, with a false-positive and false-negative rate of 0% and a positive-predictive value of 100%. One patient classified as having intermediate risk for T13 by NIPT was confirmed to have T13 by karyotyping, and there were no false-negative cases. No cases of sex-chromosome anomalies were detected by NIPT or karyotyping during the study period. Momguard is a reliable screening tool for detecting T21 and T18. For T13 and sex-chromosome anomalies, further prospective studies are necessary to confirm its utility.

  13. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi, Jacob, E-mail: jurquidi@nmsu.edu; Brar, Ramaninder K. [X-ray and Neutron Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo [Molecular Vector Physiology Lab, Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2015-07-23

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today’s global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males’ longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose.

  14. Better movers and thinkers (BMT: A quasi-experimental study into the impact of physical education on children's cognition—A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Dalziell

    2015-01-01

    This protocol provides the details of the rationale and design of the study and details of the intervention, outcome measures, and the recruitment process. The study will address gaps within current research by evaluating if a change of approach in the delivery of PE within schools has an effect on children's cognition, PA habits, and GMC within a Scottish setting.

  15. Effect of experimental methods for selective development of motor skills of young karatists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymir Galimskyi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: justify, develop and experimentally verify the effectiveness of the pilot program of development of physical qualities of young karate during pre-basic training. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 52 karate 10–12 years. Applied pedagogical experiment, teacher testing and statistical methods. Results: identify the means program development and evaluation criteria of physical fitness of young karate. Conclusions: The use of the author's program contributed to a more significant increase in special physical preparedness karate experimental group.

  16. Application of the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop Keys, a family child care home intervention to prevent early childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Courtney M; Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Long Vidal, Lenita J; Omar, Sakinah; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J; Østbye, Truls

    2015-12-10

    Many families rely on child care outside the home, making these settings important influences on child development. Nearly 1.5 million children in the U.S. spend time in family child care homes (FCCHs), where providers care for children in their own residences. There is some evidence that children in FCCHs are heavier than those cared for in centers. However, few interventions have targeted FCCHs for obesity prevention. This paper will describe the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) framework to the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for FCCHs Following the IM protocol, six steps were completed in the planning and development of an intervention targeting FCCHs: needs assessment, formulation of change objectives matrices, selection of theory-based methods and strategies, creation of intervention components and materials, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning Application of the IM process resulted in the creation of the Keys to Healthy Family Child Care Homes program (Keys), which includes three modules: Healthy You, Healthy Home, and Healthy Business. Delivery of each module includes a workshop, educational binder and tool-kit resources, and four coaching contacts. Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory helped guide development of change objective matrices, selection of behavior change strategies, and identification of outcome measures. The Keys program is currently being evaluated through a cluster-randomized controlled trial The IM process, while time-consuming, enabled rigorous and systematic development of intervention components that are directly tied to behavior change theory and may increase the potential for behavior change within the FCCHs.

  17. Developing a Three-Dimensional (3D) Assessment Method for Clubfoot-A Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasankar; Luximon, Ameersing; Al-Jumaily, Adel A; Yip, Joanne; Gibbons, Paul J; Chivers, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Background: Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) or clubfoot is a common pediatric congenital foot deformity that occurs 1 in 1,000 live births. Clubfoot is characterized by four types of foot deformities: hindfoot equinus; midfoot cavus; forefoot adductus; and hindfoot varus. A structured assessment method for clubfoot is essential for quantifying the initial severity of clubfoot deformity and recording the progress of clubfoot intervention. Aim: This study aims to develop a three-dimensional (3D) assessment method to evaluate the initial severity of the clubfoot and monitor the structural changes of the clubfoot after each casting intervention. In addition, this study explores the relationship between the thermophysiological changes in the clubfoot at each stage of the casting intervention and in the normal foot. Methods: In this study, a total of 10 clubfoot children who are 3D scanner will be used to collect the 3D images of the clubfoot and normal foot, and an Infrared thermography camera (IRT camera) will be used to collect the thermal images of the clubfoot. Three-dimensional scanning and IR imaging will be performed on the foot once a week before casting. In total, 6-8 scanning sessions will be performed for each child participant. The following parameters will be calculated as outcome measures to predict, monitor, and quantify the severity of the clubfoot: Angles cross section parameters, such as length, width, and the radial distance; distance between selected anatomical landmarks, and skin temperature of the clubfoot and normal foot. The skin temperature will be collected on selected areas (forefoot, mid foot, and hindfoot) to find out the relationship between the thermophysiological changes in the clubfoot at each stage of the casting treatment and in the normal foot. Ethics: The study has been reviewed and approved on 17 August 2016 by the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network Human Research Ethics Committee (SCHN HREC), Sydney, Australia. The Human

  18. Developing a Three-Dimensional (3D) Assessment Method for Clubfoot—A Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasankar; Luximon, Ameersing; Al-Jumaily, Adel A.; Yip, Joanne; Gibbons, Paul J.; Chivers, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Background: Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) or clubfoot is a common pediatric congenital foot deformity that occurs 1 in 1,000 live births. Clubfoot is characterized by four types of foot deformities: hindfoot equinus; midfoot cavus; forefoot adductus; and hindfoot varus. A structured assessment method for clubfoot is essential for quantifying the initial severity of clubfoot deformity and recording the progress of clubfoot intervention. Aim: This study aims to develop a three-dimensional (3D) assessment method to evaluate the initial severity of the clubfoot and monitor the structural changes of the clubfoot after each casting intervention. In addition, this study explores the relationship between the thermophysiological changes in the clubfoot at each stage of the casting intervention and in the normal foot. Methods: In this study, a total of 10 clubfoot children who are 3D scanner will be used to collect the 3D images of the clubfoot and normal foot, and an Infrared thermography camera (IRT camera) will be used to collect the thermal images of the clubfoot. Three-dimensional scanning and IR imaging will be performed on the foot once a week before casting. In total, 6–8 scanning sessions will be performed for each child participant. The following parameters will be calculated as outcome measures to predict, monitor, and quantify the severity of the clubfoot: Angles cross section parameters, such as length, width, and the radial distance; distance between selected anatomical landmarks, and skin temperature of the clubfoot and normal foot. The skin temperature will be collected on selected areas (forefoot, mid foot, and hindfoot) to find out the relationship between the thermophysiological changes in the clubfoot at each stage of the casting treatment and in the normal foot. Ethics: The study has been reviewed and approved on 17 August 2016 by the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network Human Research Ethics Committee (SCHN HREC), Sydney, Australia. The Human

  19. Protocol for developing a Database of Zoonotic disease Research in India (DoZooRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Kakkar, Manish

    2017-12-10

    Zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) represent a public health threat that has been acknowledged only recently although they have been on the rise for the past several decades. On an average, every year since the Second World War, one pathogen has emerged or re-emerged on a global scale. Low/middle-income countries such as India bear a significant burden of zoonotic and EIDs. We propose that the creation of a database of published, peer-reviewed research will open up avenues for evidence-based policymaking for targeted prevention and control of zoonoses. A large-scale systematic mapping of the published peer-reviewed research conducted in India will be undertaken. All published research will be included in the database, without any prejudice for quality screening, to broaden the scope of included studies. Structured search strategies will be developed for priority zoonotic diseases (leptospirosis, rabies, anthrax, brucellosis, cysticercosis, salmonellosis, bovine tuberculosis, Japanese encephalitis and rickettsial infections), and multiple databases will be searched for studies conducted in India. The database will be managed and hosted on a cloud-based platform called Rayyan. Individual studies will be tagged based on key preidentified parameters (disease, study design, study type, location, randomisation status and interventions, host involvement and others, as applicable). The database will incorporate already published studies, obviating the need for additional ethical clearances. The database will be made available online, and in collaboration with multisectoral teams, domains of enquiries will be identified and subsequent research questions will be raised. The database will be queried for these and resulting evidence will be analysed and published in peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  20. The Development of Experimentation and Evidence Evaluation Skills at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Grube, Dietmar; Maehler, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers taking a domain-general approach to the development of scientific reasoning long thought that the ability to engage in scientific reasoning did not develop until adolescence. However, more recent studies have shown that preschool children already have a basic ability to evaluate evidence and a basic understanding of experimentation.…

  1. (dtltt) protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... STLODGSTT protocol uses static value of threshold bandwidth to allocate available bandwidth to the asynchronous traffic, as such, the ... 12, 13 ] SAFENET [14], Manufacturing Automation. Protocol (MAP) [15], High-Speed ... the threshold bandwidth used in allocating available bandwidth to the n heavily ...

  2. Experimental and computational development of a natural breast phantom for dosimetry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luciana B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: lucibn19@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental and computational development of a natural breast phantom, anthropomorphic and anthropometric for studies in dosimetry of brachytherapy and teletherapy of breast. The natural breast phantom developed corresponding to fibroadipose breasts of women aged 30 to 50 years, presenting radiographically medium density. The experimental breast phantom was constituted of three tissue-equivalents (TE's): glandular TE, adipose TE and skin TE. These TE's were developed according to chemical composition of human breast and present radiological response to exposure. Completed the construction of experimental breast phantom this was mounted on a thorax phantom previously developed by the research group NRI/UFMG. Then the computational breast phantom was constructed by performing a computed tomography (CT) by axial slices of the chest phantom. Through the images generated by CT a computational model of voxels of the thorax phantom was developed by SISCODES computational program, being the computational breast phantom represented by the same TE's of the experimental breast phantom. The images generated by CT allowed evaluating the radiological equivalence of the tissues. The breast phantom is being used in studies of experimental dosimetry both in brachytherapy as in teletherapy of breast. Dosimetry studies by MCNP-5 code using the computational model of the phantom breast are in progress. (author)

  3. Developing a Three-Dimensional (3D Assessment Method for Clubfoot—A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasankar Ganesan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV or clubfoot is a common pediatric congenital foot deformity that occurs 1 in 1,000 live births. Clubfoot is characterized by four types of foot deformities: hindfoot equinus; midfoot cavus; forefoot adductus; and hindfoot varus. A structured assessment method for clubfoot is essential for quantifying the initial severity of clubfoot deformity and recording the progress of clubfoot intervention.Aim: This study aims to develop a three-dimensional (3D assessment method to evaluate the initial severity of the clubfoot and monitor the structural changes of the clubfoot after each casting intervention. In addition, this study explores the relationship between the thermophysiological changes in the clubfoot at each stage of the casting intervention and in the normal foot.Methods: In this study, a total of 10 clubfoot children who are <2 years old will be recruited. Also, the data of the unaffected feet of a total of 10 children with unilateral clubfoot will be obtained as a reference for normal feet. A Kinect 3D scanner will be used to collect the 3D images of the clubfoot and normal foot, and an Infrared thermography camera (IRT camera will be used to collect the thermal images of the clubfoot. Three-dimensional scanning and IR imaging will be performed on the foot once a week before casting. In total, 6–8 scanning sessions will be performed for each child participant. The following parameters will be calculated as outcome measures to predict, monitor, and quantify the severity of the clubfoot: Angles cross section parameters, such as length, width, and the radial distance; distance between selected anatomical landmarks, and skin temperature of the clubfoot and normal foot. The skin temperature will be collected on selected areas (forefoot, mid foot, and hindfoot to find out the relationship between the thermophysiological changes in the clubfoot at each stage of the casting treatment and in the

  4. Developing Effective and Efficient care pathways in chronic Pain: DEEP study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Justin; Breckons, Matthew; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Exley, Catherine; Steele, Jimmy; Vale, Luke

    2014-01-21

    Pain affecting the face or mouth and lasting longer than three months ("chronic orofacial pain", COFP) is relatively common in the UK. This study aims to describe and model current care pathways for COFP patients, identify areas where current pathways could be modified, and model whether these changes would improve outcomes for patients and use resources more efficiently. The study takes a prospective operations research approach. A cohort of primary and secondary care COFP patients (n = 240) will be recruited at differing stages of their care in order to follow and analyse their journey through care. The cohort will be followed for two years with data collected at baseline 6, 12, 18, and 24 months on: 1) experiences of the care pathway and its impacts; 2) quality of life; 3) pain; 4) use of health services and costs incurred; 5) illness perceptions. Qualitative in-depth interviews will be used to collect data on patient experiences from a purposive sub-sample of the total cohort (n = 30) at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Four separate appraisal groups (public, patient, clincian, service manager/commissioning) will then be given data from the pathway analysis and asked to determine their priority areas for change. The proposals from appraisal groups will inform an economic modelling exercise. Findings from the economic modelling will be presented as incremental costs, Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), and the incremental cost per QALY gained. At the end of the modelling a series of recommendations for service change will be available for implementation or further trial if necessary. The recent white paper on health and the report from the NHS Forum identified chronic conditions as priority areas and whilst technology can improve outcomes, so can simple, appropriate and well-defined clinical care pathways. Understanding the opportunity cost related to care pathways benefits the wider NHS. This research develops a method to help design efficient systems built

  5. Development of quality indicators for monitoring outcomes of frail elderly hospitalised in acute care health settings: Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travers Catherine M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frail older people admitted to acute care hospitals are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes, including geriatric syndromes, although targeted care strategies can improve health outcomes for these patients. It is therefore important to assess inter-hospital variation in performance in order to plan and resource improvement programs. Clinical quality outcome indicators provide a mechanism for identifying variation in performance over time and between hospitals, however to date there has been no routine use of such indicators in acute care settings. A barrier to using quality indicators is lack of access to routinely collected clinical data. The interRAI Acute Care (AC assessment system supports comprehensive geriatric assessment of older people within routine daily practice in hospital and includes process and outcome data pertaining to geriatric syndromes. This paper reports the study protocol for the development of aged care quality indicators for acute care hospitals. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in three phases: 1. Development of a preliminary inclusive set of quality indicators set based on a literature review and expert panel consultation, 2. A prospective field study including recruitment of 480 patients aged 70 years or older across 9 Australian hospitals. Each patient will be assessed on admission and discharge using the interRAI AC, and will undergo daily monitoring to observe outcomes. Medical records will be independently audited, and 3. Analysis and compilation of a definitive quality indicator set, including two anonymous voting rounds for quality indicator inclusion by the expert panel. Discussion The approach to quality indicators proposed in this protocol has four distinct advantages over previous efforts: the quality indicators focus on outcomes; they can be collected as part of a routinely applied clinical information and decision support system; the clinical data will be robust and will

  6. A theory-based educational intervention targeting nurses' attitudes and knowledge concerning cancer-related pain management: a study protocol of a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglin, Gunilla; Gustafsson, Markus; Krona, Hans

    2011-09-23

    Pain is one of the most frequent problems among patients diagnosed with cancer. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments, this group of patients often receives less than optimal treatment. Research into nurses' pain management highlights certain factors, such as lack of knowledge and attitudes and inadequate procedures for systematic pain assessment, as common barriers to effective pain management. However, educational interventions targeting nurses' pain management have shown promise. As cancer-related pain is also known to have a negative effect on vital aspects of the patient's life, as well as being commonly associated with problems such as sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety, further development of knowledge within this area is warranted. A quasi-experimental study design will be used to investigate whether the implementation of guidelines for systematic daily pain assessments following a theory-based educational intervention will result in an improvement in knowledge and attitude among nurses. A further aim is to investigate whether the intervention that targets nurses' behaviour will improve hospital patients' perception of pain. Data regarding nurses' knowledge and attitudes to pain (primary outcome), patient perception regarding pain (secondary outcome), together with socio-demographic variables, will be collected at baseline and at four weeks and 12 weeks following the intervention. Nursing care is nowadays acknowledged as an increasingly complicated activity and "nursing complexity is such that it can be seen as the quintessential complex intervention." To be able to change and improve clinical practice thus requires multiple points of attack appropriate to meet complex challenges. Consequently, we expect the theory-based intervention used in our quasi-experimental study to improve care as well as quality of life for this group of patients and we also envisage that evidence-based guidelines targeting this patient group's pain

  7. A theory-based educational intervention targeting nurses' attitudes and knowledge concerning cancer-related pain management: A study protocol of a quasi-experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Markus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is one of the most frequent problems among patients diagnosed with cancer. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments, this group of patients often receives less than optimal treatment. Research into nurses' pain management highlights certain factors, such as lack of knowledge and attitudes and inadequate procedures for systematic pain assessment, as common barriers to effective pain management. However, educational interventions targeting nurses' pain management have shown promise. As cancer-related pain is also known to have a negative effect on vital aspects of the patient's life, as well as being commonly associated with problems such as sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety, further development of knowledge within this area is warranted. Methods/design A quasi-experimental study design will be used to investigate whether the implementation of guidelines for systematic daily pain assessments following a theory-based educational intervention will result in an improvement in knowledge and attitude among nurses. A further aim is to investigate whether the intervention that targets nurses' behaviour will improve hospital patients' perception of pain. Data regarding nurses' knowledge and attitudes to pain (primary outcome, patient perception regarding pain (secondary outcome, together with socio-demographic variables, will be collected at baseline and at four weeks and 12 weeks following the intervention. Discussion Nursing care is nowadays acknowledged as an increasingly complicated activity and "nursing complexity is such that it can be seen as the quintessential complex intervention." To be able to change and improve clinical practice thus requires multiple points of attack appropriate to meet complex challenges. Consequently, we expect the theory-based intervention used in our quasi-experimental study to improve care as well as quality of life for this group of patients and we also envisage that

  8. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demons...

  9. Tribology of flexible and sliding spinal implants: Development of experimental and numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Sophie; Chaves-Jacob, Julien; Rossi, Jean-Marie; Linares, Jean-Marc; Chabrand, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    New fusionless devices are being developed to get over the limits of actual spinal surgical treatment, based on arthrodesis. However, due to their recentness, no standards exist to test and validate those devices, especially concerning the wear. A new tribological first approach to the definition of an in vitro wear protocol to study wear of flexible and sliding spinal devices is presented in this article, and was applied to a new concept. A simplified synthetic spine portion (polyethylene) was developed to reproduce a simple supra-physiological spinal flexion (10° between two vertebrae). The device studied with this protocol was tested in wet environment until 1 million cycles (Mc). We obtained an encouraging estimated wear volume of same order of magnitude compared to similar devices. An associated finite element (FE) numerical model has permitted to access contact information and study the effect of misalignment of one screw. First results could point out how to improve the design and suggest that a vertical misalignment of a screw (under or over-screwing) has more impact than a horizontal one. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 104-111, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cooperative Experimental System Development - cooperative techniques beyound initial design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1995-01-01

    , however, not limited to this development context, it may be applied for in-house or contract development as well. In system development, particularly in cooperative and experimental system development, we argue that it is necessary to analytically separate the abstract concerns, e.g. analysis, design......This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis/design...

  11. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students’ Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students’ competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not measure how well students use standard symbolism to visualize biological experiments. We propose an assessment-design process that 1) provides background knowledge and questions for developers of new “experimentation assessments,” 2) elicits practices of representing experiments with conventional symbol systems, 3) determines how well the assessment reveals expert knowledge, and 4) determines how well the instrument exposes student knowledge and difficulties. To illustrate this process, we developed the Neuron Assessment and coded responses from a scientist and four undergraduate students using the Rubric for Experimental Design and the Concept-Reasoning Mode of representation (CRM) model. Some students demonstrated sound knowledge of concepts and representations. Other students demonstrated difficulty with depicting treatment and control group data or variability in experimental outcomes. Our process, which incorporates an authentic research situation that discriminates levels of visualization and experimentation abilities, shows potential for informing assessment design in other disciplines. PMID:27146159

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) inhibits tumor development from precancerous tissue: an experimental study that supports a potential new application of BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti Hughes, A; Heber, E M; Pozzi, E; Nigg, D W; Calzetta, O; Blaumann, H; Longhino, J; Nievas, S I; Aromando, R F; Itoiz, M E; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2009-07-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na(2)(10)B(10)H(10)) and (GB-10+BPA) to control tumors, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity, in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Herein we developed a novel experimental model of field-cancerization and precancerous lesions (globally termed herein precancerous tissue) in the hamster cheek pouch to explore the long-term potential inhibitory effect of the same BNCT protocols on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue. Clinically, second primary tumor recurrences occur in field-cancerized tissue, causing therapeutic failure. We performed boron biodistribution studies followed by in vivo BNCT studies, with 8 months follow-up. All 3 BNCT protocols induced a statistically significant reduction in tumor development from precancerous tissue, reaching a maximum inhibition of 77-100%. The inhibitory effect of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT persisted at 51% at the end of follow-up (8 months), whereas for GB-10-BNCT it faded after 2 months. Likewise, beam-only elicited a significant but transient reduction in tumor development. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was observed. At 8 months post-treatment with BPA-BNCT or (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT, the precancerous pouches that did not develop tumors had regained the macroscopic and histological appearance of normal (non-cancerized) pouches. A potential new clinical application of BNCT would lie in its capacity to inhibit local regional recurrences.

  13. Bovine oocyte vitrification using the Cryotop method: effect of cumulus cells and vitrification protocol on survival and subsequent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X L; Al Naib, A; Sun, Da-Wen; Sun, D W; Lonergan, P

    2010-08-01

    The ability to successfully cryopreserve mammalian oocytes has numerous practical, economical and ethical benefits, which may positively impact animal breeding programs and assisted conception in humans. However, oocyte survival and development following vitrification remains poor. The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the effect of the presence of cumulus cells on the outcome of vitrification of immature (GV) or mature (MII) bovine oocytes, (2) to compare empirical and theoretical vitrification protocols, and (3) to assess the effect of adding ice blockers to vitrification media on survival and development competence of bovine oocytes following vitrification using the Cryotop method. In Experiment 1, cumulus-enclosed and partially-denuded GV and MII oocytes were vitrified in 15% EG+15% Me(2)SO+0.5M sucrose in two steps. In Experiment 2, GV oocytes were vitrified either as above or using theoretical modeling based on permeability and osmotic tolerance characteristics in 30% EG+11.4% trehalose in three steps or 40% EG+11.4% trehalose in four steps. In Experiment 3, GV oocytes were vitrified in media supplemented or not with 1 of 2 ice blockers (21st Century Medicine, Fontana, CA) 1% X-1000, 1% Z-1000 or both in three steps. In Experiment 1, the survival, cleavage and blastocyst rate of cumulus-enclosed oocytes was significantly higher than those of partially-denuded oocytes when vitrified at the GV stage (93.8% vs. 81.3%, 65.8% vs. 47.3%, 11.3% vs. 4.0%, respectively, P0.05). In conclusion, cumulus-enclosed GV bovine oocytes survived vitrification and subsequently developed at higher rates than MII oocytes using Cryotop method and conventional IVF procedure. Theoretical analysis of permeability characteristics and tolerance limits could not explain the low developmental competence of vitrified oocytes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. PRISMA-Children (C) and PRISMA-Protocol for Children (P-C) Extensions: a study protocol for the development of guidelines for the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of newborn and child health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Mufiza Z; Askie, Lisa; Hartling, Lisa; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Soll, Roger; Moher, David; Offringa, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric systematic reviews differ from adult systematic reviews in several key aspects such as considerations of child tailored interventions, justifiable comparators, valid outcomes and child sensitive search strategies. Available guidelines, including PRISMA-P (2015) and PRISMA (2009), do not cover all the complexities associated with reporting systematic reviews in the paediatric population. Using a collaborative, multidisciplinary structure, we aim to develop evidence-based and consensus-based PRISMA-P-C (Protocol for Children) and PRISMA-C (Children) Extensions to guide paediatric systematic review protocol and completed review reporting. Methods and analysis This project's methodology follows published recommendations for developing reporting guidelines and involves the following six phases; (1) establishment of a steering committee representing key stakeholder groups; (2) a scoping review to identify potential Extension items; (3) three types of consensus activities including meetings of the steering committee to achieve high-level decisions on the content and methodology of the Extensions, a survey of key stakeholders to generate a list of possible items to include in the Extensions and a formal consensus meeting to select the reporting items to add to, or modify for, the Extension; (4) the preliminary checklist items generated in phase III will be evaluated against the existing evidence and reporting practices in paediatric systematic reviews; (5) extension statements and explanation and elaboration documents will provide detailed advice for each item and examples of good reporting; (6) development and implementation of effective knowledge translation of the extension checklist, and an evaluation of the Extensions by key stakeholders. Ethics and Dissemination This protocol was considered a quality improvement project by the Hospital for Sick Children's Ethics Committee and did not require ethical review. The resultant checklists, jointly

  15. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Inpatients with Psychosis (the REACH Study): Protocol for Treatment Development and Pilot Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Davis, Carter H.; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Johnson, Jennifer E.; Mueser, Kim T.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders frequently require treatment at inpatient hospitals during periods of acute illness for crisis management and stabilization. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a “third wave” cognitive-behavioral intervention that employs innovative mindfulness-based strategies, has shown initial efficacy in randomized controlled trials for improving acute and post-discharge outcomes in patients with psychosis when studied in acute-care psychiatric hospitals in the U.S. However, the intervention has not been widely adopted in its current form because of its use of an individual-only format and delivery by doctoral-level research therapists with extensive prior experience using ACT. The aim of the Researching the Effectiveness of Acceptance-based Coping during Hospitalization (REACH) Study is to adapt a promising acute-care psychosocial treatment for inpatients with psychosis, and to pilot test its effectiveness in a routine inpatient setting. More specifically, we describe our plans to: (a) further develop and refine the treatment and training protocols, (b) conduct an open trial and make further modifications based on the experience gained, and (c) conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial in preparation for a future fully-powered clinical trial testing the effectiveness of ACT. PMID:28475123

  16. Development of a Competent and Trouble Free DNA Isolation Protocol for Downstream Genetic Analyses in Glycine Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amjad Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA from plants is preliminary step in molecular biology. Fast and cost effective genomic DNA isolation from Glycine species for downstream application is a major bottleneck. Here we report a high throughput and trouble free method for genomic DNA extraction from leaf and seeds of Glycine species with high quality and quantity. Protocol reports the optimization by employing different concentrations of CTAB and PVP in extraction buffer. Efficiency of optimized protocol was compared with frequently used DNA extraction methods. Wide adoptability and utility of this protocol was confirmed by DNA extraction from leaves as well as seeds of G. max, G. soja, G. tomentella and G. latifolia. Extracted DNA was successfully subjected to PCR amplification of five microsatellite markers and four putative glycosyltransferase genes. DNA extraction protocol is reproducible, trouble free, rapid and can be adopted for plant molecular biology applications.

  17. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, M.; Brinkman, S.A.; Beatty, A.; Maika, A.; Satriawan, E.; de Ree, J.; Hasan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program

  18. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayadhar Barik

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient′s treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol.

  19. Optimizing the imaging protocol for vivo coronary artery wall using high-resolution MIRI: An experimental study on porcine and human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jiang; Li, Tao; Cul, Xiaoming; Zhou, Weihua; Zhang, Xinwu [The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Beijing (China)

    2013-08-15

    To optimize the MR imaging protocol for coronary arterial wall depiction in vitro and characterize the coronary atherosclerotic plaques. MRI examination was prospectively performed in ten porcine hearts in order to optimize the MR imaging protocol. Various surface coils were used for coronary arterial wall imaging with the same parameters. Then, the image parameters were further optimized for high-resolution coronary wall imaging. The signal-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-noise ratio (CNR) of images were measured. Finally, 8 human cadaver hearts with coronary atherosclerotic plaques were prospectively performed with MRI examination using optimized protocol in order to characterize the coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The SNR and CNR of MR image with temporomandibular coil were the highest of various surface coils. High-resolution and high SNR and CNR for ex vivo coronary artery wall depiction can be achieved using temporomandibular coil with 512 x 512 in matrix. Compared with histopathology, the sensitivity and specificity of MRI for identifying advanced plaques were: type IV-V (lipid, necrosis, fibrosis), 94% and 95%; type VI (hemorrhage), 100% and 98%; type VII (calcification), 91% and 100%; and type VIII (fibrosis without lipid core), 100% and 98%, respectively. Temporomandibular coil appears to be dramatically superior to eight-channel head coil and knee coil for ex vivo coronary artery wall imaging, providing higher spatial resolution and improved the SNR. Ex vivo high-resolution MRI has capability to distinguish human coronary atherosclerotic plaque compositions and accurately classify advanced plaques.

  20. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students' responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students' experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design. © 2014 A. P. Dasgupta et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. Model development, testing and experimentation in a CyberWorkstation for Brain-Machine Interface research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanatamrong, Prapaporn; Matsunaga, Andrea; Raiturkar, Pooja; Mesa, Diego; Zhao, Ming; Mahmoudi, Babak; Digiovanna, Jack; Principe, Jose; Figueiredo, Renato; Sanchez, Justin; Fortes, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The CyberWorkstation (CW) is an advanced cyber-infrastructure for Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) research. It allows the development, configuration and execution of BMI computational models using high-performance computing resources. The CW's concept is implemented using a software structure in which an "experiment engine" is used to coordinate all software modules needed to capture, communicate and process brain signals and motor-control commands. A generic BMI-model template, which specifies a common interface to the CW's experiment engine, and a common communication protocol enable easy addition, removal or replacement of models without disrupting system operation. This paper reviews the essential components of the CW and shows how templates can facilitate the processes of BMI model development, testing and incorporation into the CW. It also discusses the ongoing work towards making this process infrastructure independent.

  2. Personalised Hip Therapy: development of a non-operative protocol to treat femoroacetabular impingement syndrome in the FASHIoN randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Peter Dh; Dickenson, Edward J; Robinson, David; Hughes, Ivor; Realpe, Alba; Hobson, Rachel; Griffin, Damian R; Foster, Nadine E

    2016-10-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome is increasingly recognised as a cause of hip pain. As part of the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of arthroscopic surgery for FAI syndrome, we developed a protocol for non-operative care and evaluated its feasibility. In phase one, we developed a protocol for non-operative care for FAI in the UK National Health Service (NHS), through a process of systematic review and consensus gathering. In phase two, the protocol was tested in an internal pilot RCT for protocol adherence and adverse events. The final protocol, called Personalised Hip Therapy (PHT), consists of four core components led by physiotherapists: detailed patient assessment, education and advice, help with pain relief and an exercise-based programme that is individualised, supervised and progressed over time. PHT is delivered over 12-26 weeks in 6-10 physiotherapist-patient contacts, supplemented by a home exercise programme. In the pilot RCT, 42 patients were recruited and 21 randomised to PHT. Review of treatment case report forms, completed by physiotherapists, showed that 13 patients (62%) received treatment that had closely followed the PHT protocol. 13 patients reported some muscle soreness at 6 weeks, but there were no serious adverse events. PHT provides a structure for the non-operative care of FAI and offers guidance to clinicians and researchers in an evolving area with limited evidence. PHT was deliverable within the National Health Service, is safe, and now forms the comparator to arthroscopic surgery in the UK FASHIoN trial (ISRCTN64081839). ISRCTN 09754699. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Development of New Sensing Materials Using Combinatorial and High-Throughput Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Mirsky, Vladimir M.

    New sensors with improved performance characteristics are needed for applications as diverse as bedside continuous monitoring, tracking of environmental pollutants, monitoring of food and water quality, monitoring of chemical processes, and safety in industrial, consumer, and automotive settings. Typical requirements in sensor improvement are selectivity, long-term stability, sensitivity, response time, reversibility, and reproducibility. Design of new sensing materials is the important cornerstone in the effort to develop new sensors. Often, sensing materials are too complex to predict their performance quantitatively in the design stage. Thus, combinatorial and high-throughput experimentation methodologies provide an opportunity to generate new required data to discover new sensing materials and/or to optimize existing material compositions. The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the key concepts of experimental development of sensing materials using combinatorial and high-throughput experimentation tools, and to promote additional fruitful interactions between computational scientists and experimentalists.

  4. Development of a physical activity monitoring tool for Thai medical schools: a protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapisit, Apichai; Vijitpongjinda, Surasak; Saengow, Udomsak; Amaek, Waluka; Thanamee, Sanhapan; Petchuay, Prachyapan

    2017-09-27

    Physical activity (PA) is important in promoting health, as well as in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, insufficient PA is still a global health problem and it is also a problem in medical schools. PA training in medical curricula is still sparse or non-existent. There is a need for a comprehensive understanding of the extent of PA in medical schools through several indicators, including people, places and policies. This study includes a survey of the PA prevalence in a medical school and development of a tool, the Medical School Physical Activity Report Card (MSPARC), which will contain concise and understandable infographics and information for exploring, monitoring and reporting information relating to PA prevalence. This mixed methods study will run from January to September 2017. We will involve the School of Medicine, Walailak University, Thailand, and its medical students (n=285). Data collection will consist of both primary and secondary data, divided into four parts: general information, people, places and policies. We will investigate the PA metrics about (1) people: the prevalence of PA and sedentary behaviours; (2) place: the quality and accessibility of walkable neighbourhoods, bicycle facilities and recreational areas; and (3) policy: PA promotion programmes for medical students, education metrics and investments related to PA. The MSPARC will be developed using simple symbols, infographics and short texts to evaluate the PA metrics of the medical school. This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Walailak University (protocol number: WUEC-16-005-01). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national or international conferences. The MSPARC and full report will be disseminated to relevant stakeholders, policymakers, staff and clients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  5. From experimental zoology to big data: Observation and integration in the study of animal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, Jessica; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    The founding of the Journal of Experimental Zoology in 1904 was inspired by a widespread turn toward experimental biology in the 19th century. The founding editors sought to promote experimental, laboratory-based approaches, particularly in developmental biology. This agenda raised key practical and epistemological questions about how and where to study development: Does the environment matter? How do we know that a cell or embryo isolated to facilitate observation reveals normal developmental processes? How can we integrate descriptive and experimental data? R.G. Harrison, the journal's first editor, grappled with these questions in justifying his use of cell culture to study neural patterning. Others confronted them in different contexts: for example, F.B. Sumner insisted on the primacy of fieldwork in his studies on adaptation, but also performed breeding experiments using wild-collected animals. The work of Harrison, Sumner, and other early contributors exemplified both the power of new techniques, and the meticulous explanation of practice and epistemology that was marshaled to promote experimental approaches. A century later, experimentation is widely viewed as the standard way to study development; yet at the same time, cutting-edge "big data" projects are essentially descriptive, closer to natural history than to the approaches championed by Harrison et al. Thus, the original questions about how and where we can best learn about development are still with us. Examining their history can inform current efforts to incorporate data from experiment and description, lab and field, and a broad range of organisms and disciplines, into an integrated understanding of animal development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Online Support Program for Parents of Children With a Chronic Kidney Disease Using Intervention Mapping: A Development and Evaluation Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geense, Wytske W; van Gaal, Betsie Gi; Knoll, Jacqueline L; Cornelissen, Elisabeth Am; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-13

    The care for children with a chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex. Parents of these children may experience high levels of stress in managing their child's disease, potentially leading to negative effects on their child's health outcomes. Although the experienced problems are well known, adequate (online) support for these parents is lacking. The objective of the study is to describe the systematic development of an online support program for parents of children with CKD, and how this program will be evaluated. Intervention Mapping (IM) was used for the development of the program. After conducting a needs assessment, defining program objectives, searching for theories, and selecting practical applications, the online program e-Powered Parents was developed. e-Powered Parents consist of three parts: (1) an informative part with information about CKD and treatments, (2) an interactive part where parents can communicate with other parents and health care professionals by chat, private messages, and a forum, and (3) a training platform consisting of four modules: Managing stress, Setting limits, Communication, and Coping with emotions. In a feasibility study, the potential effectiveness and effect size of e-Powered Parents will be evaluated using an explorative randomized controlled trial with parents of 120 families. The outcomes will be the child's quality of life, parental stress and fatigue, self-efficacy in the communication with health care professionals, and family management. A process evaluation will provide insight in parents' experiences, including their experienced level of support. Study results are expected to be published in the summer of 2016. Although the development of e-Powered Parents using IM was time-consuming, IM has been a useful protocol. IM provided us with a systematic framework for structuring the development process. The participatory planning group was valuable as well; knowledge, experiences, and visions were shared, ensuring us that

  7. Online Support Program for Parents of Children With a Chronic Kidney Disease Using Intervention Mapping: A Development and Evaluation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaal, Betsie GI; Knoll, Jacqueline L; Cornelissen, Elisabeth AM; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Background The care for children with a chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex. Parents of these children may experience high levels of stress in managing their child’s disease, potentially leading to negative effects on their child’s health outcomes. Although the experienced problems are well known, adequate (online) support for these parents is lacking. Objective The objective of the study is to describe the systematic development of an online support program for parents of children with CKD, and how this program will be evaluated. Methods Intervention Mapping (IM) was used for the development of the program. After conducting a needs assessment, defining program objectives, searching for theories, and selecting practical applications, the online program e-Powered Parents was developed. e-Powered Parents consist of three parts: (1) an informative part with information about CKD and treatments, (2) an interactive part where parents can communicate with other parents and health care professionals by chat, private messages, and a forum, and (3) a training platform consisting of four modules: Managing stress, Setting limits, Communication, and Coping with emotions. In a feasibility study, the potential effectiveness and effect size of e-Powered Parents will be evaluated using an explorative randomized controlled trial with parents of 120 families. The outcomes will be the child’s quality of life, parental stress and fatigue, self-efficacy in the communication with health care professionals, and family management. A process evaluation will provide insight in parents’ experiences, including their experienced level of support. Results Study results are expected to be published in the summer of 2016. Conclusions Although the development of e-Powered Parents using IM was time-consuming, IM has been a useful protocol. IM provided us with a systematic framework for structuring the development process. The participatory planning group was valuable as well; knowledge

  8. Development of a thermal-hydraulic code for reflood analysis in a PWR experimental loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Sabrina P.; Mesquita, Amir Z.; Rezende, Hugo C., E-mail: sabrinapral@gmail.com, E-mail: amir@cdtn.brm, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    A process of fundamental importance in the event of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Pressurized Water nuclear Reactors (PWR) is the reflood of the core or rewetting of nuclear fuels. The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has been developing since the 70’s programs to allow Brazil to become independent in the field of reactor safety analysis. To that end, in the 80’s was designed, assembled and commissioned one Rewetting Test Facility (ITR in Portuguese). This facility aims to investigate the phenomena involved in the thermal hydraulic reflood phase of a Loss of Coolant Accident in a PWR nuclear reactor. This work aim is the analysis of physical and mathematical models governing the rewetting phenomenon, and the development a thermo-hydraulic simulation code of a representative experimental circuit of the PWR reactors core cooling channels. It was possible to elaborate and develop a code called REWET. The results obtained with REWET were compared with the experimental results of the ITR, and with the results of the Hydroflut code, that was the old program previously used. An analysis was made of the evolution of the wall temperature of the test section as well as the evolution of the front for two typical tests using the two codes calculation, and experimental results. The result simulated by REWET code for the rewetting time also came closer to the experimental results more than those calculated by Hydroflut code. (author)

  9. Design and development of an experimental six component wind tunnel block balance using optical fibre sensors.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Ponte, JD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available and development of an experimental six component wind tunnel block balance using optical fibre sensors J.D. de Pont, F.F. Pieterse, P.M. Bidgood Abstract: In order to meet the increasingly stringent requirements for wind tunnel balances, as expressed...

  10. Investigation of firebrand generation from an experimental fire: Development of a reliable data collection methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan C. Thomas; Eric V. Mueller; Simon Santamaria; Michael Gallagher; Mohamad El Houssami; Alexander Filkov; Kenneth Clark; Nicholas Skowronski; Rory M. Hadden; William Mell; Albert Simeoni

    2017-01-01

    An experimental approach has been developed to quantify the characteristics and flux of firebrands during a management-scale wildfire in a pine-dominated ecosystem. By characterizing the local fire behavior and measuring the temporal and spatial variation in firebrand collection, the flux of firebrands has been related to the fire behavior for the first time. This...

  11. Proposed Requirements-driven User-scenario Development Protocol for the Belmont Forum E-Infrastructure and Data Management Cooperative Research Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, B.; Car, N.; Percivall, G.; Allen, D.; Fitch, P. G.; Baumann, P.; Waldmann, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Belmont Forum E-Infrastructure and Data Management Cooperative Research Agreement (CRA) is designed to foster a global community to collaborate on e-infrastructure challenges. One of the deliverables is an implementation plan to address global data infrastructure interoperability challenges and align existing domestic and international capabilities. Work package three (WP3) of the CRA focuses on the harmonization of global data infrastructure for sharing environmental data. One of the subtasks under WP3 is the development of user scenarios that guide the development of applicable deliverables. This paper describes the proposed protocol for user scenario development. It enables the solicitation of user scenarios from a broad constituency, and exposes the mechanisms by which those solicitations are evaluated against requirements that map to the Belmont Challenge. The underlying principle of traceability forms the basis for a structured, requirements-driven approach resulting in work products amenable to trade-off analyses and objective prioritization. The protocol adopts the ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) as a top level framework. User scenarios are developed within RM-ODP's "Enterprise Viewpoint". To harmonize with existing frameworks, the protocol utilizes the conceptual constructs of "scenarios", "use cases", "use case categories", and use case templates as adopted by recent GEOSS Architecture Implementation Project (AIP) deliverables and CSIRO's eReefs project. These constructs are encapsulated under the larger construct of "user scenarios". Once user scenarios are ranked by goodness-of-fit to the Belmont Challenge, secondary scoring metrics may be generated, like goodness-of-fit to FutureEarth science themes. The protocol also facilitates an assessment of the ease of implementing given user scenario using existing GEOSS AIP deliverables. In summary, the protocol results in a traceability graph that can be extended to coordinate

  12. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  13. The Development of a Web-Based Program to Reduce Dietary Salt Intake in Schoolchildren: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley Ann; Booth, Alison; Khokhar, Durreajam; West, Madeline; Margerison, Claire; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2017-05-31

    Salt intake of schoolchildren in the Australian state of Victoria is high. To protect future cardiovascular health, interventions that seek to reduce the amount of salt in children's diets are required. We sought to develop and pilot test a Web-based program (Digital Education to Limit Salt Intake in the Home [DELISH]) that aims to reduce dietary salt intake among schoolchildren and to improve child and parent knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. This paper presents the DELISH study protocol, along with pilot findings used to inform the development of the program. The DELISH program is a 5-week Web-based intervention that targets schoolchildren aged 7-10 years and their parents. This is a single-arm study with a pretest and posttest design. We will assess change in salt intake through analysis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Children and parents will complete online surveys assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. We will assess feasibility of the program via process measures, which include metrics to describe intervention uptake (eg, number of children who complete Web-based sessions and of parents who view online newsletters) and evaluation surveys and interviews conducted with children, parents, and schoolteachers. The first 2 Web sessions developed for children were pilot tested in 19 children aged 8-12 years. Findings from pilot testing indicated that most children (session 1: 18/19, 95%; and session 2: 19/19, 100%) enjoyed completing each session and liked the inclusion of comic strips and interactive games. Commonly reported areas of improvement related to sessions being text and content heavy. Based on these findings, we simplified sessions and developed 3 additional sessions for use in the DELISH program. The DELISH program was implemented during June-December 2016. We expect to have results from this study at the end of 2017. To our knowledge, this is the first Australian study to examine the

  14. The Development of a Web-Based Program to Reduce Dietary Salt Intake in Schoolchildren: Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alison; Khokhar, Durreajam; West, Madeline; Margerison, Claire; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2017-01-01

    Background Salt intake of schoolchildren in the Australian state of Victoria is high. To protect future cardiovascular health, interventions that seek to reduce the amount of salt in children’s diets are required. Objective We sought to develop and pilot test a Web-based program (Digital Education to Limit Salt Intake in the Home [DELISH]) that aims to reduce dietary salt intake among schoolchildren and to improve child and parent knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. This paper presents the DELISH study protocol, along with pilot findings used to inform the development of the program. Methods The DELISH program is a 5-week Web-based intervention that targets schoolchildren aged 7-10 years and their parents. This is a single-arm study with a pretest and posttest design. We will assess change in salt intake through analysis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Children and parents will complete online surveys assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. We will assess feasibility of the program via process measures, which include metrics to describe intervention uptake (eg, number of children who complete Web-based sessions and of parents who view online newsletters) and evaluation surveys and interviews conducted with children, parents, and schoolteachers. The first 2 Web sessions developed for children were pilot tested in 19 children aged 8-12 years. Results Findings from pilot testing indicated that most children (session 1: 18/19, 95%; and session 2: 19/19, 100%) enjoyed completing each session and liked the inclusion of comic strips and interactive games. Commonly reported areas of improvement related to sessions being text and content heavy. Based on these findings, we simplified sessions and developed 3 additional sessions for use in the DELISH program. The DELISH program was implemented during June-December 2016. We expect to have results from this study at the end of 2017. Conclusions To our knowledge, this

  15. Padronização de um protocolo experimental de treinamento periodizado em natação utilizando ratos Wistar Standardization of an experimental periodized training protocol in swimming rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gomes de Araujo

    2010-02-01

    creatine kinase (CK in rats. Seventy male Wistar rats were randomly separated in two groups: Control Group (CG n = 30 and Training Periodization Group (TPG n = 30. All experiments were preceded by 2 weeks of individual adaptation to the water. The TPG was carried out during a period of 12 weeks (w with frequency of 6 days/w. The training period was subdivided in three specialized series blocks: Preparation (6 w, Specific (4.5 w and Taper (1.5 w. The Lactate Minimun Test (LACm was adapted to determine the aerobic capacity. Anaerobic performance was evaluated by maximal exhaustion time (Tlim verified during hyperlactatemia induction phase in the LACm protocol. Training stimulus was based on intensities corresponding to the LACm: Endurance (END 1 = 80%; END2= 100%; END3= 120% and Anaerobic (ANA 240% of the LACm. Two-way Anova and Newman-Keuls post-hoc test (P<0.05were also used. Aerobic performance was not different from initial training (Preparation: 4.57 ± 0.24% of body weigh (bw; Specific: 4.59 ± 0.44 %bw, but at the end of taper, the LACm was higher (Taper: 5.01 ± 0.71% bw. The anaerobic parameter (Tlim was significantly higher at the end of taper (73 ± 14s when compared to the Preparation (50 ± 13s and Specific blocks (65 ± 18s. The CG reduced the LACm and anaerobic performance along the experimental period. The glycogen M increased after taper but CK did not alter during training. Training periodization in rats acted as an important tool to evaluate specific effects of training. This is supported by sensitive responses of the rats along the blocks, based on improvement of aerobic and anaerobic performance as well as glycogen concentration obtained after the taper block.

  16. A Computational-Experimental Development of Vortex Generator Use for a Transitioning S-Diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Bruce J.; Dudek, Julianne C.

    1996-01-01

    The development of an effective design strategy for surface-mounted vortex generator arrays in a subsonic diffuser is described in this report. This strategy uses the strengths of both computational and experimental analyses to determine beneficial vortex generator locations and sizes. A parabolized Navier-Stokes solver, RNS3D, was used to establish proper placement of the vortex generators for reduction in circumferential total pressure distortion. Experimental measurements were used to determine proper vortex generator sizing to minimize total pressure recovery losses associated with vortex generator device drag. The best result achieved a 59% reduction in the distortion index DC60, with a 0.3% reduction in total pressure recovery.

  17. Developing a Comparative Docking Protocol for the Prediction of Peptide Selectivity Profiles: Investigation of Potassium Channel Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Kuyucak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the development of selective peptides against highly homologous targets, a reliable tool is sought that can predict information on both mechanisms of binding and relative affinities. These tools must first be tested on known profiles before application on novel therapeutic candidates. We therefore present a comparative docking protocol in HADDOCK using critical motifs, and use it to “predict” the various selectivity profiles of several major αKTX scorpion toxin families versus Kv1.1, Kv1.2 and Kv1.3. By correlating results across toxins of similar profiles, a comprehensive set of functional residues can be identified. Reasonable models of channel-toxin interactions can be then drawn that are consistent with known affinity and mutagenesis. Without biological information on the interaction, HADDOCK reproduces mechanisms underlying the universal binding of αKTX-2 toxins, and Kv1.3 selectivity of αKTX-3 toxins. The addition of constraints encouraging the critical lysine insertion confirms these findings, and gives analogous explanations for other families, including models of partial pore-block in αKTX-6. While qualitatively informative, the HADDOCK scoring function is not yet sufficient for accurate affinity-ranking. False minima in low-affinity complexes often resemble true binding in high-affinity complexes, despite steric/conformational penalties apparent from visual inspection. This contamination significantly complicates energetic analysis, although it is usually possible to obtain correct ranking via careful interpretation of binding-well characteristics and elimination of false positives. Aside from adaptations to the broader potassium channel family, we suggest that this strategy of comparative docking can be extended to other channels of interest with known structure, especially in cases where a critical motif exists to improve docking effectiveness.

  18. Development of an instrument to measure the degree of critical patient's satisfaction with nursing care: research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Cueva-Ariza, Laura; Romero-García, Marta; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Acosta-Mejuto, Belén; Jover-Sancho, Carme; Ricart-Basagaña, M Teresa; Juandó-Prats, Clara; Solà-Solé, Natalia; Solà-Ribó, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    To investigate and understand patient's satisfaction with nursing care in the intensive care unit to identify the dimensions of the concept of 'satisfaction' from the patient's point of view. To design and validate a questionnaire that measures satisfaction levels in critical patients. There are many instruments capable of measuring satisfaction with nursing care; however, they do not address the reality for critical patients nor are they applicable in our context. A dual approach study comprising: a qualitative phase employing Grounded Theory and a quantitative and descriptive phase to prepare and validate the questionnaire. Data collection in the qualitative phase will consist of: in-depth interview after theoretical sampling, on-site diary and expert discussion group. The sample size will depend on the expected theoretical saturation n = 27-36. Analysis will be based on Grounded Theory. For the quantitative phase, the sampling will be based on convenience (n = 200). A questionnaire will be designed on the basis of qualitative data. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used. The validation will be developed on the basis of the validity of the content, the criteria of the construct and reliability of the instrument by the Cronbach's alpha and test-retest approach. Approval date for this protocol was November 2010. Self-perceptions, beliefs, experiences, demographic, socio-cultural epistemological and political factors are determinants for satisfaction, and these should be taken into account when compiling a questionnaire on satisfaction with nursing care among critical patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Development of Smart Home System for Controlling and Monitoring Energy Consumption using WebSocket Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthayawiroj, Niti; Nilaphruek, Pongpon

    2017-03-01

    Energy consumption especially electricity is considered one of the most serious problems in households these days. It is because the amount of electricity consumed is more than the amount that people actually need. This means that there is an overusing which resulted from the inconvenience of moving to the switch to turn off the light or any appliances and it is often that closing the light is forgettable, for instance; in addition, there are no tools for monitoring how much energy that is consumed in residents. From this, it can be easily seen that people are having a problem in energy usage monitor and control. There are two main objectives of this study including 1) creating the communication framework among server, clients and devices, and 2) developing the prototype system that try to solve the mentioned problems which gives the user an opportunity to know the amount of electricity they have used in their houses and also the ability to turn appliances on and off through the Internet on smart devices such as smart phones and tablets that support Android platform or any web browser. Raspberry Pi is used as a microcontroller and the data is transferred to the smart device by WebSocket protocol which is strongly recommended for real-time communication. The example features on the device’s screen are user management, controlling and monitoring of appliances. The result expresses that the system is very effective and not difficult to use from users’ satisfaction. However, current sensors may be used for a more accurate electricity measurement and Wi-Fi module for more appliances to calculate its power in the future.

  20. Development of an efficient in vitro propagation protocol for Satureja punctata - A rare aromatic and medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrias Teshome

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Satureja punctata is an important aromatic and medicinal plant in Lamiaceae family. This plant is threatened mainly due to overgrazing, deforestation, over harvesting of the whole plant for medicinal purpose. This study was aimed to develop an efficient in vitro propagation protocol for S. punctata using shoot tips. Shoots excised from in vitro germinated seedlings were used as mother plant for culture induction on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP and Kinetin (KIN. Highest shoot induction frequency (100% with highest mean number (8.25±1.64 of shoot per explant was obtained at 0.5 mg/L BAP. In multiplication media, among different concentrations of BAP, KIN, BAP×KIN and KIN×NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid, BAP × NAA found to be an optimum concentration with (26.20±2.71 mean number of shoots. The best shoot height (2.48 ± 0.13 cm was achieved on growth regulators free medium, which was used as control. Half strength MS medium containing different concentrations of Indole-3- butyric acid (IBA, Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and NAA were used for root induction. The highest rooting percentage (100%, root number (5.90±0.48 and root length (1.55±0.11 cm were attained in the presence of 1.0 mg/L IBA. Up on acclimatization, 97.5% survived plants were recorded. The results demonstrated that, this study was very important for mass propagation and ultimate conservation of this valuable plant.

  1. Understanding biological mechanisms underlying adverse birth outcomes in developing countries: protocol for a prospective cohort (AMANHI bio-banking) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqui, Abdullah H; Khanam, Rasheda; Rahman, Mohammad Sayedur; Ahmed, Aziz; Rahman, Hasna Hena; Moin, Mamun Ibne; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Jehan, Fyezah; Nisar, Imran; Hussain, Atiya; Ilyas, Muhammad; Hotwani, Aneeta; Sajid, Muhammad; Qureshi, Shahida; Zaidi, Anita; Sazawal, Sunil; Ali, Said M; Deb, Saikat; Juma, Mohammed Hamad; Dhingra, Usha; Dutta, Arup; Ame, Shaali Makame; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Zangenberg, Mike; Russell, Donna; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Polašek, Ozren; Manu, Alexander; Bahl, Rajiv

    2017-12-01

    The AMANHI study aims to seek for biomarkers as predictors of important pregnancy-related outcomes, and establish a biobank in developing countries for future research as new methods and technologies become available. AMANHI is using harmonised protocols to enrol 3000 women in early pregnancies (8-19 weeks of gestation) for population-based follow-up in pregnancy up to 42 days postpartum in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Tanzania, with collection taking place between August 2014 and June 2016. Urine pregnancy tests will be used to confirm reported or suspected pregnancies for screening ultrasound by trained sonographers to accurately date the pregnancy. Trained study field workers will collect very detailed phenotypic and epidemiological data from the pregnant woman and her family at scheduled home visits during pregnancy (enrolment, 24-28 weeks, 32-36 weeks & 38+ weeks) and postpartum (days 0-6 or 42-60). Trained phlebotomists will collect maternal and umbilical blood samples, centrifuge and obtain aliquots of serum, plasma and the buffy coat for storage. They will also measure HbA1C and collect a dried spot sample of whole blood. Maternal urine samples will also be collected and stored, alongside placenta, umbilical cord tissue and membrane samples, which will both be frozen and prepared for histology examination. Maternal and newborn stool (for microbiota) as well as paternal and newborn saliva samples (for DNA extraction) will also be collected. All samples will be stored at -80°C in the biobank in each of the three sites. These samples will be linked to numerous epidemiological and phenotypic data with unique study identification numbers. AMANHI biobank proves that biobanking is feasible to implement in LMICs, but recognises that biobank creation is only the first step in addressing current global challenges.

  2. Impact of pharmacy worker training and deployment on access to essential medicines and health outcomes in Malawi: protocol for a cluster quasi-experimental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinga, Solomon J; Jenny, Alisa M; Larsen-Cooper, Erin; Crawford, Jessica; Matemba, Charles; Stergachis, Andy; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2014-10-11

    Access to essential medicines is core to saving lives and improving health outcomes of people worldwide, particularly in the low- and middle-income countries. Having a trained pharmacy workforce to manage the supply chain and safely dispense medicines is critical to ensuring timely access to quality pharmaceuticals and improving child health outcomes. This study measures the impact of an innovative pharmacy assistant training program in the low-income country of Malawi on access to medicines and health outcomes. We employ a cluster quasi-experimental design with pre-and post-samples and decision analytic modeling to examine access to and the use of medicines for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea for children less than 5 years of age. Two intervention districts, with newly trained and deployed pharmacy assistants, and two usual care comparison districts, matched on socio-economic, geographic, and health-care utilization indicators, were selected for the study. A baseline household survey was conducted in March 2014, prior to the deployment of pharmacy assistants to the intervention district health centers. Follow-up surveys are planned at 12- and 24-months post-deployment. In addition, interviews are planned with caregivers, and time-motion studies will be conducted with health-care providers at the health centers to estimate costs and resources use. This impact evaluation is designed to provide data on the effects of a novel pharmacy assistant program on pharmaceutical systems performance, and morbidity and mortality for the most common causes of death for children under five. The results of this study should contribute to policy decisions about whether and how to scale up the health systems strengthening workforce development program to have the greatest impact on the supply chain and health outcomes in Malawi.

  3. Combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks in the solid dispersion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medarević, Djordje P; Kleinebudde, Peter; Djuriš, Jelena; Djurić, Zorica; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    This study for the first time demonstrates combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the solid dispersions (SDs) development. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs were prepared by solvent casting method to improve carbamazepine dissolution rate. The influence of the composition of prepared SDs on carbamazepine dissolution rate was evaluated using d-optimal mixture experimental design and multilayer perceptron ANNs. Physicochemical characterization proved the presence of the most stable carbamazepine polymorph III within the SD matrix. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs significantly improved carbamazepine dissolution rate compared to pure drug. Models developed by ANNs and mixture experimental design well described the relationship between proportions of SD components and percentage of carbamazepine released after 10 (Q10) and 20 (Q20) min, wherein ANN model exhibit better predictability on test data set. Proportions of carbamazepine and poloxamer 188 exhibited the highest influence on carbamazepine release rate. The highest carbamazepine release rate was observed for SDs with the lowest proportions of carbamazepine and the highest proportions of poloxamer 188. ANNs and mixture experimental design can be used as powerful data modeling tools in the systematic development of SDs. Taking into account advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, their combined application should be encouraged.

  4. Impact of PET/CT system, reconstruction protocol, data analysis method, and repositioning on PET/CT precision: An experimental evaluation using an oncology and brain phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Syahir; Pfaehler, Elisabeth; Heijtel, Dennis; Lodge, Martin A; Boellaard, Ronald; Yaqub, Maqsood

    2017-12-01

    In longitudinal oncological and brain PET/CT studies, it is important to understand the repeatability of quantitative PET metrics in order to assess change in tracer uptake. The present studies were performed in order to assess precision as function of PET/CT system, reconstruction protocol, analysis method, scan duration (or image noise), and repositioning in the field of view. Multiple (repeated) scans have been performed using a NEMA image quality (IQ) phantom and a 3D Hoffman brain phantom filled with 18 F solutions on two systems. Studies were performed with and without randomly (PET/CT, especially in the case of smaller spheres (PET metrics depends on the combination of reconstruction protocol, data analysis methods and scan duration (scan statistics). Moreover, precision was also affected by phantom repositioning but its impact depended on the data analysis method in combination with the reconstructed voxel size (tissue fraction effect). This study suggests that for oncological PET studies the use of SUVpeak may be preferred over SUVmax because SUVpeak is less sensitive to patient repositioning/tumor sampling. © 2017 The Authors. Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Development and verification test of integral reactor major components - Development of MCP impeller design, performance prediction code and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung Kyoon; Oh, Woo Hyoung; Song, Jae Wook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The present study is aimed at developing a computational code for design and performance prediction of an axial-flow pump. The proposed performance prediction method is tested against a model axial-flow pump streamline curvature method. The preliminary design is made by using the ideal velocity triangles at inlet and exit and the three dimensional blade shape is calculated by employing the free vortex design method. Then the detailed blading design is carried out by using experimental database of double circular arc cambered hydrofoils. To computationally determine the design incidence, deviation, blade camber, solidity and stagger angle, a number of correlation equations are developed form the experimental database and a theorical formula for the lift coefficient is adopted. A total of 8 equations are solved iteratively using an under-relaxation factor. An experimental measurement is conducted under a non-cavitating condition to obtain the off-design performance curve and also a cavitation test is carried out by reducing the suction pressure. The experimental results are very satisfactorily compared with the predictions by the streamline curvature method. 28 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  6. Development plan for the External Hazards Experimental Group. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Burns, Douglas Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the development plan for a new multi-partner External Hazards Experimental Group (EHEG) coordinated by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) technical pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Currently, there is limited data available for development and validation of the tools and methods being developed in the RISMC Toolkit. The EHEG is being developed to obtain high-quality, small- and large-scale experimental data validation of RISMC tools and methods in a timely and cost-effective way. The group of universities and national laboratories that will eventually form the EHEG (which is ultimately expected to include both the initial participants and other universities and national laboratories that have been identified) have the expertise and experimental capabilities needed to both obtain and compile existing data archives and perform additional seismic and flooding experiments. The data developed by EHEG will be stored in databases for use within RISMC. These databases will be used to validate the advanced external hazard tools and methods.

  7. Development of a stochastic dynamical model for hermetic compressor's components with experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanela, F.; Silva, O. M.; Lenzi, A.; Ritto, T. G.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of household compressor's components is typically evaluated by using mathematical-mechanical models, and many decisions are taken based on simulations. However, such an investigation is usually performed in a deterministic framework, which cannot consider manufacturing variabilities and epistemic uncertainties. In this paper, a stochastic structural model that considers data and model uncertainties is developed for a discharge pipe connected to a hermetic compressor's shell. An experimental test rig is constructed to test each part separately, and an identification strategy is proposed to fit the stochastic model to experimental results. Finally, the impact of the uncertainties in each structural component on the dynamical responses of the whole system is investigated. It turns out that: (1) the proposed stochastic dynamical model presented very good results when compared to the experimental responses, and (2) uncertainties in the discharge pipe model play an important role in the coupled system dynamics.

  8. Development of Built-in System for Constructing a Students Experimental Equipment of Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Tetsuya; Oda, Kazuhiro; Morino, Kazuhiro; Jiang, Zhongwei

    This paper presents a built-in system to construct an experimental tool for aiding to learn control engineering in a students experiment. The proposing system is ease to install to a commercial product has some actuators. Also, we developed a software application to control the modified product by the proposing system. Some of the functions of it are to edit, compile and execute a control algorithm written in C language, to show control process parameters on a real-time basis with a graph and to simulate the behavior of the experimental equipment. Using the system, we not only made an experimental tool from a radio control helicopter but also built the curriculum guidelines of the students experiment. They were performed at Tokuyama College of Technology and the result was evaluated from a questionnaire by students.

  9. Developing a Diagnostic Brain Imaging Protocol for Recent Onset Psychosis which Embodies Principles of Predictive Coding and Free Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Breakspear

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although schizophrenia is usually conceptualized of as a disorder of well formed hallucinations and delusions, its onset is more typically characterized by heightened arousal, a vague but pervasive feeling of unease and poorly formed misperceptions. This unstable constellation of symptoms challenges clinical diagnosis at a time when properly guided interventions are most likely to have the greatest long-term benefits. It is possible to frame this clinical picture as a disturbance in the capacity of the cortex to optimally form predictive models of the environment, to appropriately sample visual scenes in order to estimate the likelihood of such models and to hence minimize surprise in a dynamic social landscape. This approach suggests that manipulating the relationship between visual search strategies and natural scene statistics might be a sensitive means of quantifying core neurobiological deficits early in the course of emerging psychotic disorders. We are developing a diagnostic tool for the prodromal phase of these disorders which involves experimentally disturbing the relationship between visual saccades and the stream of natural images in well directed films. I will outline the conceptual and computational bases and early experimental results thus far obtained, including a canonical example of paranoia and theory of mind in a spaghetti western.

  10. Leakage of colon anastomoses: development of an experimental model in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Tyge; Sørensen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background: In order to investigate anastomotic leakage, a number of experimental animal studies have been previously carried out. Due to the low frequency of spontaneous anastomotic leakages, there have been studies on gastrointestinal anastomoses with iatrogenically produced leakages. A leakage...... model has only been developed in one gastric bypass study. The aim of the present study was to develop a leakage model of pig colon anastomoses. This type of study has never been performed before. Materials and Methods: Anastomosis was performed in 22 pigs. In all anastomoses a standardized rupture......: A model of anastomotic leakage on pig colon is developed with creation of a 21-mm rupture in the anastomotic line....

  11. The role of a decision-support smartphone application in enhancing community health volunteers' effectiveness to improve maternal and newborn outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya: quasi-experimental research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Kamande, Eva; Omuya, Milka; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2017-07-20

    Improving maternal and newborn survival remains major aspirations for many countries in the Global South. Slum settlements, a result of rapid urbanisation in many developing countries including Kenya, exhibit high levels of maternal and neonatal mortality. There are limited referral mechanisms for sick neonates and their mothers from the community to healthcare facilities with ability to provide adequate care. In this study, we specifically plan to develop and assess the added value of having community health volunteers (CHVs) use smartphones to identify and track mothers and children in a bid to reduce pregnancy-related complications and newborn deaths in the urban slums of Kamukunji subcounty in Nairobi, Kenya. This is a quasi-experimental study. We are implementing an innovative, mHealth application known as mobile Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (mPAMANECH) which uses dynamic mobile phone and web-portal solutions to enable CHVs make timely decisions on the best course of action in their management of mothers and newborns at community level. The application is based on existing guidelines and protocols in use by CHVs. Currently, CHVs conduct weekly home visits and make decisions from memory or using unwieldy manual tools, and thus prone to making errors. mPAMANECH has an in-built algorithm that makes it easier, faster and more likely for CHVs to make the right management decision. We are working with a network of selected CHVs and maternity centres to pilot test the tool. To measure the impact of the intervention, baseline and end-line surveys will be conducted. Data will be obtained through qualitative and quantitative methods. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the African Medical Research Foundation. Key messages from the results will be packaged and disseminated through meetings, conference presentations, reports, fact sheets and academic publications to facilitate uptake by policy-makers. © Article author(s) (or their

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT'S MOTIVATIONAL DIMENSIONS UNDER THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Hasanbegović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the development of some motivational dimensions of secondary school students when they are treated by the experimental way of teaching. The study was conducted on a sample of 240 pupils of The Secondary School Banovici, out of which 124 males and 116 females. The pupils were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 120 pupils divided into four sections, out of which 73 males and 47 females. This is the control group. The second group also consisted of 120 pupils divided into four sections, out of which 51 male and 69 females. This group was subjected to the experimental way of teaching and thus represents the experimental group. Results show the changes in pupils’ motivational characteristics under the influence of innovative educational content that are reflected through their activities and final attitudes on the physical education value. The discriminate analysis revealed the statistically important differences between pupils that are treated by the experimental program compared to students treated by traditional program in terms of motivation in physical education classes (PE classes. However, the study, in some way, solves the problem of inactivity and pupils’ lack of interest for the PE classes, i.e. it suggests the pupils’ possible development of motivation for work using the appropriate educational contents.

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS’ MOTIVATIONAL DIMENSIONS UNDER THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Hasanbegović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the development of some motivational dimensions of secondary school students when they are treated by the experimental way of teaching. The study was conducted on a sample of 240 pupils of The Secondary School Banovici, out of which 124 males and 116 females. The pupils were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 120 pupils divided into four sections, out of which 73 males and 47 females. This is the control group. The second group also consisted of 120 pupils divided into four sections, out of which 51 male and 69 females. This group was subjected to the experimental way of teaching and thus represents the experimental group. Results show the changes in pupils’ motivational characteristics under the influence of innovative educational content that are reflected through their activities and final attitudes on the physical education value. The discriminate analysis revealed the statistically important differences between pupils that are treated by the experimental program compared to students treated by traditional program in terms of motivation in physical education classes (PE classes. However, the study, in some way, solves the problem of inactivity and pupils’ lack of interest for the PE classes, i.e. it suggests the pupils’ possible development of motivation for work using the appropriate educational contents.

  14. Developing a new experimental system for an undergraduate laboratory exercise to teach theories of visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Shoko; Ushiba, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a flexible motor ability to adapt their movements to changes in the internal/external environment. For example, using arm-reaching tasks, a number of studies experimentally showed that participants adapt to a novel visuomotor environment. These results helped develop computational models of motor learning implemented in the central nervous system. Despite the importance of such experimental paradigms for exploring the mechanisms of motor learning, because of the cost and preparation time, most students are unable to participate in such experiments. Therefore, in the current study, to help students better understand motor learning theories, we developed a simple finger-reaching experimental system using commonly used laptop PC components with an open-source programming language (Processing Motor Learning Toolkit: PMLT). We found that compared to a commercially available robotic arm-reaching device, our PMLT accomplished similar learning goals (difference in the error reduction between the devices, P = 0.10). In addition, consistent with previous reports from visuomotor learning studies, the participants showed after-effects indicating an adaptation of the motor learning system. The results suggest that PMLT can serve as a new experimental system for an undergraduate laboratory exercise of motor learning theories with minimal time and cost for instructors.

  15. The Development of Experimentation and Evidence Evaluation Skills at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Grube, Dietmar; Maehler, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers taking a domain-general approach to the development of scientific reasoning long thought that the ability to engage in scientific reasoning did not develop until adolescence. However, more recent studies have shown that preschool children already have a basic ability to evaluate evidence and a basic understanding of experimentation. Data providing insights into when exactly in the preschool years significant gains in these abilities occur are scarce. Drawing on a sample of 138 preschool children, this longitudinal study therefore examined how children's ability to evaluate evidence and their understanding of experimentation develop between the ages of four and six. Findings showed that the ability to evaluate evidence was already well developed at age four and increased steadily and significantly over time as long as the pattern of covariation was perfect. In the case of imperfect covariation, the proportion of correct answers was low over the period of observation, but showed a significant increase between the ages of four and five. If the data did not allow relationship between variables to be inferred, the proportion of correct answers was low, with a significant increase between the ages of five and six. The children's understanding of experimentation increased significantly between the ages of five and six. The implications of these findings for age-appropriate science programs in preschool are discussed.

  16. The everyday lives of video game developers: Experimentally understanding underlying systems/structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey O'Donnell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines how tensions between work and play for video game developers shape the worlds they create. The worlds of game developers, whose daily activity is linked to larger systems of experimentation and technoscientific practice, provide insights that transcend video game development work. The essay draws on ethnographic material from over 3 years of fieldwork with video game developers in the United States and India. It develops the notion of creative collaborative practice based on work in the fields of science and technology studies, game studies, and media studies. The importance of, the desire for, or the drive to understand underlying systems and structures has become fundamental to creative collaborative practice. I argue that the daily activity of game development embodies skills fundamental to creative collaborative practice and that these capabilities represent fundamental aspects of critical thought. Simultaneously, numerous interests have begun to intervene in ways that endanger these foundations of creative collaborative practice.

  17. Development of test stand for experimental investigation of chemical and physical phenomena in Liquid Rocket Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Andrade Santos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to present the specification of an experimental firing test stand for liquid rocket engines (LRE and develop a program for control and acquisition of data. It provides conditions to test rocket engines with thrust from 50 to 100 kgf. A methodology for laboratory work implementation using information technology, which will allow the automatic and remote functioning of the test stand, permits users to input the necessary data to conduct tests safely, achieve accurate measurements and obtain reliable results. The control of propellant mass flow rates by pressure regulators and other system valves, as well as the test stand data acquisition, are carried out automatically through LabVIEW commercial software. The test stand program is a readable, scalable and maintainable code. The test stand design and its development represent the state of art of experimental apparatus in LRE testing.

  18. Development of a Synchronous-Generator Experimental Bench for Standstill Time-Domain Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Arjona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of an experimental bench for performing time-domain tests on synchronousmachines at standstill. The test bench allows the collection of experimental data which can then be used in theparameter estimation of mathematical models of synchronous motors and generators. The system development isbased on the LabVIEW programming language. It effortlessly allows the calibration of voltage and current sensors, thed-q magnetic axis positioning of the synchronous generator, and the spectral analysis from the collected data. Inaddition, the testing environment includes non-sophisticated instrumentation elements and a power amplifier. Thisexperimental bench has a friendly user interface which guides the user throughout a defined methodology to allow theachievement of the different time domain tests on synchronous machines. A 7kVA, 220V, 60Hz synchronousgenerator was used to show the functionality and usefulness of the test bench in research and teaching electricalmachine theory.

  19. Outsourcing of experimental work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase between the researcher and the service is further developed. This involves robust protocols for sample preparation, an informed choice of analytical tool, development of standards for individual technologies, and transparent data analysis. This chapter introduces some of the problems related to analysis of RNA samples in the "omics" context and gives a few hints and key references related to sample preparation for the non-specialist.

  20. Development imaging and experimental model for studying pathogenesis and treatment efficacy of postmastectomy lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekateryna I.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Solov'eva, Anastasiya V.; Stepanova, Tatyana V.; Brill, Gregory E.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2002-05-01

    The experimental model was created during an abdominal dissection of the rat mesentery and ligation of the collecting vein of mesentery. It was found that mesentery edema was developed for 20-30 min. Simultaneously monitoring of main the parameters of blood and lymph flow revealed significant increasing of interstitial water amount (up to 3 times), reduction of blood microcirculation, increasing of blood vessels permeability, decreasing of lymph microvessels diameter, phasics contractions, and lymph flow velocity.

  1. Preliminary analysing of experimental data for the development of high Cr Alloy Creep damage Constitutive Equations

    OpenAIRE

    An, Lili; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Donglai; Lu, Zhongyu

    2012-01-01

    This conference paper presents the current research of preliminary analysing of experimental data for the development of high Cr Alloy Creep damage Constitutive Equations (such as P91 alloy). Firstly, it briefly introduces the background of general creep deformation, rupture and continuum damage mechanics. Secondly, it illustrates the constitutive equations used for P91 alloy or its weldment, especially of the form and deficiencies of two kinds of most widely used typical creep damage constit...

  2. The development of an x-ray computerized tomography (CT) experimental system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G.N.; Kijek, M.M.; Millar, J.J. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes a prototype experimental CT system that has been recently developed at Applied Physics, RMIT/ Physics, La Trobe UCNV. The system incorporates the scanning mode of the first generation CAT-scanner and is designed to perform the scanning of small objects. A microcomputer is used to control the scanning motions and data collection. The performance of the system was examined by scanning a ball-point pen. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Recent experimental results and developments on the resistive plate chambers for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Altieri, S; Bruno, G; Guida, R; Merlo, M; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vitulo, P; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F

    2001-01-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) have been chosen as dedicated trigger detectors for the CMS experiment at the LHC. The expected severe operating conditions have required an intense research and development activity on these detectors over the past years. Experimental results on overall performance of large chambers, rate capability, ageing and photon sensitivity are reviewed. In all of these tests the detector has proven to achieve good enough performance for successful use at the LHC. (6 refs).

  4. Autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to experimentally induced cold pain in adolescent non-suicidal self-injury--study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Rinnewitz, Lena; Warth, Marco; Kaess, Michael

    2015-07-07

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with altered sensitivity to experimentally induced pain. Adolescents engaging in NSSI report greater pain threshold and pain tolerance, as well as lower pain intensity and pain unpleasantness compared to healthy controls. The experience of pain is associated with reactivity of both the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, previous research has not yet systematically addressed differences in the physiological response to experimentally induced pain comparing adolescents with NSSI and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Adolescents with NSSI and healthy controls undergo repeated painful stimulation with the cold pressor task. ANS activity is continuously recorded throughout the procedure to assess changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. Blood pressure is monitored and saliva is collected prior to and after nociceptive stimulation to assess levels of saliva cortisol. The study will provide evidence whether lower pain sensitivity in adolescents with NSSI is associated with blunted physiological and endocrinological responses to experimentally induced pain compared to healthy controls. Extending on the existing evidence on altered pain sensitivity in NSSI, measured by self-reports and behavioural assessments, this is the first study to take a systematic approach in evaluating the physiological response to experimentally induced pain in adolescent NSSI. Deutsche Register Klinischer Studien, Study ID: DRKS00007807; Trial Registration Date: 13.02.2015.

  5. Proper protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Arbab (Farhad)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTreating interaction as an explicit first-class concept, complete with its own composition operators, leads to a model of concurrency that allows direct specification and manipulation of protocols as proper mathematical objects. Reo [2,5,6,8] serves as a premier example of such an

  6. Hormonal crosstalk for root development: a combined experimental and modelling perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith eLindsey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms and therefore they must adapt their growth and architecture to a changing environment. Understanding how hormones and genes interact to coordinate plant growth in a changing environment is a major challenge in developmental biology. Although a localized auxin concentration maximum in the root tip is important for root development, auxin concentration cannot change independently of multiple interacting hormones and genes. In this review, we discuss the experimental evidence showing that the POLARIS peptide of Arabidopsis plays an important role in hormonal crosstalk and root growth, and review the crosstalk between auxin and other hormones for root growth with and without osmotic stress. Moreover, we discuss that experimental evidence showing that, in root development, hormones and the associated regulatory and target genes form a network, in which relevant genes regulate hormone activities and hormones regulate gene expression. We further discuss how it is increasingly evident that mathematical modelling is a valuable tool for studying hormonal crosstalk. Therefore, a combined experimental and modelling study on hormonal crosstalk is important for elucidating the complexity of root development.

  7. Development of a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies: reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andreas; Raphael, Karen G; Glaros, Alan; Axelsson, Susanna; Arima, Taro; Ernberg, Malin; Farella, Mauro; Lobbezoo, Frank; Manfredini, Daniele; Michelotti, Ambra; Svensson, Peter; List, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To combine empirical evidence and expert opinion in a formal consensus method in order to develop a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies in systematic reviews. Tool development comprised five steps: (1) preliminary decisions, (2) item generation, (3) face-validity assessment, (4) reliability and discriminitive validity assessment, and (5) instrument refinement. The kappa value and phi-coefficient were calculated to assess inter-observer reliability and discriminative ability, respectively. Following preliminary decisions and a literature review, a list of 52 items to be considered for inclusion in the tool was compiled. Eleven experts were invited to join a Delphi panel and 10 accepted. Four Delphi rounds reduced the preliminary tool-Quality-Assessment Tool for Experimental Bruxism Studies (Qu-ATEBS)- to 8 items: study aim, study sample, control condition or group, study design, experimental bruxism task, statistics, interpretation of results, and conflict of interest statement. Consensus among the Delphi panelists yielded good face validity. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable (k = 0.77). Discriminative validity was excellent (phi coefficient 1.0; P bruxism studies, exhibits face validity, excellent discriminative validity, and acceptable inter-observer reliability. Development of quality assessment tools for many other topics in the orofacial pain literature is needed and may follow the described procedure.

  8. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers. © 2014 World Obesity.

  9. Frameworks for Protocol Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, Ciro; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a catalogue of frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be re-used in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. By using frameworks we aim

  10. Development of X-ray microcalorimeters based on SOI technology and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeflinski, V. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)], E-mail: virginie.szeflinski@cea.fr; Aliane, A.; De Moro, F. [CEA, Irfu, LETI-MINATEC, F-38053 Grenoble (France); Pigot, C.; Sauvageot, J-L. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Agnese, P.; Gasse, A.; Ribot, H. [CEA, Irfu, LETI-MINATEC, F-38053 Grenoble (France); Gremion, E.; De La Broise, X.; Navick, X.F. [CEA, Irfu, Service d' electronique, detecteur et informatique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-10-21

    We are developing an X-ray spectro-imaging detector at cryogenic temperature (<100 mK) for next space generation missions, using silicon technology. Each pixel of this array detector is made of a tantalum absorber bonded by indium bump hybridization, to an implanted and high-temperature diffused silicon thermistor. The thermo-mechanical link, provided by the indium bump hybridization, is being improved in terms of thermal capacitance. We present the state of development and experimental results on this new generation of X-ray microcalorimeters.

  11. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Double-annular clean combustor technology development report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, D. W.; Burrus, D. L.; Sabla, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A sector combustor technology development program was conducted to define an advanced double annular dome combustor sized for use in the quiet clean short haul experimental engine (QCSEE). A design which meets the emission goals, and combustor performance goals of the QCSEE engine program was developed. Key design features were identified which resulted in substantial reduction in carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emission levels at ground idle operating conditions, in addition to very low nitric oxide emission levels at high power operating conditions. Their significant results are reported.

  12. The German Quality Network Sepsis: study protocol for the evaluation of a quality collaborative on decreasing sepsis-related mortality in a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Daniel; Rüddel, Hendrik; Gründling, Matthias; Putensen, Christian; Reinhart, Konrad

    2018-01-18

    While sepsis-related mortality decreased substantially in other developed countries, mortality of severe sepsis remained as high as 44% in Germany. A recent German cluster randomized trial was not able to improve guideline adherence and decrease sepsis-related mortality within the participating hospitals, partly based on lacking support by hospital management and lacking resources for documentation of prospective data. Thus, more pragmatic approaches are needed to improve quality of sepsis care in Germany. The primary objective of the study is to decrease sepsis-related hospital mortality within a quality collaborative relying on claims data. The German Quality Network Sepsis (GQNS) is a quality collaborative involving 75 hospitals. This study protocol describes the conduction and evaluation of the start-up period of the GQNS running from March 2016 to August 2018. Democratic structures assure participatory action, a study coordination bureau provides central support and resources, and local interdisciplinary quality improvement teams implement changes within the participating hospitals. Quarterly quality reports focusing on risk-adjusted hospital mortality in cases with sepsis based on claims data are provided. Hospitals committed to publish their individual risk-adjusted mortality compared to the German average. A complex risk-model is used to control for differences in patient-related risk factors. Hospitals are encouraged to implement a bundle of interventions, e.g., interdisciplinary case analyses, external peer-reviews, hospital-wide staff education, and implementation of rapid response teams. The effectiveness of the GQNS is evaluated in a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences design by comparing the change of hospital mortality of cases with sepsis with organ dysfunction from a retrospective baseline period (January 2014 to December 2015) and the intervention period (April 2016 to March 2018) between the participating hospitals and all other German

  13. Better movers and thinkers (BMT): A quasi-experimental study into the impact of physical education on children's cognition-A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Andrew; Boyle, James; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    This study will extend on a pilot study and will evaluate the impact of a novel approach to PE, Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT), on students' cognition, physical activity habits, and gross motor coordination (GMC). The study will involve six mainstream state schools with students aged 9-11 years. Three schools will be allocated as the intervention condition and three as the control condition. The design of the study is a 16-week intervention with pre-, post- and 6 month follow-up measurements taken using the 'Cognitive Assessment System (CAS)' GMC tests, and the 'Physical Activity Habits Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C).' Qualitative data will be gathered using student focus groups and class teacher interviews in each of the six schools. ANCOVA will be used to evaluate any effect of intervention comparing pre-test scores with post-test scores and then pre-test scores with 6 month follow-up scores. Qualitative data will be analysed through an iterative process using grounded theory. This protocol provides the details of the rationale and design of the study and details of the intervention, outcome measures, and the recruitment process. The study will address gaps within current research by evaluating if a change of approach in the delivery of PE within schools has an effect on children's cognition, PA habits, and GMC within a Scottish setting.

  14. Performance Comparison of A New Non-RSSI Based Wireless Transmission Power Control Protocol with RSSI Based Methods: Experimentation with Real World Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debraj Basu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, simulations with MATLAB are used to compare the performance of a RSSI-based output power control with non-RSSI based adaptive power in terms of saving energy and extending the lifetime of battery powered wireless sensor nodes. This non-RSSI (received signal strength indicator based adaptive power control algorithm does not use RSSI side information to estimate the link quality. The non-RSSI based approach has a unique methodology to choose the appropriate power level. It has drop-off algorithm that enables it to come back from a higher to a lower power level when deemed necessary. The performance parameters are compared with the RSSI-based adaptive power control algorithm and fixed power transmission. In order to evaluate the protocols in the real world scenarios, RSSI data from different indoor radio environments are collected. In simulation, these RSSI values are used as an input to the RSSI based power control algorithm to calculate the packet success rates and the energy expenditures. In this paper we present extensive analysis of the simulation results to find out the advantages and limitations of the non-RSSI based adaptive power control algorithm under different channel conditions.

  15. Stress During Development of Experimental Endometriosis Influences Nerve Growth and Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Marielly; Cruz, Myrella L; Ramirez, Antonio E; Flores, Idhaliz; Thompson, Kenira J; Bayona, Manuel; Vernon, Michael W; Appleyard, Caroline B

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that stress prior to induction worsens clinical presentation and inflammatory parameters in a rat model of endometriosis. This study was designed to examine whether stress during the development of endometriosis can affect the growth of endometriotic implants through nerve growth and immune alterations. Endometriosis was surgically induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by suturing uterine horn implants onto the small intestine mesentery. Two weeks later, one group of rats (endo-stress) was subjected to a 10-day swim stress protocol. Controls had no stress (endo-no stress) or sutures only and stress (sham-stress). On day 60, all rats were killed and examined for the presence of endometriotic vesicles. The size of each vesicle was measured. The uterus and colon were removed and assessed for damage, cell infiltration, and expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), its receptors (p75 and Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (Trk-A)/pTrk-A), and calcitonin gene-related peptide, a sensory fiber marker. A differential analysis of peritoneal fluid white blood cell count was performed. Stress significantly increased endometriotic vesicle size but not colonic damage and increased infiltration of mast cells. Significantly increased expression of NGF and its receptors was found in the uterus of animals with endometriosis receiving stress. Stress stimulates the development of ectopic endometrial vesicles in an animal model of endometriosis and increases inflammatory cell recruitment to the peritoneum. In addition, stress promotes nerve fiber growth in the uterus.

  16. Developing a protocol for collecting data in Higher Education: assessing natural language metadata for a Databank of Oral Teletandem Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The current study addresses the definition of a protocol for collecting, storing data and describing (in a simple and generic way) a databank. Particularly, the transparency of a form aimed at gathering information about the pedagogical context of oral telecollaboration for language learning named Teletandem (TT; Telles, 2006) will be tested before it is spread more widely. To uncover problems in submitting information, data-input-triggers quality and reliability have been tested interviewing...

  17. Development of a protocol to optimize electric power consumption and life cycle environmental impacts for operation of wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon; Cho, Sunja; Kim, Hyosoo; Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin

    2016-12-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the portion of operating costs related to electric power consumption is increasing. If the electric power consumption decreased, however, it would be difficult to comply with the effluent water quality requirements. A protocol was proposed to minimize the environmental impacts as well as to optimize the electric power consumption under the conditions needed to meet the effluent water quality standards in this study. This protocol was comprised of six phases of procedure and was tested using operating data from S-WWTP to prove its applicability. The 11 major operating variables were categorized into three groups using principal component analysis and K-mean cluster analysis. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for each group to deduce the optimal operating conditions for each operating state. Then, employing mathematical modeling, six improvement plans to reduce electric power consumption were deduced. The electric power consumptions for suggested plans were estimated using an artificial neural network. This was followed by a second round of LCA conducted on the plans. As a result, a set of optimized improvement plans were derived for each group that were able to optimize the electric power consumption and life cycle environmental impact, at the same time. Based on these test results, the WWTP operating management protocol presented in this study is deemed able to suggest optimal operating conditions under which power consumption can be optimized with minimal life cycle environmental impact, while allowing the plant to meet water quality requirements.

  18. Developing a comprehensive presurgical functional MRI protocol for patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deblaere, K.; Vandemaele, P.; Achten, E. [MRI Department -1 K12, Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Backes, W.H.; Hofman, P.; Wilmink, J. [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Maastricht, Postbus 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Boon, P.A.; Vonck, K. [Department of Neurology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Boon, P. [Department of Medical Psychology, University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands); Troost, J. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands); Vermeulen, J. [S.E.I.N Heemstede, Psychological Laboratory, Achterweg 5, 2103 SW Heemstede (Netherlands); Aldenkamp, A. [Epilepsy Center ' Kempenhaeghe' , Postbus 61, 5900 AB Heeze (Netherlands)

    2002-08-01

    Our aim was to put together and test a comprehensive functional MRI (fMRI) protocol which could compete with the intracarotid amytal (IAT) or Wada test for the localisation of language and memory function in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. The protocol was designed to be performed in under 1 h on a standard 1.5 tesla imager. We used five paradigms to test nine healthy right-handed subjects: complex scene-encoding, picture-naming, reading, word-generation and semantic-decision tasks. The combination of these tasks generated two activation maps related to memory in the mesial temporal lobes, and three language-related maps of activation in a major part of the known language network. The functional maps from the encoding and naming tasks showed typical and symmetrical posterior mesial temporal lobe activation related to memory in all subjects. Only four of nine subjects also showed symmetrical anterior hippocampal activation. Language lateralisation was best with the word generation and reading paradigms and proved possible in all subjects. The reading paradigm enables localisation of language function in the left anterior temporal pole and middle temporal gyrus, areas typically resected during epilepsy surgery. The combined results of this comprehensive f MRI protocol are adequate for a comparative study with the IAT in patients with epilepsy being assessed for surgery. (orig.)

  19. Experimental study on display-control stereotype and development of human factors guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Woo Chang [Kumoh National Univ. of Technolgy, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-01

    It is very important to develop the design guidelines which can be applicable for Korean operators for the purpose of designing the KSNP more safely. The objective of this project is to provide the standards, guidelines and bases applicable for HF-010 through the within-subject experiment for obtaining Korean operators' population stereotype for direction-of-movement of controls associated with displays on the control panels. Through the survey of researches on display compatibility and the classification of types of displays and controls in the main control room of Uljin units 3 and 4, methods for an experiment on the stereotype were established. Experimental interface prototypes for a total of 108 combinations of display and control types were implemented. Experimental data collection and analysis system was built in association with the interface prototypes. The experiment was performed with participation of 250 students as subjects. About 20 guideline items were developed based on the results obtained from our analysis of experimental data.

  20. The emergence and development of Bekhterev's psychoreflexology in relation to Wundt's experimental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Araujo, Saulo

    2014-01-01

    After its foundation, the Laboratory for Experimental Psychology at Leipzig University became an international center for psychological research, attracting students from all over the world. The Russian physiologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Bekhterev (1857-1927) was one of Wilhelm Wundt's students in 1885, and after returning to Russia he continued enthusiastically his experimental research on mental phenomena. However, he gradually distanced himself from Wundt's psychological project and developed a new concept of psychology: the so-called Objective Psychology or Psychoreflexology. The goal of this paper is to analyze Bekhterev's position in relation to Wundt's experimental psychology, by showing how the former came to reject the latter's conception of psychology. The results indicate that Bekhterev's development of a philosophical program, including his growing interest in establishing a new Weltanschauung is the main reason behind his divergence with Wundt, which is reflected in his conception of scientific psychology. Despite this, Wundt remained alive in Bekhterev's mind as an ideal counterpoint. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Development of a new experimental device for long-duration magnetic reconnection in weakly ionized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Ryoma; Kaminou, Yasuhiro; Nishida, Kento; Inomoto, Michiaki

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a universal phenomenon which determines global structure and energy conversion in magnetized plasmas. Many experimental studies have been carried out to explore the physics of magnetic reconnection in fully ionized condition. However, it is predicted that the behavior of magnetic reconnection in weakly ionized plasmas such as solar chromosphere plasma will show different behavior such as ambipolar diffusion caused by interaction with neutral particles. In this research, we are developing a new experimental device to uncover the importance of ambipolar diffusion during magnetic reconnection in weakly ionized plasmas. We employ an inverter-driven rotating magnetic fields technique, which is used for generating steady azimuthal plasma current, to establish long-duration ( 1 ms) anti-parallel reconnection with magnetic field of 5 mT in weakly ionized plasma. We will present development status and initial results from the new experimental setup. This work was supported by JSPS A3 Foresight Program ``Innovative Tokamak Plasma Startup and Current Drive in Spherical Torus'', Giant-in Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) 15H05750, 15K14279, 26287143 and the NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS14KNWP004).

  2. Development of a real-time repeated-measures assessment protocol to capture change over the course of a drinking episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Rosen, I Gary; Wall, Tamara L

    2015-03-01

    We report on the development of a real-time assessment protocol that allows researchers to assess change in BrAC, alcohol responses, behaviors, and contexts over the course of a drinking event. We designed a web application that uses timed text messages (adjusted based on consumption pattern) containing links to our website to obtain real-time participant reports; camera and location features were also incorporated into the protocol. We used a transdermal alcohol sensor device along with software we designed to convert transdermal data into estimated BrAC. Thirty-two college students completed a laboratory session followed by a 2-week field trial. Results for the web application indicated we were able to create an effective tool for obtaining repeated measures real-time drinking data. Participants were willing to monitor their drinking behavior with the web application, and this did not appear to strongly affect drinking behavior during, or 6 weeks following, the field trial. Results for the transdermal device highlighted the willingness of participants to wear the device despite some discomfort, but technical difficulties resulted in limited valid data. The development of this protocol makes it possible to capture detailed assessment of change over the course of naturalistic drinking episodes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Medical Council on Alcohol 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Experimental stress analysis for materials and structures stress analysis models for developing design methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Freddi, Alessandro; Cristofolini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the main methods of experimental stress analysis and examines their application to various states of stress of major technical interest, highlighting aspects not always covered in the classic literature. It is explained how experimental stress analysis assists in the verification and completion of analytical and numerical models, the development of phenomenological theories, the measurement and control of system parameters under operating conditions, and identification of causes of failure or malfunction. Cases addressed include measurement of the state of stress in models, measurement of actual loads on structures, verification of stress states in circumstances of complex numerical modeling, assessment of stress-related material damage, and reliability analysis of artifacts (e.g. prostheses) that interact with biological systems. The book will serve graduate students and professionals as a valuable tool for finding solutions when analytical solutions do not exist.

  4. Development of an experimental 10 T Nb sub 3 Sn dipole magnet for the CERN LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ten Kate, H.H.J.; den Ouden, A.; ter Avest, D.; Wessel, S. (Univ. of Twente, Applied Superconductivity Centre, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (NL)); Dubbeldam, R. (HOLEC, Ridderkerk (NL)); van Emden, W.; Daum, C. (NIKHEF-H, Amsterdam (NL)); Bona, M.; Perin, R. (CERN, Geneva (CH))

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on an experimental 1 meter long twin aperture dipole magnet developed using a high current density Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor in order to attain a magnetic field well beyond 10 T at 4.2 K. The emphasis in this Nb{sub 3}Sn project is on the highest possible field within the known LHC twin aperture configuration. A design target of 11.5 tesla was chosen, a value which can be achieved with the presently available Nb{sub 3}Sn. Though the basic properties of this experimental magnet are the same as those of the reference design, a few new solutions are implemented. The arrangement of the conductors in the magnet cross section has been optimized in a different way also leading to new dimensions of the conductors.

  5. Development of two-dimensional wakes within curved channels: Theoretical framework and experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobeiri, M.T.; John, J.; Pappu, K. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Turbomachinery Performance Lab.

    1996-07-01

    The development of a wake flow downstream of a cylindrical rod within a curved channel under zero streamwise pressure gradient is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The measured asymmetric wake quantities such as the mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations in longitudinal and lateral directions as well as the turbulent shear stress are transformed from the probe coordinate system into the curvilinear wake eigen-coordinate system. For the transformed non-dimensionalized velocity defect and the turbulent quantities, affine profiles are observed throughout the flow regime. Based on these observations and using the transformed equations of motion and continuity, a theoretical frame work is established that generally describes the two-dimensional curvilinear wake flow. The theory also describes the straight wake as a special case, for which the curvature radius approaches infinity. The comparison of the theory with the experimental data pertaining to the curvilinear and straight wakes demonstrate the general validity of the theory.

  6. Experimental dermatological surgery: an animal model for developing skills with dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Juliana Catucci; Cunha, Vanessa Santos; de Andrade, Claudia Dickel; Palma Kuhl, Isabel Cristina

    2011-05-01

    The importance of laboratory experiments in the formation of physicians is well recognized since they facilitate scientific development and enhance technical skills. Dermal filling procedures are performed for the correction of wrinkles, rhytids, scars, and lipodystrophy. Till date, experimental models for the training of dermal filling techniques have not been studied. To demonstrate an experimental laboratory model for the training of dermal filling techniques in an animal model. The heads of pigs were used for this purpose, together with Carbopol gel at different densities, which was used to simulate the fillers available in the market. Needles and specific cannulas were used to apply the fillers into the creases and other areas of the pig skin. The pig head appears to be a suitable model for this training. Carbopol gel is a good choice for simulating fillers. This model of laboratory experiment requires a minimum of infrastructure; it is a low-cost alternative and facilitates practical training in the application of dermal fillers.

  7. Development of an experimental model of neurocysticercosis-induced hydrocephalus. Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto Filho, Pedro Tadao; Zanini, Marco Antônio; Botta, Fabio Pires; Rodrigues, Marianna Vaz; Bazan, Rodrigo; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Biondi, Germano Francisco

    2015-12-01

    To develop an experimental model of neurocysticercosis-induced hydrocephalus There were used 17 rats. Ten animals were inoculated with Taenia crassiceps cysts into the subarachnoid. Five animals were injected with 0. ml of 25% kaolin (a standard solution for the development of experimental hydrocephalus) and two animals were injected with saline. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate enlargement of the ventricles after one or three months of inoculation. Volumetric study was used to quantify the ventricle enlargement. Seven of the 10 animals in the cyst group developed hydrocephalus, two of them within one month and five within three months after inoculation. Three of the five animals in the kaolin group had hydrocephalus and none in the saline group. Ventricle volumes were significantly higher in the 3-months MRI cyst subgroup than in the 1-month cyst subgroup. Differences between cyst subgroups and kaolin group did not reach statistical significance. The developed model may reproduce the human condition of neurocysticercosis-related hydrocephalus, which exhibits a slowly progressive chronic course.

  8. Long-term electromagnetic exposure of developing neuronal networks: A flexible experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Stefan; Daus, Andreas W; Erbes, Christian; Goldhammer, Michael; Bochtler, Ulrich; Thielemann, Christiane

    2016-05-01

    Neuronal networks in vitro are considered one of the most promising targets of research to assess potential electromagnetic field induced effects on neuronal functionality. A few exposure studies revealed there is currently no evidence of any adverse health effects caused by weak electromagnetic fields. Nevertheless, some published results are inconsistent. Particularly, doubts have been raised regarding possible athermal biological effects in the young brain during neuronal development. Therefore, we developed and characterized a flexible experimental setup based on a transverse electromagnetic waveguide, allowing controlled, reproducible exposure of developing neuronal networks in vitro. Measurement of S-parameters confirmed very good performance of the Stripline in the band of 800-1000 MHz. Simulations suggested a flexible positioning of cell culture dishes throughout a large exposure area, as specific absorption rate values were quite independent of their position (361.7 ± 11.4 mW/kg) at 1 W, 900 MHz. During exposure, thermal drift inside cellular medium did not exceed 0.1 K. Embryonic rat cortical neurons were cultivated on microelectrode array chips to non-invasively assess electrophysiological properties of electrogenic networks. Measurements were taken for several weeks, which attest to the experimental setup being a reliable system for long-term studies on developing neuronal tissue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. BioBlocks: Programming Protocols in Biology Made Easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Irimia, Jesús; Pau, Iván; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2017-07-21

    The methods to execute biological experiments are evolving. Affordable fluid handling robots and on-demand biology enterprises are making automating entire experiments a reality. Automation offers the benefit of high-throughput experimentation, rapid prototyping, and improved reproducibility of results. However, learning to automate and codify experiments is a difficult task as it requires programming expertise. Here, we present a web-based visual development environment called BioBlocks for describing experimental protocols in biology. It is based on Google's Blockly and Scratch, and requires little or no experience in computer programming to automate the execution of experiments. The experiments can be specified, saved, modified, and shared between multiple users in an easy manner. BioBlocks is open-source and can be customized to execute protocols on local robotic platforms or remotely, that is, in the cloud. It aims to serve as a de facto open standard for programming protocols in Biology.

  10. Dentin bond strength of a new adhesive system containing calcium phosphate experimentally developed for direct pulp capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkai, Koichi; Taira, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Masaya; Kato, Chikage; Ebihara, Takashi; Wakaki, Suguru; Seki, Hideaki; Shirono, Manabu; Ogisu, Takahito; Yamauchi, Junichi; Suzuki, Shiro; Katoh, Yoshiroh

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) to human dentin of an experimental bonding agent containing calcium phosphates experimentally developed for direct pulp capping. Different concentrations of four types of calcium phosphates were added to an experimental bonding monomer, and six experimental bonding agents were thus prepared. Clearfil SE Bond/Bond was used as the control. Flat dentin surfaces of human molars were assigned to the experimental adhesive systems and the control. After Clearfil SE Bond/Primer was applied to the dentin surface, each experimental bonding agent was applied and photopolymerized, and then a resin composite paste was placed and photopolymerized. The specimens were subjected to microTBS testing. Results revealed that there were no significant differences among the microTBS values of the experimental bonding agents and the control. In other words, the calcium phosphate-containing experimental adhesives did not adversely affect the microTBS to dentin.

  11. Development of a High-fidelity Experimental Substructure Test Rig for Grid-scored Sandwich Panels in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Steffen; Lund, Erik; Kühlmeier, L.

    2014-01-01

    . The development of a full-scale numerical model is detailed, and the necessary experimental set-up is described. Further, the numerical and experimental results obtained are compared, and an idealised set of boundary conditions for a chosen blade substructure is presented. Fromthis, the development of a test rig...

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) inhibits tumor development from precancerous tissue: An experimental study that supports a potential new application of BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Heber, E.M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Research and Production Reactors, Ezeiza Atomic Center, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigg, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Calzetta, O.; Blaumann, H.; Longhino, J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Bariloche Atomic Center, CNEA, Rio Negro (Argentina); Nievas, S.I. [Department of Chemistry, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, R.F. [Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Itoiz, M.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Trivillin, V.A. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schwint, A.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2009-07-15

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) and (GB-10+BPA) to control tumors, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity, in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Herein we developed a novel experimental model of field-cancerization and precancerous lesions (globally termed herein precancerous tissue) in the hamster cheek pouch to explore the long-term potential inhibitory effect of the same BNCT protocols on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue. Clinically, second primary tumor recurrences occur in field-cancerized tissue, causing therapeutic failure. We performed boron biodistribution studies followed by in vivo BNCT studies, with 8 months follow-up. All 3 BNCT protocols induced a statistically significant reduction in tumor development from precancerous tissue, reaching a maximum inhibition of 77-100%. The inhibitory effect of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT persisted at 51% at the end of follow-up (8 months), whereas for GB-10-BNCT it faded after 2 months. Likewise, beam-only elicited a significant but transient reduction in tumor development. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was observed. At 8 months post-treatment with BPA-BNCT or (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT, the precancerous pouches that did not develop tumors had regained the macroscopic and histological appearance of normal (non-cancerized) pouches. A potential new clinical application of BNCT would lie in its capacity to inhibit local regional recurrences.

  13. Development of using experimenter-given cues in infant chimpanzees: longitudinal changes in behavior and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-01-01

    The use of gaze shifts as social cues has various evolutionary advantages. To investigate the developmental processes of this ability, we conducted an object-choice task by using longitudinal methods with infant chimpanzees tested from 8 months old until 3 years old. The experimenter used one of six gestures towards a cup concealing food; tapping, touching, whole-hand pointing, gazing plus close-pointing, distant-pointing, close-gazing, and distant-gazing. Unlike any other previous study, we analyzed the behavioral changes that occurred before and after choosing the cup. We assumed that pre-choice behavior indicates the development of an attentional and spatial connection between a pointing cue and an object (e.g. Woodward, 2005); and post-choice behavior indicates the emergence of object permanence (e.g. Piaget, 1954). Our study demonstrated that infant chimpanzees begin to use experimenter-given cues with age (after 11 months of age). Moreover, the results from the behavioral analysis showed that the infants gradually developed the spatial link between the pointing as an object-directed action and the object. Moreover, when they were 11 months old, the infants began to inspect the inside of the cup, suggesting the onset of object permanence. Overall, our results imply that the ability to use the cues is developing and mutually related with other cognitive developments. The present study also suggests what the standard object-choice task actually measures by breaking the task down into the developmental trajectories of its component parts, and describes for the first time the social-physical cognitive development during the task with a longitudinal method.

  14. Intraarticular Facet Injections for Low Back Pain: Design Considerations, Consensus Methodology to Develop the Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Tom; Ellard, David R; Antrobus, James H L; Cairns, Melinda; Underwood, Martin; Haywood, Kirstie; Keohane, Susie; Sandhu, Harbinder; Griffiths, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of guidelines by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the American Pain Society guidelines for low back pain in 2009 there have been deep divisions in the pain treatment community about the use of therapeutic intraarticular facet joint injections. While evidence for the effectiveness or not of intraarticular facet joint injections remains sparse, uncertainty will remain. The Warwick feasibility study, along with a concurrent study with a different design led by another group, aims to provide a stable platform from which the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of intraarticular facet joint injections added to normal care could be evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To reach consensus on key design considerations for the Warwick facet feasibility study from which the study protocol and working manuals will be developed. A consensus conference involving expert professionals and lay members. Preliminary work identified 5 key design considerations for deliberation at our consensus conference. Three concerned patient assessment and treatment: diagnosis of possible facet joint pain, interaarticular facet joint injection technique, and best usual care. Two concerned