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Sample records for experimental porcine study

  1. Holding Strength of Suture: An Experimental Study Using Porcine Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Haluk; Karadag, Mert Ali; Dönmez, Muhammet İrfan; Altunrende, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The search for the perfect suture is going on and has resulted in the introduction of many different suture types into the market. The purpose of this study is to investigate the holding strength (HS) of different sutures in the renal parenchyma in an experimental study on pig kidneys. Methods: The HS that caused sliding of the suture was investigated in 5 adult porcine kidneys with 7 suture variants. HS-caused tearing of the kidney was investigated with 3 suture types on 5 kidneys. The third investigation, performed on 5 porcine kidneys, was a comparison between 2-0 Vicryl sutures with a Hem-o-lok clip and 2-0 V-Loc sutures with 1 knot. The Friedman test was used to compare the groups. Post hoc analysis was performed with the Wilcoxon signed ranks test (Bonferroni corrected). Results: For HS causing sliding of the suture, the mean HSs of the tested sutures were as follows: 2-0 Vicryl with 1 Hem-o-lok clip, 3.26 ± 0.55 N; 2-0 Vicryl with 2 Hem-o-lok clips, 4.1 ± 0.46 N; 2-0 V-Loc, 2.52 ± 0.63 N; 4-0 V-Loc, 1.62 ± 0.17 N; 0 Quill, 0.48 ± 0.16 N; 2-0 Vicryl with 1 Hem-o-lok clip (halfway), 3.62 ± 0.66 N; and 2-0 V-Loc (halfway), 1.02 ± 0.40 N. For HS causing tearing of the kidney, the mean value of 2-way 2-0 Vicryl (Hem-o-lok in the middle) was 13.28 ± 1.38 N, 2-0 2-way Vicryl (Hem-o-lok at the end) was 5.86 ± 0.75 N, and 2-way 2-0 V-Loc was 3.98 ± 1.60 N. For the third group, the difference between the 2 suture variants was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study revealed that 2-0 Vicryl (polyglactin 910) sutures with 2 Hem-o-lok clips had the maximum HS in renal parenchyma when compared with other sutures. PMID:28729782

  2. Holding Strength of Suture: An Experimental Study Using Porcine Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkuvanci, Ünsal; Akpinar, Haluk; Karadag, Mert Ali; Dönmez, Muhammet İrfan; Altunrende, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    The search for the perfect suture is going on and has resulted in the introduction of many different suture types into the market. The purpose of this study is to investigate the holding strength (HS) of different sutures in the renal parenchyma in an experimental study on pig kidneys. The HS that caused sliding of the suture was investigated in 5 adult porcine kidneys with 7 suture variants. HS-caused tearing of the kidney was investigated with 3 suture types on 5 kidneys. The third investigation, performed on 5 porcine kidneys, was a comparison between 2-0 Vicryl sutures with a Hem-o-lok clip and 2-0 V-Loc sutures with 1 knot. The Friedman test was used to compare the groups. Post hoc analysis was performed with the Wilcoxon signed ranks test (Bonferroni corrected). For HS causing sliding of the suture, the mean HSs of the tested sutures were as follows: 2-0 Vicryl with 1 Hem-o-lok clip, 3.26 ± 0.55 N; 2-0 Vicryl with 2 Hem-o-lok clips, 4.1 ± 0.46 N; 2-0 V-Loc, 2.52 ± 0.63 N; 4-0 V-Loc, 1.62 ± 0.17 N; 0 Quill, 0.48 ± 0.16 N; 2-0 Vicryl with 1 Hem-o-lok clip (halfway), 3.62 ± 0.66 N; and 2-0 V-Loc (halfway), 1.02 ± 0.40 N. For HS causing tearing of the kidney, the mean value of 2-way 2-0 Vicryl (Hem-o-lok in the middle) was 13.28 ± 1.38 N, 2-0 2-way Vicryl (Hem-o-lok at the end) was 5.86 ± 0.75 N, and 2-way 2-0 V-Loc was 3.98 ± 1.60 N. For the third group, the difference between the 2 suture variants was not statistically significant. Our study revealed that 2-0 Vicryl (polyglactin 910) sutures with 2 Hem-o-lok clips had the maximum HS in renal parenchyma when compared with other sutures.

  3. Acoustic hemostasis of porcine superficial femoral artery: Simulation and in-vivo experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaozheng; Mitchell, Stuart; Miller, Matthew; Barnes, Stephen; Hopple, Jerry; Kook, John; Moreau-Gobard, Romain; Hsu, Stephen; Ahiekpor-Dravi, Alexis; Crum, Lawrence A.; Eaton, John; Wong, Keith; Sekins, K. Michael

    2012-10-01

    In-vivo focused ultrasound studies were computationally simulated and conducted experimentally with the aim of occluding porcine superficial femoral arteries (SFA) via thermal coagulation. A multi-array HIFU applicator was used which electronically scanned multiple beam foci around the target point. The spatio-temporally averaged acoustic and temperature fields were simulated in a fluid dynamics and acousto-thermal finite element model with representative tissue fields, including muscle, vessel and blood. Simulations showed that with an acoustic power of 200W and a dose time of 60s, perivascular tissue reached 91°C; and yet blood reached a maximum 59°C, below the coagulation objective for this dose regime (75°C). Per simulations, acoustic-streaming induced velocity in blood reached 6.1cm/s. In in-vivo experiments, several arteries were treated. As simulated, thermal lesions were observed in muscle surrounding SFA in all cases. In dosing limited to 30 to 60 seconds, it required 257W to provide occlusion (one complete and one partial occlusion). Angiography and histology showed evidence of thrombogenesis and collagen shrinkage-based vessel constriction at these doses.

  4. Microbiological safety of a novel bio-artificial liver support system based on porcine hepatocytes: a experimental study

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    Han Bing

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our institute has developed a novel bio-artificial liver (BAL support system, based on a multi-layer radial-flow bioreactor carrying porcine hepatocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. It has been shown that porcine hepatocytes are capable of carrying infectious porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs into human cells, thus the microbiological safety of any such system must be confirmed before clinical trials can be performed. In this study, we focused on assessing the status of PERV infection in beagles treated with the novel BAL. Methods Five normal beagles were treated with the novel BAL for 6 hours. The study was conducted for 6 months, during which plasma was collected from the BAL and whole blood from the beagles at regular intervals. DNA and RNA in both the collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and plasma samples were extracted for conventional PCR and reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR with PERV-specific primers and the porcine-specific primer Sus scrofa cytochrome B. Meanwhile, the RT activity and the in vitro infectivity of the plasma were measured. Results Positive PERV RNA and RT activity were detected only in the plasma samples taken from the third circuit of the BAL system. All other samples including PBMCs and other plasma samples were negative for PERV RNA, PERV DNA, and RT activity. In the in vitro infection experiment, no infection was found in HEK293 cells treated with plasma. Conclusions No infective PERV was detected in the experimental animals, thus the novel BAL had a reliable microbiological safety profile.

  5. New Radiofrequency Device to Reduce Bleeding after Core Needle Biopsy: Experimental Study in a Porcine Liver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sanghyeok; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lee, Min Woo; Song, Kyoung Doo; Kang, Tae Wook; Kim, Young-Sun; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the in vivo efficiency of the biopsy tract radiofrequency ablation for hemostasis after core biopsy of the liver in a porcine liver model, including situations with bleeding tendency and a larger (16-gauge) core needle. A preliminary study was performed using one pig to determine optimal ablation parameters. For the main experiment, four pigs were assigned to different groups according to heparinization use and biopsy needle caliber. In each pig, 14 control (without tract ablation) and 14 experimental (tract ablation) ultrasound-guided core biopsies were performed using either an 18- or 16-gauge needle. Post-biopsy bleeding amounts were measured by soaking up the blood for five minutes. The results were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The optimal parameters for biopsy tract ablation were determined as a 2-cm active tip electrode set at 40-watt with a tip temperature of 70-80℃. The bleeding amounts in all experimental groups were smaller than those in the controls; however they were significant in the non-heparinized pig biopsied with an 18-gauge needle and in two heparinized pigs ( p biopsied with an 18- and 16-gauge needle, respectively. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatic core biopsy tract ablation may reduce post-biopsy bleeding even under bleeding tendency and using a larger core needle, according to the result from in vivo porcine model experiments.

  6. Bone Morphometric Evaluation around Immediately Placed Implants Covered with Porcine-Derived Pericardium Membrane: An Experimental Study in Dogs

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    Ryo Jimbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate whether porcine-derived bioresorbable pericardium membrane coverage enhances the osseointegration around implants placed in fresh extraction sockets. Study Design. Twenty-four commercially available endosseous implants were placed in the fresh extraction sockets of the mandibular first molar of mature beagles (. On one side, implants and osteotomy sites were covered with porcine-derived bioresorbable pericardium membranes, whereas on the other side, no membranes were used. After 6 weeks, samples were retrieved and were histologically processed for histomorphometric analysis. Results. The histological observation showed that bone loss and soft tissue migration in the coronal region of the implant were evident for the control group, whereas bone fill was evident up to the neck of the implant for the membrane-covered group. Bone-to-implant contact was significantly higher for the membrane-covered group compared to the control group, 75% and 45% (, respectively. Conclusion. The experimental membranes proved to regenerate bone around implants placed in fresh extraction sockets without soft tissue intrusion.

  7. New radiofrequency device to reduce bleeding after core needle biopsy: Experimental study in a porcine liver model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Hyeok; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Min Woo; Song, Kyoung Doo; Kang, Tae Wook; Kim, Young Sun; Lim, Hyo Keun [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate the in vivo efficiency of the biopsy tract radiofrequency ablation for hemostasis after core biopsy of the liver in a porcine liver model, including situations with bleeding tendency and a larger (16-gauge) core needle. A preliminary study was performed using one pig to determine optimal ablation parameters. For the main experiment, four pigs were assigned to different groups according to heparinization use and biopsy needle caliber. In each pig, 14 control (without tract ablation) and 14 experimental (tract ablation) ultrasound-guided core biopsies were performed using either an 18- or 16-gauge needle. Post-biopsy bleeding amounts were measured by soaking up the blood for five minutes. The results were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The optimal parameters for biopsy tract ablation were determined as a 2-cm active tip electrode set at 40-watt with a tip temperature of 70–80℃. The bleeding amounts in all experimental groups were smaller than those in the controls; however they were significant in the non-heparinized pig biopsied with an 18-gauge needle and in two heparinized pigs (p < 0.001). In the heparinized pigs, the mean blood loss in the experimental group was 3.5% and 13.5% of the controls biopsied with an 18- and 16-gauge needle, respectively. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatic core biopsy tract ablation may reduce post-biopsy bleeding even under bleeding tendency and using a larger core needle, according to the result from in vivo porcine model experiments.

  8. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis | Onawunmi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (1977) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis. OA Onawunmi. Abstract. No abstract.

  9. 915 MHz microwave ablation with implanted internal cooled-shaft antenna: Initial experimental study in in vivo porcine livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Zhigang, E-mail: qlczg@yahoo.cn [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28, Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Xiao Qiujin, E-mail: xiaoqj@hotmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese PLA Ninety-fourth Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330000 (China); Wang Yang, E-mail: wangyang301@sohu.com [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28, Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Sun Yuanyuan, E-mail: qlczg@sina.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28, Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Lu Tong, E-mail: lutong_java@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28, Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Liang Ping, E-mail: liangping301@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28, Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To explore a preferred power output for further clinical application based on the ablated lesions induced by the four power outputs of 915 MHz microwave in experimental study of in vivo porcine livers. Materials and methods: A KY2000-915 microwave ablation system with an implanted 915 MHz internal cooled-shaft antenna was used in this study. A total of 24 ablations were performed in eight in vivo porcine livers. The energy was applied for 10 min at microwave output powers of 50 W, 60 W, 70 W, and 80 W. Long-axis and short-axis diameters of the coagulation zone were measured on all gross specimens. Results: The shapes of the 915 MHz microwave ablation lesions were elliptical commonly. As the power increased, the long-axis and short-axis diameters of the coagulation zone had a tendency to rise. But the long-axis diameter of the ablated lesion at 50 W was not significantly smaller than that of the ablated lesion at 60 W (P > 0.05) and there were no statistical differences in short-axis diameters of the ablated lesion among the three power outputs of 60 W, 70 W and 80 W (P > 0.05). After 10 min irradiation of 60 W, the long-axis and short-axis diameters of the coagulation zone were 5.02 {+-} 0.60 cm and 3.65 {+-} 0.46 cm, respectively. Conclusions: For decreasing the undesired damages of liver tissues along the shaft and the number of antenna in further clinically percutaneous microwave ablation treatment, the power of 60 W may be a preferred setting among the four power outputs used in present study.

  10. Functional recovery after experimental RPE debridement, mfERG studies in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Buus; Lassota, Nathan; Kyhn, Maria Voss

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The correlation between histologically identified regeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and functional outcome measured by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) following surgical debridement is examined in a porcine model. In humans, visual acuity is reduced in diseases...... with RPE loss such as RPE tears and geographic atrophy. Hypopigmented RPE is known to cover the lesion after RPE debridement in the pig, but it is unclear whether this leads to a return of photoreceptor function. METHODS: RPE debridement was performed in ten pigs by vitrectomy and retinotomy......, and by brushing the Bruch's membrane with a silicone catheter. Immediately following surgery (baseline) and after 2 and 6 weeks respectively, the animals were examined by mfERG, fundus photographs (FPs), fluorescein angiograms (FAs), and histopathology. RESULTS: The mfERG P1 amplitude was decreased 2 weeks (T2...

  11. Changes in Coronary Blood Flow After Acute Myocardial Infarction: Insights From a Patient Study and an Experimental Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Guus A; Hollander, Maurits R; Teunissen, Paul F A; Jansen, Matthijs F; Eerenberg, Elise S; Beek, Aernout M; Marques, Koen M; van de Ven, Peter M; Garrelds, Ingrid M; Danser, A H Jan; Duncker, Dirk J; van Royen, Niels

    2016-03-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on baseline and hyperemic flow in both culprit and nonculprit arteries. An impaired coronary flow reserve (CFR) after AMI is related to worse outcomes. The individual contribution of resting and hyperemic flow to the reduction of CFR is unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether currently used experimental models of AMI resemble the clinical situation with respect to coronary flow parameters. Intracoronary Doppler flow velocity measurements were obtained in culprit and nonculprit arteries immediately after successfully revascularized ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (n = 40). Stable patients without obstructive coronary artery disease served as control subjects and were selected by propensity-score matching (n = 40). Similar measurements in an AMI porcine model were taken both before and immediately after 75-min balloon occlusion of the left circumflex artery (n = 11). In the culprit artery, CFR was 36% lower than in matched control subjects (Δ = -0.9; 1.8 ± 0.9 vs. 2.8 ± 0.7; p infarct size as a percentage of the left ventricle in both patients (r = -0.48; p = 0.001) and swine (r = -0.61; p = 0.047). CFR in both culprit and nonculprit coronary arteries decreases after AMI with contributions from both an increased baseline flow and a decreased hyperemic flow. The decreased CFR after AMI in culprit and nonculprit vessels is not a result of pre-existing microvascular dysfunction, but represents a combination of post-occlusive hyperemia, myocardial necrosis, hemorrhagic microvascular injury, compensatory hyperkinesis, and neurohumoral vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood gas and hematological changes in experimental peracute porcine pleuropneumonia.

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    Kiorpes, A L; MacWilliams, P S; Schenkman, D I; Bäckström, L R

    1990-01-01

    The effect of experimental, peracute, porcine pleuropneumonia on arterial blood gases, acid base status, the leukogram, and gross and microscopic lung structure was studied in nine growing pigs (mean weight +/- SD 10.6 +/- 2.0 kg). Pigs were inoculated intranasally with a virulent serotype 5 isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and all showed signs typical of the disease within four hours. Death occurred in all pigs from 4.5 to 32 hours postinoculation (mean 14 hours). Gross and microscopic changes were typical of porcine pleuropneumonia in all pigs. Changes in the leukogram included a rapid decline in total white cells, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. Pigs maintained alveolar ventilation throughout the study as arterial CO2 tension was unchanged; however, arterial O2 tension and pH decreased from (mean +/- SD) 95.2 +/- 5.7 torr and 7.463 +/- 0.018 at baseline to 62.1 +/- 12.3 torr and 7.388 +/- 0.045, respectively, within 90 minutes prior to death. The data showed that in this model of peracute porcine pleuropneumonia, progressive ventilatory failure was not a feature of the disease, and the blood gas values and acid base status were maintained within physiological ranges. The histopathological hematological and physiological findings were consistent with the hypothesis that peracute porcine pleuropneumonia resembles septic shock. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2106382

  13. Blood gas and hematological changes in experimental peracute porcine pleuropneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiorpes, A L; MacWilliams, P S; Schenkman, D I; Bäckström, L R

    1990-01-01

    The effect of experimental, peracute, porcine pleuropneumonia on arterial blood gases, acid base status, the leukogram, and gross and microscopic lung structure was studied in nine growing pigs (mean weight +/- SD 10.6 +/- 2.0 kg). Pigs were inoculated intranasally with a virulent serotype 5 isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and all showed signs typical of the disease within four hours. Death occurred in all pigs from 4.5 to 32 hours postinoculation (mean 14 hours). Gross and micros...

  14. Experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic porcine pancreas and preliminary case study on the human pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, C; Fröhlich, M; Brandstädter, K; Bruns, C; Stoll, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the mechanical properties of the pancreas. Up to now, the mechanical properties of the pancreas are not sufficiently characterized. The possibility of intraoperative mechanical testing of pathological pancreata will allow the classification of pancreatic diseases in the future. The application of mechanical parameters instead of the intraoperative frozen section analysis shortens waiting times in the operating room. This study proves the general applicability of shear rheology for the determination of the mechanical properties of pancreas and the assessment of graft quality for transplantation. Porcine and human pancreas samples were examined ex vivo and a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior was observed. Pancreas was found to be more viscous than liver but both abdominal organs showed a similar flow behavior. The shear deformation dependence of healthy human pancreas was similar to porcine pancreas. An increase in the post-mortem time led to an increase in the complex modulus for a post-mortem time up to 8.5 days. Histological investigations showed that an increased amount of collagen coincides with the stiffening of the pancreatic tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of the hemostatic potential of modern topical sealants on arterial and venous anastomoses: an experimental porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonouni, Hamidreza; Kashfi, Arash; Majlesara, Ali; Stahlheber, Oliver; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Kraus, Thomas W; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Oweira, Hani

    2017-09-01

    One of the widely accepted adjunctive agents in the variety of surgical modalities are sealants. Our study aim was to compare four commonly used modern sealants in a standardized experimental setting to assess their feasibility, and hemostatic efficacy in vascular anastomosis. Forty landrace pigs (weight: 24.7 ± 3.8 kg) were randomized into the control (n = 8) and four sealant groups; TachoSil® (n = 8), Tissucol Duo® (n = 8), Coseal® (n = 8), and FloSeal® (n = 8). After doing a portal vein end-to-end anastomosis as well as stitches of aortic incision, the sealants were applied on anastomotic site. The control group was left intact. In portal vein anastomosis, the sealants led to a complete hemostasis significantly better than control group. The mean of blood loss was also significantly reduced. In successful subgroups, there was a difference in the mean-time to reach complete hemostasis ranging from 15 s in Coseal® to 76 s in FloSeal® group (p  sealants led to a complete hemostasis. The mean blood loss was significantly reduced in sealants groups as well. The four sealants are effective in reducing the suture-hole bleeding in portal vein anastomosis. However, the hemostatic potential is heterogeneous among sealants. This means that "one-size-fits-all" approach is not appropriate for application of sealants in diversity of vascular surgery and it should be based on the type and the severity of injury and the structure of tissue. Comparison of hemostasis efficacy of four modern sealants (TachoSil®, Tissucol Duo®, Coseal®, and FloSeal®) in vascular anastomosis in porcine model. The figures below show the total blood loss (g) in the control and sealant groups after aortotomy (left) and portal vein anastomosis (right). The mean of blood loss decreased significantly by the usage of sealants in both experiment groups as compared to control group (*: p sealant groups vs. control group). 1. The right column shows the mean of

  16. Contrast Enhancement Patterns after Irreversible Electroporation: Experimental Study of CT Perfusion Correlated to Histopathology in Normal Porcine Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dong Jin; Sung, Kyunghyun; Osuagwu, Ferdnand C; Wu, Holden H; Lassman, Charles; Lu, David S K

    2016-01-01

    To analyze ablated tissue zones after irreversible electroporation (IRE) of porcine liver using computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging with histopathologic correlation. Under ultrasound and CT guidance, 10 IRE ablations were performed percutaneously in three Yorkshire pigs using a single bipolar electrode. CT perfusion imaging was performed in all pigs immediately after ablation and on day 2. Pathologic sections were prepared for correlation with histopathology (hematoxylin-eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling stains, 5-mm-thick slices). The short diameter of different enhancing zones on CT was correlated with the gross specimen. CT perfusion images showed three differently enhancing zones: zone 1, inner nonenhancing zone; zone 2, middle well-defined progressive internal enhancement zone; and zone 3, outer ill-defined arterial enhancement zone with rapid washout. On histopathology, zone 1 showed a strong correlation with a pale zone, and zone 2 correlated with a red zone, together accounting for the extent of cell death. Zone 3 was outside of the ablation zone and contained inflammatory cells. Each enhancing zone had different perfusion parameters. CT perfusion imaging in the acute setting effectively demonstrates histopathologic tissue zones after IRE ablation. Zone 2 is unique to IRE not seen in thermal ablation, characterized by progressive intra-zonal enhancement, and its outer boundary defines the extent of cell death. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental Airborne Transmission of Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C. S.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Vestergaard, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to investigate if porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) could be induced in healthy pigs following contact with air from pigs with clinical signs of PMWS. The pigs were housed in different units. Either 31 (study I) or 25 (study II) pigs with...

  18. Multilayer radial systolic strain can identify subendocardial ischemia: an experimental tissue Doppler imaging study of the porcine left ventricular wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matre, Knut; Moen, Christian Arvei; Fanneløp, Tord; Dahle, Geir Olav; Grong, Ketil

    2007-12-01

    This study investigates whether subendocardial ischemia can be detected by measuring multilayer radial systolic strain from epicardial tissue Doppler imaging. In 10 anesthetized open-chest pigs an extracorporeal shunt from the proximal brachiocephalic to the left anterior descending coronary artery was constricted in steps. Color microsphere injections and short axis Tissue Velocity Imaging (TVI) recordings were performed with open shunt, with a non-significant stenosis, and with 2 steps of shunt flow reduction. With open shunt and no transmural flow gradient, there was a gradient of peak ejection strain with high values subendocardially for both 4 and 2 layer measurements. For 2 layer measurement strain was 56.0+/-10.5% subendocardially and 22.0+/-5.2% subepicardially. A non-significant stenosis, not altering transmural flow distribution, reduced strain to 40.3+/-5.4% in the endocardial half-layer. With reduced shunt flow resulting in subendocardial ischemia, peak ejection strain decreased further, primarily in inner wall layers, and postsystolic strain became evident. At severe stenosis (52.4+/-1.8% shunt flow reduction) strain was reduced to 3.8+/-3.6% in the subendocardium and 0.0+/-2.6% in the subepicardium. Evaluation of myocardial function with multilayer radial systolic strain has a potential for detecting subendocardial ischemia.

  19. Estudo experimental com heteroenxertos valvares descelularizados: a prótese do futuro Experimental study with deccelularized porcine heterografts: the prosthesis of the future

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    Francisco Diniz Affonso Da Costa

    2004-03-01

    regenerativa e com isso ter durabilidade superior aos homoenxertos criopreservados convencionais.OBJECTIVE: To make a comparative evaluation of the behaviour of cryopreserved homografts and deccelularized porcine heterografts implanted in the right ventricular outflow tract of juvenile sheep as well as to report the initial clinical experience with deccelularized pulmonary homografts in patients submitted to the Ross procedure. METHOD: In group A, four cryopreserved homografts were implanted and group B consisted of four heterografts deccelularized with deoxicolic acid. In each group, two animals were sacrificed at 90 days and the other two at 150 days. The explants were evaluated macroscopically, and radiologically, besides histological examination with HE, Gomori and Sirius Red staining,. We also report our initial clinical experience with deccelularized pulmonary homografts in four patients submitted to the Ross procedure. RESULTS: A ll the animals survived. By echo all the implanted valves had normal function. Although the cusps had normal appearance in both groups, calcium content was higher in the cryopreserved valves and radiologically there were traces of calcification in the cryopreserved valves but none in the deccelularized valves. Cryopreserved homografts lost their cellularity while deccelularized heterografts were progressivelly repopulated by fibroblasts and were partially reendothelized. Four patients submitted to a Ross operation with deccelularized homografts had a good clinical outcome with normal function in their right sided homografts. CONCLUSIONS: Deccelularized heterografts were progressivelly repopulated by autologous cells and exhibted minimal tendency to calcification in this model. These results suggest that deccelularized heterografts may have some regenerative capacity and thus potencially greater durability than conventional cryopreserved homografts.

  20. Blood gas stability and hematological changes in experimentally-induced acute porcine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiorpes, A L; Mirsky, M L; MacWilliams, P S; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T

    1989-01-01

    Blood gas and hematological responses to acute, mild Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection of growing pigs was studied. Six pigs (average weight 10.1 kg) were experimentally infected intranasally with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. Four pigs served as controls. Rectal temperatures and arterial blood for gas analysis and hematology were taken at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h postinfection. All infected pigs became febrile showing clinical signs typical of mild to moderate porcine pleuropneumonia; controls remained asymptomatic. Neutrophilia with bands and lymphopenia were observed only in infected pigs. Arterial partial pressures of O2 and CO2, and pH did not change in infected pigs. All pigs were killed after 72 h, and lungs were examined and cultured. Gross and microscopic lesions consistent with porcine pleuropneumonia were seen in 3/6 and 5/6 infected lungs, respectively. Control lungs were grossly normal with no histological evidence of pleuropneumonia. We conclude that in mild, acute porcine pleuropneumonia as established experimentally, a leukogram typical of acute inflammation and stress is seen; however, hypoxemia and alveolar hypoventilation are not features of this form of the disease. PMID:2914231

  1. Total laparoscopic gastrocystoplasty: experimental technique in a porcine model

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    Frederico R. Romero

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe a unique simplified experimental technique for total laparoscopic gastrocystoplasty in a porcine model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed laparoscopic gastrocystoplasty on 10 animals. The gastroepiploic arch was identified and carefully mobilized from its origin at the pylorus to the beginning of the previously demarcated gastric wedge. The gastric segment was resected with sharp dissection. Both gastric suturing and gastrovesical anastomosis were performed with absorbable running sutures. The complete procedure and stages of gastric dissection, gastric closure, and gastrovesical anastomosis were separately timed for each laparoscopic gastrocystoplasty. The end-result of the gastric suturing and the bladder augmentation were evaluated by fluoroscopy or endoscopy. RESULTS: Mean total operative time was 5.2 (range 3.5 - 8 hours: 84.5 (range 62 - 110 minutes for the gastric dissection, 56 (range 28 - 80 minutes for the gastric suturing, and 170.6 (range 70 to 200 minutes for the gastrovesical anastomosis. A cystogram showed a small leakage from the vesical anastomosis in the first two cases. No extravasation from gastric closure was observed in the postoperative gastrogram. CONCLUSIONS: Total laparoscopic gastrocystoplasty is a feasible but complex procedure that currently has limited clinical application. With the increasing use of laparoscopy in reconstructive surgery of the lower urinary tract, gastrocystoplasty may become an attractive option because of its potential advantages over techniques using small and large bowel segments.

  2. Biomechanical comparison of lumbar spine instability between laminectomy and bilateral laminotomy for spinal stenosis syndrome – an experimental study in porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lih-Huei

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of lumbar spine instability between laminectomy and laminotomy has been clinically studied, but the corresponding in vitro biomechanical studies have not been reported. We investigated the hypothesis that the integrity of the posterior complex (spinous process-interspinous ligament-spinous process plays an important role on the postoperative spinal stability in decompressive surgery. Methods Eight porcine lumbar spine specimens were studied. Each specimen was tested intact and after two decompression procedures. All posterior components were preserved in Group A (Intact. In Group B (Bilateral laminotomy, the inferior margin of L4 lamina and superior margin of L5 lamina were removed, but the L4–L5 supraspinous ligament was preserved. Fenestrations were made on both sides. In Group C (Laminectomy the lamina and spinous processes of lower L4 and upper L5 were removed. Ligamentum flavum and supraspinous ligament of L4–L5 were removed. A hydraulic testing machine was used to generate an increasing moment up to 8400 N-mm in flexion and extension. Intervertebral displacement at decompressive level L4–L5 was measured by extensometer Results The results indicated that, under extension motion, intervertebral displacement between the specimen in intact form and at two different decompression levels did not significantly differ (P > 0.05. However, under flexion motion, intervertebral displacement of the laminectomy specimens at decompression level L4–L5 was statistically greater than in intact or bilateral laminotomy specimens (P = 0.0000963 and P = 0.000418, respectively. No difference was found between intact and bilateral laminotomy groups. (P > 0.05. Conclusion We concluded that a lumbar spine with posterior complex integrity is less likely to develop segment instability than a lumbar spine with a destroyed anchoring point for supraspinous ligament.

  3. Experimental Evidence of Mechanical Isotropy in Porcine Lung Parenchyma

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    Benjamin Weed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary injuries are a major source of morbidity and mortality associated with trauma. Trauma includes injuries associated with accidents and falls as well as blast injuries caused by explosives. The prevalence and mortality of these injuries has made research of pulmonary injury a major priority. Lungs have a complex structure, with multiple types of tissues necessary to allow successful respiration. The soft, porous parenchyma is the component of the lung which contains the alveoli responsible for gas exchange. Parenchyma is also the portion which is most susceptible to traumatic injury. Finite element simulations are an important tool for studying traumatic injury to the human body. These simulations rely on material properties to accurately recreate real world mechanical behaviors. Previous studies have explored the mechanical properties of lung tissues, specifically parenchyma. These studies have assumed material isotropy but, to our knowledge, no study has thoroughly tested and quantified this assumption. This study presents a novel methodology for assessing isotropy in a tissue, and applies these methods to porcine lung parenchyma. Briefly, lung parenchyma samples were dissected so as to be aligned with one of the three anatomical planes, sagittal, frontal, and transverse, and then subjected to compressive mechanical testing. Stress-strain curves from these tests were statistically compared by a novel method for differences in stresses and strains at percentages of the curve. Histological samples aligned with the anatomical planes were also examined by qualitative and quantitative methods to determine any differences in the microstructural morphology. Our study showed significant evidence to support the hypothesis that lung parenchyma behaves isotropically.

  4. Comparison of load responsiveness of cartilage T1rho and T2 in porcine knee joints: an experimental loading MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, H; Nishii, T; Tamura, S; Tanaka, H; Wakayama, T; Sugano, N

    2015-10-01

    To compare changes in T1rho and T2 values of the femoral cartilage in porcine knee joints under staged loading and unloading conditions. Sixteen porcine knee joints with intact capsules and surrounding muscle were imaged using a custom-made pressure device and 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. Sagittal T1rho and T2 images were obtained for the lateral and medial condyles under the following compression loads: none (Load 0), 140 N (Load 140), 300 N (Load 300), and no compression after decompression (Post-load). The percentage changes of cartilage T1rho and T2 values under each loading condition from those at Load 0 were calculated for weight-bearing overall and eight subdivided regions of interest (ROIs) in both femoral condyles. The actual contact pressure under Load 140 and Load 300 was measured using pressure-sensitive film. For the overall ROI, the mean decreases of T1rho and T2 values were 4.4% and 5.1% under Load 140% and 10.9% and 10.6% under Load 300 in the medial condyle and were 5.2% and 4.0% under Load 140% and 10.6% and 6.0% under Load 300 in the lateral condyle. In the medial condyle, the actual contact pressure correlated highly with percentage changes in T1rho (r = -0.84, P < 0.01) and T2 (r = -0.79, P < 0.01), but those correlations were relatively low in the lateral condyle. Although there were side-dependent variations in the correlations with actual pressure, cartilage T1rho and T2 showed similarly sensitive responses to applied load. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What Kind of Capsule Endoscope Is Suitable for a Controllable Self-Propelling Capsule Endoscope? Experimental Study Using a Porcine Stomach Model for Clinical Application (with Videos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazuhiro; Nouda, Sadaharu; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Iguchi, Munetaka; Kojima, Yuichi; Kuramoto, Takanori; Inoue, Takuya; Shindo, Yasunori; Uesugi, Kenshiro; Fujito, Yoshiaki; Nishihara, Hironori; Ohtsuka, Naotake; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    Background We have been developing the Self-Propelling Capsule Endoscope (SPCE) that allows for controllability from outside of the body and real-time observation. What kind of capsule endoscope (CE) is suitable for a controllable SPCE is unclear and a very critical point for clinical application. We compared observing ability of three kinds of SPCEs with different viewing angles and frame rates. Methods Eleven buttons were sewed in an excised porcine stomach. Four examiners controlled the SPCE using PillCamSB2, -ESO2, and -COLON2 (Given Imaging Ltd., Israel), for 10 minutes each with the aim of detecting as many buttons and examining them as closely as possible. The ability to find lesions was assessed based on the number of detected buttons. The SPCE-performance score (SPS) was used to evaluate the ability to examine the lesions in detail. Results The SPCE-ESO2, -COLON2, and -SB2 detected 11 [interquartile range (IQR): 0], 10.5 (IQR, 0.5), and 8 (IQR, 1.0) buttons, respectively. The SPCE-ESO2 and -COLON2 had a significantly better ability to detect lesions than the -SB2 (p stomach. PMID:26447694

  6. Study of the virulence and cross-neutralization capability of recent porcine parvovirus field isolates and vaccine viruses in experimentally infected pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeuw, E J L; Leinecker, N; Herwig, V; Selbitz, H-J; Truyen, U

    2007-02-01

    The pathogenicity of two recent German field isolates of Porcine parvovirus (PPV-27a and PPV-143a) and two vaccine viruses [PPV-NADL-2 and PPV-IDT (MSV)], which are used for the production of inactivated vaccines, was investigated by inoculation of pregnant sows at day 40 of gestation. Post-infection sera of these sows as well as antisera prepared in rabbits by immunization with the four above-mentioned PPV isolates and with the virulent strain PPV-Challenge (Engl.) were tested for their homologous and heterologous neutralization activities. All antisera had high neutralization activity against the vaccine viruses, the PPV-Challenge (Engl.) virus and PPV-143a, but much lower activity against PPV-27a. These results suggest that PPV-27a represents a new antigenic variant or type of PPV and vaccines based on the established vaccine viruses may not be fully protective against this field isolate. PPV-27a has been characterized based on the amino acid sequences of the capsid protein as a member of a new and distinct PPV cluster (Zimmermann et al., 2006). Interestingly, the homologous neutralizing antibody titres of the sera of all three pigs and both rabbits inoculated or immunized with PPV-27a were 100- to 1000-fold lower than the heterologous titres against any of the other viruses. The low homologous neutralizing antibody titres suggest a possible, yet undefined, immune escape mechanism of this PPV isolate.

  7. Optimizing the imaging protocol for vivo coronary artery wall using high-resolution MIRI: An experimental study on porcine and human

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    Yang, Jiang; Li, Tao; Cul, Xiaoming; Zhou, Weihua; Zhang, Xinwu [The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Beijing (China)

    2013-08-15

    To optimize the MR imaging protocol for coronary arterial wall depiction in vitro and characterize the coronary atherosclerotic plaques. MRI examination was prospectively performed in ten porcine hearts in order to optimize the MR imaging protocol. Various surface coils were used for coronary arterial wall imaging with the same parameters. Then, the image parameters were further optimized for high-resolution coronary wall imaging. The signal-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-noise ratio (CNR) of images were measured. Finally, 8 human cadaver hearts with coronary atherosclerotic plaques were prospectively performed with MRI examination using optimized protocol in order to characterize the coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The SNR and CNR of MR image with temporomandibular coil were the highest of various surface coils. High-resolution and high SNR and CNR for ex vivo coronary artery wall depiction can be achieved using temporomandibular coil with 512 x 512 in matrix. Compared with histopathology, the sensitivity and specificity of MRI for identifying advanced plaques were: type IV-V (lipid, necrosis, fibrosis), 94% and 95%; type VI (hemorrhage), 100% and 98%; type VII (calcification), 91% and 100%; and type VIII (fibrosis without lipid core), 100% and 98%, respectively. Temporomandibular coil appears to be dramatically superior to eight-channel head coil and knee coil for ex vivo coronary artery wall imaging, providing higher spatial resolution and improved the SNR. Ex vivo high-resolution MRI has capability to distinguish human coronary atherosclerotic plaque compositions and accurately classify advanced plaques.

  8. What Kind of Capsule Endoscope Is Suitable for a Controllable Self-Propelling Capsule Endoscope? Experimental Study Using a Porcine Stomach Model for Clinical Application (with Videos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Ota

    Full Text Available We have been developing the Self-Propelling Capsule Endoscope (SPCE that allows for controllability from outside of the body and real-time observation. What kind of capsule endoscope (CE is suitable for a controllable SPCE is unclear and a very critical point for clinical application. We compared observing ability of three kinds of SPCEs with different viewing angles and frame rates.Eleven buttons were sewed in an excised porcine stomach. Four examiners controlled the SPCE using PillCamSB2, -ESO2, and -COLON2 (Given Imaging Ltd., Israel, for 10 minutes each with the aim of detecting as many buttons and examining them as closely as possible. The ability to find lesions was assessed based on the number of detected buttons. The SPCE-performance score (SPS was used to evaluate the ability to examine the lesions in detail.The SPCE-ESO2, -COLON2, and -SB2 detected 11 [interquartile range (IQR: 0], 10.5 (IQR, 0.5, and 8 (IQR, 1.0 buttons, respectively. The SPCE-ESO2 and -COLON2 had a significantly better ability to detect lesions than the -SB2 (p < 0.05. The SPCE-ESO2, -COLON2, and -SB2 had significantly different SPS values of 22 (IQR, 0, 16.5 (IQR, 1.5, and 14 (IQR, 1.0, respectively (p < 0.05 for all comparisons; SPCE-SB2 vs. -ESO2, -SB2 vs. -COLON2, and -ESO2 vs. -COLON2.PillCamESO2 is most suitable in different three CEs for SPCE for examining lesions in detail of the stomach.

  9. What Kind of Capsule Endoscope Is Suitable for a Controllable Self-Propelling Capsule Endoscope? Experimental Study Using a Porcine Stomach Model for Clinical Application (with Videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazuhiro; Nouda, Sadaharu; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Iguchi, Munetaka; Kojima, Yuichi; Kuramoto, Takanori; Inoue, Takuya; Shindo, Yasunori; Uesugi, Kenshiro; Fujito, Yoshiaki; Nishihara, Hironori; Ohtsuka, Naotake; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    We have been developing the Self-Propelling Capsule Endoscope (SPCE) that allows for controllability from outside of the body and real-time observation. What kind of capsule endoscope (CE) is suitable for a controllable SPCE is unclear and a very critical point for clinical application. We compared observing ability of three kinds of SPCEs with different viewing angles and frame rates. Eleven buttons were sewed in an excised porcine stomach. Four examiners controlled the SPCE using PillCamSB2, -ESO2, and -COLON2 (Given Imaging Ltd., Israel), for 10 minutes each with the aim of detecting as many buttons and examining them as closely as possible. The ability to find lesions was assessed based on the number of detected buttons. The SPCE-performance score (SPS) was used to evaluate the ability to examine the lesions in detail. The SPCE-ESO2, -COLON2, and -SB2 detected 11 [interquartile range (IQR): 0], 10.5 (IQR, 0.5), and 8 (IQR, 1.0) buttons, respectively. The SPCE-ESO2 and -COLON2 had a significantly better ability to detect lesions than the -SB2 (p < 0.05). The SPCE-ESO2, -COLON2, and -SB2 had significantly different SPS values of 22 (IQR, 0), 16.5 (IQR, 1.5), and 14 (IQR, 1.0), respectively (p < 0.05 for all comparisons; SPCE-SB2 vs. -ESO2, -SB2 vs. -COLON2, and -ESO2 vs. -COLON2). PillCamESO2 is most suitable in different three CEs for SPCE for examining lesions in detail of the stomach.

  10. Laparoscopic anatrophic nephrolithotomy: feasibility study in a chronic porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouk, Jihad H; Gill, Inderbir S; Desai, Mihir M; Banks, Kevin L W; Raja, Shanker S; Skacel, Marek; Sung, Gyung Tak

    2003-02-01

    to complex stone surgery such as anatrophic nephrolithotomy with encouraging surgical and functional outcomes. To our knowledge this report represents the initial study of in situ creation of experimental staghorn calculi and laparoscopic anatrophic nephrolithotomy performed completely intracorporeally in a chronic porcine model.

  11. Experimental inoculation of porcine circoviruses type 1 (PCV1) and type 2 (PCV2) in rabbits and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Josefina; Balasch, Monica; Segalés, Joaquim; Calsamiglia, Maria; Rodríguez-Arrioja, Gabriela M; Plana-Durán, Juan; Domingo, Mariano

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the susceptibility of rabbits and mice experimentally inoculated with porcine circoviruses type 1 (PCV1) and type 2 (PCV2) to infection and development of disease and/or lesions. Forty six New Zealand rabbits and 50 ICR-CDI mice were both divided into two groups comprising PCVI and PCV2 inoculated animals, and a third group inoculated with non-infected cell culture medium. Rabbits were inoculated intranasally while mice were inoculated intraperitoneally. Clinical signs and body weights were recorded at the start of the experiment and at necropsy. Animals were bled, euthanised and necropsied at days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14 and 20 post-inoculation and samples were collected for histopathological, serological, in situ hybridisation and PCR analysis. No clinical signs or gross and microscopic lesions compatible with PCV2 infections such as those seen in pigs were observed. No presence of PCV2 nucleic acid was detected in rabbits and mice by in situ hybridisation. Only one mouse inoculated with PCV1 seroconverted on day 20 P1. PCV1 and PCV2 genome was detected in serum by PCR in mice inoculated with each porcine circovirus, while rabbits were negative for both viral types. These studies indicated that porcine circoviruses did not cause any disease or microscopic lesions in inoculated rabbits and mice during the experimental period. However, intraperitoneally inoculated mice might have harboured PCV2 in circulation without evidence of viral replication.

  12. Experimental investigation of commercial small diameter dental implants in porcine mandibular segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Istabrak; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Schwegmann, Monika; Keilig, Ludger; Stark, Helmut; Bourauel, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Small diameter (mini) dental implants have become more popular in recent years as alternatives to classical implant treatment in clinical cases with critical bony situations. However, an in-depth scientific analysis of the mechanical and biomechanical effects of small diameter implants has not yet been published. The aim of the present study was to investigate experimentally different commercial mini implants by measuring their displacements under immediate loading. Twelve commercially available mini implants were measured. Implants were inserted into porcine mandibular segments and loaded by means of a predefined displacement of 0.5 mm of the loading system. The implants were loaded at an angle of 30° to the implant long axis using the self-developed biomechanical hexapod measurement system. Implant displacements were registered. The experimental results were compared to the numerical ones from a previous study. Measured implant displacements were within the range of 39-194 μm. A large variation in the displacements was obtained among the different implant systems due to the different designs and thread profiles. Comparing experimental and numerical results, the displacements that were obtained numerically were within the range of 79-347 μm. The different commercial mini implants showed acceptable primary stability and could be loaded immediately after their insertion.

  13. Experimental factors affecting in vitro absorption of six model compounds across porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadzovska, Daniela; Brooks, James D; Riviere, Jim E

    2012-10-01

    This comparative study evaluated the effect of several experimental variables on the absorption of six model [(14)C]-labeled compounds (caffeine, cortisone, diclofenac sodium, mannitol, salicylic acid, and testosterone) through porcine skin. Using static and flow-through diffusion cells, finite or infinite, saturated or unsaturated doses were applied in one of three vehicles: propylene glycol, water, and ethanol following a full factorial experimental design. The flux of each compound into the receptor phase, with or without bovine serum albumin (BSA), was monitored over 24 h. Levels of radioactivity were also determined in the stratum corneum by tape stripping and in the remaining skin. Apparent permeability coefficients (Kp) and dose absorbed were calculated and compared. The overall results emphasize the importance of experimental design and confirm previous findings that identified dose volume, saturation level and vehicle as the main sources of variation in the in vitro assessment of dermal absorption, whilst diffusion cell model and the presence/absence of BSA in the receptor phase had minimal effect. Although the acquired data do not directly reveal new mechanistic information on dermal absorption, the unique and complete study design has provided a suitable data source for the development of dermal absorption prediction models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental creep behavior of porcine liver under indentation with laparoscopic grasper for MIS applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-mo Cai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical response of soft tissues behaved disparate due to fast and large deformation during surgical grasping, so there is a need for experimental databases of biomechanical characteristics of soft tissue under the contact of MIS tool, which are more useful for designing new surgical instruments, training inexperienced surgeons, improving surgical simulations and developing surgical robotics system. A novel indentation test to simulate the real-time surgical operation condition was present in this paper. The creep behavior of porcine liver in vitro was studied under uniaxial indentation by using MIS grasper. The nominal stress between the grasper and the liver was 0.02 to 0.1 MPa, the loading velocity was 1 to 3 mm/s, and the holding time was 300 s to simulate clamping tissue operation. Results showed that the creep process of the liver during 300 s of duration can be divided into three stages: loading stage I, transition creep stage II and steady creep stage III. The creep characteristic of liver behaves time-dependent, load-dependent and strongly loading velocity-dependent due to its nonlinear viscoelastic characteristics and hysteresis characteristics. These creep behavior might also be associated with the deformation, migration and biochemical reaction of the liver cells. The phenomenological model derived in this paper may describe the creep behavior of the liver. The results would provide experimental databases and phenomenological models for investigating biomechanical characteristics of soft tissue under the contact of MIS tool.

  15. Polypropylene, polyester or polytetrafluoroethylene-is there an ideal material for mesh augmentation at the esophageal hiatus? Results from an experimental study in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Stich, B P; Senft, J D; Lasitschka, F; Shevchenko, M; Billeter, A T; Bruckner, T; Kenngott, H G; Fischer, L; Gehrig, T

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about the influence of underlying biomaterial on behavior of surgical meshes at the esophageal hiatus is rare, but essential for safe and effective hiatal hernia surgery. This study aimed to characterize the influence of polymer material on mesh behavior at the hiatus. 24 pigs in three groups of eight underwent implantation of either polypropylene (PP), polyester (PET) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh placed circularly at the esophageal hiatus. After 8 weeks, necropsy and measurements were performed evaluating mesh deformation, adhesion formation, fixation of the esophagogastric junction and mesh position. Foreign body reaction was assessed by mononuclear cell count and immunostaining of Ki-67. Tissue integration was evaluated by immunostaining of type I and type III collagen fibers. Mesh shrinkage was the highest for PTFE, lower for PP and the lowest for PET (34.9 vs. 19.8 vs. 12.1 %; p = 0.002). Mesh aperture for the esophagus showed an enlargement within all groups, which was highest for PTFE compared to PP and PET (100.8 vs. 47.0 vs. 35.9 %; p = 0.001). The adhesion score was highest for PP, lower for PTFE and the lowest for PET (11.0 vs. 9.5 vs. 5.0; p = 0.001) and correlated positively with the score of esophagogastric fixation (r s = 0.784, p hernia recurrence. The use of PTFE-mesh at the hiatus may be disadvantageous due to high shrinkage rates and correlating enlargement of the aperture for the esophagus.

  16. Attempted experimental reproduction of porcine periweaning-failure-to-thrive syndrome using tissue homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyun; Harding, John C S

    2014-01-01

    Porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome (PFTS) is characterized by anorexia and progressive debilitation of newly weaned pigs, of which some also demonstrate repetitive oral behaviour. Although no relevant porcine pathogens have been shown to be causally associated, inoculation of susceptible pigs using tissue homogenates is needed to rule out infectious etiologies. Eight snatched-farrowed porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pigs were inoculated with tissue homogenates made from PFTS-affected pigs orally, or combined orally, intraperitoneally (i.p.) and intramuscularly (i.m.) at day (D) 14 of age (INOC). On D21, i.p. and i.m. inoculation were repeated. Four sham-inoculated pigs served as control (CTRL). Three INOC pigs developed mixed bacterial septicemia between the first and second inoculation. All other pigs survived until termination on D49. Average daily gain (ADG) and the frequencies of diarrhea did not differ between INOC and CTRL pigs D14 and D29. Additionally, the progressive debilitation characteristic of PFTS was not observed in any pig, and repetitive oral behaviour was observed in both groups. In conclusion, PFTS was not experimentally reproduced by the current experimental approach providing evidence that PFTS may not have an infectious etiology.

  17. Attempted experimental reproduction of porcine periweaning-failure-to-thrive syndrome using tissue homogenates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyun Huang

    Full Text Available Porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome (PFTS is characterized by anorexia and progressive debilitation of newly weaned pigs, of which some also demonstrate repetitive oral behaviour. Although no relevant porcine pathogens have been shown to be causally associated, inoculation of susceptible pigs using tissue homogenates is needed to rule out infectious etiologies. Eight snatched-farrowed porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD pigs were inoculated with tissue homogenates made from PFTS-affected pigs orally, or combined orally, intraperitoneally (i.p. and intramuscularly (i.m. at day (D 14 of age (INOC. On D21, i.p. and i.m. inoculation were repeated. Four sham-inoculated pigs served as control (CTRL. Three INOC pigs developed mixed bacterial septicemia between the first and second inoculation. All other pigs survived until termination on D49. Average daily gain (ADG and the frequencies of diarrhea did not differ between INOC and CTRL pigs D14 and D29. Additionally, the progressive debilitation characteristic of PFTS was not observed in any pig, and repetitive oral behaviour was observed in both groups. In conclusion, PFTS was not experimentally reproduced by the current experimental approach providing evidence that PFTS may not have an infectious etiology.

  18. Porcine spine finite element model: a complementary tool to experimental scoliosis fusionless instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Bahe; Aubin, Carl-Eric; Parent, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    Developing fusionless devices to treat pediatric scoliosis necessitates lengthy and expensive animal trials. The objective was to develop and validate a porcine spine numerical model as an alternative platform to assess fusionless devices. A parametric finite element model (FEM) of an osseoligamentous porcine spine and rib cage, including the epiphyseal growth plates, was developed. A follower-type load replicated physiological and gravitational loads. Vertebral growth and its modulation were programmed based on the Hueter-Volkmann principle, stipulating growth reduction/promotion due to increased compressive/tensile stresses. Scoliosis induction via a posterior tether and 5-level rib tethering, was simulated over 10 weeks along with its subsequent correction via a contralateral anterior custom tether (20 weeks). Scoliosis induction was also simulated using two experimentally tested compression-based fusionless implants (hemi- and rigid staples) over 12- and 8-weeks growth, respectively. Resulting simulated Cobb and sagittal angles, apical vertebral wedging, and left/right height alterations were compared to reported studies. Simulated induced Cobb and vertebral wedging were 48.4° and 7.6° and corrected to 21° and 5.4°, respectively, with the contralateral anterior tether. Apical rotation (15.6°) was corrected to 7.4°. With the hemi- and rigid staples, Cobb angle was 11.2° and 11.8°, respectively, with 3.7° and 2.0° vertebral wedging. Sagittal plane was within the published range. Convex/concave-side vertebral height difference was 3.1 mm with the induction posterior tether and reduced to 2.3 with the contralateral anterior tether, with 1.4 and 0.8 for the hemi- and rigid staples. The FEM represented growth-restraining effects and growth modulation with Cobb and vertebral wedging within 0.6° and 1.9° of experimental animal results, while it was within 5° for the two simulated staples. Ultimately, the model would serve as a time- and cost

  19. Preservation of enucleated porcine eyes for use in a wet laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    PURPOSE: To design a method to preserve enucleated porcine eyes for use in a wet laboratory. SETTING: Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Porcine eyes were preserved using 15 methods including salt

  20. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  1. Porcine focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia: experimental reproduction with oral doses of encapsulated sodium selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T M; Hammerstedt, R H; Palmer, I S; deLahunta, A

    1988-01-01

    Sodium selenite (encapsulated as doses of 1.4 mg, 2.6 mg and 4.2 mg per kilogram of body weight) was given orally on a daily basis to male weaner pigs, and features of these animals were compared to a control group. Porcine focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia was produced in all experimental groups between 3 and 20 days after initiation of the treatment. Analysis of blood and several tissues revealed an elevated selenium content for all pigs. Histological lesions in the brain and the cervical lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements included endothelial proliferation, neuronal degeneration, microcavitation and glial cell reaction.

  2. Porcine focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia: experimental reproduction with oral doses of encapsulated sodium selenite.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, T.M.; Hammerstedt, R H; Palmer, I S; deLahunta, A

    1988-01-01

    Sodium selenite (encapsulated as doses of 1.4 mg, 2.6 mg and 4.2 mg per kilogram of body weight) was given orally on a daily basis to male weaner pigs, and features of these animals were compared to a control group. Porcine focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia was produced in all experimental groups between 3 and 20 days after initiation of the treatment. Analysis of blood and several tissues revealed an elevated selenium content for all pigs. Histological lesions in the brain and the cervical...

  3. Experimental porcine rubulavirus (La Piedad-Michoacan virus) infection in pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez Mendoza, H; Mercado García, C; Moreno-López, J; Kennedy, S

    2004-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus (La Piedad-Michoacan virus) (PoRV-LPMV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family that causes encephalitis in young piglets and infertility in adult sows and boars. Infertility in sows naturally infected by PoRV-LPMV is characterized by an increased number of returns to oestrus, stillbirths and mummified fetuses. In this study, nine seronegative gilts were inoculated intranasally with the PAC-3 strain of PoRV-LPMV at week 6 or 10 of gestation. These animals were then killed at weeks 8 or 15 of gestation (seven gilts) or after natural parturition (two gilts). Four control gilts were mock-infected at gestation week 6 or 10 and killed between 2 and 4 weeks later. Gross lesions of focal congestion and haemorrhage were seen in the placenta and endometrium of one gilt infected at gestation week 6 and one infected at gestation week 10. PoRV-LPMV was isolated, at 2-6 weeks post-inoculation (pi), from lung, tonsils, ovary, placenta, uterus and lymph nodes of three of the gilts infected at gestation week 6 and at 2-3 weeks pi from lung, tonsil and ovary of two gilts infected at gestation week 10. Many of the fetuses of eight infected gilts were smaller than normal and had dermal ecchymoses. Dehydrated or mummified fetuses were present in six of the infected gilts but not in any control animal. PoRV-LPMV was isolated from brain, lung and liver of fetuses from two gilts infected at gestation week 6, and from two infected at gestation week 10. These results indicate that, after experimental infection, PoRV can replicate in tissues of seronegative pregnant gilts, cross the placenta, and cause fetal death and mummification.

  4. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa; Patrícia Novita Garcia; Letícia Fernandes Barroso; Marco Antonio Ferreira; Érika Araki Okuda; Norma Allemann

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete) and similar dimensions (4 mm) were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes we...

  5. [Comparative estimation of antilithogenic activity of porcine kidney derived biomedical substance and sodium citrate in experimental urolithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlyashik, G V; Zharikov, A Yu; Kiselev, V I

    2017-06-01

    to compare the anti-lithogenic activity of biomedical substance derived from freeze-dried porcine kidney and sodium citrate. The experiments were conducted on Wistar rats divided into three groups of 15 animals each: control group (disease control), comparison group (sodium citrate treatment) and experimental group (treatment with biomedical substance from porcine kidneys). Experimental urolithiasis was modeled using the ethylene glycol model. On every 7th day of the 6 week experiment testing was done calcium and oxalate urine concentration and the activity of marker enzymes of renal epithelial damage: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), -glutamyl transferase (GGT), and N-acetyl--D-glucosaminidase (NAG). At the end of the experiment, a part of the rats were decapitated and the renal tissue was tested for the oxidant status indicators of (renal thiobarbiturate reactive product content, TBRP, and total prooxidant activity, TPA) and antioxidant enzyme activities: glutathione peroxidase (GPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). To measure the number and size of calcium deposits formed in the renal papillary area, the Koss histochemical method was used. The experimental findings showed developing oxalate nephrolithiasis in the control group, as indicated by urinary supersaturation of oxalate ion, increased activity of marker enzymes, oxidative stress and the formation of numerous calcium deposits in the renal papillary area. In the comparison group, the 3-week use of sodium citrate contributed to a significant decrease in nephrolithiasis: a 3 to 4-fold decrease in the activity of marker enzymes in the urine, a 3.8-fold increase in the concentration of TBRP, normalization of GPO activity; the number and size of urinary calcium deposits decreased by 3.4 and 1.9 times, respectively. In the experimental group, using biomedical substance led to an even greater therapeutic effect. LDH activity and concentration of TPRP showed 1.9 times and by 26.2% greater decrease than

  6. Closed-chest experimental porcine model of acute myocardial infarction-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Prado, Armando; Cuellas-Ramón, Carlos; Regueiro-Purriños, Marta; Gonzalo-Orden, J Manuel; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Altónaga, José R; García-Iglesias, M José; Orden-Recio, M Asunción; García-Marín, Juan F; Fernández-Vázquez, Felipe

    2009-01-01

    Progress in cardiovascular regenerative medicine research requires the availability of appropriate experimental animal models that are as close to humans as feasible. Our objective was to assess the validity of a porcine endovascular model of myocardial infarction and reperfusion. Fifteen domestic pigs (Large White race) were anesthetized and pre-medicated with amiodarone. Endovascular fluoroscopy-guided coronary procedures were performed to occlude the mid-left anterior descending artery using a coronary angioplasty balloon. Occlusion was confirmed by angiography and electrocardiography. After 75 min the balloon catheter system was withdrawn and the presence of reperfusion flow was verified. The animals were sacrificed after 1 and 2 weeks of follow-up, the hearts were explanted, and the extent of myocardial infarction with respect to the left ventricle was quantified. Overall survival rate was 67%. Five animals died prematurely: 3 showing signs of heart failure, 1 had reperfusion failure (final TIMI flow grade 1) and 1 succumbed to acute stress. The most common adverse event was ventricular fibrillation (87% of the animals) and defibrillation was effective in all affected animals. The extent of myocardial infarct in the animals followed-up for 1 and 2 weeks was similar (20.4+/-4.3% vs. 20.9+/-2.8%, respectively; p=0.8) but was significantly greater in the animals that died prematurely (29.5+/-3.6%, p=0.02). The endovascular porcine model we have explored constitutes a feasible and reproducible alternative for the evaluation of human myocardial infarction and reperfusion.

  7. Excessive porcine circovirus type 2 antibody titres may trigger the development of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Stockhofe, N.; Jong, M.F.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2004-01-01

    In a case-control study, the role of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and putative co-factors in the development of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) were investigated. Pigs with and without PDNS were examined for macroscopic lesions and histopathology. In addition, organs and tissues

  8. Evaluation of a Model-Based Hemodynamic Monitoring Method in a Porcine Study of Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Revie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The accuracy and clinical applicability of an improved model-based system for tracking hemodynamic changes is assessed in an animal study on septic shock. Methods. This study used cardiovascular measurements recorded during a porcine trial studying the efficacy of large-pore hemofiltration for treating septic shock. Four Pietrain pigs were instrumented and induced with septic shock. A subset of the measured data, representing clinically available measurements, was used to identify subject-specific cardiovascular models. These models were then validated against the remaining measurements. Results. The system accurately matched independent measures of left and right ventricle end diastolic volumes and maximum left and right ventricular pressures to percentage errors less than 20% (except for the 95th percentile error in maximum right ventricular pressure and all R2>0.76. An average decrease of 42% in systemic resistance, a main cardiovascular consequence of septic shock, was observed 120 minutes after the infusion of the endotoxin, consistent with experimentally measured trends. Moreover, modelled temporal trends in right ventricular end systolic elastance and afterload tracked changes in corresponding experimentally derived metrics. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that this model-based method can monitor disease-dependent changes in preload, afterload, and contractility in porcine study of septic shock.

  9. Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey L Arruda

    , tracheobronchial lymph node (37 out of 41, and whole blood (19 out of 20. Although the first description of congenital tremors was in 1922, this is the first reported reproduction of congenital tremors following experimental inoculation with a divergent lineage porcine pestivirus. Studies investigating disease mechanism, epidemiology, and diagnostic assay development are needed to better understand the pathophysiology of congenital tremors due to this pestivirus.

  10. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy in ex vivo porcine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Caponero, Michele Arturo; Di Matteo, Francesco Maria; Martino, Margareth; Pandolfi, Monica; Silvestri, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) has been recently applied to pancreas in animal models for ablation purpose. Assessment of thermal effects due to the laser-pancreatic tissue interaction is a critical factor in validating the procedure feasibility and safety. A mathematical model based on bioheat equation and its experimental assessment was developed. The LITT procedure was performed on 40 ex vivo porcine pancreases, with an Nd:YAG (1064 nm) energy of 1000 J and power from 1.5 up to 10 W conveyed by a quartz optical fiber with 300 μm diameter. Six fiber Bragg grating sensors have been utilized to measure temperature distribution as a function of time at fixed distances from the applicator tip within pancreas undergoing LITT. Simulations and experiments show temperature variations Δ T steeply decreasing with distance from the applicator at higher power values: at 6 W, ∆T > 40 °C at 5 mm and Δ T is approximately equal to 5 °C at 10 mm. Δ T nonlinearly increases with power close to the applicator. Ablated and coagulated tissue volumes have also been measured and experimental results agree with theoretical ones. Despite the absence of data in the current literature on pancreas optical parameters, the model allowed a quite good prediction of thermal effects. The prediction of LITT effects on pancreas is necessary to assess laser dosimetry.

  11. Pathogenicity of three type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus strains in experimentally inoculated pregnant gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanisms of reproductive failure resulting from infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The present study, a side-by-side evaluation of the pathogenicity of three type 2 PRRSv strains in a reproductive model, was used as a pilot study...

  12. Prosthetic strap system for simplified ventral hernia repair: results of a porcine experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G; Romano, G; Agrusa, A; Cassata, G; Salamone, G; Gulotta, G

    2010-08-01

    Aiming to achieve a simplified ventral hernia repair, a proprietary oval-shaped mesh was experimentally tested in a porcine model. The mesh is structured with a large central body and radiating straps. The friction of the straps passing through the tissues are hypothesized to be adequate to maintain the position of the mesh during tissue ingrowth, avoiding classic point fixation while ensuring a wide coverage of the abdomen. The mesh, having six radial straps, was placed using a sublay preperitoneal technique in four pigs. All straps were passed laterally through the abdominal wall and exteriorized from the skin. The straps were trimmed at the level of the skin, allowing the stumps to recoil into the subcutaneous space. The animals were euthanized at 1 and 4 months to determine the integration of the straps. Macroscopically, all 24 straps were firmly incorporated within the abdominal wall. The tension-free placement of the mesh by using the straps was effective. The friction of the straps passing through the tissues was adequate to keep the mesh well orientated. No dislocation of the implants was observed. The strap system also allowed a broader coverage of the abdominal wall, far beyond the wound opening. The described arm system of the aforementioned implant seems to be effective in eliminating point fixation of the mesh. The fixation arms seemed to have ensured that the mesh stayed orientated in all of the animals. A very wide lateral mesh placement was accomplished, assuring sufficient defect overlap when shrinkage occurs.

  13. Characterization of porcine skin as a model for human skin studies using infrared spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit

    2011-06-07

    Porcine skin is often considered a substitute for human skin based on morphological and functional data, for example, for transdermal drug diffusion studies. A chemical, structural and temporal characterization of porcine skin in comparison to human skin is not available but will likely improve our understanding of this porcine skin model. Here, we employ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging to holistically measure chemical species as well as spatial structure as a function of time to characterize porcine skin as a model for human skin. Porcine skin was found to resemble human skin spectroscopically and differences are elucidated. Cryo-prepared fresh porcine skin samples for spectroscopic imaging were found to be stable over time and small variations are observed. Hence, we extended characterization to the use of this model for dynamic processes. In particular, the capacity and stability of this model in transdermal diffusion is examined. The results indicate that porcine skin is likely to be an attractive tool for studying diffusion dynamics of materials in human skin.

  14. Optical clearing of porcine skin tissue in vitro studied by Raman microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Deqiu; Zhang, Wen; Zhong, Huiqing; Xiong, Honglian; Guo, Xi; Guo, Zhouyi

    2012-01-01

    In present work, we studied the effect of optical clearing on porcine skin in vitro with glycerol by Raman microspectroscopy, denoted as RM, at various time intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 min respectively. The results showed that the addition of glycerol significantly improved the depth of RM measurement, and enhanced the recovery of skin tissue Raman spectra that were not overlapped with the glycerol Raman spectra over time. Moreover, it was found that the Raman signals resembled the native spectrum of the molecules in porcine skin with a negligible frequency shift. Furthermore, we evaluated the extent of optical clearing in porcine skin by utilizing various concentrations of 40%, 60%, and 80% glycerol solution. The results demonstrated that with the increase of concentration of glycerol, the optical clearing of porcine skin was much improved.

  15. Amniotic membrane as part of a skin substitute for full-thickness wounds: an experimental evaluation in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffelbein, Denys J; Baumann, Claudia; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Hasler, Rafael; Mücke, Thomas; Steinsträßer, Lars; Drecoll, Enken; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kesting, Marco R

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the use of human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a graft material for the treatment of iatrogenic full-thickness (FT) skin wounds in a porcine model with a view to reducing donor site morbidity in free flap transfer. Forty experimental FT-wounds were covered with an autologous split-thickness skin graft (STSG) alone or in combination with a mono- or multilayer HAM or Integra(®). Untreated wounds served as controls. Clinical evaluation and biopsy-sampling for histological and immunohistochemical staining with von-Willebrand-factor (vWF) antibody, laminin antibody, Ki-67 antibody, and smooth muscle actin (αSMA) antibody were performed on days 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, and 60 after surgical intervention. Considerable disparities in the estimated criteria were observed between the various treatment groups of the FT-wounds. The use of HAM was found to have an accelerating impact on re-epithelialization. The multilayered amnion membrane showed better results than the Integra(®) and monolayer technique in terms of contraction rate, inflammation, and scarring and seemed useful as a dermal substitute in FT-wounds giving comparable results to STSG coverage alone. This study demonstrates the successful application of HAM as part of a skin substitute in FT-wounds in minipigs. The results offer promise as a simple and effective technique for the application of multilayer HAM in iatrogenic human skin defects and the acceleration of wound healing. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sodium lactate improves renal microvascular thrombosis compared to sodium bicarbonate and 0.9% NaCl in a porcine model of endotoxic shock: an experimental randomized open label controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duburcq, Thibault; Durand, Arthur; Tournoys, Antoine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Gmyr, Valery; Pattou, François; Jourdain, Mercedes; Tamion, Fabienne; Besnier, Emmanuel; Préau, Sebastien; Parmentier-Decrucq, Erika; Mathieu, Daniel; Poissy, Julien; Favory, Raphaël

    2018-02-14

    Sodium lactate seemed to improve fluid balance and avoid fluid overload. The objective of this study was to determine if these beneficial effects can be at least partly explained by an improvement in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-associated renal microvascular thrombosis. Ancillary work of an interventional randomized open label controlled experimental study. Fifteen female "Large White" pigs (2 months old) were challenged with intravenous infusion of E. coli endotoxin. Three groups of five animals were randomly assigned to receive different fluids: a treatment group received sodium lactate 11.2% (SL group); an isotonic control group received 0.9% NaCl (NC group); a hypertonic control group, with the same amount of osmoles and sodium than SL group, received sodium bicarbonate 8.4% (SB group). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) markers, coagulation and inflammation parameters were measured over a 5-h period. Immediately after euthanasia, kidneys were withdrawn for histological study. Statistical analysis was performed with nonparametric tests and the Dunn correction for multiple comparisons. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. The direct immunofluorescence study revealed that the percentage of capillary sections thrombosed in glomerulus were significantly lesser in SL group [5 (0-28) %] compared to NC [64 (43-79) %, p = 0.01] and SB [64 (43-79), p = 0.03] groups. Alterations in platelet count and fibrinogen level occurred earlier and were significantly more pronounced in both control groups compared to SL group (p < 0.05 at 210 and 300 min). The increase in thrombin-antithrombin complexes was significantly higher in NC [754 (367-945) μg/mL; p = 0.03] and SB [463 (249-592) μg/mL; p = 0.03] groups than in SL group [176 (37-265) μg/mL]. At the end of the experiment, creatinine clearance was significantly higher in SL group [55.46 (30.07-67.85) mL/min] compared to NC group [1.52 (0.17-27.67) mL/min, p = 0.03]. In this study, we

  17. Cytokine profiles in pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of extensive research, immunologic control mechanisms against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) remain poorly understood. Cytokine responses have been exhaustively studied in nursery pigs and show contradictory results. Since no detailed reports on cytokine respons...

  18. Early outcome in renal transplantation from large donors to small and size-matched recipients - a porcine experimental model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravlo, Kristian; Chhoden, Tashi; Søndergaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from a large donor to a small recipient, as in pediatric transplantation, is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis and DGF. We established a porcine model for renal transplantation from an adult donor to a small or size-matched recipient with a high risk of DGF...... and studied GFR, RPP using MRI, and markers of kidney injury within 10 h after transplantation. After induction of BD, kidneys were removed from ∼63-kg donors and kept in cold storage for ∼22 h until transplanted into small (∼15 kg, n = 8) or size-matched (n = 8) recipients. A reduction in GFR was observed...

  19. Experimental inoculation of late term pregnant sows with a field isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vaccine-derived virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    The use of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in piglets has been associated with reproductive disorders in non-vaccinated sows. Vaccine-derived virus (VDV) has been isolated from foctuses, stillborn pigs, and dead: piglets, indicating...... that the live vaccine spread from vaccinated piglets to non-vaccinated sows, and that the virus might be implicated in the severe reproductive problems observed. In the present study, one such VDV isolate was used to experimentally infect pregnant sows in the last trimester. The chosen isolate, which had more...... than 99.6% identity to the attenuated vaccine virus, originated from the lungs of a stillborn pig from a swine herd with a sudden high level of stillborn pigs and increased piglet mortality in the nursing period. Intranasal inoculation of sows with the virus isolate resulted in congenital infection...

  20. Immunohistochemical study of porcine lung lesions associated with Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Hansen, Mette Sif; Bisgaard, Magne

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bronchopneumonia is a widespread disease in modern commercial pig production and Pasteurella multocida is frequently associated with the lesions. To evaluate porcine lung lesions associated with P. multocida, populations of inflammatory cells were examined by immunohistochemistry...... by immunohistochemistry were T-lymphocytes (CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets), B-lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and IgA(+), IgM(+) and IgG(+) cells. The results showed that (1) a significant increase in all inflammatory cells was found in lesions associated with P. multocida, (2) necrotic lesions had a larger....... The results show that P. multocida significantly alters the inflammatory response in the lung and that lesions associated with P. multocida display diverse inflammatory responses according to their distinct morphological pattern....

  1. Transgastric ventral hernia repair: a controlled study in a live porcine model (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsevoy, Sergey V; Dray, Xavier; Shin, Eun Ji; Buscaglia, Jonathan M; Magno, Priscilla; Assumpcao, Lia; Marohn, Michael R; Redan, Jay; Giday, Samuel A; Schweitzer, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Ventral hernia repair is currently performed via open surgery or laparoscopic approach. To develop an alternative ventral hernia repair technique. Acute and survival experiments on twelve 50-kg pigs. An endoscope was introduced transgastrically into the peritoneal cavity. An abdominal wall hernia was created through a 5-mm skin incision followed by a 5-cm-long incision of the abdominal wall muscles and aponeurosis. A hernia repair technique was developed in 3 acute experiments. Then animals were randomized into 2 groups. In the experimental group (5 animals) Gore-Tex mesh was transgastrically attached to the abdominal wall, repairing the previously created abdominal wall hernia. In the control group (4 animals), the hernia was not repaired. In both groups, the endoscope was then withdrawn into the stomach, and the gastric wall incision was closed with T-bars. The animals survived for 2 weeks and were then euthanized. The presence of ventral hernia on necropsy. In the control group, the ventral hernia was present on necropsy in all animals. In the experimental group, the ventral hernia was easily repaired, with no evidence of hernia on necropsy. In the first animal in the experimental group, necropsy revealed infected mesh. After this discovery, we used sterilized cover for mesh delivery and did not find any signs of infection in 4 subsequent study animals. The study was performed in a porcine model. Transgastric ventral hernia repair is feasible, technically easy, and effective. It can become a less invasive alternative to the currently used laparoscopic and surgical ventral hernia repair.

  2. Extraction Socket Preservation Using Porcine-Derived Collagen Membrane Alone or Associated with Porcine-Derived Bone. Clinical Results of Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Guarnieri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of present randomized controlled clinical trial was to clinically evaluate hard tissue changes after extraction socket preservation procedures compared to natural spontaneous healing. Material and Methods: Thirty patients were enrolled in the present study and underwent single-tooth extraction in the premolar/molar areas. Ten sites were grafted with porcine-derived bone covered by collagen membrane, 10 covered by porcine-derived collagen membrane alone, and 10 underwent natural spontaneous healing. Vertical and horizontal bone changes after 3-month were evaluated at implant placement. Results: The vertical and horizontal bone changes at the extraction sockets treated with collagen membrane alone (vertical: -0.55 [SD 0.11] mm, and horizontal: -1.21 [SD 0.69] mm and collagen membrane plus porcine-derived bone (vertical: -0.37 [SD 0.7] mm, and horizontal: -0.91 [SD 0.53] mm were found significantly lower (P < 0.001, when compared to non-grafted sockets (vertical: -2.09 [SD 0.19] mm, and horizontal: -3.96 [SD 0.87] mm. In type 1 extraction sockets, in premolar sites, and in presence of vestibular bone thicknesses ≥ 1.5 mm, the use of collagen membrane alone revealed similar outcomes to those with additional graft material. Conclusions: At the re-entry surgery, extraction sockets grafted with porcine-derived bone and covered by collagen membrane, and extraction sockets covered by porcine-derived collagen membrane alone, showed significantly lower vertical and horizontal bone changes, compared to extraction sockets sites underwent natural spontaneous healing. However, a complete prevention of remodelling is not achievable, irrespective of the technique used.

  3. Temperature elevation by HIFU in ex vivo porcine muscle: MRI measurement and simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovchuk, Maxim A., E-mail: solovchuk@gmail.com [Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Sciences (CASTS), National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hwang, San Chao; Chang, Hsu [Medical Engineering Research Division, National Health Research Institute, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Thiriet, Marc [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Sheu, Tony W. H., E-mail: twhsheu@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, Republic of China and Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Sciences (CASTS), National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: High-intensity focused ultrasound is a rapidly developing medical technology with a large number of potential clinical applications. Computational model can play a pivotal role in the planning and optimization of the treatment based on the patient's image. Nonlinear propagation effects can significantly affect the temperature elevation and should be taken into account. In order to investigate the importance of nonlinear propagation effects, nonlinear Westervelt equation was solved. Weak nonlinear propagation effects were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the predicted and measured temperature elevations and lesion in a porcine muscle. Methods: The investigated single-element transducer has a focal length of 12 cm, an aperture of 8 cm, and frequency of 1.08 MHz. Porcine muscle was heated for 30 s by focused ultrasound transducer with an acoustic power in the range of 24–56 W. The theoretical model consists of nonlinear Westervelt equation with relaxation effects being taken into account and Pennes bioheat equation. Results: Excellent agreement between the measured and simulated temperature rises was found. For peak temperatures above 85–90 °C “preboiling” or cavitation activity appears and lesion distortion starts, causing small discrepancy between the measured and simulated temperature rises. From the measurements and simulations, it was shown that distortion of the lesion was caused by the “preboiling” activity. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that for peak temperatures below 85–90 °C numerical simulation results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data in three dimensions. Both temperature rise and lesion size can be well predicted. Due to nonlinear effect the temperature in the focal region can be increased compared with the linear case. The current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) resolution is not sufficient. Due to the inevitable averaging the measured

  4. Do Needleless Knots have Similar Strength as the Krackow Suture? An In Vitro Porcine Tendon Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chih-Kai; Kuo, Ting-Hsuan; Yeh, Ming-Long; Jou, I-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Li; Su, Wei-Ren

    2017-02-01

    Numerous needleless techniques for tendon graft fixation that feature several advantages have been reported. However, there are few studies that have compared the holding strength between the needleless techniques (rolling hitch and modified rolling hitch) and traditional suture methods. To compare the tendon graft-holding strength of the rolling hitch and modified rolling hitch with the Krackow stitch in an in vitro porcine biomechanical model. Thirty fresh-frozen porcine flexor profundus tendons were randomly divided into three groups of 10 specimens. The experimental procedure was designed to assess elongation of the suture-tendon construct across the needleless tendon-grasping techniques and the Krackow stitch. All suture configurations were completed with a braided nonabsorbable suture. Each tendon was pretensioned to 100 N for three cycles, cyclically loaded from 50 to 200 N for 200 cycles, and then finally loaded to failure. Elongation, load to failure, and mode of failure were recorded for each specimen. Five of the 10 rolling hitch specimens failed during cyclic loading. With the numbers available, elongation after cyclic loading was not different among the successful rolling hitch specimens (19% [1.19 cm/6.17 cm] ± 6%), modified rolling hitch fixations (19% [1.11 cm/ 5.93 cm] ± 6%), and Krackow stitch fixations (26% [1.41 cm/5.43 cm] ± 6%); ultimate failure loads also were not different among the rolling hitch fixations (316 ± 35 N), modified rolling hitch fixations (342 ± 14 N), and Krackow stitches (327 ± 33 N) with the numbers available. With the numbers available, the rolling hitch, modified rolling hitch, and Krackow stitch techniques were not different in terms of elongation after cyclic loading and to failure in this in vitro biomechanical evaluation. Based on the biomechanical properties from this in vitro animal study, the modified rolling hitch may be an attractive alternative for tendon graft fixation in ligament-reconstruction surgery

  5. A Study of Normothermic Hemoperfusion of the Porcine Pancreas and Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Kean Guan; Wee, Mau Nam; Chung, Wen Yuan; Kumar, Rohan; Mees, Soeren Torge; Dennison, Ashley; Maddern, Guy; Trochsler, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Normothermic machine perfusion has enormous potential to improve organ preservation and expand the organ donor pool. It is well established in other organs but not the pancreas, which has especially strict organ acceptance criteria. We established a model of normothermic hemoperfusion of the porcine pancreas with and without addition of the kidney as a dialysis organ. Four pancreases were harvested and perfused for 120 min with autologous whole blood at body temperature, two with parallel perfusion of the kidney and two without. The organs and perfusion circuit were evaluated for gross appearance, pH, histology and perfusion parameters. The organs maintained steadily increasing flow rate and perfusion pressure. Gross appearance of the organs was stable but appeared grossly ischemic toward the end of the perfusion period. Histology demonstrated necrosis centered in acinar tissue but islet cells were preserved. pH was significantly alkalotic toward the end of the perfusion, likely due to pancreatic tissue damage. Addition of the kidney did not result in significant improvement of the acid-base environment in this small series. In conclusion, normothermic perfusion of the pancreas is still in the experimental stages but holds great potential. Further studies to optimize perfusion parameters will significantly improve results. Parallel perfusion of the kidney may facilitate improvement in the acid-base environment. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Immunohistochemical study of porcine lung lesions associated with Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pors, Susanne E; Hansen, Mette S; Bisgaard, Magne; Jensen, Henrik E; Iburg, Tine M

    2013-08-01

    Infectious bronchopneumonia is a widespread disease in modern commercial pig production and Pasteurella multocida is frequently associated with the lesions. To evaluate porcine lung lesions associated with P. multocida, populations of inflammatory cells were examined by immunohistochemistry in necrotic lung lesions from nine pigs and exudative lung lesions from eleven pigs. Lungs from five pigs served as controls. All cases were selected from naturally infected pigs using co-infection based criteria to make them as comparable as possible. The inflammatory cells demonstrated by immunohistochemistry were T-lymphocytes (CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets), B-lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and IgA(+), IgM(+) and IgG(+) cells. The results showed that (1) a significant increase in all inflammatory cells was found in lesions associated with P. multocida, (2) necrotic lesions had a larger number of CD3(+) T-lymphocytes and IgA(+) cells, and (3) cases with exudative lesions had a more CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. No differences in the numbers of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes, IgG(+) and IgM(+) positive cells were found between necrotic and exudative cases. The results show that P. multocida significantly alters the inflammatory response in the lung and that lesions associated with P. multocida display diverse inflammatory responses according to their distinct morphological pattern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions.

  8. Histological analysis of cobalt-chromium stents with and without Camouflage® polymer coating: experimental porcine carotid artery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudtner, Marco Aurélio; de Lara Elesbão, Joao Luiz; Gutierrez, Paulo Sérgio; Meyer, Fabíola Schons; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the arterial response to cobalt-chromium stents with and without polymer coating (Camouflage®, Hemoteq AG, Wuerselen, Germany) implanted in pigs. Cobalt-chromium balloon-expandable stents (4 × 16 mm) were implanted in the common carotid arteries of nine pigs. Histological analysis of endothelialization, inflammation and injury was performed one month later. All stents were successfully deployed, and all but one animal survived the 30 study days. All arteries were patent. Endothelialization was nearly complete in most sections of all carotid stents in both groups. There were mild inflammatory infiltrate and mild-to-moderate injury, which were associated with the stent shafts and not significantly different between groups. Our findings suggest that, in porcine carotid arteries, the histological response to balloon-expandable cobalt-chromium stents coated with polymer (Camouflage®, Hemoteq AG) is similar to the response to non-coated cobalt-chromium stents.

  9. Evaluation of Wedged Arterial Injection as a New Technique for Delivery of Experimental Therapeutic Sustances into the Porcine Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Latorre

    2011-01-01

    Materials and Methods. Selective angiographies were completed in ten pigs under general anaesthesia. By superselective angiography, the catheter was inserted and wedged into the major pancreatic artery, blocking the blood flow. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the WAI method, a DNA-specific fluorescent dye (Hoechst 33258 was used. Results. Histological study revealed a uniform distribution of the fluorescent dye within the nuclei of the endocrine and exocrine pancreatic cells. Pancreatic and liver enzymes as well as histopathology of the pancreas were normal. Conclusion. WAI is a highly effective minimally invasive methodology to target the porcine pancreas. The findings suggest that WAI may contribute to developing preclinical assays of pancreas gene or cell-transfer therapies in swine model.

  10. Pathology, Tissue Metalloproteinase Transcription and Haptoglobin Responses in Mice after Experimental Challenge with Different Isolates of Pasteurella multocida Obtained from Cases of Porcine Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, S. E.; Chadfield, M. S.; Sørensen, D. B.

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a major cause of porcine pneumonia, but the pathogenesis of the disease is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to further understand the host response to infection by use of a mouse model of P. multocida pneumonia. Twenty female mice were divided into four groups (n=5......). Three groups were infected with one of three isolates of P. multocida isolated from clinical cases of chronic porcine pneumonia with necrotizing, suppurative and non-suppurative lesions, respectively. The fourth group served as uninfected controls. Mice were killed 24h postinfection and samples were...... differences in the severity and nature of lesions were seen according to the isolate of P. multocida used for infection. Intranasal infection of mice can therefore be used to evaluate the host response and lesions caused by P. multocida obtained from porcine pneumonic infections. The inflammatory response...

  11. Evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in porcine PBMCs in response to LPS and LTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinar Mehmet Ulas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an in vitro model porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs is frequently used as for immunogenetic research with the stimulation of bacterial antigens. To investigate the immunocompetence of PBMCs for recognition of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and in order to dissect the pathogenesis of diseases, gene expression assay is most commonly used. The gene expressions are required to normalize for reference genes which have tremendous effect on the results of expression study. The reference genes should be stably expressed between different cells under a variety of experimental conditions, but recent influx of data showed that expression stability of reference genes are varied under different experimental conditions. But data regarding the expression stability of reference genes in porcine PBMCs are limited. Therefore, this study was aimed to know whether the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in PBMCs is affected by various bacterial antigens under different experimental conditions in pigs. Results The mRNA expression stability of nine commonly used reference genes (B2M, BLM, GAPDH, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL4, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ was determined by RT-qPCR in PBMCs that were stimulated by LPS and LTA in vitro as well as cells un-stimulated control and non-cultured were also consider for this experiment. mRNA expression levels of all genes were found to be affected by the type of stimulation and duration of the stimulation (P  Conclusion There was discrepancy in the ranking order of reference genes obtained by different analysing algorithms (geNorm and NormFinder. In conclusion, the geometric mean of the RPL4, B2M and PPIA seemed to be the most appropriate combination of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression data in porcine PBMCs without knowing the type of bacterial pathogenic status of the animals and in the case of mixed infection with Gram-negative and Gram

  12. Acetabular QCT in Total Hip Arthroplasty - a reliability study using porcine hips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Overgaard, Soren; Torfing, Trine

    previously shown better delineation of the interface between bone and prosthesis and may be beneficial in quantitative analysis of bone loss close to the implant as compared to single energy computed tomography (SECT). The purpose of this porcine ex-vivo study was to test the intra-observer agreement...... and reliability of bone mineral density measurements (BMD) in close proximity of the acetabular cup using SECT and DECT images and 3D segmentation software. Materials and methods 22 acetabular cups (12 cemented, 10 un-cemented) were inserted in porcine hip specimens ex vivo. A femoral stem was attached to each...... specimen and imaging was performed with SECT and DECT. The specimens were repositioned and scans repeated to obtain double measurements. For each scan BMD was measured in a hemispherical volume around the acetabular cup using in-house segmentation software. Results In the uncemented concept mean BMD...

  13. Isolation, transplantation, and functional studies of adult porcine islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Buschmann; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2002-01-01

    that was only partially increased by additional challenge with arginine. More than 50% of DNA and 90% of the insulin content was lost during a one-week culture period. With some batch-to-batch variation, in 15 of 25 cases, 4,000 to 7,000 porcine islets cured streptozotocin diabetic nude mice within three weeks......Transplantation of islets of Langerhans is a possible treatment for type-I diabetes mellitus. However, there is a shortage of donors for such transplantations and the pig may be an alternative source of donor organs. The aims of the study reported here were to establish a method for adult porcine...... following transplantation. In conclusion, it is possible to isolate viable islets from adult pigs, using a semiautomatic set-up. With batch-to-batch variation, the islets are able to revert diabetes mellitus when transplanted to diabetic nude mice....

  14. A Novel Closed-Chest Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure Suitable for Experimental Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac pathologies are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries, with myocardial infarction (MI representing one of the major conditions leading to heart failure (HF. Hitherto, the development of consistent, stable, and reproducible models of closed-chest MI in large animals, meeting the clinical realism of a patient with HF subsequent to chronic ischemic necrosis, has not been successful. We hereby report the design and ensuing application of a novel porcine experimental model of closed-chest chronic ischemia suitable for biomedical research, mimicking post-MI HF. We also emphasize the key procedural steps involved in replicating this unprecedented model, from femoral artery and vein catheterization to MI induction by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery through superselective deployment of platinum-nylon coils, as well as endomyocardial biopsy sampling for histologic analysis and cell harvesting. Our model could indeed represent a valuable contribution and tool for translational research, providing precious insights to understand and overcome the many hurdles concerning, and currently quenching, the preclinical steps mandatory for the clinical translation of new cardiovascular technologies for personalized HF treatments.

  15. Characterization of the porcine transferrin gene (TF) and its association with disease severity following an experimental Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniłowicz, E; Martinez-Arias, R; Dolf, G; Singh, M; Probst, I; Tümmler, B; Höltig, D; Waldmann, K-H; Gerlach, G-F; Stanke, F; Leeb, T

    2010-08-01

    Transferrin (TF)-mediated provision of iron is essential for a productive infection by many bacterial pathogens, and iron-depletion of TF is a first line defence against bacterial infections. Therefore, the transferrin (TF) gene can be considered a candidate gene for disease resistance. We obtained the complete DNA sequence of the porcine TF gene, which spans 40 kb and contains 17 exons. We identified polymorphisms on a panel of 10 different pig breeds. Comparative intra- and interbreed sequence analysis revealed 62 polymorphisms in the TF gene including one microsatellite. Ten polymorphisms were located in the coding sequence of the TF gene. Four SNPs (c.902A>T, c.980G>A, c.1417A>G, c.1810A>C) were predicted to cause amino acid exchanges (p.Lys301Ile, p.Arg327Lys, p.Lys473Glu, p.Asn604His). We performed association analyses using six selected TF markers and 116 pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 7. The analysis showed breed-specific TF allele frequencies. In German Landrace, we found evidence for a possible association of the severity of A. pleuropneumoniae infection with TF genotypes.

  16. Diaphragm muscle weakness in an experimental porcine intensive care unit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Ochala

    Full Text Available In critically ill patients, mechanisms underlying diaphragm muscle remodeling and resultant dysfunction contributing to weaning failure remain unclear. Ventilator-induced modifications as well as sepsis and administration of pharmacological agents such as corticosteroids and neuromuscular blocking agents may be involved. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine how sepsis, systemic corticosteroid treatment (CS and neuromuscular blocking agent administration (NMBA aggravate ventilator-related diaphragm cell and molecular dysfunction in the intensive care unit. Piglets were exposed to different combinations of mechanical ventilation and sedation, endotoxin-induced sepsis, CS and NMBA for five days and compared with sham-operated control animals. On day 5, diaphragm muscle fibre structure (myosin heavy chain isoform proportion, cross-sectional area and contractile protein content did not differ from controls in any of the mechanically ventilated animals. However, a decrease in single fibre maximal force normalized to cross-sectional area (specific force was observed in all experimental piglets. Therefore, exposure to mechanical ventilation and sedation for five days has a key negative impact on diaphragm contractile function despite a preservation of muscle structure. Post-translational modifications of contractile proteins are forwarded as one probable underlying mechanism. Unexpectedly, sepsis, CS or NMBA have no significant additive effects, suggesting that mechanical ventilation and sedation are the triggering factors leading to diaphragm weakness in the intensive care unit.

  17. The Effect of Experimental Fusarium Mycotoxicosis on Microbiota Diversity in Porcine Ascending Colon Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Piotrowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of exposure of pigs to the Fusarium mycotoxins zearalenone (ZEN and deoxynivalenol (DON, administered together and separately, on the colon microbiota. An experiment was conducted for 42 days on gilts, randomly assigned to four groups and administered either ZEN, DON, ZEN+DON, or a placebo. The number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts, molds, anaerobic Clostridium perfringens, fecal streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB were determined in the contents of the ascending colon. The influence of mycotoxins on the functional diversity of the colonic microbiota was assessed using EcoPlate tests (Biolog. Analysis revealed the predominance of LAB in all groups of pigs. Zearalenone, administered separately and together with DON, was found to have an adverse effect on mesophilic aerobic bacteria, but only after long exposure to this mycotoxin. During the six weeks of the experiment, the concentration of C. perfringens, E. coli, and other bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae was most considerably reduced in the experimental groups exposed to zearalenone, both separately and together with DON. Mycotoxins also affected the functional biodiversity of microorganisms. Both Shannon’s diversity index and the number of catabolized substrates in Biolog plate (the R index were much higher in the group subjected to mixed mycotoxicosis.

  18. Reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in immunostimulated and non-immunostimulated 3-week-old piglets experimentally infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekjær-Mikkelsen, A.S.; Nielsen, Jens; Stadejek, T.

    2002-01-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in swine is causally associated with the newly recognised pathogen, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). In this study, 3-week-old SPF PCV2-seronegative piglets were inoculated intranasally with PCV2. The effect of immunostimulation on the induction...

  19. [Multidetector-row CT evaluation of acute bowel ischemia induced by embolization of superior mesenteric artery in experimental porcine models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Jin-wei; Li, Ruo-kun; Feng, Xiao-yuan; Liao, Zhi-he; He, Cheng; Feng, Qin; Zhang, Biao; Ye, Xuan-guang

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the application of multi-detector row CT (MDCT) and CT angiography (CTA) for detecting early signs of acute bowel ischemia (ABI) in experimental porcine models. Twelve pigs were assigned to four groups with 3 in each group. The digital subtraction angiography of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and the embolization of branches of SMA with gelatin sponge and blood clot were performed by percutaneous transfemoral artery puncture and catheterization. MDCT pre- and post-contrast scanning in the arterial, venous and delay phase and CTA with three-dimensional reconstruction were carried out at pre-operation, 3 h, 6 h, 9 h, and 12 h after occlusion. The normal mesenteric vascular anatomy, arterial occlusion, mesentery and bowel changes, and dynamic change were evaluated. ABI changes were identified pathologically in all the 12 experimental pigs, and the severity of ischemia increased over time after embolization. CTA showed all 57 embolized branches of SMA and 29 of 34 unoccluded arterial branches with 5 false-positive vessel occlusions. The sensitivity and specificity of CTA were 100% and 85.3%, respectively. Thin-slab maximum intensity projection (TSMIP) revealed the disappearance of distal comb-like vessel branches and brush-like vasa recta, which were clearly delineated in the normal bowel segments. Using this criterion, TSMIP correctly defined 23 of 24 ischemic bowel segments and all the 12 normal bowel segments with a sensitivity of 95.8% and a specificity of 100%. MDCT and CTA reliably define normal and occluded mesenteric vessels in the pig. It can easily detect ischemic bowel segment by identified early changes of ischemia. The early direct ischemic signs are occluded vessels, the disappearance of distal comb-like branches or brush-like vasa recta, and poor bowel enhancement. The early indirect sign is bowel dilatation with fluid collection.

  20. A Porcine Knee Model Is Valid for Use in the Evaluation of Arthroscopic Skills: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R Kyle; Gillis, Danny; Leiter, Jeff; Shantz, Jesse Slade; MacDonald, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Previously validated knee arthroscopy evaluation tools have used human cadaveric knees. This is unsustainable because of the cost and scarcity of these specimens. Porcine (pig) knees are anatomically similar, affordable, and easily obtainable; however, whether porcine knees represent a suitable alternative to human specimens has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether porcine knees are similar to human cadaveric knees for the assessment of knee arthroscopy skills by evaluating (1) the validity of the porcine model (whether trainees of the same level of ability scored similarly when using the two models) and (2) the reliability of the porcine model (whether surgeons with experience achieved higher scores than surgeons with less experience in the porcine model). Eleven orthopaedic surgery residents (five junior residents and six senior residents), one orthopaedic sports medicine fellow, and three attending orthopaedic surgeons were enrolled. Participants were provided instructions for a proper arthroscopic examination of the knee and asked to identify, and then probe, the listed anatomic structures on both the human and porcine knee specimens. Each participant was asked to demonstrate the following skills: joint manipulation, instrument control and triangulation, fluid management, maintenance of field of view, economy of movement, and efficiency. The Objective Assessment of Arthroscopic Skills (OAAS) and checklist for diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee were used for skills assessment by one observer. Internal consistency, a measure of how well the assessment tool measures the skills being studied, was determined by Cronbach's α and group differences investigated by paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests where appropriate. Based on a sample size calculation, a total of 37 subjects would be required for the full-scale research study to achieve a power of 0.80, with α set at 0.05, to detect a difference in OAAS score of 4.73 (25

  1. Comparative In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Porcine Rotavirus G9P[13] and Human Rotavirus Wa G1P[8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lulu; Fischer, David D; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Rauf, Abdul; Langel, Stephanie N; Wentworth, David E; Stucker, Karla M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lam, Ham Ching; Marthaler, Douglas; Saif, Linda J; Vlasova, Anastasia N

    2015-10-14

    The changing epidemiology of group A rotavirus (RV) strains in humans and swine, including emerging G9 strains, poses new challenges to current vaccines. In this study, we comparatively assessed the pathogenesis of porcine RV (PRV) G9P[13] and evaluated the short-term cross-protection between this strain and human RV (HRV) Wa G1P[8] in gnotobiotic pigs. Complete genome sequencing demonstrated that PRV G9P[13] possessed a human-like G9 VP7 genotype but shared higher overall nucleotide identity with historic PRV strains. PRV G9P[13] induced longer rectal virus shedding and RV RNAemia in pigs than HRV Wa G1P[8] and generated complete short-term cross-protection in pigs challenged with HRV or PRV, whereas HRV Wa G1P[8] induced only partial protection against PRV challenge. Moreover, PRV G9P[13] replicated more extensively in porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) than did HRV Wa G1P[8]. Cross-protection was likely not dependent on serum virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies, as the heterologous VN antibody titers in the sera of G9P[13]-inoculated pigs were low. Thus, our results suggest that heterologous protection by the current monovalent G1P[8] HRV vaccine against emerging G9 strains should be evaluated in clinical and experimental studies to prevent further dissemination of G9 strains. Differences in the pathogenesis of these two strains may be partially attributable to their variable abilities to replicate and persist in porcine immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs). Additional studies are needed to evaluate the emerging G9 strains as potential vaccine candidates and to test the susceptibility of various immune cells to infection by G9 and other common HRV/PRV genotypes. The changing epidemiology of porcine and human group A rotaviruses (RVs), including emerging G9 strains, may compromise the efficacy of current vaccines. An understanding of the pathogenesis and genetic, immunological, and biological features of the new emerging RV strains will

  2. Comparative analysis of apoptotic changes in peripheral immune organs and lungs following experimental infection of piglets with highly pathogenic and classical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; He, Yuli; Tu, Yabin; Liu, Yonggang; Zhou, En-Min; Han, Zifeng; Jiang, Chenggang; Wang, Shujie; Shi, Wenda; Cai, Xuehui

    2014-01-06

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that piglets infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) may develop significant thymus atrophy, which related to thymocytes apoptosis. However, apart from that detected in the thymus, there are no reports describing cell apoptosis induced by HP-PRRSV infection. In this study, we analyzed comparatively the pathological changes, cell apoptosis and viral load in peripheral immune organs including tonsil, inguinal lymph nodes (ILNs) and spleen and lungs following experimental infection of piglets with HP-PRRSV HuN4 and classical PRRSV CH-1a. HP-PRRSV HuN4 exhibited much stronger cell tropism than CH-1a in immune organs and lungs of piglets. HuN4 infection led to the serious injuries in tonsils, ILNs, spleens and lungs, especially apoptosis in these organs was significant. HuN4 infection induced severe lesions (gross pathology, histopathology and cell apoptosis) in the peripheral immune organs and lungs of infected piglets. Large numbers of apoptotic cells in immune organs and lung induced by HuN4 may play a role in the pathogenesis of the HP-PRRS and the distinct injuries caused by HuN4 infection may be associated with the high mortality rate of HP-PRRS in pigs.

  3. Selenium toxicity and porcine focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia: description of a field outbreak and experimental reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T M; Scholz, R W; Drake, T R

    1983-10-01

    An acute afebrile paretic condition was diagnosed in 18 of 225 feeder pigs between eight to ten weeks of age. Nine pigs died acutely, seven pigs were euthanatized and two appeared to recover. Macroscopic lesions in the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements consisted of focal, bilateral, depressed areas. Histopathologically, the lesion consisted of endothelial proliferation, glial cell reaction and microcavitation. Similar lesions were observed in some brain stem motor nuclei. High selenium levels were detected in the pig feed and in pig tissues and blood. Two of five experimental pigs fed a commercial grower ration and supplemented with 52 ppm selenium as sodium selenite developed paresis and paralysis after a 29 day feeding trial. Histopathological lesions of focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia confined to the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements, and identical to those in the field cases, were produced. Select brain stem motor nuclei were also affected.

  4. Mechanism of porcine liver xanthine oxidoreductase mediated N-oxide reduction of cyadox as revealed by docking and mutagenesis studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigang Chen

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR is a cytoplasmic molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase, catalyzing both endogenous purines and exogenous compounds. It is suggested that XOR in porcine hepatocytes catalyzes the N-oxide reduction of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this metabolism, the cDNA of porcine XOR was cloned and heterologously expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. The bovine XOR, showing sequence identity of 91% to porcine XOR, was employed as template for homology modeling. By docking cyadox, a representative compound of QdNOs, into porcine XOR model, eight amino acid residues, Gly47, Asn352, Ser360, Arg427, Asp430, Asp431, Ser1227 and Lys1230, were located at distances of less than 4Å to cyadox. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to analyze their catalytic functions. Compared with wild type porcine XOR, G47A, S360P, D431A, S1227A, and K1230A displayed altered kinetic parameters in cyadox reduction, similarly to that in xanthine oxidation, indicating these mutations influenced electron-donating process of xanthine before subsequent electron transfer to cyadox to fulfill the N-oxide reduction. Differently, R427E and D430H, both located in the 424-434 loop, exhibited a much lower K(m and a decreased V(max respectively in cyadox reduction. Arg427 may be related to the substrate binding of porcine XOR to cyadox, and Asp430 is suggested to be involved in the transfer of electron to cyadox. This study initially reveals the possible catalytic mechanism of porcine XOR in cyadox metabolism, providing with novel insights into the structure-function relationship of XOR in the reduction of exogenous di-N-oxides.

  5. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  6. Immunity Elicited by an Experimental Vaccine Based on Recombinant Flagellin-Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Cap Fusion Protein in Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhu

    Full Text Available In a recent study, we reported that a recombinant protein from fusion expression of flagellin to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Cap induced robust humoral and cell-mediated immunity that afforded full protection for PCV2 infection using BALB/c mice. Here, we further evaluated the immunogenicity and protection of the recombinant protein using specific pathogen free (SPF pigs. Twenty-five 3-week-old piglets without passively acquired immunity were divided into 5 groups. All piglets except negative controls were challenged with a virulent PCV2 at 21 days after booster vaccination and necropsied at 21 days post-challenge. Vaccination of piglets with the recombinant protein without adjuvant induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses as observed by high levels of PCV2-specific IgG antibodies and neutralizing antibodies, as well as frequencies of PCV2-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells that conferred good protection against PCV2 challenge, with significant reduced PCV2 viremia, mild lesions, low PCV2 antigen-positive cells, as well as improved body weight gain, comparable to piglets vaccinated with a commercial PCV2 subunit vaccine. These results further demonstrated that the recombinant flagellin-Cap fusion protein is capable of inducing solid protective humoral and cellular immunity when administered to pigs, thereby becoming an effective PCV2 vaccine candidate for control of PCV2 infection.

  7. Drug adsorption on bovine and porcine sclera studied with streaming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtomäki, Lasse; Vainikka, Tuomas; Pescina, Silvia; Nicoli, Sara

    2013-07-01

    The affinity of a drug to a biological membrane can affect the distribution and the availability of the active compound to its target. Adsorption is usually determined with in vitro distribution studies based on partitioning of the drug between buffer and tissue, which have limitations such as the high variability of the uptake data and the need for high accuracy in the measurement of drug concentration. Furthermore, distribution studies yield solute concentrations in the bulk of the tissue, whereas electrokinetic phenomena such as streaming potential and electroosmosis reflect the electric charge density on a membrane surface. Streaming potential thus can be used in studying the conditions, by which the charge sign and density can be regulated. That, in turn, has significance to electroosmotic transport mechanism during iontophoresis. In this communication, the adsorption of model compounds methylprednisolone sodium succinate, propranolol, and cytochrome C on bovine and porcine sclera is determined as a function of their concentration by measuring streaming potential. Both membranes had negative streaming potential, proving that they carry negative charge, but had different values at negative and positive pressure differences, which is addressed to the structural asymmetry of these membranes. Bovine sclera had a clearly higher value of streaming potential, ca. -26 nV/Pa, than porcine sclera, ca. -7 nV/Pa (10 mM NaCl solution). All the model compounds were adsorbed on bovine and porcine sclera already in the millimolar concentration range and can have an impact to electroosmosis during transscleral iontophoresis. The results obtained help to better elucidate the phenomena involved in transscleral transport, both in passive diffusion and in iontophoresis, supporting the future application of iontophoresis to the noninvasive delivery of drugs to the posterior segment of the human eye. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. CT and MRI of experimentally induced mesenteric ischemia in a porcine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H.M.; Seggewib, C.; Weghaus, P.; Kamp, M.; Guenther, R.W. [Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the value of CT and MRI for the detection of bowel wall changes in experimentally induced mesenteric ischemia. In 18 female pigs. a percutaneous embolization of the superior mesenteric artery was performed with buthyl-2-cyanoacrylate and Lipoidal (1:1) (experimental group). In six animals, only diagnostic imaging and histologic evaluation were performed (control group). CT was carried out 3, 6, and 12 h after occlusion. Incremental CT (1 s scan time, 5 mm slice thickness, 7 mm increment, 120 kV/290 mAs) and spiral CT (slice thickness 5 mm, pitch 1.5, 120 kV/165 mA) were performed pre and post contrast injection (Somatom Plus/ Siemens). Serial CT was carried out after intravenous contrast injection (I ml/kg, 2 ml/s). MRI (Magnetom 1.5 T: Siemens) was performed with T1 (pre and post 0.01 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA; Magnevist; Schering. Germany), T2, and proton density images in axial orientation. Slice thickness was 3 mm and slice gap 1 mm. Additionally, a T1-weighted GE sequence was obtained in dynamic technique (before and 30, 60, and 90 s after contrast agent injection) with a slice thickness of 5 mm. Biometrical monitoring included blood pressure, heart frequency, blood cell count, electrolyte status, blood gas analysis, and determination of serum lactate. Image evaluation included morphological analysis and determination of the enhancement pattern. Histological specimens were obtained and analyzed according to the Chiu classification. The histologic workup of the specimen 3, 6, and 12 h after vascular occlusion revealed an average Chiu state 3, 4, and 5. On CT, the bowel wall had a thickness of 4.7 mm on average in the ischemic segments. There was a significant difference from the control group. Free intraperitoneal fluid and intramural gas were seen after 12 h of ischemia in 80%. In ischemic bowel segments, no mural enhancement was seen. Normal segments and the bowel of the control animals showed an enhancement of 34 HU on average.

  9. CT and MRI of experimentally induced mesenteric ischemia in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H M; Klosterhalfen, B; Kinzel, S; Jansen, A; Seggewiss, C; Weghaus, P; Kamp, M; Töns, C; Günther, R W

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to assess the value of CT and MRI for the detection of bowel wall changes in experimentally induced mesenteric ischemia. in 18 female pigs, a percutaneous embolization of the superior mesenteric artery was performed with buthyl-2-cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol (1:1) (experimental group). In six animals, only diagnostic imaging and histologic evaluation were performed (control group). CT was carried out 3, 6, and 12 h after occlusion. Incremental CT (1 s scan time, 5 mm slice thickness, 7 mm increment, 120 kV/290 mAs) and spiral CT (slice thickness 5 mm, pitch 1.5, 120 kV/165 mA) were performed pre and post contrast injection (Somatom Plus/Siemens). Serial CT was carried out after intravenous contrast injection (1 ml/kg, 2 ml/s). MRI (Magnetom 1.5 T; Siemens) was performed with T1 (pre and post 0.01 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA; Magnevist; Schering, Germany), T2, and proton density images in axial orientation. Slice thickness was 3 mm and slice gap 1 mm. Additionally, a T1-weighted GE sequence (multislice FLASH 2D) was obtained in dynamic technique (before and 30, 60, and 90 s after contrast agent injection) with a slice thickness of 5 mm. Biometrical monitoring included blood pressure, heart frequency, blood cell count, electrolyte status, blood gas analysis, and determination of serum lactate. Image evaluation included morphological analysis and determination of the enhancement pattern. Histological specimens were obtained and analyzed according to the Chiu classification. The histologic workup of the specimen 3, 6, and 12 h after vascular occlusion revealed an average Chiu state 3, 4, and 5. On CT, the bowel wall had a thickness of 4.7 mm on average in the ischemic segments. There was a significant difference from the control group (average 3 mm). Free intraperitoneal fluid and intramural gas were seen after 12 h of ischemia in 80%. In ischemic bowel segments, no mural enhancement was seen. Normal segments and the bowel of the control animals showed an enhancement of

  10. A Biomechanical Study of a Novel Asymmetric 6-Strand Flexor Tendon Repair Using Porcine Tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yoke Rung; Tay, Shian Chao

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the biomechanical performance of a novel asymmetric 6-strand flexor tendon repair technique without locking loops. Twenty porcine flexor tendons were equally repaired by using the asymmetric technique and compared with the modified Lim-Tsai repair technique. The ultimate tensile strength, load to 1-mm gap force, stiffness, and mechanism of failure were measured. The asymmetric repair technique had significantly higher tensile strength (63.3 ± 3.7 N) than the modified Lim-Tsai repairs (46.7 ± 8.3 N). A novel flexor tendon repair technique with improved biomechanical performance may be available for use in flexor tendon repairs.

  11. Experimental Infection of Young Pigs with an Early European Strain of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea Virus and a Recent US Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Krog, Jesper Schak; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    2017-01-01

    Outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) were reported across Europe during the 1980s and 1990s, but only sporadic outbreaks occurred in recent years. PED virus (PEDV) spread for the first time into the USA in 2013 and has caused severe economic losses. Retrospectively, it was found that two...

  12. Forensic aspects of gene expression signatures for age determination in bruises as evaluated in an experimental porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Kristiane; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    able to separate bruises inflicted with different forces. Expression signatures of selected genes in the subcutaneous fat will increase the precision of the age determination of bruises in pigs. Further, due to the similarity of porcine and human skin physiology and immunity, these results might also...

  13. Electrogastrography in experimental pigs: the influence of gastrointestinal injury induced by dextran sodium sulphate on porcine gastric erythromycin-stimulated myoelectric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachecí, Ilja; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Kunes, Martin; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Pavlik, Michal; Kopacova, Marcela; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Bures, Jan; Pleskot, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive investigation of gastric myoelectrical activity. The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of erythromycin on EGG in gastrointestinal toxic injury induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in experimental pigs. The experiments were carried out on 12 adult pigs (weighing 30-35 kg). EGG was recorded using Digitrapper equipment (Synectics Medical AB, Stockholm). Running spectrum activity was used for EGG evaluation. There were two groups of animals: Group I: 6 controls with erythromycin administration (1,600 mg intragastrically); Group II: 6 animals treated with DSS (for 5 days, 0.25 g/kg per day in a dietary bolus) followed by erythromycin administration. Baseline and subsequent six separate 30-minute EGG-recordings (from time 0 to 360 min) were accomplished in each animal. A total of 84 records were analysed. Baseline dominant frequency of slow waves was fully comparable in both groups. In Group I, there was a significant increase in dominant frequency after erythromycin administration (maximum between 240-360 min). There was a flat non-significant and delayed increase in dominant frequency after erythromycin administration in Group II. The difference between Group I and II at particular time intervals was not significant but a diverse trend was evident. EGG recording enables us to register a gastric myoelectrical effect of prokinetic drugs. Erythromycin induced a significant increase in the dominant frequency of slow waves. DSS caused toxic injury to the porcine gastrointestinal tract responsible for the delayed and weaker myoelectrical effect of erythromycin in experimental animals.

  14. Putative biomarkers for evaluating antibiotic treatment: an experimental model of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Skaanild, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    recovered clinically within 24h after treatment, whereas tiamulin-treated animals remained clinically ill until the end of the study, 48 h after treatment. A similar Picture was seen for the biomarkers of infection. During the infection period, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and haptoglobin...... the animals received a single dose of either danofloxacin (2.5 mg/kg) or tiamulin (10 mg/kg). To test the discriminative properties of the biomarkers, the dosage regimens were designed with an expected difference in therapeutic efficacy in favour of danofloxacin. Accordingly, the danofloxacin-treated pigs...... increased, whereas plasma zinc, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol decreased. In the danoffoxacin-treated animals, CRP, interleukin-6, zinc, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol reverted significantly towards normalisation within 24h of treatment. In contrast, signs of normalisation were absent (CRP, zinc...

  15. Impact of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Respiratory Mucociliary Function in an Experimental Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sánchez-Véliz

    Full Text Available The impact of cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB on the respiratory mucociliary function is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of CPB and interruption of mechanical ventilation on the respiratory mucociliary system.Twenty-two pigs were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10 or CPB group (n = 12. After the induction of anesthesia, a tracheostomy was performed, and tracheal tissue samples were excised (T0 from both groups. All animals underwent thoracotomy. In the CPB group, an aorto-bicaval CPB was installed and maintained for 90 minutes. During the CPB, mechanical ventilation was interrupted, and the tracheal tube was disconnected. A second tracheal tissue sample was obtained 180 minutes after the tracheostomy (T180. Mucus samples were collected from the trachea using a bronchoscope at T0, T90 and T180. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF and in situ mucociliary transport (MCT were studied in ex vivo tracheal epithelium. Mucus viscosity (MV was assessed using a cone-plate viscometer. Qualitative tracheal histological analysis was performed at T180 tissue samples.CBF decreased in the CPB group (13.1 ± 1.9 Hz vs. 11.1 ± 2.1 Hz, p < 0.05 but not in the control group (13.1 ± 1 Hz vs. 13 ± 2.9 Hz. At T90, viscosity was increased in the CPB group compared to the control (p < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in in situ MCT. Tracheal histology in the CPB group showed areas of ciliated epithelium loss, submucosal edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells.CPB acutely contributed to alterations in tracheal mucocilliary function.

  16. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Ladinig, Andrea; Gerner, Wilhelm; Saalmüller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K; Ashley, Carolyn; Harding, John CS

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, congenitally infected piglets. The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant fem...

  17. An ex vivo porcine nasal mucosa explants model to study MRSA colonization.

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    Pawel Tulinski

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen able to colonize the upper respiratory tract and skin surfaces in mammals. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. However, the mechanism of successful pig colonization by MRSA ST398 is poorly understood. To study MRSA colonization in pigs, an ex vivo model consisting of porcine nasal mucosa explants cultured at an air-liquid interface was evaluated. In cultured mucosa explants from the surfaces of the ventral turbinates and septum of the pig nose no changes in cell morphology and viability were observed up to 72 h. MRSA colonization on the explants was evaluated followed for three MRSA ST398 isolates for 180 minutes. The explants were incubated with 3×10(8 CFU/ml in PBS for 2 h to allow bacteria to adhere to the explants surface. Next the explants were washed and in the first 30 minutes post adhering time, a decline in the number of CFU was observed for all MRSA. Subsequently, the isolates showed either: bacterial growth, no growth, or a further reduction in bacterial numbers. The MRSA were either localized as clusters between the cilia or as single bacteria on the cilia surface. No morphological changes in the epithelium layer were observed during the incubation with MRSA. We conclude that porcine nasal mucosa explants are a valuable ex vivo model to unravel the interaction of MRSA with nasal tissue.

  18. Experimental porcine neosporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Lind, Peter

    1998-01-01

    animal (euthanized day 9 p.i.) all gilts seroconverted as measured by the indirect, fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Neosporosis with multifocal intralobular necrotizing hepatitis was seen in the two gilts inoculated 9/10 days before euthanasia. The uterus of one gilt inoculated 59 days before...... euthanasia revealed granulomatous and focal necrotizing endometritis with a corresponding multifocal necrosis of the trophoblasts of two fetuses. Transplacental neosporosis was indicated in the two fetuses by strongly elevated Neospora IFAT titres in pleural fluid and by the presence of multifocal...

  19. A comparative study of bovine and porcine pericardium to highlight their potential advantages to manufacture percutaneous cardiovascular implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Robert; Marinov, Georgi; Mehri, Yayhe; Klein, Julianne; Li, Bin; Larouche, Danielle; Guzman, Randolph; Zhang, Ze; Germain, Lucie; Guidoin, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Prosthetic heart valves designed to be implanted percutaneously must be loaded within delivery catheters whose diameter can be as low as 18 F (6 mm). This mandatory crimping of the devices may result in deleterious damages to the tissues used for valve manufacturing. As bovine and porcine pericardial tissue are currently given preference because of their excellent availability and traceability, a preliminary comparative study was undertaken to highlight their potential advantages. Bovine and pericardium patches were compared morphologically (light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy). The acute thrombogenicity of both materials was measured in term of platelet uptake and observed by scanning electron microscopy, porcine intact and injured arteries being used as controls. The pericardium specimens were also subjected to uniaxial tensile tests to compare their respective mechanical characteristics. Both pericardiums showed a layered architecture of collagen bundles presenting some interstitial cells. They displayed wavy crimps typical of an unloaded collagenous tissue. The collagen bundles were not bound together and the fibrils were parallel with characteristic periodicity patterns of cross striations. The mesothelial cells found in vivo on the serous surface were no longer present due to tissue processing, but the adjacent structure was far more compacted when compared to the fibrous side. The fibrinocollagenous surfaces were found to be more thrombogenic for both bovine and porcine tissues and the serous side of the porcine pericardium retained more platelets when compared to the bovine samples, making the acute thrombogenicity more important in the porcine pericardium. Both bovine and porcine pericardium used in cardiovascular implantology can be selected to manufacture percutaneous heart valves. The selection of one pericardium preferably to the other should deserve additional testing regarding the innocuousness of

  20. Attenuation of virulence of Lawsonia intracellularis after in vitro passages and its effects on the experimental reproduction of porcine proliferative enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Fabio A; Beckler, Dana; Pusterla, Nicola; Mapes, Samantha M; Gebhart, Connie J

    2013-02-22

    Non-pathogenic Lawsonia intracellularis variants have been obtained through multiple passages in cell culture but there is no information regarding the number of passages necessary to attenuate a pathogenic isolate. The present study evaluated the susceptibility of pigs to L. intracellularis after 10, 20 and 40 passages in vitro. Three groups (six animals/group) were inoculated with pure culture of L. intracellularis on passage 10, 20 or 40 and one group with placebo. The animals were monitored for clinical signs, fecal shedding and serological IgG response during 28 days post-inoculation. Gross and histologic lesions and the level of infection based on the amount of L. intracellularis-specific antigen in the intestinal mucosa identified by immunohistochemistry were evaluated in two animals from each group on days 14, 21 and 28. Animals inoculated with passages 10 and 20 demonstrated proliferative lesions typical of porcine proliferative enteropathy associated with the presence of Lawsonia-specific antigen in the intestinal mucosa. Passage 40-inoculated pigs did not show proliferative lesions or presence of Lawsonia antigen at any time point throughout the study. Similar patterns of the fecal shedding were observed in passage 10 and 20-infected pigs but those infected with passage 40 shed for a short period. Serological IgG responses in passage 10 and 20-inoculated pigs were detected from day 14 post-infection but not at all in passage 40-inoculated animals. These results demonstrate attenuation of the virulence properties of L. intracellularis between 20 and 40 cell passages in vitro. This information will be valuable for design of future experimental models and for studying the mechanisms involved in the attenuation of L. intracellularis virulence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Utilização do etanol na prevenção da calcificação em heteroenxerto valvar pulmonar porcino: estudo experimental em ovinos Use of ethanol in preventing calcification of porcine pulmonary heterograft: experimental study in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ronald Soncini da Rosa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar comparativamente o uso do etanol (E com o glutaraldeído (GDA, como método de inibição da calcificação dos heteroenxertos valvares pulmonares porcinos (HVPP implantados na via de saída do ventrículo direito (VD de ovinos jovens. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados dez ovinos jovens, em dois grupos contendo cinco animais cada. A operação consistiu na implantação do HVPP na via de saída do VD com circulação extracorpórea, divididos em dois grupos; o grupo do GDA (controle e o grupo E (grupo em que os HVPP foram pré-tratados com etanol a 80%. Realizou-se estudo ecocardiográfico para medida do gradiente transvalvar pulmonar, análise macroscópica da parede do HVPP e microscópica quanto à presença de calcificação; e mensuração do cálcio na cúspide valvar após 210 dias. RESULTADOS: Na mensuração do cálcio do HVPP encontrou-se no grupo GDA (7,98 ± 6,82µg cálcio/mg tecido, no grupo E (0,31± 0,33µg cálcio/mg tecido. Em relação ao gradiente transvalvar máximo em 30 dias, não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos, já aos 90, 180 e 210 dias, o grupo GDA apresentou maior gradiente transvalvar do que o grupo do etanol. Na análise macroscópica da parede do HVPP, observou-se calcificação em ambos os grupos, sendo mais intensa no grupo do GDA. Na avaliação microscópica das cúspides do HVPP em relação à presença de calcificação, observou-se que no grupo GDA esteve presente em todos os animais, enquanto no grupo E, esteve ausente em todos. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que etanol a 80% inibe a calcificação das cúspides no período analisado, mas não inibe a calcificação da parede do HVPP.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to comparatively evaluate the use of ethanol (E with glutaraldehyde (GDA to inhibit the calcification of the porcine pulmonary valvar heterografts (PPVH implanted in the right ventricle outflow tract of young sheep. METHODS: Ten young sheep were used, divided into two

  2. Myocardial scar imaging by standard single-energy and dual-energy late enhancement CT: Comparison with pathology and electroanatomic map in an experimental chronic infarct porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quynh A; Thai, Wai-Ee; Wai, Bryan; Cordaro, Kevin; Cheng, Teresa; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Xiong, Guanglei; Cheung, Jim W; Altman, Robert; Min, James K; Singh, Jagmeet P; Barrett, Conor D; Danik, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial scar is a substrate for ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. Late enhancement CT imaging can detect scar, but it remains unclear whether newer late enhancement dual-energy (LE-DECT) acquisition has benefit over standard single-energy late enhancement (LE-CT). We aim to compare late enhancement CT using newer LE-DECT acquisition and single-energy LE-CT acquisitions with pathology and electroanatomic map (EAM) in an experimental chronic myocardial infarction (MI) porcine study. In 8 pigs with chronic myocardial infarction (59 ± 5 kg), we performed dual-source CT, EAM, and pathology. For CT imaging, we performed 3 acquisitions at 10 minutes after contrast administration: LE-CT 80 kV, LE-CT 100 kV, and LE-DECT with 2 postprocessing software settings. Of the sequences, LE-CT 100 kV provided the best contrast-to-noise ratio (all P ≤ .03) and correlation to pathology for scar (ρ = 0.88). LE-DECT overestimated scar (both P = .02), whereas LE-CT images did not (both P = .08). On a segment basis (n = 136), all CT sequences had high specificity (87%-93%) and modest sensitivity (50%-67%), with LE-CT 100 kV having the highest specificity of 93% for scar detection compared to pathology and agreement with EAM (κ = 0.69). Standard single-energy LE-CT, particularly 100 kV, matched better to pathology and EAM than dual-energy LE-DECT for scar detection. Larger human trials as well as more technical studies that optimize varying different energies with newer hardware and software are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative Study on Compositions and Functional Properties of Porcine, Chicken and Duck Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Narunatsopanon, Supawadee

    2017-01-01

    Hematological, chemical and functional characteristics of porcine, chicken and duck blood were evaluated. A porcine blood sample showed the most abundant red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and plasma protein content as well as its freeze-dried blood possessed the highest contents of protein, fat, Cu and Cr with the highest percentage of heme iron (p

  4. Porcine insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4) gene: cloning, polymorphism and association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using PCR and IPCR techniques we obtained a 4498 bp nucleotide sequence FN424076 encompassing the complete coding sequence of the porcine IRS4 gene and its proximal promoter. The 1269-amino acid porcine protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence shares 92% identity with the human IRS4 and possesse...

  5. Regional variations in the histology of porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Neill J; Pezzone, Dominic; Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    Porcine skin is commonly used as a model for human skin injury and as a source material for biologic scaffold materials. Although remarkable similarities between porcine and human skin exist, regional anatomic variations present in human skin are also present in porcine skin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure of porcine skin from 11 different anatomic regions in the American Yorkshire crossbreed. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used, with emphasis on epidermal and dermal thickness, hair follicle density, and collagen and elastin composition and distribution. The results showed that significant regional differences in skin histology exist, particularly with regard to the thickness of the dermis and epidermis and the amount of collagen and elastin within each tissue. Differences were also seen in the distribution of type I and type III collagen within the dermis. Therefore, while porcine skin shares many similarities with human skin, distinct regional differences in composition and morphology exist. This study highlights the importance of appreciating these regional differences to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results when using porcine skin as a human analogue.

  6. Preparation of Extracellular Matrix Developed Using Porcine Articular Cartilage and In Vitro Feasibility Study of Porcine Articular Cartilage as an Anti-Adhesive Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Baek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined whether porcine articular cartilage (PAC is a suitable and effective anti-adhesive material. PAC, which contained no non-collagenous tissue components, was collected by mechanical manipulation and decellularization of porcine knee cartilage. The PAC film for use as an anti-adhesive barrier was easily shaped into various sizes using homemade silicone molds. The PAC film was cross-linked to study the usefulness of the anti-adhesive barrier shape. The cross-linked PAC (Cx-PAC film showed more stable physical properties over extended periods compared to uncross-linked PAC (UnCx-PAC film. To control the mechanical properties, Cx-PAC film was thermally treated at 45 °C or 65 °C followed by incubation at room temperature. The Cx-PAC films exhibited varying enthalpies, ultimate tensile strength values, and contact angles before and after thermal treatment and after incubation at room temperature. Next, to examine the anti-adhesive properties, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were cultured on Cx-PAC and thermal-treated Cx-PAC films. Scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence, and MTT assays showed that HUVECs were well adhered to the surface of the plate and proliferated, indicating no inhibition of the attachment and proliferation of HUVECs. In contrast, Cx-PAC and thermal-treated Cx-PAC exhibited little and/or no cell attachment and proliferation because of the inhibition effect on HUVECs. In conclusion, we successfully developed a Cx-PAC film with controllable mechanical properties that can be used as an anti-adhesive barrier.

  7. Quantitative study of the microvasculature and its endothelial cells in the porcine iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfang; Yu, Paula K; Cringle, Stephen J; Sun, Xinghuai; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2015-03-01

    The roles of the iris microvasculature have been increasingly recognised in the pathogenesis of glaucoma and cataract; however limited information exists regarding the iris microvasculature and its endothelium. This study quantitatively assessed the iris microvascular network and its endothelium using intra-luminal micro-perfusion, fixation, and staining of the porcine iris. The temporal long posterior ciliary artery of 11 isolated porcine eyes was cannulated, perfusion-fixed and labelled using silver nitrate. The iris microvasculature was studied for its distribution, orders and endothelial morphometrics. The density of three layers of microvasculature was measured. Endothelial cell length and width were measured for each vessel order. The iris has an unusual vascular distribution which consisted of abundant large vessels in the middle of the iris stroma, branching over a relatively short distance to the microvasculature located in the superficial and deep stroma as well as the pupil edge. The average vascular density of the middle, superficial, and deep layers were 38.9 ± 1.93%, 10.9 ± 1.61% and 8.0 ± 0.79% respectively. Multiple orders of iris vessels (capillary, 6 orders of arteries, and 4 orders of veins) with relatively large capillary and input arteries (319.5 ± 25.6 μm) were found. Significant heterogeneity of vascular diameter and shape of the endothelia was revealed in different orders of the iris vasculature. Detailed information of topography and endothelium of the iris microvasculature combined with unique structural features of the iris may help us to further understand the physiological and pathogenic roles of the iris in relevant ocular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of a porcine epidemic diarrhea outbreak on swine productivity in Japan: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Itsuro; Yamazaki, Hisanori; Ishizeki, Sayoko; Watanabe, Yugo; Okumura, Hanako; Okubo, Mitsuharu; Kure, Katsumasa; Hayakawa, Yuiko; Furukawa, Makoto; Ooi, Munetaka; Mizukami, Yoshihiro; Ito, Mitsugu

    2016-10-01

    The objective was to investigate porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreak that occurred in 2014 in Japan and its effects on herd-level productivity using a data recording system (PigINFO). The study herds were selected from farrow-to-finish herds (n=99) that entered in the PigINFO system between July 2013 and March 2015. From 1 April to 30 June 2014 (PED epidemic), any herds with clinical signs of PED and feces positive for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) on polymerase chain reaction analysis and/or immunohistochemical staining were defined as PED-positive (n=38). They were further classified into those with long PED periods (L-PED-positive; n=28) and those with short PED periods (S-PED-positive; n=10). Herds with no clinical signs of PED were classified as PED-negative (n=61). Herd-level production data, including preweaning mortality (%; PRWM), postweaning mortality (%; POWM), pigs weaned per litter (PWL), pigs born alive per litter, litters per mated female per year and pigs marketed per sow (MP), were calculated every 3 months during study period. During the PED epidemic, L-PED-positive herds had significantly higher PRWM and POWM than PED-negative herds, and L-PED-positive and S-PED-positive herds had significantly lower PWL. During October-December 2014, L-PED-positive herds had significantly fewer MP than PED-negative herds. The PED outbreak increased mortality and consequently reduced the numbers of marketed pigs. The rapid control of an outbreak is important for reducing the financial losses arising from PED infections.

  9. Performance of a novel dual-electrode bipolar radiofrequency ablation device: a chronic porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeller, Rochus K; Zierer, Andreas; Schuessler, Richard B; Damiano, Ralph J

    2011-01-01

    : Over recent years, a variety of energy sources, including bipolar radiofrequency, have been used to replace the traditional incisions of the Cox-Maze procedure for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel dual-electrode bipolar radiofrequency ablation device Synergy (Atricure, Inc., Cincinnati, OH USA) for AF in a chronic porcine model. : Six domestic pigs underwent a modified Cox-Maze IV procedure without cardiopulmonary bypass using the Synergy device. Animals survived for 30 days. Each pig then underwent induction of AF and was killed to remove the heart en bloc for histologic assessment. Each ablation line was dissected perpendicularly at 5-mm intervals to assess the lesion width, depth, and transmurality. : All animals survived the operation. Electrical isolation of the left atrial appendage and the pulmonary veins were documented by pacing acutely and at 30 days after the operation in all six animals. All animals failed to be induced in AF at 30 days. There was no gross evidence of intra-atrial thrombus formation or stricture of the pulmonary veins. All ablations (n = 209) examined were discrete, linear, and transmural, with a mean lesion width of 3.0 ± 0.7 mm and a mean lesion depth of 5.4 ± 3.3 mm. The mean ablation time was 16.3 ± 4.4 seconds, with a mean total energy delivery of 238 ± 170 J. : The Atricure Synergy was able to create reliable chronic transmural lesions of the modified Cox-Maze IV procedure on a porcine beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass. The ablation lines were significantly wider when compared with its predecessor, the Isolator II.

  10. The localization of primary efferent sympathetic neurons innervating the porcine thymus – a retrograde tracing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system is a sophisticated and independent structure composed of two antagonistic (opposing divisions (sympathetic and parasympathetic that control many vital functions including: homeostasis maintenance, heart rate, blood circulation, secretion, etc. Thymus is one of the most important primary lymphoid organs playing a role in the developing of a juvenile’s immune system mainly by maturation, development, and migration of T-cells (T lymphocytes. In the last decades, several studies identifying sources of the thymic autonomic supply have been undertaken in humans and several laboratory rodents but not in higher mammals such as the pig. Therefore, in the present work, retrograde tracing technique of Fast Blue and DiI was used to investigate the sources of sympathetic efferent supply to the porcine thymus. After Fast Blue injection into the right lobe of the thymus, the presence of Fast Blue-positive neurons was found in the unilateral cranial cervical ganglion (82.8 ± 3.0% of total Fast Blue-positive neurons as well as in the middle cervical ganglion (17.2 ± 3.0%. Injection of DiI resulted in the presence of retrograde tracer in neurons of the cranial cervical ganglion (80.4 ± 2.3% of total amount of DiI-labelled neurons, the middle cervical ganglion (18.4 ± 1.9%, and the cervicothoracic ganglion (1.2 ± 0.8%. The present report provides the first data describing in details the localization of primary efferent sympathetic neurons innervating the porcine thymus.

  11. Experimental reproduction of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-associated enteritis in pigs infected with PCV2 alone or concurrently with Lawsonia intracellularis or Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T; Madson, D M; Roof, M; Layton, S M; Ramamoorthy, S; Meng, X J; Halbur, P G

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus (PCV)-associated disease (PCVAD) has emerged to become one of the most economically important pig diseases globally. One of the less commonly recognized clinical manifestations of PCVAD is PCV2 type 2 (PCV2)-associated enteritis in growing pigs; however, experimental confirmation of the ability of PCV2 alone or PCV2 coinfection with other agent(s) to induce enteritis is lacking. In this study, 120 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) pigs were divided randomly into six groups: controls (negative control pigs), PCV2 (inoculated with PCV2), LAW (inoculated with Lawsonia intracellularis), SALM (inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium), PCV2-LAW (concurrently inoculated with PCV2 and Lawsonia intracellularis) and PCV2-SALM (concurrently inoculated with PCV2 and Salmonella typhimurium). One half of the pigs in each group were subject to necropsy examination 14 days postinoculation (dpi) and the remaining pigs were examined at 28 dpi. The average daily weight gain was not different (P>0.05) between groups. Individual pigs inoculated orally with PCV2 regardless of coinfection status (2/10 PCV2, 1/10 PCV2-LAW, 3/10 PCV2-SALM) developed PCVAD with diarrhoea and reduced weight gain or weight loss between 14 and 28 dpi. Those pigs had characteristic microscopic lesions in lymphoid and enteric tissues associated with abundant PCV2 antigen. Enteric lesions were characterized by necrosuppurative and proliferative enteritis with crypt elongation and epithelial hyperplasia in LAW and PCV2-LAW pigs by 14 dpi, ulcerative and necrosuppurative colitis in SALM and PCV2-SALM pigs by 14 dpi, and lymphohistiocytic enteritis with depletion of Peyer's patches in PCV2, PCV2-SALM and PCV2-LAW pigs by 28 dpi. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report documenting that under experimental conditions, PCV2 can induce enteritis independently from other enteric pathogens and that oral challenge is a potentially important route and perhaps the natural route of PCV2 transmission in

  12. Virtual electrophysiological study in a 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging model of porcine myocardial infarction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Jason; Jacobson, Jason T; Ng, Justin K; Gordon, David; Lee, Daniel C; Carr, James C; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    ...) in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize myocardial infarction and "gray zones," which are thought to reflect heterogeneous regions of viable and nonviable myocytes...

  13. Clinical study on human lamellar keratoplasty for fungal corneal ulcers with porcine acellular corneal stroma

    OpenAIRE

    Fu-Hong Liao; Zi-Zhong Yu; Bin Hu

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To observe the transplantation of acellular porcine corneal stroma on the treatment of superficial keratitis by drug-resistant fungal. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 16 cases of fungal keratitis received the transplantation of acellular porcine corneal matrix from June 2015 to March 2016 with a follow-up of 6mo. We analyzed on items as postoperative visual acuity, corneal graft status, postoperative recurrence and postoperative complications. RESULTS: We observed a hea...

  14. Scaffold-based delivery of autologous mesenchymal stem cells for mandibular distraction osteogenesis: preliminary studies in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyang Sun

    Full Text Available Bone regeneration through distraction osteogenesis (DO is promising but remarkably slow. To accelerate it, autologous mesenchymal stem cells have been directly injected to the distraction site in a few recent studies. Compared to direct injection, a scaffold-based method can provide earlier cell delivery with potentially better controlled cell distribution and retention. This pilot project investigated a scaffold-based cell-delivery approach in a porcine mandibular DO model.Eleven adolescent domestic pigs were used for two major sets of studies. The in-vitro set established methodologies to: aspirate bone marrow from the tibia; isolate, characterize and expand bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs; enhance BM-MSC osteogenic differentiation using FGF-2; and confirm cell integration with a gelatin-based Gelfoam scaffold. The in-vivo set transplanted autologous stem cells into the mandibular distraction sites using Gelfoam scaffolds; completed a standard DO-course and assessed bone regeneration by macroscopic, radiographic and histological methods. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and t-tests were used for statistical analyses.From aspirated bone marrow, multi-potent, heterogeneous BM-MSCs purified from hematopoietic stem cell contamination were obtained. FGF-2 significantly enhanced pig BM-MSC osteogenic differentiation and proliferation, with 5 ng/ml determined as the optimal dosage. Pig BM-MSCs integrated readily with Gelfoam and maintained viability and proliferative ability. After integration with Gelfoam scaffolds, 2.4-5.8×10(7 autologous BM-MSCs (undifferentiated or differentiated were transplanted to each experimental DO site. Among 8 evaluable DO sites included in the final analyses, the experimental DO sites demonstrated less interfragmentary mobility, more advanced gap obliteration, higher mineral content and faster mineral apposition than the control sites, and all transplanted scaffolds were completely degraded.It is technically

  15. Permeation studies through porcine small intestine of furosemide solutions for personalised paediatric administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenza, N; Calpena, A C; Mallandrich, M; Sánchez, A; Egea, M A; Clares, B

    2014-11-20

    Personalized medicine is a challenging research area in paediatric drug design since no suitable pharmaceutical forms are currently available. Furosemide is an anthranilic acid derivative used in paediatric practice to treat cardiac and pulmonary disorders in premature infants and neonates. However, it is not commercialized in suitable dosage forms for paediatrics. Elaborating new paediatric formulations when no commercial forms are available is a common practice in pharmacy laboratories; amongst these, oral liquid formulations are the most common. We developed two extemporaneous paediatric oral solutions of furosemide (pure powder). The characterization and stability study were also performed. Parameters such as organoleptic characteristics, rheology, pH, content of active substance, and microbial stability were evaluated at three temperatures for two months. Evaluation of all these parameters showed that both solutions were stable for 60 days at 4 and 25 °C. Moreover, ex vivo studies were performed to evaluate the permeation behaviour of developed solutions through porcine small intestine to evaluate the potential paediatric biological parameters influencing the bioavailability and efficacy. A validated spectrofluorometric method was also used for this purpose. Our results guarantee a correct dosification, administration and potential efficacy of furosemide when is formulated in liquid oral forms for the treatment of cardiac and pulmonary disorders in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Porcine SLITRK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The membrane protein SLITRK1 functions as a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and variants in this gene have been implicated in Tourette syndrome. In the current study we have cloned and characterized the porcine SLITRK1 gene. The genomic organization of SLITRK1 lacks intr...

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The study of thermal and ventilation parameters, obtained in a transient, laminar solar chimney of reduced dimensions, (1 < m <3) m with a square collector (side = 2m) is presented. Experimental measurements has been made to determine the temperature of the absorber and the fluid in the collector, it is shown that at the ...

  18. A kinetic study of bitter taste receptor sensing using immobilized porcine taste bud tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lihui; Qiao, Lixin; Pang, Guangchang; Xie, Junbo

    2017-06-15

    At present, developing an efficient assay method for truly reflecting the real feelings of gustatory tissues is of great importance. In this study, a novel biosensor was fabricated to investigate the kinetic characteristics of the receptors in taste bud tissues sensing bitter substances for the first time. Porcine taste bud tissues were used as the sensing elements, and the sandwich-type sensing membrane was fixed onto a glassy carbon electrode for assembling the biosensor. With the developed sensor, the response currents induced by sucrose octaacetate, denatonium benzoate, and quercetin stimulating corresponding receptors were determined. The results demonstrated that the interaction between the analyst with their receptors were fitting to hyperbola (R 2 =0.9776, 0.9980 and 0.9601), and the activation constants were 8.748×10 -15 mol/L, 1.429×10 -12 mol/L, 6.613×10 -14 mol/L, respectively. The average number of receptors per cell was calculated as 1.75, 28.58, and 13.23, while the signal amplification factors were 1.08×10 4 , 2.89×10 3 and 9.76×10 4 . These suggest that the sensor can be used to quantitatively describe the interaction characteristics of cells or tissue receptors with their ligands, the role of cellular signaling cascade, the number of receptors, and the signal transmission pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuraminidase activity of blue eye disease porcine rubulavirus: Specificity, affinity and inhibition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-López, Gerardo; Borraz-Argüello, María T; Márquez-Domínguez, Luis; Flores-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto; Priem, Bernard; Fort, Sébastien; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Herrera-Camacho, Irma

    2017-10-01

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV), also known as La Piedad Michoacan Virus (LPMV) causes encephalitis and reproductive failure in newborn and adult pigs, respectively. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein is the most exposed and antigenic of the virus proteins. HN plays central roles in PorPV infection; i.e., it recognizes sialic acid-containing cell receptors that mediate virus attachment and penetration; in addition, its neuraminidase (sialic acid releasing) activity has been proposed as a virulence factor. This work describes the purification and characterization of PorPV HN protein (isolate PAC1). The specificity of neuraminidase is restricted to sialyl(α2,3)lactose (3SL). HN showed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics with fetuin as substrate (km=0.029μM, Vmax=522.8nmolmin-1mg-1). When 3SL was used as substrate, typical cooperative kinetics were found (S50=0.15μM, Vmax=154.3nmolmin-1mg-1). The influenza inhibitor zanamivir inhibited the PorPV neuraminidase with IC50 of 0.24μM. PorPV neuraminidase was activated by Ca2+ and inhibited by nucleoside triphosphates with the level of inhibition depending on phosphorylation level. The present results open possibilities to study the role of neuraminidase in the pathogenicity of PorPV infection and its potential inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 1997 Volvo Award winner in biomechanical studies. Kinematic behavior of the porcine lumbar spine: a chronic lesion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaigle, A M; Holm, S H; Hansson, T H

    1997-12-15

    Experimental models of intervertebral disc and facet joint degeneration were created in vivo in the porcine lumbar spine for studying spinal kinematics, using a dynamic technique. To quantify the changes in spinal kinematics and the stabilizing capacity of the lumbar musculature caused by chronic lesions in the intervertebral disc and facet joints. Segmental kinematics are detrimentally altered by acute injury to passive structures of the motion segment. However, stimulation of the surrounding musculature adds stability to the motion segment. The in vivo kinematics of a degenerated lumbar motion segment and the stabilizing function of the surrounding musculature have not been quantified dynamically. Forty-four pigs were used in six chronic lesions models: sham, disc anulus, disc nucleus, facet capsule, facet joint slit, and facet joint wedge. Three months after injury, an instrumented linkage was used to measure continuously the sagittal kinematics of the L3-L4 motion segment during flexion-extension, with and without stimulation of the lumbar paraspinal musculature. Flexion-extension end point and maximum ranges of motion, and hysteresis were analyzed. Significant alterations in the kinematics caused by chronic lesions were observed, particularly when using the maximum range of motion and when comparing changes in axial translation. Muscular stimulation reduced the hysteresis in the sham, facet capsule, and disc nucleus groups; however, increased hysteresis was observed in the remaining lesion groups. The kinematic behavior of motion segments with chronic lesions was established. The maximum range of motion, which must be measured using a dynamic technique, was a more sensitive parameter for identifying changes in segmental kinematics caused by chronic lesions than was the end range of motion. The lumbar musculature was less efficient overall in stabilizing the motion segment, possibly because of altered mechanisms in the neuromuscular feedback system.

  1. Bacterial transmission from contact lenses to porcine corneas : An ex vivo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeltfoort, PBJ; van Kooten, TG; Bruinsma, GM; Hooymans, AMM; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    PURPOSE. To quantify the transmission to ex vivo porcine eyes of Staphylococcus aureus 835 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 from three types of contact lenses - one daily wear and two extended wear - differing in hydrophobicity and roughness. METHODS. One daily wear lens (etafilcon) and two

  2. Inter-laboratory study to characterize the detection of serum antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandbygaard, Bertel; Lavazza, Antonio; Lelli, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused extensive economic losses to pig producers in many countries. It was recently introduced, for the first time, into North America and outbreaks have occurred again in multiple countries within Europe as well. To assess the properties of various dia...

  3. Study and retina allotransplantation of porcine ciliary epithelium (CE)-derived cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cogliati, Tiziana Paola

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports the isolation, characterization and allotransplantation in porcine retina of ciliary epithelium (CE)-derived cells, also known as retinal stem cells (RSCs). The self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of these cells in vitro and in vivo makes them candidate donors in

  4. Vestibuloplasty: porcine collagen matrix versus free gingival graft: a clinical and histologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christian M; Tudor, Christian; Kiener, Katrin; Wehrhan, Falk; Schmitt, Johannes; Eitner, Stefan; Agaimy, Abbas; Schlegel, Karl A

    2013-07-01

    A free gingival graft (FGG) is currently the gold standard for augmenting small areas of keratinized mucosa. The porcine collagen matrix (CM) represents an alternative to autologous tissue harvesting. This study aims to compare the CM versus FGGs for augmenting keratinized peri-implant mucosa based on clinical and histologic evaluations. The study included 14 patients who underwent a vestibuloplasty with either a FGG from the palate (n = 7) or the CM (n = 7). An implant-fixed vestibular retention splint was inserted for 30 days. Follow-up examinations were performed at 4, 10, 30, and 90 days after surgery. Width of keratinized mucosa was measured in the region of each implant (days 10, 30, and 90). After 90 days, a biopsy was harvested for histologic and immunohistologic analyses. To characterize newly formed soft tissue, the authors stained for tissue-and differentiation-specific markers, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, 13, and 14, to detect presence or absence of keratinization. The groups showed similar healing, with increased peri-implant keratinized mucosa. The CM group had overall significantly shorter operation times than the FGG group. Both groups showed similar overall shrinkage (32.98% CM versus 28.35% FGG). All biopsies showed a multilayered, keratinized, squamous epithelium. CKs 5/6 and 14 were detected in the basal and suprabasal layers, and spots of CK 13 were detected in the suprabasal layer. During the whole observation period, both groups showed comparable clinical and histologic outcomes. Within the limitations of the present study, CM seems to be a promising alternative for the regeneration of keratinized mucosa without tissue harvesting. Comparative long-term studies are needed to investigate changes over time.

  5. Prospective study of single-stage repair of contaminated hernias using a biologic porcine tissue matrix: the RICH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Kamal M F; Rosen, Michael; Vargo, Daniel; Awad, Samir S; Denoto, George; Butler, Charles E

    2012-09-01

    In the presence of contamination, the repair of a ventral incisional hernia (VIH) is challenging. The presence of comorbidities poses an additional risk for postoperative wound events and hernia recurrence. To date, very few studies describe the outcomes of VIH repair in this high-risk population. A prospective, multicenter, single-arm, the Repair of Infected or Contaminated Hernias study was performed to study the clinical outcomes of open VIH repair of contaminated abdominal defects with a non-cross-linked, porcine, acellular dermal matrix, Strattice. Of 85 patients who consented to participate, 80 underwent open VIH repair with Strattice. Hernia defects were 'clean-contaminated' (n = 39), 'contaminated' (n = 39), or 'dirty' (n = 2), and the defects were classified as grade 3 (n = 60) or grade 4 (n = 20). The midline was restored, and primary closure was achieved in 64 patients; the defect was bridged in 16 patients. At 24 months, 53 patients (66%) experienced 95 wound events. There were 28 unique, infection-related events in 24 patients. Twenty-two patients experienced seromas, all but 5 of which were transient and required no intervention. No unanticipated adverse events occurred, and no tissue matrix required complete excision. There were 22 hernia (28%) recurrences by month 24. There was no correlation between infection-related events and hernia recurrence. The use of the intact, non-cross-linked, porcine, acellular dermal matrix, Strattice, in the repair of contaminated VIH in high-risk patients allowed for successful, single-stage reconstruction in >70% of patients followed for 24 months after repair. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  6. Towards the establishment of a porcine model to study human amebiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Girard-Misguich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entamoeba histolytica is an important parasite of the human intestine. Its life cycle is monoxenous with two stages: (i the trophozoite, growing in the intestine and (ii the cyst corresponding to the dissemination stage. The trophozoite in the intestine can live as a commensal leading to asymptomatic infection or as a tissue invasive form producing mucosal ulcers and liver abscesses. There is no animal model mimicking the whole disease cycle. Most of the biological information on E. histolytica has been obtained from trophozoite adapted to axenic culture. The reproduction of intestinal amebiasis in an animal model is difficult while for liver amebiasis there are well-described rodent models. During this study, we worked on the assessment of pigs as a new potential model to study amebiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first co-cultured trophozoites of E. histolytica with porcine colonic fragments and observed a disruption of the mucosal architecture. Then, we showed that outbred pigs can be used to reproduce some lesions associated with human amebiasis. A detailed analysis was performed using a washed closed-jejunal loops model. In loops inoculated with virulent amebas a severe acute ulcerative jejunitis was observed with large hemorrhagic lesions 14 days post-inoculation associated with the presence of the trophozoites in the depth of the mucosa in two out four animals. Furthermore, typical large sized hepatic abscesses were observed in the liver of one animal 7 days post-injection in the portal vein and the liver parenchyma. CONCLUSIONS: The pig model could help with simultaneously studying intestinal and extraintestinal lesion development.

  7. Virtual electrophysiological study in a 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging model of porcine myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jason; Jacobson, Jason T; Ng, Justin K; Gordon, David; Lee, Daniel C; Carr, James C; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2012-07-31

    This study sought to test the hypothesis that "virtual" electrophysiological studies (EPS) on an anatomic platform generated by 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction of the left ventricle can reproduce the reentrant circuits of induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize myocardial infarction and "gray zones," which are thought to reflect heterogeneous regions of viable and nonviable myocytes. Myocardial infarction by coronary artery occlusion was induced in 8 pigs. After a recovery period, 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance images were obtained from each pig in vivo. Normal areas, gray zones, and infarct cores were classified based on voxel intensity. In the computer model, gray zones were assigned slower conduction and longer action potential durations than those for normal myocardium. Virtual EPS was performed and compared with results of actual in vivo programmed stimulation and noncontact mapping. The left ventricular volumes ranged from 97.8 to 166.2 cm(3), with 4.9% to 17.5% of voxels classified as infarct zones. Six of the 7 pigs in which VT developed during actual EPS were also inducible with virtual EPS. Four of the 6 pigs that had simulated VT had reentrant circuits that approximated the circuits seen with noncontact mapping, whereas the remaining 2 had similar circuits but propagating in opposite directions. This initial study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a mathematical model to magnetic resonance imaging reconstructions of the left ventricle to predict VT circuits. Virtual EPS may be helpful to plan catheter ablation strategies or to identify patients who are at risk of future episodes of VT. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reversal of dabigatran anticoagulation ex vivo: Porcine study comparing prothrombin complex concentrates and idarucizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honickel, Markus; Treutler, Stefanie; van Ryn, Joanne; Tillmann, Sabine; Rossaint, Rolf; Grottke, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Urgent surgery or life-threatening bleeding requires prompt reversal of the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran. This study assessed the ability of three- and four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and idarucizumab (specific antidote for dabigatran) to reverse the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran in a porcine model of trauma. Twelve animals were given dabigatran etexilate (DE) orally and dabigatran intravenously, before infliction of trauma. Six animals received tranexamic acid plus fibrinogen concentrate 12 minutes post-injury. Six PCCs (each 30 and 60 U/kg) and idarucizumab (30 and 60 mg/kg) were added to blood samples ex vivo. Coagulation was assessed by several coagulation assays. All coagulation parameters were altered after dabigatran infusion (plasma level: 442 ± 138 ng/ml). Both three- and four-factor PCCs mostly or completely reversed the effects of dabigatran on thromboelastometry variables and PT but not on aPTT. Idarucizumab neutralised plasma concentrations of dabigatran, and reversed the effects of the drug on coagulation variables. Thrombin generation showed dose-dependent over-correction following the addition of PCC, implying that elevated levels of thrombin are required to overcome dabigatran-induced coagulopathy. In contrast, treatment with idarucizumab returned thrombin generation to baseline levels. Following trauma, therapy with tranexamic acid plus fibrinogen improved correction of coagulation parameters by PCC, and thromboelastometry parameters by idarucizumab. All investigated PCCs improved dabigatran- and trauma-induced coagulopathy to a similar degree. In conclusion, this study shows that three- and four-factor PCCs are similarly effective for dabigatran reversal. Idarucizumab also reversed the effects of dabigatran and, unlike PCCs, was not associated with over-correction of thrombin generation.

  9. Surgicric 2: A comparative bench study with two established emergency cricothyroidotomy techniques in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, L; King, W; Wimble, K; Cartwright, S; Mohammed, K B; Patel, B

    2016-08-01

    'Can't Intubate, Can't Oxygenate' is a rare but life threatening event. Anaesthetists must be trained and have appropriate equipment available for this. The ideal equipment is a topic of ongoing debate. To date cricothyroidotomy training for anaesthetists has concentrated on cannula techniques. However cases reported to the NAP4 audit illustrated that they were associated with a high failure rate. A recent editorial by Kristensen and colleagues suggested all anaesthetists must master a surgical technique. The surgical technique for cricothyroidotomy has been endorsed as the primary technique by the recent Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines. We conducted a bench study comparing the updated Surgicric 2 device with a scalpel-bougie-tube surgical technique, and the Melker seldinger technique, using a porcine model. Twenty six senior anaesthetists (ST5+) participated. The primary outcome was insertion time. Secondary outcomes included success rate, ease of use, device preference and tracheal trauma. There was a significant difference (P<0.001) in the overall comparisons of the insertion times. The surgical technique had the fastest median time of 62 s. The surgical and Surgicric techniques were significantly faster to perform than the Melker (both P<0.001). The surgical technique had a success rate of 85% at first attempt, and 100% within two attempts, whereas the others had failed attempts. The surgical technique was ranked first by 50% participants and had the lowest grade of posterior tracheal wall trauma, significantly less than the Surgicric 2 (P=0.002). This study supports training in and the use of surgical cricothyroidotomy by anaesthetists. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effect of tendon tensioning: an in vitro study in porcine extensor tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael; Vaisman, Alex; Meleán, Patricio; Figueroa, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Graft tensioning is a controversial issue in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) that has not achieved consensus between peers. The purpose of this study is to determine if after tensioning tendon length and resistance to maximal load changes. We performed an in vitro study with 50 porcine extensors tendons. The first group (P=25) was tensioned with 80 N (19.97 lb) for 10 min, using an ACL graft preparation board. The second group (C=25) was used as control and was not tensioned. The average initial (groups P and C) and post tensioning tendon length (group C) were measured; the average initial and post tensioning tendon diameter were measured as well. All samples were fixated in a tube-clamp system connected to a tension sensor. The samples were stressed with continuous and progressive tension until ultimate failure at maximum load (UFML) occurs. The initial mean length was: P before tensioning=13.4 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 10.5-16.5); P after tensioning=13.8 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 11.5-16.5); C=13 mm+/-1.35 mm (p=0.005). The mean diameter was: P=5.6 mm (4.5-6); C=5.5 mm (range 4.5-6) (p>0.05). The UFML was: P=189.7 N (114-336); C=229.9 N (143-365) (p=0.029). Tendon tensioning with 80 N for 10 min produced 3% average elongation. These could be beneficial in ACLR since tendon tensioning decreases elongation of the graft after fixation. Regardless, tendon tensioning is not innocuous since it diminishes their resistance when continuously stressed until complete failure occurs.

  11. Experimental and numerical studies of two arterial wall delamination modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xiaochang; Zhou, Boran; Deng, Xiaomin; Davis, Lindsey; Lessner, Susan M; Sutton, Michael A; Shazly, Tarek

    2017-09-19

    Arterial wall dissection, which results from various pathophysiological processes, can lead to the occurrence of large area delamination in the aortic wall that can potentially block blood flow and lead to deleterious clinical conditions. Despite its critical clinical relevance, few studies have focused on investigating the failure mode of delamination in the arterial wall. In this study, we quantify the energy release rate of the medial layer of a porcine abdominal aorta via two delamination experiments: the mixed-mode delamination experiment and the "T"-shaped delamination experiment. A cohesive zone model (CZM) is applied to simulate the arterial wall delamination and Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden (HGO) material model is used to capture the bulk arterial material behavior. A set of parameter values for the HGO and CZM models are identified through matching simulation predictions of the load vs. load-point displacement curve with experimental measurements. Then the parameter values and critical energy release rates obtained from experiments are used as input data for simulation predictions for two arterial wall delamination experiments. The simulation predictions show that the delamination front matches well with experimental measurements. Moreover, the mixed-mode delamination experiment reveals a shear mode-dominated failure event, whereas the "T"-shaped delamination experiment is an opening failure process. The integration of experimental data and numerical predictions of arterial delamination events provides a comprehensive description of distinct failure modes and aids in the prediction of aortic dissection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A lectin microarray study of glycoantigens in neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Akira; Ueno, Takehisa; Nakatsu, Shino; Wang, Dandan; Usui, Noriaki; Takeishi, Shunsaku; Okitsu, Teru; Goto, Masafumi; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Miyagawa, Shuji

    2013-07-01

    Besides α-Gal expression, the differences of glycosylation and antigenicity between adult pig islets (APIs) and neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPCCs) are altogether unclear. In this study, lectin microarray analyses of NPCCs were performed and the results compared with the corresponding values for wild-type APIs and NPCCs from α-Gal transferase knockout (GalT-KO) pig. NPCCs were isolated from 1-3-d-old neonatal wild-type pigs and cultured for 1 d, 5 d, and 9 d, using a previously described technique. Alternatively, the isoration of APIs were isolated based on the method for human islets. In a comparison between NPCCs and APIs, all of the NPCCs showed higher signals for Sambucus nigra, Sambucus sieboldiana, and Trichosanthes japonica I and the binding of α2,6 sialc acid, whereas the APIs showed stronger signals for Lotus tetragonolobus, Aleuria aurantia, Narcissus pseudonarcissus, and Galanthus nivalis, suggesting that APIs contain high levels of high-mannose forms. Among the NPCCs, NPCC (day1) appeared to be richer than the others in Lotus tetragonolobus, Narcissus pseudonarcissus, Galanthus nivalis, and Urtica dioica, implying the presence of high-mannose forms. However, as a whole, the signals for many lectins for NPCCs were very similar. The NPCCs from a GalT-KO pig indicated not only the downregulation of α-Gal expression but α-GalNAc as well, and α2-6 sialic acid was upregulated. The results reported herein contain useful information for the future production of immunomodified pigs with less antigenicity than GalT-KO pigs toward clinical applications of NPCCs. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in U.S. swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Brian J; Haley, Charles; Rovira, Albert; Main, Rodger; Zhang, Yan; Barder, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the United States (US) in February 2014. This was the second novel swine enteric coronavirus detected in the US since May 2013. In this study, we conducted retrospective testing of samples submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories where qualifying biological samples were derived from previously submitted diagnostic case submissions from US commercial swine farms with a clinical history of enteric disease or from cases that had been previously tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus, PEDV, or rotavirus. Overall, 2286 banked samples were tested from 27 States. Samples were collected in 3 separate years and in 17 different months. Test results revealed 4 positive samples, 3 collected in August 2013 and 1 collected in October 2013. In addition, a case series including 42 operations in 10 States was conducted through administration of a survey. Survey data collected included information on characteristics of swine operations that had experienced PDCoV clinical signs. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining descriptive estimates of biosecurity practices and disease status over time of each operation. Clinical signs of PDCoV were reported to be similar to those of PEDV. The average number of animals on each operation exhibiting clinical signs (morbidity) and the average number of case fatalities was greatest for suckling and weaned pigs. Average operation-level weaned pig morbidity was greatest in the first week of the outbreak while average operation-level suckling pig case fatality was greatest in the second week of the outbreak. The survey included questions regarding biosecurity practices for visitors and operation employees; trucks, equipment and drivers; and feed sources. These questions attempted to identify a likely pathway of introduction of PDCoV onto the operations surveyed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  15. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Márcio Augusto Nogueira; Garcia, Patrícia Novita; Barroso, Letícia Fernandes; Ferreira, Marco Antonio; Okuda, Érika Araki; Allemann, Norma

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete) and similar dimensions (4 mm) were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed). Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and measure the intraocular foreign body, directing

  16. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete and similar dimensions (4 mm were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed. RESULTS: Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and

  17. Evaluating the effects of protective ventilation on organ-specific cytokine production in porcine experimental postoperative sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Jesper; Lipcsey, Miklós; Larsson, Anders; Larsson, Anders; Sjölin, Jan; Castegren, Markus

    2015-05-10

    Protective ventilation with lower tidal volume (VT) and higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) reduces the negative additive effects of mechanical ventilation during systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We hypothesised that protective ventilation during surgery would affect the organ-specific immune response in an experimental animal model of endotoxin-induced sepsis-like syndrome. 30 pigs were laparotomised for 2 hours (h), after which a continuous endotoxin infusion was started at 0.25 micrograms × kg(-1) × h(-1) for 5 h. Catheters were placed in the carotid artery, hepatic vein, portal vein and jugular bulb. Animals were randomised to two protective ventilation groups (n = 10 each): one group was ventilated with VT 6 mL × kg(-1) during the whole experiment while the other group was ventilated during the surgical phase with VT of 10 mL × kg(-1). In both groups PEEP was 5 cmH2O during surgery and increased to 10 cmH2O at the start of endotoxin infusion. A control group (n = 10) was ventilated with VT of 10 mL × kg(-1) and PEEP 5 cm H20 throughout the experiment. In four sample locations we a) simultaneously compared cytokine levels, b) studied the effect of protective ventilation initiated before and during endotoxemia and c) evaluated protective ventilation on organ-specific cytokine levels. TNF-alpha levels were highest in the hepatic vein, IL-6 levels highest in the artery and jugular bulb and IL-10 levels lowest in the artery. Protective ventilation initiated before and during endotoxemia did not differ in organ-specific cytokine levels. Protective ventilation led to lower levels of TNF-alpha in the hepatic vein compared with the control group, whereas no significant differences were seen in the artery, portal vein or jugular bulb. Variation between organs in cytokine output was observed during experimental sepsis. We see no implication from cytokine levels for initiating protective ventilation before endotoxemia. However, during endotoxemia

  18. Langerhans cells in porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nfon, Charles K; Dawson, Harry; Toka, Felix N; Golde, William T

    2008-12-15

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are resident dendritic cells (DCs) of skin and mucosal epithelium. The standard for identifying skin DCs as LCs is expression of langerin (CD207), a surface protein that mediates Birbeck granule (BG) formation upon internalization. Reports of BGs in porcine skin DC are contradictory, due to lack of langerin detection. Here, we present the sequence of porcine langerin/CD207, showing that the predicted porcine protein shares 75%/86% amino acid identity/similarity with human. Langerin mRNA was detected in porcine skin DCs by PCR and langerin protein was detected in both isolated skin DCs and skin sections by immunostaining. Approximately, 50-70% of skin DCs expressed langerin, demonstrating that the majority of porcine skin DCs are LCs. The full length sequence combined with the identification of antibodies reactive with porcine langerin, facilitates the study of LCs in swine, and advances the use of swine for studying skin diseases and infectious disease processes involving skin.

  19. Study of the effects of polymerized porcine hemoglobin (pPolyHb) in an acute anemia rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huifang; Yan, Chengbin; Yan, Kunping; Zhu, Wenjin; Shen, Yuesheng; Yang, Bo; Chen, Chao; Zhu, Hongli

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the recovery ability of polymerized porcine hemoglobin (pPolyHb) in a rat model of acute anemia caused by normovolemic hemodilution (ANH). After the ANH procedure, rats were infused with either pPolyHb or red blood cells. The results showed pPolyHb could carry a sufficient amount of oxygen to the tissues to maintain normal aerobic metabolism and hemodynamic stability, without any significant toxic effects on renal and liver function according to pathological, and biochemical analysis. The data suggest pPolyHb may be a good candidate for the treatment of acute anemia in future clinical trials.

  20. Porcine heart interatrial septum anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holda, Mateusz K; Holda, Jakub; Koziej, Mateusz; Piatek, Katarzyna; Klimek-Piotrowska, Wieslawa

    2018-02-16

    The left-sided atrial septal pouch (SP), a recently re-discovered anatomical structure within the human interatrial septum, has emerged as a possible source of thrombi formation and a trigger for atrial fibrillation, thereby potentially increasing the risk for ischemic stroke. In many studies, the swine interatrial septum has been used as model of the human heart. Also, possible new strategies and devices for management of the SPs may first be tested in this pig model. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate swine interatrial septum morphology and to compare it with the human analog, especially in the light of SP occurrence. A total of 75 swine (Sus scrofa f. domestica) hearts were examined. The interatrial septum morphology was assessed, and SPs were measured. The most common variant of the interatrial septum was smooth septum (26.6%) followed by the patent foramen ovale channel and right SP (both 22.7%). No left or double SPs were observed. In 28.0% of all cases the fold of tissue (left septal ridge) was observed on the left side of the interatrial septum in the location where the left-sided SP should be expected. The mean length of the patent foramen ovale channel was 7.1±1.5mm. The mean right SP depth was 6.3±2.2mm, and its ostium width and height were 5.8±1.2 and 5.3±1.6mm, respectively. There are significant differences between human and porcine interatrial septum morphology that should be taken into account during experimental studies. The absence of the left SP in swine results in the inability to use porcine heart as an experimental model for left-sided SP management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Study of a Novel Porcine Collagen Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration

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    Eisner Salamanca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For years, in order to improve bone regeneration and prevent the need of a second stage surgery to remove non-resorbable membranes, biological absorbable membranes have gradually been developed and applied in guided tissue regeneration (GTR. The present study’s main objective was to achieve space maintenance and bone regeneration using a new freeze-dried developed porcine collagen membrane, and compare it with an already commercial collagen membrane, when both were used with a bovine xenograft in prepared alveolar ridge bone defects. Prior to surgery, the membrane’s vitality analysis showed statistically significant higher cell proliferation in the test membrane over the commercial one. In six beagle dogs, commercial bone xenograft was packed in lateral ridge bone defects prepared in the left and right side and then covered with test porcine collagen membrane or commercial collagen membrane. Alveolar height changes were measured. Histomorphometric results, in vitro and in vivo properties indicated that the new porcine collagen membrane is biocompatible, enhances bone xenograft osteoconduction, and reduces the alveolar ridge height reabsorption rate.

  2. Thermal and biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, J; Radt, B; Birngruber, R; Brinkmann, R

    2000-05-01

    New methods in refractive surgery require a considerable understanding of the material "cornea" and are often studied by theoretical modeling in order to gain insight into the procedure and an optimized approach to the technique. The quality of these models is highly dependent on the preciseness of its input parameters. Porcine cornea often is used as a model in preclinical studies because of its similarity to man and its availability. The important physical parameters for biomechanical deformation, heat conduction, and collagen denaturation kinetics have been determined for porcine cornea. Experimental methods include densitometry, calorimetry, turbidimetry, tensile tests, stress relaxation, and hydrothermal isometric tension measurements. The density of porcine cornea was measured as p = 1062+/-5 kg/m3, the heat capacity gave c = 3.74+/-0.05 J/gK. The stress-strain relation for corneal strips is represented by a third order approximation where the secant modulus yields about Esec approximately equal to 0.4 MPa for small strains less than 2%. The normalized stress relaxation is described by an exponential fit over time. The denaturation process of cornea is characterized by specific temperatures which can be related to the change of the mechanical properties. Denaturation kinetics are described according to the model of Arrhenius yielding the activation energy deltaEa = 106 kJ/mol and the phase transition entropy deltaS = 39 J/(mol x K). The established set of parameters characterizes the porcine cornea in a reliable way that creates a basis for corneal models. It furthermore gives direct hints of how to treat cornea in certain refractive techniques.

  3. A comparative study on the antibacterial photodynamic efficiency of a curcumin derivative and a formulation on a porcine skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortik, Nicole; Steinbacher, Peter; Maisch, Tim; Spaeth, Andreas; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2016-02-01

    The propagation of pathogens resistant to antibiotics around the globe has induced an urgent call for action: alternatives to conventional antibiotic therapy have to be developed to prevent a post-antibiotic catastrophe. This study focuses on the enhancement of Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) of Gram(+) versus Gram(-) bacteria comparing a cationic derivative of curcumin (SACUR-3) to curcumin bound to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-CUR) using an ex vivo porcine skin model to simulate an application on the human skin and foodstuff. Porcine skin samples were inoculated with either Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli and treated with either SACUR-3 or PVP-CUR at concentrations of 50 or 100 μM, respectively. Subsequent to blue light illumination (435 nm, 33.8 J cm(-2)) quantitative analyses were performed by counting the colony forming units. Furthermore, the localization of both photoactive compounds in the porcine skin was determined by fluorescence microscopy. PDI of S. aureus resulted in a reduction of 2.2 log10 steps if employing 50 μM of SACUR-3 and of 1.7 log10 steps with 50 μM of PVP-CUR. Phototoxicity towards E. coli was 3.3 log10 steps using 100 μM of SACUR-3 and 0.3 log10 steps for 100 μM of PVP-CUR. Both compounds do not exceed the stratum corneum of the skin. A direct comparison of both approaches yields that the cationic curcumin derivative SACUR-3 is effective against Gram(+) and Gram(-) pathogens, whereas the formulation of PVP-CUR has a photokilling effect on the Gram(+) model strain only, but leaves the approval of curcumin as a food additive E100 unaffected. Our results suggest the applicability of SACUR-3-based PDI in dermatology, hand hygiene and food production.

  4. Porcine head response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  5. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  6. Experimental study of snow friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Caroline; Canale, Luca; Siria, Alessandro; Quere, David; Bocquet, Lyderic; Clanet, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Snow friction results from the interplay of different physical processes: solid friction of granular material, phase change and lubrication, heat transport, capillarity, elasticity and plasticity. The multiple conditions of temperature, humidity and density of the snow result in different regimes of friction. In particular, there is an optimal amount of melted water to lubricate the contact between the ski sole and the snow grains. The thickness of the water layer depends on temperature, speed... A huge variety of waxes have been empirically developed to adapt the amount of water to the conditions of skiing, but remain mysterious. In these study, we investigate experimentally the mechanisms of snow friction at different scales: first, the friction of a ski on snow is measured on a test bench, depending on the snow characteristics and for different waxes. Then microscopic experiments are led in order to understand the friction at the ice crystals scale.

  7. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Shedding and Antibody Response in Swine Farms: a Longitudinal Study

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    Cristina Bertasio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV causes an acute and highly contagious enteric disease characterized by severe enteritis, vomiting, watery diarrhea and a high mortality rate in seronegative neonatal piglets. In the last few years, PED had a large economic impact on the swine industries in Asia and the United States, and in 2014, the PEDV also re-emerged in Europe. Two main PEDV variants circulate worldwide but only the S INDEL variant, considered a mild strain, is spreading in Europe. To gain insights into the pathogenicity of this variant, its viral load and temporal shedding pattern were evaluated in piglets from infected farms. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR targeting the spike gene, was validated according to the minimum information for quantitative real-time PCR experiments guidelines. The qPCR was applied to longitudinal studies conducted in four swine farms naturally infected with the PEDV S INDEL variant. Clinical data, fecal swabs and blood samples were collected from 103 piglets at 15–30-day intervals for 2–5 months. On all four farms, diarrhea was observed in sows during gestation and in farrowing units, and the mortality rates of piglets were 18, 25, 30 and 35%. Different clinical pictures (0-50% of diarrhea positivity, viral titer levels (mean 5.3-7.2 log10 genome copies/mL and antibody conditions (30-80% of positivity were registered among sows on the four farms. The percentage of qPCR positive piglets varied greatly from the beginning (63–100% to the end (0% of the infection course. Clinical signs were present in 96% of the qPCR positive animals. Viral loads ranged from 8.5 log10 to 4 log10 genome copies/mL in suckling pigs at 3–6 days of age and were not statistically different among farms, despite the different patterns observed in sows. After 2–3 weeks, only a few piglets still showed detectable viral levels and clinical signs, and they developed antibody responses. Moreover, co-infections with other

  8. [Crystalline lens photodisruption using femtosecond laser: experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoux, O; Touboul, D; Buestel, C; Balcou, P; Colin, J

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the interactions during femtosecond (fs) laser photodisruption in ex vivo porcine crystalline lenses and to study the parameters for laser interaction optimization. An experimental femtosecond laser was used. The laser characteristics were: 1030 nm wavelength; pulse duration, 400 fs; and numerical aperture, 0.13. Specific software was created to custom and monitor any type of photoablation pattern for treatment purposes. Porcine crystalline lenses were placed in an open sky holder filled with physiological liquid (BSS) covered by a glass plate. A numerical camera was associated with metrological software in order to magnify and quantify the results. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on some samples to identify the microscopic plasma interactions with the lens. The optimization of parameters was investigated in terms of the optical breakdown threshold, the sizing of interactions, and the best pattern for alignments. More than 150 crystalline lenses of freshly enucleated pigs were treated. The optical breakdown threshold (OBT) was defined as the minimal energy level per pulse necessary to observe a physical interaction. In our study, the OBT varied according to the following parameters: the crystalline lens itself, varying from 4.2 to 7.6 μJ (mean, 5.1 μJ), and the depth of laser focus, varying up to 1 μJ, increasing in the depth of the tissue. Analyzing the distance between impacts, we observed that the closer the impacts were the less power was needed to create a clear well-drawn defect pattern (lines), i.e., with a 4-μJ optimized OBT, when the impacts were placed every 2 μm for the x,y directions and 60 μm for the z direction. Coalescent bubbles created by plasma formation always disappeared in less than 24h. The nonthermal effect of plasma and the innocuousness on surrounding tissues were proven by the TEM results. The crystalline lens photodisruption by the femtosecond laser seems an innovative

  9. Clinical study on human lamellar keratoplasty for fungal corneal ulcers with porcine acellular corneal stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hong Liao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the transplantation of acellular porcine corneal stroma on the treatment of superficial keratitis by drug-resistant fungal. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 16 cases of fungal keratitis received the transplantation of acellular porcine corneal matrix from June 2015 to March 2016 with a follow-up of 6mo. We analyzed on items as postoperative visual acuity, corneal graft status, postoperative recurrence and postoperative complications. RESULTS: We observed a healing time of corneal epithelium in 7 to 10d postoperatively generally and the absence of corneal edema in 1mo, while the cornea gradually returned transparent in the 16 cases. Two cases required medication for an epithelial recovery and 3 cases received intervention for decreasing intraocular pressure to a certain level. During the follow-up we observed no cases of cornea degeneration, recurrence of infection or rejection. The vision acuity showed 1.27±0.22, 1.11±0.13, 0.79±0.22 in 1, 3 and 6mo after operation respectively. There was no statistical difference between vision in 1mo and the vision before surgery(P=0.06; while we found a statistical difference when comparing the vision of 3 and 6mo with vision before surgery(P=0.01,0.001. The vision in 6mo increased with a statistic difference to the vision at 1 and 3mo(PP=0.11. CONCLUSION: Transplantation of acellular porcine corneal matrix is a safe and efficient treatment for fungal keratitis.

  10. Five Years Seroprevalence Study of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Lithuanian Pig and Wild Boar Populations

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    Stankevičius Arunas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Serological study of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection in pigs and wild boars was conducted in Lithuania between 2009 and 2013. Antibody level was measured using a commercial ELISA. The 4.32% (95% CI 3.92-4.72 out of 9856 examined porcine sera were positive for the PRRSV antibodies. The antibodies were detected in 11.82% (95% CI 10.28-13.36 of all investigated serum samples of sows and gilts. As much as 8.2% of serologically positive samples (95% CI 6.83-9.57 were determined in the piglets under three months of age. Considerably smaller (P < 0.05 seroprevalence was detected in boars (0.62% and fattening pigs (1.84%. From 1357 examined sera of wild boar, collected between 2009 and 2013 hunting seasons, 5.38% (95% CI 4.52-8.2 of samples were positive for PRRSV antibodies in 23 locations out of 50 investigated. The analysis of seroprevalence in different age groups of wild boars showed that PRRSV antibodies were detected in all age groups; however, it was significantly higher in adults than in juveniles or subadults and reached up to 10.02% (95% CI 7.39-12.65.

  11. Feasibility study on robot-assisted retinal vascular bypass surgery in an ex vivo porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi Qi; Tao, Ji Wei; Li, Liang; Mao, Jian Bo; Zhu, Chen Ting; Lao, Ji Meng; Yang, Yang; Shen, Li-Jun

    2017-09-01

    To describe a new robot-assisted surgical system for retinal vascular bypass surgery (RVBS) and to compare the success rate with freehand RVBS. A robot-assisted system for retinal microsurgery was constructed to include two independent robotic arms. A 23-gauge light probe and an intraocular forceps were affixed to the arm end effectors to perform the intraocular manipulation. Harvested porcine eyes were introduced to be established animal models of closed-sky eyeballs after that pars plana vitrectomy using temporary keratoprosthesis was performed by a skilful surgeon. Retinal vascular bypass surgery (RVBS) was performed by an inexperienced ophthalmologist to test the ease of use. A stainless steel wire (45-μm pipe diameter) was used as an artificial vessel. Before RVBS, the wires were prepositioned at the retinal surface of the eyes. The Control group (n = 20) underwent freehand RVBS, and the Experimental group (n = 20) underwent robot-assisted RVBS. To create the simulated bypass, the distal end of the wire was inserted into the selected vessel and advanced ~4 mm away from the optic disc. If successful, then the proximal wire end was inserted and advanced ~2 mm towards the optic disc. The difference in the success rate for the freehand and robot-assisted procedures was analysed by the chi-square test. The success rate for the freehand RVBS was 5% (1/20 eyes). In contrast, the robot-assisted success rate was 35% (7/20) of eyes (p robot-assisted RVBS in ex vivo porcine eyes. The robotic system increased the accuracy and stability of manipulation by eliminating freehand tremor, leading to a higher surgical success rate. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Assessment of the ex vivo biomechanical properties of porcine cornea with inflation test for corneal xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, F; Jiang, L; Wang, X; Zhang, D; Wang, Q; Zeng, Y

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to obtain the biomechanical properties of porcine cornea so as to provide necessary biomechanical experimental basis for pig-to-human corneal xenotransplantation. Seventeen fresh porcine corneal specimens obtained from pigs aged 4-6 months were examined under inflation conditions to determine the constitutive relationships of the material through dynamic loading conditions (pressure range: 1.47-42.66 mmHg). The forward deflection of porcine anterior corneal apex was measured by the laser displacement sensor. The pressure deformation results were analysed on the basis of shell theory to estimate Young's modulus of the cornea and derive its relationship with intraocular pressure (IOP). The porcine corneas showed a nonlinear corneal forward displacement/IOP and stress/strain relationship with an initial low stiffness stage and a later high stiffness stage. In spite of the nonlinearity between the internal pressure and apex forward deflection, the relationship between the Young's modulus and the IOP was almost linear. Compared with human corneas, porcine corneas exhibited a similar nonlinear behaviour but lower stiffness values. The biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea obtained from this test could be applied to numerical simulations of refractive surgery procedures and lay a foundation for pig-to-human corneal xenotransplantation. Copyright © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  13. Healing study of porcine heart transapical wounds closed using a remote automated suturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilshire, Candice L; Kaufer, James W; Gorea, Heather R; Sauer, Jude S; Knight, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    A safe and reliable direct percutaneous approach for transapical access to the left ventricle would be a significant advance toward decreasing the invasiveness of intracardiac interventions. This report presents results from a surviving porcine beating heart model in which transapical access sites were closed using an automated suturing technique ultimately intended for percutaneous use. Through an approved protocol including general anesthesia, the cardiac apex in 10 beating pig hearts was surgically exposed, permitting transapical passage of a 0.035-in guidewire and a 5.5F, 0.9-mL Fogarty balloon catheter. An automated suturing device was passed over the guidewire and the Fogarty onto the transapical access site. Two pledgeted horizontal mattress sutures were simultaneously placed concentrically around the apical access site with a single squeeze of the device's lever. A 25F dilator was passed into the left ventricle over the guidewire and subsequently removed. The sutures were then secured using pledgeted titanium knots. Chest wall and skin incisions were closed. The animals were recovered from anesthesia and resumed a normal diet. Under general anesthesia, the transapical access site of each animal was re-exposed, five at 1-week and five at 2-week intervals. Hemostasis was complete, and all wounds healed well. The evaluation of transapical wound closures in this surviving porcine heart model demonstrates complete hemostasis and excellent healing through the use of this automated remote suturing technology.

  14. Anatomical study on the surgical technique used for xenotransplantation: porcine hearts into humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepe, Matthias; Martin, Juergen; Sarai, Koppany; Ihling, Christian; Sommer, Philipp; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2007-12-01

    The pig heart is an ideal graft for orthotopic cardiac xenotransplantation regarding its physiological attributes and ready availability. Although single clinical attempts have been performed since the 1960s, details concerning the surgical technique of pig-to-human transplantation have never been reported. The present investigation should verify which anatomical differences between humans and pigs require special care in cardiac xenotransplantation. We transplanted four pig hearts into human thoraces after autopsy. Implantation was performed using both the biatrial (modified Shumway) and bicaval techniques. The implanted hearts were not perfused. The four-legged walk of the pig implies a more transverse heart position and therefore a different outflow-angle of the great vessels. Accordingly, the thin-walled pulmonary artery and the superior vena cava (in bicaval technique) tend to kink and narrow. A special feature of porcine anatomy is the left azygous vein that empties into the coronary sinus. It must be ligated before the implantation. Keeping the porcine anatomical particularities in mind, technical problems in pig-to-human heart transplantation can be avoided. The anastomosis of the pulmonary artery requires special care. By using the biatrial technique surgeons can prevent imminent stenoses of the caval vein anastomoses.

  15. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Andrea; Gerner, Wilhelm; Saalmüller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K; Ashley, Carolyn; Harding, John C S

    2014-12-14

    In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, congenitally infected piglets. The objectives of the present study were to investigate changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations in third trimester pregnant females infected with type 2 PRRSv (NVSL 97-7895) and to analyze potential relationships with viral load and fetal mortality rate. PRRSv infection caused a massive, acute drop in total leukocyte counts affecting all PBMC populations by two days post infection. Except for B cells, cell counts started to rebound by day six post infection. Our data also show a greater decrease of naïve B cells, T-helper cells and cytolytic T cells than their respective effector or memory counterparts. Absolute numbers of T cells and γδ T cells were negatively associated with PRRSv RNA concentration in gilt serum over time. Additionally, absolute numbers of T helper cells may be predictive of fetal mortality rate. The preceding three leukocyte populations may therefore be predictive of PRRSv-related pathological outcomes in pregnant gilts. Although many questions regarding the immune responses remain unanswered, these findings provide insight and clues that may help reduce the impact of PRRSv in pregnant gilts.

  16. Experimental Infrasound Studies in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, E. T.; Negraru, P. T.; Golden, P.; Williams, A.

    2009-12-01

    An experimental propagation study was carried out in Nevada in June 2009 on Julian days 173-177. During this field experiment we deployed 16 single channel digital infrasound recorders to monitor the munitions disposal activities near Hawthorne, NV. The sensors were deployed in a single line and placed approximately 12 km apart at distances ranging from 2 to 177 km. A four element semi-permanent infrasound array named FNIAR was installed approximately 154 km north of the detonation site in line with the individual temporary recorders. Tropospheric arrivals were observed during all days of the experiment, but during day 176 the observed arrivals had very large amplitudes. A large signal was observed at 58 km from the detonation site with amplitude as large as 4 Pascals, while at 94 km no signal was observed. At FNIAR the amplitude of the tropospheric arrival was 1 Pascal. During this day meteorological data acquired in the propagation path showed a strong jet stream to the north. On day 177 we were not able to identify tropospheric arrivals beyond 34 km, but at stations beyond 152 km we observed stratospheric arrivals. Continuous monitoring of these signals at FNIAR shows that stratospheric arrivals are the most numerous. In a two month period, from 06/15/2009 to 08/15/2009 there were 35 operational days at the Hawthorne disposal facility resulting in 212 explosions with known origin times. Based on the celerity values there were 115 explosions that have only stratospheric arrivals (celerities of 300-275 m/s), 72 explosions with both tropospheric (celerities above 330 m/s) and stratospheric arrivals, 20 explosions that were not detected and five explosions that have only tropospheric arrivals.

  17. Existence of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Prabha S; Verghese S

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Swine are expected to be utilized as xenograft donors for both whole organ and cellular transplantation. A major concern in using porcine organs for transplantation is the potential of transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV). Tissue-engineered or decellularised heart valves have already been implanted in humans and have been marketed by certain companies after Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. The aim of this study was to examine the existence of porcine endo...

  18. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    climatic conditions are favorable for the development of solar chimneys for the production of electrical energy or the drying of agro-food products. 1.1 Experimental models. The first prototype tower was built in Manzanares in. 1981, thanks to the team of Professor Schlaich, Haaf et al., (1983); Haaf et al., (1984), in Spain.

  19. Porcine models for the study of small-for-size syndrome and portal inflow modulation: literature review and proposal for a standardized nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohkam, Kayvan; Darnis, Benjamin; Mabrut, Jean-Yves

    2016-11-01

    Porcine models of extended hepatectomy and liver transplantation (LT) of reduced graft have been widely used for studying the small-for-size (SFS) syndrome and the various modalities of portal inflow modulation (PIM). However, considerable heterogeneity exists among the studies and their results. The aim of this review was to assess the main advantages and drawbacks of the different porcine models of SFS LT and SFS hepatectomy, and propose a standardized anatomical nomenclature for the various models. The MEDLINE database was searched for articles reporting porcine models of reduced graft LT or hepatectomy of more than 65%. Nineteen articles on SFS LT matched our inclusion criteria, including 10 articles reporting a model of PIM. Twenty-seven articles reporting a model of posthepatectomy SFS were identified, of which 16 reported a model of PIM. Subtotal hepatectomy (i.e. resection of all segments except segment 1) without inflow occlusion, left trisectionectomy with inflow occlusion, and LT of a right lateral section including the caudate lobe in a larger recipient appeared to be the most suitable porcine models for studying the SFS syndrome. All three models were appropriate for assessing the surgical and pharmaceutical PIM modalities, except for those involving the splenic flow. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  20. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, co...

  1. The porcine skin associated T-cell homing chemokine CCL27: molecular cloning and mRNA expression in piglets infected experimentally with Staphylococcus hyicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C. K.; Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Ahrens, P.

    2003-01-01

    . In this paper, we report the cloning of porcine CCL27 cDNA and investigation of CCL27 mRNA expression in Staphylococcus hyicus infected piglets. At the protein level, 77 and 74% homology was found to human and mouse CCL27 sequences, respectively. The results of the expression analyses show that CCL27 m...

  2. Molecular and epidemiological studies of Porcine rubulavirus infection – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Sandra Cuevas-Romero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Porcine rubulavirus-La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico virus (PorPV-LPMV was identified as the causative agent of a viral disease that emerged spontaneously in Mexican swine in the 1980s. Since the report of the initial outbreak of the disease, only one full-length genome from a strain isolated in 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984 has been sequenced; sequence data are scarce from other isolates. The genetic variation of this virus that has spread throughout the main endemic region of Mexico is almost a complete mystery. The development of molecular techniques for improved diagnostics and to investigate the persistence, molecular epidemiology, and the possible reservoirs of PorPV are needed. Together, this will provide greater knowledge regarding the molecular genetic changes and useful data to establish new strategies in the control of this virus in Mexico.

  3. The effect of social isolation, gender and familiarity with the experimental procedure on tests of porcine nociceptive thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Stausholm, Julie S.; Viitasaari, Eliina

    2015-01-01

    receiving the mechanical challenge in the pelvic limbs were tested inside a cage, whereas pigs exposed to stimuli at the tail region were tested in an open arena. For both experiments, the effect of familiarity to the procedure was evaluated by comparing thresholds of nociception in habituated versus naïve...... pigs. The presence of a companion animal was also evaluated in pigs receiving stimuli at the pelvic limbs. Results Pigs tested inside the cage were affected by the habituation to the procedure as indicated by the increase in willingness and time spent by the animals in the test cage. This effect......Objective To investigate the effects of habituation and isolation on mechanical nociceptive thresholds in pigs at the pelvic limbs and at the tail. Study design Prospective randomized multifactorial study. Animals Thirty-two healthy castrated male (experiment 1), and 12 castrated male and 12 female...

  4. Tachykinins in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Tornøe, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    The localization, release, and effects of substance P and neurokinin A were studied in the porcine pancreas and the localization of substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of electrical vagus stimulation and capsaicin infusion on tachykinin release...... and the effects of substance P and neurokinin A infusion on insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and exocrine secretion were studied using the isolated perfused porcine pancreas with intact vagal innervation. NK-1 and NK-2 receptor antagonists were used to investigate receptor involvement. Substance P immunoreactive...

  5. Cell lineage identification and stem cell culture in a porcine model for the study of intestinal epithelial regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liara M Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Significant advances in intestinal stem cell biology have been made in murine models; however, anatomical and physiological differences between mice and humans limit mice as a translational model for stem cell based research. The pig has been an effective translational model, and represents a candidate species to study intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC driven regeneration. The lack of validated reagents and epithelial culture methods is an obstacle to investigating IESC driven regeneration in a pig model. In this study, antibodies against Epithelial Adhesion Molecule 1 (EpCAM and Villin marked cells of epithelial origin. Antibodies against Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA, Minichromosome Maintenance Complex 2 (MCM2, Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and phosphorylated Histone H3 (pH3 distinguished proliferating cells at various stages of the cell cycle. SOX9, localized to the stem/progenitor cells zone, while HOPX was restricted to the +4/'reserve' stem cell zone. Immunostaining also identified major differentiated lineages. Goblet cells were identified by Mucin 2 (MUC2; enteroendocrine cells by Chromogranin A (CGA, Gastrin and Somatostatin; and absorptive enterocytes by carbonic anhydrase II (CAII and sucrase isomaltase (SIM. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated morphologic and sub-cellular characteristics of stem cell and differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types. Quantitative PCR gene expression analysis enabled identification of stem/progenitor cells, post mitotic cell lineages, and important growth and differentiation pathways. Additionally, a method for long-term culture of porcine crypts was developed. Biomarker characterization and development of IESC culture in the porcine model represents a foundation for translational studies of IESC-driven regeneration of the intestinal epithelium in physiology and disease.

  6. Experimental microencapsulation of porcine and rat pancreatic islet cells with air-driven droplet generator and alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, S K; Kim, S C; Wee, Y M; Kim, Y H; Jung, E J; Choi, M Y; Park, Y H; Park, K T; Lim, D G; Han, D J

    2008-10-01

    Transplantation of microencapsulated islets is proposed as an ideal therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus without immunosuppression. This strategy is based on the principle that foreign cells are protected from the host immune system by an artificial membrane. The aim of this study was to establish an ideal condition of microencapsulation using an air-driven droplet generator and alginate in vitro. The optimal conditions for islet encapsulation were an alginate inflow rate of 10 mL/h, CO2 flow rate of 2.0 L/min in a concentration of 2% alginate. For 2.5% alginate, the alginate inflow rate of 20 mL/h, CO2 flow rate 3.0 L/min was ideal; alginate inflow rate of 40 mL/h, CO2 flow rate of 4.0 L/min showed good microcapsules at 3% alginate. Viability of encapsulated islets was greater than 90%. In terms of insulin secretion, encapsulated islets secreted insulin in response to glucose in static culture medium. However, there was no normal response to low or high glucose challenge with a stimulation index less than 2.0. Microencapsulation of pig islets was successfully performed with air-driven droplet generator and alginate in vitro. Further studies about biocompatibility and glucose control in vivo may provide a useful tool for treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus.

  7. Study on decellularized porcine aortic valve/poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) hybrid heart valve in sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song; Liu, Ying-Long; Cui, Bin; Qu, Xiang-Hua; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2007-09-01

    To overcome shortcomings of current heart valve prostheses, novel hybrid valves were fabricated from decellularized porcine aortic valves coated with poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate [PHBHHx]). In the mechanical test in vitro, the biomechanical performance of hybrid valve was investigated. In an in vivo study, hybrid valve conduits were implanted in pulmonary position in sheep without cardiopulmonary bypass. Uncoated grafts were used as control. The valves were explanted and examined histologically and biochemically 16 weeks after surgery. The hybrid valve conduits maintained original shapes, were covered by a confluent layer of cells, and had less calcification than uncoated control. The mechanical test in vitro revealed that PHBHHx coating improved tensile strength. The results in vivo indicated that PHBHHx coating reduced calcification and promoted the repopulation of hybrid valve with the recipient's cells resembling native valve tissue. The hybrid valve may provide superior valve replacement with current techniques.

  8. Does treatment of split-thickness skin grafts with negative-pressure wound therapy improve tissue markers of wound healing in a porcine experimental model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Christopher; Ciraulo, David; Coulter, Michael; Desjardins, Steven; Liaw, Lucy; Peterson, Sarah

    2012-08-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been used for to treat wounds for more than 15 years and, more recently, has been used to secure split-thickness skin grafts. There are some data to support this use of NPWT, but the actual mechanism by which NPWT speeds healing or improves skin graft take is not entirely known. The purpose of this project was to assess whether NPWT improved angiogenesis, wound healing, or graft survival when compared with traditional bolster dressings securing split-thickness skin grafts in a porcine model. We performed two split-thickness skin grafts on each of eight 30 kg Yorkshire pigs. We took graft biopsies on postoperative days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 and submitted the samples for immunohistochemical staining, as well as standard hematoxylin and eosin staining. We measured the degree of vascular ingrowth via immunohistochemical staining for von Willenbrand's factor to better identify blood vessel epithelium. We determined the mean cross-sectional area of blood vessels present for each representative specimen, and then compared the bolster and NPWT samples. We also assessed each graft for incorporation and survival at postoperative day 10. Our analysis of the data revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the degree of vascular ingrowth as measured by mean cross-sectional capillary area (p = 0.23). We did not note any difference in graft survival or apparent incorporation on a macroscopic level, although standard hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that microscopically, there seemed to be better subjective graft incorporation in the NPWT samples and a nonsignificant trend toward improved graft survival in the NPWT group. We were unable to demonstrate a significant difference in vessel ingrowth when comparing NPWT and traditional bolster methods for split-thickness skin graft fixation. More studies are needed to elucidate the manner by which NPWT exerts its effects and the true clinical magnitude of these

  9. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  10. Myocardial Scar Imaging by Standard Single-Energy and Dual-Energy Late Enhancement Computed Tomography: Comparison to Pathology and Electroanatomical Map in an Experimental Chronic Infarct Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quynh A.; Thai, Wai-ee; Wai, Bryan; Cordaro, Kevin; Cheng, Teresa; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Xiong, Guanglei; Cheung, Jim W.; Altman, Robert; Min, James K.; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Barrett, Conor D.; Danik, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background Myocardial scar is a substrate for ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. Late enhancement computed tomography (CT) imaging can detect scar, but it remains unclear whether newer late enhancement dual-energy (LE-DECT) acquisition has benefit over standard single-energy late enhancement (LE-CT). Objective We aim to compare late enhancement CT using newer LE-DECT acquisition and single-energy LE-CT acquisitions to pathology and electroanatomical map (EAM) in an experimental chronic myocardial infarction (MI) porcine study. Methods In 8 chronic MI pigs (59±5 kg), we performed dual-source CT, EAM, and pathology. For CT imaging, we performed 3 acquisitions at 10 minutes post-contrast: LE-CT 80 kV, LE-CT 100 kV, and LE-DECT with two post-processing software settings. Results Of the sequences, LE-CT 100 kV provided the best contrast-to-noise ratio (all p≤0.03) and correlation to pathology for scar (ρ=0.88). While LE-DECT overestimated scar (both p=0.02), LE-CT images did not (both p=0.08). On a segment basis (n=136), all CT sequences had high specificity (87–93%) and modest sensitivity (50–67%), with LE-CT 100 kV having the highest specificity of 93% for scar detection compared to pathology and agreement with EAM (κ 0.69). Conclusions Standard single-energy LE-CT, particularly 100kV, matched better to pathology and EAM than dual-energy LE-DECT for scar detection. Larger human trials as well as more technical-based studies that optimize varying different energies with newer hardware and software are warranted. PMID:25977115

  11. Experimental study of potential neutron moderator materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocko, M.; Daemen, L. L.; Hartl, M. A.; Huegle, Th.; Muhrer, G.

    2010-12-01

    We present an experimental investigation of thermal neutron energy spectra produced by lead and bismuth hydroxides (Pb(OH) 2, and Bi(OH) 3). The experimental energy spectra are compared with a thermal neutron energy spectrum produced by water measured in the same geometry. We developed an MCNPX geometry model designed to help with the interpretation of the experimental data. We demonstrate a very good reproduction of the experimental thermal neutron energy spectrum produced by the water moderator in our tightly coupled geometry. We study our experimental results for Pb(OH) 2 and Bi(OH) 3 using thermal neutron scattering kernels for hydrogen, bismuth, and lead.

  12. Experimental inoculation of swine at various stages of gestation with a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranker, Søren; Nielsen, Jens; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1998-01-01

    Following intranasal inoculation of three groups of pregnant swine (in total 11 dams) with a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on or about day 85, 70 and 45 of gestation, respectively, reproductive disturbances were observed in the first two groups...... inflammatory conditions, especially in the lung and heart. In conclusion, the present results support the hypothesis, that PRRSV infection of dams late in pregnancy has the greatest likelihood of transplacental infection of fetuses....

  13. Comparison of porcine thorax to gelatine blocks for wound ballistics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbott, A; Carr, D J; Champion, S; Malbon, C

    2016-09-01

    Tissue simulants are typically used in ballistic testing as substitutes for biological tissues. Many simulants have been used, with gelatine amongst the most common. While two concentrations of gelatine (10 and 20 %) have been used extensively, no agreed standard exists for the preparation of either. Comparison of ballistic damage produced in both concentrations is lacking. The damage produced in gelatine is also questioned, with regards to what it would mean for specific areas of living tissue. The aim of the work discussed in this paper was to consider how damage caused by selected pistol and rifle ammunition varied in different simulants. Damage to gelatine blocks 10 and 20 % in concentration were tested with 9 mm Luger (9 × 19 full metal jacket; FMJ) rounds, while damage produced by .223 Remington (5.56 × 45 Federal Premium® Tactical® Bonded®) rounds to porcine thorax sections (skin, underlying tissue, ribs, lungs, ribs, underlying tissue, skin; backed by a block of 10 % gelatine) were compared to 10 and 20 % gelatine blocks. Results from the .223 Remington rifle round, which is one that typically expands on impact, revealed depths of penetration in the thorax arrangement were significantly different to 20 % gelatine, but not 10 % gelatine. The level of damage produced in the simulated thoraxes was smaller in scale to that witnessed in both gelatine concentrations, though greater debris was produced in the thoraxes.

  14. The Effect of Deoxynivalenol on Selected Populations of Immunocompetent Cells in Porcine Blood—A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dąbrowski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins in Europe. Pigs are an animal species that is most susceptible to this mycotoxin. Deoxynivalenol causes significant losses in pig production by lowering feed intake, decreasing daily weight gains, disrupting immune responses, and increasing susceptibility to diseases. The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of feed contaminated with DON at concentrations insignificantly higher than recommended by the European Commission (900 µg/kg. The experimental feed contained 1008 μg DON/kg. The experiment was performed on eight weaners from the same litter. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (M, n = 4 fed contaminated feed and a control group (C, n = 4 administered feed free of mycotoxins. The experiment lasted for six weeks, and peripheral blood samples were collected from the animals for analyses of selected morphological parameters and changes in the percentages of CD4+8−, CD4−8+, and CD4+8+ lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APC with CD14+172+ (monocytes, CD172ahigh4−14− (conventional dendritic cells, cDC, and CD172adim4+14− (plasmacytoid dendritic cells, pDC phenotypes. The morphological parameters of porcine blood samples were determined by flow cytometry with non-fluorescent particle-size calibration standards, and no differences were observed between groups M and C. An immunophenotyping analysis of lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DC revealed an increase in the percentage of CD4+8−, CD172ahigh4−14−, and CD172adim4+14− cells, and a decrease in the number of CD4−8+ cells in group M. The results of this experiment suggest that prolonged exposure to low doses of DON can change the proportions of immunocompetent cells (a shift towards humoral immunity, without affecting their overall counts.

  15. Experimental models of porcine post-weaning colibacillosis and their relationship to post-weaning diarrhoea and digestive disorders as encountered in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, F; Bridoux, N; Bounaix, S; Cariolet, R; Duval-Iflah, Y; Hampson, D J; Jestin, A

    2000-03-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a reliable model system of porcine post-weaning colibacillosis, and in doing so to assess the primary relationship of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to post-weaning diarrhoea and digestive disorders as encountered in the field. Six sequential experiments were carried out using 168 SPF piglets weaned into an optimal controlled environment at 28 days of age. The piglets were allocated to 23 treatment groups, 17 of which were inoculated either orally or intragastrically with enterotoxigenic strains of E. coli (LT+, STI+, STII+) possessing adhesive factors including K88 (F4). The piglets were challenged either once (Day 4 post-weaning) or on several days post-weaning, with the challenge load for each inoculation varying from 10(8) to 10(12) CFU. Overall 14.5% of inoculated pigs developed severe illness and died: these had lesions in their digestive tracts typical of colibacillosis. Diarrhoea occurred on at least 1 day in 50% of inoculated pigs, but was transient (1.7 days on average), appeared very soon after challenge (sometimes within half a day), and was accompanied by signs of depression and low weight gain. Generally a prompt recovery then occurred. In the second 2 weeks post-inoculation daily weight gain reached the same level in most inoculated groups of pigs as in the uninoculated controls. Only a small number of pigs developed a chronic enteritis lasting several days, as is typically observed in field cases. Diarrhoea was more common in the piglets that were tested adhesive positive to the K88 fimbriae receptor, but the disorders were no more severe in these animals. The response of all pigs depended primarily on the inoculum used, and especially on the challenge load. Although enterotoxigenic E. coli are clearly important in the aetiology of post-weaning diarrhoea, other factors are also required for the production of the chronic post-weaning digestive disorders and ill-thrift that are commonly encountered in commercial

  16. Metabolomic analysis using porcine skin: a pilot study of analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Julie; Fiehn, Oliver; Armstrong, April W

    2014-06-15

    Metabolic byproducts serve as indicators of the chemical processes and can provide valuable information on pathogenesis by measuring the amplified output. Standardized techniques for metabolome extraction of skin samples serve as a critical foundation to this field but have not been developed. We sought to determine the optimal cell lysage techniques for skin sample preparation and to compare GC-TOF-MS and UHPLC-QTOF-MS for metabolomic analysis. Using porcine skin samples, we pulverized the skin via various combinations of mechanical techniques for cell lysage. After extraction, the samples were subjected to GC-TOF-MS and/or UHPLC-QTOF-MS. Signal intensities from GC-TOF-MS analysis showed that ultrasonication (2.7x107) was most effective for cell lysage when compared to mortar-and-pestle (2.6x107), ball mill followed by ultrasonication (1.6x107), mortar-and-pestle followed by ultrasonication (1.4x107), and homogenization (trial 1: 8.4x106; trial 2: 1.6x107). Due to the similar signal intensities, ultrasonication and mortar-and-pestle were applied to additional samples and subjected to GC-TOF-MS and UHPLC-QTOF-MS. Ultrasonication yielded greater signal intensities than mortar-and-pestle for 92% of detected metabolites following GC-TOF-MS and for 68% of detected metabolites following UHPLC-QTOF-MS. Overall, ultrasonication is the preferred method for efficient cell lysage of skin tissue for both metabolomic platforms. With standardized sample preparation, metabolomic analysis of skin can serve as a powerful tool in elucidating underlying biological processes in dermatological conditions.

  17. The effect of local application of natural hirudin on random pattern skin flap microcirculation in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guo-Qian; Sun, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Gang

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of hirudin in improving random pattern skin flap microcirculation in a porcine model. Five Chinese minipigs were used and six dorsal random pattern skin flaps were elevated in each animal (4 × 14 cm). All flaps (n = 30) were assigned to experimental (n = 10), control (n = 10), and sham (n = 10) groups. Flap edema measurement showed that edema in experimental flaps was more severe (P skin flap microcirculation in over dimensioned random pattern skin flaps in a porcine model.

  18. Experimental studies of neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in physics has been awarded to Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass". Takaaki Kajita of Tokyo University is a Japanese physicist, known for neutrino experiments at the Kamiokande and its successor, Super-Kamiokande. This volume of collected works of Kajita on neutrino oscillations provides a good glimpse into as well as a record of the rise and the role of Asian research in the frontiers of neutrino physics. Japan is now a major force in the study of the 3 families of neutrinos. Much remains to be done to clarify the Dirac vs. Majorana nature of the neutrino, and the cosmological implications of the neutrino. The collected works of Kajita and his Super-Kamiokande group will leave an indelible foot-print in the history of big and better science.

  19. CREATIVE DISCLOSURE: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuzdriorean Dan Dacian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study extends the study conducted by Vladu, Grosanu and Cuzdriorean (2012 and reached similar conclusions. This particular research was conducted with the scope of assessing the impact of: positive bias, persuasive language, creative visual manipulation and performance comparisons over the unsophisticated users of accounting opinion. We have chosen this particular category since retail investors have been identified as relying on the information provided in corporate annual reports for decision making (Wills, 2008. Based on their relative inexperience and limited knowledge of these investors it is plausible that they can be mislead easily comparing to more sophisticated users of accounting information, as financial analysts. The main argument for conducting such a research is the fact that little research was conducted so far and the effects of creative disclosure on investment decision cannot be assessed so far. Based on this, we conducted a laboratory experiment where participants where provided with an informational set of financial data and required to make an investment decision. Our results document that the users perceptions is strongly affected by creative disclosure, contradictory with previous results documented in the literature, that their opinion cannot be influenced since they relay mostly on numerical information and less on the narrative segments of the financial statements. Even if our sample compressed few participants, we consider the results conclusive. A further research can extend the sample and test if our research hypothesis can be validated. Another possible spring of research can deal with the assessing of the opinion of the users of accounting information that are not considered unsophisticated, as financial analysts.

  20. Examination of virus shedding in semen from vaccinated and from previously infected boars after experimental challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas L.; Nielsen, Jens; Have, Per

    1997-01-01

    Danish artificial insemination (AI) centres house several boars antibody positive to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus as well as PRRSV-naive boars which may become acutely infected, The risk of transmission of PRRSV by semen may therefore constitute a serious problem...... vaccine compared to the non-vaccinated control animals. In contrast, no changes in onset, level and duration of viremia and shedding of virus in semen were observed using the inactivated vaccine, Neither viremia nor seminal shedding of virus was detected in previously PRRSV-infected, PRRSV...

  1. Storage stability study of porcine hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 isoenzymes by use of a newly developed and fully validated highly sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelstraete, Wim; Devreese, Mathias; Croubels, Siska

    2018-01-11

    Microsomes are an ideal medium to investigate cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme-mediated drug metabolism. However, before microsomes are prepared, tissues can be stored for a long time. Studies about the stability of these enzymes in porcine hepatic and intestinal tissues upon storage are lacking. To be able to investigate CYP450 stability in microsomes prepared from these tissues, a highly sensitive and rapid HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of six CYP450 metabolites in incubation medium was developed and validated. The metabolites, paracetamol (CYP1A), 7-hydroxy-coumarin (CYP2A), 1-hydroxy-midazolam (CYP3A), 4-hydroxy-tolbutamide (CYP2C), dextrorphan (CYP2D), and 6-hydroxy-chlorzoxazone (CYP2E) were extracted with ethyl acetate at pH 1.0, followed by evaporation and separation on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column. The method was fully validated in a GLP-compliant laboratory according to European guidelines and was highly sensitive (LOQ = 0.25-2.5 ng/mL), selective, had good precision (RSD-within, 1.0-9.1%; RSD-between, 1.0-18.4%) and accuracy (within-run, 83.3-102%; between-run, 78.5-102%), and showed no relative signal suppression and enhancement. Consequently, this method was applied to study the stability of porcine hepatic and intestinal CYP450 isoenzymes when tissues were stored at - 80 °C. The results indicate that porcine CYP450 isoenzymes are stable in tissues at least up to 4 months when snap frozen and stored at - 80 °C. Moreover, the results indicate differences in porcine CYP450 stability compared to rat, rabbit, and fish CYP450, as observed by other research groups, hence stressing the importance to investigate the CYP450 stability of a specific species.

  2. Cytochemistry of sialoglycoconjugates, lysozyme, and β-defensin in eccrine glands of porcine snout skin as studied by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Kousuke; Yasui, Tadashi; Gomi, Hiroshi; Sugiya, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Osamu; Meyer, Wilfried; Tsukise, Azuma

    2013-01-01

    In most mammals except for humanoid primates, eccrine glands are confined to the skin of a series of specific body regions. Sialic acids and antimicrobial substances exhibit various functional properties and serve as a component of nonspecific defense against micro-organisms, respectively. In this study, the distribution of these moieties was studied by electron microscopic histochemical methods. The eccrine glandular acini consisted of two types of dark cells as well as clear cells. The secretory granules and Golgi apparatus of both types of dark cells contained sialic acid residues linked to α2-6Gal/GalNAc. On the other hand, sialoglycoconjugates with Siα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc sequence were confined to those of the Type II dark cells. In addition, lysozyme and β-defensin were mainly detected in the secretory granules of the Type II dark cells. These secretory products may create a defensive barrier against microbial invasion and play an essential role in preservation of the integrity of porcine snout skin as a sensory organ. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Experimental Studies on the Hypolipidemic and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... Experimental Studies on the Hypolipidemic and. Haematological Properties of Aqueous ... lipid and haematological profile of serum and blood samples collected were determined respectively. Results: Treatment with simvastatin (10 ..... pathway for cholesterol homeostasis. Science. (Washington, DC) 1986 ...

  4. Quantitative Imaging Assessment of an Alternative Approach to Surgical Mitral Valve Leaflet Resection: An Acute Porcine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronyak, Steven M; Fredi, Joseph L; Young, Michael N; Dumont, Douglas M; Williams, Phillip E; Byram, Brett C; Merryman, W David

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the initial in vivo use of a combined radiofrequency ablation and cryo-anchoring (RFC) catheter as an alternative to surgical mitral valve (MV) leaflet resection. Radiofrequency ablation thermally shrinks enlarged collagenous tissues, providing an alternative to leaflet resection, and cryo-anchoring provides reversible attachment of a catheter to freely mobile MV leaflets. Excised porcine MVs (n = 9) were tested in a left heart flow simulator to establish treatment efficacy criteria. Resected leaflet area was quantified by tracking markers on the leaflet surface, and leaflet length reductions were directly measured on echocardiography. Leaflet area decreased by 38 ± 2.7%, and leaflet length decreased by 9.2 ± 1.8% following RFC catheter treatment. The RFC catheter was then tested acutely in healthy pigs (n = 5) under epicardial echocardiographic guidance, open-chest without cardiopulmonary bypass, using mid-ventricular free wall access. Leaflet length was quantified using echocardiography. Quantitative assessment of MV leaflet length revealed that leaflet resection was successful in 4 of 5 pigs, with a leaflet length reduction of 13.3 ± 4.6%. Histological, mechanical, and gross pathological findings also confirmed that RFC catheter treatment was efficacious. The RFC catheter significantly reduces MV leaflet size in an acute animal model, providing a possible percutaneous alternative to surgical leaflet resection.

  5. Pharmacological Relaxation of the Ureter When Using Ureteral Access Sheaths during Ureterorenoscopy: A Randomized Feasibility Study in a Porcine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Kissow Lildal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High intraluminal pressure during ureterorenoscopy (URS increases risk of infectious and haemorrhagic complications. Intrarenal pressure may be reduced by the use of ureteral access sheaths (UASs, which on the other hand may cause ureteral damage. We have previously shown that the β-agonist isoproterenol (ISO, when administered topically in the irrigation fluid, is able to inhibit ureteral muscle tone and lower intrarenal pressure during URS. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ISO on the success rate of UAS insertion in a porcine model. Materials and Methods. 22 pigs in which a UAS could not initially be placed were randomized to endoluminal irrigation with either ISO (0.1 μg/mL or saline before a new insertion trial. Subsequently, it was registered whether the UAS could be passed without resistance. During extraction of the sheath, any ureteral lesions were characterized ureteroscopically using the PULS classification system. Surgeons were blinded to randomization. Results. In the ISO group, the observed effect of irrigation was 63% successful UAS insertions, compared to 27% in the saline group. No serious lesions (

  6. Development of the isolated perfused porcine skin flap for in vitro studies of percutaneous absorption pharmacokinetics and cutaneous biotransformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carver, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    The isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF) has proven to be a valuable in vitro tool for studying the physiology and biochemistry of skin and for identifying biochemical and histological markers of direct cutaneous toxicity. The present experiments were undertaken for two purposes: (1) to develop a pharmacokinetic model, based on dermal penetration in the IPPSF, which is predictive of percutaneous absorption in vivo, and (2) to examine cutaneous biotransformation of the important agricultural poison parathion (P). Dosing solutions of {sup 14}C-radiolabelled compounds representing 3 chemical classes-organic acid/base (benzoic acid (B), caffeine (C)), organophosphate (OP) pesticides, and steroid hormones, were applied topically in ethanol at 40 {mu}m cm{sup {minus}2}, both in vivo and on the IPPSF. A 3-compartment pharmacokinetic model describing mass transfer from the surface (C{sub 1}), diffusion through epidermis and dermis (C{sub 2}), and transfer into the perfusate (C{sub 3}), was developed based on flux through the IPPSF from 0-8 hr. Model simulations were predictive of percutaneous absorption in vivo for the OP's and steroids. Modification of the basic 3-compartment model to account for fast and slow tissue-release processes (B) and for flux-dependent perfusage flow increases (C), provided excellent in vivo-in vitro correlation over all 7 compounds.

  7. In vitro study of biological activities of anthocyanin-rich berry extracts on porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kšonžeková, Petra; Mariychuk, Ruslan; Eliašová, Adriana; Mudroňová, Dagmar; Csank, Tomáš; Király, Ján; Marcinčáková, Dana; Pistl, Juraj; Tkáčiková, L'udmila

    2016-03-15

    Anthocyanins, compounds that represent the major group of flavonoids in berries, are one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate biological activities and comparison of anthocyanin-rich extracts prepared from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and blueberry (V. corymbosum) on the porcine intestinal epithelial IPEC-1 cell line. The IC50 values calculated in the antioxidant cell-based dichlorofluorescein assay (DCF assay) were 1.129 mg L(-1) for chokeberry, 1.081 mg L(-1) for elderberry, 2.561 mg L(-1) for bilberry and 2.965 mg L(-1) for blueberry, respectively. We found a significant negative correlation (P < 0.001) between cyanidin glycosides content and IC50 values. Moreover, extracts rich in cyanidin glycosides stimulated proliferation of IPEC-1 cells and did not have cytotoxic effect on cells at an equivalent in vivo concentration. We found that the chokeberry and elderberry extracts rich in cyanidin glycosides possess better antioxidant and anticytotoxic activities in comparison to blueberry or bilberry extracts with complex anthocyanin profiles. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. CT radiation dose and image quality optimization using a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarb, Francis; McEntee, Mark F; Rainford, Louise

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate potential radiation dose savings and resultant image quality effects with regard to optimization of commonly performed computed tomography (CT) studies derived from imaging a porcine (pig) model. Imaging protocols for 4 clinical CT suites were developed based on the lowest milliamperage and kilovoltage, the highest pitch that could be set from current imaging protocol parameters, or both. This occurred before significant changes in noise, contrast, and spatial resolution were measured objectively on images produced from a quality assurance CT phantom. The current and derived phantom protocols were then applied to scan a porcine model for head, abdomen, and chest CT studies. Further optimized protocols were developed based on the same methodology as in the phantom study. The optimization achieved with respect to radiation dose and image quality was evaluated following data collection of radiation dose recordings and image quality review. Relative visual grading analysis of image quality criteria adapted from the European guidelines on radiology quality criteria for CT were used for studies completed with both the phantom-based or porcine-derived imaging protocols. In 5 out of 16 experimental combinations, the current clinical protocol was maintained. In 2 instances, the phantom protocol reduced radiation dose by 19% to 38%. In the remaining 9 instances, the optimization based on the porcine model further reduced radiation dose by 17% to 38%. The porcine model closely reflects anatomical structures in humans, allowing the grading of anatomical criteria as part of image quality review without radiation risks to human subjects. This study demonstrates that using a porcine model to evaluate CT optimization resulted in more radiation dose reduction than when imaging protocols were tested solely on quality assurance phantoms.

  9. Cryopreservation of germinal vesicle stage porcine oocytes based on intracellular ice formation assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C Y; Chen, M C; Lee, P T; Lin, T T

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of slow freezing for cryopreservation of germinal vesicle (GV) stage porcine oocytes. In this study, intracellular ice formation (IIF) characteristics of GV porcine oocytes were investigated by using a thermoelectric cooling (TEC) cryomicroscope system. This cryomicroscope system used a thermoelectric cooling (TEC) chip in its cold stage as a heat sink and employed a PID control algorithm to achieve accurate temperature control. The temperature was controlled to a range between 70 degree C and -55 degree C with an accuracy of +/- 0.5 degree C. Five constant cooling rates of 24, 12, 6, 3 and 1.5 degree C/min were tested in experiments in freezing GV porcine oocytes from 20 degree C to -50 degree C in an NCSU-23 medium plus 2.0 M DMSO. The IIF temperature of each individual oocyte was recorded and cumulative IIF probabilities were calculated for each cooling rate. The total cumulative probabilities of IIF temperature distribution were 100 percent, 100 percent, 50.0 percent, 54.3 percent and 58.6 percent at cooling rates of 24, 12, 6, 3 and 1.5 degree C/min, respectively. A Weibull distribution model was found to adequately describe the distribution of IIF temperatures of GV porcine oocytes for the cooling rates tested (R2 = 0.858 +/- 0.09). The IIF experimental results indicate that cooling rates of 6, 3 and 1.5°C/min could be considered as possible cryopreservation protocols. Further experiments were performed to examine the feasibility of using these protocols to cryopreserve GV porcine oocytes. After 44 h of in-vitro maturation in NCSU-23, the survival of thawed oocytes was checked. Porcine oocytes developed from the GV stage to the MII stage by using Hoechst 33258 staining, followed by Lacmoid staining as a secondary check. Normalized survival rates of 37.7 +/- 4.6 percent, 45.0 4.4 percent and 45.4 +/- 5.9 percent were obtained for GV oocytes frozen at 1.5, 3 and 6 degree C/min, respectively. The experimental

  10. Monoclonal antibodies for human and porcine histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT) facilitate protein expression and localization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwelberger, Hubert G; Feurle, Johannes; Houen, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    The lack of suitable antibodies for the histamine inactivating enzyme histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT) has so far prevented the direct analysis of HMT proteins in man and other mammals. A series of monoclonal antibodies was produced by immunizing mice with human and porcine HMT expressed in vitro. Antibodies were characterized by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical staining. Six different monoclonal antibodies specific for human HMT and four different monoclonal antibodies specific for porcine HMT were obtained that can detect HMT with up to tenfold greater sensitivity than the most sensitive enzymatic assays currently available. Using these antibodies allowed us to confirm the expression and cellular localization of HMT in various human and porcine tissues, where the presence of the enzyme had previously been deduced from activity measurement and HMT mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of human and porcine tissue sections clearly showed that HMT is a cytosolic protein, which is localized in specific cells of most mammalian tissues. The new monoclonal antibodies not only allow a comprehensive quantitative evaluation of the expression of HMT at the cellular level in man and other mammals but will also facilitate sensitive analyses of disease-associated alterations of this protein.

  11. Purification of porcine aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen from lymph and use for lymphatic clearance studies in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Risteli, J; Nielsen, M D

    1992-01-01

    for measurements in pigs. SDS-PAGE and radioimmunoinhibition assays show human and porcine PIIINP to be similar, thus indicating that the assay of human PIIINP is also reliable for determinations on pig serum and lymph. Intact PIIINP, as identified by gel filtration, accounted for 60% and 40% of the total PIIINP...

  12. Changes in aortic pulse wave velocity of four thoracic aortic stent grafts in an ex vivo porcine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beaufort, Hector W L; Coda, Margherita; Conti, Michele; van Bakel, Theodorus M J; Nauta, Foeke J H; Lanzarone, Ettore; Moll, Frans L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070246882; van Herwaarden, Joost A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304814733; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Trimarchi, Santi

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been shown to lead to increased aortic stiffness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stent graft type and stent graft length on aortic stiffness in a controlled, experimental setting. METHODS: Twenty porcine thoracic

  13. Existence of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Swine are expected to be utilized as xenograft donors for both whole organ and cellular transplantation. A major concern in using porcine organs for transplantation is the potential of transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV. Tissue-engineered or decellularised heart valves have already been implanted in humans and have been marketed by certain companies after Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval. The aim of this study was to examine the existence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues. Methods: Porcine tissues (both fresh and decellularised were analysed using validated assays specific for PERV: polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: PERV specific GAG sequences were found in the porcine heart tissue samples using PCR for DNA and RT- PCR for RNA. All tissue samples (both fresh and treated tissues like aortic valve, pulmonary valve and heart muscle showed the presence of PERV DNA. RT PCR for PERV was positive in all fresh tissues and was found to be negative in decellularised treated tissues. Conclusions: PCR is a rapid, specific test for the detection of PERV virus in xenografts. These findings have demonstrated that the presence of proviral DNA form of PERV in porcine tissues needs to be carefully considered when the infectious disease potential of xenotransplantation is being assessed.

  14. Morphologic studies of the pathogenesis of naturally occurring porcine circovirus type 2 diseases in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif

    ) and experimental models of PCVDs are reviewed. In chapter 3, the results achieved by the research are presented as four manuscripts (I-IV): Manuscript I is focussed on the presence of PCV2 and viral replication, in the bone marrow and thymus of experimentally infected pigs and pigs naturally affected...... by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). By in situ hybridization (ISH) virus and viral replication was detected, mainly in histiocyte-like cells, in both organs of the PMWSaffected pigs. However, there was no evidence that bone marrow or thymus is especially important in regard of PCV2 replication....... In manuscript II the occurrence and tissue distribution of PCV2 is examined, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of lungs, kidneys, lymph nodes and spleen from slaughtered Danish finishing pigs with or without bronchopneumonia. Detection of PCV2 could not be related to lesions or PCVD. The virus was mainly detected...

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE PRODUCTION OF SOLAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-30

    Jun 30, 2010 ... could supply enough hydrogen to operate a fuel cell vehicle. In our study [23] an experimental study is done in the Center of Development of the Renewable Energy,. Algiers, Algeria; hydrogen is produced using a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolyser supplied by PV panel; when an electric ...

  16. Three-dimensional regional strain analysis in porcine myocardial infarction: a 3T magnetic resonance tagging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanifard, Sahar; Abd-Elmoniem, Khaled Z; Sasano, Tetsuo; Agarwal, Harsh K; Abraham, M Roselle; Abraham, Theodore P; Prince, Jerry L

    2012-12-13

    Previous studies of mechanical strain anomalies in myocardial infarction (MI) have been largely limited to analysis of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) strain parameters. Advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) methods now permit a complete three-dimensional (3D) interrogation of myocardial regional strain. The aim of this study was to investigate the incremental value of CMR-based 3D strain and to test the hypothesis that 3D strain is superior to 1D or 2D strain analysis in the assessment of viability using a porcine model of infarction. Infarction was induced surgically in 20 farm pigs. Cine, late gadolinium enhancement, and CMR tagging images were acquired at 11 days before (baseline), and 11 days (early) and 1 month (late) after induction of infarct. Harmonic phase analysis was performed to measure circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strains in myocardial segments, which were defined based on the transmurality of delayed enhancement. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression models of strain parameters were created and analyzed to compare the overall diagnostic accuracy of 3D strain analysis with 1D and 2D analyses in identifying the infarct and its adjacent regions from healthy myocardium. 3D strain differed significantly in infarct, adjacent, and remote segments (pinfarct and adjacent segments from baseline values. In identification of adjacent segments, receiver operating characteristic analysis using the 3D strain multivariate model demonstrated a significant improvement (pinfarct segments. Cumulative 3D strain information accurately identifies infarcts and their neighboring regions from healthy myocardium. The 3D interrogation of myocardial contractility provides incremental diagnostic accuracy in delineating the dysfunctional and nonviable myocardium in comparison with 1D or 2D quantification of strain. The infarct neighboring regions are the major beneficiaries of the 3D assessment of regional strain.

  17. Three-dimensional regional strain analysis in porcine myocardial infarction: a 3T magnetic resonance tagging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimanifard Sahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of mechanical strain anomalies in myocardial infarction (MI have been largely limited to analysis of one-dimensional (1D and two-dimensional (2D strain parameters. Advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR methods now permit a complete three-dimensional (3D interrogation of myocardial regional strain. The aim of this study was to investigate the incremental value of CMR-based 3D strain and to test the hypothesis that 3D strain is superior to 1D or 2D strain analysis in the assessment of viability using a porcine model of infarction. Methods Infarction was induced surgically in 20 farm pigs. Cine, late gadolinium enhancement, and CMR tagging images were acquired at 11 days before (baseline, and 11 days (early and 1 month (late after induction of infarct. Harmonic phase analysis was performed to measure circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strains in myocardial segments, which were defined based on the transmurality of delayed enhancement. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression models of strain parameters were created and analyzed to compare the overall diagnostic accuracy of 3D strain analysis with 1D and 2D analyses in identifying the infarct and its adjacent regions from healthy myocardium. Results 3D strain differed significantly in infarct, adjacent, and remote segments (p  Conclusions Cumulative 3D strain information accurately identifies infarcts and their neighboring regions from healthy myocardium. The 3D interrogation of myocardial contractility provides incremental diagnostic accuracy in delineating the dysfunctional and nonviable myocardium in comparison with 1D or 2D quantification of strain. The infarct neighboring regions are the major beneficiaries of the 3D assessment of regional strain.

  18. Dual energy CT for the assessment of reperfused chronic infarction - a feasibility study in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerl, J Matthias; Deseive, Simon; Tandi, Christa; Kaiser, Christina; Kettner, Mattias; Korkusuz, Huedayi; Lehmann, Ralf; Herzog, Christopher; Schoepf, U Joseph; Vogl, Thomas J; Bauer, Ralf W

    2011-10-01

    Detection of myocardial infarction has been the focus of considerable research over the past few decades. Recently developed dual source computed tomography (DSCT) scanners with dual energy mode have been used to detect myocardial infarction, but the studies on this topic are few. To evaluate the feasibility and performance of dual energy CT (DECT) during arterial phase in coronary CT angiography for the detection of chronic infarction compared with late enhancement MRI (LE-MRI) and histopathology in a porcine model of reperfused myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarctions were induced by 30 min occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery in eight minipigs. DECT, post-contrast LE-MRI and histopathology were performed 60 days after infarct induction. The CT scan was performed in dual energy mode using a dedicated protocol. Myocardial iodine distribution was superimposed as color maps on grey scale multiplanar reformats of the heart. Two radiologists in consensus interpreted all imaging studies for presence of gadolinium uptake at LE-MRI reduced iodine content at DECT and hypoenhanced areas in the initial 100 kV coronary CT angiography images that were acquired during the DECT-acquisition. Results were compared with histopathology. Based on evaluable segments, DECT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 0.72 and 0.88; LE-MRI showed a sensitivity and specificity of 0.78 and 0.92; and the 100 kV data-set of the DECT scan showed a sensitivity and specificity of 0.60 and 0.93, respectively, for the detection of histological proved ischemia. DECT during arterial phase coronary CT angiography, which is ordinarily used for coronary artery evaluation, is feasible for the detection of a chronic reperfused myocardial infarction.

  19. Experimental study of the coupling parameters influencing the terminal effects of thoracic blunt ballistic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavier, Julien; Langlet, André; Eches, Nicolas; Prat, Nicolas; Bailly, Patrice; Jacquet, Jean-François

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study is to better understand how blunt projectile ballistic parameters and material properties influence the events leading to injuries. The present work focuses on lateral thoracic impacts and follows an experimental approach. The projectiles are made with a soft foam nose assembled with a rigid rear plastic part. The dynamic properties of the foams were first determined using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) system. The impact forces on a rigid wall were then measured to provide reference load data. Lastly, shots were made on isolated thoraxes of porcine cadavers to investigate the response in the vicinity of the impact (wall displacements, rib accelerations and strains, rib fractures). Results show that the severity of the response appears to be mainly correlated with the impulse and with the pre-impact momentum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies specific to heat-treated porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Nhari, Raja Mohd Hafidz; Hamid, Muhajir; Rasli, Nurmunirah Mohamad; Omar, Abdul Rahman; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2016-05-01

    Porcine blood is potentially being utilized in food as a binder, gelling agent, emulsifier or colorant. However, for certain communities, the usage of animal blood in food is strictly prohibited owing to religious concerns and health reasons. This study reports the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against heat-treated soluble proteins (HSPs) of autoclaved porcine blood; characterization of MAbs against blood, non-blood and plasma from different animal species using qualitative indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and immunoblotting of antigenic components in HSPs of porcine blood. Fifteen MAbs are specific to heat-treated and raw porcine blood and not cross-reacted with other animal blood and non-blood proteins (meat and non-meat). Twelve MAbs are specific to porcine plasma, while three MAbs specific to porcine plasma are cross-reacted with chicken plasma. Immunoblotting revealed antigenic protein bands (∼60, ∼85-100 and ∼250 kDa) in porcine blood and plasma recognized by the MAbs. Selection of MAbs that recognized 60 kDa HSPs of porcine blood and plasma as novel monoclonal antibodies would be useful for detection of porcine plasma in processed food using the immunoassay method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Graft tendon slippage with metallic and bioabsorbable interference screws under cyclic load: a biomechanical study in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Digiácomo Ocampo Moré

    Full Text Available Introduction The rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is the most common type of knee injury. Reconstructive surgery is the ‘gold standard’ treatment. During the immediate post-operative period, the fixation of the graft is entirely dependent on the ability of the grafted implant to be secured inside the bone tunnel under the cyclical loads associated with daily tasks. Poor fixation can lead to graft slippage, thus impairing the healing and integration of the graft. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical performance of tendon graft fixation devices with metallic and bioabsorbable interference screws. Methods Twenty ACL reconstructions were carried out in porcine tibias using deep flexor tendons to fix 9 × 20 mm metallic (n=10 and PLLA 70/30 bioabsorbable screws (n=10. To verify the ability of a construct to resist immediate postoperative (PO rehabilitation protocols for immediate load bearing, a cyclic loading test was applied with 50-250 N of tensile force at 1 Hz for 1000 cycles, and the displacement was measured at 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 load cycles to quantify the slippage of the graft during the test. After the cyclic loading test, a single-cycle load-to-failure test was applied. Results The slippage of the graft using metallic screws did not differ (P = 0.616 from that observed when using bioabsorbable screws. Conclusion The results obtained in this experiment indicate that metallic screws may promote a similar amount of graft slippage during low cyclic loading as bioabsorbable screws. Additionally, there was no difference in the biomechanical performance of these two types of screws during high failure loads.

  2. Physiologic effect of repeated adrenaline (epinephrine) doses during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the cath lab setting: A randomised porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardig, Bjarne Madsen; Götberg, Michael; Rundgren, Malin; Götberg, Matthias; Zughaft, David; Kopotic, Robert; Wagner, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    This porcine study was designed to explore the effects of repetitive intravenous adrenaline doses on physiologic parameters during CPR. Thirty-six adult pigs were randomised to four injections of: adrenaline 0.02 mg(kgdose)(-1), adrenaline 0.03 mg(kgdose)(-1) or saline control. The effect on systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CePP), end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2), arterial oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry (SpO2), cerebral tissue oximetry (SctO2), were analysed immediately prior to each injection and at peak arterial systolic pressure and arterial blood gases were analysed at baseline and after 15 min. In the group given 0.02 mg(kgdose)(-1), there were increases in all arterial blood pressures at all 4 pressure peaks but CePP only increased significantly after peak 1. A decrease in ETCO2 following peak 1 and 2 was observed. SctO2 and SpO2 were lowered following injection 2 and beyond. In the group given a 0.03 mg(kgdose)(-1), all ABP's increased at the first 4 pressure peaks but CePP only following 3 pressure peaks. Lower ETCO2, SctO2 and SpO2 were seen at peak 1 and beyond. In the two adrenaline groups, pH and Base Excess were lower and lactate levels higher compared to baseline as well as compared to the control. Repetitive intravenous adrenaline doses increased ABP's and to some extent also CePP, but significantly decreased organ and brain perfusion. The institutional protocol number: Malmö/Lund Committee for Animal Experiment Ethics, approval reference number: M 192-10. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adapted preparation technique for screw-type implants: explorative in vitro pilot study in a porcine bone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Andreas; Gahleitner, André; Holm, Anders; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Homolka, Peter

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of adapted preparation on the insertion torque of self-tapping implants in cancellous bone. In adapted preparation, bone condensation - and thus, insertion torque - is controlled by changing the diameter of the drilling. After preparation of cancellous porcine vertebral bone with drills of 2.85, 3, 3.15 or 3.35 mm final diameters, Brånemark sytem Mk III implants (3.75 x 11.5 mm) were inserted in 141 sites. During implantation, the insertion torque was recorded. Prior to implant insertion, bone mineralization (bone mineral density (BMD)) was measured with dental quantative computed tomography. The BMD values measured at the implant position were correlated with insertion torque for varying bone condensation. Based on the average torque recorded during implant insertion into the pre-drilled canals with a diameter of 3 mm, torque increased by approximately 17% on reducing the diameter of the drill by 5% (to 2.85 mm). On increasing the diameter of the osteotomy to 3.15 mm (5%) or 3.35 mm (12%), torque values decreased by approximately 21% and 50%, respectively. The results demonstrate a correlation between primary stability (average insertion torque) and the diameter of the implant bed on using a screw-shaped implant. Thus, using an individualized bone mineralization-dependent drilling technique, optimized torque values could be achieved in all tested bone qualities with BMDs ranging from 330 to 500 mg/cm(3). The results indicate that using a bone-dependent drilling technique, higher torque values can also be achieved in poor bone using an individualized drilling resulting in higher bone condensation. As immediate function is dependent on primary stability (high insertion torque), this indicates that primary stability can be increased using a modified drilling technique in lesser mineralized bone.

  4. Cytokine and C-reactive protein profiles induced by porcine circovirus type 2 experimental infection in 3-week-old piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, L.S.; McCullough, K.; Vincent, I.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum profiles of cytokines at a protein level and C-reactive protein (CRP) during the development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in experimentally inoculated pigs. Levels of serum IFN-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, and CRP were examined...... not display overt clinical signs of PMWS and were considered as subclinically infected. A bioassay was used to detect IL-6 and ELISAs were used to detect IFN-a, IL-10, and CRIP. There were no significant differences in cytokine or CRP expression from 0 to 7 d.p.i. between the PMWS...

  5. Development and characterisation of a low-concentration sodium dodecyl sulphate decellularised porcine dermis

    OpenAIRE

    Helliwell, Jack A; Thomas, Daniel S; Papathanasiou, Vaia; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Desai, Amisha; Jennings, Louise M; Rooney, Paul; Kearney, John N; Ingham, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt a proprietary decellularisation process for human dermis for use with porcine skin. Porcine skin was subject to: sodium chloride (1?M) to detach the epidermis, trypsin paste to remove hair follicles, peracetic acid (0.1% v/v) disinfection, washed in hypotonic buffer and 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate in the presence of proteinase inhibitors followed by nuclease treatment. Cellular porcine skin, decellularised porcine and human dermis were compared using ...

  6. Laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy in pigs - experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Caldas, Paulo Fernando de Oliveira; Rocha, Luiz Carlos de Almeida; Oliveira, Marília Teresa de; Ataíde, Michelli Westphal de; Spagnolo, Julio David; Feranti, João Pedro Scussel; Souza, Fernando Wiecheteck de; Silva, Marco Augusto Machado; Brun, Maurício Veloso

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluated laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy as treatment of experimental ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction in pigs. Ten male Large White pigs weighting approximately 28.4 (±1.43) kg were used in the current study. The UPJ obstruction was created laparoscopically by double-clipping of the left ureter. After 14 days the animals underwent laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy f The animals were sacrificed for subsequent retrograde pyelography in order to assess the anastomotic...

  7. Experimental and computational study of thaumasite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtzová, Eva, E-mail: Eva.Scholtzova@savba.sk [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kucková, Lenka; Kožíšek, Jozef [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Pálková, Helena [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Tunega, Daniel [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute for Soil Science, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter-Jordanstrasse 82, A-1190 Wien (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    The structure of thaumasite has been studied experimentally by means of a single crystal X-ray diffraction and FTIR methods, and theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) method. Very good agreement was achieved between calculated and experimental structural parameters. In addition, calculations offered the refinement of the positions of the hydrogen atoms. The detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonds existing in the thaumasite structure has been performed. Several types of hydrogen bonds have been classified. The water molecules coordinating Ca{sup 2+} cation act as proton donors in moderate O-H···O hydrogen bonds formed with CO₃⁻²and SO₄⁻² anions. The multiple O-H···O hydrogen bonds exist among water molecules themselves. Finally, relatively weak hydrogen bonds form water molecules with the OH groups from the coordination sphere of the Si(OH)₆⁻² anion. Further, calculated vibrational spectrum allowed complete assignment of all vibrational modes which are not available from the experimental spectrum that has a complex structure with overlapped bands, especially below 1500 cm⁻¹. Highlights: • The thaumasite structure was studied experimentally and using DFT method. • We used DFT method for the refinement of the positions of hydrogen atoms. • A detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonds was done. • A complete assignment of all bands to particular types of vibrations was done.

  8. A domestic porcine model for studying the effects of radiation on head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christoph R; Kloss, Frank; Singh, Sarvpreet; Vasiljevic, Danijela; Stigler, Robert; Auberger, Thomas; Wenzel, Volker; Klima, Günter; Lukas, Peter; Lepperdinger, Günter; Gassner, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) of the head and neck region is often accompanied by serious side effects. Research in this area is needed to improve treatment outcomes and ameliorate therapy tolerance. Laboratory rodents are barely matching today's clinical standards in RT research. Yet domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica) have previously proved suitable for various advanced tests in clinical research and training. We therefore investigated whether S. scrofa domestica is also appropriate for irradiation of the mandible. A common scheme for irradiation treatment of S. scrofa domestica mandibles in a split-mouth design was acquired by applying computed tomography (CT) scanning under sedation. Basing on close anatomic resemblance, a standard treatment plan comprising 2 opposed irradiation fields could be accomplished. RT was carried out in a clinical environment with 2 × 9 Gy. The resulting operating procedure facilitated complication-free sedation, transport, positioning, CT scanning, and effective irradiation. Based on common standards applied for RT in humans, domestic pigs can be employed to progress RT clinical research. Due to their human-like anatomy, physiology, size, and weight, the swine model is expedient for advancing experimental RT of the head and neck area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD in Ontario (Canada swine herds: Part II. Matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Beth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD was associated with high mortality in swine populations worldwide. Studies performed in different regions identified spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal trends as factors contributing to patterns of the disease spread. Patterns consistent with spatial trend and spatio-temporal clustering were already identified in this dataset. On the basis of these results, we have further investigated the nature of local spread in this report. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for incidence cases of reported PCVAD. Results A time-matched case-control study was used as a study design approach, and conditional logistic regression as the analytical method. The main exposure of interest was local spread, which was defined as an unidentified mechanism of PCVAD spread between premises located within 3 kilometers of the Euclidean distance. Various modifications of variables indicative of local spread were also evaluated. The dataset contained 278 swine herds from Ontario originally sampled either from diagnostic laboratory submissions or directly from the target population. A PCVAD case was defined on the basis of the producer's recall. Existence of apparent local spread over the entire study period was confirmed (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.83, and was further identified to be time-varying in nature - herds experiencing outbreaks in the later part of the epidemic were more likely than control herds to be exposed to neighboring herds experiencing recent PCVAD outbreaks. More importantly, the pattern of local spread was driven by concurrent occurrence of PCVAD on premises under the same ownership (OREXACTwithin ownership = 25.6, 95% CI: 3.4, +inf; OREXACToutside ownership = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.45, 3.3. Other significant factors included PRRSv status of a herd (OREXACT = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.9, after adjusting for geographical location by including the binary

  10. Ultrastructural study by backscattered electron imaging and elemental microanalysis of bone-to-biomaterial interface and mineral degradation of porcine xenografts used in maxillary sinus floor elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Fernández, Maria Piedad; Calvo-Guirado, Jose Luis; Maté-Sánchez Del Val, Jose Eduardo; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael Arcesio; Negri, Bruno; Barona-Dorado, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out an ultrastructural study of the biomaterial-to-bone interface and biomaterial mineral degradation in retrieved bone biopsies following maxillary sinus augmentation using collagenized porcine xenografts (Osteobiol(®) Mp3) in 15 clinical cases. Nine months after sinus lifting, bone cores were harvested from the maxillary sinus. The specimens were processed for observation under a scanning electron microscope with backscattered electron imaging (SEM-BSE). In addition, chemical analysis and elemental mapping of the mineral composition were generated using a microanalytical system based on energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). No clinical complications were evident during surgery. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that newly formed bone had become closely attached to the xenograft. Statistical analysis showed a significantly high Ca/P ratio in the biomaterial (2.46 ± 0.16) and at the bone interface (2.00 ± 0.48) compared to bone (1.97 ± 0.36), which suggests that there may be a gradual diffusion of Ca ions from the biomaterial into the newly forming bone at the interface as part of the biomaterial's resorption process. EDX analysis of the residual porcine biomaterial at different points showed some particle categories with different mean ratios of Ca/P according to size, pointing to different stages of the resorption process. The biomaterial proved to be biocompatible, bioreabsorbable and osteoconductive when used as a bone substitute for maxillary sinus elevation. SEM-BSE revealed that newly formed bone had become closely attached to the xenografts. EDX analysis monitored the resorption process of the porcine bone xenograft. Elemental mapping showed that there was a gradual diffusion of Ca ions from the biomaterial to the newly forming bone at the interface. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. A porcine early-onset scoliosis model created using a posterior mini-invasive method: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Sun, Xu; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Ze-Zhang; Bin, Wang; Ding, Yi-Tao; Qian, Bang-Ping

    2014-12-01

    An animal study. To create a reliable porcine scoliosis model representative of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) without violation of the vertebral elements along the curve. To develop new nonfusion techniques for the treatment of EOS, a reliable large animal model with remarkable growth potential is required. However, a long tethering period which consumed the majority of the rapid growth phase or violation of the vertebral elements was thought to be essential in most of the previous models. Therefore, these models may be suboptimal for mimics of human EOS which was usually idiopathic type without vertebral anomalies. This study included 12 female Yorkshire pigs (aged, 5-6 wk; weight, 5-7 kg) in which scoliosis was created by posterior asymmetric tethering from T5 to L3. At the index surgery, 3 separate incisions were preformed, and ipsilateral rib tethering from the 10th to the 13th rib was performed while maintaining the vertebral elements along the maximal curve in a pristine state. Progressive deformity was documented with monthly radiographs. Frontal and sagittal profiles were assessed using the Cobb method. After an 8-week tethering period, the whole instrumentations were removed, and the pigs were observed for an additional 8-week period with serial radiographs to document the progression of the deformity. Of the 12 pigs enrolled in this study, 2 encountered substantial complications (1 developed a postoperative infection, and the other experienced prolonged postoperative weakness). Of the 10 available for analysis, all pigs developed rapidly progressive, structurally 3-dimensional, idiopathic-type curves with convex to the right in the lower thoracic spine. The mean coronal Cobb angle was 29 degrees immediately postoperatively and progressed to 65 degrees after the 8-week tethering period. Eight weeks after removal of the tether, the scoliosis continued to progress and averaged 68 degrees (range, 58-78 degrees). On the sagittal plane, a mean lordosis of 32

  12. A comparative study of an indirect fluorescent antibody test and an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay for the diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Roberto M C; Gebhart, Connie J; Winkelman, Nathan L; Mackie-Nuss, Rebecca A

    2002-09-01

    The currently used indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the detection of antibodies against porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) was compared to an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). Serum samples used in this comparison were collected from 5-week-old pigs on day 0 (pre-experimental challenge) and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after oral inoculation with intestinal homogenate from pigs affected by PPE (28 challenged pigs) and sucrose phosphate glutamate solution (2 control pigs). All animals were euthanized 4 weeks after inoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining was applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of ileum for the detection of Lawsonia intracellularis antigen. The serology results with each method agreed in all samples, except on days 0 and 7 in 1 control animal, which was positive by IPMA, but negative by IFAT. The percentage of agreement between IFAT and IPMA was 98.6%.

  13. Transrectal rigid-hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy can be performed without peritoneal contamination: a controlled porcine survival study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Philip C; Senft, Jonas D; Gath, Philip; Steinemann, Daniel C; Nickel, Felix; Billeter, Adrian T; Müller-Stich, Beat P; Linke, Georg R

    2018-01-01

    The risk of infectious complications due to peritoneal contamination is a major concern and inhibits the widespread use of transrectal NOTES. A standardized rectal washout with a reversible colon occlusion device in situ has previously shown potential in reducing peritoneal contamination. The aim of this study was to compare the peritoneal contamination rate and inflammatory reaction for transrectal cholecystectomy after ideal rectal preparation (trCCE) and standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy (lapCCE) in a porcine survival experiment. Twenty pigs were randomized to trCCE (n = 10) or lapCCE (n = 10). Before trCCE, rectal washout was performed with saline solution. A colon occlusion device was then inserted and a second washout with povidone-iodine was performed. The perioperative course and the inflammatory reaction (leukocytes, C-reactive protein) were compared. At necropsy, 14 days after surgery the abdominal cavity was screened for infectious complications and peritoneal swabs were obtained for comparison of peritoneal contamination. Peritoneal contamination was lower after trCCE than after lapCCE (0/10 vs. 6/10; p = 0.003). No infectious complications were found at necropsy in either group and postoperative complications did not differ (p = 1.0). Immediately after the procedure, leukocytes were higher after lapCCE (17.0 ± 2.7 vs. 14.6 ± 2.3; p = 0.047). Leukocytes and C-reactive protein showed no difference in the further postoperative course. Intraoperative complications and total operation time (trCCE 114 ± 32 vs. 111 ± 27 min; p = 0.921) did not differ, but wound closure took longer for trCCE (31.5 ± 19 vs. 13 ± 5 min; p = 0.002). After standardized rectal washout with a colon occlusion device in situ, trCCE was associated without peritoneal contamination and without access-related infectious complications. Based on the findings of this study, a randomized controlled clinical study comparing clinical outcomes of trCCE with

  14. Liquid chromatographic determination of ampicillin residues in porcine muscle tissue by a multipenicillin analytical method: European Collaborative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Eric; Couëdor, Pierrick; Maris, Pierre; Laurentie, Michel

    2002-01-01

    A collaborative study involving 14 laboratories was conducted to determine residues of ampicillin in porcine muscle tissue by using a liquid chromatographic method developed for multipenicillin analysis that can quantitate 8 penicillin compounds (benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, and dicloxacillin) at trace levels in muscle tissue. This method involves extraction of the penicillins with phosphate buffer, pH 9, followed by cleanup and concentration on a C18 solid-phase extraction column and reaction with benzoic anhydride at 50 degrees C and with 1,2,4-triazole and mercury(II) chloride solution, pH 9.0, at 65 degrees C. The derivatized compounds are eluted isocratically on a C8 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 6; 0.1 M) containing sodium thiosulfate and the ion-pair reagent tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate. The penicillins are detected by UV absorption at 325 nm. The limit of detection and the limit of determination (quantitation) of the method were calculated to be approximately 3-5 and 25 microg/kg, respectively, in accordance with the criteria of European Union (EU) Decision No. 93/256/EEC. In this first interlaboratory study, collaborators were instructed to monitor 4 different penicillin compounds (benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin) by analyzing 8 blind samples of muscle tissue in triplicate. These samples were prepared from 2 materials containing different concentrations of incurred ampicillin (63.5 microg/kg for material No. 1 and 358.1 microg/kg for material No. 2) and 1 blank material. The repeatability relative standard deviation and the reproducibility relative standard deviation were 10.2 and 17.4%, respectively, for material No. 1 and 7.0 and 16.0%, respectively, for material No. 2. These results demonstrate that the method is suitable for the determination of ampicillin residues in muscle tissue at the EU

  15. Experimental Study on Permeability of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honglu; Liu, Rentai; Zheng, Zhuo; Liu, Haojie; Gao, Yan; Liu, Yankai

    2018-01-01

    To study the influencing factors on permeability of pervious concrete, by adding inorganic organic composite materials obtained experimental results show that different aggregate size, aggregate cement ratio of different, different water cement ratio on the permeability performance. The permeability of the concrete was tested by using the self - made permeable device. The experimental results showed that the permeation coefficient of the experiment was obtained and the factors influencing the permeability of the concrete were compared and analyzed. At the same time, the porosity of pervious concrete was measured, the influence of various variables on porosity was studied, and the influence of various factors on the permeability of voids was found. Finally, through comprehensive analysis of a variety of factors, the optimal water cement ratio is 0.28. At this time, the pervious performance of concrete is optimal.

  16. Experimental studies on transitional separated boundary layers

    OpenAIRE

    Serna Serrano, José

    2013-01-01

    Separated transitional boundary layers appear on key aeronautical processes such as the flow around wings or turbomachinery blades. The aim of this thesis is the study of these flows in representative scenarios of technological applications, gaining knowledge about phenomenology and physical processes that occur there and, developing a simple model for scaling them. To achieve this goal, experimental measurements have been carried out in a low speed facility, ensuring the flow homogeneity and...

  17. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Two Paclitaxel-Coated Balloons with Different Drug Load in a Short-Term Porcine Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadal, J. M., E-mail: jmabadal@yahoo.es [Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Department (Spain); Vazquez, Esther, E-mail: esva9999@gmail.com [Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Vascular Surgery Department (Spain); Morales, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.moralesg@gmail.com; Toro, Arturo, E-mail: arturodeltoro80@hotmail.com [Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Department (Spain); Quintana, Manuel, E-mail: manueldelaquintana@gmail.com; Araujo, Miguel, E-mail: miguelaraujopazos@gmail.com [Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Vascular Surgery Department (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeThe aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and tissue absorption of 2 paclitaxel (PTX) drug-coated balloons (DCB) using different drug loads in a porcine-injured iliac artery model.Materials and MethodsTwenty-eight pigs were randomized into 2 groups. In group B1, angioplasty was performed with a 1.0 µg/mm{sup 2} DCB with PTX and in group B3, with a 3.0 µg/mm{sup 2} DCB with PTX. An overstretched model of the iliac artery was used for angioplasty under fluoroscopy. Blood and vessel wall PTX were measured with liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry at 1, 5, 30 min, 1, 7, and 28 days. Remaining drug in the balloon was analyzed.ResultsMean PTX in blood was significantly higher in the group B3 0.269 ± 0.085 µg/ml compared with the B1 0.218 ± 0.085 µg/ml; p = 0.01. Peak blood PTX concentration was detected at 1 min, and PTX was undetectable 24 h post-angioplasty. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean arterial wall concentration from the treated iliac artery between group-B1 (15.24 ± 21.29 ng/mg) and B3 (15.68 ± 16.33 ng/mg), or in the PTX wall concentration measured at different time points. Mean remaining drug in assayed balloons was lower for group-B1 and represented 8 % of the initial dose.ConclusionsBlood PTX was higher when using 3.0 µg/mm{sup 2} DCB, with a peak drug concentration at 1-min, although the drug was undetectable at 24 h, independently of the loading dose. This study demonstrates no difference in arterial wall uptake of a low dose DCB (1.0 µg/mm{sup 2}), when compared to a common dose DCB (3.0 µg/mm{sup 2}) suggesting that the dose of drug in the DCB could be reduced obtaining a similar clinical effect.

  18. Primary in vitro culture of porcine tracheal epithelial cells in an air-liquid interface as a model to study airway epithelium and Aspergillus fumigatus interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoufache, Khaled; Cabaret, Odile; Farrugia, Cécile; Rivollet, Danièle; Alliot, Annie; Allaire, Eric; Cordonnier, Catherine; Bretagne, Stéphane; Botterel, Françoise

    2010-12-01

    Since the airway epithelium is the first tissue encountered by airborne fungal spores, specific models are needed to study this interaction. We developed such a model using primary porcine tracheal epithelial cells (PTEC) as a possible alternative to the use of primary human cells. PTEC were obtained from pigs and were cultivated in an air-liquid interface. Fluorescent brightener was employed to quantify the internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. Potential differences (Vt) and transepithelial resistances (Rt) after challenge with the mycotoxin, verruculogen, were studied. Primers for porcine inflammatory mediator genes IL-8, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF were designed for a quantitative real-time PCR procedure to study cellular responses to challenges with A. fumigatus conidia. TEM showed the differentiation of ciliated cells and the PTEC ability to internalize conidia. The internalization rate was 21.9 ± 1.4% after 8 h of incubation. Verruculogen (10(-6) M) significantly increased Vt without having an effect on the Rt. Exposure of PTEC to live A. fumigatus conidia for 24 h induced a 10- to 40-fold increase in the mRNA levels of inflammatory mediator genes. PTEC behave similarly to human cells and are therefore a suitable alternative to human cells for studying interaction between airway epithelium and A. fumigatus.

  19. Comparative histology and immunohistochemistry of porcine versus human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Sabine; Le Luduec, Jean-Benoît; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Laurent, Philippe; Nicolas, Jean-François; Dubois, Bertrand; Kanitakis, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Porcine skin is increasingly being employed as a model of human skin in various research fields, including pharmacology, toxicology and immunology, with particular interest in percutaneous permeation and organ transplantation. Porcine skin shows several anatomical and physiological similarities, but also some differences, with human skin, but few in depth comparative studies are so far available. To study the immunohistochemical properties of normal porcine skin in comparison with human skin. We performed a histological and immunohistochemical study on frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin biopsies from domestic swine and normal human skin, using a panel of 93 monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies recognizing various human and porcine skin cell types or structures. We found that several antibodies used to detect normal human skin cells showed equivalent immunoreactivity on normal porcine skin. However, some antibodies commonly used to detect human skin antigens remained unreactive on porcine skin. Our findings highlight the main immunohistochemical properties of porcine skin in comparison with those of human skin and provide a morphological and immunohistochemical basis useful to researchers using porcine skin.

  20. Blood perfusion in osteomyelitis studied with [O-15] water PET in a juvenile porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jodal, Lars; Nielsen, Ole L.; Afzelius, Pia

    2017-01-01

    that perfusion will be less elevated in OM lesions than in soft tissue (ST) infection. The study comprised 11 juvenile pigs with haematogenous osteomyelitis induced by injection of Staphylococcus aureus into the right femoral artery 1 week before scanning (in one pig, 2 weeks). The pigs were dynamically PET...

  1. Molecular Cloning and Pharmacology of Porcine 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptors Relevant to the Study of Antimigraine Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L. Bhalla (Pankaj)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAt the beginning of last century, Brodie (1900) described in an extensive study that injection of blood serum causes vasoconstriction and a vagally-mediated reflex resulting in a reversible bradycardia, hypotension and arrest of the respiration, while injection of blood plasma was devoid

  2. An in vivo endoluminal ultrasonographic study of peristaltic activity in the distal porcine ureter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshani, H.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Dijkhuis, T.; Kurth, K. H.; Lamers, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Experiments were performed to quantify the duration and frequency of ureteric peristaltic activity in the laparotomized and non-laparotomized pig in its virgin and postinstrumented states. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pigs (n = 10) in a steady state of hydration were studied under halothane

  3. Fumarate to Malate Conversion in Infarcted Porcine Heart – a Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Tougaard, Rasmus Stilling; Nielsen, Per Mose

    2017-01-01

    Hyperpolarized MR may be a key tool for investigation cardiac metabolism and cardiac treatment response. [1,4- 13C2]Fumarate is an emerging and interesting candidate for measuring and visualizing cardiac injury after ischemia. In this study we showed an initial step for imaging cardiac cell death...

  4. Fully Bayesian Experimental Design for Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Utility functions in Bayesian experimental design are usually based on the posterior distribution. When the posterior is found by simulation, it must be sampled from for each future dataset drawn from the prior predictive distribution. Many thousands of posterior distributions are often required. A popular technique in the Bayesian experimental design literature, which rapidly obtains samples from the posterior, is importance sampling, using the prior as the importance distribution. However, importance sampling from the prior will tend to break down if there is a reasonable number of experimental observations. In this paper, we explore the use of Laplace approximations in the design setting to overcome this drawback. Furthermore, we consider using the Laplace approximation to form the importance distribution to obtain a more efficient importance distribution than the prior. The methodology is motivated by a pharmacokinetic study, which investigates the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in sheep. The design problem is to find 10 near optimal plasma sampling times that produce precise estimates of pharmacokinetic model parameters/measures of interest. We consider several different utility functions of interest in these studies, which involve the posterior distribution of parameter functions.

  5. Preliminary Studies on Attachment of the ‘Bacteroides fragilis group’ to Porcine Intestinal Brush Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Haugstad, May Britt; Næss, Vigfrid; Hofstad, T.

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion was studied by phase contrast microscopy, scanning (SEM), and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Twenty-three of 26 Bacteroides fragilis strains adhered to the isolated brush border membranes. The percentage of bacterial cells that adhered varied between strains from 10 to 38. Seven of 25 strains belonging to the other species within the ‘Bacteroides fragilis group’ contained cells that adhered. The attached bacteria showed no outer appendages or outer ruthenium red ...

  6. Stratum corneum damage and ex vivo porcine skin water absorption - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch Lynggaard, C; Bang Knudsen, D; Jemec, G B E

    2009-01-01

    A simple ex vivo screening technique would be of interest for mass screening of substances for potential barrier disruptive qualities. Ex vivo water absorption as a marker of skin barrier integrity was studied on pig ear skin. Skin water absorption was quantified by weighing and weight changes were...... found to reflect prehydration barrier damage. It is suggested that this simple model may be elaborated to provide a rapid, economical screening tool for potential skin irritants....

  7. Malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery in a porcine model. A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Arikan

    Full Text Available Interspecies variability and poor clinical translation from rodent studies indicate that large gyrencephalic animal stroke models are urgently needed. We present a proof-of-principle study describing an alternative animal model of malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA in the common pig and illustrate some of its potential applications. We report on metabolic patterns, ionic profile, brain partial pressure of oxygen (PtiO2, expression of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1, and the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4.A 5-hour ischemic infarct of the MCA territory was performed in 5 2.5-to-3-month-old female hybrid pigs (Large White x Landrace using a frontotemporal approach. The core and penumbra areas were intraoperatively monitored to determine the metabolic and ionic profiles. To determine the infarct volume, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to determine SUR1 and TRPM4 expression.PtiO2 monitoring showed an abrupt reduction in values close to 0 mmHg after MCA occlusion in the core area. Hourly cerebral microdialysis showed that the infarcted tissue was characterized by reduced concentrations of glucose (0.03 mM and pyruvate (0.003 mM and increases in lactate levels (8.87mM, lactate-pyruvate ratio (4202, glycerol levels (588 μM, and potassium concentration (27.9 mmol/L. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased expression of SUR1-TRPM4 channels.The aim of the present proof-of-principle study was to document the feasibility of a large animal model of malignant MCA infarction by performing transcranial occlusion of the MCA in the common pig, as an alternative to lisencephalic animals. This model may be useful for detailed studies of cerebral ischemia mechanisms and the development of neuroprotective strategies.

  8. Malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery in a porcine model. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Fuat; Martínez-Valverde, Tamara; Sánchez-Guerrero, Ángela; Campos, Mireia; Esteves, Marielle; Gandara, Dario; Torné, Ramon; Castro, Lidia; Dalmau, Antoni; Tibau, Joan; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Interspecies variability and poor clinical translation from rodent studies indicate that large gyrencephalic animal stroke models are urgently needed. We present a proof-of-principle study describing an alternative animal model of malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in the common pig and illustrate some of its potential applications. We report on metabolic patterns, ionic profile, brain partial pressure of oxygen (PtiO2), expression of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1), and the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4). A 5-hour ischemic infarct of the MCA territory was performed in 5 2.5-to-3-month-old female hybrid pigs (Large White x Landrace) using a frontotemporal approach. The core and penumbra areas were intraoperatively monitored to determine the metabolic and ionic profiles. To determine the infarct volume, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to determine SUR1 and TRPM4 expression. PtiO2 monitoring showed an abrupt reduction in values close to 0 mmHg after MCA occlusion in the core area. Hourly cerebral microdialysis showed that the infarcted tissue was characterized by reduced concentrations of glucose (0.03 mM) and pyruvate (0.003 mM) and increases in lactate levels (8.87mM), lactate-pyruvate ratio (4202), glycerol levels (588 μM), and potassium concentration (27.9 mmol/L). Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased expression of SUR1-TRPM4 channels. The aim of the present proof-of-principle study was to document the feasibility of a large animal model of malignant MCA infarction by performing transcranial occlusion of the MCA in the common pig, as an alternative to lisencephalic animals. This model may be useful for detailed studies of cerebral ischemia mechanisms and the development of neuroprotective strategies.

  9. Experimental study of natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LASME/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao e Metodos Numericos; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LTE/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an experimental study about fluid flows behavior in natural circulation, under conditions of single-phase flow. The experiment was performed through experimental thermal-hydraulic circuit built at IEN. This test equipment has performance similar to passive system of residual heat removal present in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR). This experimental study aims to observing and analyzing the natural circulation phenomenon, using this experimental circuit that was dimensioned and built based on concepts of similarity and scale. This philosophy allows the analysis of natural circulation behavior in single-phase flow conditions proportionally to the functioning real conditions of a nuclear reactor. The experiment was performed through procedures to initialization of hydraulic feeding of primary and secondary circuits and electrical energizing of resistors installed inside heater. Power controller has availability to adjust values of electrical power to feeding resistors, in order to portray several conditions of energy decay of nuclear reactor in a steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and monitoring of the evolution of the temperature in various points through thermocouples installed in strategic points along hydraulic circuit. The behavior of the natural circulation phenomenon was monitored by graphical interface on computer screen, showing the temperature evolutions of measuring points and results stored in digital spreadsheets. The results stored in digital spreadsheets allowed the getting of data to graphic construction and discussion about natural circulation phenomenon. Finally, the calculus of Reynolds number allowed the establishment for a correlation of friction in function of geometric scales of length, heights and cross section of tubing, considering a natural circulation flow throughout in the region of hot leg. (author)

  10. Expression study of GLUT4 translocation-related genes in a porcine pre-diabetic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thea; Fredholm, Merete; Cirera Salicio, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    a large pig population. Transcriptional levels of seven genes involved in the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation pathway were studied by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in diabetes relevant tissues (pancreas, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and kidney). Three of the genes, TBC (Tre-2......, BUB2, CDC16) 1 Domain Family Member 4 (TBC1D4), insulin receptor and GLUT4 showed altered expression in some of the tissues. The expression pattern observed is in agreement with what has previously been reported in pre-diabetic humans confirming the pre-diabetic status of our pigs. Moreover, a novel...

  11. Experimental study on partial coherence source

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Xue Qing; Yuan Xiao; LiuJingRu; Wang Long Hua; Tang Ying; Huang, Kerson

    2002-01-01

    Partial coherence source is a key part in the laser system using echelon-free introduced spatial incoherence beam smoothing technique. Different kinds of partial coherence sources have been studied experimentally for improving the uniformity of laser intensity distribution. It is found that the source produced by excimer laser scattering on the surface of a teflon plate is ideal. The properties of this kind of source are studied. As a result, the uniformity of source beam intensity distribution, the beam spatial coherence and energy transfer efficiency of the source are obtained

  12. A study of the effects of physical dermabrasion combined with chemical peeling in porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Boo Kyoung; Choi, Jeong Hwee; Jeong, Ki Heon; Park, Jong Min; Suh, Dong Hye; Lee, Sang Jun; Shin, Min Kyung

    2015-02-01

    Many comparative studies of chemical peeling and dermabrasion have been reported. However, rare basic scientific data about the immediate effects after combined treatment with chemical peeling and dermabrasion have been confirmed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the application of physical abrasion in combination with chemical peels. Three pigs were treated with physical abrasion using a water jet device in combination with an α-hydroxy acid solution, and the skin samples of the control received chemical peeling solution alone. The levels of growth factors and neuropeptides were measured with a multiplex immunoassay. Skin treated with physical dermabrasion combined with chemical peeling showed prominent detachment and swelling of the stratum corneum (SC), and fluid collection in the hair follicles. The mean cell count of CD34 positive fibroblasts and mast cells, levels of epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and neurotensin, were significantly increased in the tissue treated with physical abrasion combined with a chemical peeling agent, compared to the skin in the control. We concluded that physical dermabrasion combined with chemical peeling can be more effective than chemical peeling alone, for the approach through transfollicular routes.

  13. Reduced right ventricular diameter during cardiac arrest caused by tension pneumothorax - a porcine ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caap, P; Aagaard, R; Sloth, E; Løfgren, B; Granfeldt, A

    2017-08-01

    Advanced life support (ALS) guidelines recommend ultrasound to identify reversible causes of cardiac arrest. Right ventricular (RV) dilatation during cardiac arrest is commonly interpreted as a sign of pulmonary embolism. The RV is thus a focus of clinical ultrasound examination. Importantly, in animal studies ventricular fibrillation and hypoxia results in RV dilatation. Tension pneumothorax (tPTX) is another reversible cause of cardiac arrest, however, the impact on RV diameter remains unknown. To investigate RV diameter evaluated by ultrasound in cardiac arrest caused by tPTX or hypoxia. Pigs were randomized to cardiac arrest by either tPTX (n = 9) or hypoxia (n = 9) and subsequently resuscitated. Tension pneumothorax was induced by injection of air into the pleural cavity. Hypoxia was induced by reducing tidal volume. Ultrasound images of the RV were obtained throughout the study. Tension pneumothorax was decompressed after the seventh rhythm analysis. The primary endpoint was RV diameter after the third rhythm analysis. At cardiac arrest the RV diameter was 17 mm (95% CI: 13; 21) in the tPTX group and 36 mm (95% CI: 33; 40) in the hypoxia group (P cardiac arrest caused by tPTX when compared with hypoxia. The difference disappears after tPTX decompression. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Porcine models for the study of local and systemic regulation of innate immune factors in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard

    state of low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissues, which involves several factors of the innate immune response having a range of systemic effects and which has been implicated in the development of the metabolic syndrome. To investigate the impact of obesity and obesity-related diseases good......-individual phenotypic variation between the pigs. This changed expression of the innate immune response seen in cloned pigs may have phenotypic effects over time, and should therefore be taken into consideration when using cloned pigs for nutritional studies. In the Göttingen minipigs, obesity induced extensive changes...... humans. In obese humans, raised plasma levels of ORM have been found, as was the case for obese Ossabaw minipigs. The plasma levels between lean and obese domestic pigs and Göttingen minipigs were unchanged. Therefore, with regard to ORM, the obese Ossabaw minipigs respond similarly to obesity as humans...

  15. Mechanical Intestinal Obstruction in a Porcine Model: Effects of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension. A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Correa-Martín

    Full Text Available Mechanical intestinal obstruction is a disorder associated with intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. As the large intestine intraluminal and intra-abdominal pressures are increased, so the patient's risk for intestinal ischaemia. Previous studies have focused on hypoperfusion and bacterial translocation without considering the concomitant effect of intra-abdominal hypertension. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a mechanical intestinal obstruction model in pigs similar to the human pathophysiology.Fifteen pigs were divided into three groups: a control group (n = 5 and two groups of 5 pigs with intra-abdominal hypertension induced by mechanical intestinal obstruction. The intra-abdominal pressures of 20 mmHg were maintained for 2 and 5 hours respectively. Hemodynamic, respiratory and gastric intramucosal pH values, as well as blood tests were recorded every 30 min.Significant differences between the control and mechanical intestinal obstruction groups were noted. The mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, dynamic pulmonary compliance and abdominal perfusion pressure decreased. The systemic vascular resistance index, central venous pressure, pulse pressure variation, airway resistance and lactate increased within 2 hours from starting intra-abdominal hypertension (p<0.05. In addition, we observed increased values for the peak and plateau airway pressures, and low values of gastric intramucosal pH in the mechanical intestinal obstruction groups that were significant after 3 hours.The mechanical intestinal obstruction model appears to adequately simulate the pathophysiology of intestinal obstruction that occurs in humans. Monitoring abdominal perfusion pressure, dynamic pulmonary compliance, gastric intramucosal pH and lactate values may provide insight in predicting the effects on endorgan function in patients with mechanical intestinal obstruction.

  16. Dose-Escalation Study for Cardiac Radiosurgery in a Porcine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanck, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.blanck@uksh.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); CyberKnife Center Northern Germany, Guestrow (Germany); Bode, Frank [Medical Department II, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Gebhard, Maximilian [Institute of Pathology, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Hunold, Peter [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Brandt, Sebastian [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Bruder, Ralf [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Grossherr, Martin [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Vonthein, Reinhard [Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); University Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To perform a proof-of-principle dose-escalation study to radiosurgically induce scarring in cardiac muscle tissue to block veno-atrial electrical connections at the pulmonary vein antrum, similar to catheter ablation. Methods and Materials: Nine mini-pigs underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of heart function and electrophysiology assessment by catheter measurements in the right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV). Immediately after examination, radiosurgery with randomized single-fraction doses of 0 and 17.5-35 Gy in 2.5-Gy steps were delivered to the RSPV antrum (target volume 5-8 cm{sup 3}). MRI and electrophysiology were repeated 6 months after therapy, followed by histopathologic examination. Results: Transmural scarring of cardiac muscle tissue was noted with doses ≥32.5 Gy. However, complete circumferential scarring of the RSPV was not achieved. Logistic regressions showed that extent and intensity of fibrosis significantly increased with dose. The 50% effective dose for intense fibrosis was 31.3 Gy (odds ratio 2.47/Gy, P<.01). Heart function was not affected, as verified by MRI and electrocardiogram evaluation. Adjacent critical structures were not damaged, as verified by pathology, demonstrating the short-term safety of small-volume cardiac radiosurgery with doses up to 35 Gy. Conclusions: Radiosurgery with doses >32.5 Gy in the healthy pig heart can induce circumscribed scars at the RSPV antrum noninvasively, mimicking the effect of catheter ablation. In our study we established a significant dose-response relationship for cardiac radiosurgery. The long-term effects and toxicity of such high radiation doses need further investigation in the pursuit of cardiac radiosurgery for noninvasive treatment of atrial fibrillation.

  17. Ex vivo permeation of carprofen from nanoparticles: A comprehensive study through human, porcine and bovine skin as anti-inflammatory agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Alexander; Clares, Beatriz; Rosselló, Ana; Garduño-Ramírez, María L; Abrego, Guadalupe; García, María L; Calpena, Ana C

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this study was the development of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for the dermal delivery of carprofen (CP). The developed nanovehicle was then lyophilized using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) as cryoprotectant. The ex vivo permeation profiles were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells using three different types of skin membranes: human, porcine and bovine. Furthermore, biomechanical properties of skin (trans-epidermal water loss and skin hydration) were tested. Finally, the in vivo skin irritation and the anti-inflammatory efficacy were also assayed. Results demonstrated the achievement of NPs 187.32 nm sized with homogeneous distribution, negatively charged surface (-23.39 mV) and high CP entrapment efficiency (75.38%). Permeation studies showed similar diffusion values between human and porcine skins and higher for bovine. No signs of skin irritation were observed in rabbits. Topically applied NPs significantly decreased in vivo inflammation compared to the reference drug in a TPA-induced mouse ear edema model. Thus, it was concluded that NPs containing CP may be a useful tool for the dermal treatment of local inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection and Isolation of Swine Influenza A Virus in Spiked Oral Fluid and Samples from Individually Housed, Experimentally Infected Pigs: Potential Role of Porcine Oral Fluid in Active Influenza A Virus Surveillance in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorte, Inge; Steensels, Mieke; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Background The lack of seasonality of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) in combination with the capacity of swine to harbor a large number of co-circulating IAV lineages, resulting in the risk for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential, stress the importance of swIAV surveillance. To date, active surveillance of swIAV worldwide is barely done because of the short detection period in nasal swab samples. Therefore, more sensitive diagnostic methods to monitor circulating virus strains are requisite. Methods qRT-PCR and virus isolations were performed on oral fluid and nasal swabs collected from individually housed pigs that were infected sequentially with H1N1 and H3N2 swIAV strains. The same methods were also applied to oral fluid samples spiked with H1N1 to study the influence of conservation time and temperature on swIAV infectivity and detectability in porcine oral fluid. Results All swIAV infected animals were found qRT-PCR positive in both nasal swabs and oral fluid. However, swIAV could be detected for a longer period in oral fluid than in nasal swabs. Despite the high detectability of swIAV in oral fluid, virus isolation from oral fluid collected from infected pigs was rare. These results are supported by laboratory studies showing that the PCR detectability of swIAV remains unaltered during a 24 h incubation period in oral fluid, while swIAV infectivity drops dramatically immediately upon contact with oral fluid (3 log titer reduction) and gets lost after 24 h conservation in oral fluid at ambient temperature. Conclusions Our data indicate that porcine oral fluid has the potential to replace nasal swabs for molecular diagnostic purposes. The difficulty to isolate swIAV from oral fluid could pose a drawback for its use in active surveillance programs. PMID:26431039

  19. Progress, problems and prospects of porcine pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning WANG,Yangli PEI,Ning LI,Jianyong HAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced PSCs (iPSCs, can differentiate into cells of the three germ layers, suggesting that PSCs have great potential for basic developmental biology research and wide applications for clinical medicine. Genuine ESCs and iPSCs have been derived from mice and rats, but not from livestock such as the pig─an ideal animal model for studying human disease and regenerative medicine due to similarities with human physiologic processes. Efforts to derive porcine ESCs and iPSCs have not yielded high-quality PSCs that can produce chimeras with germline transmission. Thus, exploration of the unique porcine gene regulation network of preimplantation embryonic development may permit optimization of in vitro culture systems for raising porcine PSCs. Here we summarize the recent progress in porcine PSC generation as well as the problems encountered during this progress and we depict prospects for generating porcine naive PSCs.

  20. Splice variants of porcine PPHLN1 encoding periphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2017-01-01

    of the periphilin-1 protein. Thus, variants Sp1 and Sp1 are the result of alternative splicing. The porcine PPHLN1 gene was mapped to chromosome 5. The porcine PPHLN1 gene was found to be differentially expressed in various porcine organs and tissues. The sequence of the porcine PPHLN1 cDNA, encoding the periphilin......The periphilin-1 protein is encoded by the PPHLN1 gene. Periphilin-1 is found in the cornified cell envelope during the terminal differentiation of keratinocyte at the outer layer of epidermis. In the current study we report on the cloning and characterization of the porcine PPHLN1 cDNA and two...... splice variants hereof. RT-PCR cloning using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences resulted in three PPHLN1 transcripts: a full-length mRNA and two transcript variant resulting in shorter proteins. The longest encoded periphilin-1, consisting of 373 amino acids, displays a high...

  1. Purification of porcine aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen from lymph and use for lymphatic clearance studies in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Risteli, J; Nielsen, M D

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the lymphatic transport of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) we established a thoracic duct-venous shunt in 6 pigs. Porcine PIIINP was purified, characterised, and compared with human PIIINP to ensure the suitability of the radioimmunoassay of human PIIINP...... did not differ during the light and dark periods. Serum PIIINP remained unchanged over the 24 h. The lymphatic clearance of total PIIINP immunoreactive components was 6.2 ml serum/min and the lymphatic clearance of intact PIIINP was 9.1 ml serum/min, equal to 7 and 10 times the plasma volume/24 h...

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON EUPHORBIA PROSTATA W. AIT

    OpenAIRE

    Shrama, Gopal Dutt; Tripathi, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Water soluble fraction of total alcoholic in the treatment of bronchial asthma 1.2. The same fraction is studied here on frog heart and on blood pressure and respiration of dog, to screen its action on cardio vascular and respiratory systems experimentally. The paper deals with the above experiments with their observations and results. In nut shell the drug is found to have cardiac depresent action an isolated frog heart as well as on frog heart in situ. The drug also possesses potent...

  3. Organ models in wound ballistics: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Mustafa Tahir; Oğünç, Gökhan; Eryilmaz, Mehmet; Yiğit, Taner; Menteş, Mustafa Oner; Dakak, Mehmet; Uzar, Ali Ihsan; Oner, Köksal

    2007-01-01

    Effects of various types and diameters of guns and related treatment principles are different. Our study was performed to experimentally demonstrate the effects of different gunshots in body tissues. 9x19 mm hand-gun and 7.62x51 mm G-3 infantry rifle were used in the study. Injury models were created through hand-gun and rifle shootings at isolated soft tissue, lower extremity, liver and intestine tissue simulants made of ballistic candle. High-speed cameras were used to capture 1000 frames per second. Images were examined and wound mechanisms were evaluated. It was observed that the colon content distributed more within the surrounding tissues by the rifle shootings comparing with hand-gun shootings and could be an infection source due to the large size of the cavity in the colon. Especially when the bullets hitting the bone were investigated, it was seen that much more tissue injury occurs with high speed bullets due to bullet deformation and fragmentation. However, no significant difference was found between the effect of hand-gun and rifle bullets passing through the extremity without hitting the bone. To know the type of the gun that caused the injury and its characteristics will allow to estimate severity and size of the injury before the treatment and to focus on different alternatives of treatment. Therefore, use of appropriate models is required in experimental studies.

  4. Cytokine mRNA profiles in bronchoalveolar cells of piglets experimentally infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Association of sustained expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 after viral clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C. K.; Bøtner, Anette; Kamstrup, Søren

    2002-01-01

    An experimental model was used to investigate mRNA cytokine profiles in bronchoalvolar cells (BALC) from piglets, infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The BALC's were analyzed for the cytokines TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12(p40) by real......-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction in 2-, 4-, and 6-week-old piglets, respectively. High levels of IFN-gamma mRNA was detected in all piglets, while IL-10 was upregulated in 2-week-old piglets, was at normal levels in 4-week-old piglets, and elevated again in 6-week-old piglets. IL-12 was weakly...... elevated in all three age groups. Virus was reduced by 50% in 4-week-old piglets and cleared by 6 weeks of age. The sustained expression of IFNgamma and reduction of IL-10 production indicate an important role for these cytokines in immunity to PRRSV....

  5. Experimental study of rf pulsed heating

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, L; Nantista, C; Dolgashev, V; Higashi, Y; Aicheler, M; Tantawi, S; Wuensch, W

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic thermal stresses produced by rf pulsed heating can be the limiting factor on the attainable reliable gradients for room temperature linear accelerators. This is especially true for structures that have complicated features for wakefield damping. These limits could be pushed higher by using special types of copper, copper alloys, or other conducting metals in constructing partial or complete accelerator structures. Here we present an experimental study aimed at determining the potential of these materials for tolerating cyclic thermal fatigue due to rf magnetic fields. A special cavity that has no electric field on the surface was employed in these studies. The cavity shape concentrates the magnetic field on one flat surface where the test material is placed. The materials tested in this study have included oxygen free electronic grade copper, copper zirconium, copper chromium, hot isostatically pressed copper, single crystal copper, electroplated copper, Glidcop (R), copper silver, and silver plated co...

  6. Interference screw versus Endoscrew fixation for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A biomechanical comparative study in sawbones and porcine knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Chih Hung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interference screw fixation is one of the most common methods for ligament reconstruction. Although the advantages and clinical outcomes of this procedure have been widely reported, post-surgical complications often arise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new femoral fixation device, the Endoscrew, for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. We performed a mechanical test in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards and an in vitro biomechanical study. An axial pullout test was conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the new device and the interference screw when implanted in solid rigid polyurethane foam test blocks. The biomechanical test used porcine femora to evaluate the initial fixation strength between these two implants. The maximum pullout force of the interference screw group [722.05 ± 130.49 N (N] was significantly greater (p < 0.01 than the Endoscrew group (440.79 ± 26.54 N when implanted in polyurethane foam 320 kg/m3 density. With polyurethane foam 160 kg/m3 density, the maximum pullout forces were (242.61 ± 37.36 N (p < 0.001 and (99.33 ± 30.01 N for the interference screw group and Endoscrew group, respectively. In the in vitro mechanical study, the Endoscrew (646.39 ± 72.38 N required a significantly greater ultimate load prior to failure (p < 0.05 when compared with the interference screw (489.72 ± 138.64 N. With regard to pullout stiffness, there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.13 between the Endoscrew group (99.15 ± 12.16 N/mm and the interference screw group (87.96 ± 11.12 N/mm. The cyclic stiffness was also not significantly different (p < 0.44 between the Endoscrew group (93.09 ± 16.07 N/mm and the interference screw group (85.78 ± 14.76 N/mm. The axial pullout test showed that the strength of the Endoscrew was close to the fixation strength required for daily activities, but it is

  7. Porcine B-cells recognize epitopes that are conserved between the structural proteins of American- and European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Bøtner, Anette; Normann, Preben

    2002-01-01

    By selecting phage display libraries with immune sera from experimentally infected pigs, porcine B-cell epitopes in the open reading frame (ORF) 2, 3, 5 and 6 proteins of European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were identified. The sequences of all the epitopes...... were well conserved in European-type PRRSV and even between European- and American-type PRRSV. Accordingly, sera from pigs infected with American-type PRRSV cross-reacted with the European-type epitopes. Thus, this study showed, for the first time, the presence of highly conserved epitopes...... epitopes was subjected to closer scrutiny. A heptad motif, VSRRIYQ, which is present in a single copy in ORF2 and 3 proteins, was identified; this arrangement is completely conserved in all European-type PRRSV sequences available. The VSRRIYQ repeat motif colocalized closely with one of the ORF2 epitopes...

  8. Pilot Study of the Delivery of Microcollimated Pars Plana External Beam Radiation in Porcine Eyes: 270-Day Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rishi P.; Shusterman, E. Mark; Moshfeghi, Darius; Danis, Ronald; Gertner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the dose response and toxicity threshold of micro-collimated X-rays delivered to porcine maculae by a stereotactic radiosurgical system after 270 days. Methods. Twelve eyes of six Yucatan mini-swine were randomized to receive up to 90 Gy to the retina, using an office-based trans-pars plana delivery system. To determine the safety profile of this radiation delivery, ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were obtained at multiple time points up to 270 days post treatment. Results. No abnormalities were noted on external examination. Cataracts were noted in 4 of 12 eyes. Dose and time-dependent changes were noted on fundus examination, FA, ICG and SD-OCT. No significant abnormalities were seen in the control, 16 Gy or 24 Gy groups using any modality. Histopathology revealed a dose response effect with no discernable lesions in the 16 Gy group. Conclusion. The X-ray delivery system precisely targets the porcine retina in vivo with little effect on surrounding structures. No ophthalmic or intracranial adverse effects were noted at clinically relevant doses at 270 days following radiation delivery. PMID:22848793

  9. Pilot Study of the Delivery of Microcollimated Pars Plana External Beam Radiation in Porcine Eyes: 270-Day Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi P. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the dose response and toxicity threshold of micro-collimated X-rays delivered to porcine maculae by a stereotactic radiosurgical system after 270 days. Methods. Twelve eyes of six Yucatan mini-swine were randomized to receive up to 90 Gy to the retina, using an office-based trans-pars plana delivery system. To determine the safety profile of this radiation delivery, ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT were obtained at multiple time points up to 270 days post treatment. Results. No abnormalities were noted on external examination. Cataracts were noted in 4 of 12 eyes. Dose and time-dependent changes were noted on fundus examination, FA, ICG and SD-OCT. No significant abnormalities were seen in the control, 16 Gy or 24 Gy groups using any modality. Histopathology revealed a dose response effect with no discernable lesions in the 16 Gy group. Conclusion. The X-ray delivery system precisely targets the porcine retina in vivo with little effect on surrounding structures. No ophthalmic or intracranial adverse effects were noted at clinically relevant doses at 270 days following radiation delivery.

  10. Vesicoureteral reflux in young children: a study of radiometric thermometry as detection modality using an ex vivo porcine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Svein; Klemetsen, Øystein; Birkelund, Yngve

    2012-09-01

    Microwave radiometry is evaluated for renal thermometry tailored to detect the pediatric condition of vesicoureteral urine reflux (VUR) from the bladder through the ureter into the kidney. Prior to a potential reflux event, the urine is heated within the bladder by an external body contacting a hyperthermia applicator to generate a fluidic contrast temperature relative to normal body temperature. A single band, miniaturized radiometer (operating at 3.5 GHz) is connected to an electromagnetic-interference-shielded and suction-coupled elliptical antenna to receive thermal radiation from an ex vivo porcine phantom model. Brightness (radiometric) and fiberoptic temperature data are recorded for varying urine phantom reflux volumes (20-40 mL) and contrast temperatures ranging from 2 to 10 °C within the kidney phantom. The kidney phantom itself is located at 40 mm depth (skin-to-kidney center distance) and surrounded by the porcine phantom. Radiometric step responses to injection of urine simulant by a syringe are shown to be highly correlated with in situ kidney temperatures measured by fiberoptic probes. Statistically, the performance of the VUR detecting scheme is evaluated by error probabilities of making a wrong decision. Laboratory testing of the radiometric system supports the feasibility of passive non-invasive kidney thermometry for the detection of VUR classified within the two highest grades

  11. Cellular cholesterol is required for porcine nidovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Changhee

    2017-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are porcine nidoviruses that are considered emerging and re-emerging viral pathogens of pigs that pose a significant economic threat to the global pork industry. Although cholesterol is known to affect the replication of a broad range of viruses in vitro, its significance and role in porcine nidovirus infection remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine whether cellular or/and viral cholesterol levels play a role in porcine nidovirus infection. Our results showed that depletion of cellular cholesterol by treating cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) dose-dependently suppressed the replication of both nidoviruses. Conversely, cholesterol depletion from the viral envelope had no inhibitory effect on porcine nidovirus production. The addition of exogenous cholesterol to MβCD-treated cells moderately restored the infectivity of porcine nidoviruses, indicating that the presence of cholesterol in the target cell membrane is critical for viral replication. The antiviral activity of MβCD on porcine nidovirus infection was found to be predominantly exerted when used as a treatment pre-infection or prior to the viral entry process. Furthermore, pharmacological sequestration of cellular cholesterol efficiently blocked both virus attachment and internalization and, accordingly, markedly affected subsequent post-entry steps of the replication cycle, including viral RNA and protein biosynthesis and progeny virus production. Taken together, our data indicate that cell membrane cholesterol is required for porcine nidovirus entry into cells, and pharmacological drugs that hamper cholesterol-dependent virus entry may have antiviral potential against porcine nidoviruses.

  12. An Experimental Study of Soft Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianhong; Gacka, Thomas; Nathan, Rungun; Wu, Li-Zhu; Cbmss Team

    2012-11-01

    Lift generation in soft porous media, as a planing surface glides over it, is a new topic in porous media flow with superior potential for lubrication and squeeze damping. This paper presents the first experimental study of this phenomenon. The experimental setup consists of a running conveyer belt covered with a soft porous sheet, and a stationary instrumented inclined planar upper board. Twelve pressure transducers mounted on the upper board captured the pore pressure generation, while a load cell was used to capture the total lifting force, arising from both the pore pressure and the compression of the solid fibers. One finds that the pore pressure distribution is consistent with theoretical predictions (Feng and Weinbaum, JFM, 2000; Wu et al., MSSE, 2006, 2011), and depends on the running belt velocity, U, the mechanical properties of the porous material, and the compression ratios of the porous layer. For a typical trial (h2/h1=5,h2/h0=1, U=3.8 m/s, where h2, h1, and h0 are the leading edge, trailing edge, and undeformed porous layer thicknesses, respectively), 68% of the lifting force was generated by the pore pressure. It conclusively demonstrates the validity of using soft porous materials for super lubrication. applications. Villanova Cellular Biomechanics and Sports Science Laboratory.

  13. Experimental Study of Separate Type Thermosyphon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Masao; Kawahata, Kenya; Negishi, Kanji

    The passages of vapor flow and the returning liquid flow are perfectly partitioned in a separate type thermosyphon. Therefore the flooding limit can be eliminated and practicability based on its construction is highly evaluated. The carry-over of the liquid into the condensing section accompanied with the rising vapor flow should be avoided in the separate type thermosyphon, since it causes to decrease the heat transfer coefficient on the heat transfer surface in the condenser. In the present work, the effect of liquid level, the heat input into the evaporating section, the charging rate of the liquid, and the dimension of the adiabatic section supposed on the generation of carry-over were studied experimentally. The frequency of the bumping and the velocity of the vapor in the adiabatic section were examined as the function of the termination of the carry-over. The experimental correlation representing the relation among the elapsed time, the liquid temperature and the charging rate of the liquid were also derived.

  14. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. NCM ultrafiltrates revealed the highest antibacterial activity in respect to negative control: for the fraction with MW >30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MWantimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  15. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  16. Metabolic Desynchronization in Critical Conditions: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Livanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To conduct an experimental study of the impact of the time of administration of succinic acid preparations on central nervous system (CNS function and gas exchange while simulating metabolic therapy for severe poisoning by ethyl alcohol. The study was performed on 74 male albino rats weighing 140—180 g. Acute severe and very severe intoxication was simulated, by intraabdominally administering 30% ethanol to the rats. Cytoflavin was used to simulate experimental therapy. The rate of gas exchange was estimated by the oxygen uptake determined by the closed chamber method in a Regnault apparatus (Germany. Spontaneous bioelectrical activity was recorded in the frontooccipital lead by the routine procedure. External pain stimulation and rhythmical photostimulation were employed to evaluate cerebral responsiveness. Heterodirectional EEG changes in the «early» and «late» administration of succinate were not followed by the similar alterations of gas exchange: oxygen consumption in both the «early» and «late» administration of succinate remained significantly lower than in the control animals. With the late administration of succinate to the animals with mixed (toxic and hypoxic coma, the so-called discrepancy between the noticeably increased energy production and brutally diminished metabolism occurred. It may be just the pathological mechanism that was the basis for higher mortality in the late succinate administration group. The findings and their analysis make it possible to advance a hypothesis that succinate may cause metabolic desynchronization if activation of metabolic processes takes place under severe tissue respiratory tissue depression. In these cases, there is a severe damage to tissue and chiefly the brain. This manifests itself as EEG epileptiform activity splashes preceding the animals’ death. Therefore, resuscitation aimed at restoring the transport of oxygen and its involvement in tissue energy processes should

  17. Contribution to the experimental study of the hydraulic jump in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to study experimentally the hydraulic jump evolving in a symmetric trapezoidal channel with a positive slope, requires the use of an experimental protocol, and to find experimental relations linking the characteristics of the formed projection. The experimental study investigated the variation of the ...

  18. Manual versus mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohlfart Björn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal manual closed chest compressions are difficult to give. A mechanical compression/decompression device, named LUCAS, is programmed to give compression according to the latest international guidelines (2005 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. The aim of the present study was to compare manual CPR with LUCAS-CPR. Methods 30 kg pigs were anesthetized and intubated. After a base-line period and five minutes of ventricular fibrillation, manual CPR (n = 8 or LUCAS-CPR (n = 8 was started and run for 20 minutes. Professional paramedics gave manual chest compression's alternating in 2-minute periods. Ventilation, one breath for each 10 compressions, was given to all animals. Defibrillation and, if needed, adrenaline were given to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Results The mean coronary perfusion pressure was significantly (p Conclusions LUCAS-CPR gave significantly higher coronary perfusion pressure and significantly fewer rib fractures than manual CPR in this porcine model.

  19. The beneficial role of simultaneous splenectomy after extended hepatectomy: experimental study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Antonios; Papalois, Apostolos; Kontos, Michael; Griniatsos, John; Liakopoulos, Dimitrios; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Agrogiannis, George; Liakakos, Theodoros; Pikoulis, Emmanouil

    2017-02-01

    The role of hepatic hemodynamic modulation in the development of "small-for-size" syndrome (SFSS) after extended hepatectomy (EH) or living-donor liver transplantation is still controversial. We have designed an experimental study to investigate the effect of hemodynamic parameters of the liver circulation on the development of SFSS after EH in a porcine model. Eighteen pigs were randomly divided into two groups: group A has received EH (75%-80%) without splenectomy, and group B with EH and simultaneous splenectomy was carried out. Portal hemodynamics, liver function tests, histologic findings, injury and survival rates were compared between groups A and B. The 7-d survival rate in the splenectomy group was significantly improved compared with group A (88.9% versus 44.4%, P splenectomy group were significantly lower than in group A immediately after splenectomy and postoperatively until the day of sacrifice. Histologic findings in group A clearly illustrate severe inflammation, bridging necrosis, ischemic cholangitis, and severe congestion, while in group B there were less serious histologic changes. Our experimental study indicates that perioperative portal modulation can successfully prevent the manifestation of SFSS after EH. Therefore, by focusing on "flow" rather than on "size," researchers may understand better the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in a Danish swine herd and experimental infection of pregnant gilts with the virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1994-01-01

    , the virus particle was found to be spherical and enveloped, measuring 45–55 nm in diameter and containing a 30–35 nm nucleocapsid. Only minor antigenic differences were found between the Danish and a Dutch isolate. Following intranasal inoculation of 3 pregnant gilts with the Danish isolate transplacental...... infection was demonstrated by the re-isolation of PRRS virus from approximately 45% of the piglets from the experimentally infected gilts. However, the experimental infection produced no significant reproductive disorders or other clinical signs. At autopsy, histopathological examination revealed slight...

  1. [Endodontics in horses. An experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F; Sanromán, F; Llorens, M P

    1990-04-01

    A total of 44 experimental endodontic treatments were performed in incisors of eight horses of different ages. Four different endodontic pastes were used: Cloropercha, AH26 De Trey, Eugenol-Endometasone, and Universal N2. Gutta-percha points were also included in the last two treatments. Access to the pulp cavity of incisors was gained through their vestibular and occlusal faces. Holes drilled in vestibular faces were sealed with composite and those drilled in occlusal faces were sealed with Amalgama. Animals were observed during eighteen months at least after endodontics. Radiographic controls were done just after surgery and before slaughtering. Treated incisors and alveoli were studied histopathologically. During the experiment all animals were in good condition. They ate apparently without trouble, and neither clinical nor radiological signs were present.

  2. An experimental study of reactive turbulent mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L. P.; Marek, C. J.; Strehlow, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study of the turbulent mixing of two coaxial gas streams, which react very rapidly (pseudo-hypergolic chemical kinetics), was performed to investigate the mixing characteristics of turbulent flow fields. The center stream consisted of a CO-N2 mixture and the outer annular stream consisted of air vitiated by H2 combustion. The streams were at equal velocity (50 m/sec) and temperature (1280 K). Turbulence measurements were obtained using hot film anemometry. A sampling probe was used to obtain time averaged gas compositions. Six different turbulence generators were placed in the annular passage to alter the flow field mixing characteristics. The turbulence generators affected the bulk mixing of the streams and the extent of CO conversion to different degrees. The effects can be related to the average eddy size and the bulk mixing. Higher extents of conversion of CO to CO2 were found by increasing the bulk mixing and decreasing the average eddy size.

  3. Experimental and theoretical study of reflux condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, Knut

    1997-12-31

    This thesis studies the separation of gas mixtures in a reflux condenser. also called a dephlegmator. Reflux condensation is separation of a gas mixture, in reflux flow with condensing liquid, under continuous heat removal. A numerical model of a dephlegmator for binary mixtures was developed. The model may readily be extended to multi-component mixtures, as the solution method is based on a matrix solver. Separation of a binary mixture in a reflux condenser test rig is demonstrated. The test facility contains a single-tube test section that was designed and built as part of the project. Test mixtures of propane and n-butane were used, and a total of 15 experiments are reported. Limited degree of separation was achieved due to limited heat transfer area and narrow boiling point range of the test mixture. The numerical model reproduces the experimental data within reasonable accuracy. Deviation between calculated and measured properties is less than 6% of the measured temperature and less than 5% of the measured flow rate. The model is based on mechanistic models of physical processes and is not calibrated or tuned to fit the experimental data. The numerical model is applied to a number of separation processes. These case studies show that the required heat transfer area increases rapidly with increments in top product composition (light component). Flooding limits the amount of reflux liquid. The dephlegmator is suitable for separation of feed mixtures that are rich in light components. The gliding temperature in the dephlegmation process enables utilization of top product as refrigerant, with subsequent energy saving as a result. 61 refs., 50 figs., 34 tabs.

  4. Experimental studies of ongoing conscious experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, J L

    1993-01-01

    A research programme designed to find ways of applying a variety of methods in psychological science to studying the seemingly ephemeral phenomena of the human stream of consciousness and its manifestations in daydreams, interior monologues, imagery and related private experiences is described. Approaches include psychometric studies to establish normative information on daydreaming and experimental studies using signal-detection paradigms to capture the ongoing stream of thought. Recent experiments involve thought-sampling methods for identifying the determinants of the content of the stream of thought in adolescents or the ways in which self-beliefs and emotions are manifested in a group of cocaine and heroin abusers. Children's pretend play is studied as a possible forerunner of adult consciousness. It is proposed that the human condition involves a continuing tension between processing information generated from the physical and social milieu and the continuous operation of centrally generated material from long-term memory in the form of reminiscences, wishes, current concerns, expectancies and fantasies. This concept has implications for personality variation, affective arousal and adaptive behaviour.

  5. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

  6. Experimental Study of Alluvial Fan Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, P.; Devauchelle, O.; Barrier, L.; Métivier, F.

    2015-12-01

    At the outlet of mountain ranges, rivers flow onto flatter lowlands. The associated change of slope causes sediment deposition. As the river is free to move laterally, it builds conical sedimentary structures called alluvial fans. Their location at the interface between erosional and depositional areas makes them valuable sedimentary archives. To decipher these sedimentary records, we need to understand the dynamics of their growth. Most natural fans are built by braided streams. However, to avoid the complexity of braided rivers, we develop a small-scale experiment in which an alluvial fan is formed by a single channel. We use a mixture of water and glycerol to produce a laminar river. The fluid is mixed with corindon sand (~ 300 μm) in a tilted channel and left free to form a fan around its outlet. The sediment and water discharges are constant during an experimental run. We record the fan progradation and the channel morphology with top-view pictures. We also generate an elevation map with an optical method based on the deformation of a moiré pattern. We observe that, to leading order, the fan remains self-affine as it grows, with a constant slope. We compare two recent studies about the formation of one-dimensionnal fan [Guerit et al. 2014] and threshold rivers [Seizilles et al. 2013] to our experimental findings. In particular, we propose a theory witch relates the fan morphology to the control parameters ( fluid and sediment discharges, grain size). Our observation accord with the predictions, suggesting that the fan is built near the threshold of sediment motion. Finally, we intend to expand our interpretation to alluvial fans build by single-thread channels ( Okavango, Bostwana; Taquari and Paraguay, Brasil; Pastaza, Peru).

  7. Hot forming of composite prepreg : Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Xavier; Duthille, Bertrand; Bechtel, Stephane; le Pinru, Louis; Campagne, Benjamin; Destombes, Gautier; Deshors, Antoine; Marchand, Christophe; Azzouzi, Khalid El; Moro, Tanguy

    2017-10-01

    The hot forming of thermoset prepreg consists in bending an uncured composite part by applying a mechanical constrain on the hot laminate. Most of the time, the mold is inserted in a vacuum box and the mechanical constrain is applied on the composite laminate by a single membrane or a double-membrane. But the performance improvement products resulted in forming increasingly complex parts with advanced materials having a less formability. These new complex parts require a finer comprehension of the process and an optimization of the key parameters to get acceptable quality. In this work, an experimental study has been carried out to identify the process conditions that do not lead to unacceptable defaults: undulations of fibers. In the present study, downward-bending has been evaluated with an original light mechanical forming concept, for a given stacking sequence. The influence of the part's temperature and the part's bending speed are investigated. To carry this study out, a hot forming test bench has been designed and manufactured to have a precise supervision of the process conditions. It is able to bend parts of 1500 mm length x 600 mm width x 20 mm thick.

  8. Experimental study of rf pulsed heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Laurent

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic thermal stresses produced by rf pulsed heating can be the limiting factor on the attainable reliable gradients for room temperature linear accelerators. This is especially true for structures that have complicated features for wakefield damping. These limits could be pushed higher by using special types of copper, copper alloys, or other conducting metals in constructing partial or complete accelerator structures. Here we present an experimental study aimed at determining the potential of these materials for tolerating cyclic thermal fatigue due to rf magnetic fields. A special cavity that has no electric field on the surface was employed in these studies. The cavity shape concentrates the magnetic field on one flat surface where the test material is placed. The materials tested in this study have included oxygen free electronic grade copper, copper zirconium, copper chromium, hot isostatically pressed copper, single crystal copper, electroplated copper, Glidcop®, copper silver, and silver plated copper. The samples were exposed to different machining and heat treatment processes prior to rf processing. Each sample was tested to a peak pulsed heating temperature of approximately 110°C and remained at this temperature for approximately 10×10^{6} rf pulses. In general, the results showed the possibility of pushing the gradient limits due to pulsed heating fatigue by the use of copper zirconium and copper chromium alloys.

  9. Porcine Circovirus Diseases: A review of PMWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekbo, P.; Kristensen, C. S.; Larsen, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta‐analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy...

  10. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, M.G.; Heuven, H.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314417818

    2009-01-01

    Anim Genet. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print] Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility. Galina-Pantoja L, Siggens K, van Schriek MG, Heuven HC. PIC/Genus, 100 Bluegrass Commons Blvd, Hendersonville, TN 37075, USA. The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions

  11. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  12. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) of rotavirus infection as a new model for the study of innate immune responses to rotaviruses and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangning; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Bui, Tammy; Cao, Dianjun; Zhang, Yanming; Yuan, Lijuan

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies of epithelial immune responses to rotavirus infection have been conducted in transformed cell lines. In this study, we evaluated a non-transformed porcine jejunum epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) as an in-vitro model of rotavirus infection and probiotic treatment. Cell-culture-adapted porcine rotavirus (PRV) OSU strain, or human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain, along with Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were used to inoculate IPEC-J2 cells. LA or LGG treatment was applied pre- or post-rotavirus infection. We demonstrated that IPEC-J2 cells were productively infected by PRV. LA or LGG treatment of the cells did not reduce virus replication. PRV infection increased MUC3 mucin secretion. LGG treatment post-rotavirus infection reduced the mucin secretion response induced by PRV; LGG alone increased the production of membrane-associated MUC3 mucin. LA treatment prior to rotavirus infection significantly increased PRV replication and the IL-6 response to PRV infection, which is consistent with the adjuvant effect of LA. LGG treatment post-rotavirus infection downregulated the IL-6 response, confirming the anti-inflammatory effect of LGG. IPEC-J2 cells expressed toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR3, and TLR9 constitutively. TLR2 expression was upregulated by LGG and peptidoglycan, corresponding to the decreased IL-6 response, indicating that the protective effect of LGG is associated with upregulation of TLR2 expression on intestinal epithelial cells. The IPEC-J2 cell model of PRV infection is a completely homologous system. It is a valuable model for studying the interactions among rotavirus-host-probiotics, and the mechanisms behind the immunomodulating effect of probiotic bacteria on innate immune responses.

  13. Effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on motility and on the release of substance P, neurokinin A, somatostatin and gastrin in the isolated perfused porcine antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effect of porcine CGRP (pCGRP) in concentrations from 10(-10) to 10(-8) mol L(-1) on the motility and on the release of substance P, neurokinin A, somatostatin and gastrin in the antrum using the isolated perfused porcine antrum as experimental model. In addition, we studied...... release. The effect of pCGRP was unaffected by the addition of the nonpeptide antagonists for the NK-1 (CP-99994) and NK-2 receptors (SR48968), both at 10(-6) mol L(-1), whereas atropine (10(-6) mol L(-1)) completely abolished the motor effect of pCGRP. The release of somatostatin was significantly....... in addition, pCGRP increases the release of somatostatin but has no effect on gastrin release in the isolated perfused porcine antrum....

  14. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer of the porcine choline acetyltransferase: a model to study the synthesis and secretion of acetylcholine in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, X G; Horellou, P; Leroy, C; Mallet, J

    1993-05-01

    We have constructed a recombinant retrovirus that expresses choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by placing the porcine enzyme cDNA under the control of the 5' long terminal repeat of the retroviral vector pMMuLV. Using retrovirus-mediated gene transfer, we have expressed ChAT in astroglial (STR-SVLT) and neuroendocrine (RIN) cell lines. Both genetically modified cell types synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). ACh is also present in the culture medium at a low concentration relative to that found in the modified cells. This result suggests that the synthesized ACh is retained within the cells and released by these two cell types. Release of ACh is not increased in the presence of the calcium ionophore A23187 or by depolarizing concentrations of potassium in either STR-SVLT or in RIN cells. The implications of these studies for understanding ACh release mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Theoretical and experimental studies on the foundation theoretical and experimental studies on the foundation of mesomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, S.

    1992-06-01

    The report summarizes a closely coupled experimental and theoretical investigation of various stages of Fracture Process: (1) accumulation of 'damage' on submicroscopical and microscopical scales leading to crack initiation; (2) slow (subcritical) crack growth and an evolution of the damage zone; (3) transition to dynamic crack growth and the catastrophic failure. The experimental part of the program is focused on the observation and quantitative characterization of damage preceding and accompanying crack initiation and growth. A special experimental setup for studying the fracture process under variable stress field is reported in Chapter 2. A leading role of crack-damage interaction in fracture process is well documented. A new formalism for solution of crack-microcrack array interaction problem and its successful implementation in the evaluation of crack layer driving forces is presented in Chapter 3. A new model of the process zone, which generalizes the well-known Dagdale-Barenblatt model is presented in Chapter 4. A new measure for material toughness and the prediction of R-curve behavior illustrate the practical application of our model. Experimental examinations of our model under various test conditions are reported in Chapters 4, 5 and 6. The development of the constitutive equations for Crack Layer evolution and their experimental examinations under stress relaxation, fatigue and creep conditions are reported in Chapters 5 and 6. An accelerated test procedure and the formulation of crack layer instability criteria as a substitution for the conventional fracture toughness parameters are also discussed in Chapter 6.

  16. Experimental studies of herbicide drift characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.S.; Wolf, M.A.

    1976-05-20

    A knowledge of the drift characteristics of herbicides and pesticides released from ground and aerial rigs is important in forestry and agricultural applications so that methods for minimizing damage to downwind systems sensitive to these chamicals can be developed. A field experiment was undertaken on the Hanford Reservation in eastern Washington State during 1975 to study techniques for maximizing herbicide applications from a spray airplane on the intended area and minimizing drift. Several early morning experiments comparing drift characteristics of a fixed with a test application for various nozzle systems and herbicide concentrations were made. The results of these experiments have shown that the initial drift and drift deposit components varied by only a factor of two or so, depending on the production of smaller droplets, as various techniques were used to put the herbicides down from the aircraft. Meteorological conditions become increasingly important at greater downwind distances from the source. Furthermore, drift reduction was most effective under conditions of high relative humidities and cool temperatures. At large distances from the source, ground level drift was higher on stable than on unstable days. Comments on methods for improving the experimental design, and applications of studies such as these to forestry will be made.

  17. Experimental studies of fiber concrete creep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korneeva Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two-stage experimental studies of the strength and deformation characteristics of fibrous concrete reinforced with steel fiber. In the experiments we used steel fiber with bent ends, which practically does not form "hedgehogs", which allows to achieve an even distribution of the fiber by volume. At the first stage, the cube and prismatic strength, deformability at central compression, a number of special characteristics are determined: water absorption, frost resistance, abrasion; the optimal percentage of fiber reinforcement and the maximum size of the coarse aggregate fraction were selected. Fiber reinforcement led to an increase in the strength of concrete at compression by 1,35 times and an increase in the tensile strength at bending by 3,4 times. At the second stage, the creep of fibrous concrete and plain concrete of similar composition at different stress levels was researched. Creep curves are plotted. It is shown that the use of fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in creep strain by 21 to 30 percent, depending on the stress level.

  18. Experimental study of finite Larmor radius effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struve, K.W.

    1980-08-01

    Linear Z-pinches in Ar, Kr, Xe, N/sub 2/, and He are experimentally studied in regimes where strong finite Larmor radius effects could provide a significant stabilizing effect. Scaling arguments show that for deuterium such a pinch has an electron line density of order 2 x 10/sup 15//cm. For higher Z plasmas a higher line density is allowed, the exact value of which depends on the average ion charge. The pinch is formed by puffing gas axially through the cathode towards the anode of an evacuated pinch chamber. When the gas reaches the anode, the pinch bank is fired. The pinch current rises in 2 to 3 ..mu..sec to a maximum of 100 to 200 kA. The pinch bank capacitance is 900 ..mu..F, and the external inductance is 100 nH. Additionally, the bank is fused to increase dI/dt. The primary diagnostics are a framing camera, a spatially resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and X-ray absorption.

  19. The experimental studies of thermoacoustic cooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2004-04-01

    The experimental studies of thermoacoustic cooler consisting of acoustic loop-tube were carried out. The loop-tube was filled with the mixture of air and helium gas or air at atmospheric pressure. The dimensions of the loop-tube were 3.3 m of length, 44 mm of inner diameter and 4 mm of thickness. A pair of stacks (stack 1 and stack 2) which were sandwiched between two heat exchangers was placed symmetrically in the loop-tube. Stack 1 was employed as a prime mover and stack 2 as a heat pump. The self-sustained sound generated by the thermoacoustic effect and the cooling phenomena at the stack 2 were observed. The distribution of the sound pressures and the waveforms in the loop-tube were measured, and the frequency component of the self-sustained sound was investigated at the starting phase. The fundamental frequency component was confirmed and it was developing as the sound pressure increasing. The higher harmonics frequency components were generated and they were also developing.

  20. Experimental study of trimethyl aluminum decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Pan, Yang; Yang, Jiuzhong; Jiang, Zhiming; Fang, Haisheng

    2017-09-01

    Trimethyl aluminum (TMA) is an important precursor used for metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of most Al-containing structures, in particular of nitride structures. The reaction mechanism of TMA with ammonia is neither clear nor certain due to its complexity. Pyrolysis of trimethyl metal is the start of series of reactions, thus significantly affecting the growth. Experimental study of TMA pyrolysis, however, has not yet been conducted in detail. In this paper, a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer is adopted to measure the TMA decomposition from room temperature to 800 °C in a special pyrolysis furnace, activated by soft X-ray from the synchrotron radiation. The results show that generation of methyl, ethane and monomethyl aluminum (MMA) indicates the start of the pyrolysis process. In the low temperature range from 25 °C to 700 °C, the main product is dimethyl aluminum (DMA) from decomposition of TMA. For temperatures larger than 700 °C, the main products are MMA, DMA, methyl and ethane.

  1. Learning, forecasting and optimizing : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Te; Duffy, John; Hommes, Cars

    Rational Expectations (RE) models have two crucial dimensions: (i) agents on average correctly forecast future prices given all available information, and (ii) given expectations, agents solve optimization problems and these solutions in turn determine actual price realizations. Experimental tests

  2. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Studies on the effect of AgNP binding on α-amylase structure of porcine pancreas and Bacillus subtilis by multi-spectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest, Vinita; Sekar, Gajalakshmi; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N., E-mail: nchandrasekaran@vit.ac.in

    2014-02-15

    Functionalizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with biomolecules have a number of applications in catalysis, sensing, pharmaceutics and therapy. For the first time, herein we report the interaction of amylase-AgNPs through various spectroscopic techniques. AgNPs are synthesized and characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The binding of AgNPs to α-amylase are investigated by UV–vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. Absorption intensity and Stern–Volmer plots confirmed the formation of the ground state complex with AgNPs. The quenching of the intrinsic protein fluorescence in the presence of different concentrations of AgNP was observed. The apparent binding constant (K) and number of binding sites (n) was calculated from the Stern–Volmer plot was found to be 4.92×10{sup 3}, 3.8×10{sup 3} and 1.57, 1.3 for porcine pancreas and Bacillus subtilis α-amylase, respectively. Far-UV CD studies revealed the characteristic dichoric band at 222 nm for α-helical structure was shifted to 215 nm in porcine pancreatic α-amylase upon AgNP binding. Further, structural conformation change with peak shifts and the possible binding residues was confirmed through FTIR spectroscopy. -- Highlights: • AgNPs were synthesized using modified Creighton's method and characterized. • Structural changes analyzed by UV–vis, fluorescence spectroscopy. • CD and FTIR spectra reveal the secondary structure conformation change. • Potential application in food industry.

  4. Tribological evaluation of porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huaping; Ariyasinghe, Nethika; He, Xingliang; Liang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    This research studies the effects of external parameters on the friction of porcine skin. A tribometer was used to evaluate the frictional behavior of the same. The effects of DI water and body oil on porcine skin against steel and glass balls were evaluated in terms of coefficient of friction (COF). The COF dropped rapidly when DI water/body oil was introduced into the sliding system and remained stable when the volume of the liquid exceeded a certain value. The COF increased with increasing sliding speed under dry conditions and decreased in wet. Under an increasing normal force, the COF decreased regardless of the presence of liquid. The ratio of the real contact area to the nominal contact area of the skin with the steel/glass ball was found to increase with a power law as the applied force was increased. These results reveal basic tribological properties of the skin in contact with a hard slider. These properties could be used as reference for the design and development of artificial skin in prosthetic applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Porcine eperythrozoonosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiansan; Yu, Jianmin; Song, Cuiping; Sun, Shengjun; Wang, Zhiliang

    2006-10-01

    Eperythrozoonosis of swine (also designated as porcine mycoplasmosis) is a disease of swine under stress, expressed as a febrile condition with development of an acute ictero-anemia. It is caused by Eperythrozoon suis and usually causes a subclinical infection with a latent carrier state that persists for extended periods. In China, this disease has gradually developed as an important intercurrent disease and an emerging swine disease that, in recent years, has spread throughout all provinces except Tibet. Classical swine fever (hog cholera), porcine influenza, swine enzootic pneumonia, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (blue ear disease), streptococci, and toxoplasmosis were detected in Eperythrozoonosis-infected pig herds, and caused serious economic losses. National epidemiology surveillance in 2002 revealed that this disease caused a total morbidity of 30% and a mortality of 10-20%. Total mortality (which includes culling sick pigs) was more than 60%. The morbidity within infected herds was near 100%, has spread throughout with a total mortality rate usually over 50%. Mortality of piglets in some districts was as high as 50%. The highest infection rate on pig farms was more than 90%. The farms with higher infection rates occurred in pig-raising areas during epidemic seasons. New diagnostic tests, such as ELISA and PCR, have been developed for the detection of porcine eperythrozoonosis, but traditionally the diagnosis of the disease is still based on clinical history and optical microscopic examination of the causative agent in blood smears. Efficient preventive and control measures include the detection of carriers in pig herds and treatment of sick pigs with drugs, such as long-acting oxytetracycline, doxycycline, or aceturate of diminazene. Oxytetracyclines as feed additives have been introduced for eperythrozoonosis prevention in uninfected pig herds, and pig producers have taken measures to reduce stress and improve sanitary conditions.

  6. Experimental and computational studies of nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajjha, Ravikanth S.

    The goals of this dissertation were (i) to experimentally investigate the fluid dynamic and heat transfer performance of nanofluids in a circular tube, (ii) to study the influence of temperature and particle volumetric concentration of nanofluids on thermophysical properties, heat transfer and pumping power, (iii) to measure the rheological properties of various nanofluids and (iv) to investigate using a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technique the performance of nanofluids in the flat tube of a radiator. Nanofluids are a new class of fluids prepared by dispersing nanoparticles with average sizes of less than 100 nm in traditional heat transfer fluids such as water, oil, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. In cold regions of the world, the choice of base fluid for heat transfer applications is an ethylene glycol or propylene glycol mixed with water in different proportions. In the present research, a 60% ethylene glycol (EG) or propylene glycol (PG) and 40% water (W) by mass fluid mixture (60:40 EG/W or 60:40 PG/W) was used as a base fluid, which provides freeze protection to a very low level of temperature. Experiments were conducted to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure loss of nanofluids flowing in a circular tube in the fully developed turbulent regime. The experimental measurements were carried out for aluminum oxide (Al2O3), copper oxide (CuO) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles dispersed in 60:40 EG/W base fluid. Experiments revealed that the heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids showed an increase with the particle volumetric concentration. Pressure loss was also observed to increase with the nanoparticle volumetric concentration. New correlations for the Nusselt number and the friction factor were developed. The effects of temperature and particle volumetric concentration on different thermophysical properties (e.g. viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat and density) and subsequently on the Prandtl number

  7. Ovine and Caprine Toxoplasmosis: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Q. Lafi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen mature ewes of the Mytilene breed and 18 mature Local- Damascus crossbred goats, seronegative for Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii by ELISA were used. All animals were mated after synchronization of estrus. On day 90 of pregnancy, animals were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups; 6 ewes (S1 and 6 goats (G1 were orally inoculated by stomach tube with 1000 oocysts; 6 ewes (S2 and 6 goats (G2 were orally inoculated with a non-infected control inoculum. On day 140+2 of pregnancy, the remaining 6 ewes (S3 and 6 goats (G3 were inoculated by stomach tube with 3000 oocysts. Positive T. godii DNA was detected in 94% of fetal and maternal blood, 95% fetal tissue, 89% pre-colostral udder secretions and 12.5% milk samples using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Infected animals and their live newborns was seropositive (ELISA until the end of the study. PCR was able to detect T. gondii DNA in maternal blood of infected animals 3-5 days before abortion occurred. This time period may be used to implement preventive and therapeutic measure to reduce abortion rate and associated economic losses. Since milk and milk products are important food sources in rural areas and in many cases it is used unpasteurized before consumption. The T. gondii DNA, detected by PCR in milk samples of infected animals, increases the possibility that the parasite is transmitted through consumption of unpasteurized milk which is a highly relevant result for public health considerations and providing valuable information for future research.

  8. Comparative virulence of reproductive diseases caused by type 1 (European-like) and type 2 (North American-like) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in experimentally infected pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K; Seo, H W; Park, C; Kang, I; Youn, S-K; Lee, S Y; Kim, S-H; Chae, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the virulence of type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) as assessed by the level of viral replication, viral distribution and apoptosis in stillborn fetuses and live-born piglets from infected pregnant gilts. Type 1 or type 2 PRRSV was given intranasally to pregnant gilts at 3 weeks before the expected date of parturition. Regardless of virus genotype, PRRSV-infected gilts farrowed between 102 and 109 days of gestation, while control uninfected gilts carried the pregnancy to term and farrowed at 114-115 days of gestation. There were no significant differences in the mean number of virus-infected cells per unit area of tissue when type 1 and type 2 virus infections were compared between stillborn fetuses and live-born piglets. Stillborn fetuses from the type 1 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts had a significantly higher mean number of apoptotic cells per unit area of thymus (P = 0.013) than those from type 2 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts. Significant differences in virulence were not observed between types 1 and 2 PRRSV in terms of female reproductive failure, although thymic apoptosis differed in stillborn fetuses from type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-infected pregnant gilts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Computatonal and experimental study of laminar flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smooke, M.D.; Long, M.B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research has centered on an investigation of the effects of complex chemistry and detailed transport on the structure and extinction of hydrocarbon flames in counterflow, cylindrical and coflowing axisymmetric configurations. The authors have pursued both computational and experimental aspects of the research in parallel. The computational work has focused on the application of accurate and efficient numerical methods for the solution of the one and two-dimensional nonlinear boundary value problems describing the various reacting systems. Detailed experimental measurements were performed on axisymmetric coflow flames using two-dimensional imaging techniques. In particular, spontaneous Raman scattering and laser induced fluorescence were used to measure the temperature, major and minor species profiles.

  10. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  11. Porcine ubiquitin-like 5 (UBL5) gene: genomic organization, polymorphisms, mRNA cloning, splicing variants and association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masopust, Martin; Weisz, Filip; Bartenschlager, Heinz; Knoll, Aleš; Vykoukalová, Zuzana; Geldermann, Hermann; Cepica, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin-like 5 (UBL5), which is supposed to be involved in regulation of feed intake, energy metabolism, obesity and type 2 diabetes, is located at position 62.1 cM on the pig chromosome 2 region harbouring quantitative trait loci for carcass and meat quality. The 4,354 bp genomic sequence (FR798948) of the porcine gene encompassing the promoter and entire gene was cloned by polymerase chain reaction. Comparative sequencing revealed 13 polymorphisms in noncoding regions. Synthesis of full-length cDNA sequences using rapid amplification of 5' and 3' ends showed three splice variants. Variants 1 and 2 differ in transcription length for the untranslated part of exon 1 with deduced protein of 73 amino acid (aa) residues and 100 % identities between human, mouse and other species. Variant 3, with 4 bp deletion at the 3' end of exon 2, encodes a truncated protein with 28 aa residues. In a Wild boar×Meishan F2 population (n = 334) with 47 recorded traits, loci FR798948:g.2788G>A and FR798948:g.2141T>C were associated at nominal P A at adjusted P C showed suggestive association with growth (adjusted P = 0.0690). As association mapping conducted in the outbred MLW population is more precise than in the three generation F2 population the UBL5 gene tends to be associated with growth rather than with fat accretion.

  12. In vivo effect of proton-pump inhibitors on gastric plasmin-dependent fibrinolysis: a study in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Aurelie; Marteau, Philippe; Drouet, Ludovic; Lavergne Slove, Anne; Bal dit Sollier, Claire; Camus, Marine; Dray, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    Alkalization of gastric fluids could inhibit plasmin-mediated and/or pepsin-mediated fibrinolysis. We evaluated the gastric antifibrinolytic effect of proton pump inhibitors in a live porcine model. Six pigs were randomly assigned to treatment with proton pump inhibitors vs no treatment. After endoscopic mucosal resection, 8 μm sections were incubated on fibrin films. Fibrinolytic activity was assessed through focal lysis time. One-hundred-and-forty-two mucosal sections and 129 submucosal sections were analysed. Twenty-four additional sections were analysed on plates containing tranexamic acid to explore pepsin-mediated fibrinolysis. Focal lysis times in treated vs control groups were 21.0 min vs 21.2 min (p = 0.39) in the mucosa, and 22.2 min vs 20.2 min (p = 0.56) in the submucosa. No lysis could be seen on the plasmin-inhibited fibrin plates. Only plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis was observed. Proton pump inhibitors had no significant plasmin-dependant antifibrinolytic effect. They may enhance haemostasis through different pathways. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental Study of a Thermoelectric Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Junpeng; Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2011-01-01

    A flat wall-like thermoelectric generation system is developed for applications in exhaust heat of kilns. The design of the whole experimental setup is presented. The essential performance of the thermoelectric generation system is tested, including open-circuit voltage, output power, and system ...

  14. Economic principles in communication: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.; Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, G.U.

    2014-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigates how economic principles affect communication. In a simple sender–receiver game with common interests over payoffs, the sender can send a signal without a pre-given meaning in an infrequent or frequent state of the world. When the signal is costly, several

  15. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  16. An experimental study of passive regenerator geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Pryds, Nini

    2011-01-01

    experimental uncertainty associated with magnetocaloric material properties, all regenerators are made of aluminum. The performance of corrugated plates and dimpled plates are compared to traditional flat plate regenerators for a range of cycle times and utilizations. Each regenerator is built using 18...

  17. Porcine radial artery decellularization by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Jun; Funamoto, Seiichi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Nam, Kwangoo; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Many types of decellularized tissues have been studied and some have been commercially used in clinics. In this study, small-diameter vascular grafts were made using HHP to decellularize porcine radial arteries. One decellularization method, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), has been used to prepare the decellularized porcine tissues. Low-temperature treatment was effective in preserving collagen and collagen structures in decellularized porcine carotid arteries. The collagen and elastin structures and mechanical properties of HHP-decellularized radial arteries were similar to those of untreated radial arteries. Xenogeneic transplantation (into rats) was performed using HHP-decellularized radial arteries and an untreated porcine radial artery. Two weeks after transplantation into rat carotid arteries, the HHP-decellularized radial arteries were patent and without thrombosis. In addition, the luminal surface of each decellularized artery was covered by recipient endothelial cells and the arterial medium was fully infiltrated with recipient cells. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL NMR STUDY OF 4-(1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    experimental and theoretical data have showed that the molecular geometry and the ... 1D and 2D hetero- and homonuclear NMR methods enable to ... The essence of this study is briefly to report experimental and theoretical NMR features of.

  19. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  20. Experimental studies of Steel Corrugated Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this particular article is to assess existing calculations of steel corrugated constructions. Steel Corrugated Construction is a perspective type of constructions, which is exhibiting numerous advantages in comparison with one that currently applied in automobile and railroad networks (reinforced concrete water-throughput pipes, reinforced concrete frame bridges. The evaluation of experimental data on models of constructions of this particular type has been carried out in order to improve calculations of Steel Corrugated Constructions.

  1. UBM-guided chamber angle surgery for glaucoma management: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, T S; Engels, B F; Jacobi, P C; Krieglstein, G K

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the potential of ultrasound bimicroscopy (UBM)-guided chamber angle surgery as an alternative or supplement to gonioscopy and intraocular microendoscopy for intraoperative control. In 15 porcine cadaver eyes, mechanical goniopuncture or punctual Er:YAG laser trabecular ablation was performed without operating microscope or gonioscopy, but with real-life ultrasound biomicroscopy monitoring with a 50 MHz transducer. Intraoperative localization of the microsurgical instruments and tissue-instrument contact were qualitatively evaluated. The instruments could be clearly visualized within the chamber angle and disturbing artefacts were only minimal when using mechanically fixed instruments in slow motion. Topographic localization, tissue contact, and penetration depth of the instruments entering the scleral were well illustrated as far as the technical resolution limits of UBM would allow. UBM can be used intraoperatively to monitor the correct manoeuvring of microsurgical instruments in selected ab interno procedures. Some adaptations and further modifications of the technique presented here will be necessary before UBM-guided surgery can be considered for clinical use in humans.

  2. Regenerative potential of decellularized porcine nucleus pulposus hydrogel scaffolds: stem cell differentiation, matrix remodeling, and biocompatibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Jeremy J; Patnaik, Sourav; Dion, Grace; Gill, Sanjitpal S; Liao, Jun; Simionescu, Dan T

    2013-04-01

    Nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue regeneration has been proposed as an early stage interventional therapy to combat intervertebral disc degeneration. We have previously reported on the development and characterization of a novel biomimetic acellular porcine NP (APNP) hydrogel. Herein, we aimed to evaluate this material for use as a suitable scaffold for NP tissue regeneration. Human-adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were cultured for 14 days on APNP hydrogels in chemically defined differentiation media and were analyzed for an NP-cell-like mRNA expression profile, evidence of hydrogel remodeling including hydrogel contraction measurements, extracellular matrix production, and compressive dynamic mechanical properties. The innate capacity of the hydrogel itself to induce stem cell differentiation was also examined via culture in media lacking soluble differentiation factors. Additionally, the in vivo biocompatibility of non-crosslinked and ethyldimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide and pentagalloyl glucose crosslinked hydrogels was evaluated in a rat subdermal model. Results indicated that hADSCs expressed putative NP-cell-positive gene transcript markers when cultured on APNP hydrogels. Additionally, glycosaminoglycan and collagen content of hADSC-seeded hydrogels was significantly greater than nonseeded controls and cell-seeded hydrogels exhibited evidence of contraction and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 production. The dynamic mechanical properties of the hADSC-seeded hydrogels increased with time in culture in comparison to noncell-seeded controls and approached values reported for native NP tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis of explants illustrated the presence of mononuclear cells, including macrophages and fibroblasts, as well as blood vessel infiltration and collagen deposition within the implant interstices after 4 weeks of implantation. Taken together, these results suggest that APNP hydrogels, in concert with autologous ADSCs

  3. Treatment of severe porcine tracheomalacia with a 3-dimensionally printed, bioresorbable, external airway splint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopf, David A.; Flanagan, Colleen L.; Wheeler, Matthew; Hollister, Scott J.; Green, Glenn E.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The study demonstrates an application for 3-dimensional (3D) printing that may serve as an effective intervention for severe tracheobronchomalacia. Objective A novel 3D printed, bioresorbable airway splint is tested for efficacy in extending survival in an animal model of severe, life-threatening tracheobronchomalacia. Participants Evaluation of an external airway splint for severe, life-threatening tracheobronchomalacia in a porcine animal model. Setting Multi-institutional and multidisciplinary collaboration between biomedical engineering laboratories and an academic animal surgery center. Interventions Experimental analysis of a 3D printed, bioresorbable airway splint is assessed in a porcine animal model of life-threatening tracheobronchomalacia. The open-cylindrical, bellow shaped porous polycaprolactone splint is placed externally and designed to suspend the underlying collapsed airway. Control animals (n=3) undergoing tracheal cartilage division and inner tracheal lumen dissociation and experimental animals (n=3) receiving the same model with overlying placement of the newly developed airway splint were evaluated. Main Outcomes and Measures An animal model for severe, life-threatening tracheobronchomalacia is proposed. Complete or near complete tracheal lumen collapse was observed in each animal with resolution of symptoms in all of the experimental animals after splint placement. Using our severe tracheobronchomalacia animal model, survival was significantly longer in duration in the experimental group receiving the airway splint after model creation when compared to model creation alone (p = 0.0495). Mortality in the experimental group was related to infection. Conclusions A multidisciplinary effort producing a CAD/CAM, bioresorbable tracheobronchial splint was tested in a porcine model of severe tracheomalacia and was found to extend survival. PMID:24232078

  4. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litmaath, M.F.

    1996-05-07

    After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.).

  5. Experimental Studies of Coaxial Plasma Gun Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    insertion into experimental systems (117-133), fueling for proposed thermonuclear reactors (134-138], breeding fissionable material [139, 140] and...Center Top Level Linear Exponential Yield Current Current Extrap . Extrap . (MA) (MA) Current Current (MA) (MA) 02901 2.8106 0.18 0.05 D3001 1.2x107...Exponential Yield Current Current Extrap . Extrap . (MA) (MA) Current Current (MA) (MA) 30703 1.610 8 1.57 0.64 0.54 0.59 J0706 4.040O 1.46 0.85 0.80 0.82 J

  6. Design, development and experimental trialof a tailored cytotoxic T-cell vaccine againstPorcine Reproductive and RespiratorySyndrome Virus-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon

    . In the present PhD thesis, I describe the development of an innovative vaccine for the induction of a cytotoxic Tlymphocyte response against PRRSV-2. A major part of the project outline was to design a vaccine that would protect beyond genetic drift, why focus has been on identifying and selecting conserved...... however indicate an effect that was significant in one part of the lungs. Conclusively, the present study provides proof-of-concept that a peptide-specific CMI can be induced by vaccination with VRPs encoding conserved epitopes, along with indications of a protective effect on viral load in lungs. However...

  7. Feasibility study of the AOSTA experimental campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carta M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the nuclear waste is one of the most important nuclear issues. The high radiotoxicity of the spent fuel is due to plutonium and some minor actinides (MAs such as neptunium, americium and curium, above all. One way to reduce their hazard is to destroy by fission MAs in appropriate nuclear reactors. To allow the MAs destruction an important effort have been done on the nuclear data due to the poor knowledge in this field. In the framework of one of the NEA Expert Group on Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management an analysis of the feasibility of MAs irradiation campaign in the TAPIRO fast research reactor is carried out. This paper provides preliminary results obtained by calculations modelling the irradiation, in different TAPIRO irradiation channels, of some CEA samples coming from the French experimental campaign OSMOSE, loaded with different contents of MAs, in order to access, through particular peak spectrometry, to their capture cross section. On the basis of neutron transport calculation results, obtained by both deterministic and Monte Carlo methods, an estimate of the irradiated samples counting levels from the AOSTA (Activation of OSMOSE Samples in TAPIRO experimental campaign is provided.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Porcine Picobirnaviruses and Development of a Specific Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Carruyo, Gabriela M.; Mateu, Guaniri; Martínez, Laura C.; Flor H Pujol; Silvia V Nates; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular characterization of partial- length genomic segment 2 of porcine picobirnavirus (PBV) strains and the development of a specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for detection of virus in feces are reported. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the studied porcine isolates were more closely related (>85% identity) to human PBV belonging to genogroup I than to the other porcine PBV described so far. Analysis by RT-PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fecal samples...

  9. Expression of bioactive porcine interferon-alpha in Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-jie; Li, Kun; Li, Xin-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Ming-Fan; Chen, Hong-Ying

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we constructed an expression cassette containing the inducible lac promoter and the secretion signal from an S-layer protein of Lactobacillus brevis for the expression of porcine interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei). Reverse-transcriptase PCR verified the presence of porcine IFN-α mRNA in the recombinant Lb. casei. The porcine IFN-α protein expressed in the recombinant Lb. casei was identified by both Western blot analysis and ELISA. We used various pH values and induction times to optimize the yield of IFN-α, and found that induction with 0.8% lactose for 16 h under anaerobic conditions produced the highest concentrations of IFN-α. Furthermore, the activity of porcine IFN-α in the cultural supernatant was evaluated on ST cells infected with pseudorabies virus. The results revealed that porcine IFN-α inhibited virus replication in vitro. The findings of our study indicate that recombinant Lb. casei producing porcine IFN-α has great potential for use as a novel oral antiviral agent in animal healthcare.

  10. Porcine bioengineered scaffolds as new frontiers in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K M; Woo, H M

    2012-05-01

    Porcine organs are attractive for xenotransplantation, if severe immunologic concerns can be overcome. Recently, reengineered organs, with heterologous cellular materials removed but preserved organ architecture and vasculature have been created using small rodents in an effort to produce customized bioengineered organs. However, few studies have been performed to generate bioengineered organs from porcine sources. The aim of this work was to produce 3-D bioengineered scaffolds from major porcine organs, preserving the native morphology and vascular structures with complete removal of cellular and nuclear materials. We decellularized porcine heart, liver, and kidney using a peristaltic pump system with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate. The preservation of major architecture and vasculature was confirmed by gross findings, ultrasonography, and angiography. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed no evidence of nuclear or cytoplasmic residues. Quantitative DNA analysis demonstrated a substantial reduction (0%-8%) of porcine DNA in the scaffolds. These results suggested that 3-D bioengineered scaffolds of porcine organs may have tremendous potential to produce non-immunogenic transplantable organs as well as beneficial tools for biomedical studies on organ re-engineering and repair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estudo comparativo in vitro entre biopróteses de pericárdio bovino e porcinas In vitro comparative study between bovine pericardial and porcine bioprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo M Braile

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A maioria dos implantes valvulares cardíacos realizados no Brasil é representada pelas válvulas de pericárdio bovino, seguidas por próteses porcinas. Na avaliação de válvulas biológicas, deve-se considerar: desempenho hidrodinámico, resistência à fadiga e processo de calcificação. No presente estudo, foi avaliado o desempenho hidrodinámico de biopróteses de pericárdio bovino (Biopro-PB-Braile Biomédica comparativamente às válvulas porcinas (Biopro-PP-Braile Biomédica através do gradiente médio transvalvular. Os testes hidrodinámicos foram realizados em próteses de diâmetros variando de 19 a 35 mm, submetidas ao Sistema Duplicador de Pulsos Shelhigh (Shelhigh Inc.. O volume de ejeção foi mantido constante em 90 ml, com freqüência de pulso de 60, 70,80, 90 e 100 ciclos por minuto, possibilitando fluxos entre 5 e 9 litros por minuto, equivalentes a fluxos contínuos aproximados de 8 a 18 litros por minuto. Houve tendência à diminuição dos gradientes pressóricos à medida em que aumenta o diâmetro externo das próteses. O gradiente pressórico médio encontrado em próteses de pericárdio bovino foi significativamente menor que o de próteses porcinas (pMost of the cardiac valve implantations in Brazil are represented by bovine pericardial valves, followed by the porcine prostheses. In the evaluation of biological valves, the following should be taken into consideration: hydrodynamic performance resistance to fatigue and calcification process. In this study, the hydrodynamic performance of bovine pericardial bioprostheses (Biopro-BP-Braile Biomedica was evaluated comparatively to porcine valves (Biopro-PP-Braile Biomedica, through the transvalvular medium gradient. The hydrodynamic tests were made on prostheses varying from 19 to 35 mm in diameter, which underwent the pulse duplicator system Shelhigh (Shelligh Inc.. The ejection volume was constantly kept at 90 ml. The pulse frequencies varied between 60 and 100

  12. Sources of porcine longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) innervation as revealed by retrograde neuronal tract-tracing.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz Majewski; Kowalski, Ireneusz M; Wojciech Brzeski; Marek Jałyński; Agnieszka Bossowska; Joanna Wojtkiewicz; Mariusz Chyczewski

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish the origin of the motor, autonomic and sensory innervation of the L1-L2 segment of the porcine longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM), in order to provide morphological basis for further studies focusing on this neural pathway under experimental conditions, e.g. phototerapy and/or lateral electrical surface stimulation. To reach the goal of the study, multiple injections of the fluorescent neuronal tracer Fast Blue (FB) were made into the LDM region betwe...

  13. Experimental study of external fuel vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Tevelde, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The fuel properties used in the design of a flash vaporization system for aircraft gas turbine engines were evaluated in experiments using a flowing system to determine critical temperature and pressure, boiling points, dew points, heat transfer coefficients, deposit formation rates, and deposit removal. Three fuels were included in the experiments: Jet-A, an experimental referree broad specification fuel, and a premium No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine conditions representing a NASA Energy Efficient Engine at sea-level take-off, cruise, and idle were simulated in the vaporization system and it was found that single phase flow was maintained in the heat exchanger and downstream of the throttle. Deposits encountered in the heat exchanger represented a thermal resistance as high as 1300 sq M K/watt and a deposit formation rate over 1000 gC/sq cm hr.

  14. Experimental Study of the Sampled Labyrinth Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Petrzela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, some new numerical as well as experimental results connected with the so-called labyrinth chaos are presented. This very unusual chaotic motion can be generated by mathematical model involving the scalar goniometrical functions which makes a three-dimensional autonomous dynamical system strongly nonlinear. Final circuitry implementation with analog core and digital parts can be used for modeling Brownian motion. From the viewpoint of generating chaotic motion by some electronic circuit, first step is to solve problems associated with the two-port nonlinear transfer functions synthesis. In the case of labyrinth chaos the finite dynamical range of the input variables introduced by the used active elements usually limits the performance greatly, similarly as it holds for the multi-grid spiral attractors. This paper shows an elegant way how to remove these obstacles by using uni-versal multiple-port with internal digital signal processing.

  15. Experimental Study of Pollutant Transfer within Dwellings

    CERN Document Server

    Koffi, Juslin; Allard, Francis; Husaunndee, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    A mechanical ventilation principle used in French residential buildings was tested in the experimental house of the CSTB research centre. The experiments dealt with pollutant removal efficiency of this ventilation principle, mainly with air tightness and the influence of internal doors. Tracer gas constant injection method was used to simulate the pollution source in the living room. SF6 concentrations were measured in several rooms. The results showed that the air flow routes were in agreement with the theory as long as internal doors were closed. When doors were open, the air pattern was disturbed a lot; a great quantity of the emitted pollutant was measured in the bedrooms. Besides, stack effect promotes the pollutant moving towards the bedrooms under higher indoor-outdoor air temperature differences. In addition, the results showed that if the opening of the bedroom window increases the air change rate, it does not guarantee a good indoor air quality.

  16. Computational and experimental study of laminar flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smooke, Mitchell [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-05-29

    During the past three years, our research has centered on an investigation of the effects of complex chemistry and detailed transport on the structure and extinction of hydrocarbon flames in coflowing axisymmetric configurations. We have pursued both computational and experimental aspects of the research in parallel on both steady-state and time-dependent systems. The computational work has focused on the application of accurate and efficient numerical methods for the solution of the steady-state and time-dependent boundary value problems describing the various reacting systems. Detailed experimental measurements were performed on axisymmetric coflow flames using two-dimensional imaging techniques. Previously, spontaneous Raman scattering, chemiluminescence, and laser-induced fluorescence were used to measure the temperature, major and minor species profiles. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been used to investigate velocity distributions and for calibration of time-varying flames. Laser-induced incandescence (LII) with an extinction calibration was used to determine soot volume fractions, while soot surface temperatures were measured with three-color optical pyrometry using a color digital camera. A blackbody calibration of the camera allows for determination of soot volume fraction as well, which can be compared with the LII measurements. More recently, we have concentrated on a detailed characterization of soot using a variety of techniques including time-resolved LII (TiRe-LII) for soot primary particles sizes, multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for soot radius of gyration, and spectrally-resolved line of sight attenuation (spec-LOSA). Combining the information from all of these soot measurements can be used to determine the soot optical properties, which are observed to vary significantly depending on spatial location and fuel dilution. Our goal has been to obtain a more fundamental understanding of the important fluid dynamic and chemical interactions in

  17. Regional muscle tissue saturation is an indicator of global inadequate circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized porcine study using muscle, intestinal and brain tissue metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Sørensen, Preben; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Larsson, Anders; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen

    2017-04-01

    Muscle tissue saturation (StO2) measured with near-infrared spectroscopy has generally been considered a measurement of the tissue microcirculatory condition. However, we hypothesized that StO2 could be more regarded as a fast and reliable measure of global than of regional circulatory adequacy and tested this with muscle, intestinal and brain metabolomics at normal and two levels of low cardiopulmonary bypass blood flow rates in a porcine model. Twelve 80 kg pigs were connected to normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with a blood flow of 60 mL/kg/min for one hour, reduced randomly to 47.5 mL/kg/min (Group I) or 35 mL/kg/min (Group II) for one hour followed by one hour of 60 mL/kg/min in both groups. Regional StO2 was measured continuously above the musculus gracilis (non-cannulated leg). Metabolomics were obtained by brain tissue oxygen monitoring system (Licox) measurements of the brain and microdialysis perfusate from the muscle, intestinal mucosa and brain. A non-parametric statistical method was used. The systemic parameters showed profound systemic ischaemia during low CPB blood flow. StO2 did not change markedly in Group I, but in Group II, StO2 decreased immediately when blood flow was reduced and, furthermore, was not restored despite blood flow being normalized. Changes in the metabolomics from the muscle, colon and brain followed the changes in StO2. We found, in this experimental cardiopulmonary bypass model, that StO2 reacted rapidly when the systemic circulation became inadequate and, furthermore, reliably indicate insufficient global tissue perfusion even when the systemic circulation was restored after a period of systemic hypoperfusion.

  18. Experimental study on HVAC sound parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujoreanu, C.; Benchea, M.

    2016-08-01

    HVAC system represent major source of buildings internal noise and therefore they are designed to provide a human acoustic comfort besides the thermal and air quality requirements. The paper experimentally investigates three types of commercial air handler units (AHU) with different ducts cross-section sizes and inlet-outlet configuration. The measurements are performed in an anechoic room. The measurements are carried out at different fan's speeds, ranging the power-charge from 30-100% while the duct air flow is slowly adjusted from full open to full closed, between 0-500 Pa. The sound pressure levels of the radiant units are rated using NR curves. Also, the supply and the outdoor ducts sound levels are compared in order to point the frequencies where the noise must be reduced. Third-octave band analysis of random noise of an air handling unit from a HVAC system is realized, using measurement procedures that agrees the requirements of the ISO 3744:2011 and ISO 5136:2010 standards. The comparatively results highlight the effects of the geometry, air flow pressure and power-charging dependencies upon the sound level. This is the start for a noise reduction strategy.

  19. Experimental study of asymmetric heart valve prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukicevic, M.; Fortini, S.; Querzoli, G.; Cenedese, A.; Pedrizzetti, G.

    2011-11-01

    The mechanical heart valves (MHVs) are extremely important medical devices, commonly used for diseased heart valves replacement. Despite the long term of use and constant design refinement, the MHVs are very far from ideal and their performance is very diverse from that of the native ones. It has been approved that small variations in geometry of valvular leaflets influence the significant change in the intraventricular vortical flow, known as one of the most important factors for the overall functionality of the heart. We have experimentally examined the home-made heart valve prototypes, exclusively modeled for the mitral valve replacement. The performance and energetic properties of the prototypes have been compared with those in the presence of standard MHVs. The analysis was based on the testing of intraventricular fluid dynamics, usually missing criteria for the quality of the valve performance. It has been shown that the asymmetric prototype, with unequal leaflets and D-shaped orifice produces flow patterns and energetic properties close to those found in the healthy subjects. Thus, the break of symmetry in the standard bi-leaflet MHV prosthesis, at least from the fluid dynamics point of view, is worthwhile to be considered for the design of MHVs for the mitral valve replacement.

  20. Porcine stress syndrome (PSS) in Mangalitsa pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Stanišić, N.; Aleksić, S.; Di, L.; Stanimirović, Z.; Zhenhua, G.; Petrović, M.; Delić, N.; Radović, Č.; Parunović, N.; Gogić, M.

    2012-01-01

    Porcine stress syndrome (PSS) is one kind of molecular genetics defect which will cause malignant hyperthermia syndrome in pigs. It was reported that mutation of pig rynodine receptor (RYR1) gene is the main reason for PSS. The aim of this study was to test the RYR1 genotype of 10 Mangalitsa pigs using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique, which is a reliable and simple method for RYR1 gene t...

  1. Economic principles in communication: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Kris; Rosenkranz, Stephanie; Weitzel, Utz

    2014-12-21

    This paper experimentally investigates how economic principles affect communication. In a simple sender-receiver game with common interests over payoffs, the sender can send a signal without a pre-given meaning in an infrequent or frequent state of the world. When the signal is costly, several theories (focal point theory, the intuitive criterion, evolutionary game theory) predict an efficient separating equilibrium, where the signal is sent in the infrequent state of the world (also referred to as Horn׳s rule). To analyze whether Horn׳s rule applies, and if so, which theory best explains it, we develop and test variants of the sender-receiver game where the theories generate discriminatory hypotheses. In costly signaling variants, our participants follow Horn׳s rule most of the time, in a manner that is best explained by focal point theory. In costless signaling variants, evolutionary game theory best explains our results. Here participants coordinate significantly more (less) often on a separating equilibrium where the signal is sent in the frequent state if they are primed to associate the absence of a signal with the infrequent (frequent) state of the world. We also find indications that a similar priming effect applies to costly signals. Thus, while the frequency with which participants follow Horn׳s rule in costly signaling variants is best explained by Horn׳s rule, the priming effect shows that some of our participants׳ behavior is best explained by evolutionary game theory even when signals are costly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues induce histamine release from porcine peripheral blood basophils after Ascaris suum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of porcine basophils in protective immunity. Experimental pigs were infected with 1,000 Ascaris suum eggs daily for 21 days. Control pigs were maintained helminth-free. Circulating porcine basophils were isolated from the anti-coagulated whole blood ...

  3. Influence of Spinal Manipulative Therapy Force Magnitude and Application Site on Spinal Tissue Loading: A Biomechanical Robotic Serial Dissection Study in Porcine Motion Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; Nougarou, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Greg

    In order to define the relation between spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) input parameters and the distribution of load within spinal tissues, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of force magnitude and application site when SMT is applied to cadaveric spines. In 10 porcine cadavers, a servo-controlled linear actuator motor provided a standardized SMT simulation using 3 different force magnitudes (100N, 300N, and 500N) to 2 different cutaneous locations: L3/L4 facet joint (FJ), and L4 transverse processes (TVP). Vertebral kinematics were tracked optically using indwelling bone pins, the motion segment removed and mounted in a parallel robot equipped with a 6-axis load cell. The kinematics of each SMT application were replicated robotically. Serial dissection of spinal structures was conducted to quantify loading characteristics of discrete spinal tissues. Forces experienced by the L3/L4 segment and spinal structures during SMT replication were recorded and analyzed. Spinal manipulative therapy force magnitude and application site parameters influenced spinal tissues loading. A significant main effect (P manipulative therapy input parameters of force magnitude and application site significantly influence the distribution of forces within spinal tissues. By controlling these SMT parameters, clinical outcomes may potentially be manipulated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Healing rate and autoimmune safety of full-thickness wounds treated with fish skin acellular dermal matrix versus porcine small-intestine submucosa: a noninferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Konrádsdóttir, Fífa; Gudnason, Palmar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur F; Lund, Sigrún Helga

    2015-03-01

    A novel product, the fish skin acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has recently been introduced into the family of biological materials for the treatment of wounds. Hitherto, these products have been produced from the organs of livestock. A noninferiority test was used to compare the effect of fish skin ADM against porcine small-intestine submucosa extracellular matrix in the healing of 162 full-thickness 4-mm wounds on the forearm of 81 volunteers. The fish skin product was noninferior at the primary end point, healing at 28 days. Furthermore, the wounds treated with fish skin acellular matrix healed significantly faster. These results might give the fish skin ADM an advantage because of its environmental neutrality when compared with livestock-derived products. The study results on these acute full-thickness wounds might apply for diabetic foot ulcers and other chronic full-thickness wounds, and the shorter healing time for the fish skin-treated group could influence treatment decisions. To test the autoimmune reactivity of the fish skin, the participants were tested with the following ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) tests: RF, ANA, ENA, anti ds-DNA, ANCA, anti-CCP, and anticollagen I and II. These showed no reactivity. The results demonstrate the claims of safety and efficacy of fish skin ADM for wound care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Porcine incisional hernia model: Evaluation of biologically derived intact extracellular matrix repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delossantos, Aubrey I; Rodriguez, Neil L; Patel, Paarun; Franz, Michael G; Wagner, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    We compared fascial wounds repaired with non-cross-linked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix versus primary closure in a large-animal hernia model. Incisional hernias were created in Yucatan pigs and repaired after 3 weeks via open technique with suture-only primary closure or intraperitoneally placed porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix. Progressive changes in mechanical and biological properties of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix and repair sites were assessed. Porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–repaired hernias of additional animals were evaluated 2 and 4 weeks post incision to assess porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix regenerative potential and biomechanical changes. Hernias repaired with primary closure showed substantially more scarring and bone hyperplasia along the incision line. Mechanical remodeling of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix was noted over time. Porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress were similar to fascia at 6 weeks. The biology of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–reinforced animals was more similar to native abdominal wall versus that with primary closure. In this study, porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–reinforced repairs provided more complete wound healing response compared with primary closure. PMID:24555008

  6. Porcine incisional hernia model: Evaluation of biologically derived intact extracellular matrix repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A Monteiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared fascial wounds repaired with non-cross-linked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix versus primary closure in a large-animal hernia model. Incisional hernias were created in Yucatan pigs and repaired after 3 weeks via open technique with suture-only primary closure or intraperitoneally placed porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix. Progressive changes in mechanical and biological properties of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix and repair sites were assessed. Porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–repaired hernias of additional animals were evaluated 2 and 4 weeks post incision to assess porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix regenerative potential and biomechanical changes. Hernias repaired with primary closure showed substantially more scarring and bone hyperplasia along the incision line. Mechanical remodeling of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix was noted over time. Porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress were similar to fascia at 6 weeks. The biology of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–reinforced animals was more similar to native abdominal wall versus that with primary closure. In this study, porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix–reinforced repairs provided more complete wound healing response compared with primary closure.

  7. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2015-01-01

    %) and to mouse (84%) synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel......RNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa) synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP) and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1) of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90...... splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation....

  8. Theoretical & Experimental Studies of Elementary Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Kevin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-10-04

    Abstract High energy physics has been one of the signature research programs at the University of Rochester for over 60 years. The group has made leading contributions to experimental discoveries at accelerators and in cosmic rays and has played major roles in developing the theoretical framework that gives us our ``standard model'' of fundamental interactions today. This award from the Department of Energy funded a major portion of that research for more than 20 years. During this time, highlights of the supported work included the discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron, the completion of a broad program of physics measurements that verified the electroweak unified theory, the measurement of three generations of neutrino flavor oscillations, and the first observation of a ``Higgs like'' boson at the Large Hadron Collider. The work has resulted in more than 2000 publications over the period of the grant. The principal investigators supported on this grant have been recognized as leaders in the field of elementary particle physics by their peers through numerous awards and leadership positions. Most notable among them is the APS W.K.H. Panofsky Prize awarded to Arie Bodek in 2004, the J.J. Sakurai Prizes awarded to Susumu Okubo and C. Richard Hagen in 2005 and 2010, respectively, the Wigner medal awarded to Susumu Okubo in 2006, and five principal investigators (Das, Demina, McFarland, Orr, Tipton) who received Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator awards during the period of this grant. The University of Rochester Department of Physics and Astronomy, which houses the research group, provides primary salary support for the faculty and has waived most tuition costs for graduate students during the period of this grant. The group also benefits significantly from technical support and infrastructure available at the University which supports the work. The research work of the group has provided educational opportunities

  9. Heart rate variability in porcine progressive peritonitis-induced sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar eJarkovska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that heart rate variability (HRV alterations could serve as an indicator of sepsis progression and outcome, however, the relationships of HRV and major pathophysiological processes of sepsis remain unclear. Therefore, in this experimental study HRV was investigated in a clinically relevant long-term porcine model of severe sepsis/septic shock. HRV was analyzed by several methods and the parameters were correlated with pathophysiological processes of sepsis.In 16 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and instrumented domestic pigs of either gender, sepsis was induced by fecal peritonitis. Experimental subjects were screened up to the refractory shock development or death. ECG was continuously recorded throughout the experiment, afterwards RR intervals were detected and HRV parameters computed automatically using custom made measurement and analysis MATLAB routines. In all septic animals, progressive hyperdynamic septic shock developed. The statistical measures of HRV, geometrical measures of HRV and Poincaré plot analysis revealed a pronounced reduction of HRV that developed quickly upon the onset of sepsis and was maintained throughout the experiment. The frequency domain analysis demonstrated a decrease in the high frequency component and increase in the low frequency component together with an increase of the low/high frequency component ratio. The reduction of HRV parameters preceded sepsis-associated hemodynamic changes including heart rate increase or shock progression.In a clinically relevant porcine model of peritonitis-induced progressive septic shock, reduction of HRV parameters heralded sepsis development. HRV reduction was associated with a pronounced parasympathetic inhibition and a shift of sympathovagal balance. Early reduction of HRV may serve as a non-invasive and sensitive marker of systemic inflammatory syndrome, thereby widening the therapeutic window for early interventions.

  10. Bacterial clearance of biologic grafts used in hernia repair: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, K C; Broome, A-M; Jacobs, M R; Blatnik, J A; Zeinali, F; Bajaksouzian, S; Rosen, M J

    2011-07-01

    Biologic grafts used in ventral hernia repair are derived from various sources and undergo different post-tissue-harvesting processing, handling, and sterilization techniques. It is unclear how these various characteristics impact graft response in the setting of contamination. We evaluated four materials in an infected hernia repair animal model using fluorescence imaging and quantitative culture studies. One hundred seven rats underwent creation of a chronic hernia. They were then repaired with one synthetic polyester control material (n = 12) and four different biologic grafts (n = 24 per material). Biologic grafts evaluated included Surgisis (porcine small intestinal submucosa), Permacol (crosslinked porcine dermis), Xenmatrix (noncrosslinked porcine dermis), and Strattice (noncrosslinked porcine dermis). Half of the repairs in each group were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus at 10(4) CFU/ml and survived for 30 days without systemic antibiotics. Animals then underwent fluorescence imaging and quantitative bacterial studies. All clean repairs remained sterile. Rates of bacterial clearance were as follows: polyester synthetic 0%, Surgisis 58%, Permacol 67%, Xenmatrix 75%, and Strattice 92% (P=0.003). Quantitative bacterial counts had a similar trend in bacterial clearance: polyester synthetic 1×10(6) CFU/g, Surgisis 4.3×10(5) CFU/g, Permacol 1.7×10(3) CFU/g, Xenmatrix 46 CFU/g, and Strattice 31 CFU/g (P=0.001). Fluorescence imaging was unable to detect low bacterial fluorescence counts observed on bacterial studies. Biologic grafts, in comparison to synthetic material, are able to clear a Staphylococcus aureus contamination; however, they are able to do so at different rates. Bacterial clearance correlated to the level of residual bacterial burden observed in our study. Post-tissue-harvesting processing, handling, and sterilization techniques may contribute to this observed difference in ability to clear bacteria.

  11. Bacterial clearance of biologic grafts used in hernia repair: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, K. C.; Broome, A.-M.; Jacobs, M. R.; Blatnik, J. A.; Zeinali, F.; Bajaksouzian, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Biologic grafts used in ventral hernia repair are derived from various sources and undergo different post-tissue-harvesting processing, handling, and sterilization techniques. It is unclear how these various characteristics impact graft response in the setting of contamination. We evaluated four materials in an infected hernia repair animal model using fluorescence imaging and quantitative culture studies. Methods One hundred seven rats underwent creation of a chronic hernia. They were then repaired with one synthetic polyester control material (n = 12) and four different biologic grafts (n = 24 per material). Biologic grafts evaluated included Surgisis (porcine small intestinal submucosa), Permacol (crosslinked porcine dermis), Xenmatrix (noncrosslinked porcine dermis), and Strattice (noncrosslinked porcine dermis). Half of the repairs in each group were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus at 104 CFU/ml and survived for 30 days without systemic antibiotics. Animals then underwent fluorescence imaging and quantitative bacterial studies. Results All clean repairs remained sterile. Rates of bacterial clearance were as follows: polyester synthetic 0%, Surgisis 58%, Permacol 67%, Xenmatrix 75%, and Strattice 92% (P = 0.003). Quantitative bacterial counts had a similar trend in bacterial clearance: polyester synthetic 1 × 106 CFU/g, Surgisis 4.3 × 105 CFU/g, Permacol 1.7 × 103 CFU/g, Xenmatrix 46 CFU/g, and Strattice 31 CFU/g (P = 0.001). Fluorescence imaging was unable to detect low bacterial fluorescence counts observed on bacterial studies. Conclusion Biologic grafts, in comparison to synthetic material, are able to clear a Staphylococcus aureus contamination; however, they are able to do so at different rates. Bacterial clearance correlated to the level of residual bacterial burden observed in our study. Post-tissue-harvesting processing, handling, and sterilization techniques may contribute to this observed difference in ability to clear bacteria

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CARRYING CAPACITY GLULAM BEAMS, REINFORCED SPECIAL WAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Ustarkhanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals a new structural solution of reinforced glued wooden beam and results ofexperimental studies of the bearing capacity of reinforced beams in a special way. We presentthedesign parameters ofprototypebeams, description ofthe experimental setup, results of experimental studies and comparative analysis ofthe stresses anddeflectionsdepending on how the pinching inclined armature.

  13. Experimental studies of auroral arc generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suszcynsky, D.M.; Borovsky, J.E.; Thomsen, M.F. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An all-sky video camera system was deployed in Eagle, Alaska at the foot of the magnetic field line that threads geosynchronous satellite 1989-046 as part of a campaign to study correlations of ground-based auroral activity with satellite-based plasma and energetic particle measurements. The overall intent of the project was to study magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling as it relates to the aurora, and, in particular, to look for signatures that may help to identify various auroral generator mechanism(s). During this study, our efforts were primarily directed towards identifying the generator mechanism(s) for pulsating aurora. Our data, though not conclusive, are found to support theories that propose a cyclotron resonance mechanism for the generation of auroral pulsations.

  14. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... reduced (P < 0.05) when acupuncture at zusanli was applied after treatment with cimetidine. Therefore, our study shows that when electroacupuncture at zusanli is applied, the gastric electrical frequency increased and gastric electrical amplitude reduced, while the flux of gastric juice secretion increased.

  16. Experimental and computational studies of polar solvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Many articles and papers were published; a few are still in preparation or will be published. The solvation dynamics studies will be extended to ionic solutions. Computer simulations were also performed. A new line of research was begun on excited-state proton-transfer reactions catalyzed by alcohol solvents. (DLC)

  17. Noninvasive measurement of wave speed of porcine cornea in ex vivo porcine eyes for various intraocular pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Boran; Sit, Arthur J; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to extend an ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE) technique for noninvasive measurement of ocular tissue elastic properties. In particular, we aim to establish the relationship between the wave speed of cornea and the intraocular pressure (IOP). Normal ranges of IOP are between 12 and 22mmHg. Ex vivo porcine eye balls were used in this research. The porcine eye ball was supported by the gelatin phantom in a testing container. Some water was pour into the container for the ultrasound measurement. A local harmonic vibration was generated on the side of the eye ball. An ultrasound probe was used to measure the wave propagation in the cornea noninvasively. A 25 gauge butterfly needle was inserted into the vitreous humor of the eye ball under the ultrasound imaging guidance. The needle was connected to a syringe. The IOP was obtained by the water height difference between the water level in the syringe and the water level in the testing container. The IOP was adjusted between 5mmHg and 30mmHg with a 5mmHg interval. The wave speed was measured at each IOP for three frequencies of 100, 150 and 200Hz. Finite element method (FEM) was used to simulate the wave propagation in the corneal according to our experimental setup. A linear viscoelastic FEM model was used to compare the experimental data. Both the experiments and the FEM analyses showed that the wave speed of cornea increased with IOP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Variation in Fetal Outcome, Viral Load and ORF5 Sequence Mutations in a Large Scale Study of Phenotypic Responses to Late Gestation Exposure to Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Andrea; Wilkinson, Jamie; Ashley, Carolyn; Detmer, Susan E.; Lunney, Joan K.; Plastow, Graham; Harding, John C. S.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of extensive research, the mechanisms of reproductive disease associated with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The objectives of this large scale study were to evaluate associations between viral load and fetal preservation, determine the impact of type 2 PRRSv on fetal weights, and investigate changes in ORF5 PRRSv genome in dams and fetuses during a 21-day period following challenge. At gestation day 85 (±1), 114 gilts were experimentally infected with type 2 PRRSv, while 19 gilts served as reference controls. At necropsy, fetuses were categorized according to their preservation status and tissue samples were collected. PRRSv RNA concentrations were measured in gilt serum collected on days 0, 2, 6, and 21 post-infection, as well as in gilt and fetal tissues collected at termination. Fetal mortality was 41±22.8% in PRRS infected litters. Dead fetuses appeared to cluster in some litters but appeared solitary or random in others. Nine percent of surviving piglets were meconium-stained. PRRSv RNA concentration in fetal thymus, fetal serum and endometrium differed significantly across preservation category and was greatest in tissues of meconium-stained fetuses. This, together with the virtual absence of meconium staining in non-infected litters indicates it is an early pathological condition of reproductive PRRS. Viral load in fetal thymus and in fetal serum was positively associated with viral load in endometrium, suggesting the virus exploits dynamic linkages between individual maternal-fetal compartments. Point mutations in ORF5 sequences from gilts and fetuses were randomly located in 20 positions in ORF5, but neither nucleotide nor amino acid substitutions were associated with fetal preservation. PRRSv infection decreased the weights of viable fetuses by approximately 17%. The considerable variation in gilt and fetal outcomes provides tremendous opportunity for more detailed investigations of

  19. Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomon, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established.

  20. Experimental Study of Flow in a Bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresconi, Frank; Prasad, Ajay

    2003-11-01

    An instability known as the Dean vortex occurs in curved pipes with a longitudinal pressure gradient. A similar effect is manifest in the flow in a converging or diverging bifurcation, such as those found in the human respiratory airways. The goal of this study is to characterize secondary flows in a bifurcation. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments were performed in a clear, plastic model. Results show the strength and migration of secondary vortices. Primary velocity features are also presented along with dispersion patterns from dye visualization. Unsteadiness, associated with a hairpin vortex, was also found at higher Re. This work can be used to assess the dispersion of particles in the lung. Medical delivery systems and pollution effect studies would profit from such an understanding.

  1. Experimental studies in non-equilibrium physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, John Robert, Jr.

    This work is a collection of three experiments aimed at studying different facets of non-equilibrium dynamics. Chapter I concerns strongly compressible turbulence, which turns out to be very different from incompressible turbulence. The focus is on the dispersion of contaminants in such a flow. This type of turbulence can be studied, at very low mach number, by measuring the velocity fields of particles that float on a turbulently stirred body of water. It turns out that in the absence of incompressibility, the turbulence causes particles to cluster rather than to disperse. The implications of the observations are far reaching and include the transport of pollutants on the oceans surface, phytoplankton growth, as well as industrial applications. Chapter II deals with the effects of polymer additives on drag reduction and turbulent suppression, a well-known phenomenon that is not yet understood. In an attempt to simplify the problem, the effects of a polymer additive were investigated in a vortex street formed in a flowing soap film. Measurements suggest that an increase in elongational viscosity is responsible for a substantial reduction in periodic velocity fluctuations. This study also helps to illuminate the mechanism responsible for vortex separation in the wake of a bluff body. Chapter III describes an experiment designed to test a theoretical approach aimed at generalizing the classical fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT). This theorem applies to systems driven only slightly away from thermal equilibrium, whereas ours, a liquid crystal under-going electroconvection, is so strongly driven, that the FDT does not apply. Both theory and experiment focus on the flux in global power fluctuations. Physical limitations did not permit a direct test of the theory, however it was possible to establish several interesting characteristics of the system: the source of the fluctuations is the transient defect structures that are generated when the system is driven hard

  2. An experimental study of rip channel flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drønen, Nils Kjetil; Karunarathna, H.; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory study of the flow over a bar with a single rip channel has been performed. First, the well-known pattern of a bar circulation cell with a strong offshore-directed current out through the rip channel and a weaker onshore-directed return flow over the bar is documented. Then measurements...... of the three-dimensional structure of the flow in the area where the rip channel, the bar and the trough meet and well inside the rip channel are presented. These measurements reveal that 3D effects play an important role, and that a depth-integrated viewpoint may not always be sufficient for predicting...

  3. A proteomic approach to porcine saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ana M; Cerón, José J; Fuentes-Rubio, María; Tecles, Fernando; Beeley, Josie A

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in salivary animal proteomics, with special reference to the porcine proteome. Until fairly recently, most studies on saliva as a diagnostic fluid have focused on humans, primates and rodents, and the development of salivary analysis in monitoring health in farm animals including pigs has received only limited consideration. The porcine salivary proteome has been characterised by 2D-electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Major and minor proteins have been identified. The use of saliva as a non-invasive biological fluid in monitoring health and disease in pigs will be reviewed, together with the potential use of proteomics for the development of biomarkers. In this review, methods of collection and the composition of porcine saliva will be considered, together with saliva handling and analysis. The overall findings indicate that there is considerable potential for the development of salivary analysis as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid in the pig, and that it offers advantages over other body fluids in this animal.

  4. Experimental Study of Methane Hydrates in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vyacheslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of gas hydrate formation in porous space of coal has been studied. The experiments conducted have proven the possibility of methane gas hydrate formation in moist coal. It has been demonstrated that the decomposition points of methane gas hydrates in coal are near to the phase equilibrium curve for bulk methane hydrate. Only part of water absorbed by coal can be involved in the methane gas hydrate formation. With the increase in gas pressure increases the amount of gas hydrate formed in natural coal. For formation of hydrates at a positive temperature, the pressure in the system has to be at least 2 MPa. At the same time the speed of formation and decomposition of gas hydrates in coal is big enough.

  5. Experimental techniques for cement hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Luttge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement hydration kinetics is a complex problem of dissolution, nucleation and growth that is still not well understood, particularly in a quantitative way. While cement systems are unique in certain aspects they are also comparable to natural mineral systems. Therefore, geochemistry and particularly the study of mineral dissolution and growth may be able to provide insight and methods that can be utilized in cement hydration research. Here, we review mainly what is not known or what is currently used and applied in a problematic way. Examples are the typical Avrami approach, the application of Transition State Theory (TST to overall reaction kinetics and the problem of reactive surface area. Finally, we suggest an integrated approach that combines vertical scanning interferometry (VSI with other sophisticated analytical techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and theoretical model calculations based on a stochastic treatment.

  6. ESP Teaching for Tourism. An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzarna-Tihenea (Gălbează Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on those teaching and learning methods and techniques which can improve the practical use of English for work-related purposes, this giving the students the opportunity to develop their language skills by means of attractive, motivating and useful learning activities. The paper aims at providing an in-depth knowledge about ways of studying and applying English for Specific Purposes in the Tourism field, as well as types of activities to be used in the classroom in order to assist learners overcome language difficulties. It is of great importance to emphasize the specific tasks and strategies used while teaching ESP for Tourism classes, strategies that differ from the ones used in a traditional English language classroom. The main purpose of all these ESP methods and approaches is to prepare students for their future jobs so that they can perform effectively in their area of work.

  7. Experimental Study of Liquid Fuel Spray Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree

    by the Danish Council for Strategic Research. Other supporters of the project have been MAN Diesel & Turbo A/S, DTU Mechanical Engineering, DTU Chemical Engineering, Sandia National Laboratories USA, Norwegian University of Science & Technology (NTNU) and University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus....... The continuing stringency of emission regulations for marine diesel engines forces a deeper understanding of the complex physical processes occurring inside the engine cylinder. A deeper understanding can lead to higher accuracy of predictive numerical models, thereby enabling evaluation of multiple engine...... the specific physical quantities needed in CFD validation of these types of flames. This work is a testament to that fact. The first part of this thesis is an extensive study of optical combustion diagnostics applied to complex transient sprayflames in a high temperature and pressure environment...

  8. Flapless implant surgery: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Mi; Choi, Byung-Ho; Li, Jingxu; Kim, Han-Sung; Ko, Chang-Yong; Jung, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Jung; Lee, Seoung-Ho; Engelke, Wilfried

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of flapless implant surgery on crestal bone loss and osseointegration in a canine mandible model. In 6 mongrel dogs, bilateral, edentulated, flat alveolar ridges were created in the mandible. After 3 months of healing, 2 implants in each side were placed by either flap or flapless procedures. After a healing period of 8 weeks, microcomputerized tomography at the implantation site was performed. Osseointegration was calculated as percentage of implant surface in contact with bone. Additionally, bone height was measured in the peri-implant bone. The mean osseointegration was greater at flapless sites (70.4%) than at sites with flaps (59.5%) (P flapless sites (10.1 mm) than at sites with flaps (9.0 mm) (P Flapless surgery can achieve results superior to surgery with reflected flaps. The specific improvements of this technique include enhanced osseointegration of dental implants and increased bone height.

  9. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  10. Experimental and clinical studies with intraoperative radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Kinsella, T.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Glatstein, E.

    1983-09-01

    Studies of normal tissue tolerance to intraoperative radiotherapy were done upon 65 dogs subjected to laparotomy and 11 million electron volt electron irradiation in doses ranging from zero to 5,000 rads. Results of studies indicated that intact aorta and vena cava tolerate up to 5,000 rads without loss of structural integrity. Ureteral fibrosis and stenosis develop at doses of 3,000 rads or more. Arterial anastomoses heal after doses of 4,500 rads, but fibrosis can lead to occlusion. Intestinal suture lines heal after doses of 4,500 rads. Bile duct fibrosis and stenosis develop at doses of 2,000 rads or more. Biliary-enteric anastomoses fail to heal at any dose level. A clinical trial of intraoperative radiotherapy combined with radical surgery was performed upon 20 patients with advanced malignant tumors which were considered unlikely to be cured by conventional therapies and which included carcinomas of the stomach, carcinomas of the pancreas, carcinomas involving the hilus of the liver, retroperitoneal sarcomas and osteosarcomas of the pelvis. All patients underwent resection of gross tumor, followed by intraoperative irradiation of the tumor bed and regional nodal basins. Some patients received additional postoperative external beam radiotherapy. Treatment mortality for combined operation and radiotherapy occurred in four of 20 patients. Postoperative complications occurred in four of the 16 surviving patients. Local tumor control was achieved in 11 of the 16 surviving patients, with an over-all median follow-up period of 18 months. The clinical trial suggested that intraoperative radiotherapy is a feasible adjunct to resection in locally advanced tumors, that the resulting mortality and morbidity is similar to that expected from operation alone and that local tumor control may be improved.

  11. Experimental study of forearm compartmental pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardolino, Antonella; Zeineh, Nedal; O'Connor, David

    2010-10-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome is well recognized, although it is rare in the forearm. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and compartment pressure readings. Existing normal pressure ranges for the forearm are based on lower limb measurements. This study aimed to establish normal pre- and post-exercise forearm compartment pressures. Using a Stryker intracompartmental pressure monitor (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI), 41 volunteers had pressure measurements of the extensor and flexor forearm compartments before and after exercise. Normal ranges were established for pre-exercise extensor compartment (2-27 mm Hg; upper confidence interval [CI] 18.8-25.2 mm Hg), post-exercise extensor compartment (2-24 mm Hg; upper CI 16.8-22.8 mm Hg), pre-exercise flexor compartment (1-19 mm Hg; upper CI 13.3-17.4 mm Hg), and post-exercise flexor compartment (0-19 mm Hg; upper CI 16-21.4 mm Hg) pressures. No significant difference was found between pressures before and after exercise. There was no correlation between whether pressures increased or decreased following exercise. There was a significant gender difference. Normal ranges were 0 to 25.2 mm Hg for the extensor compartment and 0 to 21.4 mm Hg for the flexor compartment. This study has shown a significant difference in normal forearm compartment pressures between genders. A normal reference range of flexor and extensor forearm compartment pressures to aid diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome has been determined. This might also prove useful in aiding the diagnosis of acute forearm compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation, molecular characterization and evaluation of the pathogenicity of a porcine rotavirus isolated from Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hewei; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Xin; Xia, Mingqi; Wu, Hua

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a porcine rotavirus was isolated from a fecal sample from a diarrheic piglet in Jiangsu Province, China. Rotavirus-specific cytopathic effects were observed after 12 blind passages on MA-104 cells, yielding a virus titer of 10(6.125) TCID50/ml. By applying an 80 % nucleotide cutoff value and the RotaC(2.0) automated genotyping tool, the Vp4 genotype of the new isolate was identified as P[7]. The Vp7 genotype was identified as G[9], lineage VI, and sublineage c. Experimentally infected piglets showed severe diarrhea symptoms 16-24 h post-inoculation, indicating that this new porcine rotavirus isolate is a pathogenic strain.

  13. Experimental study of flow through compressor Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Panchal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work is to study the behaviour of flow at the inlet, within the blade passage and at the exit of a compressor cascade. For this purpose, a cascade with six numbers of aerofoil blades was designed and constructed. The cascade was fitted on the cascade test tunnel. Out of six blades two were instrumented for measuring the pressure distribution on the pressure and suction surface. The blades had a parabolic camber line, with a maximum camber position at 40% of the chord from the leading edge of the blade. The profile of the blade was C4, height of the blade was 160 mm, chord length was 80 mm, camber angle was 45° and stagger angle was 30°. Similarly, the length of the cascade was 300 mm, span was 160 mm, pitch was 60 mm, the actual chord of the cascade was 80 mm, the axial chord of the cascade was 70 mm, the stagger angle of the cascade was 30° and the pitch-chord ratio was 0.75. The data was taken and analyzed at −500% of the axial chord before the cascade, −25% of the axial chord before the leading edge, 25%, 50%, 75% and 150% of the axial chord from the leading edge of the blade. The readings were taken from the cascade wall to the mid span position along the pitch wise direction. The angle of incidence was also changed during the experiment and varied from i=−50°, −30°, −10° to 5°.

  14. Medical waste to energy: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuri, C; Luciani, F; Piva, P; Bartuli, F N; Ottria, L; Mecheri, B; Licoccia, S

    2013-04-01

    Although waste is traditionally assessed as a pollutant which needs to be reduced or lessened, its management is certainly necessary. Nowadays, biological fuel cells, through the direct conversion of organic matter to electricity using biocatalysts, represent a technology able to produce sustainable energy by means of waste treatment. This study aims to propose a mean to generate energy from blood and saliva, that are common risk-infectious medical waste. Material employed (purchased by Sigma-Aldrich) were: Glucose oxidase (GOx), Nafion perfluorinated resin solution at 5% in a mixture of lower aliphatic alcohols and water, Polyethylene oxide. Stock solutions of D (+) glucose were prepared in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution and stored at 4 °C for at least 24 h before use. Carbon cloth electrode ELAT HT 140 E-W with a platinum loading of 5 gm-2 was purchased by E-Tek. Electrospun Nafion fibers were obtained as follows. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the electrode morphologies. In order to develop an effective immobilization strategy of GOx on the electrode surface, Nafion fibers (a fully fluorinated ion conducting polymer used as a membrane material in enzymatic fuel cells - EFC) were selected as immobilizing polymer matrix. In this work, exploiting the nafion fibers capability of being able to cathalize Gox activity, we have tried to produce an enzymatic fuel cell which could produce energy from the blood and the saliva within medical-dental waste. Medical waste refers to all those materials produced by the interaction among doctor and patient, such as blood and saliva. During our research we will try to complete an EFC prototype able to produce energy from blood and saliva inside the risk-infectious medical waste in order to contribute to the energy requirements of a consulting room.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A HORSE ANTIPOLIOMYELITIC SERUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, C P

    1931-01-01

    Through the kindness of Dr. W. H. Park we have been enabled to study a horse antipoliomyelitic serum. This preparation has been supplied us in three forms: citrated blood plasma, serum, and globulin concentrate. We have tested these preparations in vitro and in vivo for inactivating or neutralizing or, to use perhaps a better term, antiviral effects against a constant, potent, filtrate virus of poliomyelitis. The preparations exhibited these effects when combined in vitro. Their action in this respect appears to be greater and more constant than that found by Stewart and Haselbauer for the Pettit antipoliomyelitic horse serum. On the other hand, in vivo tests carried out by us were less successful. In comparison with the constancy of action, under given conditions, of convalescent monkey and human sera, the antipoliomyelitic horse serum displayed striking irregularity, and certain preparations were devoid of protective power. The precise nature of the inactivating substances in the horse antiserum and their relation to the corresponding substances in convalescent sera have still, to be determined. As far as one absorption test carried out by us indicates, precipitin does not play a major rôle in the inactivating process. When an active globulin concentrate was filtered through Berkefeld candles, it lost its in vitro inactivating power. This is not true of convalescent sera in the native state. No tests have, however, been made with globulin concentrates from such sera. The experiments described in this paper raise the question whether, therapeutically considered, the antipoliomyelitic horse serum should be regarded as an exact equivalent of, and hence employed as a perfect substitute for, convalescent serum. This question can only be answered by further experiment and observation.

  16. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J Elias

    Full Text Available Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We

  17. Injury Based on Its Study in Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mendes-Braz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the numerous experimental models used to study the complexity of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Although experimental models of hepatic I/R injury represent a compromise between the clinical reality and experimental simplification, the clinical transfer of experimental results is problematic because of anatomical and physiological differences and the inevitable simplification of experimental work. In this review, the strengths and limitations of the various models of hepatic I/R are discussed. Several strategies to protect the liver from I/R injury have been developed in animal models and, some of these, might find their way into clinical practice. We also attempt to highlight the fact that the mechanisms responsible for hepatic I/R injury depend on the experimental model used, and therefore the therapeutic strategies also differ according to the model used. Thus, the choice of model must therefore be adapted to the clinical question being answered.

  18. An experimental study on pump clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, M.; Nohmi, M.; Uchida, H.; Kawai, M.; Kudo, H.; Kawahara, T.; Miyagawa, K.; Saito, S.

    2014-03-01

    For sewage pump that various foreign substance is flowed into, anti-clogging performance is a factor as important as pump efficiency in order to avoid clogging trouble by foreign substance. Many investigations about pump inner flow and pump efficiency estimation have been carried out conventionally in order to realize coexistence with anti-clogging performance and pump performance. And these results have been reflected in construction of the running water section design method. As a index of anti-clogging performance, "impeller passage diameter" which is diameter of spherical solid that can pass through the pump is used widely. And there are various type of the sewage pump which have large impeller passage diameter. However real cause of clog is not a solid, and it is fibrous material such as towel and clothes, vinyl and paper diaper. In most case these material accumulate in the pump, so that clog is occurred. In this study, for the purpose of quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials, the factor that affect to clogging of pump was investigated by pump model test using a string. The test is done based on Taguchi method. In this test, type of the pump model, diameter of the string, material of the string, length of the string and flow rate are selected for the factor, and the effect that they have on the clogging of the pump was investigated. As a result of this test, it was made clear that length of the string has a strong influence on the clogging of the pump. And from the result of this test, evaluation method of anti-clogging performance of the pump against fibrous material by using string was considered. According to the result of above test based on Taguchi method, it was assumed that quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials is possible by flowing plural strings into the pump and calculating the probability of passing. Plurality sewage pumps of different types were evaluated based on this assumption

  19. Experimental Study of Rectangular Labyrinth Weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Labyrinth weirs compare with straight weirs had required less freeboard in upstream so they are more appropriate for the irrigation networks. So they could maked more space to sotrage water and restrained foold with higher discharge. Labyrinths weirs have three generally form triangles, trapezoidal and rectangular that Tullis et al. (15 presented formula (3 for discharge coefficient of labyrinth weirs (triangles and rectangular and a few studiescarried out on rectangular shape and its hydraulic characteristics are not specified.Therefore main aim of this paper study and characterized hydraulic characteristics of rectangular labyrinth weirs by using laboratory data. Materials and Methods: In this study rectangular labyrinth weir discharge and coefficient discharge relationships used dimensional analysis and experiment on hydraulic modeling, constant coefficient was defined. Laboratory flume is shown in Figure 2 (0.5 m wide x 12 m long x 0.8 m deep. Models was made from clear plexiglass plate with 10 cm thickness thatcuted using leaserdevice and the crest manualy shaped quadrant with radius 10 cm, all models using silicon glue install in the flume. The upstream depth readership by point gauge that installed in upstream of models. Discharge calcutaed byupsterm depth of triangular weir that installed in down stream of flume.Data were analyzed by SPSS software and to compare relationships with each other used two parameter root mean square error and correlation coefficient and charts darw in Excel Results and Discussion: discharge coefficient formula (11 carried out by using SPSS software that compared with formula (3. Results showed (Tables 2 and 3 that the correlation coefficient of formula (11 was more than a formula (3 and formula (11 RSME was less than formula (3 RSME except in first and fifth hydraulic model (rectengular1 and 5 that they were almost equal. So the formula (11 was more accurate than a formula (3 to peredict

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Studies in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, James [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2017-03-08

    . We note also that PBPL graduates remain as close elaborators for the program after leaving UCLA. The UCLA PBPL program is a foremost developer of on-campus facilities, such as the Neptune and Pegasus Laboratories, providing a uniquely strong environment for student-based research. In addition, the PBPL is a strong user of off-campus national lab facilities, such as SLAC FACET and NLCTA, and the BNL ATF. UCLA has also vigorously participated in the development of these facilities. The dual emphases on off- and on-campus opportunities permit the PBPL to address in an agile way a wide selection of cutting-edge research topics. The topics embraced by this proposal illustrate this program aspect well. These include: GV/m dielectric wakefield acceleration/coherent Cerenkov radiation experiments at FACET (E-201) and the ATF; synergistic laser-excited dielectric accelerator and light source development; plasma wakefield (PWFA) experiments on “Trojan horse” ionization injection (FACET E-210), quasi-nonlinear PWFA at BNL and the production at Neptune high transformer ratio plasma wakes; the inauguration of a new type of RF photoinjector termed “hybrid” at UCLA, and application to PWFA; space-charge dominated beam and cathode/near cathode physics; the study of advanced IFEL systems, for very high energy gain and utilization of novel OAM modes; the physcis of inverse Compton scattering (ICS), with applications to e+ production and γγ colliders; electron diffraction; and advanced beam diagnostics using coherent imaging techniques. These subjects are addressed under the leadership of PBPL director Prof. James Rosenzweig in Task A, and Prof. Pietro Musumeci in Task J, which was initiated following his OHEP Outstanding Junior Investigator award.

  1. Field efficacy study of a novel ready-to-use vaccine against mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus type 2 in a Greek farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzika, Eleni D; Tassis, Panagiotis D; Koulialis, Dimitrios; Papatsiros, Vassileios G; Nell, Tom; Brellou, Georgia; Tsakmakidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, under field conditions, of a novel ready-to use Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M hyo) and Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) combination vaccine given to piglets as one vaccination (1-shot) at 3 weeks of age. The study was carried out according to a controlled, randomised, and blinded design in a Greek pig herd with clinical M. hyo and subclinical PCV2 infection. Moreover, based on serology at the time of vaccination, the average PCV2 titre was 9.15 log 2 and represented the level of maternally derived antibodies (MDA). In total 602 healthy suckling piglets, originating from 4 weekly farrowing batches were allocated randomly, within litters, to one of two groups. The pigs in one group were vaccinated with the test product and the other pigs were injected with saline. Vaccination significantly reduced lesions of craneo-ventral pulmonary consolidation in vaccinated group [expressed as lung lesion score (LLS)] (Mixed model ANOVA: p  < 0.0001). The mean LLS was 17.1 in the controls and 10.6 in the treatment group, respectively. The average daily weight gain (ADWG) during the finishing (54 g better in the treatment group) and whole study period (34 g better in vaccinated animals) was significantly greater in vaccinated than control pigs. The vaccinated pigs had a significant reduction of PCV2 viraemia when compared with the controls. The test product was considered effective in the face of average MDA, based on significantly reduced severity of LLS and PCV2 viral load, as well as improved ADWG in vaccinated versus control pigs.

  2. Isolation, Culture and Identification of Porcine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-jiang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the optimum protocol for the isolation and culture of porcine muscle satellite cells. Mononuclear muscle satellite cells are a kind of adult stem cell, which is located between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of muscle fibers and is the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. Muscle satellite cells are a useful model to investigate the mechanisms of muscle growth and development. Although the isolation and culture protocols of muscle satellite cells in some species (e.g. mouse have been established successfully, the culture system for porcine muscle satellite cells is very limited. In this study, we optimized the isolation procedure of porcine muscle satellite cells and elaborated the isolation and culture process in detail. Furthermore, we characterized the porcine muscle satellite cells using the immunofluorecence. Our study provides a reference for the isolation of porcine muscle satellite cells and will be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms in these cells.

  3. The experimental study of seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    1.The last few years have seen an increased interest in the experimental study of seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory). This paper reviews such experiments, aiming to determine what functional aspects of ichthyochory have been investigated, what experimental designs have been used and what the

  4. Surface heparin treatment of the decellularized porcine heart valve : Effect on tissue calcification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Min; Lin, Yang-Hua; Shi, Wei-Ping; Shi, Hong-Can; Gu, Y. John; Shu, Yu-Sheng

    Tissue calcification is a major cause of failure of bioprosthetic heart valves. Aim of this study was to examine whether surface heparin treatment of the decellularized porcine heart valve reduces tissue calcification. Fresh porcine aortic heart valves were dissected as tissue discs and divided into

  5. Evaluation of a new endoscopic ultrasound-guided multi-fiducial delivery system: a prospective non-survival study in a live porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganov, Peter V; Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya; Wagh, Mihir S

    2013-11-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is an excellent tool for implanting fiducials for gastrointestinal malignancies, but a dedicated delivery system for EUS-guided fiducial placement is not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of a new dedicated EUS-guided multi-fiducial delivery system. This was a prospective live porcine study using prototype 22-G EUS needles preloaded with four fiducials. Primary outcomes were technical success and accuracy of fiducial placement. Secondary outcomes were ease of passage of delivery system, ease of deployment, EUS visualization of the needle, visual appearance of fiducials on EUS, fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT) scans, time taken for fiducial placement and adverse events. Outcomes were scored on a predetermined 5-point Likert scale (1 = best, 5 = worst). Fiducial deployment was successful in 43 out of 45 needles (95.6%). All 172 fiducials (43 needles, four fiducials each)were successfully deployed on target. Fiducial placement accuracy score was 1.30 ± 0.64. All needles passed with ease (score 1.0 ± 0.0). Ease of fiducial deployment score was 1.85 ± 1.02. Mean scores for EUS visualization of the needle and fiducial were 1.02 ± 0.15 and 2.10 ± 0.91, respectively. Fluoroscopic and CT visualization of fiducials was excellent. Time for placement of four fiducials was new EUS-guided multi-fiducial delivery system provided quick, easy, and accurate fiducial deployment without adverse events. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  6. Effects of Lugol staining on stenosis formation induced by radiofrequency ablation of esophageal squamous epithelium: a study in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölvinck, D W; Alvarez Herrero, L; Visser, M; Bergman, J J G H M; Weusten, B L A M

    2015-10-01

    Preliminary data show higher stricture rates after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for early esophageal squamous neoplasia compared with Barrett's esophagus. We studied the effects of Lugol stain (LS) directly prior to RFA on stricture formation in squamous epithelium. Of 16 pigs, the distal half of the esophagus was LS, followed by circumferential RFA (single application 12 J/cm(2) ) in the unstained and stained esophagus. Pigs were euthanized at day 0 (n = 4), 3 (n = 4), or 28 (n = 8). Histology was evaluated in four areas: blank-control (no RFA, no LS), blank-RFA (no LS), LS+RFA, and LS-control (no RFA). Stenosis severity in LS+RFA and blank-RFA at 28 days was assessed by the ratio of the mucosal diameter at the RFA area to the diameter 2 cm proximal of this zone. Histology showed submucosal edema in 50% of LS+RFA versus 0% in blank-RFA. Severity and depth of inflammation (day 3) was equal in LS+RFA and blank-RFA. Severity and depth of fibrosis (day 28) appeared more severe in LS+RFA. Consequently, stenosis was present in 100% (LS+RFA) versus 12.5% (blank-RFA). The stenosis-severity ratio was 0.40 (interquartile range 0.29-0.45) in LS+RFA versus 0.73 (interquartile range 0.64-0.78) in blank-RFA (P = 0.012). Limitations of this study were the difference in uptake of LS between pigs and humans, the difference in esophageal anatomy between pigs and humans, and between the proximal and distal esophagus within pigs. In conclusion, in the porcine squamous esophagus, stenosis rate and severity after RFA increased when preceded by LS. LS may be contributing in the altered response of squamous epithelium to RFA as compared with Barrett's esophagus. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  7. Evaluation of adenosine preconditioning with {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V in a porcine model of myocardium ischemia and reperfusion injury: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Fei [Department of Cardiology, Nanjing First Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, 68 Changle Road, Nanjing 210006 (China); Fang Wei [Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, No. 167 Bei-Li-Shi-Lu, Beijing 100037 (China); Wang Feng, E-mail: fengwang1972cn@gmail.co [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanjing First Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, 68 Changle Road, Nanjing 210006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hua Zichun [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Zizheng [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanjing First Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, 68 Changle Road, Nanjing 210006 (China); Yang Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V for the detection of acute myocardial cell death and to assess the effect of adenosine preconditioning in a porcine model of myocardium ischemia and reperfusion injury (RI). Materials and Methods: {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V was prepared by one-step direct labeling, and RCP and radiostability were tested. The binding of {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V to apoptosis was validated in vitro using camptothecin-induced Jurkat cells. In vivo biodistribution was determined in mice by the dissection method. Ischemia of 20-30 min was induced by balloon occlusion of the epicardial coronary artery of the porcine model (n=14). Adenosine was infused intravenously in six pigs before coronary occlusion. {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V (n=12) was injected intravenously at 1 h after reperfusion. SPECT/CT was acquired at 3 h postinjection. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI was also performed 1 day after His{sub 10}-annexin V imaging. Cardiac tissues were analyzed postmortem using hematoxylin-and-eosin and TUNEL staining. Caspase-3 activity was measured to confirm the presence of apoptosis. Results: {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V had a RCP >98% and high stability 2 h after radiolabeling; it could bind to apoptotic cells with high affinity. Biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin V showed a predominant uptake in the kidney and relatively low uptake in the myocardium, liver and gastrointestinal tract; rapid clearance from blood and kidney was observed. In the untreated group, intense uptake of His{sub 10}-annexin V was visualized in the defect which was shown in MPI, whereas in the adenosine group a mild uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-His{sub 10}-annexin was found in the risk area which showed no defects in the {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI image. TUNEL staining and activated caspase-3 confirmed the ongoing apoptosis in RI. Adenosine preconditioning significantly

  8. Inner detached frequency response curves: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Gianluca; Brennan, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    Certain nonlinear vibrating systems have frequency response curves (FRCs), in which isolated detached curves exist inside the main continuous FRC. The behavior of these systems has hitherto been studied analytically and numerically, but to the authors' knowledge, there is no record of an inner detached FRC being detected experimentally. These curves may be hidden by numerical or experimental analysis, particularly when a system is subject to swept or stepped-sine excitation. Their existence may thus lead to unexpected dramatic changes in the amplitude of the system response. This paper presents an experimental study that involves the design, construction and testing of a specific system that has an isolated detached FRC inside the main continuous FRC. The experimental design of the test rig is supported by multibody dynamic simulations, and in the experimental tests the existence of a detached FRC was verified.

  9. Estudo ultrassonográfico morfométrico do fígado e trato biliar de suínos submetidos a obstrução biliar experimental Sonographic morphometry of the liver and biliary tract in porcine models submitted to experimental biliary obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gomes de Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as alterações anatômicas decorrentes de um quadro de icterícia obstrutiva experimental induzida em suínos nos períodos pré e pós-operatório por meio de exame ultrassonográfico. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Seis suínos da raça Landrace, com 36 dias de idade, foram submetidos a obstrução biliar completa mediante ligadura do ducto colédoco por cirurgia videolaparoscópica. RESULTADOS: Não ocorreram dificuldades na execução dos procedimentos obstrutivos e a recuperação cirúrgica foi eficiente. Decorridos sete dias, os animais apresentaram icterícia, bilirrubinúria e acolia fecal. O exame ultrassonográfico comparativo permitiu visualizar hepatomegalia, colecistomegalia e aumento no calibre do ducto colédoco em todos os animais, assim como alterações decorrentes da colestase. A avaliação morfométrica revelou aumento significativo nos diâmetros da vesícula biliar e do lobo hepático lateral esquerdo. CONCLUSÃO: Os suínos representam um modelo experimental adequado de icterícia obstrutiva, e o exame ultrassonográfico demonstrou-se sensível e relevante no diagnóstico das alterações decorrentes de obstrução biliar extra-hepática nesses animais.OBJECTIVE: To compare, by means of ultrasonography, pre- and postoperative anatomical changes arising from experimentally induced obstructive jaundice in porcine models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six 36-day-old Landrace pigs underwent laparoscopically induced complete biliary obstruction by common bile duct ligation. RESULTS: No difficulty was faced during the procedures and the surgical recovery was uneventful. After seven days, the animals showed jaundice, bilirubinuria and acholic stools. Comparative ultrasonography allowed visualization of hepatomegaly, cholecystomegaly and increased caliber of the common bile duct in all the animals, as well as changes resulting from cholestasis. The morphometric analysis revealed a significant increase in diameter of the

  10. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  11. Which is best method for instillation of topical therapy to the upper urinary tract? An in vivo porcine study to evaluate three delivery methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbang Liu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the staining intensity of the upper urinary tract (UUT urothelium among three UUT delivery methods in an in vivo porcine model. Materials and methods: A fluorescent dye solution (indigo carmine was delivered to the UUT via three different methods: antegrade perfusion, vesico-ureteral reflux via in-dwelling ureteric stent and retrograde perfusion via a 5F open-ended ureteral catheter. Twelve renal units were tested with 4 in each method. After a 2-hour delivery time, the renal-ureter units were harvested en bloc. Time from harvesting to analysis was also standardised to be 2 hours in each arm. Three urothelium samples of the same weight and size were taken from each of the 6 pre-defined points (upper pole, mid pole, lower pole, renal pelvis, mid ureter and distal ureter and the amount of fluorescence was measured with a spectrometer. Results: The mean fluorescence detected at all 6 predefined points of the UUT urothelium was the highest for the retrograde method. This was statistically significant with p-value less than <0.05 at all 6 points. Conclusions: Retrograde infusion of UUT by an open ended ureteral catheter resulted in highest mean fluorescence detected at all 6 pre-defined points of the UUT urothelium compared to antegrade infusion and vesico-ureteral reflux via indwelling ureteric stents indicating retrograde method ideal for topical therapy throughout the UUT urothelium. More clinical studies are needed to demonstrate if retrograde method could lead to better clinical outcomes compared to the other two methods.

  12. Efficacy of a novel bipolar radiofrequency ablation device on the beating heart for atrial fibrillation ablation: a long-term porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeller, Rochus K; Zierer, Andreas; Lall, Shelly C; Sakamoto, Shun-ichiro; Schuessler, Richard B; Damiano, Ralph J

    2010-07-01

    Over recent years, a variety of energy sources have been used to replace the traditional incisions of the Cox maze procedure for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a new bipolar radiofrequency ablation device for atrial ablation in a long-term porcine model. Six pigs underwent a Cox maze IV procedure on a beating heart off cardiopulmonary bypass using the AtriCure Isolator II bipolar ablation device (AtriCure, Inc, Cincinnati, Ohio). In addition, 6 pigs underwent median sternotomy and pericardiotomy alone to serve as a control group. All animals were allowed to survive for 30 days. Each pig underwent induction of atrial fibrillation and was then humanely killed to remove the heart en bloc for histologic assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were also obtained preoperatively and postoperatively to assess atrial and ventricular function, pulmonary vein anatomy, valve function, and coronary artery patency. All animals survived the operation. Electrical isolation of the left atrial appendage and the pulmonary veins was documented by pacing acutely and at 30 days in all animals. No animal that underwent the Cox maze IV procedure was able to be induced into atrial fibrillation at 30 days postoperatively, compared with all the sham animals. All 257 ablations examined were discrete, linear, and transmural, with a mean lesion width of 2.2 +/- 1.1 mm and a mean lesion depth of 5.3 +/- 3.0 mm. The AtriCure Isolator II device was able to create reliable long-term transmural lesions of the modified Cox maze procedure on a beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass 100% of the time. There were no discernible effects on ventricular or valvular function. 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preclinical Study of Single-Dose Moxidectin, a New Oral Treatment for Scabies: Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics Compared to Two-Dose Ivermectin in a Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Bernigaud

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is one of the commonest dermatological conditions globally; however it is a largely underexplored and truly neglected infectious disease. Foremost, improvement in the management of this public health burden is imperative. Current treatments with topical agents and/or oral ivermectin (IVM are insufficient and drug resistance is emerging. Moxidectin (MOX, with more advantageous pharmacological profiles may be a promising alternative.Using a porcine scabies model, 12 pigs were randomly assigned to receive orally either MOX (0.3 mg/kg once, IVM (0.2 mg/kg twice or no treatment. We evaluated treatment efficacies by assessing mite count, clinical lesions, pruritus and ELISA-determined anti-S. scabiei IgG antibodies reductions. Plasma and skin pharmacokinetic profiles were determined. At day 14 post-treatment, all four MOX-treated but only two IVM-treated pigs were mite-free. MOX efficacy was 100% and remained unchanged until study-end (D47, compared to 62% (range 26-100% for IVM, with one IVM-treated pig remaining infected until D47. Clinical scabies lesions, pruritus and anti-S. scabiei IgG antibodies had completely disappeared in all MOX-treated but only 75% of IVM-treated pigs. MOX persisted ~9 times longer than IVM in plasma and skin, thereby covering the mite's entire life cycle and enabling long-lasting efficacy.Our data demonstrate that oral single-dose MOX was more effective than two consecutive IVM-doses, supporting MOX as potential therapeutic approach for scabies.

  14. Autologous bone marrow cell implantation attenuates left ventricular remodeling and improves heart function in porcine myocardial infarction: an echocardiographic, six-month angiographic, and molecular-cellular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Steve; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Chang, Li-Teh; Yuen, Chun-Man; Yen, Chia-Hung; Chiang, Chiang-Hua; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Pei, Sung-Nan; Chua, Sarah; Youssef, Ali A; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2011-07-15

    We investigated the potential benefits and the underlying mechanisms of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMDMNC) implantation in a porcine model of acute anterior wall myocardial infarction (AAWMI) by studying 6-month left ventricular (LV) function and LV remodeling. After being aspirated from the iliac crest and cultured for 1 week, BMDMNCs were implanted immediately after AAWMI induction through the left anterior descending artery ligation. Thirty male mini-pigs (16-18 kg) were equally divided into group 1 [AAWMI plus saline injection into infarct-ischemia area (IA)], group 2 (AAWMI plus 3.0 × 10⁷ BMDMNC transplantation into non-IA), group 3 (AAWMI plus 3.0 × 10⁷ BMDMNC transplantation into IA), group 4 (sham control plus 3.0 × 10⁷ BMDMNC transplantation into LV myocardium), and group 5 (normal control). By day 90, echocardiography demonstrated an increased LV end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions but reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF) in groups 1 and 2 than in other groups (all p infarct area, the number of small vessels and mRNA expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, Bcl-2, interleukin (IL)-10, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α were lower, whereas the number of apoptotic nuclei, caspase-3, Bax, endothelin-1, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinase was higher in groups 1 and 2 than in other groups (all p < 0.01). Autologous BMDMNC transplantation into IA rather non-IA improves LV function and reduces LV remodeling via eliciting a broad-spectrum of molecular-cellular defensive mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on pathogenesis and treatment of experimental immune complex glomerulonephrtis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, Gerard Johannes Maria

    1976-01-01

    Chapter 1. In this thesis an investigation into pathogenetic mechanisms of epimembranous immune complex depostion in the glomeruli was described. For this study we used two related models of experimental immune complex glemerulonephritis: the heterologous and the autologous immune complex

  16. Experimental study of convective flows in the freezer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoshlykov Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an experimental study of convective heat transfer in the amount of air and water in the freezer, under various operating conditions of the refrigeration unit.

  17. Experimental geothermal research facilities study (Phase 0). Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The study comprises Phase 0 of a project for Experimental Geothermal Research Facilities. The study focuses on identification of a representative liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of moderate temperature and salinity, preliminary engineering design of an appropriate energy conversion system, identification of critical technology, and planning for implementation of experimental facilities. The objectives included development of liaison with the industrial sector, to ensure responsiveness to their views in facility requirements and planning, and incorporation of environmental and socioeconomic factors. This Phase 0 report covers problem definition and systems requirements. Facilities will incorporate capability for research in component, system, and materials technology and a nominal 10 MWe experimental, binary cycle, power generating plant.

  18. Interphase chromosome positioning in in vitro porcine cells and ex vivo porcine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Helen A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In interphase nuclei of a wide range of species chromosomes are organised into their own specific locations termed territories. These chromosome territories are non-randomly positioned in nuclei which is believed to be related to a spatial aspect of regulatory control over gene expression. In this study we have adopted the pig as a model in which to study interphase chromosome positioning and follows on from other studies from our group of using pig cells and tissues to study interphase genome re-positioning during differentiation. The pig is an important model organism both economically and as a closely related species to study human disease models. This is why great efforts have been made to accomplish the full genome sequence in the last decade. Results This study has positioned most of the porcine chromosomes in in vitro cultured adult and embryonic fibroblasts, early passage stromal derived mesenchymal stem cells and lymphocytes. The study is further expanded to position four chromosomes in ex vivo tissue derived from pig kidney, lung and brain. Conclusions It was concluded that porcine chromosomes are also non-randomly positioned within interphase nuclei with few major differences in chromosome position in interphase nuclei between different cell and tissue types. There were also no differences between preferred nuclear location of chromosomes in in vitro cultured cells as compared to cells in tissue sections. Using a number of analyses to ascertain by what criteria porcine chromosomes were positioned in interphase nuclei; we found a correlation with DNA content.

  19. Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010.......This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010....

  20. Genetic Characterization of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 from Pigs with Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Bratanich, Ana; Quiroga, María Alejandra; Bucafusco, Danilo; Craig, María Isabel; Cappuccio, Javier; Machuca, Mariana; Rimondi, Agustina; Dibárbora, Marina; Sanguinetti, Hector Ramón; Perfumo, Carlos Juan

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been associated with syndromes grouped by the term porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The PCV-2 isolates have been grouped into two major groups or genotypes according to their nucleotide sequence of whole genomes and/or ORF-2: PCV-2b, which have, in turn, been subdivided into three clusters (1A–1C), and PCV-2a, which has been subdivided into five clusters (2A–2E). In the present study, we obtained 16 sequences of PCV-2 from different farms from 2003 to 2008, from animals with confirmatory diagnosis of PCVAD. Since results showed an identity of 99.8% among them, they were grouped within a common cluster 1A-B. This preliminary study suggests a stable circulation of PCV-2b among the Argentinean pig population. PMID:23738099

  1. Genetic characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 from pigs with porcine circovirus associated diseases in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Bratanich, Ana; Quiroga, María Alejandra; Bucafusco, Danilo; Craig, María Isabel; Cappuccio, Javier; Machuca, Mariana; Rimondi, Agustina; Dibárbora, Marina; Sanguinetti, Hector Ramón; Perfumo, Carlos Juan

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been associated with syndromes grouped by the term porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The PCV-2 isolates have been grouped into two major groups or genotypes according to their nucleotide sequence of whole genomes and/or ORF-2: PCV-2b, which have, in turn, been subdivided into three clusters (1A-1C), and PCV-2a, which has been subdivided into five clusters (2A-2E). In the present study, we obtained 16 sequences of PCV-2 from different farms from 2003 to 2008, from animals with confirmatory diagnosis of PCVAD. Since results showed an identity of 99.8% among them, they were grouped within a common cluster 1A-B. This preliminary study suggests a stable circulation of PCV-2b among the Argentinean pig population.

  2. Survey on porcine trichinellosis in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chávez-Larrea, M. A.; Dorny, P.; Møller, L. N.

    2004-01-01

    A survey on porcine trichinellosis was organised in Ecuador between 2000 and 2003. Blood samples were taken in slaughterhouses (study 1, n = 2000; study 2, n = 331) and in a remote village where pigs are free roaming (study 3, n = 646) and examined by ELISA using excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens...... that Trichinella is present in Ecuador; however, prevalence and parasite burdens are likely to be very low. The likelihood of detecting trichinellosis are higher in traditional settings than in pigs raised on improved farms...

  3. Characterization of Porcine Ventral Mesencephalic Precursor Cells following Long-Term Propagation in 3D Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia S. Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of predifferentiated neural precursor cells for treatment of a neurological disorder like Parkinson’s disease combines stem cell research with previous experimental and clinical transplantation of developing dopaminergic neurons. One current obstacle is, however, the lack of ability to generate dopaminergic neurons after long-term in vitro propagation of the cells. The domestic pig is considered a useful nonprimate large animal model in neuroscience, because of a better resemblance of the larger gyrencephalic pig brain to the human brain than the commonly used brains of smaller rodents. In the present study, porcine embryonic (28–30 days, ventral mesencephalic precursor cells were isolated and propagated as free-floating neural tissue spheres in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2. For passaging, the tissue spheres were cut into quarters, avoiding mechanical or enzymatic dissociation in order to minimize cellular trauma and preserve intercellular contacts. Spheres were propagated for up to 237 days with analysis of cellular content and differentiation at various time points. Our study provides the first demonstration that porcine ventral mesencephalic precursor cells can be long-term propagated as neural tissue spheres, thereby providing an experimental 3D in vitro model for studies of neural precursor cells, their niche, and differentiation capacity.

  4. Characterization of Porcine Ventral Mesencephalic Precursor Cells following Long-Term Propagation in 3D Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pia S.; Lyck, Lise; Jensen, Pia; Zimmer, Jens; Meyer, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The potential use of predifferentiated neural precursor cells for treatment of a neurological disorder like Parkinson's disease combines stem cell research with previous experimental and clinical transplantation of developing dopaminergic neurons. One current obstacle is, however, the lack of ability to generate dopaminergic neurons after long-term in vitro propagation of the cells. The domestic pig is considered a useful nonprimate large animal model in neuroscience, because of a better resemblance of the larger gyrencephalic pig brain to the human brain than the commonly used brains of smaller rodents. In the present study, porcine embryonic (28–30 days), ventral mesencephalic precursor cells were isolated and propagated as free-floating neural tissue spheres in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2. For passaging, the tissue spheres were cut into quarters, avoiding mechanical or enzymatic dissociation in order to minimize cellular trauma and preserve intercellular contacts. Spheres were propagated for up to 237 days with analysis of cellular content and differentiation at various time points. Our study provides the first demonstration that porcine ventral mesencephalic precursor cells can be long-term propagated as neural tissue spheres, thereby providing an experimental 3D in vitro model for studies of neural precursor cells, their niche, and differentiation capacity. PMID:23258982

  5. Porcine model of hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwakura, Yuji; Mimuro, Jun; Onishi, Akira; Iwamoto, Masaki; Madoiwa, Seiji; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Suzuki, Misae; Sembon, Shoichiro; Ishiwata, Akira; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Sakata, Asuka; Ohmori, Tsukasa; Hashimoto, Michiko; Yazaki, Satoko; Sakata, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8). Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  6. Porcine model of hemophilia A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kashiwakura

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8. Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  7. A theoretical and experimental study of coplanar waveguide shunt stubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Nihad I.; Ponchak, George E.; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of straight and bent coplanar waveguide (CPW) shunt stubs is presented. In the theoretical analysis, the CPW is assumed to be inside a cavity while, the experiments are performed on open structures. For the analysis of CPW discontinuities with air-bridges, a hybrid technique was developed which was validated through extensive theoretical and experimental comparisons. The effect of the cavity resonances on the behavior of the stubs with and without air-bridges is investigated. In addition, the encountered radiation loss due to the discontinuities is evaluated experimentally.

  8. Experimental study of the robust global synchronization of Brockett oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hafiz; Ushirobira, Rosane; Efimov, Denis

    2017-12-01

    This article studies the experimental synchronization of a family of a recently proposed oscillator model, i.e. the Brockett oscillator [R. Brockett, Synchronization without periodicity, in Mathematical Systems Theory, A Volume in Honor of U. Helmke, edited by K. Huper, J. Trumpf (CreateSpace, Seattle, USA, 2013), pp. 65-74]. Due to its structural property, Brockett oscillator can be considered as a promising benchmark nonlinear model for investigating synchronization and the consensus phenomena. Our experimental setup consists of analog circuit realizations of a network of Brockett oscillators. Experimental results obtained in this work correspond to the prior theoretical findings.

  9. Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A Ngowi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8 months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4 months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784. The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km

  10. Cryptosporidium parvum: infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2003-01-01

    Genetic studies have demonstrated profound differences between the 'porcine' genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum, versus 'human' and 'bovine' genotypes. The study analysed infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype (CPP-13 isolate) of C. parvum, and compared the results with published...... data on the 'bovine' genotype (CPB-0 isolate). This was investigated in calves and piglets from commercial herds. Piglets were mildly affected by the CPP-13 isolate, contrary to piglets infected with the CPB-0 isolate, which caused diarrhoea of a mean duration of 3.5 days. CPP-13 produced no or very...

  11. Using an experimental model for the study of therapeutic touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daniella Soares; Marta, Ilda Estéfani Ribeiro; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari; de Quadros, Andreza Urba; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2013-02-01

    to verify whether the Paw Edema Model can be used in investigations about the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation by measuring the variables pain, edema and neutrophil migration. this is a pilot and experimental study, involving ten male mice of the same genetic strain and divided into experimental and control group, submitted to the chemical induction of local inflammation in the right back paw. The experimental group received a daily administration of Therapeutic Touch for 15 minutes during three days. the data showed statistically significant differences in the nociceptive threshold and in the paw circumference of the animals from the experimental group on the second day of the experiment. the experiment model involving animals can contribute to study the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation, and adjustments are suggested in the treatment duration, number of sessions and experiment duration.

  12. Expression and characterization of recombinant soluble porcine CD3 ectodomain molecules: Mapping the epitope of an anti-porcine CD3 monoclonal antibody 898H2-6-15

    OpenAIRE

    Peraino, Jaclyn Stromp; Hermanrud, Christina E.; Springett, Lauren; Zhang, Huiping; Li, Guoying; Srinivasan, Srimathi; Gusha, Ashley; Sachs, David H.; Huang, Christene A.; Wang, Zhirui

    2012-01-01

    The porcine CD3 specific monoclonal antibody 898H2-6-15 has been used in allo- and xeno-transplantation studies as a porcine CD3 marker and as an effective T cell depletion reagent when conjugated to the diphtheria toxin mutant, CRM9. A recombinant anti-porcine CD3 immuntoxin was recently developed using single-chain variable fragments (scFv) derived from 898H2-6-15. In this study, using published sequence data, we have expressed the porcine CD3 ectodomain molecules in E. coli through inclusi...

  13. An epidemiological investigation of the early phase of the porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreak in Canadian swine herds in 2014: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Amanda M; Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Cate; Harding, John C S; O'Sullivan, Terri L

    2018-02-01

    The first case of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in Canada was diagnosed in January 2014 in Ontario, approximately 9 months after PED emerged in the United States. An early investigation of the Canadian outbreak suspected that the probable source of the virus was contaminated feed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of feed and other possible factors in the early phase of the PED outbreak in Canadian swine herds. The study period of interest for this case-control study was January 22nd to March 1st, 2014. A case herd was defined as a swine herd with a confirmed positive laboratory diagnostic test (RT-PCR) results for PED virus, along with pigs exhibiting typical clinical signs at the herd level during the study period. A questionnaire was administered to participating producers from the 22 Canadian swine herds enrolled (n = 9 case and n = 13 control herds). Case herd producers were asked to provide information from the initial day of onset of clinical signs and 30 days prior to that day. Control herds were matched to a case herd on the basis of province, herd type and approximate size. The period of interest for a control herd was matched to the initial day of clinical signs of PED for the case herd, along with the 30 days prior to this day. The questionnaire questions focused on herd demographics, biosecurity protocols, live animal movements onto and off sites, deadstock movements, feed and people movements for both the case and control herds. The questionnaire for control herds were based on their matched case's period of interest, and together with case herds formed a matched stratum. Multivariable exact conditional logistic regression and mixed multivariable logistic regression models, with the matched stratum as a random effect, were used to assess the association between various risk factors and the odds of PED introduction into a herd. After adjusting for biosecurity practices, the odds of a PED occurrence was 38.1 (95% CI: 2

  14. Intramyocardial Injection of Pig Pluripotent Stem Cells Improves Left Ventricular Function and Perfusion: A Study in a Porcine Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Fengxiang; Song, Guixian; Gu, Weijuan; Chen, Minglong; Yang, Bing; Li, Dianfu; Wang, Daowu; Cao, Kejiang

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the potential to differentiate to various types of cardiovascular cells to repair an injured heart. The potential therapeutic benefits of iPS cell based treatment have been established in small-animal models of myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesize that porcine iPS (piPS) cell transplantation may be an effective treatment for MI. After a 90-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending artery in a porcine model, undifferentiated piPS cells or PBS were injected into the ischemic myocardium. Cardiac function, myocardial perfusion and cell differentiation were investigated. One week after piPS cell delivery, global left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) significantly decreased in both the iPS group and the PBS group compared to the Sham group (pinfarct area was significantly smaller in the iPS group than the PBS group (12.04% vs. 15.98% p = 0.01). PiPS cells engrafted into the myocardium can differentiate into vessel cells, which result in increased formation of new vessels in the infarcted heart. Direct intramyocardial injection of piPS cells can decrease infarct size and improve left ventricular function and perfusion for an immunosuppressed porcine AMI model.

  15. Investigation of SNPs in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, L.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Fredholm, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Desmoglein I (DSGI) is the target protein in the skin disease exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by virulent strains of Staphylococcus hyicus. The exfoliative toxins produced by S. hyicus digest the porcine desmoglein I (PIG)DSGI by a very specific reaction. This study investigated...... the location of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine desmoglein I gene (PIG)DSGI in correlation to the cleavage site as well as if the genotype of the SNPs is correlated to susceptibility or resistance to the disease. Results: DNA from 32 affected and 32 unaffected piglets with exudative...... the genotypes of two out of seven SNPs found in the porcine desmoglein I gene and the susceptibility to exudative epidermitis....

  16. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  17. Rapamycin-induced autophagy restricts porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infectivity in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seongyeol; Gu, Min Jeong; Kim, Cheol Gyun; Kye, Yoon Chul; Lim, Younggap; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Byung-Chul; Chu, Hyuk; Han, Seung Hyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2017-10-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) invades porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and causes diarrhea and dehydration in pigs. In the present study, we showed a suppression of PEDV infection in porcine jejunum intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) by an increase in autophagy. Autophagy was activated by rapamycin at a dose that does not affect cell viability and tight junction permeability. The induction of autophagy was examined by LC3I/LC3II conversion. To confirm the autophagic-flux (entire autophagy pathway), autophagolysosomes were examined by an immunofluorescence assay. Pre-treatment with rapamycin significantly restricted not only a 1 h infection but also a longer infection (24 h) with PEDV, while this effect disappeared when autophagy was blocked. Co-localization of PEDV and autophagosomes suggests that PEDV could be a target of autophagy. Moreover, alleviation of PEDV-induced cell death in IPEC-J2 cells pretreated with rapamycin demonstrates a protective effect of rapamycin against PEDV-induced epithelial cell death. Collectively, the present study suggests an early prevention against PEDV infection in IPEC-J2 cells via autophagy that might be an effective strategy for the restriction of PEDV, and opens up the possibility of the use of rapamycin in vivo as an effective prophylactic and prevention treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Barbed Sutures in Porcine Flexor Tenorrhaphy

    OpenAIRE

    Sull, Alan; Inceoglu, Serkan; August, Alicia; Gregorius, Stephen; Wongworawat, Montri D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Barbed suture use has become more popular as technology and materials have advanced. Minimal data exist regarding performance of the 2 commercially available products, V-LocTM and StratafixTM in tendon repairs. The purpose of this study was to compare gap resistance and ultimate tensile strength of both suture materials and nonbarbed suture in a porcine ex vivo model. Methods: Porcine flexor tendons were harvested and divided into 3 groups of 10 of varying suture material (3-0 PDS...

  19. Development of a typing system for epidemiological studies of porcine toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Nielsen, Jens; Bisgaard, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate capsular-typing, plasmid-profiling, phage-typing and ribotyping for epidemiological studies of toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark. The evaluation of methods was based on 68 strains from nasal swabs and 14 strains from...... by HindIII ribotyping, as 85% of isolates from all herds were assigned to one ribotype. In conclusion, HindIII ribotyping seems to represent a useful tool for epidemiological studies of toxigenic P. multocida ssp. multocida....

  20. In vitro porcine blood-brain barrier model for permeability studies: pCEL-X software pKa(FLUX) method for aqueous boundary layer correction and detailed data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Siti R; Avdeef, Alex; Abbott, N Joan

    2014-12-18

    In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models from primary brain endothelial cells can closely resemble the in vivo BBB, offering valuable models to assay BBB functions and to screen potential central nervous system drugs. We have recently developed an in vitro BBB model using primary porcine brain endothelial cells. The model shows expression of tight junction proteins and high transendothelial electrical resistance, evidence for a restrictive paracellular pathway. Validation studies using small drug-like compounds demonstrated functional uptake and efflux transporters, showing the suitability of the model to assay drug permeability. However, one limitation of in vitro model permeability measurement is the presence of the aqueous boundary layer (ABL) resulting from inefficient stirring during the permeability assay. The ABL can be a rate-limiting step in permeation, particularly for lipophilic compounds, causing underestimation of the permeability. If the ABL effect is ignored, the permeability measured in vitro will not reflect the permeability in vivo. To address the issue, we explored the combination of in vitro permeability measurement using our porcine model with the pKa(FLUX) method in pCEL-X software to correct for the ABL effect and allow a detailed analysis of in vitro (transendothelial) permeability data, Papp. Published Papp using porcine models generated by our group and other groups are also analyzed. From the Papp, intrinsic transcellular permeability (P0) is derived by simultaneous refinement using a weighted nonlinear regression, taking into account permeability through the ABL, paracellular permeability and filter restrictions on permeation. The in vitro P0 derived for 22 compounds (35 measurements) showed good correlation with P0 derived from in situ brain perfusion data (r(2)=0.61). The analysis also gave evidence for carrier-mediated uptake of naloxone, propranolol and vinblastine. The combination of the in vitro porcine model and the software

  1. Experimental study of mechanical properties of friction welded AISI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Friction welding is widely used as a mass production method in various industries. In the present study, an experimental set-up was designed in order to achieve friction welding of plastically deformed AISI 1021 steels. In this study, low alloy steel (AISI 1021) was welded under different welding parameters and afterwards ...

  2. Experimental study of mechanical properties of friction welded AISI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Friction welding is widely used as a mass production method in vari- ous industries. In the present study, an experimental set-up was designed in order to achieve friction welding of plastically deformed AISI 1021 steels. In this study, low alloy steel (AISI 1021) was welded under different welding parameters and ...

  3. Infections in orthopaedic surgery : clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogely, Henri Charles

    2000-01-01

    The diagnostic difficulties, variability in outcome and the heterogeinity of the problem of orthopaedic infections stimulated the author to a study of the literature, and several clinical and experimental studies. The diagnosis prosthesis-related infection can only be reached with an acceptable

  4. Systematic review of experimental studies on intestinal anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yauw, S.T.K.; Wever, K.E.; Hoesseini, A.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.; Goor, H. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The contribution of animal research to a reduction in clinical intestinal anastomotic leakage is unknown, despite numerous experimental studies. In view of the current societal call to replace, reduce and refine animal experiments, this study examined the quality of animal research

  5. What Shapes the Intention to Study Abroad? An Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Knut; Moog, Petra

    2018-01-01

    In contrast to previous studies, this investigation aims to get deeper insights into the causes of the intention to study abroad by using an experimental approach. Although international experience is often considered as important, many students at German universities do not even consider abroad. Referring to the Theory of Rational Choice (RCT)…

  6. Experimental Study of the Production of Solar Hydrogen in Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. In this study hydrogen is produced using a hydrogen generator with a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolyser. An experimental study is done in the Center of Development of the Renewable ...

  7. Experimental Studies on Electronic Portfolios in Turkey: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Selahattin; Sünbül, Ali Murat

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a literature review was conducted about an individual's selected efforts, products stored in electronic format, and electronic portfolios that reflect the development and capacity of multimedia systems. In this context, relevant experimental studies performed in Turkey are collected to show e-portfolio application forms, their…

  8. AMFR gene silencing inhibits the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Z; Zhu, Y N; Chai, M L; Dai, L S; Gao, Y; Jiang, H; Zhang, L J; Ding, Y; Liu, S Y; Li, Q Y; Lu, W F; Zhang, J B

    2016-04-07

    Our study clarifies the role of the autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) gene in porcine preadipocyte differentiation. AMFR-siRNA was transfected into porcine preadipocytes and the preadipocytes were induced to differentiation. Subsequently, qRT-PCR was conducted to examine changes in mRNA expression of a series of genes in porcine preadipocytes, including AMFR, sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP1a), SREBP2, insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1), and Insig2. Expression changes in the mRNA of genes regulating adipocyte differentiation were also analyzed using qRT-PCR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Western blot analysis was conducted to examine the changes in AMFR protein expression in porcine preadipocytes. Additionally, morphological changes in differentiated porcine preadipocytes were examined by oil red O staining, and changes in optical density (OD) values were measured using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. At 24 h after transfection with AMFR-siRNA, AMFR mRNA expression significantly reduced (P SREBP1a, SREBP2, Insig1, and C/EBPα was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), whereas the expression of KLF2 mRNA was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). After induction of preadipocyte differentiation, the number of lipid droplets decreased in the AMFR-silenced group, and the OD value markedly reduced (P < 0.05). In addition, the expression of C/EBPα mRNA significantly decreased (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of KLF2 mRNA considerably increased (P < 0.05). Taken together, silencing of the AMFR gene inhibits the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes.

  9. Polymorphism of the porcine CGA gene and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to dissect potential genetic factors for these unstable results and validate the association or linkage relationship of CGA gene with growth and carcass traits. By resequencing all the exons and part of the introns of the porcine CGA gene, 22 polymorphisms in total were identified in this study.

  10. Generation of a Stable Transgenic Swine Model Expressing a Porcine Histone 2B-eGFP Fusion Protein for Cell Tracking and Chromosome Dynamics Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan B Sper

    Full Text Available Transgenic pigs have become an attractive research model in the field of translational research, regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapy due to their anatomic, genetic and physiological similarities with humans. The development of fluorescent proteins as molecular tags has allowed investigators to track cell migration and engraftment levels after transplantation. Here we describe the development of two transgenic pig models via SCNT expressing a fusion protein composed of eGFP and porcine Histone 2B (pH2B. This fusion protein is targeted to the nucleosomes resulting a nuclear/chromatin eGFP signal. The first model (I was generated via random insertion of pH2B-eGFP driven by the CAG promoter (chicken beta actin promoter and rabbit Globin poly A; pCAG-pH2B-eGFP and protected by human interferon-β matrix attachment regions (MARs. Despite the consistent, high, and ubiquitous expression of the fusion protein pH2B-eGFP in all tissues analyzed, two independently generated Model I transgenic lines developed neurodegenerative symptoms including Wallerian degeneration between 3-5 months of age, requiring euthanasia. A second transgenic model (II was developed via CRISPR-Cas9 mediated homology-directed repair (HDR of IRES-pH2B-eGFP into the endogenous β-actin (ACTB locus. Model II transgenic animals showed ubiquitous expression of pH2B-eGFP on all tissues analyzed. Unlike the pCAG-pH2B-eGFP/MAR line, all Model II animals were healthy and multiple pregnancies have been established with progeny showing the expected Mendelian ratio for the transmission of the pH2B-eGFP. Expression of pH2B-eGFP was used to examine the timing of the maternal to zygotic transition after IVF, and to examine chromosome segregation of SCNT embryos. To our knowledge this is the first viable transgenic pig model with chromatin-associated eGFP allowing both cell tracking and the study of chromatin dynamics in a large animal model.

  11. Diffusion in liquids a theoretical and experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Tyrrell, H J V

    1984-01-01

    Diffusion in Liquids: A Theoretical and Experimental Study aims to discuss the principles, applications, and advances in the field of diffusion, thermal diffusion, and thermal conduction in liquid systems. The book covers topics such as the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics; diffusion in binary and multicompetent systems; and experimental methods of studying diffusion processes in liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as the theoretical interpretations of diffusion coefficients; hydrodynamic and kinetic theories; and diffusion in electrolyte systems. The text is recommen

  12. Analytical and Experimental Study of Residual Stresses in CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating sensors (FBGs have been utilized in various engineering and photoelectric fields because of their good environment tolerance. In this research, residual stresses of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRP were studied using both experimental and analytical approach. The FBGs were embedded inside middle layers of CFRP to study the formation of residual stress during curing process. Finite element analysis was performed using ABAQUS software to simulate the CFRP curing process. Both experimental and simulation results showed that the residual stress appeared during cooling process and the residual stresses could be released when the CFRP was machined to a different shape.

  13. Cerebrovenous blood temperature-influence of cerebral perfusion pressure changes and hyperventilation: evaluation in a porcine study and in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, T; Rieger, A; Roth, S; Soukup, J; Furka, I; Lindner, J; Telgmaa, L; Hennig, C; Radke, J; Menzel, M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the first part of this study was to use an animal model to investigate the relationship between temperature in the cerebrovenous compartment and cerebral perfusion pressure. In the second part of the study, the objective was to examine the influence of hyperventilation and hypothermia on jugular bulb temperature and body temperature in patients undergoing elective neurosurgery. Intracranial pressure was increased artificially by inflating an infratentorial supracerebellar placed balloon catheter in nine pigs under general anesthesia. Temperature was monitored by thermocouples inserted in the sagittal sinus, white matter of the left lobe and abdominal aorta during the ensuing decrease in cerebral profusion pressure (CPP). Cerebrovenous blood temperature (jugular bulb) and body temperature (urinary bladder) were simultaneously monitored in 24 patients undergoing craniotomy. Moderate hyperventilation was performed in all patients. Cerebrovenous blood and core body temperature were recorded and differences between these two temperatures calculated at the beginning and the end of hyperventilation. At the beginning of the intracranial pressure (ICP), increase mean temperatures of cerebrovenous blood and cerebral tissue (left lobe) were lower than core body temperature. During CPP reduction the difference between core body temperature and cerebrovenous blood temperature increased significantly from 0.86+/-0.44 degrees C prior to ICP rise to 1.19+/-0.58 degrees C at maximum ICP. Before hyperventilation, cerebrovenous blood temperature was higher in 19 patients (+/- difference: 0.34 degrees C +/- 0.27) and equal or lower in five patients (difference: -0.08 degrees C +/- 0.11), than core body temperature. At the end of hyperventilation, the difference between cerebrovenous blood temperature and core body temperature increased (+0.42 degrees C +/- 0.24) in those 19 patients who had started with a higher cerebrovenous blood temperature and decreased (-0

  14. Combined analyses of data from quantitative trait loci mapping studies. Chromosome 4 effects on porcine growth and fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, G A; Visscher, P M; Andersson, L; Rothschild, M F; Wang, L; Moser, G; Groenen, M A; Bidanel, J P; Cepica, S; Archibald, A L; Geldermann, H; de Koning, D J; Milan, D; Haley, C S

    2000-07-01

    For many species several similar QTL mapping populations have been produced and analyzed independently. Joint analysis of such data could be used to increase power to detect QTL and evaluate population differences. In this study, data were collated on almost 3000 pigs from seven different F(2) crosses between Western commercial breeds and either the European wild boar or the Chinese Meishan breed. Genotypes were available for 31 markers on chromosome 4 (on average 8.3 markers per population). Data from three traits common to all populations (birth weight, mean backfat depth at slaughter or end of test, and growth rate from birth to slaughter or end of test) were analyzed for individual populations and jointly. A QTL influencing birth weight was detected in one individual population and in the combined data, with no significant interaction of the QTL effect with population. A QTL affecting backfat that had a significantly greater effect in wild boar than in Meishan crosses was detected. Some evidence for a QTL affecting growth rate was detected in all populations, with no significant differences between populations. This study is the largest F(2) QTL analysis achieved in a livestock species and demonstrates the potential of joint analysis.

  15. Experimental study of lithium target under high power load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khripunov, B.I. E-mail: boris@nfi.kiae.ru; Petrov, V.B.; Shapkin, V.V.; Pleshakov, A.S.; Rupyshev, A.S.; Antonov, N.V.; Litnovsky, A.M.; Romanov, P.V.; Shpansky, Yu.S.; Evtikhin, V.A.; Lyublinsky, I.E.; Vertkov, A.V

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents experimental research on simulation of a free liquid lithium surface under high heat flux impact for divertor application. Capillary porous structure (CPS) was taken to form the free liquid metal surface imitating divertor target plate. Experiments were performed in the SPRUT-4 linear plasma device with electron beam as power source. Lithium-filled targets were investigated at 1-50 MW/m{sup 2} heat loads in steady state. Lithium evaporation, energy and mass balance, surface temperature, vapor ionization, lithium plasma parameters and radiation were studied. Detailed thermal analysis was made to study heat flows in the target and their correspondence with experimental observations. Durable operation of the setup was possible in the range 1-20 MW/m{sup 2} without damage of the structure. The relevance of the experimental performance to divertor condition is analyzed.

  16. Conversion of eugenol to methyleugenol: Computational study and experimental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Muhammad Arsyik; Matsjeh, Sabirin; Triono, Sugeng

    2017-03-01

    This study provides comprehensive benchmark calculations for the computational study and experimental research on conversion of eugenol to methyleugenol with different pathway of the transition state compounds. First-principle calculation (DFT) were used to generate the structure optimization, energies of species. The calculation parameter are used to predict reactant, product and transition state species as guide to predict the experimental development of chemical characterization method including NMR and IR. The calculation showed significant effect of NaOH in formation of transition state in reaction. Experimentally, the step was nucleophilic substitution reaction of eugenolate ion to dimethylsulfate compound, it was obtained methyleugenol compound with purity of 90.73 %, which analyzed by Infrared and H-NMR spectrometer.

  17. MR-Imaging of teeth and periodontal apparatus: an experimental study comparing high-resolution MRI with MDCT and CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudino, Chiara; Csernus, Reka; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Rohde, Stefan [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Cosgarea, Raluca; Kim, Ti-Sun [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Periodontology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heiland, Sabine [University Hospital Heidelberg, Section of Experimental Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Beomonte Zobel, Bruno [University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Department of Radiology, Interdisciplinary Center for Biomedical Research, Rome (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was (1) to assess the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize dental and periodontal structures and (2) to compare findings with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT). Four porcine mandibles were examined with (1) 3T-MRI, (2) MDCT and (3) CBCT. Two observers independently reviewed MR, MDCT and CBCT images and assessed image quality of different dental and periodontal structures. To assess quantitatively the accuracy of the different imaging technique, both observers measured burr holes, previously drilled in the mandibles. Dental structures, e.g. teeth roots, pulpa chamber and dentin, were imaged accurately with all imaging sources. Periodontal space and cortical/trabecular bone were better visualized by MRI (p < 0.001). MRI could excellently display the lamina dura, not detectable with MDCT and only inconstant visible with CBCT (p < 0.001). Burr hole measurements were highly precise with all imaging techniques. This experimental study shows the diagnostic feasibility of MRI in visualization of teeth and periodontal anatomy. Detection of periodontal structures was significantly better with MRI than with MDCT or CBCT. Prospective trials have to evaluate further the potential benefit of MRI in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  18. MR-Imaging of teeth and periodontal apparatus: an experimental study comparing high-resolution MRI with MDCT and CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, Chiara; Cosgarea, Raluca; Heiland, Sabine; Csernus, Réka; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Pham, Mirko; Kim, Ti-Sun; Bendszus, Martin; Rohde, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to assess the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize dental and periodontal structures and (2) to compare findings with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT). Four porcine mandibles were examined with (1) 3T-MRI, (2) MDCT and (3) CBCT. Two observers independently reviewed MR, MDCT and CBCT images and assessed image quality of different dental and periodontal structures. To assess quantitatively the accuracy of the different imaging technique, both observers measured burr holes, previously drilled in the mandibles. Dental structures, e.g. teeth roots, pulpa chamber and dentin, were imaged accurately with all imaging sources. Periodontal space and cortical/trabecular bone were better visualized by MRI (p < 0.001). MRI could excellently display the lamina dura, not detectable with MDCT and only inconstant visible with CBCT (p < 0.001). Burr hole measurements were highly precise with all imaging techniques. This experimental study shows the diagnostic feasibility of MRI in visualization of teeth and periodontal anatomy. Detection of periodontal structures was significantly better with MRI than with MDCT or CBCT. Prospective trials have to evaluate further the potential benefit of MRI in a clinical setting.

  19. Monocyte imaging after myocardial infarction with 19F MRI at 3 T: a pilot study in explanted porcine hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönner, F; Merx, M W; Klingel, K; Begovatz, P; Flögel, U; Sager, M; Temme, S; Jacoby, C; Salehi Ravesh, M; Grapentin, C; Schubert, R; Bunke, J; Roden, M; Kelm, M; Schrader, J

    2015-06-01

    Inflammation is a hallmark of cardiac healing after myocardial infarction and it determines subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore whether inflammation imaging with two perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoemulsions and fluorine magnetic resonance imaging ((19)F MRI) is feasible at 3.0 T with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using explanted hearts, an (19)F surface coil and dedicated MR sequences. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced by balloon angioplasty (50 min) of the distal left anterior descending artery in 12 pigs. One day thereafter, PFCs were injected intravenously to label circulating monocytes. Either emulsified perfluoro-15-crown-5 ether or already clinically applied perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) was applied. Four days after AMI and immediately after gadolinium administration, hearts were explanted and imaged with a 3.0 T Achieva MRI scanner. (19)F MRI could be acquired with an SNR of >15 using an in-plane resolution of 2 × 2 mm(2) within <20 min for both agents. Combined late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and (19)F MRI revealed that (19)F signal was inhomogenously distributed across LGE myocardium reflecting patchy macrophage infiltration as confirmed by histology. In whole hearts, we found an apico-basal (19)F gradient within LGE-positive myocardium. The (19)F-positive volume was always smaller than LGE volume. Ex vivo experiments on isolated monocytes revealed that pig and human cells phagocytize PFCs even more avidly than mouse monocytes. This pilot study demonstrates that (19)F MRI at 3.0 T with clinically applicable PFOB is feasible, thus highlighting the potential of (19)F MRI to monitor the inflammatory response after AMI. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The Right Ventricle Is Dilated During Resuscitation From Cardiac Arrest Caused by Hypovolemia: A Porcine Ultrasound Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Rasmus; Granfeldt, Asger; Bøtker, Morten T; Mygind-Klausen, Troels; Kirkegaard, Hans; Løfgren, Bo

    2017-09-01

    Dilation of the right ventricle during cardiac arrest and resuscitation may be inherent to cardiac arrest rather than being associated with certain causes of arrest such as pulmonary embolism. This study aimed to compare right ventricle diameter during resuscitation from cardiac arrest caused by hypovolemia, hyperkalemia, or primary arrhythmia (i.e., ventricular fibrillation). Thirty pigs were anesthetized and then randomized to cardiac arrest induced by three diffrent methods. Seven minutes of untreated arrest was followed by resuscitation. Cardiac ultrasonographic images were obtained during induction of cardiac arrest, untreated cardiac arrest, and resuscitation. The right ventricle diameter was measured. Primary endpoint was the right ventricular diameter at the third rhythm analysis. University hospital animal laboratory. Female crossbred Landrace/Yorkshire/Duroc pigs (27-32 kg). Pigs were randomly assigned to cardiac arrest caused by either hypovolemia, hyperkalemia, or primary arrhythmia. At the third rhythm analysis during resuscitation, the right ventricle diameter was 32 mm (95% CI, 29-35) in the hypovolemia group, 29 mm (95% CI, 26-32) in the hyperkalemia group, and 25 mm (95% CI, 22-28) in the primary arrhythmia group. This was larger than baseline for all groups (p = 0.03). When comparing groups at the third rhythm analysis, the right ventricle was larger for hypovolemia than for primary arrhythmia (p cardiac arrest caused by hypovolemia, hyperkalemia, and primary arrhythmia. These findings indicate that right ventricle dilation may be inherent to cardiac arrest, rather than being associated with certain causes of arrest. This contradicts a widespread clinical assumption that in hypovolemic cardiac arrest, the ventricles are collapsed rather than dilated.

  1. Pathology of porcine peripheral white blood cells during infection with African swine fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karalyan Zaven

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African swine fever virus (ASFV is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF that is the significant disease of domestic pigs. Several studies showed that ASFV can influence on porcine blood cells in vitro. Thus, we asked ourselves whether ASFV infection results in changes in porcine blood cells in vivo. A series of experiments were performed in order to investigate the effects of ASFV infection on porcine peripheral white blood cells. Nine pigs were inoculated by intramuscular injection with 104 50% hemadsorbing doses of virus (genotype II distributed in Armenia and Georgia. The total number of fifteen cell types was calculated during experimental infection. Results Although band-to-segmented neutrophils ratio became much higher (3.5 in infected pigs than in control group (0.3, marked neutropenia and lymphopenia were detected from 2 to 3 days post-infection. In addition to band neutrophils, the high number of other immature white blood cells, such as metamyelocytes, was observed during the course of infection. From the beginning of infection, atypical lymphocytes, with altered nuclear shape, arose and became 15% of total cells in the final phase of infection. Image scanning cytometry revealed hyperdiploid DNA content in atypical lymphocytes only from 5 days post-infection, indicating that DNA synthesis in pathological lymphocytes occurred in the later stages of infection. Conclusion From this study, it can be concluded that ASFV infection leads to serious changes in composition of white blood cells. Particularly, acute ASFV infection in vivo is accompanied with the emergence of immature cells and atypical lymphocytes in the host blood. The mechanisms underlying atypical cell formation remain to be elucidated.

  2. [Experimental infection of fattening swine with rotavirus: study of local immunity using coproantibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S; Groom, J; Lantier, I

    1984-01-01

    Fattened pigs were experimentally infected with porcine rotavirus (OSU strain). Viral antigens found in the faeces were analysed over a period of two months (ELISA method). We have found no correlation between virus excretion and the clinical manifestation of disease. The local immunity has been analysed in the faeces by the coproantibodies antirotavirus. The different classes of antibody, G, M, A and immune complexes have been determined using the ELISA method. The level of IgA antibodies was higher (10 fold) than IgG and IgM, and the timing of the appearance of these antibodies antivirus was also different. No correlation was found between local immunity and virus excretion in the faeces.

  3. Intramyocardial Injection of Pig Pluripotent Stem Cells Improves Left Ventricular Function and Perfusion: A Study in a Porcine Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Li

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells have the potential to differentiate to various types of cardiovascular cells to repair an injured heart. The potential therapeutic benefits of iPS cell based treatment have been established in small-animal models of myocardial infarction (MI. We hypothesize that porcine iPS (piPS cell transplantation may be an effective treatment for MI. After a 90-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending artery in a porcine model, undifferentiated piPS cells or PBS were injected into the ischemic myocardium. Cardiac function, myocardial perfusion and cell differentiation were investigated. One week after piPS cell delivery, global left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF significantly decreased in both the iPS group and the PBS group compared to the Sham group (p<0.05, respectively. Six weeks after piPS cell delivery, LVEF of the iPS group significantly improved compared to the PBS group (56.68% vs. 50.93%, p = 0.04 but was still lower than the Sham group. Likewise, the piPS cell transplantation improved the regional perfusion compared to the PBS injection (19.67% vs. 13.67%, p = 0.02. The infarct area was significantly smaller in the iPS group than the PBS group (12.04% vs. 15.98% p = 0.01. PiPS cells engrafted into the myocardium can differentiate into vessel cells, which result in increased formation of new vessels in the infarcted heart. Direct intramyocardial injection of piPS cells can decrease infarct size and improve left ventricular function and perfusion for an immunosuppressed porcine AMI model.

  4. Whole genome analysis provides evidence for porcine-to-simian interspecies transmission of rotavirus-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ryan; Aung, Meiji Soe; Cruz, Katalina; Ketzis, Jennifer; Gallagher, Christa Ann; Beierschmitt, Amy; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Ghosh, Souvik

    2017-04-01

    We report here whole genome analysis of a porcine rotavirus-A (RVA) strain RVA/Pig-wt/KNA/ET8B/2015/G5P[13] detected in a diarrheic piglet, and nearly whole genome (except for VP4 gene) analysis of a simian RVA strain RVA/Simian-wt/KNA/08979/2015/G5P[X] detected in a non-diarrheic African green monkey (AGM) on the island of St. Kitts, Caribbean region. Strain ET8B exhibited a G5-P[13]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1-H1 genotype constellation that was identical to those of Brazilian porcine RVA G5P[13] strains RVA/Pig-wt/BRA/ROTA01/2013/G5P[13] and RVA/Pig-wt/BRA/ROTA07/2013/G5P[13], the only porcine G5P[13] RVAs that have been analyzed for the whole genome so far. Phylogenetically, all the 11 gene segments of ET8B were closely related to those of porcine and porcine-like human RVAs within the respective genotypes. Although the porcine G5P[13] RVAs exhibited identical genotype constellations, ET8B did not appear to share common evolutionary pathways with the Brazilian porcine G5P[13] RVAs. Interestingly, the VP2, VP3, VP6, VP7, and NSP1-NSP5 genes of simian RVA strain 08979 were closely related to those of porcine and porcine-like human RVA strains, exhibiting 99%-100% nucleotide sequence identities to cognate genes of co-circulating porcine RVA strain ET8B. On the other hand, the VP1 of 08979 appeared to be genetically divergent from porcine and human RVAs within the R1 genotype, and its exact origin could not be ascertained. Taken together, these observations suggested that simian strain 08979 might have been derived from interspecies transmission events involving transmission of ET8B-like RVAs from pigs to AGMs. In St. Kitts, AGMs often stray from the wild into livestock farms. Therefore, it may be possible that the AGM acquired the infection from a pig farm on the island. To our knowledge, this is the first report on detection of porcine-like RVAs in monkeys. Also, the present study is the first to report whole genomic analysis of a porcine RVA strain from the Caribbean

  5. Experimental study of hole cleaning performance in underbalanced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEBOYE

    factors affecting cost, time and drilling quality can be significantly hindered due to poor hole cleaning performance. Experimental study of hole cleaning performance in underbalanced drilling at downhole temperatures260C, 400C and 600C and water influx of 0.25m3/s in a simulated vertical well using gasified mud was ...

  6. An experimental study on effect of process parameters in deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    The effects of various deep drawing process parameters were determined by experimental study with the use of Taguchi fractional factorial .... have used Taguchi method to optimize the turning operation of S45C steel bars using tungsten carbide cutting tools and reported .... The Nd:YAG laser with oxygen cutting gas were.

  7. It Pays to Compare: An Experimental Study on Computational Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2009-01-01

    Comparing and contrasting examples is a core cognitive process that supports learning in children and adults across a variety of topics. In this experimental study, we evaluated the benefits of supporting comparison in a classroom context for children learning about computational estimation. Fifth- and sixth-grade students (N = 157) learned about…

  8. Experimental studies of the transient fluctuation theorem using liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 72; Issue 5. Experimental studies of the transient ... Recently a fluctuation theorem, known as the transient fluctuation theorem (TFT), which generalizes the second law of thermodynamics to small systems has been proposed. This theorem has been tested in small ...

  9. Premium auctions and risk preferences: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, C.; Hu, A.; Oechssler, J.

    2014-01-01

    In premium auctions, the highest losing bidder receives a reward from the seller. This paper studies the private value English premium auction (EPA) for different risk attitudes of bidders. We explicitly derive the symmetric equilibrium for bidders with CARA utilities and conduct an experimental

  10. Sciara as an experimental model for studies on the evolutionary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sciara as an experimental model for studies on the evolutionary relationships between the zygotic, maternal and environmental primary signals for sexual development. Lucas Sánchez. Review Article Volume ... Lucas Sánchez1. Centro de Investigaciones Biol´ogicas (C. S. I. C.), Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain ...

  11. Experimental Study of Cloud Formation from Rapidly Opened Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, C.E. [Stanford Research Institute; Amaro, A.J. [Stanford Research Institute; Kier, R.J. [Stanford Research Institute

    1969-08-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of droplet size emanating from a rapidly-opened container of volatile liquid, of the internal dynamics of the cavitation process inside such a container, & of the evaporation time of propane drops.

  12. Experimental study in natural convection | Ousmane | Global Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of thermal and ventilation parameters, obtained in a transient, laminar solar chimney of reduced dimensions, (1 < m <3) m with a square collector (side = 2m) is presented. Experimental measurements has been made to determine the temperature of the absorber and the fluid in the collector, it is shown that at the ...

  13. Synthesis, experimental and theoretical studies of two cocrystals in 1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 11. Synthesis, experimental and theoretical studies of two cocrystals in 1:1 stoichiometric ratio from 4,4'-bithiazole-2,2'-diamine with two hydrogen acceptor molecules. Zohreh Rashidi Ranjbar Ali Morsali. Articles Volume 127 Issue 11 November 2015 pp ...

  14. Experimental studies on an indigenous coconut shell based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satyabrata Sahoo

    Abstract. Experimental studies are carried out to characterize an indigenous, coconut shell based, activated carbon suitable for storage of natural gas. Properties such as BET surface area, micropore volume, average pore diameter and pore size distribution are obtained by using suitable instruments and techniques.

  15. Experimental Study on a Rotor for WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power conversion capabilities of one single rotor of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly on defining the optimal weight distribution in the rotor in order to improve the hydraulic performance through...

  16. Real versus Simulated Mobile Phone Exposures in Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris J. Panagopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether exposures to mobile phone radiation in biological/clinical experiments should be performed with real-life Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs emitted by commercially available mobile phone handsets, instead of simulated EMFs emitted by generators or test phones. Real mobile phone emissions are constantly and unpredictably varying and thus are very different from simulated emissions which employ fixed parameters and no variability. This variability is an important parameter that makes real emissions more bioactive. Living organisms seem to have decreased defense against environmental stressors of high variability. While experimental studies employing simulated EMF-emissions present a strong inconsistency among their results with less than 50% of them reporting effects, studies employing real mobile phone exposures demonstrate an almost 100% consistency in showing adverse effects. This consistency is in agreement with studies showing association with brain tumors, symptoms of unwellness, and declines in animal populations. Average dosimetry in studies with real emissions can be reliable with increased number of field measurements, and variation in experimental outcomes due to exposure variability becomes less significant with increased number of experimental replications. We conclude that, in order for experimental findings to reflect reality, it is crucially important that exposures be performed by commercially available mobile phone handsets.

  17. Chemometric Optimization Studies in Catalysis Employing High-Throughput Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, S.R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main topic of this thesis is the investigation of the synergies between High-Throughput Experimentation (HTE) and Chemometric Optimization methodologies in Catalysis research and of the use of such methodologies to maximize the advantages of using HTE methods. Several case studies were analysed

  18. Experimental and modeling studies of mass transfer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gaining a better understanding of mass transfer problems in encapsulated cell systems and in tissue engineering requires both experimental investigations and mathematical modelling. Specific mass transfer studies are reviewed including oxygen transfer in immobilised animal cell culture systems, modelling of ...

  19. Experimental study of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through horizontal openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. Measurements were made for opening ratios L/D range from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length and the diameter of the opening, respectiv...

  20. An experimental study on effect of process parameters in deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of various deep drawing process parameters were determined by experimental study with the use of Taguchi fractional factorial design and analysis of variance for AA6111 Aluminum alloy. The optimum process parameters were determined based on their influence on the thickness variation at different regions ...

  1. Experimental study on imaging spectrometer focusing formula in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-tao; Jin, Hui

    2015-02-01

    Experimental verification for a focusing mechanism of imaging spectrometer is studied. The mechanism uses stepper motor driven precision harmonic drive. Wave generator is composed of elliptical cam and a flexible bearing. The output end is connected with the ball screw rotary motion into linear motion, which drives the focusing lens linear guide reciprocating motion. In view of the practical application of the mechanism in the imaging spectrometer, the thermal optical experimental imaging spectrometer has been focusing the formula. Data show that the focus formula ensures linear relationship between the focal plane position and temperature. The linear relationship shows that the imaging spectrometer onboard the variation with temperature and automatic focusing is very important.

  2. The diffusion dynamics of PEGylated liposomes in the intact vitreous of the ex vivo porcine eye: A fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and biodistribution study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Anne Zebitz; Brewer, Jonathan; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion dynamics of nanocarriers in the vitreous and the influence of nanocarrier physicochemical properties on these dynamics is an important aspect of the efficacy of intravitreal administered nanomedicines for the treatment of posterior segment eye diseases. Here we use fluorescence...... correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to determine liposome diffusion coefficients in the intact vitreous (DVit) of ex vivo porcine eyes using a modified Miyake-Apple technique to minimize the disruption of the vitreous fine structure. We chose to investigate whether the zeta potential of polyethylene glycol...

  3. The in vivo performance of a novel thermal accelerant agent used for augmentation of microwave energy delivery within biologic tissues during image-guided thermal ablation: a porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, William Keun Chan; Maxwell, Aaron Wilhelm Palmer; Frank, Victoria Elizabeth; Primmer, Michael Patrick; Paul, Jarod Brian; Collins, Scott Andrew; Lombardo, Kara Anne; Lu, Shaolei; Borjeson, Tiffany Marie; Baird, Grayson Luderman; Dupuy, Damian Edward

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of a novel caesium-based thermal accelerant (TA) agent on ablation zone volumes following in vivo microwave ablation of porcine liver and skeletal muscle, and to correlate the effects of TA with target organ perfusion. This prospective study was performed following institutional animal care and use committee approval. Microwave ablation was performed in liver and resting skeletal muscle in eight Sus scrofa domesticus swine following administration of TA at concentrations of 0 mg/mL (control), 100 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL. Treated tissues were explanted and stained with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) for quantification of ablation zone volumes, which were compared between TA and control conditions. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was also performed for histologic analysis. General mixed modelling with a log-normal distribution was used for all quantitative comparisons (p = 0.05). A total of 28 ablations were performed in the liver and 18 in the skeletal muscle. The use of TA significantly increased ablation zone volumes in a dose-dependent manner in both the porcine muscle and liver (p model. The relationship between TA administration and ablation size was dose-dependent and inversely proportional to the degree of target organ perfusion, and a qualitative reduction in heat-sink effects was observed.

  4. Experimental study on beam for composite CES structural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tomoya

    2017-10-01

    Development study on Concrete Encase Steel (CES) composite structure system has been continuously conducted toward the practical use. CES structure is composed of steel and fiber reinforced concrete. In previous study, it was found that CES structure has good seismic performance from experimental study of columns, beam - column joints, shear walls and a two story two span frame. However, as fundamental study on CES beam could be lacking, it is necessary to understand the structural performance of CES beam. In this study, static loading tests of CES beams were conducted with experimental valuable of steel size, the presence or absence of slab and thickness of slab. And restoring characteristics, failure behavior, deformation behavior, and strength evaluation method of CES beam were investigated. As the results, it was found that CES beam showed stable hysteresis behavior. Furthermore it was found that the flexural strength of the CES beam could be evaluated by superposition strength theory.

  5. Experimental and numerical study on condensation in transonic steam flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majkut Mirosław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes an experimental and numerical study of steam condensing flow in a linear cascade of turbine stator blades. The experimental research was performed on the facility of a small scale steam power plant located at Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, Poland. The test rig of the facility allows us to perform the tests of steam transonic flows for the conditions corresponding to these which prevail in the low-pressure (LP condensing steam turbine stages. The experimental data of steam condensing flow through the blade-to- blade stator channel were compared with numerical results obtained using the in-house CFD numerical code TraCoFlow. Obtained results confirmed a good quality of the performed experiment and numerical calculations.

  6. Mechanical properties of jennite: A theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Juhyuk, E-mail: juhyuk.moon@stonybrook.edu [Civil Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States); Yoon, Seyoon [School of Engineering, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Monteiro, Paulo J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of jennite. To date, several hypotheses have been proposed to predict the structural properties of jennite. For the first time as reported herein, the isothermal bulk modulus of jennite was measured experimentally. Synchrotron-based high-pressure x-ray diffraction experiments were performed to observe the variation of lattice parameters under pressure. First-principles calculations were applied to compare with the experimental results and predict additional structural properties. Accurately measured isothermal bulk modulus herein (K{sub 0} = 64(2) GPa) and the statistical assessment on experimental and theoretical results suggest reliable mechanical properties of shear and Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and elastic tensor coefficients. Determination of these fundamental structural properties is the first step toward greater understanding of calcium–silicate–hydrate, as well as provides a sound foundation for forthcoming atomic level simulations.

  7. Evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antibodies in commercial pig husbandry in Nigeria: a preliminary study. ... main economic resources of developing countries. In Nigeria, pig farming contributes significantly to the livestock sub-sector and accounts for about 30% of total pig production in Africa.

  8. Genomic composition factors affect codon usage in porcine genome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    j.khobondo

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... The objective of the study was to determine the codon usage bias in the porcine genome and decipher its determinants. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of codon bias, the coding sequence (CDS) from the swine reference sequence (ssc10.2) was extracted using Biomart. An in house built Perl ...

  9. Fine mapping of a QTL for intramuscular fat on porcine chromosome 6 using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uleberg, E; Widerøe, I S; Grindflek, E; Szyda, J; Lien, S; Meuwissen, T H E

    2005-02-01

    In this study data from a commercial Norwegian slaughter pig cross was analysed to confirm a previous reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting intramuscular fat (IMF) on porcine chromosome 6. The data consisted of an old experiment, in which the QTL was previously detected, and new experimental data from the Norwegian slaughter pig cross. The old and new experimental data were analysed separately and together. A previously described method combining linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) was used for the analysis, but this method assumes that all animals are descendants from a common base population, which is not realistic in a cross between different breeds. An adjusted version of the method, able to distinguish between different breeds in the cross, is presented here. Using the LDLA method, we were not able to confirm the QTL in the old experimental data, because the genetic variance could be explained by the polygenic effect. Analysis from the new experimental data did however detect the QTL, and analysing the data from both experiments together gave highly significant results for a QTL (p IMF on porcine chromosome 6 was confirmed within a 8.7-cM confidence interval.

  10. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia after diode laser oral surgery. An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Juan; González-Mosquera, Antonio; García-Martín, José-Manuel; García-Caballero, Lucía; Varela-Centelles, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine the process of epithelial reparation in a surgical wound caused by diode laser. Material and Methods An experimental study with 27 Sprage-Dawley rats was undertaken. The animals were randomly allocated to two experimental groups, whose individuals underwent glossectomy by means of a diode laser at different wattages, and a control group treated using a number 15 scalpel blade. The animals were slaughtered at the 2nd, 7th, and 14th day after glossectomy. The specimens were independently studied by two pathologists (blinded for the specimens’ group). Results At the 7th day, re-epithelisation was slightly faster for the control group (conventional scalpel) (p=0.011). At the 14th day, complete re-epithelization was observed for all groups. The experimental groups displayed a pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. Conclusions It is concluded that, considering the limitations of this kind of experimental studies, early re-epithelisation occurs slightly faster when a conventional scalpel is used for incision, although re-epithelisation is completed in two weeks no matter the instrument used. In addition, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is a potential event after oral mucosa surgery with diode laser. Knowledge about this phenomenon (not previously described) may prevent diagnostic mistakes and inadequate treatment approaches, particularly when dealing with potentially malignant oral lesions. Key words:Diode laser, animal model, oral biopsy, oral cancer, oral precancer, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. PMID:26116841

  11. Biomechanics of the porcine triple bundle anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuki; Ingham, Sheila J M; Linde-Rosen, Monica; Smolinski, Patrick; Horaguchi, Takashi; Fu, Freddie H

    2010-01-01

    Several species of animals are used as a model to study human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In many animals, three bundles were clearly discernible during dissection in the ACL. However, there are few reports about the biomechanical role of each bundle in the porcine knee. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of each of the three bundles in the porcine knee, especially the intermediate bundle. Ten porcine knees were tested using a robotic/universal forcemoment sensor system. This system applied anterior loading of 89 N at 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion, and a combined 7 Nm valgus and 4 Nm internal tibial torque at 30 degrees and 60 degrees of flexion before and after each bundle was selectively cut. The in situ force (N) for each bundle of the ACL was measured. Both intermediate (IM) bundle and postero-lateral (PL) bundle had significantly lower in situ force than the antero-medial (AM) bundle in anterior loading. The IM and PL bundles carried a larger proportion of the force under the torsional loads than the anterior loads. But IM bundle had a significant lower in situ force during the combined torque at 60 degrees of knee flexion, when compared intact ACL. In summary, IM bundle has a subordinate role to the AM and PL bundles. AM bundle is more dominant than IM and PL bundles. The porcine knee is a suitable model for ACL studies, especially for AP stability.

  12. Corneal biomechanical changes after collagen cross-linking from porcine eye inflation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Sabine; Remon, Laura; Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; Merayo-Lloves, Jesus; Marcos, Susana

    2010-08-01

    Understanding corneal biomechanics is important to refractive or therapeutic corneal treatments. The authors studied the corneal response to variable intraocular pressure (IOP) in porcines eyes after UV collagen cross-linking (CXL), in comparison with untreated eyes. Twenty-three enucleated eyes were treated with standard CXL conditions (365 nm, 3 mW, 30 minutes), and 15 contralateral eyes served as control. Eyes (within a humidity- and temperature-monitored wet chamber) were measured by Scheimpflug corneal three-dimensional topographer. Images were obtained automatically while IOP either remained constant (14 eyes) or increased (24 eyes) by 40 mm Hg and then decreased (4-mm Hg steps). Measurements were performed immediately after treatment and 24 hours later. Corneal geometry was analyzed as a function of IOP, and whole globe stress-strain curves were calculated. Instillation of riboflavin-dextran solution reduced corneal thickness (by 281 +/- 5 microm). Cross-linking produced a 1.54x reduction in corneal thinning and 2.8x reduction in corneal apical rise with increased IOP. Anterior and posterior cornea flattened with increased IOP (less flattening in CXL eyes) and became steeper with decreased IOP. The horizontal meridian flattened significantly (P Cross-linking stiffened porcine corneas significantly. Both experimental data and stress-strain analysis are valuable for finite element models to improve understanding of CXL and its predictability. Although differences are expected between human corneas in vivo and porcine corneas ex vivo, the results are consistent with clinical data found in patients. The apparent biomechanical anisotropy of pig corneas must be confirmed in humans.

  13. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression in Porcine Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Various Sources along with Differentiation into Multilineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Jae Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of stable reference genes is a prerequisite for ensuring accurate validation of gene expression, yet too little is known about stable reference genes of porcine MSCs. The present study was, therefore, conducted to assess the stability of reference genes in porcine MSCs derived from bone marrow (BMSCs, adipose (AMSCs, and skin (SMSCs with their in vitro differentiated cells into mesenchymal lineages such as adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Twelve commonly used reference genes were investigated for their threshold cycle (Ct values by qRT-PCR. The Ct values of candidate reference genes were analyzed by geNorm software to clarify stable expression regardless of experimental conditions. Thus, Pearson’s correlation was applied to determine correlation between the three most stable reference genes (NF3 and optimal number of reference genes (NFopt. In assessment of stability of reference gene across experimental conditions by geNorm analysis, undifferentiated MSCs and each differentiated status into mesenchymal lineages showed slightly different results but similar patterns about more or less stable rankings. Furthermore, Pearson’s correlation revealed high correlation (r>0.9 between NF3 and NFopt. Overall, the present study showed that HMBS, YWHAZ, SDHA, and TBP are suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR in porcine MSCs.

  14. Melatonin regulates lipid metabolism in porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Lee, Sanghoon; Taweechaipaisankul, Anukul; Kim, Geon A; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2017-03-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that the processes of lipogenesis and lipolysis are important for providing an essential energy source during oocyte maturation and embryo development. Recent studies demonstrated that melatonin has a role in lipid metabolism regulation, including lipogenesis, lipolysis, and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of melatonin on lipid metabolism during porcine oocyte in vitro maturation. Melatonin treatment significantly enhanced the number of lipid droplets (LDs) and upregulated gene expression related to lipogenesis (ACACA, FASN, PPARγ, and SREBF1). Oocytes treated with melatonin formed smaller LDs and abundantly expressed several genes associated with lipolysis, including ATGL, CGI-58, HSL, and PLIN2. Moreover, melatonin significantly increased the content of fatty acids, mitochondria, and ATP, as indicated by fluorescent staining. Concomitantly, melatonin treatment upregulated gene expression related to fatty acid β-oxidation (CPT1a, CPT1b, CPT2, and ACADS) and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, TFAM, and PRDX2). Overall, melatonin treatment not only altered both the morphology and amount of LDs, but also increased the content of fatty acids, mitochondria, and ATP. In addition, melatonin upregulated mRNA expression levels of lipogenesis, lipolysis, β-oxidation, and mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes in porcine oocytes. These results indicated that melatonin promoted lipid metabolism and thereby provided an essential energy source for oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Acute retinal ischemia caused by controlled low ocular perfusion pressure in a porcine model. Electrophysiological and histological characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Maria Voss; Warfvinge, Karin; Scherfig, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, and characterize a porcine model of acute, controlled retinal ischemia. The controlled retinal ischemia was produced by clamping the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in the left eye to 5 mm Hg for 2 h. The OPP was defined as mean arterial blood pressure...... of the amplitudes obtained in the experimental, left eye, and the control, right eye. Quantitative histology was performed to measure the survival of ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells 2-6 weeks after the ischemic insult. An OPP of 5 mm Hg for 2h induced significant reductions in the amplitudes...

  16. Experimental Study on Volume for Fly Ash of Building Block

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Wang; He Sun; Zhihui Sun; Enqing Ma

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste substance from thermal power plants, steel mills, etc. That is found in abundance in the world. It has polluted the environment, wasting the cultivated land. This study introduces an experimental research on fly ash being reused effectively, the study introduces raw materials of fly ash brick, production process and product inspection, fly ash content could be amounted to 40%~75%. High doping fly ash bricks are manufactured, which selects wet fly ash from the power plants, ...

  17. Experimental and Analytical Studies of Solar System Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    The cosmochemistry research funded by this grant resulted in the publications given in the attached Publication List. The research focused in three areas: (1) Experimental studies of trace element partitioning. (2) Studies of the minor element chemistry and O isotopic compositions of MgAlO4 spinels from Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and (3) The abundances and chemical fractionations of Th and U in chondritic meteorites.

  18. Anatomy and bronchoscopy of the porcine lung. A model for translational respiratory medicine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2014-09-01

    The porcine model has contributed significantly to biomedical research over many decades. The similar size and anatomy of pig and human organs make this model particularly beneficial for translational research in areas such as medical device development, therapeutics and xenotransplantation. In recent years, a major limitation with the porcine model was overcome with the successful generation of gene-targeted pigs and the publication of the pig genome. As a result, the role of this model is likely to become even more important. For the respiratory medicine field, the similarities between pig and human lungs give the porcine model particular potential for advancing translational medicine. An increasing number of lung conditions are being studied and modeled in the pig. Genetically modified porcine models of cystic fibrosis have been generated that, unlike mouse models, develop lung disease similar to human cystic fibrosis. However, the scientific literature relating specifically to porcine lung anatomy and airway histology is limited and is largely restricted to veterinary literature and textbooks. Furthermore, methods for in vivo lung procedures in the pig are rarely described. The aims of this review are to collate the disparate literature on porcine lung anatomy, histology, and microbiology; to provide a comparison with the human lung; and to describe appropriate bronchoscopy procedures for the pig lungs to aid clinical researchers working in the area of translational respiratory medicine using the porcine model.

  19. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouffani, Khalid [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  20. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson's disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases.

  1. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton’s jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs) have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson’s disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases. PMID:26201864

  2. Molecular Characterization of Porcine Picobirnaviruses and Development of a Specific Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruyo, Gabriela M.; Mateu, Guaniri; Martínez, Laura C.; Pujol, Flor H.; Nates, Silvia V.; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular characterization of partial- length genomic segment 2 of porcine picobirnavirus (PBV) strains and the development of a specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for detection of virus in feces are reported. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the studied porcine isolates were more closely related (>85% identity) to human PBV belonging to genogroup I than to the other porcine PBV described so far. Analysis by RT-PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fecal samples collected in Venezuela and Argentina showed that PBV circulate at high frequencies in piglets. PMID:18508933

  3. Molecular characterization of porcine picobirnaviruses and development of a specific reverse transcription-PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruyo, Gabriela M; Mateu, Guaniri; Martínez, Laura C; Pujol, Flor H; Nates, Silvia V; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E

    2008-07-01

    The molecular characterization of partial- length genomic segment 2 of porcine picobirnavirus (PBV) strains and the development of a specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for detection of virus in feces are reported. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the studied porcine isolates were more closely related (>85% identity) to human PBV belonging to genogroup I than to the other porcine PBV described so far. Analysis by RT-PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fecal samples collected in Venezuela and Argentina showed that PBV circulate at high frequencies in piglets.

  4. Comparison of microtensile bond strength to enamel and dentin of human, bovine, and porcine teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, AF; Giannini, M; Kavaguchi, A; Soares, CJ; Line, SRP

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the bond strengths promoted by an adhesive system to human, bovine, and porcine enamel and dentin, and compare their etched micromorphology by scanning electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Thirty sound freshly extracted teeth were used in this study: ten human third molars, ten bovine incisors, and ten porcine molars. The crowns of human (H), bovine (B), and porcine (P) teeth were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose either enamel (E) or mid-depth dentin (D) s...

  5. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. Additionally, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared...... concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing...

  6. Experimental and Theoretical Studies in Hydrogen-Bonding Organocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Žabka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chiral thioureas and squaramides are among the most prominent hydrogen-bond bifunctional organocatalysts now extensively used for various transformations, including aldol, Michael, Mannich and Diels-Alder reactions. More importantly, the experimental and computational study of the mode of activation has begun to attract considerable attention. Various experimental, spectroscopic and calculation methods are now frequently used, often as an integrated approach, to establish the reaction mechanism, the mode of activation or explain the stereochemical outcome of the reaction. This article comprises several case studies, sorted according to the method used in their study. The aim of this review is to give the investigators an overview of the methods currently utilized for mechanistic investigations in hydrogen-bonding organocatalysis.

  7. Delayed administration of allogeneic cardiac stem cell therapy for acute myocardial infarction could ameliorate adverse remodeling: experimental study in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisostomo, Veronica; Baez-Diaz, Claudia; Maestre, Juan; Garcia-Lindo, Monica; Sun, Fei; Casado, Javier G; Blazquez, Rebeca; Abad, Jose L; Palacios, Itziar; Rodriguez-Borlado, Luis; Sanchez-Margallo, Francisco M

    2015-05-12

    The optimal timing of cardiac stem cells administration is still unclear. We assessed the safety of same-day and delayed (one week) delivery and the possible influence of the timing on the therapeutic outcomes of allogeneic porcine cardiac stem cells administration after acute myocardial infarction in a closed-chest ischemia-reperfusion model. Female swine surviving 90 min occlusion of the mid left anterior descending coronary artery received an intracoronary injection of 25x10(6) porcine cardiac stem cells either two hours (n = 5, D0) or 7 days (n = 6, D7) after reperfusion. Controls received intracoronary injection of vehicle on day 7 (n = 6, CON). Safety was defined in terms of absence of major cardiac events, changes to the ECG during injection, post-administration coronary flow assessed using the TIMI scale and cardiac troponin I determination after the intervention. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance was performed for morphological and functional assessment prior to infarction, before injection (D7 and CON groups only), at one and 10 weeks. Samples were taken from the infarct and transition areas for pathological examination. No major adverse cardiac events were seen during injection in any group. Animals receiving the therapy on the same day of infarction (D0 group) showed mild transient ST changes during injection (n = 4) and, in one case, slightly compromised coronary flow (TIMI 2). Cardiac function parameters and infarct sizes were not significantly different between groups, with a trend towards higher ejection fraction in the treated groups. Ventricular volumes indexed to body surface area increased over time in control animals, and decreased by the end of the study in animals receiving the therapy, significantly so when comparing End Diastolic Volume between CON and D7 groups (CON: 121.70 ml/m(2) ± 26.09 ml/m(2), D7: 98.71 ml/m(2) ± 8.30 ml/m(2), p = 0.037). The treated groups showed less organization of the collagenous scar, and a significantly (p = 0

  8. Association between the porcine Escherichia coli F18 receptor genotype and phenotype and susceptibility to colonisation and postweaning diarrhoea caused by E-coli O138 : F18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendahl, K.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2003-01-01

    Porcine postweaning Escherichia coli enteritis is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in pigs worldwide, and effective prevention remains an unsolved problem. This study examined the correlation between susceptibility of pigs to experimental infection with an E. coli F18 strain...... and the porcine intestinal F18 receptor genotypes. Thirty-one pigs classified as either belonging to the susceptible or the resistant genotype were inoculated with cultures of an E. coli 0138:F18 isolated from a pig with postweaning diarrhoea. Susceptibility to colonisation and diarrhoea was assessed by clinical...... and heterozygotic susceptible pigs. Faecal shedding of the challenge strain correlated with the genetic receptor profile. Twenty pigs examined immunohistochemically revealed focal to extensive small intestinal mucosal colonisation by E. coli O138:F18 in nine of 10 susceptible and three of 10 resistant pigs. Results...

  9. EFFECT OF QUERCETIN AND T-2 TOXIN ON ANTIOXIDANT PARAMETERS OF PORCINE BLOOD IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Petruška

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin, is considered to be a one of the most toxic compounds that is produced by molds, particularly the Fusarium species. Mycotoxins can contaminate a large variety of feed mixtures, and could cause serious health problems to domestic livestock and humans when consumed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quercetin and T-2 toxin on some antioxidants parameters (superoxide dismutase - SOD, glutathione peroxidase - GPx in porcine blood in vitro. Application of quercetin in different doses (1, 10, 100 mg.ml-1 and T-2 toxin (1000 ng.ml-1 has caused significant decrease of SOD activity. Differences among the groups in the case of GPx activity remained insignificant (P<0.05. In this study the additions of quercetin and T-2 toxin in different doses in porcine blood in vitro caused significantly (P<0.05 lower SOD activity in all experimental groups in comparison with the control group.

  10. Evaluation of Microporous Polysaccharide Hemospheres for Parenchymal Hemostasis During Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy in the Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Francois-Joseph L.; Le, Carter Q.; Ereth, Mark H.; Piedra, Mark P; Dong, Yue

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the efficacy of Microporous Polysaccharide Hemospheres (MPH) for parenchymal hemostasis during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in the porcine model. Methods: Six female farm pigs underwent a transperitoneal right lower-pole LPN during occlusion of the renal hilum. Renal parenchyma was excised using cold Endoshears. MPH was applied to the defect and the hilar clamp released. Animals were kept alive for one week. Before sacrifice, left LPN was similarly performed using MPH. Study variables included blood loss, number of MPH applications, hilar clamp time, hemostasis time, perioperative complications, and abnormalities noted at sacrifice. Results: Hemostasis was achieved in all kidneys solely by using MPH. The average excised specimen represented 5.6% (range, 3.6 to 8.5) of renal weight. Mean hilar clamp and hemostatic times were 12.8 minutes (range, 6 to 18) and 2 minutes (range, 1 to 3), respectively. Hemostasis occurred after one MPH application in 8 kidneys (67%). In 3 kidneys, additional MPH powder was required to treat minor residual bleeding. In the remaining kidney, a second standard MPH application was required for hemostasis. No operative complications were encountered. No hematomas or residual MPH was found at necropsy; however, small urinomas were found in 2 of 6 kidneys. Conclusions: In the experimental porcine model, this initial study suggests that MPH provides effective parenchymal hemostasis during laparoscopic resection of an exophytic kidney lesion. PMID:17212884

  11. Mechanical response of porcine skin under compression from low to high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Chiara; Butler, Ben; Williams, Alun; Brown, Katherine; Proud, William

    2013-06-01

    Uniaxial compression experiments were performed on fresh porcine skin samples at different strain rates to study the stress-strain response. Low strain rate experiments were performed with an Instron 5566, while high strain rates were achieved using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system. Magnesium bars and semiconductor strain gauges were used respectively to maximize the signal transmission from porcine skin to the output bar and to allow the signal measurement. Skin samples were harvested from different area of the animal to investigate the heterogeneity of such material. The experimental results showed that the mechanical response of skin in compression is strongly dependent on the strain rate of loading and on the location from which the samples were collected. Specimens collected from the rump showed a stiffer response compared to samples harvested from the thigh. Finally, a histological analysis of the samples post compression was carried out to examine the extent of tissue damage as a function of strain rate. This work is supported by the Atomic Weapons Establishment, UK and The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies at Imperial College London, UK.

  12. The influence of the geometry of the porcine cornea on the biomechanical response of inflation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Anna; Boschetti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    To withstand the high probability of success, the growing diffusion of laser surgery for the correction of visual defects, corneal surgeons are regarding with interest numerical tools able to provide reliable predictions of the intervention outcomes. The main obstacle to the definition of a predictive numerical instrument is the objective difficulty in evaluating the in vivo mechanical properties of the human cornea. In this study, we assess the ability of a parametrised numerical model of the cornea (Pandolfi and Manganiello 2006) to describe individual pressurisation tests on whole porcine corneas once the mechanical parameters of the model have been calibrated over average data. We also aim at estimating the sensitivity of the mechanical response with the variation of basic geometrical parameters, such as the central corneal thickness, the curvature and the in-plane diameter. We conclude that the actual geometry of a cornea has a minor role in the overall mechanical response, and therefore the material properties must be considered carefully and individually in any numerical application. This study makes use of the data obtained from a wide experimental program, where a set of 21 porcine corneas has been fully characterised in terms of mechanical and geometrical properties (Boschetti et al. 2012).

  13. Transcription analysis of the responses of porcine heart to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao Kang; Qiang Zhang; Weifeng Zhu; Chengzhi Cai; Xiaomei Sun; Meilin Jin

    2017-01-01

    .... This microbe has caused great economic losses in China and in other countries. In this study, high-throughput cDNA microarray assays were employed to evaluate the host responses of porcine heart to E...

  14. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and histopathology scores. These data may also have implications on human pancreas procurement as use of an intraductal infusion is not common practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The practicalities of establishing a porcine isolated heart model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Warren; Raisis, Anthea; Dunne, Ben; Van Laeken, Els; Jenkinson, Charles; Vincent, Viji; Baird, Peter; Prince, Stuart; Ho, Kwok M; Merry, Christopher; Gilfillan, Ian

    2017-12-01

    The isolated heart apparatus is over 100 years old, but remains a useful research tool today. While designs of many large animal systems have been described in the literature, trouble-shooting and refining such a model to yield a stable, workable system has not been previously described. This paper outlines the issues, in tabular form, that our group encountered in developing our own porcine isolated heart rig with the aim of assisting other workers in the field planning similar work. The paper also highlights some of the modern applications of the isolated heart apparatus. Methods Landrace pigs (50-80 kg) were used in a pilot project to develop the model. The model was then used in a study examining the effects of various cardioplegic solutions on function after reanimation of porcine hearts. During the two projects, non-protocol issues were documented as well as their solutions. These were aggregated in this paper. Issues faced by the group without explicit literature solutions included pig size selection, animal acclimatisation, porcine transoesophageal echocardiography, cannulation and phlebotomy for cross-clamping, cardioplegia delivery, heart suspension and rig tuning. Prior recognition of issues and possible solutions faced by workers establishing a porcine isolated heart system will speed progress towards a useable system for research. The isolated heart apparatus remains applicable in transplant, ischaemia reperfusion, heart failure and organ preservation research.

  16. Numerical and Experimental Case Study of Blasting Works Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papán, Daniel; Valašková, Veronika; Drusa, Marian

    2016-10-01

    This article introduces the theoretical and experimental case study of dynamic monitoring of the geological environment above constructed highway tunnel. The monitored structure is in this case a very important water supply pipeline, which crosses the tunnel and was made from steel tubes with a diameter of 800 mm. The basic dynamic parameters had been monitored during blasting works, and were compared with the FEM (Finite Element Method) calculations and checked by the Slovak standard limits. A calibrated FEM model based on the experimental measurement data results was created and used in order to receive more realistic results in further predictions, time and space extrapolations. This case study was required and demanded by the general contractor company and also by the owner of water pipeline, and it was an answer of public safety evaluation of risks during tunnel construction.

  17. Lung Morphological Changes in Closed Chest Injury (an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study lung morphological changes in a closed chest injury model in laboratory animals. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out in 30 male albino nonbred rats weighing 350—380 g. Closed chest injury was simulated, by exposing the chest of anesthetized rats to a 300-g metal cylinder falling from a height of 30 cm. The observation periods were 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Results. The signs of evident perivenular edema that was uncharas-teristic to acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by other causes are an important peculiarity of lung morphological changes in this experimental model of closed chest injury. Conclusion. The experimental studies clarified the pattern of lung morphological changes in the early period after closed chest injury. Key words: closed chest injury, pulmonary edema.

  18. Histopathological investigation in porcine infected with torque teno sus virus type 2 by inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Porcine torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is a small icosahedral and non-enveloped virus which contains a single-stranded (ssDNA), circular and negative DNA genome and infects mainly vertebrates and is currently classified into the 'floating' genus Anellovirus of Circoviridae with two species. Viral DNA of both porcine TTSuV species has a high prevalence in both healthy and diseased pigs worldwide and multiple infections of TTSuV with distinct genotypes or subtypes of the same species has been documented in the United States, Europe and Asia. However, there exists no information about histopathological lesions caused by infection with porcine TTSuV2. Methods Porcine liver tissue homogenate with 1 ml of 6.91 × 107genomic copies viral loads of porcine TTSuV2 that had positive result for torque teno sus virus type 2 and negative result for torque teno sus virus type 1 and porcine pseudorabies virus type 2 were used to inoculate specific pathogen-free piglets by intramuscular route and humanely killed at 3,7,10,14,17,21 and 24 days post inoculation (dpi), the control pigs were injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of sterile DMEM and humanely killed the end of the study for histopathological examination routinely processed, respectively. Results All porcine TTSuV2 inoculated piglets were clinic asymptomatic but developed myocardial fibroklasts and endocardium, interstitial pneumonia, membranous glomerular nephropathy, and modest inflammatory cells infiltration in portal areas in the liver, foci of hemorrhage in some pancreas islet, a tiny amount red blood cells in venule of muscularis mucosae and outer longitudinal muscle, rarely red blood cells in the microvasculation and infiltration of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and eosinophils) of tonsil and hilar lymph nodes, infiltration of inflammatory lymphocytes and necrosis or degeneration and focal gliosis of lymphocytes in the paracortical zone after inoculation with porcine TTSuV2-containing tissue homogenate

  19. Histopathological investigation in porcine infected with torque teno sus virus type 2 by inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Miao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine torque teno sus virus (TTSuV is a small icosahedral and non-enveloped virus which contains a single-stranded (ssDNA, circular and negative DNA genome and infects mainly vertebrates and is currently classified into the 'floating' genus Anellovirus of Circoviridae with two species. Viral DNA of both porcine TTSuV species has a high prevalence in both healthy and diseased pigs worldwide and multiple infections of TTSuV with distinct genotypes or subtypes of the same species has been documented in the United States, Europe and Asia. However, there exists no information about histopathological lesions caused by infection with porcine TTSuV2. Methods Porcine liver tissue homogenate with 1 ml of 6.91 × 107genomic copies viral loads of porcine TTSuV2 that had positive result for torque teno sus virus type 2 and negative result for torque teno sus virus type 1 and porcine pseudorabies virus type 2 were used to inoculate specific pathogen-free piglets by intramuscular route and humanely killed at 3,7,10,14,17,21 and 24 days post inoculation (dpi, the control pigs were injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of sterile DMEM and humanely killed the end of the study for histopathological examination routinely processed, respectively. Results All porcine TTSuV2 inoculated piglets were clinic asymptomatic but developed myocardial fibroklasts and endocardium, interstitial pneumonia, membranous glomerular nephropathy, and modest inflammatory cells infiltration in portal areas in the liver, foci of hemorrhage in some pancreas islet, a tiny amount red blood cells in venule of muscularis mucosae and outer longitudinal muscle, rarely red blood cells in the microvasculation and infiltration of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and eosinophils of tonsil and hilar lymph nodes, infiltration of inflammatory lymphocytes and necrosis or degeneration and focal gliosis of lymphocytes in the paracortical zone after inoculation with porcine TTSuV2

  20. Comparative study of experimental signals for multipactor and breakdown.

    CERN Document Server

    Dehler, Micha; Wuensch, Walter; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Gimeno Martinez, Benito; Kovermann, Jan; Boria, Vicente; Raboso, David

    2012-01-01

    Performance limiting high-power rf phenomenon occur in both transmitter systems in satellites and high-gradient accelerating structures in particle accelerators. In satellites the predominant effect is multipactor while in accelerators it is breakdown. Both communities have studied their respective phenomena extensively and developed particular simulation tools and experimental techniques. A series of experiments to directly compare measurements made under multipactor and breakdown conditions has been initiated with the objective to crosscheck and compare the physics, simulation tools and measurement techniques.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of horizontal-axis wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Michael Broughton

    1981-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study of horizontal-axis wind turbines is undertaken. The theoretical analyses cover the four major areas of aerodynamics, turbulence. aeroelasticity and blade optimisation. EXisting aerodynamic theories based on blade-element theory for predicting the loads on a wind turbine blade are reviewed and extended to include non-uniform flow, tip losses and the 'turbulent wake' state. A theoretical model based on a free vortex representation of a ...

  2. Respecifying lab ethnography an ethnomethodological study of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Respecifying Lab Ethnography delivers the first ethnomethodological study of current experimental physics in action, describing the disciplinary orientation of lab work and exploring the discipline in its social order, formal stringency and skilful performance - in situ and in vivo. In bringing together two major strands of ethnomethodological inquiry, reflexive ethnography and video analysis, which have hitherto existed in parallel, Respecifying Lab Ethnography introduces a practice-based video analysis. In doing so, the book recasts conventional distinctions to shed fresh light on methodolog

  3. Experimental study on durability of small wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Daorina; Shang, Wei; Wang, Huan

    2017-06-01

    Through the basic theory of durability test technology for small and medium sized wind power generation units, and the durability of 3KW wind turbine, this paper analyzed the test method of time available rate of unit and studied the power generation capability of the wind turbine. No power attenuation trend has been found, and a lot of experimental data and rich experience in engineering practice has been obtained with the success of experiments.

  4. Experimental studies toward the characterization of Inmetro's circulating water channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. M.; Alho, A. T. P.; Garcia, D. A.; Farias, M. H.; Massari, P. L.; Silva, V. V. S.

    2016-07-01

    Circulating water channels are facilities which can be used for conducting environmental, metrological and engineering studies. The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology-INMETRO has a water channel of innovative design, and the present work deals with the prior experimental investigation of its hydrodynamics performance. By using the optical technique PIV - Particle Image Velocimetry, under certain conditions, the velocity profile behavior in a region inside the channel was analyzed in order to evaluate the scope of applicability of such bench.

  5. Hemosiderin deposits confounds tracking of iron-oxide-labeled stem cells: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, M; Solanes, N; Roqué, M; Farré, J; Batlle, M; Roura, S; Bellera, N; Prat-Vidal, C; Sionis, A; Ramírez, J; Sitges, M; Sanz, G; Bayés-Genís, A; Heras, M

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present research was to study the possible interference of hemosiderin deposits with the histological detection of dextran-coated, iron-labeled, mesenchymal stem cells after intracoronary administration in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction was induced in six animals that received intracoronary iron-labeled autologous mesenchymal stem cells (group 1; n = 2) or placebo (group 2; n = 4). Six control animals without myocardial infarction underwent direct intramyocardial injections of iron-labeled autologous mesenchymal stem cells (group 3; n = 2) or placebo (group 4; n = 4). Histological sections from explanted hearts were stained with Prussian blue to identify dextran-coated, iron-labeled, mesenchymal stem cells. After Prussian blue staining, granular blue labeling in the tissue was observed in both groups of animals with infarcts. Similar granular blue labeling was detected in hearts from control animals without infarction that had received iron-labeled mesenchymal stem cells. However, hearts from control animals without infarction that received placebo did not have any granular blue labeling in the tissue. Hemosiderin from infarction hemorrhage interferes with detection of dextran-coated iron-labeled mesenchymal stem cells after intracoronary administration, suggesting that this marker is not useful to detect mesenchymal stem cells in a porcine model of myocardial infarction.

  6. Heart-rate variability depression in porcine peritonitis-induced sepsis without organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarkovska, Dagmar; Valesova, Lenka; Chvojka, Jiri; Benes, Jan; Danihel, Vojtech; Sviglerova, Jitka; Nalos, Lukas; Matejovic, Martin; Stengl, Milan

    2017-05-01

    Depression of heart-rate variability (HRV) in conditions of systemic inflammation has been shown in both patients and experimental animal models and HRV has been suggested as an early indicator of sepsis. The sensitivity of HRV-derived parameters to the severity of sepsis, however, remains unclear. In this study we modified the clinically relevant porcine model of peritonitis-induced sepsis in order to avoid the development of organ failure and to test the sensitivity of HRV to such non-severe conditions. In 11 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and instrumented domestic pigs of both sexes, sepsis was induced by fecal peritonitis. The dose of feces was adjusted and antibiotic therapy was administered to avoid multiorgan failure. Experimental subjects were screened for 40 h from the induction of sepsis. In all septic animals, sepsis with hyperdynamic circulation and increased plasma levels of inflammatory mediators developed within 12 h from the induction of peritonitis. The sepsis did not progress to multiorgan failure and there was no spontaneous death during the experiment despite a modest requirement for vasopressor therapy in most animals (9/11). A pronounced reduction of HRV and elevation of heart rate developed quickly (within 5 h, time constant of 1.97 ± 0.80 h for HRV parameter TINN) upon the induction of sepsis and were maintained throughout the experiment. The frequency domain analysis revealed a decrease in the high-frequency component. The reduction of HRV parameters and elevation of heart rate preceded sepsis-associated hemodynamic changes by several hours (time constant of 11.28 ± 2.07 h for systemic vascular resistance decline). A pronounced and fast reduction of HRV occurred in the setting of a moderate experimental porcine sepsis without organ failure. Inhibition of parasympathetic cardiac signaling probably represents the main mechanism of HRV reduction in sepsis. The sensitivity of HRV to systemic inflammation may allow

  7. Regional distribution of phospholipids in porcine vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Abigail; Yappert, Marta Cecilia; Borchman, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued. Due to the overall low levels of phospholipids in vitreous humor, it was necessary to optimize the experimental approaches for ex-situ and in-vitro studies. The sensitivity observed in the spectra of methanol extracts from the lens and retina was higher than that for methanol:chloroform extracts, but the compositional trends were the same. A fourfold improvement in sensitivity was observed in the analysis of vitreous humor extracts obtained with the Bligh and Dyer protocol relative to the other two extraction methods. For ex-situ studies, the 'stamp method' with para-nitroaniline as the matrix was chosen. Throughout the vitreous humor, phosphatidylcholines were the most abundant phospholipids. In-vitro results showed higher relative levels of phospholipids compared to the 'stamp' method. However, more details in the regional phospholipid distribution were provided by the ex-situ approach. Both in-vitro and ex-situ results indicated higher levels of phospholipids in the posterior vitreous region, followed by the anterior and central regions. The posterior region contained more unsaturated species whereas more saturated phospholipids were detected in the anterior region. The observed trends suggest that the phospholipids detected in the posterior vitreous humor migrate from the retina and associated vasculature while those present in

  8. Analytical and experimental studies of wakes behind circularly capped bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessler, W. F.

    The wakes behind circularly capped bubbles are examined by means of an experimental and analytical study. A single two-inch diameter bubble is injected into a six by three foot fluid column, one half inch thick, producing an essentially two-dimensional flow. Aspirin powder placed in the fluid column just prior to bubble release highlights the structure of the flow field before dissolving. High speed film and sequenced photographs are taken to document the observed results. Pressure-time measurements are made with sensitive capacitive transducers mounted in the rear column wall and are synchronized with photographs using a high speed clock. Experimental fluids, prepared by mixing water and glycerine in varying proportions, are used to study the effects of viscosity on bubble shape and wake structure. Testing is performed over a range of Reynolds numbers from 14 to 29,655 which includes the transition from circularly capped to ellipsoidal bubble shape. Experimental data is reduced and summarized in convenient dimensionless form to permit comparison with analytical predictions.

  9. An experimental study on recovering heat from domestic drain water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Al Shaer, Ali; Haddad, Ahmad; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns an experimental study on a system of heat recovery applied to domestic drain water pipes. The concept suggested consists of using the heat still present in the drain water as a preheating/heating source to the cold water supply of the building. To proceed, an appropriate experimental setup is developed and a coil heat exchanger is used as heat transfer device in the recovery system. Several scenarios are simulated and corresponding parameters are recorded and analyzed. It was shown that the suggested recovery concept can considerably preheat the cold water supply and then decrease the energy consumption. Particularly, up to 8.6 kW of heat were recovered when the cold water supply is initially at 3 °C.

  10. Experimental and theoretical study of metal combustion in oxygen flows

    CERN Document Server

    El-Rabii, Hazem; Muller, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    The effects of oxygen flow speed and pressure on the iron and mild steel combustion are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The studied specimens are vertical cylindrical rods subjected to an axial oxygen flow and ignited at the upper end by laser irradiation. Three main stages of the combustion process have been identified experimentally: (1) Induction period, during which the rod is heated until an intensive metal oxidation begins at its upper end; (2) Static combustion, during which a laminar liquid "cap" slowly grows on the upper rod end; and, after the liquid cap detachment from the sample, (3) Dynamic combustion, which is characterized by a rapid metal consumption and turbulent liquid motions. An analytical description of these stages is given. In particular, a model of the dynamic combustion is constructed based on the turbulent oxygen transport through the liquid metal-oxide flow. This model yields a simple expression for the fraction of metal burned in the process, and allows one to calcul...

  11. Experimental study of effect of stenosis geometry on flow parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselý Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A stenosis is a narrowing in a tubular organ or structure. In medicine, vessel stenosis poses health risks for people. In this work, experimental investigations of pressure loss coefficient for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape were performed. Five models of different geometry were studied; all models were stenosis of 75 % area reduction. The flow conditions approximate physiological flow. The measuring range of Reynolds number was from 130 to 2730, measured values of pressure loss coefficient were from 12 to 20. The steady experimental results indicated that static pressure loss coefficient is affected by the shape of stenosis, but it was affected more significantly by the eccentricity. Visualization experiments have been performed in Polycarbonate models.

  12. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Nestor Fonseca [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure. (author)

  13. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor, E-mail: nestorfonseca5@hotmail.co [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure.

  14. Experimental study of heat transfer to falling liquid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, N. E.; Kivioja, K.; Ghazanfari, A. R.; Jaervinen, E.

    1985-12-01

    This project was initiated in order to obtain more knowledge about thermal design of falling film heat exchangers and to find methods to improve heat transfer in film flow. A short literature survey of film flow characteristics and heat transfer is presented. An experimental apparatus designed and built for studying falling film evaporation is described. The first experiments were made with smooth Cu tube 25/22 mm and refrigerant R114 as evaporating liquid. A significant amount of droplet entrainment was observed during the tests. The measured average heat transfer coefficient varied from 1000 to 1800 W/m K when Re=1300 to 11000 respectively and when the transfer mode is surface evaporation. This could be predicted accurately with the experimental correlation of Chun and Seban. When nucleate boiling is dominant the heat transfer could be predicted well with pool boiling correlation of VDI-84.

  15. [Biological characterization of three natural isolates of the porcine rubulavirus (Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borraz-Argüello, María del Tránsito; Santos-López, Gerardo; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Herrera-Camacho, Irma; Reyes-Leyva, Julio

    2008-06-01

    Biological characterization of three natural isolates of the porcine rubulavirus (Mexico). Porcine rubulavirus (PoRV) produces a neurological and reproductive syndrome in pigs called the blue-eye disease, known only from Mexico. Several isolates were grouped by the main symptoms presented during outbreaks: a) neurotropic in piglets, (b) broadly neurotropic in piglets and gonadotropic in adults, and (c) gonadotropic in adults. We studied some biological properties of three strains, which fall in one of each virus group: La Piedad Michoacán (LPM) and Producci6n Animal Cerdos 1 (PAC1) and 3 (PAC3), respectively. The analyzed viral properties are mainly related with the trans-membrane hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins, such as cytopathic effect, hemolysis, hemagglutinating (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) activities. In the infection assays PAC1 strain presented the highest fusogenicity level; however, the most cytolytic strain was PAC3. In addition, HA and NA activities and viral genome of PAC3 strain was detected in supernatants during cell infection earlier than in the other two strains, which shows that PAC3 virions release from the host cell earlier than LPM and PAC1. Experimental determination in purified viruses shows that PAC3 presented a higher HA and NA activities; however, PAC1 shows other interesting properties, such as a high thermostability of HN and differences about substrate profile respect to LPM and PAC3. Our data suggest that NA activity is associated with the virulence of RVP.

  16. Experimental Study on the WavePiston Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Angelelli, E.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power performance of the WavePiston wave energy converter. It focuses mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device and the effect of the following issues: Scaling ratios PTO loading Wave height and wave period...... dependency Oblique incoming waves Distance between plates During the study, the model supplied by the client, WavePiston, has been rigorously tested as all the anticipated tests have been done thoroughly and during all tests, good quality data has been obtained from all the sensors....

  17. Game theory and experimental games the study of strategic interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Colman, Andrew M

    1982-01-01

    Game Theory and Experimental Games: The Study of Strategic Interaction is a critical survey of the essential ideas of game theory and the findings of empirical research on strategic interaction. Some experiments using lifelike simulations of familiar kinds of strategic interactions are presented, and applications of game theory to the study of voting, the theory of evolution, and moral philosophy are discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an informal definition of game theory and an outline of the types of social situations to which it applies. Games of skill, games of cha

  18. Support with intra-aortic balloon pump vs. Impella2.5® and blood flow to the heart, brain and kidneys - an experimental porcine model of ischaemic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller-Helgestad, Ole K; Poulsen, Christian B; Christiansen, Evald H; Lassen, Jens F; Ravn, Hanne B

    2015-01-15

    Cardiogenic shock as a complication to an acute myocardial infarction has an unacceptably high death rate that has not changed for the last 15years. Mortality is partly related to organ hypoperfusion and mechanical assist devices are used for the most severe cases but we do not know which assist device is the best option. Therefore, we have investigated how an IABP and an Impella®-pump influenced blood flow to the brain, heart and kidneys, in a closed-chest porcine model of severe left ventricular failure. 13 pigs were anesthetised and left ventricular failure was induced by occluding the proximal LAD for 45min followed by 30min of reperfusion. Blood flow was measured in the carotid artery, the LAD, and the renal artery. The Impella® and IABP were inserted via the femoral arteries, and the two devices were tested individually and combined after induction of heart failure. Carotid- (p=0.01) and renal blood flow (p=0.045) were higher on Impella®-support, compared to no support. None of the devices altered the blood flow in the LAD. Cardiac power output (p<0.005) and left ventricular work (p<0.00) were also higher on Impella®-support compared to no support. Haemodynamics and blood flow to the brain and kidneys were significantly better on Impella®-support, suggesting that the Impella® is superior to the IABP in a state of ischaemia induced left ventricular failure. These data, however, needs to be confirmed in a proper clinical trial with patients in cardiogenic shock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Porcine focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T M; Drake, T R

    1982-04-01

    An acute afebrile paretic condition was diagnosed in 16 of 100 feeder pigs between eight to ten weeks of age. Nine pigs died acutely and seven pigs were euthanized. Macroscopic lesions in the ventral horns of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral segments of the spinal cord consisted of focal, bilateral, grey depressed areas. There was a bilateral symmetrical focal poliomyelomalacia histopathologically characterized by microcavitation, endothelial and glial cell proliferation and infiltration of eosinophils. Clinical and pathological findings resemble spontaneous and experimental lesions associated with acute nicotinamide deficiency and selenium toxicosis in swine.

  20. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...