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Sample records for experimental piston ring

  1. Experimental Investigation of Piston Rings for Internal Combustion Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2007-01-01

    One of the major prerequisites for calculating piston ring friction is a good description of the tribological situation. A very important condition for describing the frictional behavior of a piston ring correctly is knowledge about the amount of lubricant present. For piston rings the external...... load may be established by measuring the pressure distribution, i.e. the pressure drop in the piston ring package. Speed and temperature may also be established. The amount and distribution of oil present is, however, not easily determined. It is often assumed that it operates under fully flooded...... conditions, but this is not the case in real life operation. These problems forms the basis for the experimental investigation. In large two-stroke engines the cylinder oil is supplied to the bearing at discrete locations on the cylinder liner at a specific rate at a certain time. The shifting in lubrication...

  2. Experimental Investigation of Piston Rings for Internal Combustion Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2008-01-01

    assembly. The aim of this paper is to investigate the tribological condition between a piston ring and cylinder. A test apparatus is used to study the interaction between a piston ring and a cylinder liner. In large two stroke engines with cross head bearings the piston height is small compared to smaller...... four stroke engines where the skirt transfers the guide forces to the cylinder liner. The power loss due to piston skirt friction is estimated by comparing two different piston designs. The piston ring experiences hydrodynamic, mixed and boundary lubrication and the squeeze effect of the piston ring......One of the major prerequisites for calculating piston ring friction is a good description of the tribological situation. A very important condition for describing the frictional behavior of a piston ring correctly is knowledge about the amount of lubricant present. For piston rings the external...

  3. Experimental Piston Ring Tribology for Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2008-01-01

    A very important condition for describing the frictional behavior of a piston ring correctly is knowledge about the amount of lubricant present. It is often assumed that piston rings operate under fully flooded conditions, but this is not the case in real life operation. In large two-stroke engin...

  4. TRIBOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF PISTON RING IN MARINE DIESEL ENGINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder; Felter, Christian

    From a tribology point of view, it is the two dead centers that are the main area of interest for experimental study of piston rings in large marine diesel engines. Therefore, in this work the performance of piston rings is studied to mark the importance of the two dead centers. A test rig based...... dead centers have significant influence on the performance of piston rings under lubricated conditions. It can be concluded that at the dead centers the piston rings will experience a transition from dry friction to hydrodynamic friction with corresponding variation in rotational speed....

  5. Design of Piston Ring Friction Tester Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2006-01-01

    dead center the nature of the movement of the piston ring, along with the elevated pressure due to combustion, forces it to operate in the boundary lubrication regime. In the middle part of the stroke, the sliding speed is quite high and the piston ring operates in the hydrodynamic regime. Again......, at the bottom dead center, the piston ring movement along the liner changes direction and due to the low speed the ring will operate in the mixed lubrication regime. In large two-stroke engines the cylinder oil is supplied to the bearing at discrete locations on the cylinder liner at a specific rate......One of the major prerequisites for calculating piston ring friction is a good description of the tribological situation. Piston rings operate in three different lubrication regimes and the theoretical models should be capable to describe this. A very important condition for describing...

  6. Piston ring lubrication and hydrocarbon emissions from internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelund, K.

    1997-11-01

    Is it the intention with this project to improve the existing hydrocarbon emission model at the Institute by combining it with a model for predicting the piston ring lubrication. The piston ring lubrication model should be experimentally verified to ensure the validity of the model. The following items were the objectives of the current study: Develop a piston ring lubrication model. This implies the development of a ring-pack gas flow model; Examine the response of the piston ring lubrication model to changing engineer conditions. Especially, it would be interesting to look at the engine warm-up phase since this is the phase where the engine-out emissions are highest and where the commonly used three way catalyst is not capable of converting the engine-out emissions, thereby leading the engine-out emissions directly out in to the environment with the exhaust gases; In order to verify the piston ring lubrication model the lubricant distribution on the cylinder liner should be investigated experimentally. Here again it would be of great interesting to look at the engine warm-up phase; The piston ring lubrication model should be adjusted for application together with the new hydrocarbon emission model for SI-engines at the Institute in order to increase the accuracy of the latter; The piston ring lubrication model could be used for describing the transport of PAH`s in diesel engines. (EG)

  7. Numerical Simulation of Piston Ring Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felter, Christian Lotz

    2006-01-01

    is extended to include also the oil film outside the piston rings. The numerical model consists of a 2D free surface code that solves the time dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are cast in Lagrangian form and discretized by a meshfree moving least squares method using the primitive...... and the angle between the normals of the solid and the free surface. The numerical model is compared with the results from an analytical solution of Reynolds equation for a fixed incline slider bearing. Then results from a more compli- cated simulation of piston ring lubrication is given and discussed....

  8. Role Of Computational Simulations In The Design Of Piston Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotný Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents computational approaches using modern strategies for a dynamic piston ring solution as a fluid structural problem. Computational model outputs can be used to understand design parameter influences on defined results of a primarily integral character. Piston ring dynamics incorporates mixed lubrication conditions, the influence of surface roughness on oil film lubrication, the influence of ring movement on gas dynamics, oil film formulation on a cylinder liner and other significant influences. The solution results are presented for several parameters of SI engine piston rings.

  9. Computational Modelling of Piston Ring Dynamics in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlugoš Jozef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced computational models of a piston assembly based on the level of virtual prototypes require a detailed description of piston ring behaviour. Considering these requirements, the piston rings operate in regimes that cannot, in general, be simplified into an axisymmetric model. The piston and the cylinder liner do not have a perfect round shape, mainly due to machining tolerances and external thermo-mechanical loads. If the ring cannot follow the liner deformations, a local loss of contact occurs resulting in blow-by and increased consumption of lubricant oil in the engine. Current computational models are unable to implement such effects. The paper focuses on the development of a flexible 3D piston ring model based on the Timoshenko beam theory using the multibody system (MBS. The MBS model is compared to the finite element method (FEM solution.

  10. Investigation of vortex ring formation with account of generator piston motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, I. V.; Palchikovskiy, VV; Siner, A. A.; Bersenev, Yu V.

    2017-06-01

    The formation and dynamics of such an elementary object of fluid dynamics as a vortex ring was investigated. Intense turbulent vortex rings created by a piston generator were considered. For qualitative determination of vortex ring properties, the law of motion for the generator’s piston was experimentally established. This law was used in the numerical simulation, which was performed for the axisymmetric problem formulation with the use of ANSYS Fluent software. The obtained results correspond to the self-similar law of vortex ring motion and experimental results.

  11. A Study of Piston-Ring Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-08-01

    alloy crosshead, operating in this cylinder, carried on its upper end a special piston. (See figs. 1 and 3.) Since no wrist pin was required for this...accessory fuel, water, and oil pumps were driven by electric motors. Engine torques were measured by means of a cradled electric dynamometer and a

  12. ІNVESTIGATION OF PECULIARITIES OF PISTON RINGS LASER BORATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem formulation. Piston rings are subject to wear while in operation. Insufficient wear resistance of materials limits the growth of machines productivity as well as the terms of their exploitation. The required complex of properties of piston rings made of cast iron cannot be always reached by applying traditional methods of heat treatment or chemical heat treatment processing. Thus, application of traditional borating methods associated with diffusion of boron into the solid phase leads to the formation of the working layer exhibiting high brittleness. Therefore, the problem of increasing the wear resistance of piston rings without embrittlement is challenging. The use oflaser heating during borating provides the formation of a new layer with special properties. However, the optimum properties can be achieved only after determining the relationship between the parameters of running a process and the depth of the borated layer. Goal of research. To determine the influence of laser heating parameters on the depth of the borated layer, as the properties of piston rings depend on the depth of the latter. Conclusions. Increase in the speed of displacing parts during laser heating reduces the depth of the borated layer, and increase of the spot diameter enhances the depth of the layer. The phases and structural components of the borated layer were interpreted by means of X-ray and metallographic methods. The results of investigations can be applied to other machine parts, which are subject to intensive wear.

  13. Tribological Performance of Different Geometries of Piston Rings in Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder; Felter, Christian

    Friction in the piston ring package (piston, piston rings and liner) is a major source of power consumption in two stroke marine diesel engines. It is well-known that a typical piston ring operates under full separation in the mid-part of the stroke, and in the mixed lubrication regime at the dead...... centres. A theoretical model is developed to predict the performance of piston rings throughout the entire cycle. This model is based on Reynolds equation coupled with a pressure-density relation for modelling of cavitation. It is assumed that the infinite width bearing assumption is valid, which...

  14. Oil and ring effects on piston-ring assembly friction by the instantaneous IMEP method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uras, H.M.; Patterson, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the friction characteristics of a 1.8 Litre J-car piston and ring assembly as influenced by oil rings of conventional design, but of varying tensions. In addition, the piston-ring assembly friction characteristics are reported for a set of oil viscosities ranging from 2 to 20 cSt with and without a molybdenum friction modifier. Multigrade oil results are shown also. Finally comparisons are presented between changes in friction measured by the Instantaneous IMEP Method and those measured by the dynamometer for the engine as a whole.

  15. Nitrided-steel Piston Rings for Engines of High Specific Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-04-01

    by th? IJACA. In this method, a replica of the surface is taion with a plastic such as stripping lacquer or celluloid and this replioa is...of cross head influences ring performance by effect on piston rocking. 2. Location of rings. Tho ring bolt was located as for from tho piston crown

  16. Development and verification of a reciprocating test rig designed for investigation of piston ring tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Torben; Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development and verification of a reciprocating test rig, which was designed to study the piston ring tribology. A crank mechanism is used to generate a reciprocating motion for a moving plate, which acts as the liner. A stationary block acting as the ring package is loaded......, which is suitable for the study of piston ring tribology....

  17. Development of a model capable of predicting the performance of piston ring-cylinder liner-like tribological interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felter, C.L.; Vølund, A.; Imran, Tajammal

    2010-01-01

    Friction in the piston ring package (piston, piston rings, and liner) is a major source of power consumption in large two-stroke marine diesel engines. In order to improve the frictional and wear performance, knowledge about the tribological interface between piston rings and liner is needed...... at a high speed. This article represents the first steps in the pursuit of being able to accurately model the interface between a piston ring and the cylinder liner in large two-stroke diesel engines....

  18. Fluid-film lubrication with an application to piston rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanian, Mohsen

    1994-04-01

    This dissertation consists of four related studies. The first part provides dimensionless film thickness equations for four fluid-fllm lubrication regimes found for nonconformal surfaces while considering side-leakage effects. These regimes are isoviscous rigid, piezoviscous rigid, isoviscous elastic, and piezoviscous elastic. The influence or lack of influence of elastic effects from the solid surfaces and pressure-viscosity effects from the lubricant is a factor that distinguishes these regimes. Results are presented as a map of the lubrication regimes for four values of the ellipticity parameter. The second part deals with integrating artificial intelligence and conventional numerical design techniques to aid in tribological design. The study concentrates on the application of contact stresses. The result is a computer code, the Design Expert for Contact Stress, which incorporates and combines an expert system with numerical analysis techniques to aid the user in designing machine elements. This menu-driven program also performs a design compatibility analysis, which evaluates the compatibility between the specifications and the design, provides a rating on the overall design, lists reasons for the evaluation, and gives suggestions for improvements. The third part investigates the rheological effects in elastohydrodynamic lubrication. In this study the effects on fluid viscosity of pressure, temperature, shear strain rate, shear stress, and time are examined. A number of non-Newtonian models are introduced. The effects of pressure on fluid density are described. The role of solidification pressure on the density of the lubricants is also examined. The possible influence of a lubricant's viscoelastic behavior on its viscosity is considered. Finally, the influence of rheological effects on elastohydrodynamic lubrication is explained. The last part describes fundamental research into the basic mechanisms involved in piston ring lubrication. A recently developed

  19. Novel Tribotester for Cylinder Liner/Piston Ring Contacts of Two Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Torben; Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder

    2009-01-01

    A good tribological description for the cylinder liner and piston ring materials is always desired in order to achieve an improved combination of the materials. The piston ring package in a two-stroke-diesel engine operates in three lubrication regimes and the materials must be characterized...... in relation to this before a final selection is made. A tribo-test-apparatus is developed to study the tribological performance and to rank the different combinations of cylinder liner and piston ring materials of two stroke marine diesel engines. The test apparatus is based on the block-on-ring principle...

  20. Novel Tribotester for Cylinder Liner/Piston Ring Contacts of Two Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Torben; Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder

    2009-01-01

    in relation to this before a final selection is made. A tribo-test-apparatus is developed to study the tribological performance and to rank the different combinations of cylinder liner and piston ring materials of two stroke marine diesel engines. The test apparatus is based on the block-on-ring principle......A good tribological description for the cylinder liner and piston ring materials is always desired in order to achieve an improved combination of the materials. The piston ring package in a two-stroke-diesel engine operates in three lubrication regimes and the materials must be characterized...

  1. Investigation of different piston ring curvatures on lubricant transport along cylinder liner in large two-stroke marine diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, H; Klit, P; Vølund, A

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the hydrodynamic lubrication of the top compression piston ring in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine is presented. The groove mounted piston ring is driven by the reciprocal motion of the piston. The ring shape follows a circular geometry and the effect...

  2. Investigation of Different Piston Ring Curvatures on Lubricant Transport along Cylinder Liner in Large Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Hannibal Christian; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the hydrodynamic lubrication of the top compression piston ring in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine is presented. The groove mounted piston ring is driven by the reciprocal motion of the piston. The ring shape follows a circular geometry and the effect...

  3. PISTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, Christopher Meyer [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-08

    This presentation was a part of the guest lecture series for graduate classes at the University of Oregon on many-core visualization. It discussed a practical introduction to high-level data parallelism using thrust and PISTON; presented an overview of PISTON and PINION; provided tutorial examples; additional details on research results.

  4. Effects of Surface Irregularities on Piston Ring-Cylinder Tribo Pair of a Two Stroke Motor Engine in Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zavos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tribological parameters such as friction, lubrication and wear influence strongly the engine component's life. In this study, a piston ring-cylinder system simulated taking into account the surface modifications under fully flooded lubrication and normal engine conditions. The hydrodynamic pressure field solved based on the Navier Stokes equations by Fluid Structure Interaction analysis. A real experimental data of piston ring-cylinder was used from a two stroke motor engine 50 cc. The surface irregularities are measured by 3D coordinate measurement machine while the engine has been worked about 4000 hours. The friction force, the hydrodynamic pressure, the oil film and the mechanical stresses were predicted for different engine conditions. Results show that the worn profile ring reduces the friction as well as the mechanical stresses increased. Surface condition of worn top ring was observed after a metallurgical profile analysis.

  5. Lubrication of Piston Rings in Large 2–and 4–stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felter, Christian Lotz

    Piston rings are vital components of any internal combustion engine, and their performance affect important properties such as frictional losses, oil consumption, and wear of parts. This thesis deals with the lubrication of piston rings from a theoretical point of view. Predictions are made using...... numerical models implemented as computer programs. The classical Reynolds equation can be used to calculate the pressure distribution in thin films of fluid. In relation to piston ring lubrication it is, however, less straight forward to apply the Reynolds equation since the inlet (and outlet) point...... is fulfilled in a quasi-static sense a concrete example is analyzed using the Reynolds equation. Next a free surface 2D code based on the compressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed. The main idea is to model also the oil film outside the piston ring. Through time integration the movement of the inlet...

  6. Pistonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perram, John W.; Præstgaard, Eigil; Smith, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    to the dynamical system can make it resemble a quasi-static process. We then generalise the dynamical system to a two-compartment adiabatic cylinder in which the gases in the two chambers are separated by a movable piston. We show that, if the piston is subjected to infinitesimal kinetic friction, in all cases...... into a region of different pressure. For isothermal processes, we show that the system decays to equilibrium through damped oscillations in such a way that the work done by the enclosed gas is equal to the negative of the work done by the external pressure. We then show that simple control strategies applied...

  7. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leick, Michael T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moses, Ronald W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  8. Investigation of piston ring – cylinder liner dry wear using a block-on-ring test rig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe; Klit, Peder; Felter, Christian L.

    Characterization of the wear of piston rings and cylinder liner is an important aspect of large two stroke diesel engine design. Two major wear mechanisms exist; corrosive wear and mechanical wear. This paper deals with the most aggressive form of the latter, which is known as scuffing. Different...... material combinations for piston rings and cylinder liners are examined using a block-on-ring test rig. An accelerated wear test run without lubricant is used. Results show that the morphology of cast iron is an important parameter affecting the wear resistance of the material. It is also demonstrated...

  9. Test Method Designed to Evaluate Cylinder Liner-Piston Ring Coatings for Advanced Heat Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    Research on advanced heat engine concepts, such as the low-heat-rejection engine, have shown the potential for increased thermal efficiency, reduced emissions, lighter weight, simpler design, and longer life in comparison to current diesel engine designs. A major obstacle in the development of a functional advanced heat engine is overcoming the problems caused by the high combustion temperatures at the piston ring/cylinder liner interface, specifically at top ring reversal (TRR). Therefore, advanced cylinder liner and piston ring materials are needed that can survive under these extreme conditions. To address this need, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have designed a tribological test method to help evaluate candidate piston ring and cylinder liner materials for advanced diesel engines.

  10. An Analysis of Intermetallic Bonding between a Ring Carrier and an Aluminum Piston Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasijević, Srećko; Dolić, Natalija; Zovko Brodarac, Zdenka; Djurdjević, Mile; Radiša, Radomir

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the formation of an intermetallic bond between a ring carrier and an aluminum piston alloy. The ring carrier is made of austenitic cast iron (Ni-Resist) to increase the wear resistance of the first ring groove and is applied in highly loaded diesel engines. The most important thing is that the Ni-Resist (ferrous) must be bonded with a non-ferrous piston material during the casting of the piston. A metallographic investigation using an optical microscope in combination with the SEM/EDS analysis of the quality of the intermetallic bonding layer was done. The test results show that if the proper conditions are met, then the preparation of the ring carrier can be made successfully, as can the formation of the metal connection between the two materials of different qualities.

  11. The intermetallic bonding between a ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Manasijevic, Srećko; Dolić, Natalija; Djurdjevic, Mile; Mišić, Nataša; Davitkov, Novica

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the formation of intermetallic bond between a ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy. The ring carrier is made of austenitic cast iron (Ni-Resist) in order to increase the wear resistance of the first ring groove and applied in highly loaded diesel engines. Metallographic examination of the quality of alfin bond was done. A metallographic investigation using an optical microscope in combination with the SEM/EDS analysis of the quality of the in...

  12. A CWT-based methodology for piston slap experimental characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, M.; Mucchi, E.; Dalpiaz, G.

    2017-03-01

    Noise and vibration control in mechanical systems has become ever more significant for automotive industry where the comfort of the passenger compartment represents a challenging issue for car manufacturers. The reduction of piston slap noise is pivotal for a good design of IC engines. In this scenario, a methodology has been developed for the vibro-acoustic assessment of IC diesel engines by means of design changes in piston to cylinder bore clearance. Vibration signals have been analysed by means of advanced signal processing techniques taking advantage of cyclostationarity theory. The procedure departs from the analysis of the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) in order to identify a representative frequency band of piston slap phenomenon. Such a frequency band has been exploited as the input data in the further signal processing analysis that involves the envelope analysis of the second order cyclostationary component of the signal. The second order harmonic component has been used as the benchmark parameter of piston slap noise. An experimental procedure of vibrational benchmarking is proposed and verified at different operational conditions in real IC engines actually equipped on cars. This study clearly underlines the crucial role of the transducer positioning when differences among real piston-to-cylinder clearances are considered. In particular, the proposed methodology is effective for the sensors placed on the outer cylinder wall in all the tested conditions.

  13. Experimental Study on the WavePiston Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Angelelli, E.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power performance of the WavePiston wave energy converter. It focuses mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device and the effect of the following issues: Scaling ratios PTO loading Wave height and wave period...... dependency Oblique incoming waves Distance between plates During the study, the model supplied by the client, WavePiston, has been rigorously tested as all the anticipated tests have been done thoroughly and during all tests, good quality data has been obtained from all the sensors....

  14. The intermetallic bonding between a ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manasijevie, S.; Dolie, N.; Djurdjevic, M.; Misic, N.; Davitkov, N.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the formation of intermetallic bond between a ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy. The ring carrier is made of austenitic cast iron (Ni-Resist) in order to increase the wear resistance of the first ring groove and applied in highly loaded diesel engines. Metallographic examination of the quality of al fin bond was done. A metallographic investigation using an optical microscope in combination with the SEM/EDS analysis of the quality of the intermetallic bonding layer was done. The test results show that can be made successfully as well as the formation of metal connection (alfin bond) between the ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy. (Author)

  15. Calculation of Oil Film Thickness from Damping Coefficients for a Piston Ring in an Internal Combustion Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2007-01-01

    W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coefficients of the bearing could be used to find the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. In the present paper this method is further developed and utilized to determine the dynamic behavior of a piston ring in a combustion...... engine. The basic idea is to use the fluid film damping coefficients to estimate the film thickness variation for a piston ring under cyclic varying load. Reynolds Equation is solved for a piston ring and the oil film thickness is determined. In this analysis hydrodynamic lubrication is assumed...

  16. Influence of sliding surface roughness and oil temperature on piston ring pack operation of an automotive IC engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper a comprehensive model of a piston ring pack motion on an oil film has been presented. The local oil film thickness can be compared to height of the combined roughness of sliding surfaces of piston rings and cylinder liner. Equations describing the mixed lubrication problem based on the empirical mathematical model formulated in works of Patir, Cheng and Greenwood, Tripp have been combined and used in this paper. The developed model takes the following phenomena into account: hydrodynamic and contact forces, spring and gas forces acting on piston rings. The rings motion concerning low and high temperature of cylinder surface has been compared. These results concern cases of hydrodynamic and mixed lubrication. Changes of oil wetted area and contact zone of piston rings have been shown. In addition the oil film thickness distribution along cylinder liner and all the forces acting on piston rings have been analysed and discussed. The results have been presented in form of relevant diagrams. The developed model and software can be utilized for optimization of piston rings design.

  17. Nonlinear quantum piston for the controlled generation of vortex rings and soliton trains

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsker, Florian

    2013-05-29

    We propose a simple way to generate nonlinear excitations in a controllable way by managing interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates. Under the action of a quantum analog of a classical piston, the condensed atoms are pushed through the trap, generating vortex rings infully three-dimensional condensates or soliton trains in quasi-one-dimensional scenarios. The vortex rings form due to transverse instability of the shock-wave train, enhanced and supported by the energy transfer between waves. We elucidate in what sense the self-interactions within the atom cloud define the properties of the generated vortex rings and soliton trains. Based on the quantum-piston scheme we study the behavior of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates and analyze how the presence of an additional superfluid influences the generation of vortex rings or solitons in the other component, and vice versa. Finally, we show the dynamical emergence of skyrmions within two-component systems in the immiscible regime. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  18. USAHA PENURUNAN PERSENTASE CACAT RING PISTON TIPE 4JA1 PADA PROSES HABANAKASHI MESIN BESLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Yuliana Wibisono

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the programs that can be used to improve the quality is Six Sigma program using DMAIC method. The research is performed at PT Baninusa Indonesia (PT. BN producing the 2nd type of 4JA1 piston ring. The program is implemented to decrease the defect proportion The production process performance and the problem priority are known from the CTQ itself. The fish bone diagram is used to determine the causes of the problem. The improvement is performed by determination of the best process parameter through the fullfactorial experiment design. The result is significantly decrease defect proportion by 2.682%. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Salah satu program peningkatan kualitas yang dapat mengakomodasi tuntutan peningkatan kualitas adalah program Six Sigma dengan menggunakan metode DMAIC. Penelitian dilakukan pada PT.Baninusa Indonesia (PT.BN, salah satu perusahaan yang memproduksi produk ring piston tipe 4JA1 jenis 2nd ring. Program digunakan untuk menurunkan persentase cacat produk. Dari CTQ yang ada dapat diketahui kinerja proses produksi saat ini dan prioritas permasalahan. Fish bone diagram digunakan untuk akar penyebab masalah Tindakan perbaikan yang dipilih adalah menentukan parameter proses terbaik dengan menggunakan metode eksperimen full factorial. Hasil penerapan parameter proses tersebut menunjukkan pengurangan yang signifikan terhadap persentase cacat sebesar 2,682%. Kata kunci: metoda six sigma, DMAIC, perbaikan kualitas, karakteristik kualitas kritis, diagram fish bone.

  19. Development and verification of a reciprocating test rig designed for investigation of piston ring tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Torben; Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development and verification of a reciprocating test rig, which was designed to study the piston ring tribology. A crank mechanism is used to generate a reciprocating motion for a moving plate, which acts as the liner. A stationary block acting as the ring package is loaded...... against the plate using dead-weights. The block has two holders for test specimens, which form line contacts with the plate. A force transducer is used to measure the frictional force between the block and the plate. During verification of the test rig unwanted ripples on the signal recorded from...... the force transducer were discovered. An identification process is undertaken in order to find the source of this disturbance and to reduce the effect as much as possible. Second a reproducibility test is conducted to check the reliability of the test rig. The outcome of this work is a verified test rig...

  20. The intermetallic bonding between a ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasijevic, Srećko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of investigating the formation of intermetallic bond between a ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy. The ring carrier is made of austenitic cast iron (Ni-Resist in order to increase the wear resistance of the first ring groove and applied in highly loaded diesel engines. Metallographic examination of the quality of alfin bond was done. A metallographic investigation using an optical microscope in combination with the SEM/EDS analysis of the quality of the intermetallic bonding layer was done. The test results show that can be made successfully as well as the formation of metal connection (alfin bond between the ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy.El artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación sobre la formación de una unión intermetálica entre el portasegmento y la aleación de aluminio del pistón. El portasegmento es una fundición de hierro austenítico (Ni-Resist con el fin de aumentar la resistencia al desgaste de la unión Al-fin del primer segmento y se utiliza en motores diésel altamente cargados. Se realizó un examen metalográfico de la unión intermetálica, mediante un microscopio óptico en combinación con SEM/EDS. Los satisfactorios resultados obtenidos muestran la formación de contacto metálico (unión Al-fin del primer segmento entre el portasegmento y la aleación de aluminio del pistón.

  1. Tribological Properties of IF-MoS2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additive on Cylinder Liner and Piston Ring Tribo-pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Charoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Friction and wear behaviors of different concentrations of IF-MoS2 nanoparticles in SAE 20W40 were studied. First of all tribological tests with SAE 20W40 + IF-MoS2 were carried out on a four ball wear test machine as per ASTM D 4172 standard to study its wear properties. Detailed friction and wear studies on cylinder liner and piston ring tribo-pair were conducted on pin-on-block universal tribometer under lubricated conditions of SAE 20W40+ IF-MoS2. These experimental studies were conducted at different operating parameters to ascertain the influence of nanoadditive on friction and wear of cylinder liner and piston ring tribo-pair. A minimum coefficient of friction of 0.0772 was observed for 0.5 wt% of IF-MoS2 at normal load of 100 N at sliding velocity of 0.03 m/sec. A substantial reduction of 65 % in the wear of cylinder liner and piston ring tribo-pair was also observed when lubricated with SAE 20W40 and 0.5 wt% of IF-MoS2. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis of the worn out surfaces was also carried out to find the causes for observed friction and wear behavior.

  2. Lubricant transport across the piston ring with flat and triangular lubrication injection profiles on the liner in large two-stroke marine diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Hannibal Toxværd; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the lubricant transport across the top compression piston ring in a large two-stroke marine diesel engine is presented. A numerical model for solving Reynolds equation between the piston ring and cylinder liner based on the finite difference method in one dimension...... the lubricant transport across the piston ring, two different kinds of initial lubricant profile on the liner and two different kinds of load are investigated i.e. a flat profile and an approximated triangular profile as well as no load and a combustion load based on a combustion pressure profile. The impact...... has been made. The model includes force equilibrium of the piston ring, perturbation of Reynolds equation, and transient mass conservation. The model represents a new method of achieving mass conservation across the piston ring and between different time-dependent positions. For analyzing...

  3. Scuffing resistance testing of piston ring materials for marine two-stroke diesel engines and mapping of the operating mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, Petra; Jacobson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The incentive is strong for optimising sliding materials to reduce the risk for scuffing. In this study, scuffing tests were performed aiming towards finding new piston ring materials for greener marine diesel engines and also towards understanding scuffing mechanisms better. The tested ring materials where grey iron, Stellite 6, plasma sprayed cermet and high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) cermet (both cermets with the same compounds: Cr-carbide, Ni, Cr, Mo). The Stellite 6 and HVOF cermet perform...

  4. Contribution of developing advanced engineering methods in interdisciplinary studying the piston rings from 1.6 spark ignited Ford engine at Technical University of Cluj-Napoca

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Aurel Cherecheş, Ioan; -Ioana Borzan, Adela; -Laurean Băldean, Doru

    2017-10-01

    Study of construction and wearing process in the case of piston-rings and other significant components from internal combustion engines leads at any time to creative and useful optimizing ideas, both in designing and manufacturing phases. Main objective of the present paper is to realize an interdisciplinary research using advanced methods in piston-rings evaluation of a common vehicle on the streets which is Ford Focus FYDD. Specific objectives are a theoretical study of the idea for advanced analysis method in piston-rings evaluation and an applied research developed in at Technical University from Cluj-Napoca with the motor vehicle caught in the repairing process.

  5. Standard test method for conducting friction tests of piston ring and cylinder liner materials under lubricated conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for conducting laboratory bench-scale friction tests of materials, coatings, and surface treatments intended for use in piston rings and cylinder liners in diesel or spark-ignition engines. The goal of this procedure is to provide a means for preliminary, cost-effective screening or evaluation of candidate ring and liner materials. A reciprocating sliding arrangement is used to simulate the contact that occurs between a piston ring and its mating liner near the top-dead-center position in the cylinder where liquid lubrication is least effective, and most wear is known to occur. Special attention is paid to specimen alignment, running-in, and lubricant condition. 1.2 This test method does not purport to simulate all aspects of a fired engine’s operating environment, but is intended to serve as a means for preliminary screening for assessing the frictional characteristics of candidate piston ring and liner material combinations in the presence of fluids that behave as u...

  6. The Tribological Performance of CrMoN/MoS2 Solid Lubrication Coating on a Piston Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelan Di

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the tribological properties of an engine piston ring and enhance its service life, magnetron sputtering technology and low temperature ion sulphurizing treatment technology were used to prepare CrMoN/MoS2 solid lubricant coating on the surface of an engine piston ring. The morphologies and compositions of the surface and cross-section of the sulfuration layer were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and wear property under high load, high speed and high temperature conditions were tested by a SRV®4 friction and wear testing machine. The results show that the CrMoN/MoS2 composite coatings appear as a dense grain structure, and the coating is an ideal solid lubrication layer that possesses an excellent high temperature wear resistance, reducing the engine operating temperature abrasion effectively and prolonging the service life of the engine.

  7. Effect of Cylinder Liner Oil Grooves Shape on Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine's Piston Ring Friction Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheldin A. Mohamad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The dimensions, area densities, and geometry of macroscale surface textures may affect the performance of hydrodynamic lubrication interface. Reported in this paper are the investigations of the effect of surface textures bottom shapes on the friction forces between piston ring and cylinder liner for two-stroke marine diesel engine, using numerically generated textures and average Reynolds equation. These textures are on the cylinder liner surface in the form of circumferential oil grooves with different aspect ratios and different area densities. The hydrodynamic pressure distribution is also calculated using Reynolds boundary condition. The results revealed that the bottom shape could positively affect the friction between moving surfaces, as it could provide a microwedge or microstep bearing that tends to enhance the lubrication condition between piston ring and cylinder liner.

  8. Experimental investigation of vortex rings impinging on inclined surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couch, Lauren D. [Southern Methodist University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dallas, TX (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States); Krueger, Paul S. [Southern Methodist University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Vortex-ring interactions with oblique boundaries were studied experimentally to determine the effects of plate angle on the generation of secondary vorticity, the evolution of the primary vorticity and secondary vorticity as they interact near the boundary, and the associated energy dissipation. Vortex rings were generated using a mechanical piston-cylinder vortex ring generator at jet Reynolds numbers 2,000-4,000 and stroke length to piston diameter ratios (L/D) in the range 0.75-2.0. The plate angle relative to the initial axis of the vortex ring ranged from 3 to 60 . Flow analysis was performed using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), and defocusing digital particle tracking velocimetry (DDPTV). Results showed the generation of secondary vorticity at the plate and its subsequent ejection into the fluid. The trajectories of the centers of circulation showed a maximum ejection angle of the secondary vorticity occurring for an angle of incidence of 10 . At lower incidence angles (<20 ), the lower portion of the ring, which interacted with the plate first, played an important role in generation of the secondary vorticity and is a key reason for the maximum ejection angle for the secondary vorticity occurring at an incidence angle of 10 . Higher Reynolds number vortex rings resulted in more rapid destabilization of the flow. The three-dimensional DDPTV results showed an arc of secondary vorticity and secondary flow along the sides of the primary vortex ring as it collided with the boundary. Computation of the moments and products of kinetic energy and vorticity magnitude about the centroid of each vortex ring showed increasing asymmetry in the flow as the vortex interaction with the boundary evolved and more rapid dissipation of kinetic energy for higher incidence angles. (orig.)

  9. Standard guide for measuring the wear volumes of piston ring segments run against flat coupons in reciprocating wear tests

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers and describes a profiling method for use accurately measuring the wear loss of compound-curved (crowned) piston ring specimens that run against flat counterfaces. It does not assume that the wear scars are ideally flat, as do some alternative measurement methods. Laboratory-scale wear tests have been used to evaluate the wear of materials, coatings, and surface treatments that are candidates for piston rings and cylinder liners in diesel engines or spark ignition engines. Various loads, temperatures, speeds, lubricants, and durations are used for such tests, but some of them use a curved piston ring segment as one sliding partner and a flat or curved specimen (simulating the cylinder liner) as its counterface. The goal of this guide is to provide more accurate wear measurements than alternative approaches involving weight loss or simply measuring the length and width of the wear marks. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its ...

  10. Experimental Research for Measuring Friction Forces from Piston Sealing at the Hydraulic Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cristescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some aspects of developing, within INOE 2000-IHP, of an experimental research on the determination of frictional forces that occur in the mobile sealings of the pistons, between the piston sealings and the inner liner of hydraulic cylinders. In the first part of the paper, are presented some specific elements of the experimental device and of the testing stand which have been developed, while in the second part are presented some graphical results obtained in experimental research, as well as some comments on them. This developed experimental research marks the continuing of a major action on the tribological behavior of mobile hydraulic seals, which are frequently used in the construction of hydraulic cylinders.

  11. Experimental studies on twin PTCs driven by dual piston head linear compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Abhay S.; Joy, Joewin; Sagar, Pankaj; Sudharshan, H.; Mallappa, A.; Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, S.

    2017-02-01

    An experimental study on pulse tube cryocooler is presented with a twin pulse tube configuration. The study is conducted with a dual piston head linear compressor design which is developed indigenously. The two identical pulse tube cryocoolers are operated by a single linear motor which generates 1800 out of phase dual pressure waves. The advantages of the configuration being the reduction in fabrication cost and the increased cooling power. The compressor is driven at a frequency of 48 Hz using indigenously developed PWM based power supply. The CFD study of pulse tube cryocooler is discussed along with the experimental cool down results. A detailed experimental and FEM based studies on the fabrication procedure of heat exchangers is conducted to ensure better heat transfer in the same.

  12. Tribological Behaviour under Conformal and Non-Conformal Contact Condition of Piston Ring and Cylinder Liner Material in a Reciprocating Bench Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, H. K.; Bhatt, D. V., Dr

    2017-09-01

    Experiments on cylinder liner and piston ring were carried out on a reciprocating tester to measure the coefficient of friction. The tribological behaviour for conformal and non-conformal contacts was compared. Actual cylinder liner is and piston ring is used for conformal contact, which is cut as per the required dimension. After analyzing the composition of the liner material, a specimen is prepared for non-conformal contact. Tests were conducted for variable load, variable speed and variable temperature with various commercial lubricants to measure the friction coefficient. The result shows that conformal contact shows significant variation in friction coefficient as compared to non-conformal contact for all operating parameters. The geometry of contact, oil quantity, and viscosity of lubricant plays a vital role to characterize the behaviour of friction coefficient and wear.

  13. Experimental and Dynamic Study of the Piston Rod Lateral Friction for the Twin-Tube Hydraulic Shock Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Liu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamic loads acting on a twin-tube hydraulic shock absorber are derived out both in wheel and axle planes by modeling mechanically car rear suspensions, and internal and external forces that yield lateral surface damage and wear-out of the piston rod for the absorber are analyzed according to bench and real road test measures. From viewpoint of vehicle system dynamics and experiment, such key factors as road unevenness, very high car speed and severe shock induced vibrations are investigated, by which stochastic bending moments and dramatically increasing shock loading are introduced directly to the piston rod. From viewpoint of the whole car assembly, on the other hand, due to hardly perfectly placements of the piston rods in their positions between the car suspension and body, unacceptable manufacturing quality of the body may cause additional dynamic forces on the piston rod. Significant results obtained by theoretical and experimental analysis of lateral frictions of the piston rod are presented systematically for improving design of the shock absorber.

  14. Experimental results from the small isochronous ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduard Pozdeyev

    2005-05-01

    The Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) is a compact, low-energy storage ring designed to investigate the beam dynamics of high-intensity isochronous cyclotrons and synchrotrons at the transition energy. The ring was developed at Michigan State University (MSU) and has been operational since December 2003. It stores 20 keV hydrogen beams with a peak current of 10-20 microamps for up to 200 turns. The transverse and longitudinal profiles of extracted bunches are measured with an accuracy of approximately 1 mm. The high accuracy of the measurements makes the experimental data attractive for validation of multi-particle space charge codes. The results obtained in the ring show a fast growth of the energy spread induced by the space charge forces. The energy spread growth is accompanied by a breakup of the beam bunches into separated clusters that are involved in the vortex motion specific to the isochronous regime. The experimental results presented in the paper show a remarkable agreement with simulations performed with the code CYCO. In this paper, we discuss specifics of space charge effects in the isochronous regime, present results of experiments in SIR, and conduct a detailed comparison of the experimental data with results of simulations.

  15. Experimental Verification of Modeled Thermal Distribution Produced by a Piston Source in Physiotherapy Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Haro, S. A.; Leija, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To present a quantitative comparison of thermal patterns produced by the piston-in-a-baffle approach with those generated by a physiotherapy ultrasonic device and to show the dependency among thermal patterns and acoustic intensity distributions. Methods. The finite element (FE) method was used to model an ideal acoustic field and the produced thermal pattern to be compared with the experimental acoustic and temperature distributions produced by a real ultrasonic applicator. A thermal model using the measured acoustic profile as input is also presented for comparison. Temperature measurements were carried out with thermocouples inserted in muscle phantom. The insertion place of thermocouples was monitored with ultrasound imaging. Results. Modeled and measured thermal profiles were compared within the first 10 cm of depth. The ideal acoustic field did not adequately represent the measured field having different temperature profiles (errors 10% to 20%). Experimental field was concentrated near the transducer producing a region with higher temperatures, while the modeled ideal temperature was linearly distributed along the depth. The error was reduced to 7% when introducing the measured acoustic field as the input variable in the FE temperature modeling. Conclusions. Temperature distributions are strongly related to the acoustic field distributions. PMID:27999801

  16. Experimental Verification of Modeled Thermal Distribution Produced by a Piston Source in Physiotherapy Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To present a quantitative comparison of thermal patterns produced by the piston-in-a-baffle approach with those generated by a physiotherapy ultrasonic device and to show the dependency among thermal patterns and acoustic intensity distributions. Methods. The finite element (FE method was used to model an ideal acoustic field and the produced thermal pattern to be compared with the experimental acoustic and temperature distributions produced by a real ultrasonic applicator. A thermal model using the measured acoustic profile as input is also presented for comparison. Temperature measurements were carried out with thermocouples inserted in muscle phantom. The insertion place of thermocouples was monitored with ultrasound imaging. Results. Modeled and measured thermal profiles were compared within the first 10 cm of depth. The ideal acoustic field did not adequately represent the measured field having different temperature profiles (errors 10% to 20%. Experimental field was concentrated near the transducer producing a region with higher temperatures, while the modeled ideal temperature was linearly distributed along the depth. The error was reduced to 7% when introducing the measured acoustic field as the input variable in the FE temperature modeling. Conclusions. Temperature distributions are strongly related to the acoustic field distributions.

  17. Field performance of SAE 15W-40 multigrade oils in DDA 8V-92 engines using current and new piston fire rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Geehan, J.A.; Painter, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Chevron Research Company and Detroit Diesel Allison (DDA) conducted a cooperative field test to determine the performance of SAE 15W-40 multigrade oils in two-cycle engines. The field test utilized 42 new 8V-92TA engines in new Kenworth trucks. A unique aspect of this field was that all the engines had premeasured piston rings and cylinder liners. The latest DDA fire ring designs were also incorporated. There are three significant conclusions: 1. Grooveless fire rings provided 35% lower wear than the current grooved design. 2. Properly balance SAE 15W-40 multigrade oils provided satisfactory service. 3. Sulfated ash in the range of 1.0% to 1.85% had no significant effect on exhaust valve deposits.

  18. Carbon/Carbon Pistons for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon/carbon piston performs same function as aluminum pistons in reciprocating internal combustion engines while reducing weight and increasing mechanical and thermal efficiencies of engine. Carbon/carbon piston concept features low piston-to-cylinder wall clearance - so low piston rings and skirts unnecessary. Advantages possible by negligible coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon/carbon.

  19. A study on the piston ring wear in automotive engine Seat 1500 CA by means of radioactive tracer technique; Estudio del desgaste de segmentos en motor Seat 1500 CA mediante trazadores radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Val Cob, M. del; Chul, Y.; Fuentes Figuera de Vargas, J.

    1971-07-01

    The iron side wear in the chromium-plated top compression ring has been a matter of interest for the engine makers and it has been required by them to investigate the wear characteristics of the chromium-plated piston ring. Meanwhile, Bureau of Nuclear Energy in Spain (Junta de Energia Nuclear) and Seat Car Manufacturing Company (Sociedad Espanola de Automoviles de Turismo) agreed to study the wear characteristics of chromium-plated piston ring of type CA gasoline engine for Seat 1500 car by means of radioactive tracer technique. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Modeling the lubrication, dynamics, and effects of piston dynamic tilt of twin-land oil control rings in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, T.; Wong, V.W.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to study the lubrication, friction, dynamics, and oil transport of twin-land oil control rings (TLOCR) in internal combustion engines. A mixed lubrication model with consideration of shear-thinning effects of multigrade oils was used to describe the lubrication between the running surfaces of the two lands and the liner. Oil squeezing and asperity contact were both considered for the interaction between the flanks of the TLOCR and the ring groove. Then, the moments and axial forces from TLOCR/liner lubrication and TLOCR/groove interaction were coupled into the dynamic equations of the TLOCR. Furthermore, effects of piston dynamic tilt were considered in a quasi three-dimensional manner so that the behaviors of the TLOCR at different circumferential location could be studied. As a first step, variation of the third land pressure was neglected. The model predictions were illustrated via an SI engine. One important finding is that around thrust and anti-thrust sides, the difference between the minimum oil film thickness of two lands can be as high as several micrometers due to piston dynamic tilt. As a result, at thrust and anti-thrust sides, significant oil can pass under one land of the TLOCR along the bore, although the other land perfectly seals the bore. Then, the capabilities of the model were further explained by studying the effects of ring tension and torsional resistance on the lubrication and oil transport between the lands and the liner. The effects of oil film thickness on the flanks of the ring groove on the dynamics of the TLOCR were also studied. Friction results show that boundary lubrication contributes significantly to the total friction of the TLOCR.

  1. Experimentally Studied Thermal Piston-head State of the Internal-Combustion Engine with a Thermal Layer Formed by Micro-Arc Oxidation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Dudareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental study to show the efficiency of reducing thermal tension of internal combustion engine (ICE pistons through forming a thermal barrier coating on the piston-head. During the engine operation the piston is under the most thermal stress. High temperatures in the combustion chamber may lead to the piston-head burnout and destruction and engine failure.Micro-arc oxidation (MAO method was selected as the technology to create a thermal barrier coating. MAO technology allows us to form the ceramic coating with a thickness of 400μm on the surface of aluminum alloy, which have high heat resistance, and have good adhesion to the substrate even under thermal cycling stresses.Deliverables of MAO method used to protect pistons described in the scientific literature are insufficient, as they are either calculated or experimentally obtained at the special plants (units, which do not reproduce piston operation in a real engine. This work aims to fill this gap. The aim of the work is an experimental study of the thermal protective ability of MAO-layer formed on the piston-head with simulation of thermal processes of the real engine.The tests were performed on a specially designed and manufactured stand free of motor, which reproduces operation conditions maximum close to those of the real engine. The piston is heated by a fire source - gas burner with isobutene balloon, cooling is carried out by the water circulation system through the water-cooling jacket.Tests have been conducted to compare the thermal state of the regular engine piston without thermal protection and the piston with a heat layer formed on the piston-head by MAO method. The study findings show that the thermal protective MAO-layer with thickness of 100μm allows us to reduce thermal tension of piston on average by 8,5 %. Thus at high temperatures there is the most pronounced effect that is important for the uprated engines.The obtained findings can

  2. Experimental Investigation of Piston Heat Transfer in a Light Duty Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the piston through a IR Telemetrics model 3051 microwave transmitter system. The electromotive force ( EMF ) generated at each thermocouple was...modulated square wave, downconverted, then the original EMF is recorded. The signal conversion process induces a degree of filtering but the...of soot, which may also impact the heat flux; soot radiation is not expected to be present in LTC. Modeling by Kokjohn et al. discusses the origins

  3. Analysis of the piston ring/liner oil film development during warm-up for an SI-engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Kent; Schramm, Jesper; Tian, T.

    2001-01-01

    A one-dimensional ring-pack lubrication model developed at MIT is applied to simulate the oil film behavior during the warm-up period of a Kohler spark ignition engine. This is done by making assumptions for the evolution of the ail temperatures during warm-up and that the oil control ring during...

  4. An Experimental Investigation on the Combustion and Heat Release Characteristics of an Opposed-Piston Folded-Cranktrain Diesel Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fukang Ma; Changlu Zhao; Fujun Zhang; Zhenfeng Zhao; Zhenyu Zhang; Zhaoyi Xie; Hao Wang

    2015-01-01

      In opposed-piston folded-cranktrain diesel engines, the relative movement rules of opposed-pistons, combustion chamber components and injector position are different from those of conventional diesel engines...

  5. Ceramics Technology Project database: September 1991 summary report. [Materials for piston ring-cylinder liner for advanced heat/diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    The piston ring-cylinder liner area of the internal combustion engine must withstand very-high-temperature gradients, highly-corrosive environments, and constant friction. Improving the efficiency in the engine requires ring and cylinder liner materials that can survive this abusive environment and lubricants that resist decomposition at elevated temperatures. Wear and friction tests have been done on many material combinations in environments similar to actual use to find the right materials for the situation. This report covers tribology information produced from 1986 through July 1991 by Battelle columbus Laboratories, Caterpillar Inc., and Cummins Engine Company, Inc. for the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP). All data in this report were taken from the project's semiannual and bimonthly progress reports and cover base materials, coatings, and lubricants. The data, including test rig descriptions and material characterizations, are stored in the CTP database and are available to all project participants on request. Objective of this report is to make available the test results from these studies, but not to draw conclusions from these data.

  6. Dynamic analysis of Free-Piston Stirling Engine/Linear Alternator-load system-experimentally validated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankam, M. David; Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Santiago, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of variations in system parameters on the dynamic behavior of the Free-Piston Stirling Engine/Linear Alternator (FPSE/LA)-load system. The mathematical formulations incorporate both the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the FPSE, as well as the electrical equations of the connected load. A state-space technique in the frequency domain is applied to the resulting system of equations to facilitate the evaluation of parametric impacts on the system dynamic stability. Also included is a discussion on the system transient stability as affected by sudden changes in some key operating conditions. Some representative results are correlated with experimental data to verify the model and analytic formulation accuracies. Guidelines are given for ranges of the system parameters which will ensure an overall stable operation.

  7. Entropy-Based weighting applied to normal boundary intersection approach: the vertical turning of martensitic gray cast iron piston rings case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Célio Souza Rocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In practical situations, solving a given problem usually calls for the systematic and simultaneous analysis of more than one objective function. Hence, a worthwhile research question may be posed thus: In multiobjective optimization, what can facilitate the decision maker in choosing the best weighting? Thus, this study attempts to propose a method that can identify the optimal weights involved in a multiobjective formulation. Our method uses functions of Entropy and Global Percentage Error as selection criteria of optimal weights. To demonstrate its applicability, we employed this method to optimize the machining process for vertical turning martensitic gray cast iron piston rings, maximizing the productivity and the life of cutting tool and minimizing the cost, using feed rate and rotation of the cutting tool as the decision variables. The proposed optimization goals were achieved with feed rate = 0.35 mm rev-1 and rotation = 248 rpm. Thus, the main contributions of this study are the proposal of a structured method, differentiated in relation to the techniques found in the literature, of identifying optimal weights for multiobjective problems and the possibility of viewing the optimal result on the Pareto frontier of the problem. This viewing possibility is very relevant information for managing processes more efficiently.

  8. Experimental Study of the Micro-Arc Oxide Coating Effect on Thermal Properties of an Aluminium Alloy Piston Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Dudareva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of differently sized microarc oxidation coatings, applied to the bottom of pistons made with an Al-12Si-Mg-Cu-Ni alloy, on its thermal properties by simulating the operation of a real engine. This study is based on the premise that the alumina coating thickness affects the heat transfer and temperature distribution in the piston. The analysis of thermal properties of pistons and suggestions for the optimal thermal barrier coating thickness are presented.

  9. An Experimental Investigation on the Combustion and Heat Release Characteristics of an Opposed-Piston Folded-Cranktrain Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukang Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In opposed-piston folded-cranktrain diesel engines, the relative movement rules of opposed-pistons, combustion chamber components and injector position are different from those of conventional diesel engines. The combustion and heat release characteristics of an opposed-piston folded-cranktrain diesel engine under different operating conditions were investigated. Four phases: ignition delay, premixed combustion, diffusion combustion and after combustion are used to describe the heat release process of the engine. Load changing has a small effect on premixed combustion duration while it influences diffusion combustion duration significantly. The heat release process has more significant isochoric and isobaric combustion which differs from the conventional diesel engine situation, except at high exhaust pressure and temperature, due to its two-stroke and uniflow scavenging characteristics. Meanwhile, a relatively high-quality exhaust heat energy is produced in opposed-piston folded-cranktrain diesel engines.

  10. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Temperature Distribution of Self-Lubricating Packing Rings in Reciprocating Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonuniform abrasion failure and high-temperature thermal failure of packing rings have a significant influence on compressor reliability, particularly that of oil-free compressors. In this study, a test rig was constructed to measure the dynamic temperature of packing rings under different operational conditions in an oil-free reciprocating compressor. The dynamic axial and radial temperature distributions of the packing rings were obtained using an innovative internal temperature testing device that kept the thermocouples and packing box relatively static during compressor operation. A three-dimensional heat transfer model was also developed to analyze the temperature distribution of the packing boxes, piston rod, and cylinder during such operation. Good agreement was observed between the simulation results and experimental data, which showed an average relative error of less than 2.35%. The results indicate that the pressure ratio exerts a significant effect on the axial temperature distribution and determines which packing ring reaches the maximum temperature. They also show the average temperature to rise with an increase in the rotational speed and to fall with an improvement in the external cooling conditions. Finally, the material of the packing rings was found to affect the temperature gradient from their inner to outer surface.

  11. Experimental and trial-based study of Resilient Packet Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnath, Vasudha; Cheng, Heng Seng; Ngoh, Lek Heng

    2002-08-01

    An experimental study of the Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) media access control (MAC) technology that is optimized for IP traffic in the metropolitan-area-network (MAN) environment is described. The study involved the deployment and trials of a RPR testbed encompassing a public optical fiber infrastructure in which Cisco Systems' Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT) Ring Technology - a prestandard RPR implementation - was used. We focus on a number of important RPR protocol features that are vital to the future success of RPR as a MAN/wide-area-network (WAN) network technology. Related research on RPR/DPT has been done so far through simulation studies only. Standardization of RPR is currently being performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.17 working group and is expected to be completed in 2003. Also, we present and discuss the experiments and tests performed to investigate the key features of RPR, along with the results obtained.

  12. Experimental study of the effect of top-ring clearance volume on unburned hydrocarbon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muammer Ozkan; Orhan Deniz; Tarkan Sandalci [Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2002-07-01

    The clearance volume between the piston, the cylinder and the top compression ring in an internal combustion engine has a significant effect on the unburned hydrocarbon concentration. The high heat transfer from the burning mixture to the cylinder surface extinguishes the flame front, and this is the main reason for increased unburned hydrocarbon concentrations. The heat transfer between the mixture and the clearance volume surface is affected by the ratio of coolant surface to the clearance volume. In this study the effect of the ratio of the coolant surface to the clearance volume on the unburned hydrocarbon concentration was investigated using three different purpose-built pistons. A decrease of this ratio reduced the unburned hydrocarbon concentration by 40%. (author)

  13. Experimentally Validated Combustion and Piston Fatigue Life Evaluation Procedures for the Bi-Fuel Engines, Using an Integral-Type Fatigue Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shariyat

    Full Text Available Abstract A relatively complete procedure for high cycle fatigue life assessment of the engine components is outlined in the present paper. The piston is examined as a typical component of the engine. In this regard, combustion process and transient heat transfer simulations, determination of the instantaneous variations of the pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber, kinematic and dynamic analyses of the moving parts of the engine, thermoelastic stress analyses, and fatigue life analyses are accomplished. Results of the simulation are compared with the test data to verify the results. The heat transfer results are validated by the experimental results measured by the Templugs. The nonlinear multipoint contact constraints are modeled accurately. Results of the more accurate available fatigue criteria are compared with those of a fatigue criterion recently proposed by the first author. These results are also evaluated by comparing them with the experimental durability tests. The presented procedure may be used, e.g., to decide whether it is suitable to convert a gasoline-based engine to a bi-fuel one. Results of the various thermomechanical fatigue analyses performed reveal that the piston life decreases considerably when natural gas is used instead of gasoline.

  14. Experimental investigation of thermal barrier (8YSZ-TiO2-Al2O3 coated piston used in direct injection compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusamy Jayaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings are becoming increasingly important in providing protection from high temperature degradation for heat engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. The main objective of this research work is to experimentally investigate the air plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia with addition of titanium oxide and aluminum oxide thermal barrier coating on Al-13% Si piston material. The mechanical properties of the coated and uncoated samples were comparatively analyzed. The test revealed that hardness values of coated samples are ten times higher than the hardness values of uncoated samples. The microstructure and surface morphology of the coating were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The delamination behaviour of thermal barrier coating was evaluated by thermal cycle test. Finally, the performance test of the coated and uncoated engine was evaluated with the same engine operating conditions. The brake thermal efficiency is increased by 5.99%. The brake specific fuel consumption was decreased by 0.06 kg/kWh, in TBC engine with 8YSZ + Al2O3 + TiO2. The CO and HC was greatly decreased in thermal barrier coating engine. There was the greater reduction of NOx is observed due to coating because of nitrogen has absorbed by zirconia.

  15. Experimental Cooling of Bunched Beams in FNAL’s Accumulator Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1990-02-01

    This report describes some experiments on stochastic cooling of bunched beams which were performed in FNAL's Accumulator ring in the beginning of September 1989. I precede that description with a rough overview of that ring in order to make the interpretation of the experimental results easier.

  16. Vented piston seal prevents fluid leakage between two chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Glashan, W. F.; Morrison, R.

    1964-01-01

    To prevent fluid leakage around piston seals separating two fluids under differential pressure, a venting system has been devised. Two methods may be used for venting seals through internal passages to an external low-pressure area, O-ring or split-ring seals.

  17. Multi technical analysis of wear mechanisms in axial piston pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhler, G.; Jourani, A.; Bouvier, S.; Perrochat, J.-M.

    2017-05-01

    Axial piston pumps convert a motor rotation motion into hydraulic or pneumatic power. Their compactness and efficiency of approximately 0.9 make them suitable for actuation applications especially in aeronautics. However, they suffer a limited life due to the wear of their components. In the literature, studies of axial piston pumps deal with contact between its different elements under lubrication conditions. Nevertheless, they are more focused on analytic or numerical approaches. This study consists in an experimental analysis of worn pump components to highlight and understand wear mechanisms. Piston shoes are central components in the axial piston pump since they are involved in three tribological contacts. These three contacts are thereby studied: piston shoes/swashplate, piston shoes/pistons and piston shoes/shoes hold down plate (SHDP). To perform this analysis, helicopter hydraulic pumps after different operating times have been studied. The wear damage mechanisms and wear debris are analysed using SEM observations. 3D surface roughness measurements are then used to characterize worn surfaces. The observations reveal that in the contact between shoes and swashplate, the main wear mechanism is three-body abrasive wear due to coarse carbides removal. Between shoes and pistons, wear occurs in a less severe way and is mainly due to the debris generated in the first contact and conveyed by the lubricating fluid. In the third contact, the debris are also the prime cause of the abrasive wear and the generation of deep craters in the piston shoes.

  18. Improving Power Density of Free-Piston Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Prahl, Joseph M.; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Analyses and experiments demonstrate the potential benefits of optimizing piston and displacer motion in a free-piston Stirling Engine. Isothermal analysis shows the theoretical limits of power density improvement due to ideal motion in ideal Stirling engines. More realistic models based on nodal analysis show that ideal piston and displacer waveforms are not optimal, often producing less power than engines that use sinusoidal piston and displacer motion. Constrained optimization using nodal analysis predicts that Stirling engine power density can be increased by as much as 58 percent using optimized higher harmonic piston and displacer motion. An experiment is conducted in which an engine designed for sinusoidal motion is forced to operate with both second and third harmonics, resulting in a piston power increase of as much as 14 percent. Analytical predictions are compared to experimental data and show close agreement with indirect thermodynamic power calculations, but poor agreement with direct electrical power measurements.

  19. Improving Free-Piston Stirling Engine Power Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2016-01-01

    Analyses and experiments demonstrate the potential benefits of optimizing piston and displacer motion in a free piston Stirling Engine. Isothermal analysis shows the theoretical limits of power density improvement due to ideal motion in ideal Stirling engines. More realistic models based on nodal analysis show that ideal piston and displacer waveforms are not optimal, often producing less power than engines that use sinusoidal piston and displacer motion. Constrained optimization using nodal analysis predicts that Stirling engine power density can be increased by as much as 58% using optimized higher harmonic piston and displacer motion. An experiment is conducted in which an engine designed for sinusoidal motion is forced to operate with both second and third harmonics, resulting in a maximum piston power increase of 14%. Analytical predictions are compared to experimental data showing close agreement with indirect thermodynamic power calculations, but poor agreement with direct electrical power measurements.

  20. Pistons and engine testing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The ever-increasing demands placed on combustion engines are just as great when it comes to this centerpiece—the piston. Achieving less weight or friction, or even greater wear resistance, requires in-depth knowledge of the processes taking place inside the engine, suitable materials, and appropriate design and manufacturing processes for pistons, including the necessary testing measures. It is no longer possible for professionals in automotive engineering to manage without specific expertise of this kind, whether they work in the field of design, development, testing, or maintenance. This technical book answers these questions in detail and in a very clear and comprehensible way. In this second, revised edition, every chapter has been revised and expanded. The chapter on “Engine testing”, for example, now include extensive results in the area of friction power loss measurement and lube oil consumption measurement. Contents Piston function, requirements, and types Design guidelines Simulation of the ope...

  1. Composites applied for pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the possibility of application the composite materials in casts into metal mould to form the pistons for compressors have been presented. In cooperation with “Zlotecki” company was undertaken the test of casting in productive conditions the aluminium alloy matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide particles and composites reinforced with the mixture of the silicon carbide (SiC and amorphous glass carbon particles. On the basis microstructural investigations were affirmed the uniformly distribution of reinforcing particles on the cross section of studied pistons. Realized technological tests confirmed the possibility of formation composite pistons with one kind of reinforcing phase and heterophase reinforcement from utilization the technology of mould casting.

  2. Pistons and engine testing

    CERN Document Server

    GmbH, Mahle

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing demands placed on combustion engines are just as great when it comes to this centerpiece - the piston. Achieving less weight or friction, or even greater wear resistance, requires in-depth knowledge of the processes taking place inside the engine, suitable materials, and appropriate design and machining processes for pistons, including the necessary testing measures. It is no longer possible for professionals in automotive engineering to manage without specific know-how of this kind, whether they work in the field of design, development, testing, or maintenance. This techni

  3. Experimental lead toxicity in the ring-necked duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautino, M; Bell, J U

    1986-12-01

    Ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) were administered a single lead shot by gastric intubation. At weekly intervals over a 7-week period, the birds were weighed and blood samples obtained for measurement of hematocrit, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), blood lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity. The birds were fluoroscoped weekly to ensure that the pellets had been retained. Blood lead concentrations peaked 1 week after dosing at a concentration of 7.75 micrograms/ml and then fell to control levels by Week 4. FEP concentrations in the treated ducks also peaked 1 week after dosing at levels which were roughly 1200% of control concentrations. The return of FEP concentrations to normal paralleled blood lead. ALAD activity was inhibited by approximately 85% by Week 1; however, there was a gradual but steady recovery of ALAD activity through Week 7. Four of the treated birds died within 2 to 3 weeks of lead administration. Physical signs of lead toxicity were maximal 7 to 10 days postdosing and included ataxia, loss of body weight, impaction of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and bile green diarrhea. In surviving birds, overt signs of toxicity declined with time and all birds appeared normal by Week 7.

  4. Effects of the O-ring used for sealing in high-pressure balances on measurements of pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, S. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Choi, I. M.; Kim, B. S.; Shin, H. H.

    2002-08-01

    An oil-operated pressure balance is standard equipment widely used in the field of pressure metrology. Most of the commonly used pressure balances are in a simple piston-cylinder configuration where the piston and the cylinder can deform freely under pressure. This simple piston-cylinder assembly has an O-ring chamber on the cylinder bottom to seal the cylinder. The effects of this O-ring seal on the effective area are not well known. This paper demonstrates by the numerical method using finite element method and the experimental method that, when performing precise measurements of pressure using a pressure balance, the cylinder will be deformed by the oil pressure exerted on the bottom of the cylinder surrounded by the O-ring, causing a non-linearity in the change of effective area, and that, when the piston-cylinder assembly is used in the body with different diameters of O-ring, the effective area, i.e. the pressure, can be significantly changed. The effects of O-ring seals on the effective area of a DH5306 oil-operated pressure balance were investigated using two piston-cylinder assemblies with nominal effective areas of 2 mm2 over the pressure range of 100-300 MPa. Three different sizes of O-ring, 4.8, 8.0 and 11.7 mm in diameter, were used. The maximum change of the effective area can reach 30 ppm at 300 MPa and 18 ppm at 100 MPa due to the change of O-ring. Therefore, for precise pressure measurement, the correct understanding of the O-ring under the cylinder is required along with checking of the size of the O-ring under the cylinder whenever calibrating the piston-cylinder assembly.

  5. OIL SLUGS FOR PRODUCTION OF PISTON RING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Bevza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed technological process of continuously cyclic casting by frosting allows to receive high-quality hollow cylindrical slugs of cast iron for production of critical parts. 

  6. Experimental Investigation of Piston Heat Transfer in a Light Duty Engine Under Conventional Diesel, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-15

    transferred from the piston through a IR Telemetrics model 3051 microwave transmitter system. The electromotive force ( EMF ) generated at each...to a modulated square wave, downconverted, then the original EMF is recorded. The signal conversion process induces a degree of filtering but the...to be the main effect. Locally rich areas in CDC also lead to the formation of soot, which may also impact the heat flux; soot radiation is not

  7. Analytical and experimental studies of natural vibrations modes of ring-stiffened truncated-cone shells with variable theoretical ring fixity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, E. C.; Catherines, D. S.; Walton, W. C., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental and analytical investigations of the vibratory behavior of ring-stiffened truncated-cone shells are described. Vibration tests were conducted on 60 deg conical shells having up to four ring stiffeners and for free-free and clamped-free edge constraints and 9 deg conical shells, for two thicknesses, each with two angle rings and for free-free, free-clamped, and clamped-clamped edge constraints. The analytical method is based on linear thin shell theory, employing the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Discrete rings are represented as composed of one or more segments, each of which is a short truncated-cone shell of uniform thickness. Equations of constraint are used to join a ring and shell along a circumferential line connection. Excellent agreement was obtained for comparisons of experimental and calculated frequencies.

  8. Internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.

    1977-07-01

    Current worldwide production of internal combustion piston engines includes many diversified types of designs and a very broad range of sizes. Engine sizes range from a few horsepower in small mobile units to over 40,000 brake horsepower in large stationary and marine units. The key characteristics of internal combustion piston engines considered appropriate for use as prime movers in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are evaluated. The categories of engines considered include spark-ignition gas engines, compression-ignition oil (diesel) engines, and dual-fuel engines. The engines are evaluated with respect to full-load and part-load performance characteristics, reliability, environmental concerns, estimated 1976 cost data, and current and future status of development. The largest internal combustion piston engines manufactured in the United States range up to 13,540 rated brake horsepower. Future development efforts are anticipated to result in a 20 to 25% increase in brake horsepower without increase in or loss of weight, economy, reliability, or life expectancy, predicated on a simple extension of current development trends.

  9. Interring Gas Dynamic Analysis of Piston in a Diesel Engine considering the Thermal Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyou Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interaction between ring dynamics and gas transport in ring pack systems is crucial and needs to be imperatively studied. The present work features detailed interring gas dynamics of piston ring pack behavior in internal combustion engines. The model is developed for a ring pack with four rings. The dynamics of ring pack are simulated. Due to the fact that small changes in geometry of the grooves and lands would have a significant impact on the interring gas dynamics, the thermal deformation of piston has been considered during the ring pack motion analysis in this study. In order to get the temperature distribution of piston head more quickly and accurately, an efficient method utilizing the concept of inverse heat conduction is presented. Moreover, a sensitive analysis based on the analysis of partial regression coefficients is presented to investigate the effect of groove parameters on blowby.

  10. Experimental comparison of ring and diamond shaped planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2015-01-01

    Planar Hall effect magnetic field sensors with ring and diamond shaped geometries are experimentally compared with respect to their magnetic field sensitivity and total signal variation. Theoretically, diamond shaped sensors are predicted to be 41% more sensitive than corresponding ring shaped...... improvement varied from 0% to 35% where the largest improvement was observed for sensor stacks with comparatively strong exchange bias. This is explained by the ring sensors being less affected by shape anisotropy than the diamond sensors. To study the effect of shape anisotropy, we also characterized sensors...... that were surrounded by the magnetic stack with a small gap of 3 lm. These sensors were found to be less effected by shape anisotropy and thus showed higher low-field sensitivities....

  11. "Tie over ring" sutureless compression based gastrointestinal anastomotic method: experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Zabolinejad, Nona; Gharavifard, Mohammad; Sabzevari, Alireza; Joodi, Marjan; Yal, Nazila; Saeedi Sharifabad, Parisa; Hajian, Sara; Nazarzadeh, Reza; Lotfinejad, Nasim

    2014-03-01

    Giving the ever-rising trend of pediatric minimally invasive surgery besides early neonatal surgical interventions, intestinal anastomosis turns out to be a time consuming stage due to several anatomical as well as technical difficulties. A perfect bowel anastomosis method should be easy, rapid, safe and reliable in creation of bowel continuity with minimal tissue damage. In this light, sutureless anastomotic methods have been introduced, using compression based anastomosis with biofragmentable rings or powerful magnets. Accordingly, this experimental animal model study has evaluated the result of an easy, rapid intestinal sutureless anastomotic technique via simple tying over an intraluminal ring, in comparison with conventional handsewn bowel anastomosis. Thirty Wistar-Albino male rats were enrolled and small bowel was transected via a midline laparotomy. A grooved plastic ring was inserted into the ileal lumen and both intestinal cutting ends were fixed over the ring with a simple tie in the first group. On the other hand, enteroenterostomy was performed by the conventional method of handsewn anastomosis in the second group. After 14 days, rats were sacrificed to evaluate for intraperitoneal adhesion and abscess formation in addition to other evidences of anastomotic leakage. Furthermore, the anastomotic site integrity, tensile strength and healing stage were assessed microscopically. The mean operative time and intraoperative bleeding in the tie over ring group were significantly less than those in the handsewn anastomosis group. Anastomotic stricture was more common in the conventional anastomosis group while the anastomotic tensile strength was significantly higher in the tie over ring group. Histopathological healing parameters and final healing score were almost similar in both groups but mean inflammatory cell infiltration in handsewn anastomosis was significantly higher. "Tie over ring" is a simple method of anastomosis that is feasible, fast, safe and

  12. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total possible...

  13. Experimental modelling of the dipole magnet for the electron storage ring DELSY

    CERN Document Server

    Meshkov, I N; Syresin, E M

    2003-01-01

    In the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) the project of Dubna Electron Synchrotron (DELSY) with an electron energy of 1.2 GeV is developed. The electron storage ring in the DELSY project is planned to be created on the basis of magnetic elements, which were used earlier in the storage ring AmPS (NIKHEF, Amsterdam). The optics of the ring is necessary to be changed, its perimeter to be reduced approximately in one and a half time, the energy of electrons to be increased. The paper is devoted to the development of a modified dipole magnet of the storage ring. The preliminary estimation of geometry of the magnet pole is carried out by means of computer modelling using two- and three- dimensional codes of the magnetic field calculation SUPERFISH and RADIA. The experimental stand for the measurements of the dipole magnetic field is described. As the result of calculational and experimental modelling for the dipole magnet, the geometry of its poles was estimated, providing in the horizontal aperture +- 3...

  14. An Experimental ASON Based on OADM Rings and a GMPLS Control Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, R.; Pinart, C.; Martinez, R.; Junyent, A.; Junyent, G.

    This article presents the architecture of an ASON testbed implemented in the EMPIRICO project, focusing on design and implementation issues of real-time provisioning of bidirectional optical connections supported by a distributed GMPLS-based control plane and triggered by the network management system. Experimental performance is evaluated over a unidirectional and a bidirectional all-optical OADM ring in which neither wavelength converters nor optical resources discovery are employed. Performance analysis evaluates the blocking probability and the connection setup time.

  15. Simulation Modeling Method and Experimental Investigation on the Uniflow Scavenging System of an Opposed-Piston Folded-Cranktrain Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukang Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The scavenging process for opposed-piston folded-cranktrain (OPFC diesel engines can be described by the time evolution of the in-cylinder and exhaust chamber residual gas rates. The relation curve of in-cylinder and exhaust chamber residual gas rate is called scavenging profile, which is calculated through the changes of in-cylinder and exhaust chamber gas compositions determined by computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation. The scavenging profile is used to calculate the scavenging process by mono-dimensional (1D simulation. The tracer gas method (TGM is employed to validate the accuracy of the scavenging profile. At the same time, the gas exchange performance under different intake and exhaust state parameters was examined based on the TGM. The results show that the scavenging process from 1D simulation and experiment match well, which means the scavenging model obtained by CFD simulation performs well and validation of its effectiveness by TGM is possible. The difference between intake and exhaust pressure has a significant positive effect on the gas exchange performance and trapped gas mass, but the pressure difference has little effect on the scavenging efficiency and the trapped air mass if the delivery ratio exceeds 1.4.

  16. Three-dimensional stress analysis of O-ring under uniform squeeze and internal pressure by photoelastic experimental hybrid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawong, J. S.; Nam, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Shin, D. C.

    2010-03-01

    Until now, it is known that stresses on the plane (y-z plane) perpendicular to the circumferential direction (x axis) of Oring exist and stresses on the plane (x-y plane and x-z plane) parallel to the circumferential direction of O-ring does not exist when O-ring is under uniform squeeze rate and internal pressure. But it was known that stresses of x-y plane and xz plane of O-ring under uniform squeeze and internal pressure were existed by this research. To analyze 3 dimensional stress distributions of O-ring under those loadings, stress distributions of every plane should be analyzed. Therefore, photoelastic experimental hybrid method for 3 dimensional stress distributions of O-ring under uniform squeeze and internal pressure were developed in this research. Photoelastic experimental procedures for 3 dimensional stress distributions of O-ring under those loadings were introduced. Stress distributions of O-ring under those loadings were analyzed by photoelastic experimental hybrid method developed in this research. Von Mises equivalent stresses at arbitrary point of O-ring under those loadings were analyzed.

  17. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 230.76 Section 230.76... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.76 Piston travel. (a) Minimum piston travel. The minimum piston travel shall be sufficient to provide proper brake shoe clearance when the brakes are released. (b...

  18. Aspects of Lubrication in a Reciprocating Single-ring Test Rig and Further Implementation to Engine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Dellis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A major concern in modern engine design is the issue of the lubrication regime at the piston-liner assembly. To fully understand the complex lubrication phenomena between the piston-rings and cylinder liner in reciprocating engines and at the same time achieve minimal energy losses with the oncoming emission regulations, it is important to characterize the developing oil film. This dynamic process involves many factors, such as piston-ring and piston dynamics, starved lubrication, liner geometry deformation, lubricant - additive degradation and blow-by, which, in turn, enhance the difficulty of interpreting engine experimental results. The simplified test rig is used as a platform to develop oil film measuring techniques and study experimental results from different sensors by means of a robust and solid technique without the engine testing ambiguities, at different lubrication regimes. This paper is focused on experimental findings from the simplified test rig and how these can be applied on specially modified engines, with the respective sensors fitted. A comparison between the single-ring test rig and the engine visualization results is attempted so that similar forms of cavitation identified, be further studied. Moreover, a calibration coefficient for LIF engine experiments can be derived via the simplified test rig arrangement.

  19. Titanium CliP piston versus platinum-ribbon Teflon piston: piston and fenestra size affect air-bone gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangham, Charles A

    2008-01-01

    To analyze if titanium material and a clip attachment to the incus offer a hearing result advantage over the traditional Teflon piston in stapes surgery. Retrospective chart review. Subspecialty private practice. One hundred seven ears in 97 consecutive patients who had primary stapes surgery during 2003 to 2005. The first 74 ears received either a Teflon 0.5- or 0.6-mm piston, and the last 33 received a titanium 0.6-mm piston. American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery guidelines, including 4-frequency pure-tone average air-bone gap and success rate (gap, 10 dB). Mean pure-tone average air-bone gap for the Teflon 0.6-mm piston (5.1 dB) was significantly smaller than for the titanium 0.6-mm piston (8.1 dB) and the Teflon 0.5-mm piston (7.5 dB). Success rate did not differ. Although labeled as 0.6-mm pistons, the Teflon piston diameter was 10% greater than the titanium piston. Results were comparable among devices when adjusted for true piston diameter. Results for the titanium piston were significantly better when the fenestra was no more than 0.05 mm larger than the piston diameter. Comparing 2 pistons designated 0.6 mm in diameter, the Teflon piston produced better hearing results than the titanium device. However, actual piston diameter differed between devices that contributed to the superior results with the larger Teflon piston. In addition, the titanium piston performed better with a small stapes fenestra diameter that suggests an advantage for titanium over Teflon in certain conditions. The clip design was problematic for a few patients.

  20. Experimental demonstration and visual observation of dust trapping in an electron storage ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Tanimoto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sudden decreases in the beam lifetime, which are attributed to the dust trappings, sometimes occur at the electron storage ring Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR. Since these dust events cause difficulties in user operations, we have been carefully observing this phenomenon for many years. Our observations indicated that the dust trappings could be caused by electric discharges in vacuum ducts. In order to demonstrate this hypothesis experimentally, we designed a new vacuum device that intentionally generates electric discharges and installed it in PF-AR. Using this device, we could repeatedly induce sudden decreases in the beam lifetime because of the generated electric discharge. We also detected decreases in the beam lifetime caused by mechanical movement of the electrodes in the device. Moreover, we could visually observe the dust trapping phenomenon; the trapped dust particle was observed by two video cameras and appeared as a luminous body that resembled a shooting star. This was the first direct observation of a luminous dust particle trapped by the electron beam.

  1. Stability analysis of free piston Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégot, Sylvie; Layes, Guillaume; Lanzetta, François; Nika, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a stability analysis of a free piston Stirling engine. The model and the detailed calculation of pressures losses are exposed. Stability of the machine is studied by the observation of the eigenvalues of the model matrix. Model validation based on the comparison with NASA experimental results is described. The influence of operational and construction parameters on performance and stability issues is exposed. The results show that most parameters that are beneficial for machine power seem to induce irregular mechanical characteristics with load, suggesting that self-sustained oscillations could be difficult to maintain and control.

  2. Wear Performance of Bionic Dimpled-Shape Pistons of Mud Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejing Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The piston is one of the parts that most easily become worn out and experience failure in mud pumps for well drilling. By imitating the body surface morphology of the dung beetle, this paper proposed a new type (BW-160 of mud pump piston that had a dimpled shape in the regular layout on the piston leather cup surface and carried out a performance test on the self-built test rig. Firstly, the influence of different dimple diameters on the service life of the piston was analyzed. Secondly, the analysis of the influence of the dimple central included angle on the service life of the piston under the same dimple area density was obtained. Thirdly, the wear of the new type of piston under the same wear time was analyzed. The experimental results indicated that the service life of the piston with dimples on the surface was longer than that of L-Standard pistons, and the maximum increase in the value of service life was 92.06%. Finally, the Workbench module of the software ANSYS was used to discuss the wear-resisting mechanism of the new type of piston.

  3. A study on the pressure ripple characteristics in a bent-axis type oil hydraulic piston pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Ihn Sung; Jung, Jae Youn [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To improve the performance of a bent-axis type axial piston pump driven by tapered pistons, it is necessary to know the pressure ripple characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect on the pressure ripple characteristics, and to predict by comparing experimental and theoretical analysis results. The simulation model of a bent-axis type axial piston pump is developed in the AMESim environment using the geometrical dimension, and the driving mechanism of the piston pump, such as the stroke of pump, the velocity of piston, the instantaneous volumetric flow, the overlap area of valve plate opening to cylinder bore, the angle of notch, and so on. The results show that theoretical analysis results of the bent-axis type axial piston pump by using the AMESim approximate the pressure ripple characteristic of the test pump, and through this, simulations can be obtained that predict the performance characteristics of a bentaxis type axial piston pump.

  4. Experimental Study on Electromagnetic Shielding Characteristics of Conductive O-rings at High Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinnichiro; Hatakeyama, Kennichi; Yamada, Takeshi

    The O-rings have been usually applied to mechanically moving parts for sealing oil and air and preventing dust so far. In order to measure the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of the conductive O-rings, we proposed a electromagnetic shielding evaluation setup for the O-ring. There are two ways to apply O-rings in narrow gaps, cylinder-fixing and plane-fixing. By the use of this setup, the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of conductive O-rings can be evaluated from 10kHz to 1GHz for both fixing types. The reflection and transmission characteristics of this setup and measured results of electromagnetic shielding effects are described. Anisotropic conductivity of the ring material and an equivalent circuit of the O-rings are discussed.

  5. Remote synchronization of amplitudes across an experimental ring of non-linear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minati, Ludovico, E-mail: lminati@ieee.org, E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it, E-mail: lminati@istituto-besta.it [Center for Mind/Brain Science, University of Trento, 38123 Mattarello TN, Italy and Scientific Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, the emergence of remote synchronization in a ring of 32 unidirectionally coupled non-linear oscillators is reported. Each oscillator consists of 3 negative voltage gain stages connected in a loop to which two integrators are superimposed and receives input from its preceding neighbour via a “mixing” stage whose gains form the main system control parameters. Collective behaviour of the network is investigated numerically and experimentally, based on a custom-designed circuit board featuring 32 field-programmable analog arrays. A diverse set of synchronization patterns is observed depending on the control parameters. While phase synchronization ensues globally, albeit imperfectly, for certain control parameter values, amplitudes delineate subsets of non-adjacent but preferentially synchronized nodes; this cannot be trivially explained by synchronization paths along sequences of structurally connected nodes and is therefore interpreted as representing a form of remote synchronization. Complex topology of functional synchronization thus emerges from underlying elementary structural connectivity. In addition to the Kuramoto order parameter and cross-correlation coefficient, other synchronization measures are considered, and preliminary findings suggest that generalized synchronization may identify functional relationships across nodes otherwise not visible. Further work elucidating the mechanism underlying this observation of remote synchronization is necessary, to support which experimental data and board design materials have been made freely downloadable.

  6. Remote synchronization of amplitudes across an experimental ring of non-linear oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the emergence of remote synchronization in a ring of 32 unidirectionally coupled non-linear oscillators is reported. Each oscillator consists of 3 negative voltage gain stages connected in a loop to which two integrators are superimposed and receives input from its preceding neighbour via a "mixing" stage whose gains form the main system control parameters. Collective behaviour of the network is investigated numerically and experimentally, based on a custom-designed circuit board featuring 32 field-programmable analog arrays. A diverse set of synchronization patterns is observed depending on the control parameters. While phase synchronization ensues globally, albeit imperfectly, for certain control parameter values, amplitudes delineate subsets of non-adjacent but preferentially synchronized nodes; this cannot be trivially explained by synchronization paths along sequences of structurally connected nodes and is therefore interpreted as representing a form of remote synchronization. Complex topology of functional synchronization thus emerges from underlying elementary structural connectivity. In addition to the Kuramoto order parameter and cross-correlation coefficient, other synchronization measures are considered, and preliminary findings suggest that generalized synchronization may identify functional relationships across nodes otherwise not visible. Further work elucidating the mechanism underlying this observation of remote synchronization is necessary, to support which experimental data and board design materials have been made freely downloadable.

  7. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Free Piston Linear Alternator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson Wu; Nicholas Paradiso; Peter Van Blarigan; Scott Goldsborough

    1998-11-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) free piston powered linear alternator has been conducted to determine if improvements can be made in the thermal and conversion efficiencies of modern electrical generator systems. Performance of a free piston engine was investigated using a rapid compression expansion machine and a full cycle thermodynamic model. Linear alternator performance was investigated with a computer model. In addition linear alternator testing and permanent magnet characterization hardware were developed. The development of the two-stroke cycle scavenging process has begun.

  8. Resonant pickups for non-destructive single-particle detection in heavy-ion storage rings and first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjari, Mohammad Shahab

    2013-04-26

    Nuclear astrophysics studies on highly charged radionuclides benefit from accelerator facilities with storage rings, where exotic nuclides produced with small yields can be efficiently investigated. Currently there are two accelerator facilities capable of storing highly charged heavy ions, GSI in Darmstadt and IMP in Lanzhou. Non-destructive detection methods are often used for in-flight measurements based on frequency analysis. The sensitivity of such detection systems are of primary importance specially when number of stored ions is small. Furthermore, since the exotic nuclides of interest are as a rule short-lived, the detectors must be fast. One common form of such detectors are parallel plate SCHOTTKY monitors, on which particles induce a mirror charge at each passage. This method has been successfully used at ESR experimental storage ring of GSI since 1991. In this work we describe a new resonant SCHOTTKY pickup operating as a high sensitive cavity current monitor which was mounted and commissioned in the ESR early 2010. It was successfully used in several storage ring experiments. A very similar pickup was mounted in CSRe at IMP Lanzhou in 2011. First in-ring tests have been performed and new experimental results are pending. The spectral analysis of acquired signals by the new detector has enabled a broad range of new physics experiments. The theory of operation and first experimental results and future perspectives are presented in this thesis.

  9. Demonstration of a free piston Stirling engine driven linear alternator, phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldwater, B.; Piller, S.; Rauch, J.; Cella, A.

    1977-03-30

    The results of the work performed under Phase I of the free piston Stirling engine demonstrator program are described. The objective of the program is to develop a 2 kW free piston Stirling engine/linear alternator energy conversion system, for an isotopic heat source, with a greater than 30% overall efficiency. Phase I was a 15-month effort to demonstrate the feasibility of the system through analysis and experimental testing of the individual components. An introduction to Stirling engines and the details of the tasks completed are presented in five major sections: (1) introduction to Stirling engine; (2) preliminary design of an advanced free piston Stirling demonstrator engine; (3) design and test of a 1 kWE output linear alternator; (4) test of a model free piston Stirling engine; and (5) development of a free piston Stirling engine computer simulation code.

  10. The effect of surface roughness on the performances of liner-piston ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an analytical model was developed to study the Tribological performance of a piston rings and rough liner taking into account different roughness orientations. A simplified model of the distribution of the hydrodynamic pressure and the load capacity in the contact are obtained from a simultaneous solution of the ...

  11. Fluid structure interaction in piston diaphragm pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijswick, R.; Van Rhee, C.

    2013-01-01

    Piston diaphragm pumps are used world-wide for the transport of aggressive and/or abrasive fluids in the chemical, mining and mineral processing industries. Figure 1 shows a cross section of a piston diaphragm pump as is used in the mining and mineral processing industries for the transport of

  12. Experimental evidence for large ring metallacycle intermediates in polyethylene chain growth using homogeneous chromium catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Atanas K; Chirinos, Juan J; Jones, David J; Long, Richard J; Gibson, Vernon C

    2005-07-27

    Deuterio-ethylene labeling studies on two homogeneous chromium ethylene oligomerization catalysts show that chain propagation proceeds via metallacyclic intermediates; reactions performed in the presence of 1-nonene show no incorporation of the higher olefin, strongly implicating the involvement of large ring metallacycles.

  13. Casting of Motorcycle Piston from Aluminium Piston Scrap using Metallic Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Uchenna OZIOKO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The casting of motorcycle piston was carried out using metallic mould. The prepared piston sand core was positioned in the mould to provide casting with contours and cavities. The molten metal of required composition was poured into the metallic mould, allowed to solidify and take the desired shape of the cavity. Aluminium silicon piston scraps were used as the casting material. Melting of the aluminium piston scraps was achieved using local crucible furnace and finally pouring the molten metal into the metallic mould having the prepared piston sand core in place to obtain the piston. After fettling and cleaning, the casting was found to be good. The composition test revealed that the scrap piston was made from LM29 aluminium alloy. The cast piston was machined and subjected to performance rating test in a Jincheng AX100 motorcycle engine. The rating used was based on a scale from 1 to 10. The higher the rating, the better the evaluation of the piston in the specific area rated. Deposits are evaluated by appearance, ranging from 10 (clean - absence of deposits to 0.0 (maximum deposits. In spite of various production constraints the result of the performance test was good. The rating showed that the locally cast piston compared favourably with imported piston.

  14. Dynamics of crank-piston mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Davitashvili, Nodar

    2016-01-01

    This monograph focuses on the dynamical research work on crank-piston mechanisms considering basic and additional motions. In order to have full dynamical analyses of piston machines and their mechanisms, the book studies the crank-piston mechanisms with clearances in kinematic pairs. The tasks are carried out by focusing on friction, wear and impacts in mechanisms, as well as cracks formation in links and elasticity of details, with distributed and concentrated masses. Then, the reliability and durability of the mechanisms of piston machines is applied on oil and gas transportation. The monograph is meant for design specialists. It is also useful for specialists-manufacturers and designers of piston machines, scientists and lecturers, doctoral students.

  15. Dynamic counterbalancing the single-piston linear compressor of a Stirling cryogenic cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Nachman, I.; Pundak, N.

    2009-05-01

    Low vibration Stirling cryocoolers often rely on dual-piston linear compressors, the known disadvantages of which, as compared to their single-piston rivals, are: low reliability, increased power consumption, price, bulk, sensitivity to external vibration and g-forces. However, because of the inherently low level of vibration export, as required in numerous vibration sensitive electronic and electro-optic applications, the dual-piston approach has become prevalent in today's industrial practice. The authors report on the novel approach to the passive control of a fundamental component of a vibration export from a single-piston compressor down to the levels typical for the actively controlled dual-piston rival. The technique relies on the newly proposed principle of dynamic counterbalancing, where an auxiliary movable mass is flexibly attached to a movable piston assembly and to the stationary compressor casing using auxiliary mechanical springs. The proper design of such a "spring-mass-spring" counterbalancer yields zero vibration export at minimum electrical power and current consumed by the motor. Based on the theoretical analysis, the design of the single-piston compressor of 1 W@77 K Ricor model K529N Stirling cryocooler was enhanced by adding such a counterbalancer. The obtained experimental results are in full agreement with the theoretical prediction. From experiment, the vibration export at driving frequency was reduced 57-fold at practically the same electrical current and power consumed by the compressor actuator as compared with the basic cooler.

  16. Study on Hot Ring Compression Test of Nimonic 115 Superalloy Using Experimental Observations and 3D FEM Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, D.; Amiri, A.; Sadeghi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    In hot forging of Nimonic 115, it is desirable to determine friction coefficients. Changing magnitudes of temperature and type of lubricant at the surface of the workpiece and dies influence friction coefficient. This paper describes an experimental investigation of friction under hot forging conditions using the ring compression test. The 3D FEM simulations were used to derive the friction calibration curves and to evaluate material deformation, geometric changes, and load-displacement results. A series of ring compression tests were carried out to obtain friction coefficients for a number of lubricants including mica plate, glass powder, graphite powder, and dry condition. The experiments show how the variations in temperature at the interface affected frictional behavior. On the basis of these results, mica is recommended for hot forging of Nimonic 115 and its friction coefficient is approximately 0.3.

  17. THE DESIGN OF A RIG FOR THE DIECASTING OF AL-SI PISTON

    OpenAIRE

    P.A.O ADEGBUYI; M.N.HOUNKONNOU; D.BANYAI

    2013-01-01

    Pressure die casting is the process where molten metal is forced by pressure into mould. The usual pressure is from 10.3 – 14 MPa. This is the design of an experimental rig for pressure die casting of an Al-Si alloy automobile piston. Two varieties were designed and after applying all necessary design factors (stress analysis)one was optimized and the rig was fabricated and used for casting the piston.

  18. An experimental study on the formation of negatively-buoyant vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeff X.; Hunt, Gary R.

    2015-11-01

    Experiments to examine the formation of dense saline vortex rings projected vertically upwards into a quiescent freshwater environment were conducted. The setup was designed to dispense a cylindrical column of source fluid with aspect ratio L / D (the length L of dispensed saline column to the nozzle diameter D) over a pre-set time interval. In an effort to execute an impulsive start and finish, a controlled flow circulation driven by a gear pump was developed to approximate a top-hat profile of source exit velocity versus time. Our measurements focus on describing the evolving morphology of the vortex rings with time and with source conditions (L / D and source Froude number). Our results reveal distinct formation regimes and our estimates of time required for formation as a function of density difference confirm predictions from previously published numerical simulations. The volume-based approach we adopt provides potentially a new angle for investigating the physics of these flows.

  19. Features of the gas dynamics and local heat transfer in intake system of piston engine with supercharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    Comparison of experimental research results of gas dynamics and instantaneous local heat transfer in the intake pipes for piston internal combustion engines (ICE) without and with supercharging are presented in the article. Studies were conducted on full-scale experimental setups in terms of gas dynamic nonstationarity, which is characteristic of piston engines. It has been established that the turbocharger installation in a gas-air system of piston internal combustion engine leads to significant differences in the patterns of change in gas-dynamic and heat transfer characteristics of flows. These data can be used in a modernization of piston engines due to installation of a turbocharger or in a development of gas-air systems for piston ICE with supercharging.

  20. Experimental assessment of advanced Stirling component concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziph, B.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an experimental assessment of some advanced Stirling engine component concepts are presented. High performance piston rings, reciprocating oil scrapers and heat pipes with getters and with mechanical couplings were tested. The tests yielded the following results: (1) Bonded, split, pumping piston rings, in preliminary testing, proved a promising concept, exhibiting low leakage and friction losses. Solid piston rings proved impractical in view of their sensitivity to the operating temperature; (2) A babbit oil scraper in a compliant housing performed well in atmospheric endurance testing. In pressurized tests the scraper did not perform well as a containment seal. The latter tests suggest modifications which may adapt Ti successfully to that application; and (3) Heat pipe endurance tests indicated the adequacy of simple, inexpensive fabrication and filling procedures. Getters were provided to increase the tolerance of the heat pipes to the presence of air and commercially available couplings were demonstrated to be suitable for heat pipe application. In addition to the above tests, the program also included a design effort for a split shaft applicable to a swashplate driven engine with a pressurized crank-case. The design is aimed, and does accomplish, an increase in component life to more than 10,000 hours.

  1. Experimental assessment of advanced Stirling component concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziph, B.

    1985-10-01

    This final report presents the results of an experimental assessment of some advanced Stirling engine component concepts. Under this program, high performance piston rings, reciprocating oil scrapers and heat pipes with getters and with mechanical couplings were tested. The tests yielded the following results: (1) Bonded, split, pumping piston rings, in preliminary testing, proved a promising concept, exhibiting low leakage and friction losses. Solid piston rings proved impractical in view of their sensitivity to the operating temperature. (2) A babbit oil scraper in a compliant housing performed well in atmospheric endurance testing. In pressurized tests the scraper did not perform well as a containment seal. The latter tests suggest modifications which may adapt Ti successfully to that application. (3) Heat pipe endurance tests indicated the adequacy of simple, inexpensive fabrication and filling procedures. Getters were proved to increase the tolerance of the heat pipes to the presence of air, and commercially available couplings were demonstrated to be suitable for heat pipe application. In addition to the above tests, the program also included a design effort for a split shaft applicable to a swashplate driven engine with a pressurized crankcase. The design is aimed, and does accomplish, an increase in component life to more than 10,000 h.

  2. On the role of delocalization in benzene: Theoretical and experimental investigation of the effects of strained ring fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, Rudiger [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-04-01

    When an important compound`s discovery dates back as far as 1825, one would imagine that every facet of its chemical and physical properties has been illuminated in the meantime. Benzene, however, has not ceased to challenge the chemist`s notion of structure and bonding since its first isolation by Michael Faraday. This report is divided into the following six chapters: 1. Aromaticity -- Criteria, manifestations, structural limitations; 2. The role of delocalization in benzene; 3. The thermochemical properties of benzocyclobutadienologs; 4. Ab initio study of benzenes fused to four-membered rings; 5. Non-planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and 6. Experimental details and input decks. 210 Refs.

  3. Experiments on the WavePiston, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelelli, E.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the performance of a new Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the Oscillating Water Column type (OWC), named WavePiston. This near-shore floating device is composed of plates (i.e. energy collectors) sliding around a cylinder, that is placed perpendicular to the shore. Tests...... in the wave basin at Aalborg University allowed to investigate power production in the North Sea typical wave climate, with varying design parameters such as plate dimensions and their mutual distance. The power produced per meter by each collector is about the 5% of the available wave power. Experimental...... results and survivability considerations suggest that the WavePiston would be particularly suited for installations in milder seas. An example application is therefore presented in the Mediterranean Sea, off-shore the island of Sicily. In this case, each collector harvests the 10% of the available wave...

  4. Numerical simulation of stress field for laser thermal loading on piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Bo; Pang, Ming; Zhang, Zhen-Guo; Tan, Jian-Song; Zhu, Gang-Xian; Wang, Ming-Di

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the laser thermal loading on diesel engine piston, the employed Gaussian laser beam was transformed into concentric multi-circular patterns of specific intensity distributions with the aid of diffractive optical elements (DOEs), the time duration of laser thermal loading was controlled by computer with air cooling on the top surface of piston, and water cooling of oil tunnel and bottom surface of piston. Numerical simulation model of stress field of laser thermal action was established with the consideration of experimental conditions and the temperature dependent of thermal physical properties of the piston materials. Results show that the stress fluctuation rate at the concave pit site of top surface of piston is larger than that of laser irradiated region due to concave pit region near oil tunnel. Meanwhile, the regions of concave pit, oil tunnel and inner chamber near the top surface of piston are most vulnerable sites to form thermal cracks due to their direct contact with the cooling medium. Results of experimental and numerical simulation have good agreement, which validates the numerical simulation mode.

  5. An experimental study on the influence of composite materials used to reinforce masonry ring beams

    OpenAIRE

    Sisti, Romina; Corradi, Marco; Borri, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    For historic masonry constructions the out-of-plane wall behavior is critical to seismic performance. Because the main cause of out-of-plane collapses is the wall-to-wall level of connection, the application of a reinforced concrete (RC) ring beam at the eaves level of historic masonry buildings is an effective method to prevent an out-of-plane mechanism of a wall panel. However this effective reinforcing method presents some drawbacks. In order to address this, this paper describes the probl...

  6. Interaction of Vortex Rings and Steady Jets with Permeable Screens of Varied Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta, Mustafa

    2013-11-01

    Vortex ring and steady jet interaction with a porous matrix formed from several parallel, transparent permeable screens with the same grid geometry for open area ratios (φ) 49.5% - 83.8% was studied previously using digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) at jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1000-3000. Vortex ring results showed that unlike the experiments with thin screens, a transmitted vortex ring, which has a similar diameter to the primary one, wasn't formed. Instead a centerline vortex ring like structure formed and its diameter, circulation, and dissipation time decreased as φ decreased. However, for the case of screens φ = 55.7% with large screen spacing, reformation of large scale weak vortex rings was observed downstream of the first screen. The present work experimentally investigates the interaction of vortex rings and steady jets with screens of decreasing φ (83.8%-49.5%) in the flow direction. A piston type vortex ring generator was used and measurements were made using DPIV. The vortex ring results show that the size and circulation of the vortex ring like flow structure was changed based on the screen φ within the permeable screen matrix. Similarly, steady jet flow structure and the local turbulent kinetic energy was changed based on the local screen φ.

  7. Analisis Pengaruh Bentuk Permukaan Piston Terhadap Kinerja Motor Bensin

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayanti, Fitri; Irwan, Dadan

    2014-01-01

    Secara garis besar motor bensin tersusun oleh beberapa komponen utama meliputi : blok silinder (cylinderblock), kepala silinder (cylinder head), poros engkol (crank shaft), torak (piston), batang piston (connectingrod), roda penerus (fly wheel), poros cam (cam shaft) dan mekanik katup (valve mechanic).Berdasarkandiskripsi dari sistem kerja, karakteristik dan bagian komponen mekanik motor bakar torak (piston), adalahmemungkinkan modifikasi khususnya pada torak (piston) pada motor bakar torak. ...

  8. Uji Unjuk Kerja Pompa Pedal Multi Piston

    OpenAIRE

    Firman Yoko Sukwanputra; Oegik Soegihardjo

    2003-01-01

    Multi piston pedal pump is classified under reciprocating pump. This pump is generally designed for applications that require high capacity with low head. This pump is used for shallow well or to pump water in the system with low static and dynamic head. This experiment will examine the performance of multi piston pedal pump with capacity 3000 liter/hour. Two parameters, volumetric efficiency and overall efficiency will be examined during the experiment. The goal is to know the actual perform...

  9. Effect of piston profile on performance and emission characteristics of a GDI engine with split injection strategy - A CFD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaya, Y.; Mallikarjuna, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have gained popularity in the recent times because of lower fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. But in these engines, the mixture preparation plays an important role which affects combustion, performance and emission characteristics. The mixture preparation in turn depends mainly upon combustion chamber geometry. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of piston profile on the performance and emission characteristics in a GDI engine. The analysis is carried out on a four-stroke wall guided GDI engine using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The spray breakup model used is validated with the available experimental results from the literature to the extent possible. The analysis is carried out for four piston profiles viz., offset pentroof with offset bowl (OPOB), flat piston with offset bowl (FPOB), offset pentroof with offset scoop (OPOS) and inclined piston with offset bowl (IPOB) fitted in an engine equipped with a six-hole injector with the split injection ratio of 30:70. All the CFD simulations are carried out at the engine speed of 2000 rev/min., with the overall equivalence ratio of about 0.65±0.05. The performance and emission characteristics of the engine are compared while using the above piston profiles. It is found that, the OPOB piston is preferred compared to that of the other pistons because it has better in-cylinder flow, IMEP and lower HC emissions compared to that of other pistons.

  10. Calculated optimization of friction of a medium speed large Diesel engine of the immersed piston type; Rechnerische Reibungsoptimierung eines mittelschnelllaufenden Grossdieselmotors in Tauchkolbenbauart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jianping

    1995-12-31

    This work is intended to be a contribution to optimising the friction of medium speed large Diesel engines of the immersed piston type. It measures friction losses of the crankshaft drive and of the group of pistons which form the main part of the mechanical losses. The build-up of the lubrication film in the basic and piston rod bearings or on the package of piston rings is analysed and determined. A main object of the investigation is the effect of stroke/bore ratios and the piston rod ratio on the mechanical efficiency. (orig.) [Deutsch] Diese Arbeit soll ein Beitrag zur Reibungsoptimierung von mittelschnellaufenden Grossdieselmotoren in Tauchkolbenbauart sein. Er erfasst die Reibungsverluste vom Kurbeltrieb und von der Kolbengruppe, welche den Hauptanteil der mechanischen Verluste bilden. Der Schmierfilmaufbau in den Grund- und Pleuellagern bzw. Am Ringpaket werden analysiert und bestimmt. Ein Hauptgegenstand der Untersuchung ist der Einfluss des Hub/Bohrungsverhaeltnisses und des Pleuelstangenverhaeltnisses auf den mechanischen Wirkungsgrad. (orig.)

  11. Experimental and data analysis techniques for deducing collision-induced forces from photographic histories of engine rotor fragment impact/interaction with a containment ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghiayan, R. P.; Leech, J. W.; Witmer, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis method termed TEJ-JET is described whereby measured transient elastic and inelastic deformations of an engine-rotor fragment-impacted structural ring are analyzed to deduce the transient external forces experienced by that ring as a result of fragment impact and interaction with the ring. Although the theoretical feasibility of the TEJ-JET concept was established, its practical feasibility when utilizing experimental measurements of limited precision and accuracy remains to be established. The experimental equipment and the techniques (high-speed motion photography) employed to measure the transient deformations of fragment-impacted rings are described. Sources of error and data uncertainties are identified. Techniques employed to reduce data reading uncertainties and to correct the data for optical-distortion effects are discussed. These procedures, including spatial smoothing of the deformed ring shape by Fourier series and timewise smoothing by Gram polynomials, are applied illustratively to recent measurements involving the impact of a single T58 turbine rotor blade against an aluminum containment ring. Plausible predictions of the fragment-ring impact/interaction forces are obtained by one branch of this TEJ-JET method; however, a second branch of this method, which provides an independent estimate of these forces, remains to be evaluated.

  12. Experimental lead toxicity in the ring-necked duck. [Aythya collaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mautino, M.; Bell, J.U.

    1985-12-01

    Ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) were administered a single lead shot by gastric intubation. At weekly intervals over a 7-week period, the birds were weighed and blood samples obtained for measurement of hematocrit, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), blood lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ADAD) activity. The birds were fluoroscoped weekly to ensure that the pellets had been retained. Blood lead concentrations peaked 1 week after dosing at a concentration of 7.75 ..mu..g/ml and then fell to control levels by Week 4. FEP concentrations in the treated ducks also peaked 1 week after dosing at levels which were roughly 1200% of control concentrations. The return of FEP concentrations to normal paralleled blood lead. ALAD activity was inhibited by approximately 85% by Week 1; however, there was a gradual but steady recovery of ALAD activity through Week 7. Four of the treated birds died within 2 to 3 weeks of lead administration. Physical signs of lead toxicity were maximal 7 to 10 days postdosing and included ataxia, loss of body weight, impaction of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and bile green diarrhea. In surviving birds, overt signs of toxicity declined with time and all birds appeared normal by Week 7.

  13. Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zongxuan

    2010-02-23

    A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

  14. Experimental demonstration of an optical Feynman gate for reversible logic operation using silicon micro-ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yonghui; Liu, Zilong; Ying, Tonghe; Xiao, Huifu; Meng, Yinghao; Deng, Lin; Zhao, Yongpeng; Guo, Anqi; Liao, Miaomiao; Liu, Guipeng; Yang, Jianhong

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the reversible logic circuit is a popular research topic in the field of information processing as it is a most effective approach to minimize power consumption, which can achieve the one-to-one mapping function to identify the input signals from its corresponding output signals. In this letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical Feynman gate for reversible logic operation using silicon micro-ring resonators (MRRs). Two electrical input signals (logic operands) are applied across the micro-heaters above MRRs to determine the switching states of MRRs, and the reversible logic operation results are directed to the output ports in the form of light, respectively. For proof of concept, the thermo-optic modulation scheme is used to achieve MRR's optical switching function. At last, a Feynman gate for reversible logic operation with the speed of 10 kbps is demonstrated successfully.

  15. Experimental demonstration of an optical Feynman gate for reversible logic operation using silicon micro-ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yonghui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the reversible logic circuit is a popular research topic in the field of information processing as it is a most effective approach to minimize power consumption, which can achieve the one-to-one mapping function to identify the input signals from its corresponding output signals. In this letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical Feynman gate for reversible logic operation using silicon micro-ring resonators (MRRs. Two electrical input signals (logic operands are applied across the micro-heaters above MRRs to determine the switching states of MRRs, and the reversible logic operation results are directed to the output ports in the form of light, respectively. For proof of concept, the thermo-optic modulation scheme is used to achieve MRR’s optical switching function. At last, a Feynman gate for reversible logic operation with the speed of 10 kbps is demonstrated successfully.

  16. Experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable electro-optic directed logic circuit using cascaded carrier-injection micro-ring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yonghui; Liu, Zilong; Xiao, Huifu; Zhao, Guolin; Liu, Guipeng; Yang, Jianhong; Ding, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Lin

    2017-07-25

    We experimentally demonstrate a reconfigurable electro-optic directed logic circuit which can perform any combinatorial logic operation using cascaded carrier-injection micro-ring resonators (MRRs), and the logic circuit is fabricated on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate with the standard commercial Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication process. PIN diodes embedded around MRRs are employed to achieve the carrier injection modulation. The operands are represented by electrical signals, which are applied to the corresponding MRRs to control their switching states. The operation result is directed to the output port in the form of light. For proof of principle, several logic operations of three-operand with the operation speed of 100 Mbps are demonstrated successfully.

  17. Study of a Modified Displacement Transducer of a Piston in a Power Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. BERA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The position monitoring of the piston inside a power cylinder is very important in process plant measurement and control. In the present paper a modified inductance type position sensing technique of a power cylinder piston has been described. A modified inductance measuring transducer circuit has been designed to measure the change of inductance of a very high inductance coil. The theoretical equations of the proposed inductive sensor and the displacement transducer have been derived. The transducer has been experimentally tested and the experimental data are presented in the paper.

  18. The impact of microgeometry pistons with a stepped bearing surface for the friction loss of the internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblewski Emil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the results of experimental piston friction losses on stepped bearing surface microgeometry obtained on the test rig. This test rig is equipped with special temperature control system, which provides better stability to temperature than in standard systems. The results of station tests was discussed. Tests was analyzed depending the moment caused by the friction on the oil temperature in the oil sump. Specified conclusions allow to assess the impact of the stepped profile of the pistons bearing surface microgeometry for different values of engine speed and the oil temperature at the friction losses in the main kinematic engine node which is piston-cylinder.

  19. Insulated Piston Heads for Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoire, A.; Kjellman, B.; Wigren, J.; Vanvolsem, M.; Aixala, L.

    2009-06-01

    Widely studied in the 1980s, the insulation of pistons in engines aimed at reducing the heat losses and thus increasing the indicated efficiency. However, those studies stopped in the beginning of the 1990s because of NO x emission legislation and also because of lower oil prices. Currently, with the improvement of exhaust after treatment systems (diesel particulate filter, selective catalytic reduction, and diesel oxidation catalyst) and engine technologies (exhaust gas recirculation), there are more trade-offs for NO x reduction. In addition, the fast rise of the oil prices tends to lead back to insulation technologies in order to save fuel. A 1 mm thick plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a graded transition between the topcoat and the bondcoat was deposited on top of a serial piston for heavy-duty truck engines. The effects of the insulated pistons on the engine performance are also discussed, and the coating microstructure is analyzed after engine test.

  20. Experimental synchronization of chaos in a large ring of mutually coupled single-transistor oscillators: Phase, amplitude, and clustering effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, experimental evidence of multiple synchronization phenomena in a large (n = 30) ring of chaotic oscillators is presented. Each node consists of an elementary circuit, generating spikes of irregular amplitude and comprising one bipolar junction transistor, one capacitor, two inductors, and one biasing resistor. The nodes are mutually coupled to their neighbours via additional variable resistors. As coupling resistance is decreased, phase synchronization followed by complete synchronization is observed, and onset of synchronization is associated with partial synchronization, i.e., emergence of communities (clusters). While component tolerances affect community structure, the general synchronization properties are maintained across three prototypes and in numerical simulations. The clusters are destroyed by adding long distance connections with distant notes, but are otherwise relatively stable with respect to structural connectivity changes. The study provides evidence that several fundamental synchronization phenomena can be reliably observed in a network of elementary single-transistor oscillators, demonstrating their generative potential and opening way to potential applications of this undemanding setup in experimental modelling of the relationship between network structure, synchronization, and dynamical properties.

  1. Experimental synchronization of chaos in a large ring of mutually coupled single-transistor oscillators: phase, amplitude, and clustering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, experimental evidence of multiple synchronization phenomena in a large (n = 30) ring of chaotic oscillators is presented. Each node consists of an elementary circuit, generating spikes of irregular amplitude and comprising one bipolar junction transistor, one capacitor, two inductors, and one biasing resistor. The nodes are mutually coupled to their neighbours via additional variable resistors. As coupling resistance is decreased, phase synchronization followed by complete synchronization is observed, and onset of synchronization is associated with partial synchronization, i.e., emergence of communities (clusters). While component tolerances affect community structure, the general synchronization properties are maintained across three prototypes and in numerical simulations. The clusters are destroyed by adding long distance connections with distant notes, but are otherwise relatively stable with respect to structural connectivity changes. The study provides evidence that several fundamental synchronization phenomena can be reliably observed in a network of elementary single-transistor oscillators, demonstrating their generative potential and opening way to potential applications of this undemanding setup in experimental modelling of the relationship between network structure, synchronization, and dynamical properties.

  2. Mathematical Modelling of Liner Piston Maintenance Activity using Field Data to Minimize Overhauling Time and Human Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhode, Pramod Namdeorao

    2017-06-01

    Field data based model is proposed to reduce the overhauling time and human energy consumed in liner piston maintenance activity so as to increase the productivity of liner piston maintenance activity. The independent variables affecting the phenomenon such as anthropometric parameters of workers (Eastman Kodak Co. Ltd in Section VIA Appendix-A: Anthropometric Data. Ergonomic Design for People at Work, Van Nostrans Reinhold, New York, 1), workers parameters, specification of liner piston data, specification of tools used in liner piston maintenance activity, specification of solvents, axial clearance of big end bearing and bolt elongation, workstation data (Eastman Kodak Co. Ltd in Work Place Ergonomic Design for People at Work, Van Nostrans Reinhold, New York, 2) and extraneous variables, namely, temperature, humidity at workplace, illumination at workplace and noise at workplace (Eastman Kodak Co. Ltd in Chapter V Environment Ergonomic Design for People at Work, Van Nostrans Reinhold, New York, 3) are taken into account. The model is formulated for dependent variables of liner piston maintenance activity to minimize the overhauling time and human energy consumption so as to improve the productivity of liner piston maintenance activity. The developed model can predict the performance of liner piston maintenance activity which involves man and machine system (Schenck in Theories of Engineering Experimentation, Mc-Graw Hill, New York 4). The model is then optimized by optimization technique and the sensitivity analysis of the model has also been estimated.

  3. Weak and Repulsive Casimir Force in Piston Geometries

    OpenAIRE

    Schaden, Martin; Mateescu, Liviu

    2007-01-01

    We study the Casimir force in piston-like geometries semiclassically. The force on the piston is finite and physical, but to leading semiclassical approximation depends strongly on the shape of the surrounding cavity. Whereas this force is attractive for pistons in a parallelepiped with flat cylinder head, for which the semiclassical approximation by periodic orbits is exact, this approximation to the force on the piston vanishes for a semi-cylindrical head and becomes repulsive for a cylinde...

  4. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Anderson, Brian L [Lodi, CA; O'Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  5. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  6. On the validity range of piston theory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meijer, M-C

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available as the analytical validity range for linear piston theory as based in potential flows. The range of validity of single-term nonlinear extensions to the linear potential equation into the transonic and hypersonic regions is treated. A brief review of the development...

  7. Development of CNC Program for Piston Production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State.1. Abstract ... work that involves the casting and machining of a piston on a computer numerical control machine tool. Aluminum scraps were collected and heated. The molten metal at 720. 0.

  8. THE ANALYSIS OF CAUSES OF LORRY PISTON COMBUSTION ENGINE DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Štefániková

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with analysis of causes of lorry piston combustion engine damage. For docummentation and analysis of causes was used macroscopical, microscopical and scanning electron microscopy. The analysis showed that the reason of fatal damage resides in production process of lorry combustion pistons which proved in implication of fatigue damage and subsequent burnout in two piston place.

  9. MODERN MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES OF BILLET PISTONS FOR DIESEL ENGINE OF ACCELERATED PISTON ALUMINUM ALLOY MOLDING TICS-METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Koidan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted to determine the feasibility and availability of pistons manufacturing for forced diesel engine from special piston-alloy with Tix-structure by Tix-formation methods.

  10. Physics of quantum rings

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, Vladimir M

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is po

  11. An experimental determination of the hot electron ring geometry in a Bumpy Torus and its implications for Bumpy Torus stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillis, D.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Bigelow, T.S.; Jaeger, E/F.; Swain, D.W.; Hankins, O.E.; Juhala, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The hot electron rings of the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) (Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion (IAEA, Vienna, 1975), Vol. II, p. 141) are formed by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and have an electron temperature of 350 to 500 keV. The original intention of these hot electron rings was to provide a local minimum in the magnetic field and, thereby, stabilize the simple interchange and flute modes, which are inherent in a closed field line bumpy torus. To evaluate the electron energy density of the EBT rings and determine if enough stored energy is present to provide a local minimum in the magnetic field, a detailed understanding of the spatial distribution of the rings is imperative. The purpose of this report is to measure the ring thickness and investigate its implications for bumpy torus stability. The spatial location and radial profile of the hot electron ring are measured with a unique metal ball pellet injector, which injects small metallic balls into the EBT ring plasma. From these measurements the radial extent (or ring thickness) is about 5 to 7 cm full width at half maximum for typical EBT operation, which is much larger than previously expected. These measurements and recent modeling of the EBT plasma indicate that the hot electron ring's stored energy may not be sufficient to produce a local minimum in the magnetic field.

  12. INFLUENCE OF PISTON DISPLACEMENT ON THE SCAVENGING AND SWIRLING FLOW IN TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Obeidat, Anas; Haider, Sajjad; Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Meyer, Knud Erik; Walther, Jens Honore

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of piston motion on the in-cylinder swirling flow in a low speed, large two-stroke marine diesel engine. The work involves experimental, and numerical simulation using OpenFOAM platform, Large Eddy Simulation was used with three different models, One equation Eddy, Dynamic One equation Eddy, and Ta Phouc Loc model, to study the transient phenomena of the flow. The results are conducted at six cross sectional planes along the axis of the cylinder and with the piston displac...

  13. Integrated Microwave Photonic Isolators: Theory, Experimental Realization and Application in a Unidirectional Ring Mode-Locked Laser Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn J.R. Heck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel integrated microwave photonic isolator is presented. It is based on the timed drive of a pair of optical modulators, which transmit a pulsed or oscillating optical signal with low loss, when driven in phase. A signal in the reverse propagation direction will find the modulators out of phase and, hence, will experience high loss. Optical and microwave isolation ratios were simulated to be in the range up to 10 dB and 20 dB, respectively, using parameters representative for the indium phosphide platform. The experimental realization of this device in the hybrid silicon platform showed microwave isolation in the 9 dB–22 dB range. Furthermore, we present a design study on the use of these isolators inside a ring mode-locked laser cavity. Simulations show that unidirectional operation can be achieved, with a 30–50-dB suppression of the counter propagating mode, at limited driving voltages. The potentially low noise and feedback-insensitive operation of such a laser makes it a very promising candidate for use as on-chip microwave or comb generators.

  14. Numerical calculation of the force on some Generalized Casimir Pistons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaden, Martin

    2009-04-01

    In this talk I presented numerical calculations of the Casimir force due to a scalar field on a piston in a cylinder of radius τ with a spherical cap of radius R > τ. Geometrical subtractions give a finite interaction energy. Due to reflection positivity, the vacuum force on the piston by a scalar field satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is attractive for these geometries, but the strength and short-distance behavior of the force depends strongly on the shape of the piston casing. For a cylindrical casing with a hemispherical head of large radius, the attractive force on the piston is inversely proportional to the square of the height of the piston.

  15. The significance of vortex ring formation and nozzle exit over-pressure to pulsatile jet propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Paul Samuel

    Pulsatile jet propulsion can be accomplished using a fully-pulsed jet (i.e., a periodic series of starting jets or pulses), the unsteady nature of which engenders vortex ring formation. The propulsive significance of vortex ring formation in this setting is studied experimentally using a piston-cylinder mechanism to generate starting and fully-pulsed, round jets of water into water. Starting jets are considered separately since they are the limiting case of a fully-pulsed jet at zero pulsing frequency. Measurements of the total impulse per pulse (starting jets) and time-averaged thrust (fully-pulsed jets) are made using a force balance. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) measurements provide information about the resulting jet flow. Piston stroke to diameter ratios (L/D) between 2 and 8 are used to generate the pulses for both types of jets. This range brackets the transition between pulses that generate isolated vortex rings (small L/D) and pulses that yield a leading vortex ring that has pinched off from the generating jet, producing a trailing jet (large L/D). Impulse measurements for the starting jets as a function of L/D indicate the leading vortex ring adds proportionately more impulse per pulse than a trailing jet. This leads to a maximum in the average thrust during a pulse at an L/D just before vortex ring pinch off is observed. The propulsive advantage of vortex ring formation over trailing-jet ejection is due to nozzle exit over-pressure. This over-pressure can be related to the acceleration of ambient fluid in the form of added and entrained mass during ring formation. A simple model is proposed to describe these effects at the initiation of an impulsive pulse. The thrust measurements for fully-pulsed jets show a propulsive benefit from vortex ring formation (i.e., non-dimensional thrust, FIJ , > 1) for all non-dimensional pulsing frequencies, StL, accessible by a fully-pulsed jet. As with starting jets (StL = 0), vortex ring pinch off reduces

  16. Optimal piston crevice study in a rapid compression machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyong, Oku; Woolley, Robert; Blakey, Simon; Alborzi, Ehsan

    2017-09-01

    Multi-dimensional effects such as vortex generation and heat losses from the gas to the wall of the reactor chamber have been an issue to obtaining a reliable RCM data. This vortex initiates a flow in the relatively cold boundary layer, which may penetrate the core gas. This resulting non-uniformity of the core region could cause serious discrepancies and give unreliable experimental data. To achieve a homogenous temperature field, an optimised piston crevice was designed using CFD modelling (Ansys fluent). A 2-Dimensional computational moving mesh is assuming an axisymmetric symmetry. The model adopted for this calculation is the laminar flow model and the fluid used was nitrogen. To get the appropriate crevice volume suitable for the present design, an optimisation of the five different crevice volume was modelled which resulted to about 2-10% of the entire chamber volume. The use of creviced piston has shown to reduce the final compressed gas temperature and pressure in the reactor chamber. All the crevice volumes between 2-10% of the chamber volume adequately contained the roll up vortexes, but the crevice volume of 282 mm3 was chosen to be the best in addition to minimising the end gas pressure and temperature drop. The final pressure trace from experiment shows a reasonable agreement with the CFD model at compression and post compression stage.

  17. Experimental linear-optics simulation of multipartite non-locality in the ground state of a quantum Ising ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orieux, Adeline; Boutari, Joelle; Barbieri, Marco; Paternostro, Mauro; Mataloni, Paolo

    2014-11-24

    Critical phenomena involve structural changes in the correlations of its constituents. Such changes can be reproduced and characterized in quantum simulators able to tackle medium-to-large-size systems. We demonstrate these concepts by engineering the ground state of a three-spin Ising ring by using a pair of entangled photons. The effect of a simulated magnetic field, leading to a critical modification of the correlations within the ring, is analysed by studying two- and three-spin entanglement. In particular, we connect the violation of a multipartite Bell inequality with the amount of tripartite entanglement in our ring.

  18. Multiple Cylinder Free-Piston Stirling Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchowitz, David M.; Kwon, Yong-Rak

    In order to improve the specific power of piston-cylinder type machinery, there is a point in capacity or power where an advantage accrues with increasing number of piston-cylinder assemblies. In the case of Stirling machinery where primary energy is transferred across the casing wall of the machine, this consideration is even more important. This is due primarily to the difference in scaling of basic power and the required heat transfer. Heat transfer is found to be progressively limited as the size of the machine increases. Multiple cylinder machines tend to preserve the surface area to volume ratio at more favorable levels. In addition, the spring effect of the working gas in the so-called alpha configuration is often sufficient to provide a high frequency resonance point that improves the specific power. There are a number of possible multiple cylinder configurations. The simplest is an opposed pair of piston-displacer machines (beta configuration). A three-cylinder machine requires stepped pistons to obtain proper volume phase relationships. Four to six cylinder configurations are also possible. A small demonstrator inline four cylinder alpha machine has been built to demonstrate both cooling operation and power generation. Data from this machine verifies theoretical expectations and is used to extrapolate the performance of future machines. Vibration levels are discussed and it is argued that some multiple cylinder machines have no linear component to the casing vibration but may have a nutating couple. Example applications are discussed ranging from general purpose coolers, computer cooling, exhaust heat power extraction and some high power engines.

  19. Nonlinear Dynamics of a Spring-Supported Piston in a Vibrated Liquid-Filled Housing: II. Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hern, T. J.; Torczynski, J. R.; Clausen, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a piston supported by a spring in a vibrated liquid-filled housing is investigated experimentally. The housing containing the piston and the liquid is subjected to vibrations along its axis. A post fixed to the housing penetrates a hole through the piston and produces a flow resistance that depends on piston position. Flexible bellows attached to the housing ends enable the piston, liquid, and bellows to execute a collective motion that forces little liquid through the flow resistance. The low damping of this motion leads to a resonance, at which the flow-resistance nonlinearity produces a net force on the piston that can cause it to compress its spring. Experiments are performed to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of this system, and these results are compared to theoretical and numerical results. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. The research on flow pulsation characteristics of axial piston pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingchao; Wang, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    The flow pulsation is an important factor influencing the axial piston pump performance. In this paper we implement modeling and simulation of the axial piston pump with AMESim software to explore the flow pulsation characteristics under various factors . Theory analysis shows the loading pressure, angular speed, piston numbers and the accumulator impose evident influence on the flow pulsation characteristics. This simulation and analysis can be used for reducing the flow pulsation rate via properly setting the related factors.

  1. Improving Free-Piston Stirling Engine Specific Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2015-01-01

    This work uses analytical methods to demonstrate the potential benefits of optimizing piston and/or displacer motion in a Stirling engine. Isothermal analysis was used to show the potential benefits of ideal motion in ideal Stirling engines. Nodal analysis is used to show that ideal piston and displacer waveforms are not optimal in real Stirling engines. Constrained optimization was used to identify piston and displacer waveforms that increase Stirling engine specific power.

  2. A Review of the Piston Effect in Subway Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the piston effect in subways has become a topic of interest for researchers and engineers. Many publications have appeared on this topic, but reliable information is scattered and poorly organized. This review paper covers the latest publications on the piston effect in subways. We compile information about the mechanism of the piston effect, evaluate its influence, and describe how it can be effectively utilized.

  3. A Gas Pressure Scale Based on Primary Standard Piston Gauges

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Douglas A.; Driver, R. Greg; Bowers, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has redefined its gas pressure scale, up to 17 MPa, based on two primary standard piston gauges. The primary standard piston gauges are 35.8 mm in diameter and operate from 20 kPa to 1 MPa. Ten secondary standard piston gauges, two each of five series of the Ruska 2465 type, with successively smaller diameters form the scale extending up to 17 MPa. Six of the piston gauges were directly compared to the primary standards to determine th...

  4. Fluid dynamic modeling of a free piston engine with labyrinth seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjola, Jaakko; Honkatukia, Juha; Sallinen, Petri; Backman, Jari

    2010-04-01

    Preliminary design and simulation of a free piston engine suitable for small-scale energy production in distributed energy systems is presented in this paper. The properties, particularly the properties of gas seals of the engine are simulated using a simulation program developed for this case, and the results are utilized in preliminary main design parameter selection. The engine simulation program was developed by combining and modifying the source codes of the simulation and calculation programs obtained from Helsinki University of Technology, Tampere University of Technology, and Lappeenranta University of Technology. Because of the contact-free labyrinth seal used in the piston, the efficiency of the motor is lower than the efficiency of a conventional motor with oil lubricated piston rings. On the other hand, the lack of bearing losses, and the lack of losses associated with a crankshaft system and a gearbox, as well as the lack of lubrication oil expenses, compensates this effect. As a net result, this new motor would perform slightly better than the conventional one. Being completely oil-free, it is very environmentally friendly, and its exhaust gases are completely free of oil residuals which are causing problems in normal gas motors.

  5. Dynamics of the collision of a vortex ring with a vertical heated wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, G.; Palacios-Morales, C. A.; Zenit, R.; Solorio-Ordaz, F. J.

    2012-11-01

    We study the dynamics of the impact of a vortex ring with a vertical heated plate (at constant temperature). Laminar vortex rings were generated with a piston cylinder arrangement. The vertical wall is heated by a thermal bath which is held at constant temperature producing a laminar and stable thermal boundary layer. Measurements of the 2D velocity field were obtained with a PIV technique. The experimental results for the isothermal case are in agreement with previous investigations reported in the literature. To avoid azimuthal instabilities, we mainly conducted experiments for L /D0 = 1 (where L is the piston displacement and D0 is the cylinder inner diameter) with different wall temperatures and vortex translation velocities. For this case, secondary vortices were not observed. Using ink visualization we observed the evolution of the vortex shape. The initial circular shape evolves into a ``cat head'' shape after reaching the wall. The top and bottom regions of the vortex reduce and increase their vorticity, respectively. The sides are stretched and convected. An analysis of the different mechanisms leading to this shape evolution is presented and discussed.

  6. Rolling up of Large-scale Laminar Vortex Ring from Synthetic Jet Impinging onto a Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jinjun; Flow Control Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    Vortex ring impinging onto a wall exhibits a wide range of interesting behaviors. The present work devotes to an experimental investigation of a series of small-scale vortex rings impinging onto a wall. These laminar vortex rings were generated by a piston-cylinder driven synthetic jet in a water tank. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) were used for flow visualization/quantification. A special scenario of vortical dynamic was found for the first time: a large-scale laminar vortex ring is formed above the wall, on the outboard side of the jet. This large-scale structure is stable in topology pattern, and continuously grows in strength and size along time, thus dominating dynamics of near wall flow. To quantify its spatial/temporal characteristics, Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) fields were calculated from PIV velocity fields. It is shown that the flow pattern revealed by FTLE fields is similar to the visualization. The size of this large-scale vortex ring can be up to one-order larger than the jet vortices, and its rolling-up speed and entrainment strength was correlated to constant vorticity flux issued from the jet. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No.11202015 and 11327202).

  7. Pressure-Drop Coefficients for Cushioning System of Hydraulic Cylinder With Grooved Piston: A Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Castilla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cushioning is an important aspect in hydraulic cylinder performance. The piston has to be decelerated before it strikes the end cap in order to avoid stresses in the cylinder components and reduce vibration that can be transmitted to the machine. One of the least-studied methods is internal cushioning by grooves in the piston. In this method, the flow is throttled with adequately designed grooves when the piston reaches the outlet port position. The purpose of the present work is to present a method to estimate the pressure-drop coefficients for a certain design of piston grooves in order to provide a model to develop a dynamic system simulation of the cushion system. The method is based on a computational fluid dynamic simulation of flow through piston grooves to the outlet port for each piston’s static position. The results are compared with experimental measurements, and a correction, based on Reynolds number, is proposed. Good agreement, below 16%, was obtained for all the positions but particularly for the last grooves, for which the numerical result’s deviation to the experimental measurements was less than 10%. In general, the numerical simulation tended to underestimate the pressure drop for the first grooves and overestimate the calculation for the last grooves.

  8. EBT ring physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A. (ed.)

    1980-04-01

    This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers. (MOW)

  9. CNC grinding of valve housing piston holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashbaugh, F.A.

    1991-11-01

    Grinding has traditionally been used for machining operations requiring close dimensional tolerances and better surface finishes than can be obtained from other metal removal techniques. Using a grinding process for the last metal removal operation, the close tolerances and surface finishes can be easily held while eliminating the adverse conditions from the current metal removal processes. Pre-machined test parts were sent to a machine tool supplier to have the critical inside features of a typical piston bore finish machined using an internal CNC grinder equipped with high-frequency spindles. The piston bore and sealing angle were ground using a standard 120-grit silicon carbide wheel. The wafer step was machined using a solid carbide tool designed and built at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). Six consecutive parts were machined for evaluation. The repeatability on all six parts was within print requirements. The inside corner radii was less than 0.002 in. and the surface finish was 8.2 arithmetical average or better as defined by ANSI B46.1, Surface Texture. Machining parts by this grinding process would eliminate bellmouth, chatter, waviness, and traveler polishing operations. It would produce a superior surface finish, small inside radii, and small easily removable burrs. It would also hold tolerances closer and significantly reduce scrap, rework, rejects, and deviations. 1 fig.

  10. CFD analysis of a diaphragm free-piston Stirling cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughley, Alan; Sellier, Mathieu; Gschwendtner, Michael; Tucker, Alan

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a novel free-piston Stirling cryocooler that uses a pair of metal diaphragms to seal and suspend the displacer. The diaphragms allow the displacer to move without rubbing or moving seals. When coupled to a metal diaphragm pressure wave generator, the system produces a complete Stirling cryocooler with no rubbing parts in the working gas space. Initial modelling of this concept using the Sage modelling tool indicated the potential for a useful cryocooler. A proof-of-concept prototype was constructed and achieved cryogenic temperatures. A second prototype was designed and constructed using the experience gained from the first. The prototype produced 29 W of cooling at 77 K and reached a no-load temperature of 56 K. The diaphragm's large diameter and short stroke produces a significant radial component to the oscillating flow fields inside the cryocooler which were not modelled in the one-dimensional analysis tool Sage that was used to design the prototypes. Compared with standard pistons, the diaphragm geometry increases the gas-to-wall heat transfer due to the higher velocities and smaller hydraulic diameters. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the cryocooler was constructed to understand the underlying fluid-dynamics and heat transfer mechanisms with the aim of further improving performance. The CFD modelling of the heat transfer in the radial flow fields created by the diaphragms shows the possibility of utilizing the flat geometry for heat transfer, reducing the need for, and the size of, expensive heat exchangers. This paper presents details of a CFD analysis used to model the flow and gas-to-wall heat transfer inside the second prototype cryocooler, including experimental validation of the CFD to produce a robust analysis.

  11. 'Slow'- and 'fast'-light in a single ring-resonator circuit: theory, experimental observations, and sensing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Zhuang, L.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Transfer matrix method (TMM) was used to study the phenomena of ‘slow’- and ‘fast’-light in a single two-port ring-resonator (TPRR) circuit theoretically. Their classifications into ‘slow’- and ‘fast’-light with negative and positive group velocity (v_g), where ‘slow’ means |v_g|

  12. Volumetric velocity measurements of vortex rings from inclined exits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troolin, Daniel R.; Longmire, Ellen K.

    2010-03-01

    Vortex rings were generated by driving pistons within circular cylinders of inner diameter D = 72.8 mm at a constant velocity U 0 over a distance L = D. The Reynolds number, U 0 L/(2ν), was 2500. The flow downstream of circular and inclined exits was examined using volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V). The circular exit yields a standard primary vortex ring that propagates downstream at a constant velocity and a lingering trailing ring of opposite sign associated with the stopping of the piston. By contrast, the inclined nozzle yields a much more complicated structure. The data suggest that a tilted primary vortex ring interacts with two trailing rings; one associated with the stopping of the piston, and the other associated with the asymmetry of the cylinder exit. The two trailing ring structures, which initially have circulation of opposite sign, intertwine and are distorted and drawn through the center of the primary ring. This behavior was observed for two inclination angles. Increased inclination was associated with stronger interactions between the primary and trailing vortices as well as earlier breakdown.

  13. Volumetric velocity measurements of vortex rings from inclined exits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troolin, Daniel R. [TSI Incorporated, Fluid Mechanics Division, St. Paul, MN (United States); Longmire, Ellen K. [University of Minnesota, Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Vortex rings were generated by driving pistons within circular cylinders of inner diameter D=72.8 mm at a constant velocity U{sub 0} over a distance L=D. The Reynolds number, U{sub 0}L/(2{nu}), was 2500. The flow downstream of circular and inclined exits was examined using volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V). The circular exit yields a standard primary vortex ring that propagates downstream at a constant velocity and a lingering trailing ring of opposite sign associated with the stopping of the piston. By contrast, the inclined nozzle yields a much more complicated structure. The data suggest that a tilted primary vortex ring interacts with two trailing rings; one associated with the stopping of the piston, and the other associated with the asymmetry of the cylinder exit. The two trailing ring structures, which initially have circulation of opposite sign, intertwine and are distorted and drawn through the center of the primary ring. This behavior was observed for two inclination angles. Increased inclination was associated with stronger interactions between the primary and trailing vortices as well as earlier breakdown. (orig.)

  14. Development of CNC Program for Piston Production | Ogbonnaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a computer numerical control program for the machining of a piston is a work that involves the casting and machining of a piston on a computer numerical control machine tool. Aluminum scraps were collected and heated. The molten metal at 7200C was poured into a mould and allowed to cool under ...

  15. optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    results were validate and comparisons developed to analyze the various optimization parameters for performance characteristics of the two pistons. Keywords: optimized intake stroke, CFD analysis, flat and dome head pistons, internal combustion engine, CAD modelling. NOMENCLATURE. = density. ⃑⃑ = uniform velocity.

  16. Entropic Damping of the Motion of a Piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an "entropic force" can be introduced by considering a familiar setup, namely a horizontal cylinder enclosing an ideal monatomic gas by a piston of cross-sectional area "A" and mass "m" that can slide without friction. The surrounding atmospheric pressure P[subscript atm] keeps the piston from flying…

  17. Experimental investigation of influence of Reynolds number on synthetic jet vortex rings impinging onto a solid wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; He, GuoSheng; Kulkarni, Varun; Wang, JinJun

    2017-01-01

    Time-resolved particle image velocimetry was employed to study the effect of Reynolds number ( Re sj) on synthetic jet vortex rings impinging onto a solid wall. Four Reynolds numbers ranging from 166 to 664 were investigated for comparison while other parameters were kept constant. It is found that the Reynolds number has a significant impact on the spatial evolution of near-wall vortical structures of the impinging synthetic jet. Velocity triple decomposition reveals that periodic Reynolds shear stresses produced by both impinging and secondary vortex rings agree well with a four-quadrant-type distribution rule, and the random velocity fluctuations are strengthened as Re sj increases. For radial wall jet, radial velocity profiles exhibit a self-similar behavior for all Re sj, and this self-similar profile gradually deviates from the laminar solution as Re sj is increased. In particular, the self-similar profile for low Re sj (166) coincides with the laminar solution indicating that periodic velocity fluctuations produced by vortex rings have little effect on the velocity profile of the laminar wall jet. This also provides evidence that the impinging synthetic jet is more effective in mixing than the continuous jet for the laminar flow. For the high Re sj, the mean skin friction coefficient has a slower decay rate after reaching peak, and the radial momentum flux has a higher value at locations far away from the impingement region, both of these can be attributed to the enhanced random fluctuations.

  18. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. A looped-tube traveling-wave engine with liquid pistons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, H.; Tamura, S.; Biwa, T.

    2017-09-01

    This report describes the operation of a liquid piston engine that uses thermoacoustic spontaneous oscillations of liquid and gas columns connected in series to form a loop. Analysis of the analogous mass-spring model and the numerical calculation based on hydrodynamic equations shows that the natural mode oscillations of the system allow the working gas to execute a Stirling thermodynamic cycle. Numerical results of the operating temperature difference were confirmed from experimentally obtained results.

  20. Reduction of HCCI combustion noise through piston crown design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Seven shapes of piston crowns have been evaluated for their ability to reduce HCCI knock and transmission of combustion noise to the engine. The performance of each piston crown was evaluated with measurements of cylinder pressure, engine vibration and acoustic sound pressure measured one meter......, increased heat transfer can not be avoided. Thus, the use of alternative piston crown geometries designed to split the combustion may not be viable means of avoiding HCCI engine knock. The traditional diesel bowl type piston is therefore possibly the best alternative to the flat piston in terms of noise...... away from the engine. The experiments were conducted in a diesel engine that was run in HCCI combustion mode with a fixed quantity of DME as fuel. The results show that combustion knock is effectively suppressed by limiting the size of the volume in which the combustion occurs. Splitting...

  1. Comparison on Piston Bowl Shape Effect to Diesel Spray Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Nizam Mohammed, Akmal; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Sadikin, Azmahani Binti; Norrizam Mohmad Ja'at, Md; Khalid, Amir

    2017-08-01

    Piston bowl geometry plays an important role on the combustion characteristics of diesel engine. There are various design of piston bowl in which each utilize the shape geometry to obtaining the specific required combustion characteristics. This objective of this study is to compare the effect of certain piston bowl shapes, namely Toroidal and Flat Bottom to diesel spray development. Simulation were done using ANSYS FLUENT 16.1 software Computing Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The simulation was performed on different injection pressure of 40 MPa and 100 MPa, with the ambient temperature in the combustion chamber that holding the piston is at 500K and 900K. Results showed that if the pressure and ambient temperature increases, the spray body expand outward from the spray center axis with wider spray cone angle. In addition, the geometry shape of the piston bowl influences the spray velocity distribution and the spray propagation path, indirectly effect the spray area and mass fraction distribution.

  2. Fatigue Analysis of the Piston Rod in a Kaplan Turbine Based on Crack Propagation under Unsteady Hydraulic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Y Luo, Y.; Wang, Z. W.

    2014-03-01

    As an important component of the blade-control system in Kaplan turbines, piston rods are subjected to fluctuating forces transferred by the turbines blades from hydraulic pressure oscillations. Damage due to unsteady hydraulic loads might generate unexpected down time and high repair cost. In one running hydropower plant, the fracture failure of the piston rod was found twice at the same location. With the transient dynamic analysis, the retainer ring structure of the piston rod existed a relative high stress concentration. This predicted position of the stress concentration agreed well with the actual fracture position in the plant. However, the local strain approach was not able to explain why this position broke frequently. Since traditional structural fatigue analyses use a local stress strain approach to assess structural integrity, do not consider the effect of flaws which can significantly degrade structural life. Using linear elastic fracture mechanism (LEFM) approaches that include the effect of flaws is becoming common practice in many industries. In this research, a case involving a small semi-ellipse crack was taken into account at the stress concentration area, crack growth progress was calculated by FEM. The relationship between crack length and remaining life was obtained. The crack propagation path approximately agreed with the actual fracture section. The results showed that presence of the crack had significantly changed the local stress and strain distributions of the piston rod compared with non-flaw assumption.

  3. Stable Operation and Electricity Generating Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Free Piston Engine Linear Generator: Simulation and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel design of a single-cylinder free piston engine linear generator (FPELG incorporating a linear motor as a rebound device. A systematic simulation model of this FPELG system was built containing a kinematic and dynamic model of the piston and mover, a magneto-electric model of the linear generator, a thermodynamic model of the single-cylinder engine, and a friction model between the piston ring and cylinder liner. Simulations were performed to understand the relationships between pre-set motor parameters and the running performance of the FPELG. From the simulation results, it was found that a motor rebound force with a parabolic profile had clear advantages over a force with a triangular profile, such as a higher running frequency and peak cylinder pressure, faster piston motion, etc. The rebound position and the amplitude of rebound force were also determined by simulations. The energy conversion characteristics of the generator were obtained from our FPELG test rig. The parameters of intake pressure, motor frequency, and load resistance were varied over certain ranges, and relationships among these three parameters were obtained. The electricity-generating characteristic parameters include output power and system efficiency, which can measure the quality of matching the controllable parameters. The output power can reach 25.9 W and the system efficiency can reach 13.7%. The results in terms of matching parameters and electricity-generating characteristics should be useful to future research in adapting these engines to various operating modes.

  4. A Study of Vortex Rings from Cylinders with Inclined Exits Using V3V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troolin, Daniel; Longmire, Ellen

    2008-11-01

    Volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V) was used to examine the vortical structures generated by impulsively driven pistons within surrounding cylinders. The piston stroke length L was equal to the cylinder inner diameter of 72.8 mm. The Reynolds number based on piston velocity and L was 2500. The measurement volume was 140mm x 140mm x 100mm, and the spatial resolution was 4mm. While an axisymmetric cylindrical exit yields a primary ring that is largely decoupled from a trailing ring of opposite circulation, inclined exits yield a much more complicated topology. The primary ring exits the cylinder with an initial inclination of approximately half the cylinder exit angle. Then, the primary ring interacts directly with two trailing rings associated with the piston stopping. The downstream portions of the trailing vortices are drawn in through the center of the primary vortex and subsequently stretched as they wind around the core of the primary ring. The upstream portions of the trailing rings intertwine. These interactions lead to earlier breakdown of the primary ring as well as decreases in propagation speed. Movies showing the detailed evolution of these structures will be shown.

  5. CFD Analysis of an Axial Piston Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sushil

    2010-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2009-2010, àmbit d’Enginyeria Industrial En el ámbito de la Oleohidráulica, las bombas de pistón poseen los diseños más sofisticados, de hecho, las bombas de pistones son las únicos capaces de trabajar a altas presiones, además de poseer el mejor rendimiento de todo el grupo de bombas existentes. Sin embargo, cabe señalar que todos los diseños de las bombas de pistón, se basan principalmente en la experiencia de los diseñadores, por lo tanto no existen her...

  6. Lubrication condition between the piston and cylinder for low-speed ranges of swashplate type axial pistons pump and motors. ; Spin of the piston and its influence. Shabanshiki axial piston pump-motor no teisokuji ni okeru piston-cylinder kan junkatsu jotai. ; Piston no jikukaiten oyobi sono eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, F. (Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School); Ikeya, H. (Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-07-15

    In order to decrease the friction and abrasion between the piston and cylinder expecting the performance rise of the pump and motor, it is necessary to grasp the lubrication status exactly while the actual machineries are operating in practical use. In this paper, as to the swashplate type axial piston pumps and motors, the measurement of spinning of piston was tried, and consequently its spinning was clarified, and subsequently the lubrication conditions between the piston and cylinder were observed and evaluated in the form of the free spinning piston motion. And then the influence of piston spinning was considered by comparing it with the measurement results when reciprocating only in the longitudinal direction. In consequence, the followings were found: The piston rotates always during operation, and is affected by the rotation number of swashplate axis N, and moreover while the spinning rate of piston N[sub p]/N increases along with an increase of N up to 10 rpm, it approaches to about 1 when N exceeds 10 rpm; In addition, the optimum radial clearance exists in the motor process, and so forth. 16 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Nuclear-matter radius studies from 58Ni(α ,α ) experiments at the GSI Experimental Storage Ring with the EXL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, J. C.; Aumann, T.; Bagchi, S.; Bönig, S.; Csatlós, M.; Dillmann, I.; Dimopoulou, C.; Egelhof, P.; Eremin, V.; Furuno, T.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartig, A.-L.; Ilieva, S.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kiselev, O.; Kollmus, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kröll, Th.; Kuilman, M.; Litvinov, S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Mutterer, M.; Nagae, D.; Najafi, M. A.; Nociforo, C.; Nolden, F.; Popp, U.; Rigollet, C.; Roy, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; von Schmid, M.; Steck, M.; Streicher, B.; Stuhl, L.; Thürauf, M.; Uesaka, T.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.; Winters, D.; Woods, P. J.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yue, K.; Zenihiro, J.

    2017-09-01

    A novel method for measuring nuclear reactions in inverse kinematics with stored ion beams was successfully used to extract the nuclear-matter radius of 58Ni. The experiment was performed at the experimental heavy-ion storage ring at the GSI facility using a stored 58Ni beam at energies of 100 and 150 MeV/u and an internal helium gas-jet target. Elastically scattered α -recoils at low momentum transfers were measured with an in-ring detector system compatible with ultrahigh vacuum. Experimental angular distributions were fitted using density-dependent optical model potentials within the eikonal approximation. This permitted the extraction of the point-matter root-mean-square radius of 58Ni with an average value of 3.70(7) fm. Results from this work are in good agreement with several experiments performed in the past in normal kinematics. This pioneering experiment demonstrates a major breakthrough towards future investigations with far-from-stability stored beams using the present technique.

  8. Assessing stapes piston position using computed tomography: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Yoav; Diaz, Rodney; Hartman, Jonathan; Bobinski, Matthew; Brodie, Hilary

    2009-02-01

    Temporal bone computed tomographic (CT) scanning in the postoperative stapedotomy patient is inaccurate in assessing stapes piston position within the vestibule. Poststapedotomy patients that have persistent vertigo may undergo CT scanning to assess the position of the stapes piston within the vestibule to rule out overly deep insertion. Vertigo is a recognized complication of the deep piston, and CT evaluation is often recommended. The accuracy of CT scan in this setting is unestablished. Stapedotomy was performed on 12 cadaver ears, and stainless steel McGee pistons were placed. The cadaver heads were then scanned using a fine-cut temporal bone protocol. Temporal bone dissection was performed with microscopic measurement of the piston depth in the vestibule. These values were compared with depth of intravestibular penetration measured on CT scan by 4 independent measurements. The intravestibular penetration as assessed by computed tomography was consistently greater than the value found on cadaveric anatomic dissection. The radiographic bias was greater when piston location within the vestibule was shallower. The axial CT scan measurement was 0.53 mm greater, on average, than the anatomic measurement. On average, the coronal CT measurement was 0.68 mm greater than the anatomic measurement. The degree of overestimation of penetration, however, was highly inconsistent. Standard temporal bone CT scan is neither an accurate nor precise examination of stapes piston depth within the vestibule. We found that CT measurement consistently overstated intravestibular piston depth. Computed tomography is not a useful study in the evaluation of piston depth for poststapedectomy vertigo and is of limited value in this setting.

  9. Investigation of the isochronous mode of the experimental storage ring (ESR) and the collector ring (CR). Decay spectroscopy of highly charged stored {sup 140}Pr ions at the FRS-ESR facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, Sergey A.

    2008-11-15

    The combination of the present fragment separator FRS and the cooler-storage ring ESR at GSI provides conditions for accurate mass and unique half-life measurements of exotic nuclei. A major part of this doctoral work has been devoted to investigations of the isochronous ion-optical operating mode of the present ESR facility and the planned Collector Ring (CR) facility at FAIR. A detailed ion-optical study of the isochronous storage ring with the emphasis on the main parameters has been done. For example, a simple scaling law providing a quantitative estimate for the mass resolving power as a function of the transverse acceptance has been derived. The ion-optical matching of the FRS-ESR has been calculated and experimentally verified for both the standard and the isochronous operating modes of the ESR. In addition, the dispersion function of a stored ion beam has been measured for both ion-optical modes at the straight section. The improved setting for higher transmission in the standard mode has been used in an experiment on the half-life measurements of highly-charged ions. Orbital electron capture (EC) and/or {beta}{sup +}-decay rates of {sup 140}Pr ions with zero-, one- and two- bound electrons have been measured. A complementary future study of EC-decay in highly-charged {sup 64}Cu ions is discussed. Based on the present experience, the ion-optical matching between the future in-flight fragment separator Super-FRS and the CR has been calculated. The isochronous mode of the CR has been calculated. A dedicated Monte-Carlo code (ISOCHRON) has been developed in order to investigate the influence of the transverse acceptance, the closed orbit distortions, the fringe fields of the quadrupoles, the magnetic field imperfections of the magnets on the mass resolving power. The influence of chromaticity on the isochronicity has been investigated. The correction of the chromaticity and of second-order isochronicity has been performed employing sextupole magnets in the

  10. Neptune's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This 591-second exposure of the rings of Neptune were taken with the clear filter by the Voyager 2 wide-angle camera. The two main rings are clearly visible and appear complete over the region imaged. Also visible in this image is the inner faint ring and the faint band which extends smoothly from the ring roughly halfway between the two bright rings. Both of these newly discovered rings are broad and much fainter than the two narrow rings. The bright glare is due to over-exposure of the crescent on Neptune. Numerous bright stars are evident in the background. Both bright rings have material throughout their entire orbit, and are therefore continuous. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  11. Loss terms in free-piston Stirling engine models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.

    1992-01-01

    Various models for free piston Stirling engines are reviewed. Initial models were developed primarily for design purposes and to predict operating parameters, especially efficiency. More recently, however, such models have been used to predict engine stability. Free piston Stirling engines have no kinematic constraints and stability may not only be sensitive to the load, but also to various nonlinear loss and spring constraints. The present understanding is reviewed of various loss mechanisms for free piston Stirling engines and how they have been incorporated into engine models is discussed.

  12. Analisis Pengaruh Bentuk Permukaan Piston Model Kontur Radius Gelombang Sinus Terhadap Kinerja Motor Bensin

    OpenAIRE

    Samsiana, Seta; Sikki, Muhammad Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Secara garis besar motor bensin tersusun oleh beberapa komponen utama meliputi : blok silinder (cylinderblock), kepala silinder (cylinder head), poros engkol (crank shaft), torak (piston), batang piston (connectingrod), roda penerus (fly wheel), poros cam (cam shaft) dan mekanik katup (valve mechanic). Berdasarkandiskripsi dari sistem kerja, karakteristik dan bagian komponen mekanik motor bakar torak (piston), adalahmemungkinkan modifikasi khususnya pada torak (piston) pada motor bakar torak....

  13. Ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rowen, Louis H

    1991-01-01

    This is an abridged edition of the author's previous two-volume work, Ring Theory, which concentrates on essential material for a general ring theory course while ommitting much of the material intended for ring theory specialists. It has been praised by reviewers:**""As a textbook for graduate students, Ring Theory joins the best....The experts will find several attractive and pleasant features in Ring Theory. The most noteworthy is the inclusion, usually in supplements and appendices, of many useful constructions which are hard to locate outside of the original sources....The audience of non

  14. Development of high pressure-high vacuum-high conductance piston valve for gas-filled radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, D. N.; Ayyappan, R.; Kamble, L. P.; Singh, J. P.; Muralikrishna, L. V.; Alex, M.; Balagi, V.; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.

    2008-05-01

    Gas-filled radiation detectors need gas filling at pressures that range from few cms of mercury to as high as 25kg/cm2 at room temperature. Before gas-filling these detectors require evacuation to a vacuum of the order of ~1 × 10-5 mbar. For these operations of evacuation and gas filling a system consisting of a vacuum pump with a high vacuum gauge, gas cylinder with a pressure gauge and a valve is used. The valve has to meet the three requirements of compatibility with high-pressure and high vacuum and high conductance. A piston valve suitable for the evacuation and gas filling of radiation detectors has been designed and fabricated to meet the above requirements. The stainless steel body (80mm×160mm overall dimensions) valve with a piston arrangement has a 1/2 inch inlet/outlet opening, neoprene/viton O-ring at piston face & diameter for sealing and a knob for opening and closing the valve. The piston movement mechanism is designed to have minimum wear of sealing O-rings. The valve has been hydrostatic pressure tested up to 75bars and has Helium leak rate of less than 9.6×10-9 m bar ltr/sec in vacuum mode and 2×10-7 mbar ltr/sec in pressure mode. As compared to a commercial diaphragm valve, which needed 3 hours to evacuate a 7 litre chamber to 2.5×10-5 mbar, the new valve achieved vacuum 7.4×10-6mbar in the same time under the same conditions.

  15. Ensuring Steady Operation of Free-Piston Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nemecek

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Free-Piston Generator (FPG model and its control for achieving steady operation. A FPG is a special type of combustion engine representing a new approach concerning the conversion of the chemical energy of hydrocarbon fuel into electrical energy. Unlike conventional engines, this type of engine does not use a crankshaft, and generates electric energy directly by a linear movement of pistons.

  16. Structural design of Stirling engine with free pistons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusov, Jozef; Gavlas, Stanislav; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    Stirling engine is a device that converts thermal energy to mechanical work, which is mostly used to drive a generator of electricity. Advantage of Stirling engine is that it works with closed-cycle, where working medium is regularly cooled and heated, which acts on the working piston. This engine can be made in three modifications - alpha, beta, gamma. This paper discusses the design of the gamma Stirling engine with free pistons.

  17. The Adiabatic Piston and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosignani, Bruno; Di Porto, Paolo; Conti, Claudio

    2002-11-01

    A detailed analysis of the adiabatic-piston problem reveals peculiar dynamical features that challenge the general belief that isolated systems necessarily reach a static equilibrium state. In particular, the fact that the piston behaves like a perpetuum mobile, i.e., it never stops but keeps wandering, undergoing sizable oscillations, around the position corresponding to maximum entropy, has remarkable implications on the entropy variations of the system and on the validity of the second law when dealing with systems of mesoscopic dimensions.

  18. The adiabatic piston: a perpetuum mobile in the mesoscopic realm

    OpenAIRE

    Crosignani, Bruno; Di Porto, Paolo; Conti, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: A detailed analysis of the adiabatic-piston problem reveals, for a finely-tuned choice of the spatial dimensions of the system, peculiar dynamical features that challenge the statement that an isolated system necessarily reaches a time-independent equilibrium state. In particular, the piston behaves like a perpetuum mobile, i.e., it never comes to a stop but keeps wandering, undergoing sizeable oscillations around the position corresponding to maximum entropy; this has remarkable im...

  19. A Gas Pressure Scale Based on Primary Standard Piston Gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Douglas A; Driver, R Greg; Bowers, Walter J

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has redefined its gas pressure scale, up to 17 MPa, based on two primary standard piston gauges. The primary standard piston gauges are 35.8 mm in diameter and operate from 20 kPa to 1 MPa. Ten secondary standard piston gauges, two each of five series of the Ruska 2465 type, with successively smaller diameters form the scale extending up to 17 MPa. Six of the piston gauges were directly compared to the primary standards to determine their effective area and expanded (k = 2) uncertainty. Two piston gauges operating to 7 MPa were compared to the 1.4 MPa gauges, and two piston gauges operating to 17 MPa were compared to the 7 MPa gauges. Distortion in the 7 MPa piston gauges was determined by comparing those gauges to a DH Instruments PG7601 type piston gauge, whose distortion was calculated using elasticity theory. The relative standard uncertainties achieved by the primary standards range from 3.0 × 10(-6) to 3.2 × 10(-6). The relative standard uncertainty of the secondary standards is as low as 4.2 × 10(-6) at 300 kPa. The effective areas and uncertainties were validated by comparison to standards of other National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). Results show agreement in all cases to better than the expanded (k = 2) uncertainty of the difference between NIST and the other NMIs, and in most cases to better than the standard (k = 1) uncertainty of the difference.

  20. Buoyancy Effects on the Development of the Leading Vortex Ring in a Starting Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugan-Cruz, Carolina; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Martinez-Bazan, Carlos

    2008-11-01

    The initial development of negatively buoyant jets has been investigated experimental and numerically, more specifically the role played by gravity in the development of the leading vortex ring. A classical piston-cylinder arrangement has been used to produce the negatively buoyant jets. Under the experimental conditions considered in this work, the Froude number, Fr, which compares the jet momentum and the buoyancy flux is the most important parameter characterizing the dynamics of the flow. When the value of this parameter is sufficiently small the initial vortex ring generated at the start of the motion is pushed upwards by the gravity force before it can entrain enough vorticity to acquire a self induced velocity. However when the Froude number exceeds a critical value, Frc ˜ 1, the vortex ring can travel downwards and entrainins vorticity from the trailing jet during a longer time. Total and vortex circulation, as well as the trajectory of the leading vortex have been measured to clarify the effect of gravity on the distribution of vorticity during the initial development of negatively buoyant jets.

  1. Radiation resistance of elastomeric O-rings in mixed neutron and gamma fields: Testing methodology and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenoni, A.; Bignotti, F.; Donzella, A.; Donzella, G.; Ferrari, M.; Pandini, S.; Andrighetto, A.; Ballan, M.; Corradetti, S.; Manzolaro, M.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Scarpa, D.; Alloni, D.; Prata, M.; Salvini, A.; Zelaschi, F.

    2017-11-01

    Materials and components employed in the presence of intense neutron and gamma fields are expected to absorb high dose levels that may induce deep modifications of their physical and mechanical properties, possibly causing loss of their function. A protocol for irradiating elastomeric materials in reactor mixed neutron and gamma fields and for testing the evolution of their main mechanical and physical properties with absorbed dose has been developed. Four elastomeric compounds used for vacuum O-rings, one fluoroelastomer polymer (FPM) based and three ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) based, presently available on the market have been selected for the test. One EPDM is rated as radiation resistant in gamma fields, while the other elastomers are general purpose products. Particular care has been devoted to dosimetry calculations, since absorbed dose in neutron fields, unlike pure gamma fields, is strongly dependent on the material composition and, in particular, on the hydrogen content. The products have been tested up to about 2 MGy absorbed dose. The FPM based elastomer, in spite of its lower dose absorption in fast neutron fields, features the largest variations of properties, with a dramatic increase in stiffness and brittleness. Out of the three EPDM based compounds, one shows large and rapid changes in the main mechanical properties, whereas the other two feature more stable behaviors. The performance of the EPDM rated as radiation resistant in pure gamma fields does not appear significantly better than that of the standard product. The predictive capability of the accelerated irradiation tests performed as well as the applicable concepts of threshold of radiation damage is discussed in view of the use of the examined products in the selective production of exotic species facility, now under construction at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. It results that a careful account of dose rate effects

  2. Mechanism of Alkoxy Groups Substitution by Grignard Reagents on Aromatic Rings and Experimental Verification of Theoretical Predictions of Anomalous Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Brockway, Anthony J.; Shaw, Jared T.; Houk, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of direct displacement of alkoxy groups in vinylogous and aromatic esters by Grignard reagents, a reaction that is not observed with expectedly better tosyloxy leaving groups, is elucidated computationally. The mechanism of this reaction has been determined to proceed through the inner-sphere attack of nucleophilic alkyl groups from magnesium to the reacting carbons via a metalaoxetane transition state. The formation of a strong magnesium chelate with the reacting alkoxy and carbonyl groups dictates the observed reactivity and selectivity. The influence of ester, ketone and aldehyde substituents was investigated. In some cases, the calculations predicted the formation of products different than those previously reported; these predictions were then verified experimentally. The importance of studying the actual system, and not simplified models as computational systems, is demonstrated. PMID:23601086

  3. Internal combustion engines. Mechanics, calculation and design of piston engines; Verbrennungsmotoren. Motormechanik, Berechnung und Auslegung des Hubkolbenmotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, E.

    1998-12-31

    The book starts by discussing the main dimenstions of piston engines for passenger cars and industrial vehicles and then proceeds to look into components, i.e. connecting rod, piston, piston rings, crankshafts, cylinder block and crankcase, cylinder head and cylinder head gasket, and valve gear components. Instead of the well-documented field of crankshaft drives, the book contains a section on the relatively new subject area of engine acoustics as illustrated by the cylinder block and crankcase. The book addresses a wide variety of readers and requires no prior theoretical knowledge. Rather than a strictly methodical textbook, it is an information source for practictians and advanced students. [Deutsch] Am Anfang steht eine Auseinandersetzung mit den Hauptabmessungen des Hubkolbenmotors (Pkw- und Nkw-Motoren). Daran schliesst sich die Behandlung der Bauteile Pleuel, Kolben, Kolbenringe, Kurbelwelle, Zylinderkurbelgehaeuse, Zylinderkopf und -dichtung sowie der Baugruppe Ventiltrieb an. Ausfuehrungen zum relativ neuen Fachgebiet Motorakustik, im wesentlichen am Beispiel des Zylinderkurbelgehaeuses, sind hier solchen zur von vielen Seiten umfangreich behandelten Dynamik der Baugruppe Kurbeltrieb vorgezogen worden. Das Buch wendet sich an eine breite Leserschaft. Es setzt keine besonderen theoretischen Vorkenntnisse voraus. Dennoch ist es eher eine Informationsquelle fuer den Berufspraktiker als ein streng methodisch aufbereitetes Lehrbuch. Es eignet sich jedoch gut als ergaenzende Fachliteratur im zweiten Studienabschnitt. (orig.)

  4. On the embryonic cell division beyond the contractile ring mechanism: experimental and computational investigation of effects of vitelline confinement, temperature and egg size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Gladilin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic cell division is a mechanical process which is predominantly driven by contraction of the cleavage furrow and response of the remaining cellular matter. While most previous studies focused on contractile ring mechanisms of cytokinesis, effects of environmental factors such as pericellular vitelline membrane and temperature on the mechanics of dividing cells were rarely studied. Here, we apply a model-based analysis to the time-lapse imaging data of two species (Saccoglossus kowalevskii and Xenopus laevis with relatively large eggs, with the goal of revealing the effects of temperature and vitelline envelope on the mechanics of the first embryonic cell division. We constructed a numerical model of cytokinesis to estimate the effects of vitelline confinement on cellular deformation and to predict deformation of cellular contours. We used the deviations of our computational predictions from experimentally observed cell elongation to adjust variable parameters of the contractile ring model and to quantify the contribution of other factors (constitutive cell properties, spindle polarization that may influence the mechanics and shape of dividing cells. We find that temperature affects the size and rate of dilatation of the vitelline membrane surrounding fertilized eggs and show that in native (not artificially devitellinized egg cells the effects of temperature and vitelline envelope on mechanics of cell division are tightly interlinked. In particular, our results support the view that vitelline membrane fulfills an important role of micromechanical environment around the early embryo the absence or improper function of which under moderately elevated temperature impairs normal development. Furthermore, our findings suggest the existence of scale-dependent mechanisms that contribute to cytokinesis in species with different egg size, and challenge the view of mechanics of embryonic cell division as a scale-independent phenomenon.

  5. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Swash-Plate Axial Piston Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an MDO (multidisciplinary design optimization procedure for a swash-plate axial piston pump based on co-simulation and integrated optimization. The integrated hydraulic-mechanical model of the pump is built to reflect its actual performance, and a hydraulic-mechanical co-simulation is conducted through data exchange between different domains. The flow ripple of the pump is optimized by using a MDO procedure. A CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the pump’s flow field is done, which shows that the hydrodynamic shock of the pump is improved after optimization. To verify the MDO effect, an experimental system is established to test the optimized piston pump. Experimental results show that the simulated and experimental curves are similar. The flow ripple is improved by the MDO procedure. The peak of the pressure curve is lower than before optimization, and the pressure pulsation is reduced by 0.21 MPa, which shows that the pressure pulsation is improved with the decreasing of the flow ripple. Comparing the experimental and simulation results shows that MDO method is effective and feasible in the optimization design of the pump.

  6. Numerical and semiclassical analysis of some generalized Casimir pistons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaden, M.

    2009-05-01

    The Casimir force due to a scalar field in a cylinder of radius r with a spherical cap of radius R>r is computed numerically in the world-line approach. A geometrical subtraction scheme gives the finite interaction energy that determines the Casimir force. The spectral function of convex domains is obtained from a probability measure on convex surfaces that is induced by the Wiener measure on Brownian bridges the convex surfaces are the hulls of. Due to reflection positivity, the vacuum force on the piston by a scalar field satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is attractive in these geometries, but the strength and short-distance behavior of the force depend strongly on the shape of the piston casing. For a cylindrical casing with a hemispherical head, the force on the piston does not depend on the dimension of the casing at small piston elevation a≪R and numerically approaches Fcas(a≪R)=-0.00326(4)ℏc/a2 . Semiclassically this asymptotic force is due to short, closed, and nonperiodic trajectories that reflect just once off the piston near its periphery. A semiclassical estimate reproduces the numerical results for the small-distance behavior of the force within statistical errors, whereas the proximity force approximation is off by one order of magnitude when Rtilde r .

  7. Magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwen, P. W.; Fleming, D. P.; Rao, D. K.; Wilson, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility and efficacy of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery currently being developed for long-term space missions are assessed. The study was performed for a 50-kWe Reference Stirling Space Power Converter (RSSPC) which currently uses hydrostatic gas bearings to support the reciprocating displacer and power piston assemblies. Active magnetic bearings of the attractive electromagnetic type are feasible for the RSSPC power piston. Magnetic support of the displacer assembly would require unacceptable changes to the design of the current RSSPC. However, magnetic suspension of both displacer and power piston is feasible for a relative-displacer version of the RSSPC. Magnetic suspension of the RSSPC power piston can potentially increase overall efficiency by 0.5 to 1 percent (0.1 to 0.3 efficiency points). Magnetic bearings will also overcome several operational concerns associated with hydrostatic gas bearing systems. These advantages, however, are accompanied by a 5 percent increase in specific mass of the RSSPC.

  8. Influence of piston displacement on the scavenging and swirling flow in two-stroke diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeidat, Anas; Haider, Sajjad; Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark

    We study the effect of piston motion on the in-cylinder swirling flow in a low speed, large two-stroke marine diesel engine. The work involves experimental, and numerical simulation using OpenFOAM platform, Large Eddy Simulation was used with three different models, One equation Eddy, Dynamic One......, for the fully opened case LES model with 8/12 million mesh points were used. We find that the flow inside the cylinder changes as the ports are closing, from a Rankine/Burger vortex profile to a solid body rotation while the axial velocity profiles change from a wake-like to a jet-like profile....

  9. SRB O-ring free response analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carleton J.

    1986-01-01

    The free response of viton O-rings were investigated. Two different response mechanisms of viton O-rings are identified and a theoretical representation of the two mechanisms is compared with experimental results for various temperatures.

  10. Effects of Geometrical Clearances, Supports Friction, and Wear Rings on Hydraulic Actuators Bending Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baragetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic actuators are commonly adopted in machines and structures to provide translating forces with significant magnitudes. Although their application dates back to the industrial revolution, their bending behavior under compression is typically addressed by simple Euler’s instability analysis on the rod, neglecting effects such as the cylinder inertia and stiffness, the presence of contact elements in the cylinder-rod junction and on the piston, geometrical misalignments and imperfections, and friction moments at the support. Such simplifications lead to unjustified reduced critical load calculations on the component. In the present paper, a complete mathematical formulation, which accounts for such effects, is presented and validated against experimental data. A numerical sensitivity analysis is conducted, to assess the contributions of initial rectilinear imperfections, wear rings stiffness and dimension, and supports friction on the actuator’s limit buckling load and bending behavior under compression. Results are presented, including the effect of the cited parameters on the buckling load, providing a reliable tool for the mechanical designer. In particular, an optimum position for the wear ring distance is found. Moreover, increased wear ring stiffness and reduced imperfections increase the buckling load and reduce the bending stresses before the critical load.

  11. Vascular ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Mette S; Larsen, Signe H; Hjortdal, Vibeke E

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vascular ring is a rare cause of recurrent respiratory infections, dysphagia and stridor. Surgical repair is considered safe but the long-term outcomes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mortality and morbidity following vascular ring surgery in a single...... age of 1.4 years (range 0.008-64 years) were operated for vascular ring. Median follow-up was 6.8 years (range 2.4-34 years). Presenting symptoms were stridor (52%), dysphagia or vomiting (52%) and recurrent respiratory infections (48%). There were no early or late deaths. Three months postoperatively...

  12. Our experience with the titanium soft clip piston stapedotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P P; Goyal, Arun

    2013-07-01

    The crimping of stapes prosthesis to the long process of incus has always been the bugbear of an otologist. Malcrimping on one hand can lead to necrosis of the long process on the other it can lead to a residual air-bone gap or a postoperative reappearance of the conductive hearing loss. To solve these problems different types of stapes prostheses having different techniques to achieve a secure attachment to incus have been devised. Retrospective analysis of patient data. Tertiary care hospital. Case records of 20 patients of otosclerosis who had undergone stapedotomy using titanium soft clip stapes piston (Kurz, Germany) were retrospectively analysed. This new type of stapes piston is a modification of the earlier àWengen clip piston (Kurz, Germany) which was designed to avoid the crimping onto the incus in stapedotomy. Hearing results were analyzed using American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery guidelines including 4 frequency pure tone average. The mean postoperative air-bone gap was with in 10 dB in 8 (40% of cases), up to 15 dB in another 8 (40%) cases and in rest 4 (20%) was with in 20 dB. No adverse reactions occurred during follow-up. The use of the titanium soft clip stapes piston gives good results in cases of stapedotomy for otosclerosis. The soft clip design is a new development in the evolution of stapes piston prostheses. Surgical introduction, placement, and fixation are easier than the earlier àWengen design of clip piston.

  13. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Fluid entrainment by isolated vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, John O.; Gharib, Morteza

    2004-07-01

    Of particular importance to the development of models for isolated vortex ring dynamics in a real fluid is knowledge of ambient fluid entrainment by the ring. This time-dependent process dictates changes in the volume of fluid that must share impulse delivered by the vortex ring generator. Therefore fluid entrainment is also of immediate significance to the unsteady forces that arise due to the presence of vortex rings in starting flows. Applications ranging from industrial and transportation, to animal locomotion and cardiac flows, are currently being investigated to understand the dynamical role of the observed vortex ring structures. Despite this growing interest, fully empirical measurements of fluid entrainment by isolated vortex rings have remained elusive. The primary difficulties arise in defining the unsteady boundary of the ring, as well as an inability to maintain the vortex ring in the test section sufficiently long to facilitate measurements. We present a new technique for entrainment measurement that utilizes a coaxial counter-flow to retard translation of vortex rings generated from a piston cylinder apparatus, so that their growth due to fluid entrainment can be observed. Instantaneous streamlines of the flow are used to determine the unsteady vortex ring boundary and compute ambient fluid entrainment. Measurements indicate that the entrainment process does not promote self-similar vortex ring growth, but instead consists of a rapid convection-based entrainment phase during ring formation, followed by a slower diffusive mechanism that entrains ambient fluid into the isolated vortex ring. Entrained fluid typically constitutes 30% to 40% of the total volume of fluid carried with the vortex ring. Various counter-flow protocols were used to substantially manipulate the diffusive entrainment process, producing rings with entrained fluid fractions up to 65%. Measurements of vortex ring growth rate and vorticity distribution during diffusive entrainment

  15. Assembly for electrical conductivity measurements in the piston cylinder device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Heather Christine [Dublin, CA; Roberts, Jeffrey James [Livermore, CA

    2012-06-05

    An assembly apparatus for measurement of electrical conductivity or other properties of a sample in a piston cylinder device wherein pressure and heat are applied to the sample by the piston cylinder device. The assembly apparatus includes a body, a first electrode in the body, the first electrode operatively connected to the sample, a first electrical conductor connected to the first electrode, a washer constructed of a hard conducting material, the washer surrounding the first electrical conductor in the body, a second electrode in the body, the second electrode operatively connected to the sample, and a second electrical conductor connected to the second electrode.

  16. Symmetry of the adiabatic condition in the piston problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J M, E-mail: anacleto@utad.pt [Departamento de Fisica, Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    This study addresses a controversial issue in the adiabatic piston problem, namely that of the piston being adiabatic when it is fixed but no longer so when it can move freely. It is shown that this apparent contradiction arises from the usual definition of adiabatic condition. The issue is addressed here by requiring the adiabatic condition to be compatible with the invariance of total entropy under a system-surroundings interchange. This paper also strengthens some recently published ideas concerning the concepts of heat and dissipative work, and is primarily intended for teachers and graduate students, as well as for all who are interested in this fascinating problem.

  17. The adiabatic piston: a perpetuum mobile in the mesoscopic realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosignani, Bruno; Porto, Paolo; Conti, Claudio

    2004-03-01

    A detailed analysis of the adiabatic-piston problem reveals, for a finely-tuned choice of the spatial dimensions of the system, peculiar dynamical features that challenge the statement that an isolated system necessarily reaches a time-independent equilibrium state. In particular, the piston behaves like a perpetuum mobile, i.e., it never comes to a stop but keeps wandering, undergoing sizeable oscillations around the position corresponding to maximum entropy; this has remarkable implications on the entropy changes of a mesoscopic isolated system and on the limits of validity of the second law of thermodynamics in the mesoscopic realm.

  18. The adiabatic piston: a perpetuum mobile in the mesoscopic realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Conti

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A detailed analysis of the adiabatic-piston problem reveals, for a finely-tuned choice of the spatial dimensions of the system, peculiar dynamical features that challenge the statement that an isolated system necessarily reaches a time-independent equilibrium state. In particular, the piston behaves like a perpetuum mobile, i.e., it never comes to a stop but keeps wandering, undergoing sizeable oscillations around the position corresponding to maximum entropy; this has remarkable implications on the entropy changes of a mesoscopic isolated system and on the limits of validity of the second law of thermodynamics in the mesoscopic realm.

  19. Determinantal rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bruns, Winfried

    1988-01-01

    Determinantal rings and varieties have been a central topic of commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. Their study has attracted many prominent researchers and has motivated the creation of theories which may now be considered part of general commutative ring theory. The book gives a first coherent treatment of the structure of determinantal rings. The main approach is via the theory of algebras with straightening law. This approach suggest (and is simplified by) the simultaneous treatment of the Schubert subvarieties of Grassmannian. Other methods have not been neglected, however. Principal radical systems are discussed in detail, and one section is devoted to each of invariant and representation theory. While the book is primarily a research monograph, it serves also as a reference source and the reader requires only the basics of commutative algebra together with some supplementary material found in the appendix. The text may be useful for seminars following a course in commutative ring theory since a ...

  20. Control of ring lasers by means of coupled cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Abitan, Haim; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Variable phase coupling to an external ring is used to control a unidirectional ring laser. The observed behavior of the coupled rings is explained theoretically. We have found experimentally that by quickly changing the phase of the feedback from the external ring it is possible to Q......-switch the ring laser. Also, at certain values of the phase of the feedback in the external ring, instabilities in the total system occur and oscillations arise in the ring laser....

  1. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  2. Online prediction of the piston maximum temperature in dual-fuel engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Youyao; Xiao, Bing

    2017-01-01

    .... The piston maximum temperature of dual-fuel engine easily exceeds the security border. Toward this, this article presents a relational model to real-timely predict the piston maximum temperature of dual-fuel engine...

  3. Design Analysis and Optimization of Internal Combustion Engine Piston using CAE tool ANSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Kumar Gupta; Vinay Kumar Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    In the internal combustion engine there are many reciprocating parts which are responsible for giving the motion to the engine. from them the piston is very important part of the internal combustion engine.. The working condition of the piston is so worst in comparison of other parts of the internal combustion engine. There is very high probability to failure of the piston due to high wear and tear. So there is necessary to inspection the working condition of piston. In before the...

  4. Closing the innovation cycle in lightweighting compressor pistons technolog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, C.; Eijk, A.; Groenewegen, G.; Bergsma, O.

    2016-01-01

    What started out as an exercise in exploring the weight reduction potential of those allegedly “heavy recip crossheads”, turned out to be a fast leap towards implementation of a new hybrid material concept for very lightweight pistons. This was enabled by a next phase in the EFRC R&D group research

  5. Closing the innovation cycle in lightweighting compressor pistons technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, C.M.; Eijk, A.; Groenewegen, G.; Bergsma, O.K.

    2016-01-01

    What started out as an exercise in exploring the weight reduction potential of those allegedly “heavy recip crossheads”, turned out to be a fast leap towards implementation of a new hybrid material concept for very lightweight pistons. This was enabled by a next phase in the EFRC R&D group

  6. Numerical vs. Semiclassical Evaluation of Casimir Forces in Piston Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaden, Martin; Mateescu, Liviu

    2008-05-01

    Using a modified wordline approach[1] for a massless scalar field satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions, we numerically obtain the Casimir force on a piston in a cylindrical cavity with a cylinder head of different radius. There are no contributions from arbitrarily short paths and the Casimir force on the piston is finite for all systems considered. Our algorithm for Casimir forces in closed concave geometries is numerically stable, fast and accurate. For a hemispherical cylinder head, we analytically and numerically obtain an attractive contribution to the Casimir force that is inversely proportional to the elevation of the piston and does not depend on the radius of the cylinder. This attractive contribution to the Casimir energy cannot be distinguished from one due to the presence of a charge. It is of higher semiclassical order and was not observed in the leading description by periodic orbits [2]. By changing the radius of the cylinder head compared to that of the cylinder, we numerically verify the semiclassical estimate [2] that the Casimir force on the piston is drastically reduced by a hemispherical cylinder head. We also present preliminary numerical studies for a massless scalar field satisfying Neumann boundary conditions. [1] H. Gies, K. Langfeld and L. Moyaerts, JHEP 0306, 018 (2003); H. Gies and K. Klingmuller, Phys. Rev. D74, 045002 (2006). [2] L Mateescu and M. Schaden, [quant-ph/0705.3435].

  7. Optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The piston models were meshed using tetrahedral mesh of base size 0.001m. The boundary and physics conditions were applied to simulate the actual intake stroke process for normal operating conditions and initial conditions. The extracted results were validate and comparisons developed to analyze the various ...

  8. On the design of lubricant free piston compressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owczarek, P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the development on long lifetime and an efficient piston compressor operating in a clean environment where oil lubrication must be excluded. Particularly in cooling systems including cryocoolers the presence of oil is a well known problem. A growing number of applications of

  9. Influence of Pressure Build-Up Time of Compression Chamber on Improving the Operation Frequency of a Single-Piston Hydraulic Free-Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-bo Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-piston hydraulic free-piston engine with a two-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine as its driver is introduced. It takes the free-piston assembly a certain time to move after the pressure in the compression chamber starts to increase. The time difference between the pressure increasing and the piston starting to move is defined as the pressure build-up time. The characteristics of the pressure build-up time and its influence on the performance of the free-piston engine are introduced and analyzed. Based on the basic law of dynamics of the free-piston assembly, the parameters which influence the pressure build-up time are analyzed. And then improvement and optimization are proposed to shorten the pressure build-up time.

  10. Topological rings

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1993-01-01

    This text brings the reader to the frontiers of current research in topological rings. The exercises illustrate many results and theorems while a comprehensive bibliography is also included. The book is aimed at those readers acquainted with some very basic point-set topology and algebra, as normally presented in semester courses at the beginning graduate level or even at the advanced undergraduate level. Familiarity with Hausdorff, metric, compact and locally compact spaces and basic properties of continuous functions, also with groups, rings, fields, vector spaces and modules, and with Zorn''s Lemma, is also expected.

  11. THERMODYNAMIC MODELLING OF A PISTONS ENGINE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... principal mechanisms of formation of the various pollutants are of thermal nature, it was necessary to ... unburnt residues, progressive combustion, the heat transfer and propagation of flame in the study of the ... An experimental research into the use of LPG in spark-ignition outboard engines is presented.

  12. Ring interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malykin, Grigorii B; Zhurov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the creation of a comprehensive formalism for quantitative description of polarized modes' linear interaction in modern single-mode optic fibers. The theory of random connections between polarized modes, developed in the monograph, allows calculations of the zero shift deviations for a fiber ring interferometer. The monograph addresses also the

  13. Piston surface heat transfer during combustion in large marine diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore

    2010-01-01

    In the design process of large marine diesel engines information on the maximum heat load on the piston surface experienced during the engine cycle is an important parameter. The peak heat load occurs during combustion when hot combustion products impinge on the piston surface. Although the maximum...... heat load is only present for a short time of the total engine cycle, it is a severe thermal load on the piston surface. At the same time, cooling of the piston crown is generally more complicated than cooling of the other components of the combustion chamber. This can occasionally cause problems...... with burning off piston surface material. In this work the peak heat load on the piston surface of large marine diesel engines during combustion was investigated. Measurements of the instantaneous surface temperature and surface heat flux on pistons in large marine engines are difficult due to expensive...

  14. Drinking waters interlaboratory ring test. Part 1. Scope, procedure and criteria of experimental data treatment; Circuito Interlaboratorio sulle acque potabili Unichim. Parte 1. Obiettivi, modalita' di svolgimento e criteri di elaborazione dei dati sperimentali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaterra, E.; Divo, C.; Bottazzini, N. [Unichim Milan, Milan (Italy); Alava, F. [Ambiente e Servizi, Bergamo (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Electric Power Production Company, Piacenza (Italy); Bonfiglioli, F. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Aqua, Genoa (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    In this first paper the aims of the project, the procedures of an interlaboratory ring test and the criteria of statistical treatment of data obtained from analytical determinations of some chemical parameters relevant to the assessment of potability of drinking waters are reported. Experimental results of specific parameters relevant to the assessment of potability of drinking waters are reported. Experimental results of specific parameters and precision and accuracy of pertinent analytical methods obtained in a number of cycles of interlaboratory ring test will be reported in subsequent papers. [Italian] In questo primo lavoro vengono riportati gli obiettivi e descritte le modalita' di svolgimento di un circuito interlaboratorio e i criteri di elaborazione statistica dei dati ottenuti in relazione alla determinazione analitica di specifiche caratteristiche di acque destinate al consumo umano ai fini dell'accertamento della loro potabilita'. I risultati e le esperienze conseguite nei vari cicli del circuito interlaboratorio saranno oggetto di successive specifiche pubblicazioni.

  15. Rheology modification with ring polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassopoulos, Dimitris

    It is now established that experimental unconcatenated ring polymers can be purified effectively by means of fractionation at the critical condition. For molecular weights well above the entanglement threshold, purified rings relax stress via power-law (with an exponent of about -0.4), sharply departing from their linear counterparts. Experimental results are in harmony with modeling predictions and simulations. Here, we present results from recent interdisciplinary efforts and discuss two challenges: (i) the nonlinear shear rheology of purified ring melts is also very different from that of unlinked chains. Whereas the latter exhibit features that can be explained, to a first approach, in the framework in the tube model, the former behave akin to unentangled chains with finite extensibility and exhibit much small deformation at steady state. (ii) blends of rings and linear polymers exhibit unique features in different regimes: The addition of minute amounts of linear chains drastically affects ring dynamics. This relates to ring purity and the ability of unlinked linear chains to thread rings. With the help of simulations, it is possible to rationalize the observed surprisingly slow viscoelastic relaxation, which is attributed to ring-linear and ring-ring penetrations. On the other hand, adding small amounts of rings to linear polymers of different molecular weights influences their linear and nonlinear rheology in an unprecedented way. The blend viscosity exceeds that of the slower component (linear) in this non-interacting mixture, and its dependencies on composition and molecular weight ratio are examined, whereas the role of molecular architecture is also addressed. Consequently, closing the ends of a linear chain can serve as a powerful means for molecular manipulation of its rheology. This presentation reflects collaborative efforts with S. Costanzo, Z-C. Yan, R. Pasquino, M. Kaliva, S. Kamble, Y. Jeong, P. Lutz, J. Allgaier, T. Chang, D. Talikis, V

  16. Comparison of Heavy-Duty Scuffing Behavior between Chromium-Based Ceramic Composite and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Coated Ring Sliding against Cast Iron Liner under Starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Yu, Baihong; Lv, Yutao; Li, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A running-in and starved lubrication experiment is designed to investigate the heavy-duty scuffing behavior of piston ring coatings against cast iron (Fe) cylinder liner using the piston ring reciprocating liner test rig. The scuffing resistance of the piston ring with the chromium-based ceramic composite coating (CKS), and that with the thermally sprayed nickel-chromium-molybdenum coating (NCM) is compared at different nominal pressures (40~100 MPa) and temperatures (180~250 °C). With the failure time as a criterion, the rank order is as follows: NCM/Fe > CKS/Fe. Before the scoring occurs at the interface of the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL), the cast iron liner enters into a “polish wear” stage, and iron-based adhesive materials begin to form on the piston ring surface. With the macroscopic adhesion formation, the plastic shearing cycle causes surface damages mainly due to abrasive effects for the CKS/Fe pairs and adhesive effects for the NCM/Fe pairs. PMID:29036911

  17. Comparison of Heavy-Duty Scuffing Behavior between Chromium-Based Ceramic Composite and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Coated Ring Sliding against Cast Iron Liner under Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A running-in and starved lubrication experiment is designed to investigate the heavy-duty scuffing behavior of piston ring coatings against cast iron (Fe cylinder liner using the piston ring reciprocating liner test rig. The scuffing resistance of the piston ring with the chromium-based ceramic composite coating (CKS, and that with the thermally sprayed nickel-chromium-molybdenum coating (NCM is compared at different nominal pressures (40~100 MPa and temperatures (180~250 °C. With the failure time as a criterion, the rank order is as follows: NCM/Fe > CKS/Fe. Before the scoring occurs at the interface of the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL, the cast iron liner enters into a “polish wear” stage, and iron-based adhesive materials begin to form on the piston ring surface. With the macroscopic adhesion formation, the plastic shearing cycle causes surface damages mainly due to abrasive effects for the CKS/Fe pairs and adhesive effects for the NCM/Fe pairs.

  18. Critical needs for piston engine overhaul centre in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, M. H.; Yahya, M. Y.; Johari, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Piston engine overhaul centre (PEOC) is the branch of aviation Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) providers, which plays a pivotal role in maintaining the fleet of business and commercial aircraft in the world. The centre typically offers three main MRO capabilities: airframe, engine and component services. Companies holding a PEOC(s) are all subjected to stringent procedures and conditions regulated and audited by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Currently, piston engine maintenance and repair for Asian countries is conducted only in Singapore. The focus of this study is to establish the needs for a PEOC in Malaysia, which will cater almost all small local aircraft companies such as transport and flying school companies.

  19. Externally heated valve engine a new approach to piston engines

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierski, Zbyszko

    2016-01-01

    This book reports on a novel approach for generating mechanical energy from different, external heat sources using the body of a typical piston engine with valves. By presenting simple yet effective numerical models, the authors show how this new approach, which combines existing internal combustion technology with a lubrication system, is able to offer an economic solution to the problem of mechanical energy generation in piston engines. Their results also show that a stable heat generation process can be guaranteed outside of the engine. The book offers a detailed report on physical and numerical models of 4-stroke and 2-stroke versions of the EHVE together with different models of heat exchange, valves and results of their simulations. It also delivers the test results of an engine prototype run in laboratory conditions. By presenting a novel theoretical framework and providing readers with extensive knowledge of both the advantages and challenges of the method, this book is expected to inspire academic re...

  20. Nonstationary heat flow in the piston of the turbocharged engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr GUSTOF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the numeric computations of nonstationary heat flow in form of temperature distribution on characteristic surfaces of the piston of the turbocharged engine at the beginning phase its work was presented. The computations were performed for fragmentary load engine by means of the two-zone combustion model, the boundary conditions of III kind and the finite elements method (FEM by using of COSMOS/M program.

  1. Experimental characterization of elastomeric O-rings as reusable seals for mass spectrometric measurements: Application to in situ K-Ar dating on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yuichiro; Kameda, Shingo; Okuno, Mamoru; Horiuchi, Misa; Shibasaki, Kazuo; Wagatsuma, Ryo; Aida, Yusuke; Miura, Yayoi N.; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Okazaki, Ryuji; Sugita, Seiji

    2017-10-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely used in lander missions to characterize the volatiles in rocks and soils on planetary surfaces. A good vacuum seal is very important for introducing such solid samples to a vacuum chamber and ejecting them. However, multiple measurements require many metal gaskets, leading to extra weight and complexity for the instruments. In this study, we investigate the capability of three kinds of elastomeric O-rings (Viton, Nexus-SLT, and Nexus-FV) as vacuum seals for mass spectrometric measurements, particularly for in situ K-Ar dating on Mars. First, thermal cycle tests revealed that low-temperature-resistant O-rings can maintain pressure rocks. The measured amounts were rock with 5000 ppm K2O and an age of 4.2 Ga would yield. These results suggest that a Viton O-ring can maintain the Ar blank low under the Mars atmospheric pressure when temperatures are higher than -25 °C. A double O-ring seal using the low-temperature-resistant elastomers would be an alternative approach at lower temperatures. The elastomeric O-rings would be useful for constructing a small and light-weighted mass spectrometric instrument for in situ K-Ar dating on Mars.

  2. RING SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ); 0 “C1211; 30.13 ('BuP. o. J,.,_. = 12.2 1-11). @500 (OCH._,, dq,. J“. = 34.6. JR. = 15.8 H2). 124.39 (CF3. dq, JPF = 269.0, JR. = 9.7 Hz). 35.63 (PC. cl. .... The compound was prepared using the same technique from the boron ring [31 [2 g.

  3. Maximum Work of Free-Piston Stirling Engine Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Shinji

    2017-04-01

    Using the method of adjoint equations described in Ref. [1], we have calculated the maximum thermal efficiencies that are theoretically attainable by free-piston Stirling and Carnot engine generators by considering the work loss due to friction and Joule heat. The net work done by the Carnot cycle is negative even when the duration of heat addition is optimized to give the maximum amount of heat addition, which is the same situation for the Brayton cycle described in our previous paper. For the Stirling cycle, the net work done is positive, and the thermal efficiency is greater than that of the Otto cycle described in our previous paper by a factor of about 2.7-1.4 for compression ratios of 5-30. The Stirling cycle is much better than the Otto, Brayton, and Carnot cycles. We have found that the optimized piston trajectories of the isothermal, isobaric, and adiabatic processes are the same when the compression ratio and the maximum volume of the same working fluid of the three processes are the same, which has facilitated the present analysis because the optimized piston trajectories of the Carnot and Stirling cycles are the same as those of the Brayton and Otto cycles, respectively.

  4. Opposed piston linear compressor driven two-stage Stirling Cryocooler for cooling of IR sensors in space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojwani, Virendra; Inamdar, Asif; Lele, Mandar; Tendolkar, Mandar; Atrey, Milind; Bapat, Shridhar; Narayankhedkar, Kisan

    2017-04-01

    A two-stage Stirling Cryocooler has been developed and tested for cooling IR sensors in space application. The concept uses an opposed piston linear compressor to drive the two-stage Stirling expander. The configuration used a moving coil linear motor for the compressor as well as for the expander unit. Electrical phase difference of 80 degrees was maintained between the voltage waveforms supplied to the compressor motor and expander motor. The piston and displacer surface were coated with Rulon an anti-friction material to ensure oil less operation of the unit. The present article discusses analysis results, features of the cryocooler and experimental tests conducted on the developed unit. The two-stages of Cryo-cylinder and the expander units were manufactured from a single piece to ensure precise alignment between the two-stages. Flexure bearings were used to suspend the piston and displacer about its mean position. The objective of the work was to develop a two-stage Stirling cryocooler with 2 W at 120 K and 0.5 W at 60 K cooling capacity for the two-stages and input power of less than 120 W. The Cryocooler achieved a minimum temperature of 40.7 K at stage 2.

  5. On the Influence of Piston and Cylinder Density in Tribodynamics of a Radial Piston Digital Fluid Power Displacement Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.

    2015-01-01

    In the past three decades an increasing amount of research has been performed in the field of tribodynamics of fluid power pumps and motors. The main incentives for this research are optimization of reliability and eciency through the study of loss and wear mechanisms. These mechanisms are very......, such that solid body inertia is neglected. The other approach includes the inertia terms in the calculation of microdynamics. The inclusion of inertia terms entails a need for smaller time steps in comparison to the force balance approach, wherefore it is of interest to analyze the influence of the inertia term....... In this paper the influence of the inertia term on the lubrication gaps of a radial piston motor are studied by a parametric analysis of the piston and cylinder density in a multibody tribodynamic simulation model. The motor is modeled as a digital fluid power displacement machine and a series of full...

  6. The significance of vortex ring formation to the impulse and thrust of a starting jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Paul S.; Gharib, M.

    2003-05-01

    The recent work of Gharib, Rambod, and Shariff [J. Fluid Mech. 360, 121 (1998)] studied vortex rings formed by starting jets generated using a piston-cylinder mechanism. Their results showed that vortex rings generated from starting jets stop forming and pinch off from the generating jet for sufficiently large values of the piston stroke to diameter ratio (L/D), suggesting a maximization principle may exist for propulsion utilizing starting jets. The importance of vortex ring formation and pinch off to propulsion, however, rests on the relative contribution of the leading vortex ring and the trailing jet (which appears after pinch off) to the impulse supplied to the flow. To resolve the relative importance of the vortex ring and trailing jet for propulsion, a piston-cylinder mechanism attached to a force balance is used to investigate the impulse and thrust generated by starting jets for L/D ratios in the range 2-8. Two different velocity programs are used, providing two different L/D values beyond which pinch off is observed, in order to determine the effect of vortex ring pinch off. Measurements of the impulse associated with vortex ring formation show it to be much larger than that expected from the jet velocity alone and proportionally larger than that associated with a trailing jet for L/D large enough to observe pinch off. The latter result leads to a local maximum in the average thrust during a pulse near L/D values associated with vortex rings whose circulation has been maximized. These results are shown to be related to the nozzle exit over-pressure generated during vortex ring formation. The over-pressure is in turn shown to be associated with the acceleration of ambient fluid by vortex ring formation in the form of added and entrained mass.

  7. Linear and Angular Deviations of Implants Placed in Experimental Casts with Stereolithographic Drill Guides Fixed by O'ring Ortho Implant Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Novellino,Marcelo Michele; Sesma,Newton; Lagana,Dalva Cruz; Ferrari, Glais

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the introduction of a device, resulting from the combination of an o'ring attachment with an orthodontic implant (o'ring ortho implant, O'ROI), to affix the surgical template of CAD/CAM-guided implant surgery contribute to minimizing the deviations in the position and inclination of implants at the time of their placement. Ten models simulating bone tissue were fabricated and randomly divided into 2 groups: 5 with the scanning and surgical templat...

  8. Relinkable Ring Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koutarou; Hoshino, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Tetsutaro

    In this paper, we propose the concept of a relinkable ring signature, which is a ring signature with ring reformation function, i.e., a signer can delegate ring reformation ability separately from signing ability to his/her proxy. The relinkable ring signature can be applicable to proxy ring reformation, anonymization of past-generated signature, or ring signature for dynamic group. We also propose a concrete relinkable ring signature scheme that uses pairing in the random oracle model.

  9. The Effect of Piston-Head Temperature on Knock-Limited Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imming, Harry S.

    1944-01-01

    To determine the effect of piston-head temperature on knock-limited power. Tests were made in a supercharged CFR engine over a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.055 to 0.120, using S-3 reference fuel, AN-F-28, Amendment-2, aviation gasoline, and AN-F-28 plus 2 percent xylidines by weight. Tests were run at a compression ratio of 7.0 with inlet-air temperatures of 150 F and 250 F and at a compression ratio of 8.0 with an inlet-air temperature of 250 F. All other engine conditions were held constant. The piston-head temperature was varied by circulation of oil through passages in the crown of a liquid-cooled piston. This method of piston cooling decreased the piston-head temperature about 80 F. The data are not intended to constitute a recommendation as to the advisability of piston cooling in practice.

  10. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation

  11. Fundamental Investigation of Jet Fuel Spray and Ignition Process in an Optically Accessible Piston Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-16

    cylinder head and piston were used for the current work. Schematic cross sections of the engine components used in the experiments are shown in...0533 Ignition Process in an Optically Accessible Piston Engine Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 611102 6. AUTHORS Sd. PROJECT NUMBER...Process in an Optically Accessible Piston Engine Report Title Effects of transient rate-of-injection (ROI) fuel sprays on jet development and

  12. Modernizing the Opposed-Piston Engine for More Efficient Military Ground Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    cylinder design maintains turbocharger energy while eliminating negative cross-charging effects 1,2,3 Combustion System...applications as well. DESIGN ATTRIBUTES Several design attributes of the Achates Power opposed- piston, two-stroke engine optimize its...transfer benefits of the opposed-piston design are even greater. Also, the stroke is split between two pistons, enabling high stroke/bore ratios

  13. Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbeznik, Raymond M.; White, Maurice A.; Penswick, L. B.; Neely, Ronald E.; Ritter, Darren C.; Wallace, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology alternatives considered are gas bearings vs flexure bearings, stationary magnet linear alternator vs moving magnetic linear alternator, and seven different control options. Component designs are generated using available in-house procedures to meet the requirements of the free-piston Stirling convertor configurations.

  14. Single-staged implant placement using bone ring technique with and without membrane placement: An experimental study in the Beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Nakahara, Ken; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Igarashi, Kensuke; Schaller, Benoit; Saulacic, Nikola

    2017-12-12

    To evaluate the impact of a collagen membrane on bone remodeling and osseointegration of implants placed simultaneously with a bone ring technique. Standardized, vertical alveolar bone defects in the mandibles of six dogs were created. Tapered dental implants designed for two-stage subcrestal placement were inserted simultaneously with a bone ring technique. On one side of the mandible, the augmented sites were covered with a collagenous membrane. Implants with (M Group) and without membranes (NM Group) were left for an osseointegration period of 3 and 6 months, respectively. Block biopsies of the implants with surrounding bone were harvested and analyzed histologically. Implant exposure was a common finding (2/3) concomitantly with loss of healing caps. It appeared to be related to advanced bone loss around the implants. Exposure of implants was more frequent in M Group, however, without significant differences when compared to NM Group. The total bone area within the region of the bone ring was greater in the NM Group compared to the M Group. Moreover, in the region of the pristine bone of the M Group, the total bone was greater than at the corresponding NM Group sites at both observation periods. A nonparametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant effects of membrane placement or healing period on the total area of the bone. The total bone-to-implant contact (BIC) for the two groups was similar at each observation time point. However, BIC increased significantly at 6-month compared with 3-month observation period (p = .0088) in both groups. In vertical bone augmentation applying the bone ring technique, the disruption of soft tissue was a frequent complication. Membrane placement yielded no significant advantage on the osseointegration (BIC) of implants or bone characteristics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Heat Analysis of Liquid piston Compressor for Hydrogen Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    is developed based on the mass and energy balance of the hydrogen, liquid and the wall of the compression chamber at each time step and positional node with various compression ratios to calculate the temperature distribution of the system. The amount of heat extracted from hydrogen, directly at the interface......A new hydrogen compression technology using liquid as the compression piston is investigated from heat transfer point of view. A thermodynamic model, simulating a single compression stroke, is developed to investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the compression chamber. The model...

  16. Piston cylinder cell for high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepa, M. W., E-mail: mkepa@staffmail.ed.ac.uk; Huxley, A. D. [SUPA, Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Ridley, C. J.; Kamenev, K. V. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Ultrasonic techniques such as pulse echo, vibrating reed, or resonant ultrasound spectroscopy are powerful probes not only for studying elasticity but also for investigating electronic and magnetic properties. Here, we report on the design of a high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo apparatus, based on a piston cylinder cell, with a simplified electronic setup that operates with a single coaxial cable and requires sample lengths of mm only. The design allows simultaneous measurements of ultrasonic velocities and attenuation coefficients up to a pressure of 1.5 GPa. We illustrate the performance of the cell by probing the phase diagram of a single crystal of the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe{sub 2}.

  17. β Style Free-Piston Stirling Engine Control System Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE control system, a three -phase bridge circuit is reused as the system output about rectifier and start inverter. When FPSE system is in the power stage, the double closed loop control strategy and optimization algorithm of PI control parameters is adopted to ensure the highest system transmission efficiency under the requirements of the system output power and guarantee the stability of the running system. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of the above research content.

  18. Design and analysis of linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Man Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the design and analysis of a linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine (FPSE systems. In order to implement the design of linear oscillatory generator (LOG for suitable FPSEs, we conducted electromagnetic analysis of LOGs with varying design parameters. Then, detent force analysis was conducted using assisted PM. Using the assisted PM gave us the advantage of using mechanical strength by detent force. To improve the efficiency, we conducted characteristic analysis of eddy-current loss with respect to the PM segment. Finally, the experimental result was analyzed to confirm the prediction of the FEA.

  19. Design and analysis of linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Man; Choi, Jang-Young; Lee, Kyu-Seok; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on the design and analysis of a linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine (FPSE) systems. In order to implement the design of linear oscillatory generator (LOG) for suitable FPSEs, we conducted electromagnetic analysis of LOGs with varying design parameters. Then, detent force analysis was conducted using assisted PM. Using the assisted PM gave us the advantage of using mechanical strength by detent force. To improve the efficiency, we conducted characteristic analysis of eddy-current loss with respect to the PM segment. Finally, the experimental result was analyzed to confirm the prediction of the FEA.

  20. Energy-state formulation of lumped volume dynamic equations with application to a simplified free piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Lumped volume dynamic equations are derived using an energy-state formulation. This technique requires that kinetic and potential energy state functions be written for the physical system being investigated. To account for losses in the system, a Rayleigh dissipation function is also formed. Using these functions, a Lagrangian is formed and using Lagrange's equation, the equations of motion for the system are derived. The results of the application of this technique to a lumped volume are used to derive a model for the free-piston Stirling engine. The model was simplified and programmed on an analog computer. Results are given comparing the model response with experimental data.

  1. Elastohydrostatic lubrication of piston balls and slipper bearings in swashplate type axial piston motors. 1st report. ; Theoretical analysis. Shabanshiki axial piston motor nai no piston kyubuter dot slipper jikuukebu no dansei seiatsu junkatsu. 1. ; Riron kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, S.; Ikeya, M. (The Technological Univ. of Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan))

    1990-09-15

    Following the recent requirement of heightening in power density of hydraulic machinery, heightening is strongly required in pressure also of swashplate type axial piston motor. Therefore in the material analysis, it has become impossible to conventionally regard each part as a rigid body, which necessitates the elastic deformation to be taken into consideration. In the present report, analysis was made by a finite element method, in order to make both the problems of elasticity and lubrication compatible of both the piston ball and hydrostatic slipper bearing, and elucidate the stress distribution, deformation and lubrication status (oily film thickness and leakage quantity). As a result of that analysis on several assumptions, among others, that the swashplate be zero in angle, that the slipper float on the oily film and that the slipper bearing be regarded as an elastic body, it was known, among others, that stress concentration is generated in the lowest part of contact face and its equivalent stress is high in the vicinity of capillary part of slipper bearing, and that, in the thick pad region, the deformed seal land is shaped slightly concave, if seen from inside the slipper, and the oily film is however thinned. 8 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Hardened plungers and piston rods for high-pressure compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-07-07

    This report was a summary of information on dimensions, materials, and operating conditions, as well as experience in the use of piston rods and plungers at Gelsenkirchen. The surface hardening of these parts and their resulting life and wear were of prime importance. Nitriding hardening was one of the best processes for the production of wearproof surfaces. Case hardening and autogeneous hardening had been found satisfactory. Heat hardening had been found to be a cheap process in many applications. Surfaces could be obtained by hard chrome plating which would have the same or higher wear resistance as nitriding and excel in the depth of hardness. However, the heat hardening alone produced hard layers which had sufficiently good properties for plungers and piston rods of the booster compressors, gas-circulation pumps, paste presses, compressors and possibly pressure-release machines. This plant possessed a hardening installation which offered the advantage of production of most of the required equipment right at the works. This was particularly important if a grinding machine was available. This arrangement had to be supplemented with a shaft furnace in which parts could be heated to remove stresses before and after machining. 5 tables.

  3. Carotenoid-based bill and eye ring coloration as honest signals of condition: an experimental test in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Viñuela, Javier

    2008-09-01

    Carotenoid pigments cannot be synthesized by vertebrates but must be ingested through the diet. As they seem to be a limited resource, carotenoid-based ornaments are particularly interesting as possible honest signals of individual quality, in particular of foraging efficiency and nutritional status. Some studies have demonstrated the condition dependence of carotenoid-based plumage in birds. However, many other carotenoid-pigmented bare parts (i.e. skin, caruncles, bills, cere, and tarsi) are present in birds but, in comparison with plumage, little is known about these traits as indicators of individual quality. Here, we show that the eye ring pigmentation and bill redness of the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) are positively associated to body condition and recent changes in body mass. Also, we found a negative relationship between these two traits and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, an indicator of physiological stress (the relationship with bill redness being significant only for males). In an experiment, we found that after a period of reduction in food intake (with the consequent loss of body mass), food-restricted birds showed lower eye ring pigmentation than ad-libitum-fed birds. Therefore, different ornaments seem to reflect changes in body condition but at different speeds or intensities (eye ring, a fleshy ornament, appears to respond more rapidly to changes in the nutritional status than a keratinized structure as the bill). These results indicate that carotenoid-based ornaments are condition-dependent traits in the red-legged partridge, being therefore susceptible to be employed as honest signals of quality in sexual selection.

  4. Interaction of Vortex Rings and Steady Jets with Multiple Permeable Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta, Mustafa N.; Krueger, Paul S.

    2010-11-01

    DPIV measurements of the interaction of a vortex ring impinging on a rudimentary porous medium formed from several parallel, transparent permeable screens was made previously for screens with 49.5%, 58.95, and 84% open area ratio (φ) and jet Reynolds number (Re) in the range 1000-2000. The results indicated the vortex ring split into smaller vortical structures after its interaction with the first screen. For the φ =84% screens the flow formed jets which reorganized into a transmitted like vortex ring which was not observed for lower φ. The present work seeks to provide a more detailed investigation of the flow through the matrix of screens using DPIV. Measurements were made for vortex rings and steady jets interacting with screens with variable spacing and open area ratios of 49.5%-84%. The vortex rings were generated with a piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios and Re in the ranges 2-4 and 2000-4000, respectively. The vortex ring results show similar flow structures observed qualitatively in the lower Re tests. The steady jets rapidly expand to fill the matrix of screens after interacting with an approximately fixed number of screens for low φ and the decay of kinetic energy is strongly influenced by φ.

  5. Nozzle Exit Over-Pressure and Vortex Ring Interaction in a Fully-Pulsed Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Paul S.; Gharib, Morteza

    2002-11-01

    Vortex rings formed by a starting jets will stop entraining circulation and pinch off from their generating or "trailing" jet for sufficiently large piston stroke length to jet diameter ratios (L/D) [Gharib et. al., JFM, 1998]. Recent work by the authors has demonstrated that the leading vortex ring contributes more impulse per unit L/D than does the trailing jet, highlighting the significance of vortex ring pinch off for propulsive applications. The impulse advantage of the leading vortex ring is provided by nozzle exit over-pressure resulting from the acceleration of ambient fluid during ring formation. The present work extends these single-pulse results to a periodic series of starting jets, i.e., a fully-pulsed jet. Measurements were made of the time-averaged thrust of fully-pulsed jets generated using a piston-cylinder mechanism for 2 < L/D < 6 and a range of pulsing frequencies. The results indicate that vortex ring formation provides substantial nozzle exit over-pressure (and hence, thrust benefit) in the pulsed case as well, but the benefit tends to diminish with increasing frequency. Various vortex ring interactions contribute to this trend.

  6. Computer Aided Design of Kaplan Turbine Piston with\tSolidWorks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Jianu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the steps for 3D computer aided design (CAD of Kaplan turbine piston made in SolidWorks.The present paper is a tutorial for a Kaplan turbine piston 3D geometry, which is dedicaded to the Parts Sketch and Parts Features design and Drawing Geometry and Drawing Annotation.

  7. Scavenge flow analysis of opposed-piston two-stroke engine based on dynamic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-kang Ma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Opposed-piston two-stroke engine has been proposed by Beijing Institute of Technology to improve power density and complete machine balance relative to conventional engines. In order to study opposed-piston two-stroke engine scavenging flow, a scavenging system was configured using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model effectively coupled to experiments. The boundary conditions are obtained through one-dimensional working process simulation results and experiments. As the opposed-piston relative dynamic characteristics of opposed-piston two-stroke engine depend on different design and operating parameters including the opposed-piston motion phase difference and crank-connecting rod ratio, a numerical simulation program was built using MATLAB/Simulink to define opposed-piston motion profiles based on equivalent crank angle of opposed crank-connecting rod mechanism. The opposed-piston motion phase difference only affects scavenging timing while crank-connecting rod ratio affects scavenging timing and duration. Scavenging timing and duration are the main factors which affect scavenging performance. The results indicate that a match of opposed-piston motion phase difference and crank-connecting rod ratio has the potential to achieve high scavenging and trapping efficiency with a right flow in cylinder.

  8. 76 FR 54373 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...; AD 2011-18-19] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston...: For service information identified in this AD, contact Austro Engine GmbH, Rudolf-Diesel-Strasse 11, A... estimate that this AD will affect about 32 model E4 diesel piston engines, installed on airplanes of US...

  9. 75 FR 68179 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule...) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel piston engines. These.... Contact Austro Engine GmbH, Rudolf-Diesel- Strasse 11, A-2700 Weiner Neustadt, Austria, telephone: +43...

  10. Durability, Performance, and Emission of Diesel Engines Using Carbon Fiber Piston and Liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, E. M.; Roberts, W. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted by NC State University in investigating the durability, performance and emission of a carbon fiber piston and liner in our single cylinder research Diesel engine. Both the piston and liner were supplied to NC State University by NASA LaRC and manufactured by C-CAT under a separate contract to NASA LaRC. The carbon-carbon material used to manufacture the piston and liner has significantly lower thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and superior strength characteristics at elevated temperatures when compared to conventional piston materials such as aluminum. The results of the carbon-carbon fiber piston testing were compared to a baseline configuration, which used a conventional aluminum piston in a steel liner. The parameters measured were the brake specific fuel consumption, ignition delay, frictional horsepower, volumetric efficiency, and durability characteristics of the two pistons. Testing was performed using a naturally aspirated Labeco Direct Injection single cylinder diesel engine. Two test cases were performed over a range of loads and speeds. The fixed test condition between the aluminum and carbon-carbon piston configurations was the brake mean effective pressure. The measured data was the fuel consumption rate, volumetric efficiency, load, speed, cylinder pressure, needle lift, and exhaust gas temperature. The cylinder pressure, and fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, and needle lift were recorded using a National Instruments DAQ board and a PC. All test cases used Diesel no. 2 for fuel.

  11. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW

    2003-01-01

    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  12. Research on the Combustion Characteristics of a Free-Piston Gasoline Engine Linear Generator during the Stable Generating Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yuxi Miao; Zhengxing Zuo; Huihua Feng; Chendong Guo; Yu Song; Boru Jia; Yuyao Guo

    2016-01-01

    The free-piston gasoline engine linear generator (FPGLG) is a new kind of power plant consisting of free-piston gasoline engines and a linear generator. Due to the elimination of the crankshaft mechanism, the piston motion process and the combustion heat release process affect each other significantly. In this paper, the combustion characteristics during the stable generating process of a FPGLG were presented using a numerical iteration method, which coupled a zero-dimensional piston dynamic ...

  13. Saturn's Spectacular Ring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Saturn's beautiful rings have fascinated astronomers since they were first observed by Galileo in 1610. The main rings consist of solid particles mostly in the 1 cm - 10 m range, composed primarily of water ice. The ring disk is exceptionally thin - the typical local thickness of the bright rings is tens of meters, whereas the diameter of the main rings is 250,000 km! The main rings exhibit substantial radial variations "ringlets", many of which are actively maintained via gravitational perturbations from Saturn's moons. Exterior to the main rings lie tenuous dust rings, which have little mass but occupy a very large volume of space. This seminar will emphasize the physics of ring-moon interactions, recent advances in our understanding of various aspects of the rings obtained from observations taken during 1995 when the rings appeared edge-on to the Earth and then to the Sun, and observations in subsequent years from HST.

  14. Preliminary Study of a Piston Pump for Cryogenic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Arnold E.; Kohl, Robert C.

    1959-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented covering the performance of a low-speed, five-cylinder piston pump designed for handling boiling hydrogen. This pump was designed for a flow of 55 gallons per minute at 240 rpm with a discharge pressure of 135 pounds per square inch. Tests were made using JP-4 fuel, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen. Pump delivery and endurance characteristics were satisfactory for the range of operation covered. In connection with the foregoing pump development, the cavitation characteristics of a preliminary visual model, glass-cylinder pump and of a simple reciprocating disk were studied. Subcooling of approximately 0.60 F was obtained from the cavitation produced by reciprocating a disk in boiling nitrogen and in boiling water. The subcooling obtained in a similar manner with liquid hydrogen was somewhat less.

  15. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd, E-mail: todd.sulchek@me.gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering and Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  16. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  17. CFD Modeling of Free-Piston Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Tew, Roy C., Jr.; Gedeon, David; Simon, Terrence W.

    2001-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is funding Cleveland State University (CSU) to develop a reliable Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code that can predict engine performance with the goal of significant improvements in accuracy when compared to one-dimensional (1-D) design code predictions. The funding also includes conducting code validation experiments at both the University of Minnesota (UMN) and CSU. In this paper a brief description of the work-in-progress is provided in the two areas (CFD and Experiments). Also, previous test results are compared with computational data obtained using (1) a 2-D CFD code obtained from Dr. Georg Scheuerer and further developed at CSU and (2) a multidimensional commercial code CFD-ACE+. The test data and computational results are for (1) a gas spring and (2) a single piston/cylinder with attached annular heat exchanger. The comparisons among the codes are discussed. The paper also discusses plans for conducting code validation experiments at CSU and UMN.

  18. Characteristic experiment of swashplate type axial piston motor (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, M.O. [Kyongnam National University, Masan (Korea); Yoon, I.R. [Kyongnam National University Graduate School, Masan (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct a testing equipment with which several characteristics of the domestically developed swashplate type axial piston motor can be tested and to develop a software with which the data from experiment can be stored and can be applied. The results of the study are as follows; 1) The leakage flow and the torque of the motor being stopped is proportional to supply pressure and their relation can be showed by linear equations. 2) The motor movement is not smooth below 50 rpm but it moves smoothly up 170 rpm. 3) When the motor starts or stops, the pressure rise ratio effects decisively to the max. torque. (author). 7 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Design optimization of an opposed piston brake caliper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, Nicolas; Tirovic, Marko; Voveris, Jeronimas

    2014-11-01

    Successful brake caliper designs must be light and stiff, preventing excessive deformation and extended brake pedal travel. These conflicting requirements are difficult to optimize owing to complex caliper geometry, loading and interaction of individual brake components (pads, disc and caliper). The article studies a fixed, four-pot (piston) caliper, and describes in detail the computer-based topology optimization methodology applied to obtain two optimized designs. At first sight, relatively different designs (named 'Z' and 'W') were obtained by minor changes to the designable volume and boundary conditions. However, on closer inspection, the same main bridge design features could be recognized. Both designs offered considerable reduction of caliper mass, by 19% and 28%, respectively. Further finite element analyses conducted on one of the optimized designs (Z caliper) showed which individual bridge features and their combinations are the most important in maintaining caliper stiffness.

  20. Heat transfer analysis of liquid piston compressor for hydrogen applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    A hydrogen compression technology using liquid as the compression piston is investigated from heat transfer point of view. A thermodynamic model, simulating a single compression stroke, is developed to investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the compression chamber. The model is developed...... and through the walls, is investigated and compared with the adiabatic case. The results show that depending on heat transfer correlation, the hydrogen temperature reduces slightly between 0.2% and 0.4% compared to the adiabatic case, at 500bar, due to the large wall resistance and small contact area...... at the interface. Moreover, the results of the sensitivity analysis illustrates that increasing the total heat transfer coefficients at the interface and the wall, together with compression time, play key roles in reducing the hydrogen temperature. Increasing the total heat transfer coefficient at the interface...

  1. Accomplishments in free-piston stirling tests at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Skupinski, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    A power system based on the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) has been identified for potential use on deep space missions, as well as for Mars rovers that may benefit from extended operation. The Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for developing the generator and the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is supporting DOE in this effort. The generator is based on a free-piston Stirling power convertor that has been developed by the Stirling Technology Company (STC) under contract to DOE. The generator would be used as a high-efficiency alternative to the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) that have been used on many previous missions. The increased efficiency leads to a factor of 3 to 4 reduction in the inventory of plutonium required to heat the generator. GRC has been involved in the development of Stirling power conversion technology for over 25 years. The support provided to this project by GRC has many facets and draws upon the lab's scientists and engineers that have gained experience in applying their skills to the previous Stirling projects. This has created a staff with an understanding of the subtleties involved in applying their expertise to Stirling systems. Areas include materials, structures, tribology, controls, electromagnetic interference, permanent magnets, alternator analysis, structural dynamics, and cycle performance. One of the key areas of support to the project is in the performance testing of the free-piston Stirling convertors. Since these power convertors are the smallest, lowest power Stirling machines that have been tested at GRC, a new laboratory was equipped for this project. Procedures and test plans have been created, instrumentation and data systems developed, and Stirling convertors have been tested. This paper will describe the GRC test facility, the test procedures that are used, present some of the test results and outline plans for the future. .

  2. Disturbed Zone and Piston Shock Ahead of Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eselevich, V.; Eselevich, M.

    2012-12-01

    The 2010 June 13 coronal mass ejection (CME) propagating toward the position angle P.A. ≈ 245° (measured counterclockwise from the Sun's north pole) was studied from the SDO/AIA and SOHO/LASCO C2, C3 data. We show that ahead of the CME frontal structure, as a result of its interaction with the undisturbed solar wind, a disturbed region (with an increased and disturbed plasma density), whose size increases as the CME travels away from the Sun, emerges gradually. Discontinuity formation at the disturbed zone front is observed in the narrow P.A. ≈ 245°-250° range. Its characteristics satisfy the properties of a piston collision shock. In the other directions relative to the CME motion axis (P.A. > 250° and P.A. piston shock formation ahead of a CME, which are as follows: (1) Shock formation ahead of a CME in a vicinity along its propagation axis may occur at various distances R = Ru from the Sun's center. Its formation is determined by fulfilling a local inequality u(R) > VA (R), where u(R) is a CME velocity relative to the surrounding solar wind and VA (R) is a local Alfvén velocity that is approximately equal to the velocity of fast magnetic sound in the solar corona. (2) At R ~ 10-15 R ⊙, one observes the formation of a new discontinuity δsstarf F Lt λ p wide at the head of the collision front. Within limits of error, δsstarf F does not depend on R and is determined to be δsstarf F ≈ 0.1-0.2 R ⊙ by the LASCO C3 spatial resolution and δsstarf F ≈ 0.03 R ⊙ for COR2. This discontinuity is identified with a collisionless shock.

  3. 5-kWe Free-piston Stirling Engine Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter A.; Vitale, Nicholas A.; Walter, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The high reliability, long life, and efficient operation of Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSEs) make them an attractive power system to meet future space power requirements with less mass, better efficiency, and less total heat exchanger area than other power convertor options. FPSEs are also flexible in configuration as they can be coupled with many potential heat sources and various heat input systems, heat rejection systems, and power management and distribution systems. Development of a 5-kWe Stirling Convertor Assembly (SCA) is underway to demonstrate the viability of an FPSE for space power. The design is a scaled-down version of the successful 12.5-kWe Component Test Power Converter (CTPC) developed under NAS3-25463. The ultimate efficiency target is 25% overall convertor efficiency (electrical power out over heat in). For the single cylinder prototype now in development, cost and time constraints required use of economical and readily available materials (steel versus beryllium) and components (a commercially available linear alternator) and thus lower efficiency. The working gas is helium at 150 bar mean pressure. The design consists of a displacer suspended on internally pumped gas bearings and a power piston/alternator supported on flexures. Non-contacting clearance seals are used between internal volumes. Heat to and from the prototype convertor is done via pumped liquid loops passing through shell and tube heat exchangers. The preliminary and detail designs of the convertor, controller, and support systems (heating loop, cooling loop, and helium supply system) are complete and all hardware is on order. Assembly and test of the prototype at Foster- Miller is planned for early 2008, when work will focus on characterizing convertor dynamics and steady-state operation to determine maximum power output and system efficiency. The device will then be delivered to Auburn University where assessments will include start-up and shutdown characterization and

  4. Free-piston engine-and-hydraulic pump for railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Golovchuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of the free-piston diesel engine-and-hydraulic pump for the continuously variable hydrostatical transmission of mobile power vehicles. Methodology. For a long time engine builders have been interesting in the problem of developing free piston engines, which have much bigger coefficient of efficiency (40…80%. Such engines don’t have the conversion of reciprocating motion for inner combustion engine piston into rotating motion of crankshaft, from which the engine torque is transferred to the power machine transmission. Free-piston engines of inner combustion don’t have the crank mechanism (CM that significantly reduces mechanical losses for friction. Such engines can be used as compressors. Free-piston engine compressor (FPEC – is a free-piston machine in which energy received from engine’s cylinder is being transferred direct to compressor’s pistons connected with operational pistons of engine without crank mechanism. Part of the pressed air is being consumed for engine cylinder drain and the other part is going to the consumer. Findings. The use of free-piston engines-and-hydraulic pumps as power-transmission plants of power vehicles (diesel locomotives, combine harvester, tractors, cars and other mobile and stationary power installations with the continuously variable transmissions allows cost effectiveness improvement and metal consumption reduction of these vehicles, since the cost effectiveness of FPE is higher by 25-30%, and the metal consumption is lower by 40-50%. Originality. One of the important advantages of the free-piston engines is their simplicity and engine balance. As a result of the crank mechanism absence their construction is much simplified and the vibrations, peculiar to the ordinary engines are eliminated. In such installation the engine pistons are directly connected through the rod to compressor pistons and therefore there are no losses in the bearing bushes. Practical value. The free-piston

  5. Experimental performance evaluation and validation of dynamical models of the Ocean Grazer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Marijn; Meijer, Harmen; Prins, Wouter; Vakis, Antonis I.

    2015-01-01

    A functional scale prototype has been constructed for a single-piston pump (SPP) that will be used as a building block in the core technology of a novel wave energy converter termed the Ocean Grazer: the multi-pump, multi-piston power take-off (MP2PTO) system. Experimental measurements performed

  6. Development of Cone Wedge Ring Expansion Test to Evaluate Mechanical Properties of Clad Tubing Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    To determine the hoop tensile properties of irradiated fuel cladding in a hot cell, a cone wedge ring expansion test method was developed. A four-piece wedge insert was designed with tapered angles matched to the cone shape of a loading piston. The ring specimen was expanded in the radial direction by the lateral expansion of the wedges under the downward movement of the piston. The advantages of the proposed method are that implementation of the test setup in a hot cell is simple and easy, and that it enables a direct strain measurement of the test specimen from the piston’s vertical displacement soon after the wedge-clad contact resistance is initiated.

  7. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  8. Effectiveness of the heat-activated nitinol smart piston stapes prosthesis in stapedectomy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, John J W; Yunker, Warren K; Marck, Paulette; Marck, Paul A

    2011-02-01

    To compare the SMart piston stapes prosthesis to a standard manual crimp prosthesis on operative time and air-bone gap (ABG) closure in stapedectomy. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary referral centre. The charts of patients undergoing stapedectomy for otosclerosis were analyzed. We compared the results of 76 patients (80 ears) who received the autocrimping SMart piston prosthesis to those of 21 patients (21 ears) who received the conventional manual crimp Fisch-type prosthesis. Data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square, or two-way analysis of variance where appropriate. Operative time with ABG closure as a secondary outcome measure. There was a significant difference in operative time between the Fisch-type prosthesis and the SMart piston prosthesis groups. The operation required 28.9 ± 3.2 minutes when using the Fisch-type prosthesis, whereas 21.2 ± 2.4 minutes were needed when using the SMart piston (p piston (28.1 ± 3.1 to 9.0 ± 1.4, p piston (25.1 ± 3.7 to 8.2 ± 2.5, p piston prosthesis results in ABG closure similar to that of the traditional Fisch-type prosthesis but offers the added advantage of reduced operative time.

  9. Directionality of sperm whale sonar clicks and its relation to piston radiation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, K.; Møhl, Bertel

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability to sperm whales of the theory of sound radiating from a piston. The theory is applied to a physical model and to a series of sperm whale clicks. Results show that wave forms of off-axis signals can be reproduced by convolving an on-axis signal...... with the spatial impulse response of a piston. The angle of a recorded click can be estimated as the angle producing the spatial impulse response that gives the best match with the observation when convolved with the on-axis wave form. It is concluded that piston theory applies to sperm whale sonar click emission....

  10. Dream of Isochronous Ring Again

    CERN Document Server

    Hama, H

    2005-01-01

    More than 20 years ago, D.A.G. Deacon proposed an isochronous storage ring for FEL to avoid bunch heating and decreasing instantaneous gain [1]. Some of low momentum compaction (alpha) operations have been carried out, and recently coherent infrared radiation are observed on a 3rd generation light source. Because the 3rd generation rings are optimized to obtain very low emittance beam, the dispersion function in the arc sections are much reduced by introducing large bending radius, so that those are very big machines. Meanwhile N.A. Vinokurov et al. recently proposed a ring type SASE FEL based on a complete isochronous bending transport [2]. At least, experimental and theoretical study of the isochronous ring so far suggests nonlinear effects resulted from higher order dispersion and chromaticity declines the "complete" isochronous system. On the other hand, in a wavelength region of THz, tolerance of the path length along a turn of the ring seems to be within our reach. A concept to preserve of a form factor...

  11. Adaptive individual-cylinder thermal state control using piston cooling for a GDCI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gregory T; Husted, Harry L; Sellnau, Mark C

    2015-04-07

    A system for a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine includes a plurality of nozzles, at least one nozzle per cylinder, with each nozzle configured to spray oil onto the bottom side of a piston of the engine to cool that piston. Independent control of the oil spray from the nozzles is provided on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A combustion parameter is determined for combustion in each cylinder of the engine, and control of the oil spray onto the piston in that cylinder is based on the value of the combustion parameter for combustion in that cylinder. A method for influencing combustion in a multi-cylinder engine, including determining a combustion parameter for combustion taking place in in a cylinder of the engine and controlling an oil spray targeted onto the bottom of a piston disposed in that cylinder is also presented.

  12. Scavenge flow analysis of opposed-piston two-stroke engine based on dynamic characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Fu-kang; Zhao, Chang-lu; Zhao, Zhen-feng; Zhang, Shuan-lu

    2015-01-01

    .... In order to study opposed-piston two-stroke engine scavenging flow, a scavenging system was configured using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model effectively coupled to experiments...

  13. Microstructural and thermal properties of piston aluminum alloy reinforced by nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Mohammad; Safarloo, Sama; Loghman, Fatemeh; Rasouli, Roham

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have been widely utilized in engine pistons of automotive industries. Under such loading conditions, thermal stresses were applied to the piston material, due to the combustion process. Knowing the thermal behavior and microstructural properties of the material has an important rule for designers. Besides, the used material should withstand these thermal expansions and one way to increase this thermal strength is to add nano-particles for reinforcing the material. In the present article, the thermal behavior of piston aluminum alloys has been analyzed. This objective has been performed by thermal dilatometric measuring to find the thermal expansion coefficient. Then, the effect of adding nano-particles for reinforcing the aluminum alloy has been also investigated. In addition, the distribution of nano-particles in the aluminum matrix was also studied by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Besides, the microstructure of the piston aluminum alloy, with and without SiO2 nano-particles, was investigated.

  14. Application of ceramic short fiber reinforced Al alloy matrix composite on piston for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenqing

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and properties of ceramic short fiber reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite and it’s application on the piston for internal combustion engines are presented. Alumina or aluminosilicate fibers reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite has more excellent synthetical properties at elevated temperature than the matrix alloys. A partially reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite piston produced by squeeze casting technique has a firm interface between reinforced and unreinforced areas, low reject rate and good technical tolerance. As a new kind of piston material, it has been used for mass production of about 400,000 pieces of automobile engines piston. China has become one of a few countries in which aluminum alloy matrix composite materials have been used in automobile industry and attained industrialization.

  15. High Specific Power Multiple-Cylinder Alpha Free-Piston Stirling Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will result in a design of a 30 kWe dual opposed alpha free-piston Stirling engine power conversion system for space applications, and provide...

  16. Free-Piston Diesel-Fueled Linear Alternator for Auxiliary Power Unit Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkinson, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    .... Previous studies of free-piston engine designs have indicated that they would be useful where linear power delivery could be used, such as in fluid power delivery, or in electrical energy applications.

  17. Process Design by FEM Simulation for Shape Ring Rolling of Large-Sized Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. S.; Lee, M. W.; Park, S. S.; Lee, I.; Moon, Y. H.

    2010-06-01

    Ring rolling process is usually used to fabricate large-sized ring, such as, tower flange for wind power electric generator. Many kinds of seamless ring are used in wind power electric generator and manufactured by ring rolling process. In general, final part is machined after forming with shape of plain square section. Since interests for near net shaping of seamless ring have been increased gradually because of green energy, it is necessary to develop the technology for shape ring rolling with respect to the market demands and cost. Therefore, we studied the process and die design for shape ring rolling of large sized ring over 3,500 mm out diameter by experiment and FEM simulation. Ring rolling process is very difficult to solve by FEM method because of equilibrium state and size effect, etc. Moreover, shape ring rolling is more difficult to solve the problem that two plastic deformation zones are different each other, that is main roll and conical roll. Also since conical roll has a shape, deformation velocity field is very much complex and the deformed section passed axial roll is different section and velocity field. The FE simulations are performed to analyze process variables affected in forming of profiled ring. Therefore, the main features of used FE model are: (1) it adopts a transient or unsteady state full ring mesh to model the deformation processes and shape development; (2) the mandrel and conical rolls are modeled using coupled heat-transfer elements; (3) the model involves the full process from blank through perform to final profiled ring. From these calculated results, we have proposed the mechanisms of various tools, such as mandrel and conical roll. The calculated results are compared experimental results. Calculated results can predict the tilting of profiled ring and then process variables to form large sized ring.

  18. [Displacement of a stapes piston as a consequence of whiplash injury with head impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träger, V; Seidl, R O; Ernst, A

    2005-02-01

    We report the case of a 60 year old patient suffering from a displacement of her stapes piston after a rear-end collision with whiplash injury. Immediately after the accident she complained hearing loss and tinnitus. During the following days, the patient developed vertigo with lateropulsion. Diagnostic tympanoscopy showed a piston dislocation with migration into the vestibulum as a result of the blunt head trauma.

  19. Development of EPA aircraft piston engine emission standards. [for air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, W.

    1976-01-01

    Piston engine light aircraft are significant sources of carbon monoxide in the vicinity of high activity general aviation airports. Substantial reductions in carbon monoxide were achieved by fuel mixture leaning using improved fuel management systems. The air quality impact of the hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions from piston engine light aircraft were insufficient to justify the design constraints being confronted in present control system developments.

  20. Mechanical and thermal analysis of the internal combustion engine piston using Ansys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioată, V. G.; Kiss, I.; Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    The piston is one of the most important components of the internal combustion engine. Piston fail mainly due to mechanical stresses and thermal stresses. In this paper is determined by using the finite element method, stress and displacement distribution due the flue gas pressure and temperature, separately and combined. The FEA is performed by CAD and CAE software. The results are compared with those obtained by the analytical method and conclusions have been drawn.

  1. The development and testing of ceramic components in piston engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntire, B.J. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States). Advanced Ceramics Div.; Willis, R.W.; Southam, R.E. [TRW, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Within the past 10--15 years, ceramic hardware has been fabricated and tested in a number of piston engine applications including valves, piston pins, roller followers, tappet shims, and other wear components. It has been shown that, with proper design and installation, ceramics improve performance, fuel economy, and wear and corrosion resistance. These results have been obtained using rig and road tests on both stock and race engines. Selected summaries of these tests are presented in this review paper.

  2. Dynamics in a discontinuous field: The smooth Fermi piston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, G. A.; Matulich, A.; Miller, B. N.

    1993-07-01

    In this paper we examine a version of the Fermi piston with a discontinuous, but nonimpulsive, periodic driving force. The dynamics of a particle moving in one spatial dimension are studied using a combination of numerical and analytical techniques. The configuration space of the particle is divided into two regions of constant acceleration that are of equal magnitude and opposite direction. The point of discontinuity F(t) dividing the regions changes periodically in time. The method of surface-of-section is used to study the phase space (phi(n), v(n)), where phi(n) is the phase of the driving function and v(n) is the velocity of the particle at the nth encounter between the particle and boundary. We show that it is not possible to stochastically drive up the energy indefinitely except for the cases where F is discontinuous, or dF/dt is not finite everywhere. In addition, we find a new mechanism, other than KAM tori, for segmenting the phase space. As in the KAM picture, the central cause of the new behavior is resonance between the natural period of the particle and the period of the driving force. The boundaries to diffusion for continuous driving functions result from parabolic fixed points that span the entire phase range.

  3. Three-dimensional simulation of a novel rotary-piston engine in the motoring mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Khani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this simulation study, the flow and thermal characteristics of a novel rotary-piston engine, which is a kind of internal combustion engines, were investigated by computational fluid dynamics and the finite volume method. The structure of this engine is different to others, mainly for having 24 cylinders during the motoring mode. As a novel engine, creation of numerical models based on Reynolds average Navier Stokes (RANS simulation and analysis of various speed engines on the flow and thermal fields during intake and compression strokes are the focus of this work. The results were illustrated in term of the streamline patterns, in-cylinder temperature and pressure profile, swirl ratio (SR, wall heat flux, and turbulent velocity fluctuation. The present study indicates that, the mean pressure, temperature trace, and heat loss from the wall increase when switching to a higher engine speed. The temperature distribution reveals that the maximum temperature is restricted in the center of the combustion chamber near top dead center (TDC. Also, the maximum amount of turbulent velocity and swirl ratio are achieved at the beginning of the intake stroke and near TDC. It is observed that the obtained numerical results are in general agreement with the available experimental data.

  4. Wear and Corrosion of Cast Al Alloy Piston with and without Brake Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Olarewaju Ajibola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wear and corrosion of cast AA6061 aluminium alloy were studied with and without brake fluid using a wear jig while the corrosion rate was determined in brake fluid for 70 days under two experimental set-ups. The tests, yielded 0.00000123 g/mm2/min highest wear rate at 147000 wear cycles and 0.0334 mg/mm2/yr as the highest corrosion rate within the early 39th day of immersion in oil, the values being considered comparatively lower than those obtained for Al alloy in most common wet abrasion test and corrosion in aqueous solutions as previously reported in literature. The material loss rates to wear and corrosion were determined from the equations relating to wear and corrosion based on the ASTM designations. The results show that the combined actions of wear and corrosion contribute to the total loss of piston material immersed in brake oil. This is greater than either of their effects individually on cast Al alloy in the brake oil.

  5. H∞ Robust Control of a Large-Piston MEMS Micromirror for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huipeng; Li, Mengyuan; Zhang, Yi; Xie, Huikai; Chen, Chang; Peng, Zhangming; Su, Shaohui

    2018-02-08

    Incorporating linear-scanning micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) micromirrors into Fourier transform spectral acquisition systems can greatly reduce the size of the spectrometer equipment, making portable Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) possible. How to minimize the tilting of the MEMS mirror plate during its large linear scan is a major problem in this application. In this work, an FTS system has been constructed based on a biaxial MEMS micromirror with a large-piston displacement of 180 μm, and a biaxial H∞ robust controller is designed. Compared with open-loop control and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) closed-loop control, H∞ robust control has good stability and robustness. The experimental results show that the stable scanning displacement reaches 110.9 μm under the H∞ robust control, and the tilting angle of the MEMS mirror plate in that full scanning range falls within ±0.0014°. Without control, the FTS system cannot generate meaningful spectra. In contrast, the FTS yields a clean spectrum with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) spectral linewidth of 96 cm -1 under the H∞ robust control. Moreover, the FTS system can maintain good stability and robustness under various driving conditions.

  6. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  7. Space Power Free-Piston Stirling Engine Scaling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.

    1989-01-01

    The design feasibility study is documented of a single cylinder, free piston Stirling engine/linear alternator (FPSE/LA) power module generating 150 kW-electric (kW sub e), and the determination of the module's maximum feasible power level. The power module configuration was specified to be a single cylinder (single piston, single displacer) FPSE/LA, with tuning capacitors if required. The design requirements were as follows: (1) Maximum electrical power output; (2) Power module thermal efficiency equal to or greater than 20 percent at a specific mass of 5 to 8 kg/kW(sub e); (3) Heater wall temperature/cooler wall temperature = 1050 K/525 K; (4) Sodium heat-pipe heat transport system, pumped loop NaK (sodium-potassium eutectic mixture) rejection system; (5) Maximum power module vibration amplitude = 0.0038 cm; and (6) Design life = 7 years (60,000 hr). The results show that a single cylinder FPSE/LA is capable of meeting program goals and has attractive scaling attributes over the power range from 25 to 150 kW(sub e). Scaling beyond the 150 kW(sub e) power level, the power module efficiency falls and the power module specific mass reaches 10 kg/kW(sub e) at a power output of 500 kW(sub e). A discussion of scaling rules for the engine, alternator, and heat transport systems is presented, along with a detailed description of the conceptual design of a 150 kW(sub e) power module that meets the requirements. Included is a discussion of the design of a dynamic balance system. A parametric study of power module performance conducted over the power output range of 25 to 150 kW(sub e) for temperature ratios of 1.7, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 is presented and discussed. The results show that as the temperature ratio decreases, the efficiency falls and specific mass increases. At a temperature ratio of 1.7, the 150 kW(sub e) power module cannot satisfy both efficiency and specific mass goals. As the power level increases from 25 to 150 kW(sub e) at a fixed temperature ratio, power

  8. Analysis of the volatile organic matter of engine piston deposits by direct sample introduction thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, M; Kinani, S; Genty, C; Bouchonnet, S; Sablier, M; Le Negrate, A; El Fassi, M

    2009-12-01

    This article establishes an alternative method for the characterization of volatiles organic matter (VOM) contained in deposits of the piston first ring grooves of diesel engines using a ChromatoProbe direct sample introduction (DSI) device coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The addition of an organic solvent during thermal desorption leads to an efficient extraction and a good chromatographic separation of extracted products. The method was optimized investigating the effects of several solvents, the volume added to the solid sample, and temperature programming of the ChromatoProbe DSI device. The best results for thermal desorption were found using toluene as an extraction solvent and heating the programmable temperature injector from room temperature to 300 degrees C with a temperature step of 105 degrees C. With the use of the optimized thermal desorption conditions, several components have been positively identified in the volatile fraction of the deposits: aromatics, antioxidants, and antioxidant degradation products. Moreover, this work highlighted the presence of diesel fuel in the VOM of the piston deposits and gave new facts on the absence of the role of diesel fuel in the deposit formation process. Most importantly, it opens the possibility of quickly performing the analysis of deposits with small amounts of samples while having a good separation of the volatiles.

  9. Saturn's largest ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbiscer, Anne J; Skrutskie, Michael F; Hamilton, Douglas P

    2009-10-22

    Most planetary rings in the Solar System lie within a few radii of their host body, because at these distances gravitational accelerations inhibit satellite formation. The best known exceptions are Jupiter's gossamer rings and Saturn's E ring, broad sheets of dust that extend outward until they fade from view at five to ten planetary radii. Source satellites continuously supply the dust, which is subsequently lost in collisions or by radial transport. Here we report that Saturn has an enormous ring associated with its outer moon Phoebe, extending from at least 128R(S) to 207R(S) (Saturn's radius R(S) is 60,330 km). The ring's vertical thickness of 40R(S) matches the range of vertical motion of Phoebe along its orbit. Dynamical considerations argue that these ring particles span the Saturnian system from the main rings to the edges of interplanetary space. The ring's normal optical depth of approximately 2 x 10(-8) is comparable to that of Jupiter's faintest gossamer ring, although its particle number density is several hundred times smaller. Repeated impacts on Phoebe, from both interplanetary and circumplanetary particle populations, probably keep the ring populated with material. Ring particles smaller than centimetres in size slowly migrate inward and many of them ultimately strike the dark leading face of Iapetus.

  10. Shallowly driven fluctuations in lava lake outgassing (gas pistoning), Kīlauea Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim; Sutton, A. J.; Lev, Einat; Thelen, Wes; Fee, David

    2016-01-01

    Lava lakes provide ideal venues for directly observing and understanding the nature of outgassing in basaltic magmatic systems. Kīlauea Volcano's summit lava lake has persisted for several years, during which seismic and infrasonic tremor amplitudes have exhibited episodic behavior associated with a rise and fall of the lava surface (;gas pistoning;). Since 2010, the outgassing regime of the lake has been tied to the presence or absence of gas pistoning. During normal behavior (no gas pistoning), the lake is in a ;spattering; regime, consisting of higher tremor amplitudes and gas emissions. In comparison, gas piston events are associated with an abrupt rise in lava level (up to 20 m), during which the lake enters a ;non-spattering; regime with greatly decreased tremor and gas emissions. We study this episodic behavior using long-term multidisciplinary monitoring of the lake, including seismicity, infrasound, gas emission and geochemistry, and time-lapse camera observations. The non-spattering regime (i.e. rise phase of a gas piston cycle) reflects gas bubbles accumulating near the top of the lake, perhaps as a shallow foam, while spattering regimes represent more efficient decoupling of gas from the lake. We speculate that the gas pistoning might be controlled by time-varying porosity and/or permeability in the upper portions of the lava lake, which may modulate foam formation and collapse. Competing models for gas pistoning, such as deeply sourced gas slugs, or dynamic pressure balances, are not consistent with our observations. Unlike other lava lakes which have cyclic behavior that is thought to be controlled by deeply sourced processes, external to the lake itself, we show an example of lava lake fluctuations driven by cycles of activity at shallow depth and close to the lake's surface. These observations highlight the complex and unsteady nature of outgassing from basaltic magmatic systems.

  11. On the vortex ring state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Richard; Gillies, E.; Giuni, M.; Hislop, J.; Savas, Omer

    2014-11-01

    The investigation considers the vortex ring state, a phenomenon normally associated with the collapse of a trailing, helical vortex wake into a unstable vortex ring, and is a problem encountered when a helicopter rotor descends into its own wake. A series of wind tunnel and towing tank experiments on rotor systems have been performed, and a comparison is then made with the behaviour of a specially designed open core, annular jet system that generates a mean flow velocity profile similar to that observed below a rotor. In experimentally simulated descents the jet system forms flow patterns that are topologically similar to the vortex ring state of a rotor system. Furthermore the dynamic behaviour of the flow shares many of the important characteristics of the rotor flow. This result suggests that the phenomenon of the vortex ring state of a rotor wake is decoupled from the detailed vortex dynamics of the helical vortex filaments themselves. The presentation will describe the principle behind the investigation, the details of the annular jet system and the results gained using PIV and flow visualisation of the wake and jet systems.

  12. Ring extension of entire ring with conjugation; arithmetic in entire rings

    OpenAIRE

    Laugier, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Some basic properties of the ring of integers $\\mathbb{Z}$ are extended to entire rings. In particular, arithmetic in entire principal rings is very similar than arithmetic in the ring of integers $\\mathbb{Z}$. These arithmetic properties are derived from a $\\star$-ring extension of the considered entire ring (ring extension with conjugation) equipped with a real function which is a multiplicative structure-preserving map between two algebras. The algebra of this ring extension is studied in ...

  13. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Power System, Phase II Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Stanley, John

    2016-01-01

    In Phase II, the manufacture and testing of two 6-kW(sub e)Stirling engines was completed. The engines were delivered in an opposed 12-kW(sub e) arrangement with a common expansion space heater head. As described in the Phase I report, the engines were designed to be sealed both hermetically and with a bolted O-ring seal. The completed Phase II convertor is in the bolted configuration to allow future disassembly. By the end of Phase II, the convertor had passed all of the final testing requirements in preparation for delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center. The electronic controller also was fabricated and tested during Phase II. The controller sets both piston amplitudes and maintains the phasing between them. It also sets the operating frequency of the machine. Details of the controller are described in the Phase I final report. Fabrication of the direct-current to direct-current (DC-DC) output stage, which would have stepped down the main controller output voltage from 700 to 120 V(sub DC), was omitted from this phase of the project for budgetary reasons. However, the main controller was successfully built, tested with the engines, and delivered. We experienced very few development issues with this high-power controller. The project extended significantly longer than originally planned because of yearly funding delays. The team also experienced several hardware difficulties along the development path. Most of these were related to the different thermal expansions of adjacent parts constructed of different materials. This issue was made worse by the large size of the machine. Thermal expansion problems also caused difficulties in the brazing of the opposed stainless steel sodium-potassium (NaK) heater head. Despite repeated attempts Sunpower was not able to successfully braze the opposed head under this project. Near the end of the project, Glenn fabricated an opposed Inconel NaK head, which was installed prior to delivery for testing at Glenn. Engine

  14. Optimal paths of piston motion of irreversible diesel cycle for minimum entropy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Yanlin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Diesel cycle heat engine with internal and external irreversibility’s of heat transfer and friction, in which the finite rate of combustion is considered and the heat transfer between the working fluid and the environment obeys Newton’s heat transfer law [q≈ Δ(T], is studied in this paper. Optimal piston motion trajectories for minimizing entropy generation per cycle are derived for the fixed total cycle time and fuel consumed per cycle. Optimal control theory is applied to determine the optimal piston motion trajectories for the cases of with piston acceleration constraint on each stroke and the optimal distribution of the total cycle time among the strokes. The optimal piston motion with acceleration constraint for each stroke consists of three segments, including initial maximum acceleration and final maximum deceleration boundary segments, respectively. Numerical examples for optimal configurations are provided, and the results obtained are compared with those obtained when maximizing the work output with Newton’s heat transfer law. The results also show that optimizing the piston motion trajectories could reduce engine entropy generation by more than 20%. This is primarily due to the decrease in entropy generation caused by heat transfer loss on the initial portion of the power stroke.

  15. Split ring floating air riding seal for a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacob A

    2015-11-03

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, and a central passage connecting the annular cavity to the annular piston chamber to supply compressed air to the seal face, where the annular piston assembly is a split piston assembly to maintain a tight seal as coning of the rotor disk occurs.

  16. Token Ring Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Ionescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring topology is a simple configuration used to connect processes that communicate among themselves. A number of network standards such as token ring, token bus, and FDDI are based on the ring connectivity. This article will develop an implementation of a ring of processes that communicate among themselves via pipe links. The processes are nodes in the ring. Each process reads from its standard input and writes in its standard output. N-1 process redirects the its standard output to a standard input of the process through a pipe. When the ring-structure is designed, the project can be extended to simulate networks or to implement algorithms for mutual exclusion

  17. Token ring technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This report provides an overview of the IBM Token-Ring technology and products built by IBM and compatible vendors. It consists of two sections: 1. A summary of the design trade-offs for the IBM Token-Ring. 2. A summary of the products of the major token-ring compatible vendors broken down by adapters and components, wiring systems, testing, and new chip technology.

  18. Ordered Rings and Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce ordered rings and fields following Artin-Schreier’s approach using positive cones. We show that such orderings coincide with total order relations and give examples of ordered (and non ordered rings and fields. In particular we show that polynomial rings can be ordered in (at least two different ways [8, 5, 4, 9]. This is the continuation of the development of algebraic hierarchy in Mizar [2, 3].

  19. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  20. Analysis of a system modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Debayan; Takahashi, Takéo; Tucsnak, Marius

    2017-09-01

    We study a free boundary problem modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas. The gas-piston system fills a cylinder with fixed extremities, which possibly allow gas from the exterior to penetrate inside the cylinder. The gas is modeled by the 1D compressible Navier-Stokes system and the piston motion is described by the second Newton's law. We prove the existence and uniqueness of global in time strong solutions. The main novelty brought in by our results is that they include the case of nonhomogeneous boundary conditions which, as far as we know, have not been studied in this context. Moreover, even for homogeneous boundary conditions, our results require less regularity of the initial data than those obtained in previous works.

  1. Internal combustion engine with axial double pistons. Verbrennungsmotor mit axial angeordneten Doppelkolben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersinger, G.

    1980-07-24

    The invention refers to the configuration of an internal combustion engine with axial double pistons. It is characterized by the fact that these double pistons work in a cylinder block divided into a suction side and a combustion side, where a so-called swashplate acts as the power transmission part between the piston and the drive shaft. Special constructional characteristics of the cylinder block divided into two are that the suction half and the combustion half are connected by a crankcase, which accommodates the swashplate, and that automatic inlet valves are situated in the cylinder head of the suction half and outlet valves actuated by the drive shaft are situated in the cylinder head on the combustion side. This construction of engine according to the invention has a very high efficiency. Further, there is a very favourable effect on the generation of exhaust gas and low value fuels can be used.

  2. Efficiency of a new internal combustion engine concept with variable piston motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorić Jovan Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation of working process in a new IC engine concept. The main feature of this new IC engine concept is the realization of variable movement of the piston. With this unconventional piston movement it is easy to provide variable compression ratio, variable displacement and combustion during constant volume. These advantages over standard piston mechanism are achieved through synthesis of the two pairs of non-circular gears. Presented mechanism is designed to obtain a specific motion law which provides better fuel consumption of IC engines. For this paper Ricardo/WAVE software was used, which provides a fully integrated treatment of time-dependent fluid dynamics and thermodynamics by means of onedimensional formulation. The results obtained herein include the efficiency characteristic of this new heat engine concept. The results show that combustion during constant volume, variable compression ratio and variable displacement have significant impact on improvement of fuel consumption.

  3. The performance simulation of single cylinder electric power confined piston engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yanan

    2017-04-01

    A new type of power plant. i.e, Electric Power Confined Piston Engine, is invented by combining the free piston engine and the crank connecting rod mechanism of the traditional internal combustion engine. Directly using the reciprocating movement of the piston, this new engine converts the heat energy produced by fuel to electrical energy and output it. The paper expounds the working mechanism of ECPE and establishes the kinematics and dynamics equations. Furthermore, by using the analytic method, the ECPE electromagnetic force is solved at load cases. Finally, in the simulation environment of MARLAB, the universal characteristic curve is obtained in the condition of rotational speed n between 1000 r/min and 2400 r/min, throttle opening α between 30% and 100%.

  4. Performance and Emission Analysis of Diesel Engine by Copper Coating Over Piston Crown and Cylinder Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraja, S.; Mathiselvan, G.; Gobinath, R.

    2017-05-01

    The major toxins emitted from SI engine are carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (UHC). These are harmful and create health problems to human beings, and hence control of these pollutants calls for instant attention. It has been recognized from the literature review that copper coating inside the cylinder head and over the piston crown will reduce the emission and increase the overall performance. Hence, in this Project work piston crown and engine head are coated using copper and experiment are conducted. A Kirloskar AV1 engine is used for conducting experiment. The copper coated piston crown and engine head is used to reduce the emission (HC, CO, O2, and CO2). The performance and characteristics of the copper coated engine has been studied.

  5. Ion acceleration in "dragging field" of a light-pressure-driven piston

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Liangliang; Shen, Baifei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new acceleration scheme that combines shock wave acceleration (SWA) and light pressure acceleration (LPA). When a thin foil driven by light pressure of an ultra-intense laser pulse propagates in underdense background plasma, it serves as a shock-like piston, trapping and reflecting background protons to ultra-high energies. Unlike in SWA, the piston velocity is not limited by the Mach number and can be highly relativistic. Background protons can be trapped and reflected forward by the enormous "dragging field" potential behind the piston which is not employed in LPA. Our one- and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and analytical model both show that proton energies of several tens to hundreds of GeV can be obtained, while the achievable energy in simple LPA is below 10 GeV.

  6. Retrospective analysis of the results of implanting Nitinol pistons with heat-crimping piston loops in stapes surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Joachim Albert; Brase, Christoph; Bozzato, Alessandro; Zenk, Johannes; Schick, Bernhard; Iro, Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    The study presented here evaluates the hearing results after the implantation of a new nickel-titanium (Nitinol) prosthesis in stapes surgery; on heating, this prosthesis crimps itself around the long process of the incus. In addition, we compare the outcome with results published in the literature. The medical records of all patients who underwent surgery for otosclerosis with implantation of a Nitinol piston during the period 2004-2006 were evaluated retrospectively. 83 patients (58 women and 25 men), with a provisional diagnosis of otosclerosis that was confirmed during surgery in all but one of the cases, were treated by primary stapes surgery (85 ears). We were able to include 53 patients (55 ears) who had audiograms with air and bone conduction preoperatively and both 2-6 weeks and about 1 year after surgery. We found a mean air-bone gap (ABG) for the frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz (ABG4000) of 10.4 ± 5.5 dB after a mean postoperative follow-up period of 24.5 ± 16 days, and of 7.4 ± 3.7 dB after 462 ± 119 days. For the frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz (ABG3000), the results were 9.1 ± 4.8 and 6.4 ± 3.9 dB. The differences in preoperative versus postoperative air-bone gap, referred to as ABGC, after 25 and 462 days, respectively, were 19.4 ± 8.9 and 22.3 ± 8.8 dB for AGB4000, and 19.5 ± 8.8 and 22.2 ± 8.9 for ABG3000. Very good results were achieved with a new nickel-titanium prosthesis that crimps itself around the long process of the incus, thus facilitating stapes surgery and at the same time stabilizing the high quality of the results. However, no long-term results after 10 years or more, which would allow a final judgment, are yet available.

  7. Saturn's dynamic D ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, M.M.; Burns, J.A.; Showalter, M.R.; Porco, C.C.; Nicholson, P.D.; Bosh, A.S.; Tiscareno, M.S.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Baines, K.H.; Clark, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has provided the first clear images of the D ring since the Voyager missions. These observations show that the structure of the D ring has undergone significant changes over the last 25 years. The brightest of the three ringlets seen in the Voyager images (named D72), has transformed from a narrow, ring. Cassini also finds that the locations of other narrow features in the D ring and the structure of the diffuse material in the D ring differ from those measured by Voyager. Furthermore, Cassini has detected additional ringlets and structures in the D ring that were not observed by Voyager. These include a sheet of material just interior to the inner edge of the C ring that is only observable at phase angles below about 60??. New photometric and spectroscopic data from the ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) and VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) instruments onboard Cassini show the D ring contains a variety of different particle populations with typical particle sizes ranging from 1 to 100 microns. High-resolution images reveal fine-scale structures in the D ring that appear to be variable in time and/or longitude. Particularly interesting is a remarkably regular, periodic structure with a wavelength of ??? 30 ?? km extending between orbital radii of 73,200 and 74,000 km. A similar structure was previously observed in 1995 during the occultation of the star GSC5249-01240, at which time it had a wavelength of ??? 60 ?? km. We interpret this structure as a periodic vertical corrugation in the D ring produced by differential nodal regression of an initially inclined ring. We speculate that this structure may have formed in response to an impact with a comet or meteoroid in early 1984. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hybrid silicon ring lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Fiorentino, Marco; Bowers, John E.; Beausoleil, Raymond G.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid silicon platform provides a solution to integrate active components (lasers, amplifiers, photodetectors, etc.) with passive ones on the same silicon substrate, which can be used for building an optical interconnect system. Owing to the advantages in footprint, power consumption, and high-speed modulation, hybrid silicon microring lasers have been demonstrated as a potential candidate for on-chip silicon light source. In this paper we review the progress to improve the performance of recently demonstrated compact microring lasers with ring diameter of 50 μm. A simple approach to enhance optical mode and electron-hole recombination, which results in threshold reduction and efficiency improvement is developed. This is done by appropriately undercutting the multiple quantum well (MQW) region to force carriers to flow towards the outer edge of the microring for better gain/optical mode overlap. We observe a reduction of the threshold of over 20% and up to 80% output power enhancement. The model and the experimental results highlight the benefits, as well as the negative effects from excessive undercutting, including lower MQW confinement, higher modal loss and higher thermal impedance. A design rule for MQW undercutting is therefore provided. Application as on-chip optical interconnects is discussed from a system perspective.

  9. 40 CFR 94.215 - Maintenance of records; submittal of information; right of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production engine, a general description of the buildup of the engine (e.g., whether experimental heads were... applicable), intake air pressurization and cooling system components, cylinders, pistons and piston rings...

  10. Algorithms for finite rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciocanea Teodorescu I.,

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we are interested in describing algorithms that answer questions arising in ring and module theory. Our focus is on deterministic polynomial-time algorithms and rings and modules that are finite. The first main result of this thesis is a solution to the module isomorphism problem in

  11. Relativistic ring models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujevic, Maximiliano [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Letelier, Patricio S.; Vogt, Daniel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Computacao Cientifica. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Relativistic thick ring models are constructed using previously found analytical Newtonian potential-density pairs for flat rings and toroidal structures obtained from Kuzmin-Toomre family of discs. This was achieved by inflating previously constructed Newtonian ring potentials using the transformation |z|{yields}{radical}z{sup 2} + b{sup 2}, and then finding their relativistic analog. The models presented have infinite extension but the physical quantities decays very fast with the distance, and in principle, one could make a cut-off radius to consider it finite. In particular, we present systems with one ring, two rings and a disc with a ring. Also, the circular velocity of a test particle and its stability when performing circular orbits are presented in all these models. Using the Rayleigh criterion of stability of a fluid at rest in a gravitational field, we find that the different systems studied present a region of non-stability that appears in the intersection of the disc and the ring, and between the rings when they become thinner. (author)

  12. Illustration of Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration shows a close-up of Saturn's rings. These rings are thought to have formed from material that was unable to form into a Moon because of tidal forces from Saturn, or from a Moon that was broken up by Saturn's tidal forces.

  13. Smoke Ring Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of smoke rings, tornados, and quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has many features in common. These features can be described by the same mathematics we use when introducing Ampere's law in an introductory physics course. We discuss these common features. (Contains 7 figures.)

  14. Imaging rings in ring imaging Cherenkov counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Blair N

    2002-11-25

    The general concepts used to form images in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters are described and their performance properties compared. Particular attention is paid to issues associated with imaging in the time dimension, especially in Detectors of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRCs).

  15. Rings and their modules

    CERN Document Server

    Bland, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of rings and modules that goes beyond what one normally obtains in a graduate course in abstract algebra. In addition to the presentation of standard topics in ring and module theory, it also covers category theory, homological algebra and even more specialized topics like injective envelopes and projective covers, reflexive modules and quasi-Frobenius rings, and graded rings and modules. The book is a self-contained volume written in a very systematic style: allproofs are clear and easy for the reader to understand and allarguments are based onmaterials contained in the book. A problem sets follow each section. It is suitable for graduate and PhD students who have chosen ring theory for their research subject.

  16. Levitating states of superconducting rings in the field of a fixed ring with constant current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishaev, A. M.; Bush, A. A.; Gavrikov, M. B.; Denisyuk, A. I.; Kamentsev, K. E.; Kozintseva, M. V.; Savel'ev, V. V.; Sigov, A. S.

    2014-06-01

    We consider the possibility of designing a plasma trap with a magnetic system formed by super-conducting rings and coils levitating in the field of a fixed coaxial coil carrying constant current. An analytic dependence of the potential energy of such a system with one or two levitating superconducting rings having trapped preset magnetic fluxes on their coordinates in the uniform gravitational field is obtained in the thin ring approximation. Calculations performed in the Mathcad system show that equilibrium states of such a system exist for certain values of parameters. Levitating states of a single superconducting ring and two superconducting rings in the field of the coil with constant current are observed experimentally in positions corresponding to calculated values.

  17. Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Split Injection Strategies on Combustion and Emission in an Opposed-Piston, Opposed-Cylinder (OPOC) Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lei Zhang; Tiexiong Su; Yangang Zhang; Fukang Ma; Jinguan Yin; Yaonan Feng

    2017-01-01

    In opposed-piston, opposed-cylinder (OPOC) two-stroke diesel engines, the relative movement rules of opposed-pistons, combustion chamber components and injector position are different from those of conventional diesel engines...

  18. Experimental study of subcritical laboratory magnetized collisionless shocks using a laser-driven magnetic piston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, D. B., E-mail: dschaeffer@physics.ucla.edu; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California—Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Winske, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Recent experiments at the University of California, Los Angeles have successfully generated subcritical magnetized collisionless shocks, allowing new laboratory studies of shock formation relevant to space shocks. The characteristics of these shocks are compared with new data in which no shock or a pre-shock formed. The results are consistent with theory and 2D hybrid simulations and indicate that the observed shock or shock-like structures can be organized into distinct regimes by coupling strength. With additional experiments on the early time parameters of the laser plasma utilizing Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, and fast-gate filtered imaging, these regimes are found to be in good agreement with theoretical shock formation criteria.

  19. Experimental study of subcritical laboratory magnetized collisionless shocks using a laser-driven magnetic piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Winske, D.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments at the University of California, Los Angeles have successfully generated subcritical magnetized collisionless shocks, allowing new laboratory studies of shock formation relevant to space shocks. The characteristics of these shocks are compared with new data in which no shock or a pre-shock formed. The results are consistent with theory and 2D hybrid simulations and indicate that the observed shock or shock-like structures can be organized into distinct regimes by coupling strength. With additional experiments on the early time parameters of the laser plasma utilizing Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, and fast-gate filtered imaging, these regimes are found to be in good agreement with theoretical shock formation criteria.

  20. Redesign of Pneumatic Piston Using Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mustofa

    2010-01-01

    Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) technique has been utilized intensively in industry for many years in order to increase the quality, decrease the cost and shorten the cycle time of a product. This paper is a detail application of the technique in the pneumatic piston product. The redesign effeciency of the product increases significantly from 25.9% to 67.45%.

  1. Multi-dimensional scavenging analysis of a free-piston linear alternator based on numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jinlong; Zuo, Zhengxing; Li, Wen; Feng, Huihua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-04-15

    A free-piston linear alternator (FPLA) is being developed by the Beijing Institute of Technology to improve the thermal efficiency relative to conventional crank-driven engines. A two-stroke scavenging process recharges the engine and is crucial to realizing the continuous operation of a free-piston engine. In order to study the FPLA scavenging process, the scavenging system was configured using computational fluid dynamics. As the piston dynamics of the FPLA are different to conventional crank-driven two-stroke engines, a time-based numerical simulation program was built using Matlab to define the piston's motion profiles. A wide range of design and operating options were investigated including effective stroke length, valve overlapping distance, operating frequency and charging pressure to find out their effects on the scavenging performance. The results indicate that a combination of high effective stroke length to bore ratio and long valve overlapping distance with a low supercharging pressure has the potential to achieve high scavenging and trapping efficiencies with low short-circuiting losses. (author)

  2. The Development of a Control System for a 5 Kilowatt Free Piston Stirling Engine Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Raymond L.; Vitale, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The new NASA Vision for Exploration, announced by President Bush in January 2004, proposes an ambitious program that plans to return astronauts to the moon by the 2018 time frame. A recent NASA study entitled "Affordable Fission Surface Power Study" recommended a 40 kWe, 900 K, NaK-cooled, Stirling convertors for 2020 launch. Use of two of the nominal 5 kW convertors allows the system to be dynamically balanced. A group of four dual-convertor combinations that would yield 40 kWe can be tested to validate the viability of Stirling technology for space fission surface power systems. The work described in this paper deals specifically with the control system for the 5 kW convertor described in the preceding paragraph. This control system is responsible for maintaining piston stroke to a setpoint in the presence of various disturbances including electrical load variations. Pulse starting of the Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) convertor is also an inherent part of such a control system. Finally, the ability to throttle the engine to match the required output power is discussed in terms of setpoint control. Several novel ideas have been incorporated into the piston stroke control strategy that will engender a stable response to disturbances in the presence of midpoint drift while providing useful data regarding the position of both the power piston and displacer.

  3. 76 FR 33660 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... 2010-23-09, Amendment 39-16498 (75 FR 68179, November 5, 2010), for Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel... 2011-0039, dated March 8, 2011, adding a terminating action on Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel...

  4. Feasibility investigation of non-metallic and light weight metallic materials for light weight compressor pistons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, C.M.; Bergsma, O.K.; Eijk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Steel and aluminium have been the traditional materials of choice for pistons. In order to reduce moving mass-related vibrational problems, a feasibility assessment is made of the application of other materials in a project for the research group of the EFRC. In particular, polymer and metal matrix

  5. A Free-Piston Linear Generator Control Strategy for Improving Output Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control strategy to improve the output power for a single-cylinder two-stroke free-piston linear generator (FPLG. The comprehensive simulation model of this FPLG is established and the operation principle is introduced. The factors that affect the output power are analyzed theoretically. The characteristics of the piston motion are studied. Considering the different features of the piston motion respectively in acceleration and deceleration phases, a ladder-like electromagnetic force control strategy is proposed. According to the status of the linear electric machine, the reference profile of the electromagnetic force is divided into four ladder-like stages during one motion cycle. The piston motions, especially the dead center errors, are controlled by regulating the profile of the electromagnetic force. The feasibility and advantage of the proposed control strategy are verified through comparison analyses with two conventional control strategies via MatLab/Simulink. The results state that the proposed control strategy can improve the output power by around 7–10% with the same fuel cycle mass.

  6. A Fuel-Sensitive Reduced-Order Model (ROM) for Piston Engine Scaling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    single-cylinder moving piston case near top dead center at diesel - engine conditions. The ROM provides a real-time engineering analytical tool for liquid...length scaling that may be used toward optimizing engine performance . 15. SUBJECT TERMS reduced-order model, ROM, engine scaling, spray... diesel engine ................................... 20 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction A central

  7. Cogging force investigation of a free piston permanent magnet linear generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, I. I.; Zainal, A. E. Z.; Ramlan, N. A.; Firmansyah; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heikal, M. R.

    2017-10-01

    Better performance and higher efficiency of the vehicles can be achieved by using free piston engine, in which the piston is connected directly to the linear generator and waiving of any mechanical means. The free piston engine has the ability to overcome or reduce many of the challenges, such as the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and fossil fuel consumption. The cogging force produces undesired vibration and acoustic noise in the generator. However, the cogging force must be minimized as much as possible, in order to have a high performance. This paper studies the effects of ferromagnetic materials on the cogging force of the permanent magnet linear generator (PMLG) to be used in a free piston engine using nonlinear finite-element analysis (FEA) under ANSYS Maxwell. The comparisons have been established for the cogging force of the PMLG under various translator velocities and three different ferromagnetic materials for the stator core, namely, Silicon Steel laminations, Mild Steel and Somaloy. It has been shown that the PMLG with a stator core made of Somaloy has a lower cogging force among them. Furthermore, the induced voltage of the PMLG at different accelerations has been studied. It is found that the PMLG with Mild Steel and Somaloy, respectively give larger induced voltage. Moreover, as the translator speed increase the induced voltage increased.

  8. A retrospective study of the hearing results obtained after stapedotomy by the implantation of two Teflon pistons with a different diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grolman, W.; Tange, R. A.; de Bruijn, A. J.; Hart, A. A.; Schouwenburg, P. F.

    1997-01-01

    This study reports the evaluation of hearing results after implantation of a Teflon piston of a different diameter in cases of otosclerosis requiring stapedotomy. By random selection, a Teflon piston with a shaft diameter of 0.3 mm was inserted in 34 cases and a piston with a shaft diameter of 0.4

  9. Unidirectional ring-laser operation using sum-frequency mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A technique enforcing unidirectional operation of ring lasers is proposed and demonstrated. The approach relies on sum-frequency mixing between a single-pass laser and one of the two counterpropagating intracavity fields of the ring laser. Sum-frequency mixing introduces a parametric loss...... where lossless second-order nonlinear materials are available. Numerical modeling and experimental demonstration of parametric-induced unidirectional operation of a diode-pumped solid-state 1342 nm cw ring laser are presented....

  10. Nanoscale borromean rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrill, Stuart J; Chichak, Kelly S; Peters, Andrea J; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2005-01-01

    The molecular expression of topologically interesting structures represents a formidable challenge for synthetic chemists. The nontrivial link known as the Borromean rings has long been regarded as one of the most ambitious targets in this field. Of ancient provenance, this symbol comprises three interlocked rings in an inseparable union, but cut any one of the rings and the whole assembly unravels into three separate pieces. This Account delineates different strategies that can be applied to the formation of molecules possessing this distinctive topology, culminating with two successful syntheses of such compounds, thus cutting the Gordian knot of topological chemistry.

  11. Saturn's Rings are Fractal

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, various conjectures were advanced that Saturn's rings are Cantor-like sets, although no convincing fractal analysis of actual images has ever appeared. We focus on the images sent by the Cassini spacecraft mission: slide #42 "Mapping Clumps in Saturn's Rings" and slide #54 "Scattered Sunshine". Using the box-counting method, we determine the fractal dimension of rings seen here (and in several other images from the same source) to be consistently about 1.6~1.7. This...

  12. Modified Newton's rings: II

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitanya, T. Sai; Kumar, Rajiv; Krishna, V. Sai; Anandh, B Shankar; Umesh, K S

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier work (Shankar kumar Jha, A Vyas, O S K S Sastri, Rajkumar Jain & K S Umesh, 'Determination of wavelength of laser light using Modified Newton's rings setup', Physics Education, vol. 22, no.3, 195-202(2005)) reported by our group, a version of Newton's rings experiment called Modified Newton's rings was proposed. The present work is an extension of this work. Here, a general formula for wavelength has been derived, applicable for a plane of observation at any distance. A relation...

  13. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...... with the probe L1.26 confirmed the derivation from chromosome 13 and DNA polymorphism analysis showed maternal origin of the ring chromosome. Our results, together with a review of previous reports of cases with ring chromosome 13 with identified breakpoints, could neither support the theory of distinct clinical...

  14. Faithfully quadratic rings

    CERN Document Server

    Dickmann, M

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph the authors extend the classical algebraic theory of quadratic forms over fields to diagonal quadratic forms with invertible entries over broad classes of commutative, unitary rings where -1 is not a sum of squares and 2 is invertible. They accomplish this by: (1) Extending the classical notion of matrix isometry of forms to a suitable notion of T-isometry, where T is a preorder of the given ring, A, or T = A^2. (2) Introducing in this context three axioms expressing simple properties of (value) representation of elements of the ring by quadratic forms, well-known to hold in

  15. Vortex and source rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field, vector potential and velocity gradient of a vortex ring is derived in this chapter. The Biot-Savart law for the vector potential and velocity is expressed in a first section. Then, the flow is derived at specific locations: on the axis, near the axis and in the far field where...... the analogy to a doublet field is made. The following section derive the value of the vector potential and velocity field in the full domain. The expression for the velocity gradient is also provided since it may be relevant in a simulation with vortex particles and vortex rings. Most of this chapter...... is dedicated to vortex rings. Source rings are only briefly mentioned....

  16. The g-2 ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The precise measurement of "g-2", the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, required a special muon storage ring with electrostatic focussing and very accurate knowledge of the magnetic bending field. For more details see under photo 7405430.

  17. Ringed Seal Distribution Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) of the five subspecies of ringed seals (Phoca hispida). It was produced...

  18. Integrations on rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banič Iztok

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In calculus, an indefinite integral of a function f is a differentiable function F whose derivative is equal to f. The main goal of the paper is to generalize this notion of the indefinite integral from the ring of real functions to any ring. We also investigate basic properties of such generalized integrals and compare them to the well-known properties of indefinite integrals of real functions.

  19. Matrimonial ring structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hamberger, Klaus; Houseman, Michael; Daillant, Isabelle; White, Douglas R.; Barry, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with matrimonial rings, a particular kind of cycles in kinship networks which result when spouses are linked to each other by ties of consanguinity or affinity. By taking a network-analytic perspective, the paper endeavours to put this classical issue of structural kinship theory on a general basis, such as to allow conclusions which go beyond isolated discussions of particular ring types (like "cross-cousin marriage", "sister exchange", and so forth). The paper provides a def...

  20. Nuclear physics experiments with ion storage rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvinov, Yu. A.; Bishop, S.; Blaum, K.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Chen, L. X.; Dillmann, I.; Egelhof, P.; Geissel, H.; Grisenti, R. E.; Hagmann, S.; Heil, M.; Heinz, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knoebel, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Ma, X. W.; Nilsson, T.; Nolden, F.; Ozawa, A.; Raabe, R.; Reed, M. W.; Reifarth, R.; Sanjari, M. S.; Schneider, D.; Simon, H.; Steck, M.; Stoehlker, T.; Sun, B. H.; Tu, X. L.; Uesaka, T.; Walker, P. M.; Wakasugi, M.; Weick, H.; Winckler, N.; Woods, P. J.; Xu, H. S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades a number of nuclear structure and astrophysics experiments were performed at heavy-ion storage rings employing unique experimental conditions offered by such machines. Furthermore, building on the experience gained at the two facilities presently in operation, several new

  1. The Fluxgate Ring-Core Internal Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz; Brauer, Peter; Merayo, José M.G.

    2002-01-01

    . The local demagnetizing factor is used, and the conversion to the average or global factor is derived. Three approximate analytical/numerical calculations of the internal field in the ring-core magnetic material are made. The results are close to the experimental data, supporting the conclusion...

  2. Rebound Of Previously Compressed O-Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carleton J.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents theoretical and experimental analysis of relaxation characteristics of O-ring of vinylidene fluoride/hexafluoropropylene copolymer of same composition used in solid rocket boosters on Space Shuttle flight 51-L. Study covers range of temperatures from 10 to 120 degree F. Presents one-dimensional mathematical model of response provided for both elastic response and creep.

  3. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  4. Shocks in magneto-reactive-gas dynamics with application to the piston problem; Sur les chocs dans un milieu magnetodynamique reactif avec application au probleme du piston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubbaramayer [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-01

    This work deals with detonation and deflagration waves in magnetogasdynamics. Four types of detonations and four types of deflagration are considered. We point out that the propagation of these waves is not always completely determined by the initial boundary conditions and the conservation laws across the discontinuity. To fix the ideas we consider the piston problem and we show that in some cases more conditions must be added to the conservation laws in order to provide sufficient data for the unique determination of the propagation process. We then show that the needed additional conditions may be derived from an investigation of the internal structure of the detonation and deflagration process in magneto gas dynamics. This internal structure is investigated for the eight types of process under the influence of the combustion mechanism and the dissipative coefficients (viscosities, electrical and thermal conductivity). Finally all the possible solutions for the piston problem are discussed in a simple case. The methods developed here may be extended to ionizing shocks. (author) [French] On considere dans ce travail les ondes de detonation et de deflagration en magneto-dynamique. Quatre types de detonation et quatre types de deflagration sont etudies. On montre d'abord que la propagation de ces ondes n'est pas toujours completement determinee par les conditions initiales, les conditions aux limites et les conditions de choc. Pour fixer les idees nous considerons le probleme du piston et nous montrons que, dans certains cas, des conditions supplementaires doivent etre jointes aux conditions de choc pour determiner l'ecoulement d'une facon unique. Nous montrons ensuite que ces conditions supplementaires peuvent etre deduites de l'analyse de la structure interne des detonations et des deflagrations magnetodynamiques. Cette structure interne est etudiee en tenant compte du mecanisme de combustion et des coefficients de dissipation (viscosites

  5. Holomorphic Dynamics and Herman Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Existence theorem for Herman Rings of holomorphic mappings in a certain holomorphic family is given, using quasiconformal mappings. Proofs of topological properties of these Herman rings are given.......Existence theorem for Herman Rings of holomorphic mappings in a certain holomorphic family is given, using quasiconformal mappings. Proofs of topological properties of these Herman rings are given....

  6. Density-functional calculations of magnetoplasmons in quantum rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emperador, A.; Barranco, M.; Lipparini, E.; Pi, M.; Serra, Ll.

    1999-06-01

    We have studied the structure and dipole charge-density response of nanorings as a function of the magnetic field using local-spin-density-functional theory. Two small rings consisting of 12 and 22 electrons confined by a positively charged background are used to represent the cases of narrow and wide rings. The results are qualitatively compared with experimental data existing on microrings and on antidots. A smaller ring containing five electrons is also analyzed to allow for a closer comparison with a recent experiment on a two-electron quantum ring.

  7. PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2009-10-01

    This special section of Fluid Dynamics Research includes five articles on vortex rings in both classical and quantum fluids. The leading scientists of the field describe the trends in and the state-of-the-art development of experiments, theories and numerical simulations of vortex rings. The year 2008 was the 150th anniversary of 'vortex motion' since Hermann von Helmholtz opened up this field. In 1858, Helmholtz published a paper in Crelle's Journal which put forward the concept of 'vorticity' and made the first analysis of vortex motion. Fluid mechanics before that was limited to irrotational motion. In the absence of vorticity, the motion of an incompressible homogeneous fluid is virtually equivalent to a rigid-body motion in the sense that the fluid motion is determined once the boundary configuration is specified. Helmholtz proved, among other things, that, without viscosity, a vortex line is frozen into the fluid. This Helmholtz's law immediately implies the preservation of knots and links of vortex lines and its implication is enormous. One of the major trends of fluid mechanics since the latter half of the 20th century is to clarify the topological meaning of Helmholtz's law and to exploit it to develop theoretical and numerical methods to find the solutions of the Euler equations and to develop experimental techniques to gain an insight into fluid motion. Vortex rings are prominent coherent structures in a variety of fluid motions from the microscopic scale, through human and mesoscale to astrophysical scales, and have attracted people's interest. The late professor Philip G Saffman (1981) emphasized the significance of studies on vortex rings. One particular motion exemplifies the whole range of problems of vortex motion and is also a commonly known phenomenon, namely the vortex ring or smoke ring. Vortex rings are easily produced by dropping drops of one liquid into another, or by puffing fluid out of a hole, or by exhaling smoke if one has the skill

  8. Microscopic Dynamics and Topology of Polymer Rings Immersed in a Host Matrix of Longer Linear Polymers: Results from a Detailed Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study and Comparison with Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Papadopoulos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed molecular dynamics (MD simulations of melt systems consisting of a small number of long ring poly(ethylene oxide (PEO probes immersed in a host matrix of linear PEO chains and have studied their microscopic dynamics and topology as a function of the molecular length of the host linear chains. Consistent with a recent neutron spin echo spectroscopy study (Goossen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2015, 115, 148302, we have observed that the segmental dynamics of the probe ring molecules is controlled by the length of the host linear chains. In matrices of short, unentangled linear chains, the ring probes exhibit a Rouse-like dynamics, and the spectra of their dynamic structure factor resemble those in their own melt. In striking contrast, in matrices of long, entangled linear chains, their dynamics is drastically altered. The corresponding dynamic structure factor spectra exhibit a steep initial decay up to times on the order of the entanglement time τe of linear PEO at the same temperature but then they become practically time-independent approaching plateau values. The plateau values are different for different wavevectors; they also depend on the length of the host linear chains. Our results are supported by a geometric analysis of topological interactions, which reveals significant threading of all ring molecules by the linear chains. In most cases, each ring is simultaneously threaded by several linear chains. As a result, its dynamics at times longer than a few τe should be completely dictated by the release of the topological restrictions imposed by these threadings (interpenetrations. Our topological analysis did not indicate any effect of the few ring probes on the statistical properties of the network of primitive paths of the host linear chains.

  9. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation and propagation of two-dimensional vortex solitons, i.e. solitons with a phase singularity, in optical materials with a nonlocal focusing nonlinearity. We show that nonlocality stabilizes the dynamics of an otherwise unstable vortex beam. This occurs for either single...... or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  10. Schatzki ring, statistically reexamined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzullo, John C; Lewicki, Ann M

    2003-09-01

    In the article by Schatzki published in 1963, data about the lower esophageal ring relate ring diameter to presence of dysphagia. Statistical analysis of these measurements was performed to quantify conclusions of Schatzki and to extract additional information from the data. Ring diameters in 332 patients with and without dysphagia are described in a histogram in the original article of Schatzki. Data were evaluated with analysis of variance, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to quantify the relationship between ring diameter and dysphagia. Follow-up information was available in 36 symptomatic and 30 asymptomatic patients of Schatzki. Logistic regression indicated that there was a highly significant difference in ring diameter between the asymptomatic group and patients with recurrent dysphagia (P Schatzki had a 96% (104 of 108) sensitivity and a 58% (130 of 224) specificity, with area under the ROC curve of 0.888. Retrospective statistical analysis of original data of Schatzki validated his major conclusions about the data. Some important questions remain unanswered because of missing data in the study of Schatzki. Copyright RSNA, 2003

  11. Compact pulse repetition rate multiplication scheme using micro ring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Pu, Minhao; Galili, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A compact repetition rate multiplier using a micro ring resonator is experimentally demonstrated. Combined with an amplitude equalizer, a 40 GHz pulse train is achieved from a 10 GHz input pulse train....

  12. On the evolution of vortex rings with swirl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Takashi, E-mail: naitoh.takashi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Physics, Electronics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Okura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: ohkura@meijo-u.ac.jp [Department of Vehicle and Mechanical Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Gotoh, Toshiyuki, E-mail: gotoh.toshiyuki@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Scientific and Engineering Simulation, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kato, Yusuke [Controller Business Unit Engineering Division 1, Engineering Department 3, Denso Wave Incorporated, 1 Yoshiike Kusagi Agui-cho, Chita-gun Aichi 470-2297 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    A laminar vortex ring with swirl, which has the meridional velocity component inside the vortex core, was experimentally generated by the brief fluid ejection from a rotating outlet. The evolution of the vortex ring was investigated with flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in order to find the influence of swirling flow in particular upon the transition to turbulence. Immediately after the formation of a vortex ring with swirl, a columnar strong vortex along the symmetric axis is observed in all cases of the present experiment. Then the characteristic fluid discharging from a vortex ring with swirl referred to as “peeling off” appears. The amount of discharging fluid due to the “peeling off” increases with the angular velocity of the rotating outlet. We conjectured that the mechanism generating the “peeling off” is related to the columnar strong vortex by close observations of the spatio-temporal development of the vorticity distribution and the cutting 3D images constructed from the successive cross sections of a vortex ring. While a laminar vortex ring without swirl may develop azimuthal waves around its circumference at some later time and the ring structure subsequently breaks, the swirling flow in a vortex ring core reduces the amplification rate of the azimuthal wavy deformation and preserved its ring structure. Then the traveling distance of a vortex ring can be extended using the swirl flow under certain conditions.

  13. Improvements of diesel combustion with pilot and main injections at different piston positions; Piston iso wo koryoshita pilot funsha ni yoru diesel nenshono kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.; Ogawa, H.; Miyamoto, N. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sakai, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-06-25

    The fuel spray distribution in a DI diesel engine with a pilot injection was actively controlled by pilot and main fuel injections at different piston positions to avoid the main fuel injection from hitting the pilot flame. A CFD analysis demonstrated that the movement of the piston with a cavity divided by a central lip along the center of the sidewall effectively separated the cores of the pilot and main fuel sprays. The experiments showed that more smoke was emitted with pilot injection in an ordinary cavity without the central lip while smokeless and low NO{sub x} operation was realized with pilot injection in a cavity divided by a central lip even at heavy loads where ordinary operation without pilot injection emitted smoke so much. The indicated specific energy consumption ISEC was a little bit higher with the pilot injection, mainly because of the reduction in the degree of constant volume combustion. With the advanced pilot injection, ISEC was improved more than that with the retarded pilot injection while the NO{sub x} is a little higher than the retarded pilot injection maintaining still much lower than in ordinary operation. (author)

  14. Fluctuation of a Piston in Vacuum Induced by Thermal Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Norio

    2017-10-01

    We consider the displacement of a piston dividing a vacuum cavity at a finite temperature T induced by fluctuations in the thermal radiation pressure. The correlation function of the thermal radiation pressure is calculated using the theoretical framework developed by Barton, which was first applied to the fluctuation of the Casimir force at absolute zero. We show that the variance of the radiation pressure at a fixed point is proportional to T8 and evaluate the mean square displacement for a piston with a small cross section in a characteristic correlation timescale ħ/(kBT). At room temperature, the contribution of the thermal radiation to the fluctuation is larger than that of the vacuum fluctuation.

  15. Design & Development of a High Mass Flow Piston Synthetic Jet Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Hamad Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of having a device that is capable of working in a systematic process allowing control of the boundary layer by means of operated on high-frequency, small-scale, and low energy actuators has caught the interest of the aerodynamicist community. With an eye on the available data and potential flow control advantages, our research team set out to manufacture a compact SJA (Synthetic Jet Actuator of its own, which would be capable of being installed inside an airfoil. It consists of components such as a single piston cylinder, with variable exit geometry along with the control system that has an electrical actuator which can be regulated in order for it to be capable of producing various operating frequencies. This paper consists of a study into the design of a single piston device SJA and will present all significant data both theoretical and computational regarding its design and performance.

  16. CRANK-PISTON MODEL OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE USING CAD/CAM/CAE IN THE MSC ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał BIAŁY

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the modeling and simulation of the crank-piston model of internal combustion engine. The object of the research was the engine of the vehicle from the B segment. The individual elements of the gasoline engine were digitizing using the process of reverse engineering. After converting the geometry, assembling was imported to MSC Adams software. The crank-piston system was specified by boundary conditions of piston forces applied on the pistons crowns. This force was obtain from the cylinder pressure recorded during the tests, that were carried out on a chassis dynamometer. The simulation studies allowed t determine the load distribution in a dynamic state for the selected kinematic pairs.

  17. Oligomeric ferrocene rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkpen, Michael S.; Scheerer, Stefan; Linseis, Michael; White, Andrew J. P.; Winter, Rainer F.; Albrecht, Tim; Long, Nicholas J.

    2016-09-01

    Cyclic oligomers comprising strongly interacting redox-active monomer units represent an unknown, yet highly desirable class of nanoscale materials. Here we describe the synthesis and properties of the first family of molecules belonging to this compound category—differently sized rings comprising only 1,1‧-disubstituted ferrocene units (cyclo[n], n = 5-7, 9). Due to the close proximity and connectivity of centres (covalent Cp-Cp linkages; Cp = cyclopentadienyl) solution voltammograms exhibit well-resolved, separated 1e- waves. Theoretical interrogations into correlations based on ring size and charge state are facilitated using values of the equilibrium potentials of these transitions, as well as their relative spacing. As the interaction free energies between the redox centres scale linearly with overall ring charge and in conjunction with fast intramolecular electron transfer (˜107 s-1), these molecules can be considered as uniformly charged nanorings (diameter ˜1-2 nm).

  18. Decay ring design

    CERN Document Server

    Chancé, A; Bouquerel, E; Hancock, S; Jensen, E

    The study of the neutrino oscillation between its different flavours needs pureand very intense fluxes of high energy, well collimated neutrinos with a welldetermined energy spectrum. A dedicated machine seems to be necessarynowadays to reach the required flux. A new concept based on the β-decayof radioactive ions which were accelerated in an accelerator chain was thenproposed. After ion production, stripping, bunching and acceleration, the unstableions are then stored in a racetrack-shaped superconducting decay ring.Finally, the ions are accumulated in the decay ring until being lost. The incomingbeam is merged to the stored beam by using a specific RF system, whichwill be presented here.We propose here to study some aspects of the decay ring, such as its opticalproperties, its RF system or the management of the losses which occur in thering (mainly by decay or by collimation).

  19. Experimental investigation of the dependence of the distance between two successive ring vortexes on the gas flow and the injected loudspeaker sound in a burning free jet from a rectangular slit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P. E. M.

    1982-03-01

    The distance between two successive turbulent vortex rings in a burning free gas jet influenced by sound was investigated. It is observed that, independently of the sound amplitude, the distance increases with increasing outlet velocity at the nozzle opening, with decreasing sound frequency, and with increasing length of the shortest side of a rectangular slit opening.

  20. Effects of trailing jet instability on vortex ring formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Frankel, Steven H.; Mongeau, Luc G.

    2000-03-01

    Numerical simulations of an impulsively started jet were performed in order to investigate the effects of trailing jet instability on axisymmetric vortex ring formation. The predictions were compared to experimental results reported in the literature and to recently published numerical results. The total and vortex ring circulations were found to be in good agreement with both the experimental and the numerical results. The presence of a universal formation time scale was confirmed. The results also highlighted an important interaction between an instability which develops in the trailing jet for large discharge times and the dynamics of the head vortex ring. This interaction accelerates the process by which the vortex ring detaches from the trailing jet and has a significant effect on the vortex ring circulation.

  1. Comparative survey of dynamic analyses of free-piston Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankam, M. D.; Rauch, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Reported dynamics analyses for evaluating the steady-state response and stability of free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) systems are compared. Various analytical approaches are discussed to provide guidance on their salient features. Recommendations are made in the recommendations remarks for an approach which captures most of the inherent properties of the engine. Such an approach has the potential for yielding results which will closely match practical FPSE-load systems.

  2. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Swash-Plate Axial Piston Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Guangjun Liu; Zhaocheng Zhou; Xin Qian; Xiaofeng Wu; Weihai Pang

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an MDO (multidisciplinary design optimization) procedure for a swash-plate axial piston pump based on co-simulation and integrated optimization. The integrated hydraulic-mechanical model of the pump is built to reflect its actual performance, and a hydraulic-mechanical co-simulation is conducted through data exchange between different domains. The flow ripple of the pump is optimized by using a MDO procedure. A CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation of the pump’s flo...

  3. Den mindst ringe verdensorden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birthe

    2015-01-01

    I 25 år har USA's styrkeposition og politik forsynet os med en 'verdensorden', der i et historisk perspektiv fremstår som den mindst ringe: fravær af store krige, mere demokrati, økonomisk fremgang - men dog også sammenbrudte stater og terrorisme.......I 25 år har USA's styrkeposition og politik forsynet os med en 'verdensorden', der i et historisk perspektiv fremstår som den mindst ringe: fravær af store krige, mere demokrati, økonomisk fremgang - men dog også sammenbrudte stater og terrorisme....

  4. Electrothermal Ring Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-voltage fountainheads such as car, tractor or motorcycle batteries are predisposed to produce large currents. Any metal object that comes into contact with these batteries may result in short-circuit. This may result in rapid and excessive heating of metal object and an electrothermal burn. Herein we presented a motorcycle driver who was 28-year-old man with electrothermal ring burn which was caused by metal chain that was used as a ring. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 106-7

  5. Saturn's Rings, the Yarkovsky Effects, and the Ring of Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2004-01-01

    The dimensions of Saturn's A and B rings may be determined by the seasonal Yarkovsky effect and the Yarkovsky-Schach effect; the two effects confine the rings between approximately 1.68 and approximately 2.23 Saturn radii, in reasonable agreement with the observed values of 1.525 and 2.267. The C ring may be sparsely populated because its particles are transients on their way to Saturn; the infall may create a luminous Ring of Fire around Saturn's equator. The ring system may be young: in the past heat flow from Saturn's interior much above its present value would not permit rings to exist.

  6. Characteristics comparison of weld metal zones welded to cast and forged steels for piston crown material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyung-Man; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Baek, Tae-Sil

    2015-03-01

    An optimum repair welding for the piston crown which is one of the engine parts exposed to the combustion chamber is considered to be very important to prolong the engine lifetime from an economical point of view. In this study, two types of filler metals such as 1.25Cr-0.5Mo, 0.5Mo were welded with SMAW method and the other two types of filler metals such as Inconel 625 and 718 were welded with GTAW method, respectively, and the used base metals were the cast and forged steels of the piston crown material. The weld metal zones welded with Inconel 625 and 718 filler metals exhibited higher corrosion resistance compared to 1.25Cr-0.5Mo and 0.5Mo filler metals. In particular, the weld metal zone welded with Inconel 718 and 0.5Mo, filler metals indicated the best and worst corrosion resistance, respectively. Consequently, it is suggested that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal zone surely depends on the chemical components of each filler metal and welding method irrespective of the types of piston crown material.

  7. Overview of Multi-Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Research at GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Mason, Lee S.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2008-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors and a pair of commercially available pressure wave generators (which will be plumbed together to create a high power Stirling linear alternator test rig) have been procured for in-house testing at Glenn Research Center. Delivery of both the Stirling convertors and the linear alternator test rig is expected by October, 2007. The 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors will be tested at GRC to map and verify performance. The convertors will later be modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. The high power linear alternator test rig will be used to map and verify high power Stirling linear alternator performance and to develop power management and distribution (PMAD) methods and techniques. This paper provides an overview of the multi-kilowatt free-piston Stirling power conversion work being performed at GRC.

  8. Influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters of spring-piston air guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    In firearm examiners' and forensic specialists' casework as well as in air gun proof testing, reliable measurement of the weapon's muzzle velocity is indispensable. While there are standardized and generally accepted procedures for testing the performance of air guns, the method of seating the diabolo pellets deeper into the breech of break barrel spring-piston air guns has not found its way into standardized test procedures. The influence of pellet seating on the external ballistic parameters was investigated using ten different break barrel spring-piston air guns. Test shots were performed with the diabolo pellets seated 2 mm deeper into the breech using a pellet seater. The results were then compared to reference shots with conventionally loaded diabolo pellets. Projectile velocity was measured with a high-precision redundant ballistic speed measurement system. In eight out of ten weapons, the muzzle energy increased significantly when the pellet seater was used. The average increase in kinetic energy was 31 % (range 9-96 %). To conclude, seating the pellet even slightly deeper into the breech of spring-piston air guns might significantly alter the muzzle energy. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that this effect is taken into account when accurate and reliable measurements of air gun muzzle velocity are necessary.

  9. Calculation of the Thermal Loading of the Cylinder-Piston Group of the Automobile Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchenko, F. B.; Bakulin, V. N.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a mathematical model for calculating thermal loods of parts of the cylinder-piston group of the automobile engine operating under unstable conditions in its complete life cycle. Methods have been described for calculating the boundary conditions to determine the thermal state of the parts of the cylinder-piston group of such an engine with the use of theoretical formulas, empirical and semiempirical relations, and tabulated data. In modeling, we calculated the work of all systems of the engine (pumps, pipelines, heat exchangers) influencing directly or indirectly the thermal state of its cylinder-piston group. The nonstationary thermal state was calculated once in the operating cycle of the engine with the use of the cycle-averaged values of the local heat transfer coefficients and the resulting temperature of the medium. The personal computer counting time for one time step of a transport diesel engine of typical design with a number of units of the order of 500 was 5 s.

  10. Modeling and Performance Improvement of the Constant Power Regulator Systems in Variable Displacement Axial Piston Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software.

  11. Modeling and performance improvement of the constant power regulator systems in variable displacement axial piston pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Jong Shik

    2013-01-01

    An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software.

  12. RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine sensitivity test results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, J.G.; Geng, S.M.; Lorenz, G.V.

    1986-10-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been testing a 1 kW (1.33 hp) free-piston Stirling engine at the NASA Lewis test facilities. The tests performed over the past several years have been on a single cylinder machine known as the RE-1000. The data recorded were to aid in the investigation of the dynamics and thermodynamics of the free-piston Stirling engine. The data are intended to be used primarily for computer code validation. NASA reports TM-82999, TM-83407, and TM-87126 give initial results of the engine tests. The tests were designed to investigate the sensitivity of the engine performance to variations on the mean pressure of the working space, the working fluid used, heater and cooler temperatures, regenerator porosity, power piston mass and displacer dynamics. These tests have now been completed at NASA Lewis. This report presents some of the detailed data collected in the sensitivity tests. In all, 781 data points were recorded. A complete description of the engine and test facility is given. Many of the data can be found in tabular form, while a microfiche containing all of the data points can be requested from NASA Lewis.

  13. Risk Assessment of Defect Occurrences in Engine Piston Castings by FMEA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piątkowski J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis method consists in analysis of failure modes and evaluation of their effects based on determination of cause-effect relationships for formation of possible product or process defects. Identified irregularities which occur during the production process of piston castings for internal combustion engines were ordered according to their failure rates, and using Pareto-Lorenz analysis, their per cent and cumulated shares were determined. The assessments of risk of defects occurrence and their causes were carried out in ten-point scale of integers, while taking three following criteria into account: significance of effects of the defect occurrence (LPZ, defect occurrence probability (LPW and detectability of the defect found (LPO. A product of these quantities constituted the risk score index connected with a failure occurrence (a so-called “priority number,” LPR. Based on the observations of the piston casting process and on the knowledge of production supervisors, a set of corrective actions was developed and the FMEA was carried out again. It was shown that the proposed improvements reduce the risk of occurrence of process failures significantly, translating into a decrease in defects and irregularities during the production of piston castings for internal combustion engines.

  14. On the formation modes in vortex interaction for multiple co-axial co-rotating vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Suyang; Liu, Hong; Xiang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Interaction among multiple vortices is of particular importance to biological locomotion. It plays an essential role in the force and energy capture. This study examines the motion and dynamics of multiple co-axial co-rotating vortex rings. The vortex rings, which have the same formation time, are successively generated in a piston-cylinder apparatus by accurately controlling the interval time. The flow fields are visualized by the finite-time Lyapunov exponent and then repelling Lagrangian coherent structures (r-LCSs) are determined. Two types of vortex interactions ("strong" and "weak") are defined by investigating the r-LCSs: a strong interaction is indicated by connected r-LCSs showing a channel for fluid transport (termed as a "flux window"); a weak interaction is indicated by disconnected r-LCSs between the vortex rings. For strong interaction, leapfrogging and merger of vortex rings can happen in the later stage of the evolution process; however, the rings are separated for weak interaction. Two distinct formation modes, the formation enhancement mode (FEM) and formation restraint mode (FRM), refer to the effect of one or multiple vortex ring(s) on the initial circulation of the subsequently formed vortex ring. In the FEM, the circulation of a vortex ring is larger than that of an isolated (without interaction) vortex ring. On the other hand, the situation is opposite in the FRM. A dimensionless number reflecting the interaction mechanism, "structure stretching number" S*, is proposed, which evaluates the induced effect of the wake vortices on the formation of a vortex ring. A limiting S* (SL*=(2 ±0.4 ) ×1 0-4) is the bifurcation point of the two formation modes. The augmentation of circulation reaches up to 10% for the FEM when S*SL*), the circulation decreases for at most 20%. The newly defined formation modes and number could shed light on the understanding of the dynamics of multiple vortex ring flows.

  15. Nonlinear control of variable-displacement self-supplied axial piston pumps; Nichtlineare Regelung von verstellbaren eigenversorgten Axialkolbenpumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchshumer, F.; Kemmetmueller, W.; Kugi, A. [Univ. des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Systemtheorie und Regelungstechnik

    2007-02-15

    This contribution is concerned with the model-based nonlinear control of a variable-displacement, self-supplied axial piston pump for the application in plastic injection moulding machines. Due to the self-supply mechanism the mathematical model of the pump turns out to be a switched system depending on the direction of movement of the swash plate. The demands on the closed-loop performance with respect to dynamics and stationary accuracy on the assumption of unknown loads are basically derived from the injection process of plastic injection moulding machines. The control concept being derived consists of an inversion-based feedforward controller, an adaptive backstepping controller for the stabilization of the trajectory error system and an estimator for the unknown load. The controller and the estimator design are performed for each subsystem of the overall switched system separately. The stability of the overall closed-loop system can be proven in a systematic way by utilizing the theory of multiple Lyapunov functions. Experimental results on a test-stand show an excellent performance of the closed-loop system for all test scenarios. (orig.)

  16. Free piston linear generator for low grid power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Izzeldin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating power is of great importance nowadays across the world. However, recently, the world became aware of the climatic changes due to the greenhouse effect caused by CO2 emissions and began seeking solutions to reduce the negative impact on the environment. Besides, the exhaustion of fossil fuels and their environmental impact, make it is crucial to develop clean energy sources, and efforts are focused on developing and improving the efficiency of all energy consuming systems. The tubular permanent magnet linear generators (TPMLGs are the best candidate for energy converters. Despite being suffering problem of attraction force between permanent magnets and stator teeth, to eliminate such attraction force, ironless-stator could be considered. Thus, they could waive the presence of any magnetic attraction between the moving and stator part. This paper presents the design and analysis of ironless -cored TPMLG for low grid power generation. The main advantages of this generator are the low cogging force and high efficiency. Therefore, the magnetic field computation of the proposed generator has been performed by applying a magnetic vector potential and utilizing a 2-D finite element analysis (FEA. Moreover, the experimental results for the current profile, pressure profile and velocity profile have been presented.

  17. Storage Ring EDM Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semertzidis Yannis K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated storage ring electric dipole moment (EDM methods show great promise advancing the sensitivity level by a couple orders of magnitude over currently planned hadronic EDM experiments. We describe the present status and recent updates of the field.

  18. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...... functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also compute the fu- sion rings for type G2....

  19. Seismic Source Mechanism of Gas-Piston Activity at Kilauea Inferred from Inversion of Broadband Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, B. A.; Dawson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Among the broad range of magmatic processes observed in the Overlook pit crater in Kilauea Caldera are recurring episodes of gas-piston activity. This activity is accompanied by repetitive seismic signals recorded by a broadband network deployed in the summit caldera. We use the seismic data to model the source mechanism of representative gas-piston events in a sequence that occurred on 20-25 August 2011 during a gentle inflation of the Kilauea summit. We apply a new waveform inversion method that accounts for the contributions from both translation and tilt in horizontal seismograms through the use of Green's functions representing the seismometer response to translation and tilt ground motions. This method enables a robust description of the source mechanism over the period range of 1 - 10,000 s. Most of the seismic wave field produced by gas-pistoning originates in a source region ~1 km below the eastern perimeter of Halema'uma'u pit crater. The observed waveforms are well explained by a simple volumetric source with geometry composed of two intersecting cracks featuring an east-striking crack (dike) dipping 80° to the north, intersecting a north-striking crack (inclined sheet) dipping 65° to the east. Each gas-piston event is characterized by a rapid inflation lasting a few minutes trailed by a slower deflation ramp extending up to 15 minutes, attributed to the efficient coupling at the source centroid location of the pressure and momentum changes accompanying the growth and collapse of a layer of foam at the top of the magma column. Assuming a simple lumped parameter representation of the shallow magmatic system, the observed pressure and volume variations can be modeled with the following attributes: foam thickness (10 - 50 m), foam cell diameter (0.04 - 0.10 m), and gas-injection velocity (0.01 - 0.06 m s-1). Based on the change in the period of very-long-period oscillations accompanying the onset of the gas-piston signal and tilt evidence, the height of

  20. Ring Bubbles of Dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Karim; Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi; White, Don J.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses how dolphins create and play with three types of air-filled vortices. The underlying physics is discussed. Photographs and sketches illustrating the dolphin's actions and physics are presented. The dolphins engage in this behavior on their own initiative without food reward. These behaviors are done repeatedly and with singleminded effort. The first type is the ejection of bubbles which, after some practice on the part of the dolphin, turn into toroidal vortex ring bubbles by the mechanism of baroclinic torque. These bubbles grow in radius and become thinner as they rise vertically to the surface. One dolphin would blow two in succession and guide them to fuse into one. Physicists call this a vortex reconnection. In the second type, the dolphins first create an invisible vortex ring in the water by swimming on their side and waving their tail fin (also called flukes) vigorously. This vortex ring travels horizontally in the water. The dolphin then turns around, finds the vortex and injects a stream of air into it from its blowhole. The air "fills-out" the core of the vortex ring. Often, the dolphin would knock-off a smaller ring bubble from the larger ring (this also involves vortex reconnection) and steer the smaller ring around the tank. One other dolphin employed a few other techniques for planting air into the fluke vortex. One technique included standing vertically in the water with tail-up, head-down and tail piercing the free surface. As the fluke is waved to create the vortex ring, air is entrained from above the surface. Another technique was gulping air in the mouth, diving down, releasing air bubbles from the mouth and curling them into a ring when they rose to the level of the fluke. In the third type, demonstrated by only one dolphin, the longitudinal vortex created by the dorsal fin on the back is used to produce 10-15 foot long helical bubbles. In one technique she swims in a curved path. This creates a dorsal fin vortex since

  1. Sensitivity enhanced fiber sensor based on a fiber ring microwave photonic filter with the Vernier effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zuowei; Shu, Xuewen; Fu, Hongyan

    2017-09-04

    A temperature sensor employing the Vernier effect generated from a cascaded fiber rings based microwave photonic filter (MPF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The structure of the fiber ring is used as a sensing element as well as the sampling and delaying component of the MPF in our proposed sensing scheme. The sensing characteristics of both single ring and cascaded fiber rings based sensors have been studied and compared. By employing two cascaded fiber rings of slightly different length, the Vernier effect can be generated in the frequency response of the MPF. The sensing interrogation of the cascaded fiber rings based sensor is conducted by detecting the frequency shift of the upper envelope of the measured frequency response curve. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the cascaded fiber rings based sensor can be improved about 30 times compared with the single fiber ring based temperature sensor.

  2. Saturn ring temperature changes before and after ring equinox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda; Flandes, Alberto; Morishima, Ryuji; Leyrat, Cedric; Altobelli, Nicolas; Ferrari, Cecile; Brooks, Shawn; Pilorz, Stu

    2010-05-01

    The Cassini Composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) retrieved the temperatures of Saturn's main rings at solar elevations ranging from 24 degrees to zero degrees at equinox (August 2009) as the sun traversed from the south to north side of the rings. Over this broad range of solar elevation the CIRS data show that the ring temperatures vary as much as 29K- 38K for the A ring, 22K-34K for the B ring and 18K-23K for the C ring. Interestingly the unlit sides of the rings show a similar decrease in temperature with the decreasing solar elevation. As equinox approached, the main rings cooled to their lowest temperatures measured to date. At equinox the solar input is very small and the primary heat sources for the rings are Saturn thermal and visible energy. Temperatures are almost identical for similar geometries on the north and south sides of the rings. The ring temperatures at equinox were: C ring, 55-75 K; B ring, 45-60 K; Cassini Division, 45 - 58 K; and A ring, 43 - 52 K. After Saturn equinox the solar elevation angle began to increase again and the temperatures on both the lit (north) and unlit (south) sides of the rings have begun to increase as well. Ring thermal models developed by Flandes and Morishima are able to reproduce most of the equinox temperatures observed by CIRS. Results before and after equinox will be presented. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA and at CEA Saclay supported by the "Programme National de Planetologie". Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  3. Effects Of Ignition on Premixed Vortex Rings: A Simultaneous PLIF and PIV Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T. R.; Gord, J. R.; Katta, V. R.; Gogineni, S. P.

    2001-11-01

    Preliminary studies of reacting, premixed vortex rings have shown that flame propagation is highly sensitive to ignition timing, equivalence ratio, and vortex strength. A variety of divergent phenomena have been observed, such as interior/exterior flame propagation, vortex-induced flame bridging across the jet column, and the formation of unburned pockets. In the current work, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone and OH is performed to study the non-reacting and reacting regions, respectively, and particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to study the effects of reaction on the flow field. The flow field consists of well-characterized vortex rings of premixed methane and air generated at the exit of an axisymmetric nozzle using a solenoid-driven piston. Ignition is initiated at various phases of vortex development and propagation. Results are compared with corresponding numerical simulations from a time-dependent computational fluid dynamics code with chemistry.

  4. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  5. Ring closure in actin polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Supurna, E-mail: supurna@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sebanti [Doon University, Dehradun 248001 (India)

    2017-03-18

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers. - Highlights: • Ring closure of biopolymers. • Worm like chain model. • Predictions for experiments.

  6. Large eddy simulations of the influence of piston position on the swirling flow in a model two-stroke diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeidat, Anas Hassan MohD; Schnipper, Teis; Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of piston position on the in-cylinder swirling flow in a simplified model of a large two-stroke marine diesel engine. Design/methodology/approach – Large eddy simulations with four different models for the turbulent flow are used: a one...... limitations/implications – Considering the complexity of the real engine, the authors designed the engine model using the simplest configuration possible. The setup contains no moving parts, the combustion is neglected and the exhaust valve is discarded. Originality/value – Studying the flow in a simplified...... engine model, the setup allows studies of fundamental aspects of swirling flow in a uniform scavenged engine. Comparing the four turbulence models, the local dynamic one-equation model is found to give the best agreement with the experimental results....

  7. Investigation of a 7-pole/6-slot Halbach-magnetized permanent-magnet linear alternator used for free-piston stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping; Tong, Chengde; Zhao, Jing; Yu, Bin; Li, Lin; Bai, Jingang; Zhang, Lu

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates a 7-pole/6-slot Halbach-magnetized permanent-magnet linear alternator used for free piston Stirling engines (FPSEs). Taking the advantages of Halbach array, a 1 kW prototype alternator is designed. Considering the rms value of electromotive force (EMF) and harmonic distortion, the optimal length ratio of the axial- and radial-magnetized permanent magnets and thicknesses of the permanent magnets are optimized by 2D finite element method. The alternator detent force, which is an important factor for smooth operation of FPSEs, is studied by optimizing slot tip and end tooth. The load and thermal performances of the final design are simulated. A prototype alternator was designed, built and tested. Experimental data indicated satisfactory design.

  8. O-Ring-Testing Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James E.; Mccluney, D. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Fixture used to evalute properties of O-rings of various materials. Hydraulic actuator positions plug in housing, creating controlled, variable gap in O-ring glands formed by grooves in plug and by inner wall of housing. Creates controlled axial and radial gaps between sealing surfaces around ring so effectiveness of material in maintaining seal determined under dynamic conditions.

  9. Clean elements in abelian rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    equivalent to being clean for an abelian ring is 'topologically boolean'. In line with [1] we say that a ring R (not necessarily commutative) is right (resp. left) topologically boolean, or a right (resp. left) tb-ring for short, if for every pair of distinct maximal right (resp. left) ideals of R there is an idempotent in exactly one of them.

  10. Ring closure in actin polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Supurna; Chattopadhyay, Sebanti

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments.We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers.

  11. Non-Commutative Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    López-Permouth, Sergio

    1990-01-01

    The papers of this volume share as a common goal the structure and classi- fication of noncommutative rings and their modules, and deal with topics of current research including: localization, serial rings, perfect endomorphism rings, quantum groups, Morita contexts, generalizations of injectivitiy, and Cartan matrices.

  12. Resource-saving technology for manufacturing billets for piston’s rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Piston’s rings are one of the most critical parts of heavy-duty engines for wear-work in conditions of prolonged exposure of alternating loads and high temperatures. Currently in the world production of billets for piston’s rings is dominated by the two methods of casting: production of individual and oiling billets of gray and ductile cast iron in green-sand mold and shell mold and centrifugal casting method (intended primarily for oiling billets of ductile iron; the technology for individual production billets for piston’s rings with a diameter up to 250 mm, from 250 to 450 mm with individual and oiling ways, over 450 mm - preference of oiling billet. The best parameters of physical-mechanical and operational characteristics piston’s rings are in the case of manufacture of billets to the maximum extent approaching the configuration to the finished product. The rings made of shaped billets are characterized by uniform distribution of properties from the perimeter, provide a given diagram of pressures and full fit to the cylinder. Because of deficiencies of traditional methods of casting, continuous quality requirements for billets, the need for economy of material, fuel and energy resources, are finding new progressive technological processes of production of high-quality billets for piston’s rings. One of the most promising for piston rings billet is a method of casting consists of immersing the sand molds into the melt. It is interesting idea, expressed by A. Sutherland and subsequently patented in several countries in the way of casting method, called "immersion pouring technology" (ICT-Immersion Casting Technique [1]. Experiments, conducted in the laboratory of the Belarusian National Technical University, have identified significant shortcomings of immersion method of casting. When forms are immersing, have an intensive gassing in molten metal, and freezing of the metal on the out surface of the form. But despite some

  13. Saturn Ring Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, T. R.

    2001-01-01

    Answering fundamental questions about ring particle characteristics, and individual and group behavior, appears to require close-proximity (a few km) observations. Saturn's magnificent example of a ring system offers a full range of particle sizes, densities, and behaviors for study, so it is a natural choice for such detailed investigation. Missions implementing these observations require post-approach Delta(V) of approximately 10 km/s or more, so past mission concepts called upon Nuclear Electric Propulsion. The concept described here reduces the propulsive Delta(V) requirement to as little as 3.5 km/s, difficult but not impossible for high-performance chemical propulsion systems. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Satellite Rings Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie clip (of which the release image is a still frame), taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft as it approached Jupiter, shows the motions, over a 16 hour-period, of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies.The movie was made from images taken during a 40-hour sequence of the Jovian ring on December 11, 2000.Cassini is a cooperative mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages Cassini for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  15. Eelgrass fairy rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Jens; Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Distinct ‘fairy rings’ consisting of narrow fringes of eelgrass (Zostera marina l.) expand radially over a bottom of chalk plates outside the calcium carbon- ate cliffs of the island of Møn, Denmark. We conducted a survey to evaluate possible explanations for the formation of the rings and, more...... sulfide accumulating in the sediment due to low iron availability in the carbonate-rich environment....

  16. Improvement of the thermal and mechanical flow characteristics in the exhaust system of piston engine through the use of ejection effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, L. V.; Zhilkin, B. P.; Brodov, Yu M.

    2017-11-01

    The results of experimental research of gas dynamics and heat transfer in the exhaust process in piston internal combustion engines are presented. Studies were conducted on full-scale models of piston engine in the conditions of unsteady gas-dynamic (pulsating flows). Dependences of the instantaneous flow speed and the local heat transfer coefficient from the crankshaft rotation angle in the exhaust pipe are presented in the article. Also, the flow characteristics of the exhaust gases through the exhaust systems of various configurations are analyzed. It is shown that installation of the ejector in the exhaust system lead to a stabilization of the flow and allows to improve cleaning of the cylinder from exhaust gases and to optimize the thermal state of the exhaust pipes. Experimental studies were complemented by numerical simulation of the working process of the DM-21 diesel engine (production of “Ural diesel-motor plant”). The object of modeling was the eight-cylinder diesel with turbocharger. The simulation was performed taking into account the processes nonstationarity in the intake and exhaust pipes for the various configurations of exhaust systems (with and without ejector). Numerical simulation of the working process of diesel was performed in ACTUS software (ABB Turbo Systems). The simulation results confirmed the stabilization of the flow due to the use of the ejection effect in the exhaust system of a diesel engine. The use of ejection in the exhaust system of the DM-21 diesel leads to improvement of cleaning cylinders up to 10 %, reduces the specific fuel consumption on average by 1 %.

  17. Antiproton cooling in the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaitsev, S.; Bolshakov, A.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kazakevich, G.; Kramper, B.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G; Schmidt, C.W.; Seletskiy, S.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; Zenkevich, P.; /Fermilab /Moscow, ITEP /Novosibirsk, IYF /Rochester U.

    2005-12-01

    The 8.9-GeV/c Recycler antiproton storage ring is equipped with both stochastic and electron cooling systems. These cooling systems are designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. In this paper we report on an experimental demonstration of electron cooling of high-energy antiprotons. At the time of writing this report, the Recycler electron cooling system is routinely used in collider operations. It has helped to set recent peak luminosity records.

  18. Uranus rings and two moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Voyager 2 has discovered two 'shepherd' satellites associated with the rings of Uranus. The two moons -- designated 1986U7 and 1986U8 -- are seen here on either side of the bright epsilon ring; all nine of the known Uranian rings are visible. The image was taken Jan. 21, 1986, at a distance of 4.1 million kilometers (2.5 million miles) and resolution of about 36 km (22 mi). The image was processed to enhance narrow features. The epsilon ring appears surrounded by a dark halo as a result of this processing; occasional blips seen on the ring are also artifacts. Lying inward from the epsilon ring are the delta, gamma and eta rings; then the beta and alpha rings; and finally the barely visible 4, 5 and 6 rings. The rings have been studied since their discovery in 1977, through observations of how they diminish the light of stars they pass in front of. This image is the first direct observation of all nine rings in reflected sunlight. They range in width from about 100 km (60 mi) at the widest part of the epsilon ring to only a few kilometers for most of the others. The discovery of the two ring moons 1986U7 and 1986U8 is a major advance in our understanding of the structure of the Uranian rings and is in good agreement with theoretical predictions of how these narrow rings are kept from spreading out. Based on likely surface brightness properties, the moons are of roughly 2O- and 3O-km diameter, respectively. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  19. Remarks on modeling the flexible seal ring housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundera, C.; Martsynkovskyy, V.; Zahorulko, A.

    2017-08-01

    When formulating models of dynamic face seals, two issues are of essential importance. The first concerns the determination of the forces formed in the medium film in the gap formed by the faces of two rings, while the second refers to the model of the flexible housing of one of the seal rings. The first issue includes the analysis of the medium flow through a narrow slit, taking thermal phenomena and deformations of slit-forming surfaces into account. The second issue concerns the modeling of properties of seal structural components, especially the modeling of elastic-damping properties of the flexible seal ring housing. This paper presents the results of simple relaxation tests of elastomeric rings and the procedure for analyzing these results and evaluating the elastic-damping properties of the rings tested. Finally, experimental results will be compared with theory.

  20. Synchronization Algorithm for SDN-controlled All-Optical TDM Switching in a Random Length Ring Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija; Cristofori, Valentina; Da Ros, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an algorithm that allows for automatic synchronization of SDN-controlled all-optical TDM switching nodes connected in a ring network. We experimentally show successful WDM-SDM transmission of data bursts between all ring nodes.......We propose and demonstrate an algorithm that allows for automatic synchronization of SDN-controlled all-optical TDM switching nodes connected in a ring network. We experimentally show successful WDM-SDM transmission of data bursts between all ring nodes....

  1. O-Ring-Testing Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James E.; Mccluney, D. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Fixture tests O-rings for sealing ability under dynamic conditions after extended periods of compression. Hydraulic cylinder moves plug in housing. Taper of 15 degrees on plug and cavity of housing ensures that gap created between O-ring under test and wall of cavity. Secondary O-rings above and below test ring maintain pressure applied to test ring. Evaluates effects of variety of parameters, including temperature, pressure, rate of pressurization, rate and magnitude of radial gap movement, and pretest compression time.

  2. Endoskeletal ossicular reconstruction using the Kraus K-Helix Crown and Piston middle ear prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Eric M; Christopher, Julia Y

    2010-01-01

    The Kraus K-Helix Crown and Piston prostheses are novel, newly designed, MRI compatible, titanium ossicular replacement prostheses that have received U.S. Food and Drug Administration clearance in March of 2008 for ossiculoplasty. Reconstruction is indicated to restore sound conduction of the ossicular chain during tympanoplasty in chronic and non-chronic ears. The prostheses have been specifically developed for reconstruction of an eroded or absent long process of the incus and an eroded or absent stapes superstructure. They may be used with or without glass-ionomer cement. The prostheses may be implanted incus-to-stapes or malleus-to-stapes (K-Helix Crown) or may be implanted incus-to-footplatelneo-membrane or malleus-to-footplate/neo-membrane (K-Helix Piston). The K-Helix Piston is useful during revision stapedectomy when an eroded long process of the incus is encountered. By coating the K-Helix prostheses with glass-ionomer cement, it is possible to perform "endoskeletal ossicular reconstruction" which greatly enhances long-term prosthesis stability and avoids contact with the tympanic membrane. The prostheses may be custom-fit to reconstruct each individual patient's anatomy. Preliminary hearing results in a small cohort of patients at one year indicate very satisfactory hearing results with closure of the air-bone gap in the majority of patients. The ENT OR nurse plays a role in the use of specialized, adjunctive OR equipment that is used with the technology, is required for the preparation of glass-ionomer cement, and provides patients with important educational information concerning reconstructive otologic procedures.

  3. Mass of Saturn's A ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, L. J.; Russell, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    The mass of Saturn's A ring is reestimated using the behavior of spiral density waves embedded in the ring. The Voyager photopolarimeter (PPS) observed the star delta-Scorpii as it was occulted by Saturn's rings during the Voyager 2 flyby of Saturn in 1981 producing a radial profile of the rings. We examined forty spiral density waves in the Voyager PPS data of the A ring including 10 weaker waves that have not been previously analyzed by means of an autoregressive power spectral technique called Burg. The strengths of this new method for ring studies are that weaker, less extended waves are easily detected and characterized. This method is also the first one which does not require precise knowledge of the resonance location and phase of the wave in order to calculate the surface mass density. Uncertainties of up to 3 km are present in the currently available radial scales for Saturn's rings.

  4. Research on the Combustion Characteristics of a Free-Piston Gasoline Engine Linear Generator during the Stable Generating Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Miao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The free-piston gasoline engine linear generator (FPGLG is a new kind of power plant consisting of free-piston gasoline engines and a linear generator. Due to the elimination of the crankshaft mechanism, the piston motion process and the combustion heat release process affect each other significantly. In this paper, the combustion characteristics during the stable generating process of a FPGLG were presented using a numerical iteration method, which coupled a zero-dimensional piston dynamic model and a three-dimensional scavenging model with the combustion process simulation. The results indicated that, compared to the conventional engine (CE, the heat release process of the FPGLG lasted longer with a lower peak heat release rate. The indicated thermal efficiency of the engine was lower because less heat was released around the piston top dead centre (TDC. Very minimal difference was observed on the ignition delay duration between the FPGLG and the CE, while the post-combustion period of the FPGLG was significantly longer than that of the CE. Meanwhile, the FPGLG was found to operate more moderately due to lower peak in-cylinder gas pressure and a lower pressure rising rate. The potential advantage of the FPGLG in lower NOx emission was also proven with the simulation results presented in this paper.

  5. Overview of the 1986 free-piston Stirling SP-100 activities at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center SP-100 free-piston Stirling engine activities is presented. These activities include a free-piston Stirling space-power technology feasibility demonstration project as part of the SP-100 program being conducted in support of the Department of Defennse (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), and NASA. The space-power Stirling advanced technology effort, under SP-100, addresses the status of the 25 kWe Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) including test results. Future space-power projections are presented along with a description of a study that will investigate the feasibility of scaling a single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space-power module to the 150 kW power range. Design parameters and conceptual design features will be presented for a 25 kWe, single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space-power converter. A description of a hydrodynamic gas bearing concept is presented whereby the displacer of a 1 kWe free-piston Stirling engine is modified to demonstrate the bearing concept. And finally the goals of a conceptual design for a 25 kWe Solar Advanced Stirling Conversion System capable of delivering electric power to an electric utility grid are discussed.

  6. Influence of piston position on the scavenging and swirling flow in two-stoke diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeidat, Anas; Haider, Sajjad; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2011-01-01

    We study the eect of piston position on the in-cylinder swirling flow in a low speed large two-stroke marine diesel engine model. We are using Large Eddy Simulations in OpenFOAM, with three different models for the turbulent flow: a one equation model (OEM), a dynamic one equation model (DOEM...... closure from a Burgers vortex profile to a solid body rotation while the axial velocity changes from a wake-like profile to a jet-like profile. The numerical results are compared with measurements in a similar geometry [3] and we find a good agreement between simulations and measurements. Furthermore, we...

  7. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David; Santiago, Walter; Madi, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  8. Temperature measurement of tribological parts in swash-plate type axial piston pumps:

    OpenAIRE

    KAZAMA, Toshiharu; Tsuruno, Tadamasa; Sasaki, Hayato

    2011-01-01

    Temperatures of a swash plate, cylinder block, and a valve plate of swash-plate type axial piston pumps with a rotating cylinder block and a rotating swash plate were measured. Thermocouples were embedded underneath these parts. Hydraulic mineral oils with ISO VG22, 32, 46, and 68 and a water-glycol type hydraulic fluid with VG32 were used as test fluids. The maximum discharge pressure was 20 MPa and the maximum rotational speed was 28.3 rps. The inlet oil temperatures were specified as 293-3...

  9. Investigation of Significant Process Parameter in Manganese Phosphating of Piston Pin Material by Using ANOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Hemant V Chavan; Milind s Yadav

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the most significant parameter such as phosphating bath temperature, phosphating time,accelerator level on the fatigue life of piston pin material such as 40NiCr4Mo3 by analysis of variance (ANOVA).The selected three imput parameters were studied at three different level by conducting nine experiments based on L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi’s methodology.Phosphating bath temperature has significant effect on fatigue strength followed by phosph...

  10. Leakage characteristics for starting and low-speed conditions of hydrostatic slipper bearings in swashplate type axial piston motor. Shabanshiki axial piston motor yo seiatsu slipper jikuuke no kidoji more tokusei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Fang; Kato, Hideki; Kobayashi, Shun' ichi; Ikeya, Mitsuel (Ngaoka Inst., of Tech., Niigata, (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-01-15

    Though there is structurally simple swashplate type axial piston motor, to replace the hydraulic piston motor, high in performance but high in cost, it is expected to give anxiety at the time of starting and low speed rotation. Then, the viewpoint being focused on leakage characteristics between the slipper and swashplate, study was made by deriving theoretical formulas, taking into consideration friction of sliding parts, inclination of slipper against the swashplate and inclination of piston against the cylinder bore, for static equilibrium problem at the time of starting, with modeling the actual slipper in function. As a result, the slipper was known to statically balance at the position, oblique and parallel to the swashplate, in case of 15 degrees and 0 degree, respectively, in swashplate angle. While the leakage quantity at the time of loading/unloading gives and does not give hysteresis characteristics, in case of 15 degrees and 0 degree, respectively, in swashplate. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Status of the Frankfurt low energy electrostatic storage ring (FLSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, F.; Kruppi, T.; Müller, J.; Dörner, R.; Schmidt, L. Ph H.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2015-11-01

    Frankfurt low-energy storage ring (FLSR) is an electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions up to q · 80 keV (q being the ion charge state) at Institut für Kernphysik der Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It has especially been designed to provide a basis for experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions in complete kinematics, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. The ring has ‘racetrack’ geometry with a circumference of 14.23 m. It comprises four experimental/diagnostic sections with regions of enhanced ion density (interaction regions). First beam has successfully been stored in FLSR in summer 2013. Since then the performance of the ring has continuously been improved and an electron target for experiments on dissociative recombination has been installed in one of the experimental sections.

  12. Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szedlak, Rolf; Hayden, Jakob; Martín-Mateos, Pedro; Holzbauer, Martin; Harrer, Andreas; Schwarz, Benedikt; Hinkov, Borislav; MacFarland, Donald; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Acedo, Pablo; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried

    2018-01-01

    We review recent advances in chemical sensing applications based on surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Such lasers can be implemented in monolithically integrated on-chip laser/detector devices forming compact gas sensors, which are based on direct absorption spectroscopy according to the Beer-Lambert law. Furthermore, we present experimental results on radio frequency modulation up to 150 MHz of surface emitting ring QCLs. This technique provides detailed insight into the modulation characteristics of such lasers. The gained knowledge facilitates the utilization of ring QCLs in combination with spectroscopic techniques, such as heterodyne phase-sensitive dispersion spectroscopy for gas detection and analysis.

  13. Investigation of frequency stability and design criteria of ring lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Lichtenberg Hansen, P.; Buchhave, Preben

    1996-01-01

    We present a comprehensive Jones matrix analysis of two commonly used ring laser resonators. Different aspects on how to obtain low loss eigenmodes and/or high loss difference between the two directions of the cavity, and thus high frequency stability, are investigated. Also different approximati...... approximations are evaluated. Since the theory has been kept general, the derived results can be applied to a large class of ring laser designs. Finally the influence of backscattered light on the stability is considered. Experimental results on two ring lasers are discussed....

  14. Mass transfer during ice particle collisions in planetary rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, J. S. B.; Hatzes, A.; Bridges, F.; Lin, D. N. C.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental results are presented from laboratory environment simulations of the ice particle collisional properties defining the structure and dynamical evolution of planetary rings. It is inferred from these data that there is a dependence of the interacting volume on the impact velocity. Although the volume fraction exchanged during a collision is small, the net amount of material transferred can be substantially smaller. Attention is given to the implications of these determinations for planetary ring structure and evolution.

  15. Dynamic behaviour of ring seals in hydraulic turbomachinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verry, A.; Guiton, P.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of ring seals on rotor dynamic of hydraulic turbomachinery has been felt for a long time by manufacturers, experimentators and users. After a description of the main phenomena which govern dynamic behaviour of ring seals, one presents the main theoretical models (Lomakin model, Black linear analysis, numerical resolution of Hirs equations developed by Childs). Then some unstable configurations are studied. In conclusion, one emphasizes the points which are to be deepened to cope with today industrial problems.

  16. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction and a realis......We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction...... and a realisation as quotient of quantum cohomology. Adv. Math. 225(1), 200–268, (2010) and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of non-commutative symmetric functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also...... compute the fusion rings for type G2....

  17. Analyzing the Surface Roughness Effects on Piston Skirt EHL in Initial Engine Start-Up Using Different Viscosity Grade Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gulzar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The absence of fully developed fluid film lubrication between Pistonand Liner surfaces is responsible for high friction and wear at initial engine start‐up. In this paper flow factor method is used in two dimensional Reynolds’ equation to model the effects of surfaceroughness characteristics on Piston Skirt elastohydrodynamiclubrication. The contact of surface asperities between the twosurfaces and its after effects on EHL of piston skirt is investigated. For this purpose, two different grade oils are used to show the changing effects of viscosity combined with surface roughness on different parameters including film thickness, eccentricities and hydrodynamic pressures. The results of the presented model shows considerable effects on film thickness of rough piston skirt, hydrodynamic pressures and eccentricities profilesfor 720 degrees crank angle.

  18. A numerical model on thermodynamic analysis of free piston Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Jian; Hong, Guotong

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a new numerical thermodynamic model which bases on the energy conservation law has been used to analyze the free piston Stirling engine. In the model all data was taken from a real free piston Stirling engine which has been built in our laboratory. The energy conservation equations have been applied to expansion space and compression space of the engine. The equation includes internal energy, input power, output power, enthalpy and the heat losses. The heat losses include regenerative heat conduction loss, shuttle heat loss, seal leakage loss and the cavity wall heat conduction loss. The numerical results show that the temperature of expansion space and the temperature of compression space vary with the time. The higher regeneration effectiveness, the higher efficiency and bigger output work. It is also found that under different initial pressures, the heat source temperature, phase angle and engine work frequency pose different effects on the engine’s efficiency and power. As a result, the model is expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design and optimization of Stirling engines.

  19. Multi-objective optimization and design for free piston Stirling engines based on the dimensionless power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Jian; Hong, Guotong

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the dimensionless power is used to optimize the free piston Stirling engines (FPSE). The dimensionless power is defined as a ratio of the heat power loss and the output work. The heat power losses include the losses of expansion space, heater, regenerator, cooler and the compression space and every kind of the heat loss calculated by empirical formula. The output work is calculated by the adiabatic model. The results show that 82.66% of the losses come from the expansion space and 54.59% heat losses of expansion space come from the shuttle loss. At different pressure the optimum bore-stroke ratio, heat source temperature, phase angle and the frequency have different values, the optimum phase angles increase with the increase of pressure, but optimum frequencies drop with the increase of pressure. However, no matter what the heat source temperature, initial pressure and frequency are, the optimum ratios of piston stroke and displacer stroke all about 0.8. The three-dimensional diagram is used to analyse Stirling engine. From the three-dimensional diagram the optimum phase angle, frequency and heat source temperature can be acquired at the same time. This study offers some guides for the design and optimization of FPSEs.

  20. 3D-CFD Simulation of Confined Cross-Flow Injection Process Using Single Piston Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elashmawy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Injection process into a confined cross flow is quite important for many applications including chemical engineering and water desalination technology. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of the injection process into a confined cross-flow of a round pipe using a single piston injection pump. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis has been carried out to investigate the effect of the locations of the maximum velocity and minimum pressure on the confined cross-flow process. The jet trajectory is analyzed and related to the injection pump shaft angle of rotation during the injection duty cycle by focusing on the maximum instant injection flow of the piston action. Results indicate a low effect of the jet trajectory within the range related to the injection pump operational conditions. Constant cross-flow was used and injection flow is altered to vary the jet to line flow ratio (QR. The maximum jet trajectory exhibits low penetration inside the cross-flow. The results showed three regions of the flow ratio effect zones with different behaviors. Results also showed that getting closer to the injection port causes a significant decrease on the locations of the maximum velocity and minimum pressure.

  1. Numerical investigation of CAI Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is focused on the CAI combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control CAI combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.

  2. Comparison of GLIMPS and HFAST Stirling engine code predictions with experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Tew, Roy C.

    1992-01-01

    Predictions from GLIMPS and HFAST design codes are compared with experimental data for the RE-1000 and SPRE free piston Stirling engines. Engine performance and available power loss predictions are compared. Differences exist between GLIMPS and HFAST loss predictions. Both codes require engine specific calibration to bring predictions and experimental data into agreement.

  3. Ring Image Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    Ring Image Analyzer software analyzes images to recognize elliptical patterns. It determines the ellipse parameters (axes ratio, centroid coordinate, tilt angle). The program attempts to recognize elliptical fringes (e.g., Newton Rings) on a photograph and determine their centroid position, the short-to-long-axis ratio, and the angle of rotation of the long axis relative to the horizontal direction on the photograph. These capabilities are important in interferometric imaging and control of surfaces. In particular, this program has been developed and applied for determining the rim shape of precision-machined optical whispering gallery mode resonators. The program relies on a unique image recognition algorithm aimed at recognizing elliptical shapes, but can be easily adapted to other geometric shapes. It is robust against non-elliptical details of the image and against noise. Interferometric analysis of precision-machined surfaces remains an important technological instrument in hardware development and quality analysis. This software automates and increases the accuracy of this technique. The software has been developed for the needs of an R&TD-funded project and has become an important asset for the future research proposal to NASA as well as other agencies.

  4. Non-relativistic limits of rarefaction wave to the 1-D piston problem for the isentropic relativistic Euler equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Min; Li, Yachun

    2017-08-01

    We consider the 1-D piston problem for the isentropic relativistic Euler equations when the total variations of the initial data and the speed of the piston are both sufficiently small. By a modified wave front tracking method, we establish the global existence of entropy solutions including a strong rarefaction wave without restriction on the strength. Meanwhile, we study the convergence of the entropy solutions to the corresponding entropy solutions of the classical non-relativistic isentropic Euler equations as the light speed c →+∞ .

  5. Ring current and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  6. Filtration on a Ring Make a Quasi Valuation or Valuation Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Anjom SHoa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that if R is a filtered ring then we can define a quasi valuation ring. And there exists a valuation ring if R is some kind of filtered ring. Then we prove some properties and relations between filtered ring and quasi valuation ring and valuation ring.

  7. Saturn's Rings and Associated Ring Plasma Cavity: Evidence for Slow Ring Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    We re-examine the radio and plasma wave observations obtained during the Cassini Saturn orbit insertion period, as the spacecraft flew over the northern ring surface into a radial distance of 1.3 Rs (over the C-ring). Voyager era studies suggest the rings are a source of micro-meteoroid generated plasma and dust, with theorized peak impact-created plasma outflows over the densest portion of the rings (central B-ring). In sharp contrast, the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave System (RPWS) observations identify the presence of a ring-plasma cavity located in the central portion of the B-ring, with little evidence of impact-related plasma. While previous Voyager era studies have predicted unstable ion orbits over the C- ring, leading to field-aligned plasma transport to Saturns ionosphere, the Cassini RPWS observations do not reveal evidence for such instability-created plasma fountains. Given the passive ring loss processes observed by Cassini, we find that the ring lifetimes should extend >10(exp 9) years, and that there is limited evidence for prompt destruction (loss in <100 Myrs).

  8. Saturn's rings and associated ring plasma cavity: Evidence for slow ring erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2017-08-01

    We re-examine the radio and plasma wave observations obtained during the Cassini Saturn orbit insertion period, as the spacecraft flew over the northern ring surface into a radial distance of 1.3 Rs (over the C-ring). Voyager era studies suggest the rings are a source of micro-meteoroid generated plasma and dust, with theorized peak impact-created plasma outflows over the densest portion of the rings (central B-ring). In sharp contrast, the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave System (RPWS) observations identify the presence of a ring-plasma cavity located in the central portion of the B-ring, with little evidence of impact-related plasma. While previous Voyager era studies have predicted unstable ion orbits over the C-ring, leading to field-aligned plasma transport to Saturn's ionosphere, the Cassini RPWS observations do not reveal evidence for such instability-created plasma 'fountains'. Given the passive ring loss processes observed by Cassini, we find that the ring lifetimes should extend >109 years, and that there is limited evidence for prompt destruction (loss in <100 Myrs).

  9. Mechanical design and modeling of a single-piston pump for the novel power take-off system of a wave energy converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakis, Antonis I.; Anagnostopoulos, John S.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-pump, multi-piston power take-off wave energy converter ((MPPTO)-P-2 WEC) has been proposed for use with a novel renewable energy harvester termed the Ocean Grazer. The (MPPTO)-P-2 WEC utilizes wave motion to pump via buoys connected to pistons working fluid within a closed circuit and store

  10. Ground Movement in SSRL Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunikumar, Nikita; /UCLA /SLAC

    2011-08-25

    Users of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) are being affected by diurnal motion of the synchrotron's storage ring, which undergoes structural changes due to outdoor temperature fluctuations. In order to minimize the effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations, especially on the vertical motion of the ring floor, scientists at SSRL tried three approaches: painting the storage ring white, covering the asphalt in the middle of the ring with highly reflective Mylar and installing Mylar on a portion of the ring roof and walls. Vertical motion in the storage ring is measured by a Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS), which calculates the relative height of water in a pipe that extends around the ring. The 24-hr amplitude of the floor motion was determined using spectral analysis of HLS data, and the ratio of this amplitude before and after each experiment was used to quantitatively determine the efficacy of each approach. The results of this analysis showed that the Mylar did not have any significant effect on floor motion, although the whitewash project did yield a reduction in overall HLS variation of 15 percent. However, further analysis showed that the reduction can largely be attributed to a few local changes rather than an overall reduction in floor motion around the ring. Future work will consist of identifying and selectively insulating these local regions in order to find the driving force behind diurnal floor motion in the storage ring.

  11. n-X-Coherent Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Bennis, Driss

    2010-01-01

    This paper unifies several generalizations of coherent rings in one notion. Namely, we introduce $n$-$\\mathscr{X}$-coherent rings, where $\\mathscr{X}$ is a class of modules and $n$ is a positive integer, as those rings for which the subclass $\\mathscr{X}_n$ of $n$-presented modules of $\\mathscr{X}$ is not empty, and every module in $\\mathscr{X}_n$ is $n+1$-presented. Then, for each particular class $\\mathscr{X}$ of modules, we find correspondent relative coherent rings. Our main aim is to sho...

  12. Integrated Ring Resonators The Compendium

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, Dominik G

    2007-01-01

    The optical filter, which has emerged in the last few years in integrated optics, is resonator based. Ring-resonator filters do not require facets or gratings for optical feedback and are thus particularly suited for monolithic integration with other components. Ring resonators find applications not only in optical networks, but also as sensors. The required passband shape of ring resonator-filters can be custom designed by the use of configurations of various ring coupled resonators. This book describes the current state-of-the-art on these devices with respect to design, fabrication and application.

  13. Distances in generalized Double Rings and Degree Three Chordal Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    Generalized Double Rings (N2R) are compared to Degree Three Chordal Rings (CR) in terms of average distance, diameter, k-average distance and k-diameter. For each number of nodes, structures of each class are chosen to minimize diameter and average distance, an approach which is shown to result...

  14. Distances in Generalized Double Rings and Degree Three Chordal Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    Generalized Double Rings (N2R) are compared to Degree Three Chordal Rings (CR) in terms of average distance, diameter, k-average distance and k-diameter. For each number of nodes, structures of each class are chosen to minimize diameter and average distance, an approach which is shown to result...

  15. RING E3 ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Seok Keun; Ryu, Moon Young; Kim, Jong Hum

    2017-01-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of abiotic stresses, such as drought, heat, cold, flood, and salinity. To survive under such unfavorable conditions, plants have evolutionarily developed their own resistant-mechanisms. For several decades, many studies have clarified specific stress...... response pathways of plants through various molecular and genetic studies. In particular, it was recently discovered that ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), a regulatory mechanism for protein turn over, is greatly involved in the stress responsive pathways. In the UPS, many E3 ligases play key roles...... in recognizing and tethering poly-ubiquitins on target proteins for subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. Here we discuss the roles of RING ligases that have been defined in related to abiotic stress responses in plants....

  16. The eRHIC Ring-Ring Collider Design

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fuhua; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Deshpande, Abhay A; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Franklin, Wilbur; Graves, William; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Milner, Richard; Montag, Christoph; Ozaki, Satoshi; Parker, Brett; Peggs, Steve; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Tepikian, Steven; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tschalär, C; Wang, Dong; Zolfaghari, Abbasali; Zwart, Townsend; van der Laan, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The eRHIC ring-ring collider is the main design option of the future lepton-ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We report the revisions of the ring-ring collider design features to the baseline design presented in the eRHIC Zeroth Design Report (ZDR). These revisions have been made during the past year. They include changes of the interaction region which are required from the modifications in the design of the main detector. They also include changes in the lepton storage ring for high current operations as a result of better understandings of beam-beam interaction effects. The updated collider luminosity and beam parameters also take into account a more accurate picture of current and future operational aspects of RHIC.

  17. Analyses of layer-thickness effects in bilayered dental ceramics subjected to thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway [ORNL; Thompson, G. A. [U.S. Army Dental and Trauma Research Detachment, Greak Lakes; Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Becher, Paul F [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress distribution through the thickness of bilayered dental ceramics subjected to both thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests and to systematically examine how the individual layer thickness influences this stress distribution and the failure origin. Methods. Ring-on-ring tests were performed on In-Ceram Alumina/Vitadur Alpha porcelain bilayered disks with porcelain in the tensile side, and In-Ceram Alumina to porcelain layer thickness ratios of 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1 were used to characterize the failure origins as either surface or interface. Based on the thermomechanical properties and thickness of each layer, the cooling temperature from glass transition temperature, and the ring-on-ring loading configuration, the stress distribution through the thickness of the bilayer was calculated using closed-form solutions. Finite element analyses were also performed to verify the analytical results. Results. The calculated stress distributions showed that the location of maximum tension during testing shifted from the porcelain surface to the In-Ceram Alumina/porcelain interface when the relative layer thickness ratio changed from 1:2 to 1:1 and to 2:1. This trend is in agreement with the experimental observations of the failure origins. Significance. For bilayered dental ceramics subjected to ring-on-ring tests, the location of maximum tension can shift from the surface to the interface depending upon the layer thickness ratio. The closed-form solutions for bilayers subjected to both thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests are explicitly formulated which allow the biaxial strength of the bilayer to be evaluated.

  18. An Experimental Design of Bypass Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, MM; Aziz, Mohammad Abdul; Raisuddin Khan, Md.

    2017-11-01

    The magnetorheological (MR) fluid bypass damper fluid flow through a bypass by utilizing an external channel which allows the controllability of MR fluid in the channel. The Bypass MR damper (BMRD) contains a rectangular bypass flow channel, current controlled movable piston shaft arrangement and MR fluid. The static piston coil case is winding by a coil which is used inside the piston head arrangement. The current controlled coil case provides a magnetic flux through the BMRD cylinder for controllability. The high strength of alloy steel materials are used for making piston shaft which allows magnetic flux propagation throughout the BMRD cylinder. Using the above design materials, a Bypass MR damper is designed and tested. An excitation of current is applied during the experiment which characterizes the BMRD controllability. It is shown that the BMRD with external flow channel allows a high controllable damping force using an excitation current. The experimental result of damping force-displacement characteristics with current excitation and without current excitation are compared in this research. The BMRD model is validated by the experimental result at various frequencies and applied excitation current.

  19. Basic properties of ring-index optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2003-04-01

    This work analyzes theoretically, technologically and practically a class of low-loss single-mode optical fibers with ring refractive index profile. The fibers are considered for long distance signal transmission as well as photonic signal processing. Trunk transmission, ring index fibers have shifted and flattened dispersion characteristics and much larger effective area as compared with standard step-index single-mode. Signal processing, device oriented, ring-index fibers have a unique capability of transmitting either quasi planar modes for large ring diameters or the second order mode in a quasi single-mode regime at lossy discrimination of the fundamental mode, for small ring diameters. Ring-index fibers can maintain singlemode transmission for considerable values of normalized frequency for particular cases of the refractive index profile. Theoretically predicted features of single-mode ring index fibers were confirmed experimentally on samples manufactured by the author is cooperation with TU of Bialystok. Parts of the work were published in Optica Applicata and reprinted with permission. Part of the work was realized within the KBN grant 4-T08D-001-22 submitted to Technical University of Bialystok.

  20. Clean elements in abelian rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  1. Code–checkable group rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Abdelghany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A code over a group ring is defined to be a submodule of that group ring. For a code $C$ over a group ring $RG$, $C$ is said to be checkable if there is $v\\in RG$ such that {$C=\\{x\\in RG: xv=0\\}$}. In \\cite{r2}, Jitman et al. introduced the notion of code-checkable group ring. We say that a group ring $RG$ is code-checkable if every ideal in $RG$ is a checkable code. In their paper, Jitman et al. gave a necessary and sufficient condition for the group ring $\\mathbb{F}G$, when $\\mathbb{F}$ is a finite field and $G$ is a finite abelian group, to be code-checkable. In this paper, we give some characterizations for code-checkable group rings for more general alphabet. For instance, a finite commutative group ring $RG$, with $R$ is semisimple, is code-checkable if and only if $G$ is $\\pi'$-by-cyclic $\\pi$; where $\\pi$ is the set of noninvertible primes in $R$. Also, under suitable conditions, $RG$ turns out to be code-checkable if and only if it is pseudo-morphic.

  2. Richard Schatzki: a familiar ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Birju; Han, Eugene; Swan, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    The Schatzki ring was named for Richard Schatzki, a renowned radiologist who described the entity with his colleague, John E. Gary. The purpose of this article is to shed more light on a man who made such a significant contribution and to chronicle developments concerning this important radiologic finding. The Schatzki ring was described long ago, but its cause is poorly understood even today.

  3. Contraceptive vaginal rings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brache, Vivian; Faundes, Anibal

    2010-11-01

    Development efforts on contraceptive vaginal rings were initiated over 40 years ago based on two principles: the capacity of the vaginal epithelium to absorb steroids and the capacity of elastomers to release these hormones at a nearly constant rate. Numerous models of contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) have been studied, but only two have reached the market: NuvaRing, a combined ring that releases etonogestrel (ENG) and ethinylestradiol (EE), and Progering, a progesterone-releasing ring for use in lactating women. The main advantages of CVRs are their effectiveness (similar to or slightly better than the pill), ease of use without the need of remembering a daily routine, user's ability to control initiation and discontinuation, nearly constant release rate allowing for lower doses, greater bioavailability and good cycle control with the combined ring. The main disadvantages are related to the mode of delivery; CVRs may cause vaginal discharge and complaints, ring expulsion is not uncommon, the ring may be felt during coitus and vaginal insertion may be unpleasant for some women. The studies reviewed in this article provide evidence that CVRs are safe, effective and highly acceptable to women. There is no doubt that CVRs offer a new, effective contraceptive option to women, expanding their available choices of hormonal contraception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomechanics of Corneal Ring Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the biomechanics of corneal ring implants by providing a related mathematical theory and biomechanical model for the treatment of myopia and keratoconus. Methods: The spherical dome model considers the inhomogeneity of the tunica of the eye, dimensions of the cornea, lamellar structure of the corneal stroma, and asphericity of the cornea. It is used in this study for calculating a strengthening factor sf for the characterization of different ring-shaped corneal implant designs. The strengthening factor is a measure of the amount of strengthening of the cornea induced by the implant. Results: For ring segments and incomplete rings, sf = 1.0, which indicates that these implants are not able to strengthen the cornea. The intracorneal continuous complete ring (MyoRing) has a strengthening factor of up to sf = 3.2. The MyoRing is, therefore, able to strengthen the cornea significantly. Conclusions: The result of the presented biomechanical analysis of different ring-shaped corneal implant designs can explain the different postoperative clinical results of different implant types in myopia and keratoconus. PMID:26312619

  5. Biomechanics of Corneal Ring Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxer, Albert

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the biomechanics of corneal ring implants by providing a related mathematical theory and biomechanical model for the treatment of myopia and keratoconus. The spherical dome model considers the inhomogeneity of the tunica of the eye, dimensions of the cornea, lamellar structure of the corneal stroma, and asphericity of the cornea. It is used in this study for calculating a strengthening factor sf for the characterization of different ring-shaped corneal implant designs. The strengthening factor is a measure of the amount of strengthening of the cornea induced by the implant. For ring segments and incomplete rings, sf = 1.0, which indicates that these implants are not able to strengthen the cornea. The intracorneal continuous complete ring (MyoRing) has a strengthening factor of up to sf = 3.2. The MyoRing is, therefore, able to strengthen the cornea significantly. The result of the presented biomechanical analysis of different ring-shaped corneal implant designs can explain the different postoperative clinical results of different implant types in myopia and keratoconus.

  6. How Jupiter's Ring Was Discovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, James; Kerr, Richard

    1985-01-01

    "Rings" (by astronomer James Elliot and science writer Richard Kerr) is a nontechnical book about the discovery and exploration of ring systems from the time of Galileo to the era of the Voyager spacecraft. One of this book's chapters is presented. (JN)

  7. Constructions over localizations of rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Logar

    1987-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we construct a category of effective noetherian rings in which linear equations can be “solved”. This category is closed with respect to some important constructions like trascendental extensions, quotientations, finite products and localizations with respect to a large class of multiplicatively closed systems. Hence it gives a definition of “constructive” rings.

  8. DELPHI's Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The hundreds of mirrors around this Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber reflect cones of light created by fast moving particles to a detector. The velocity of a particle can be measured by the size of the ring produced on the detector. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  9. Development and actual application of new welding process for weld-type piston crown in LMC diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, H.; Shimizu, H.; Fujiwara, F.; Tokuoka, T.; Nishimoto, T.; Fujita, R.; Matsui, S.; Nakayama, S.

    1985-04-01

    In the improved LMC diesel engines for saving fuel oil, the piston crown becomes more rigid. Unibody casting cannot achieve sufficiently high quality for piston crowns, in the smoothness of the inner surface of the cooling hole, for example. A welded piston crown would solve this problem, in which various pieces could be machined smoothly and then welded together. Joint locations are selected to satisfy welding and design requirements. Welding sequence and welding restraint are analysed using the finite element method. Because pistons can be welded from outside only, narrow gap TIG welding is applied to obtain a smooth bead. Then, narrow gap MAG welding is applied to reduce welding time. TIG-MAG combined welding equipment including welding torchs manipulator, positioner and controller is designed, fabricated, and assembled. Utilizing this equipment, experiments such as welding condition test, restraint crack test, joint property test, operation tests, and mock-up tests are carried out. Then, the products are welded and welds are inspected by an optical fiber for the appearance of the bead and also by ultrasonic and magnetic tests for defects.

  10. Computer Aided Design of the Link-Fork Head-Piston Assembly of the Kaplan Turbine with Solidworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Jianu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the steps for 3D computer aided design (CAD of the link-fork head-piston assembly of the Kaplan turbine made in SolidWorks.The present paper is a tutorial for a Kaplan turbine assembly 3D geometry, which is dedicated to the Assembly design and Drawing Geometry and Drawing Annotation.

  11. 75 FR 22439 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... (January 18, 2001) (heavy duty engine and diesel sulfur rule). \\30\\ See, e.g., 67 FR 68242 (November 8... certain high performance engines such as race cars. \\33\\ See http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/lead.html... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 87 Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston- Engine...

  12. CO2 dynamics along Danish lowland streams: water-air gradients, piston velocities and evasion rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Stæhr, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    We measured CO2 concentration and determined evasion rate and piston velocity across the water–air interface in flow-through chambers at eight stations along two 20 km long streams in agricultural landscapes in Zealand, Denmark. Both streams were 9–18-fold supersaturated in CO2 with daily means...

  13. Planetary Ring Simulation Experiment in Fine Particle Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Toshiaki

    We are experimenting on the planetary ring formation by using two component fine particle plasmas generated by a boat method. Two component plasmas which were composed of positively charged particles and negatively charged particles were generated by UV irradiation of fine aluminum particles. A small insulator sphere in which a small permanent magnet was inserted was put into the fine particle plasmas, and was connected using insulator rods and rotated by a small motor. We were able to create a ring form of fine particle plasmas just like the Saturn ring by unipolar induction. The ring formation process was recorded on VTR and its motion was analyzed by using a computer. The experimental parameters for ring formation coincides almost with the estimated values. The particles had charges of ±25 electrons from analysis of the particle beam splitting after passage through a static electric and a static magnetic field. It is estimated that the fine particle plasmas were in strongly coupled state (Γ>1) in these experimental conditions. The charges of particles increased and Γ also increased when the power of the halogen lamp was increased. The relations between the rotating frequency and the motion of ring and charge dependency were investigated mainly by using an optical method

  14. The KACST Heavy-Ion Electrostatic Storage Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuqhim, A. A.; Alshammari, S. M.; El Ghazaly, M. O. A.; Papash, A. I.; Welsch, C. P.

    2011-10-01

    A novel Electrostatic Storage Ring (ESR) for beams at energies up to 30keV/q is now being constructed at the National Centre for Mathematics and Physics (NCMP), King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). The ring is designed to be the core of a highly flexible experimental platform that will combine a large package of complementary beam techniques for atomic and molecular physics and related fields. The lattice design had to cover the different experimental techniques that the ring will be equipped with, such as e.g. Electron-Ion, Laser-Ion, Ion-Ion or Ion-Neutral beams, in both crossed and merged-beam configurations. The development of such an ESR is realized in a staged approach, in which a simple and early-run adaptation of the ring is built first, and then this basic version is upgraded to a higher symmetry of the ultimate version of the ring. Here, we report a general overview of this technical development with a focus on the layout of the first built stage of the ring.

  15. The Search for Ringed Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Are planetary rings as common in our galaxy as they are in our solar system? A new study demonstrates how we might search for ringed exoplanets and then possibly finds one!Saturns Elsewhere?Artists illustration of the super ring system around exoplanet J1407b. This is the only exoplanet weve found with rings, but its not at all like Saturn. [Ron Miller]Our solar system is filled with moons and planetary rings, so it stands to reason that exoplanetary systems should exhibit the same features. But though weve been in the planet-hunting game for decades, weve only found one exoplanet thats surrounded by a ring system. Whats more, that system J1407b has enormous rings that are vastly different from the modest, Saturn-like rings that we might expect to be more commonplace.Have we not discovered ringed exoplanets just because theyre hard to identify? Or is it because theyre not out there? A team of scientists led by Masataka Aizawa (University of Tokyo) has set out to answer this question by conducting a systematic search for rings around long-period planet candidates.The transit light curve of KIC 10403228, shown with three models: the best-fitting planet-only model (blue) and the two best-fitting planet+ring models (green and red). [Aizawa et al. 2017]The Hunt BeginsWhy long-period planets? Rings are expected to be unstable as the planet gets closer to the central star. Whats more, the planet needs to be far enough away from the stars warmth for the icy rings to exist. The authors therefore select from the collection of candidate transiting planets 89 long-period candidates that might be able to host rings.Aizawa and collaborators then fit single-planet models (with no rings) to the light curves of these planets and search for anomalies curves that arent fit well by these standard models. Particularly suspicious characteristics include a long ingress/egress as the planet moves across the face of the star, and asymmetry of the transit shape.After applying a series of

  16. Ionization cooling ring for muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palmer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical ionization cooling rings could lead to lower cost or improved performance in neutrino factory or muon collider designs. The ring modeled here uses realistic three-dimensional fields. The performance of the ring compares favorably with the linear cooling channel used in the second U.S. Neutrino Factory Study. The normalized 6D emittance of an ideal ring is decreased by a factor of approximately 240, compared with a factor of only 15 for the linear channel. We also examine such real-world effects as windows on the absorbers and rf cavities and leaving empty lattice cells for injection and extraction. For realistic conditions the ring decreases the normalized 6D emittance by a factor of 49.

  17. Lead-free, bronze-based surface layers for wear resistance in axial piston hydraulic pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetterick, Gregory Alan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Concerns regarding the safety of lead have provided sufficient motivation to develop substitute materials for the surface layer on a thrust bearing type component known as a valve plate in axial piston hydraulic pumps that consists of 10% tin, 10% lead, and remainder cooper (in wt. %). A recently developed replacement material, a Cu-10Sn-3Bi (wt.%) P/M bronze, was found to be unsuitable as valve plate surface layer, requiring the development of a new alloy. A comparison of the Cu-1-Sn-10Pb and Cu-10Sn-3Bi powder metal valve plates showed that the differences in wear behavior between the two alloys arose due to the soft phase bismuth in the alloy that is known to cause both solid and liquid metal embrittlement of copper alloys.

  18. Direct and Inverse Kinematics of a Novel Tip-Tilt-Piston Parallel Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad

    2004-01-01

    Closed-form direct and inverse kinematics of a new three degree-of-freedom (DOF) parallel manipulator with inextensible limbs and base-mounted actuators are presented. The manipulator has higher resolution and precision than the existing three DOF mechanisms with extensible limbs. Since all of the manipulator actuators are base-mounted; higher payload capacity, smaller actuator sizes, and lower power dissipation can be obtained. The manipulator is suitable for alignment applications where only tip, tilt, and piston motions are significant. The direct kinematics of the manipulator is reduced to solving an eighth-degree polynomial in the square of tangent of half-angle between one of the limbs and the base plane. Hence, there are at most 16 assembly configurations for the manipulator. In addition, it is shown that the 16 solutions are eight pairs of reflected configurations with respect to the base plane. Numerical examples for the direct and inverse kinematics of the manipulator are also presented.

  19. Investigation of mechanical failure cause of an aircraft piston engine cylinder head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Branimir B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The piston engine of the training aircraft Utva-75 malfunctioned during the flight mission due to the cracking of its cylinder head. After successful forced landing, the damaged cylinder assembly was removed from the engine and sent to the lab for forensic expertise. Fractographic examination of the mating fracture surfaces revealed that the fatigue was the main cause of the cylinder head failure. The metallography examination has shown that the fatigue was promoted from pre-existing material defect due to an elevated presence of porosity forms at the crack initiation zone. The finite element method, utilized to determine the stress state of the cylinder assembly, confirmed that the crack origin was located at the most stress area.

  20. Decoupling Design and Verification of a Free-Piston Linear Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a decoupling design approach for a free-piston linear generator (FPLG constituted of three key components, including a combustion chamber, a linear generator and a gas spring serving as rebounding device. The approach is based on the distribution of the system power and efficiency, which provides a theoretical design method from the viewpoint of the overall power and efficiency demands. The energy flow and conversion processes of the FPLG are analyzed, and the power and efficiency demands of the thermal-mechanical and mechanical-electrical energy conversion are confirmed. The energy and efficiency distributions of the expansion and compression strokes within a single stable operation cycle are analyzed and determined. Detailed design methodologies of crucial geometric dimensions and operational parameters of each key component are described. The feasibility of the proposed decoupling design approach is validated through several design examples with different output power.

  1. Large Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Flows in an Opposed-Piston Two Stroke Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shalabh; Schock, Harold; Jaberi, Farhad

    2013-11-01

    The two-phase filtered mass density function (FMDF) subgrid-scale model has been used for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in a generic single cylinder, opposed-piston, two-stroke engine configuration. The LES/FMDF is implemented via an efficient, hybrid numerical method in which the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order, multi-block, compact differencing scheme, and the spray and FMDF are implemented with stochastic Lagrangian methods. The reliability and consistency of the numerical methods are established for the engine configuration by comparing the Eulerian and Lagrangian components of the LES/FMDF. The effects of various operating conditions like boost pressure, heat transfer model, fuel spray temperature, nozzle diameter, injection pressure, and injector configuration on the flow field, heat loss and the evolution of spray and combustion are studied.

  2. Banco de pruebas para medida de fricción en pistones

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova Kindelán, Jesús; Aguirre Montoya, Viviana

    2005-01-01

    Se ha desarrollado un banco de pruebas con el propósito de estudiar las fuerzas de fricción que experimentan los pistones en un motor de combustión interna. Estas fuerzas se han medido utilizando el método IMEP desarrollado por Uras y Patterson. Este método se basa en el balance de fuerzas que actúan sobre el pistón determinándose la fuerza de fricción con la medida simultánea de la presión de los gases de combustión y la fuerza en la biela. Con el propósito de realizar el estudio...

  3. Controllability of Free-piston Stirling Engine/linear Alternator Driving a Dynamic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankam, M. David; Rauch, Jeffrey S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic behavior of a Free-Piston Stirling Engine/linear alternator (FPSE/LA) driving a single-phase fractional horse-power induction motor. The controllability and dynamic stability of the system are discussed by means of sensitivity effects of variations in system parameters, engine controller, operating conditions, and mechanical loading on the induction motor. The approach used expands on a combined mechanical and thermodynamic formulation employed in a previous paper. The application of state-space technique and frequency domain analysis enhances understanding of the dynamic interactions. Engine-alternator parametric sensitivity studies, similar to those of the previous paper, are summarized. Detailed discussions are provided for parametric variations which relate to the engine controller and system operating conditions. The results suggest that the controllability of a FPSE-based power system is enhanced by proper operating conditions and built-in controls.

  4. Theory of the corrugation instability of a piston-driven shock wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J W

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the two-dimensional stability of a shock wave driven by a steadily moving corrugated piston in an inviscid fluid with an arbitrary equation of state. For h≤-1 or h>h(c), where h is the D'yakov parameter and h(c) is the Kontorovich limit, we find that small perturbations on the shock front are unstable and grow--at first quadratically and later linearly--with time. Such instabilities are associated with nonequilibrium fluid states and imply a nonunique solution to the hydrodynamic equations. The above criteria are consistent with instability limits observed in shock-tube experiments involving ionizing and dissociating gases and may have important implications for driven shocks in laser-fusion, astrophysical, and/or detonation studies.

  5. Workshop publication 824. Section L: Piston engines. Pt. 1. Werkstattblatt 824. Sektion L: Kolbenmaschinen. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkner, H.

    1982-01-01

    This is a generously illustrated report on various types and forms of lifting cylinder pumps, which is intended to give users, designers and project engineers information, which will instruct them on their tasks and refresh and complete their knowledge of these devices. Single and double-acting lifting cylinder pumps; the three piston pressure pump and the indicator diagram, as well as the characteristic of the lifting cylinder pump are explained. Calculations using numerical examples on delivery head, pressure head and suction head are given. The expansion chamber is considered, as is the operating behaviour (controls, drives) and proposals for data to be included in orders are made. Finally, there is a classification according to the type of drive: lever system, crank drive, swashplate drive, worm drive, eccentric drive and steam drive.

  6. On the Limiting Markov Process of Energy Exchanges in a Rarely Interacting Ball-Piston Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Péter; Gilbert, Thomas; Nándori, Péter; Szász, Domokos; Tóth, Imre Péter

    2017-02-01

    We analyse the process of energy exchanges generated by the elastic collisions between a point-particle, confined to a two-dimensional cell with convex boundaries, and a `piston', i.e. a line-segment, which moves back and forth along a one-dimensional interval partially intersecting the cell. This model can be considered as the elementary building block of a spatially extended high-dimensional billiard modeling heat transport in a class of hybrid materials exhibiting the kinetics of gases and spatial structure of solids. Using heuristic arguments and numerical analysis, we argue that, in a regime of rare interactions, the billiard process converges to a Markov jump process for the energy exchanges and obtain the expression of its generator.

  7. Revisiting Cuts for Improved Calibrations of the PHENIX Muon Piston Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownes, Emma; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The PHENIX Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) has been used extensively to study RHIC p+p and d+Au collisions, but has not been used as often in the analysis of Au+Au collisions. Forward/backward measurements of transverse energy 3 . 1 in the beam energy scan are of particular interest for studies of the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma. Now that new methods are being employed to help calibrate the heavy ion collisions, focus can again be put on the optimal set of cuts for calibrating these runs. Studies leading to the determination of these cuts will be described. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1507841.

  8. Calibrating the PHENIX Muon Piston Calorimeter Using Fits to ADC Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, James; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The PHENIX Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC), a homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter located in the forward and backward directions (3.1 < η < 3.9) is being used to measure transverse energy from RHIC Au+Au collisions obtained in 2010. While the detector has been partially calibrated using the reconstruction of neutral pions in an iterative procedure, the calibration constants for some areas of the detector are not converging. In order to improve the initial set of calibration constants, a parameterization of the energy distributions as a function of distance from the beamline (obtained using well calibrated towers) is used to provide initial values to problem towers in the iterative procedure. The work done to produce this parameterization and its effects on the calibration process will be described. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1507841.

  9. Free-piston Stirling engines - For space, earth and ocean applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Bruce

    The current level of technology as it relates to the application of free-piston Stirling engines (FPSEs) in space, terrestrial, and undersea markets is discussed. Each application considered presents a unique set of requirements to the designer. The timetable for introduction to the market will vary depending on the level of commitment to commercialization of the needed technology. It is unfortunate that, in general, United States industry has taken a much less than proactive role in developing the technology. A commitment of resources to address the remaining development issues is mandatory before market introduction and acceptance. This market acceptance of the FPSE directly depends on the successful development and introduction of technologies associated with the specific application.

  10. Research on the fractured reasons of aluminum piston for air braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaiwei; Wang, XianYan; Zhang, Xuan; Yang, Liu

    2017-09-01

    The test and analysis of sample elements, sample factures, metallographic structures and mechanical characteristics are described in this document. There are many reasons for the facture of aluminum piston, which involves many factors, such as the smelting, pressing, heat treatment of raw materials and the subsequent machining, service conditions of products. Referring to the analysis of the returned products, there is only a piece of fractured product in the serial supplying. Raw material: a sample stick, several samples without fracture from different batches. The bad consistency leads to hard analysis. Considering that there are many factors involved in the analysis of fracture, it is necessary to analyze and study the relevant factors from the raw materials, the fractured samples and the intact samples as far as possible. Therefore, we test and analyze the elements, factures, metallographic structures and mechanical characteristic of relevant samples, referring to relevant domestic and foreign literatures and national standards.

  11. Ring artifacts correction in compressed sensing tomographic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paleo, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.paleo@esrf.fr [ESRF, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Université de Grenoble, Gipsa-Lab, 11 Rue des Mathématiques, 38400 Saint-Martin-d’Hères (France); Mirone, Alessandro, E-mail: pierre.paleo@esrf.fr [ESRF, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-14

    The formalism of iterative tomographic reconstruction with sparsity inducing penalty is extended to enable ring artifacts correction. Ring artifacts are a very common problem in tomographic reconstruction, and numerous methods exist to either pre-process the sinogram or correct the reconstructed slice. A novel approach to perform the correction as part of the reconstruction process is presented. It is shown that for iterative techniques, which amount to optimizing an objective function, the ring artifacts correction can be easily integrated in the formalism, enabling simultaneous slice reconstruction and ring artifacts correction. This method is tested and compared with mainstream correction techniques for both simulated and experimental data. Results show that the correction is efficient, especially for undersampled datasets. This technique is included in the PyHST2 code which is used at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility for tomographic reconstruction.

  12. The effect of bowl-in-piston geometry layout on fluid flow pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic Zoran S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some results concerning the evolution of 3D fluid flow pattern through all four strokes in combustion chambers with entirely different bowl-in-piston geometry layouts ranging from ”omega” to “simple cylinder” were presented. All combustion chambers i.e. those with „omega“ bowls, with different profiles, and those with „cylinder“ bowls, with different squish area ranging from 44% to 62%, were with flat head, vertical valves and identical elevation of intake and exhaust ports. A bunch of results emerged by dint of multidimensional modeling of nonreactive fluid flow in arbitrary geometry with moving objects and boundaries. The fluid flow pattern during induction and compression in all cases was extremely complicated and entirely three-dimensional. It should be noted that significant differences due to geometry of the bowl were encountered only in the vicinity of TDC. Namely, in the case of “omega” bowl all three types of organized macro flows were observed while in the case of “cylinder” bowl no circumferential velocity was registered at all. On the contrary, in the case of “cylinder” bowl some interesting results concerning reverse tumble and its center of rotation shifting from exhaust valve zone to intake valve zone during induction stroke and vice-verse from intake valve zone to exhaust valve zone during compression were observed while in the case of “omega” bowl no such a displacement was legible. During expansion the fluid flow pattern is fully controlled by piston motion and during exhaust it is mainly one-dimensional, except in the close proximity of exhaust valve. For that reason it is not affected by the geometry of the bowl.

  13. [Measurement study of MDCT 3D reconstruction and microanatomy related to individual piston shaping on malleostapedotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Runmei; Wu, Peina; Liu, Hui; Cui, Yong; Xu, Mimi; Wang, Xiaoqian; Fu, Min; Chen, Liangsi

    2009-01-01

    To study the management of basic parameters related to individual piston shaping on malleostapedotomy by MDST 3D reconstruction and microanatomy and to assess the accuracy of MDST method. Ten Chinese temporal bones without ear diseases were numbered randomly and scanned by GE Light Speed Ultra 64 rows of spiral CT. 3D structure of ossicular chain were reconstructed by MPR and VR methods in AW4. 1 workstation. Then measurements of distances between stapes head to stapes footplate (A line), and manubrium to stapes head (B line), and manubrium to stapes footplate (C line), angle between line A and line B (angle AB) are completed. After that, all samples of temporal bone were undergone canal wall down mastoidectomy under microscope and the relevant measurements were completed. The MPR and VR technique of MDCT reconstructed ossicular chain clearly, and revealed the spatial relationship between every structure stereoscopically. Respectively, lengths of A, B, C line by MDST and microanatomy are (3.42 +/- 0.86) mm and (3.60 +/- 0.94) mm, (3.42 +/- 0.80) mm and (2.96 +/- 0.42) mm, (5.86 +/- 0.60) mm and (6.22 +/- 1.10) mm, while angle AB (141.05 +/- 30.07) degrees and (144.57 +/- 41.86) degrees. There are no statistically significant differences between two groups (P>0.05). The MPR and VR technique of MDCT can clearly reconstructed the 3D shapes of the temporal bone and finish the exactly managements on A, B, C lines and AB angel which is crucial for shaping a individual piston on malleus-to-oval window surgery.

  14. Posture-independent piston valve: a novel valve mechanism that actuates based on intracranial pressure alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medow, Joshua E; Luzzio, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Shunt valves are intended to maintain physiological intracranial pressure (ICP). A variety of mechanisms have been designed to accomplish this goal but have had limited success. Siphoning, in particular, has been a problem not effectively solved by proposed or manufactured valves. Poor control of ICP results in headache, neurological disturbances, decreased cognition, shunt malfunction, slit ventricles, subdural hematomas, decreased cranial volume, and maldevelopment. The authors of this study describe a prototype valve that was machined and tested ex vivo and that actuates based on ICP alone regardless of the presence of a siphon. Their object was to determine if a novel shunt mechanism that actuates perpendicular to the flow of fluid would eliminate the effect of siphoning in a valve for the treatment of hydrocephalus. A posture-independent piston valve (PIPV) was anchored to a graduated reservoir. Opening pressure was measured by noting the fluid level in the reservoir when the piston moved. Measurements were made using a 90-cm and a 120-cm water-filled siphon tube (1.3-mm standard distal catheter) to simulate an upright posture. A recumbent posture was simulated by the absence of a siphon. Opening pressure of the valve did not change regardless of the presence or absence of a water-filled siphon. The PIPV was triggered only by the pressure head at the inlet and did not actuate in the presence of a siphon, demonstrating proof of principle of the perpendicular actuating mechanism. The PIPV is a purely mechanical device that has practical application in the treatment of hydrocephalus.

  15. The LBTI Fizeau imager - II. Sensitivity of the PSF and the MTF to adaptive optics errors and to piston errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patru, F.; Esposito, S.; Puglisi, A.; Riccardi, A.; Pinna, E.; Arcidiacono, C.; Antichi, J.; Mennesson, B.; Defrère, D.; Hinz, P. M.; Hill, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    We show numerical simulations with monochromatic light in the visible for the LBTI Fizeau imager, including opto-dynamical aberrations due here to adaptive optics (AO) errors and to differential piston fluctuations, while other errors have been neglected. The achievable Strehl by the LBTI using two AO is close to the Strehl provided by a single standalone AO system, as long as other differential wavefront errors are mitigated. The LBTI Fizeau imager is primarily limited by the AO performance and by the differential piston/tip-tilt errors. Snapshots retain high-angular resolution and high-contrast imaging information by freezing the fringes against piston errors. Several merit functions have been critically evaluated in order to characterize point spread functions and the modulation transfer functions for high-contrast imaging applications. The LBTI Fizeau mode can provide an image quality suitable for standard science cases (i.e. a Strehl above 70 per cent) by performing both at a time: an AO correction better than ≈λ/18 RMS for both short and long exposures, and a piston correction better than ≈λ/8 RMS for long exposures or simply below the coherence length for short exposures. Such results, which can be applied to any observing wavelength, suggest that AO and piston control at the LBTI would already improve the contrast at near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Therefore, the LBTI Fizeau imager can be used for high-contrast imaging, providing a high-Strehl regime (by both AO systems), a cophasing mode (by a fringe tracker) and a burst mode (by a fast camera) to record fringed speckles in short exposures.

  16. Influence of piston and magnetic coils on the field-dependent damping performance of a mixed-mode magnetorheological damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Mohammadjavad; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Choi, Seung-Bok; Imaduddin, Fitrian; Hamidah Hamdan, Lailatul

    2016-05-01

    This work presents a 2D simulation study of a mixed-mode magnetorheological (MR) damper in which the influence of the geometric elements of the piston and magnetic coil on the MR damper’s performance is investigated by using the Ansoft Maxwell software tool. Four results of the simulation, which are magnetic flux density (B), MR fluid yield stress (τ 0), {τ }0{L}a and W{τ }0{L}a, are used to compare the performance of the MR damper. Multiplication of the yield stress by the active operating mode length ({τ }0{L}a) represents the variable portion of the active (on-state) damping force of the flow mode motion, while the value of W{τ }0{L}a represents the active damping force of the shear mode motion. The contribution of each operating mode (shear and flow) is related to the mixed-mode geometry and piston velocity. Therefore, each operating mode is evaluated separately. In this work, a total of 154 simulations are done in which 74, 20 and 60 simulations are conducted to analyse the effect of the piston radius, coil dimensions (width and length) and coil boundary lengths, respectively, on the performance of the MR damper. The simulation results show that increasing the piston radius can increase the W{τ }0{L}a value and reduce the value. For a given area of magnetic coil housing, a greater housing length in the axial direction of the piston can increase the achieved yield stress of the MR fluid and hence consequently the performance of the MR damper. A minimum boundary length is needed around the magnetic coil in order to attain a supreme magnetic field distribution. However, there is an optimised value for axial coil boundary lengths, which are the lengths of the upper and lower mixed-mode areas.

  17. Removal of ring artifacts in microtomography by characterization of scintillator variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågberg, William; Larsson, Jakob C; Hertz, Hans M

    2017-09-18

    Ring artifacts reduce image quality in tomography, and arise from faulty detector calibration. In microtomography, we have identified that ring artifacts can arise due to high-spatial frequency variations in the scintillator thickness. Such variations are normally removed by a flat-field correction. However, as the spectrum changes, e.g. due to beam hardening, the detector response varies non-uniformly introducing ring artifacts that persist after flat-field correction. In this paper, we present a method to correct for ring artifacts from variations in scintillator thickness by using a simple method to characterize the local scintillator response. The method addresses the actual physical cause of the ring artifacts, in contrary to many other ring artifact removal methods which rely only on image post-processing. By applying the technique to an experimental phantom tomography, we show that ring artifacts are strongly reduced compared to only making a flat-field correction.

  18. Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.

    2013-04-29

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, article 264506). These dynamics mainly occur within 50 -s after the first contact, requiring imaging at 1 million f.p.s. For a water drop impacting on a thin layer of water, the entrapment of isolated bubbles starts through azimuthal instability, which forms at low impact velocities, in the neck connecting the drop and pool. For Reynolds number Re above -12 000, up to 10 partial bubble rings have been observed at the base of the ejecta, starting when the contact is -20% of the drop size. More regular bubble rings are observed for a pool of ethanol or methanol. The video imaging shows rotation around some of these air cylinders, which can temporarily delay their breakup into micro-bubbles. The different refractive index in the pool liquid reveals the destabilization of the vortices and the formation of streamwise vortices and intricate vortex tangles. Fine-scale axisymmetry is thereby destroyed. We show also that the shape of the drop has a strong influence on these dynamics. 2013 Cambridge University Press.

  19. The beta-beam decay ring design

    CERN Document Server

    Chancé, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the beta-beams is to produce highly energetic beams of pure electron neutrino and antineutrino, coming from β-decays of the 18Ne10+ and 6He2+, both at gamma = 100, directed towards experimental halls situated in the Fréjus tunnel. The high intensity ion beams are stored in a ring until the ions decay. Consequently, all the injected ions will be lost anywhere in the ring, generating a high level of irradiation. Since they come from the SPS, the ring circumference has to be a multiple of the SPS one. The straight sections must be as long as possible in order to maximize the useful neutrino flux. The straight section length is chosen to be about 36% of the circumference length, which imposes 1-km-long arcs. The bend field in the arcs is then achievable. The arc has been chosen as a2Pi phase advance insertion, which improves the optical properties (dynamic aperture and momentum acceptance) and allows the easy determination of the working point bythe optics of the straight sections.

  20. Design studies for the electron storage ring EUTERPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Boling

    1995-05-18

    The 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is under construction at Eindhoven University of Technology. The ring is to be used as an experimental tool for accelerator physics studies and synchroton radiation applications. The main task of the current research work is the electron optical design of the ring. Lattice design is a basis for machine design as a whole. Design aspects regarding the basic lattice, based on single particle dynamics, include determination of the equilibrium beam size and bunch length, design of achromatic bending sections, selection of tune values, correction of chromaticity, and minimization of the natural emittance in the ring. The basic lattice designed for the EUTERPE ring has a high flexibility so that different electron optical modes can be realized easily. In low energy storage rings with a high beam current, collective effects can cause a significant change in the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime. In order to ensure a good optical performance for the ring, the choice of suitable parameters concerning the vacuum and RF system are essential as far as collective effects are concerned. An estimation of the collective effects in the ring is given. The injector for EUTERPE is a 75 MeV racetrack microtron which is injected from a 10 MeV linac. In order to get sufficient beam current in the ring, a special procedure of continuous injection with an adjustable locally shifted closed orbit has been presented. Details of the injection procedure and numerical simulations are given. (orig./HSI).